WorldWideScience

Sample records for alloying physical review

  1. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-12-16

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors.

  2. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors

  3. Review of the physical metallurgy of Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D.; Brown, H.L.

    1976-02-01

    The physical metallurgy of Alloy 718 is updated to 1976 on the basis of a survey of post-1967 literature and current experimental data. Composition, microstructures, and mechanical properties are correlated with heat treatment parameters. The current state of understanding of phase stability, strengthening mechanisms, deformation modes, recovery, and recrystallization in this material is described

  4. Physical metallurgy of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Researches in electric, magnetic, thermophysical properties of titanium alloys in the wide range of temperatures (from helium upto elevated one), as well as stability of phases in alloys of different types are generalized. Fundamental description of physical properties of binary model alloys is given. Acoustic emission, shape memory and Bauschinger effects, pseudoelasticity, aging and other aspects of physical metallurgy of titanium alloys are considered

  5. Review and Study of Physics Driven Pitting Corrosion Modeling in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    aluminum subjected to pitting corrosion under fatigue conditions ”, Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 1253-1259 Wei, R.P. (2001) “A model for...and material microstructure applied to corrosion and fatigue of aluminum and steel alloys”, Engineering Fracture Mechanics , Vol. 76, pp. 695-708 Wei...Fatigue Behavior of Aluminum Alloy 7075 -T6: Modeling and Experimental Studies", Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 297, Issue: 1-2, 15, pp. 223

  6. Metal-ceramic alloys in dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Howard W; Berzins, David W; Moore, B Keith; Charlton, David G

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to review basic information about the alloys used for fabricating metal-ceramic restorations in dentistry. Their compositions, properties, advantages, and disadvantages are presented and compared. In addition to reviewing traditional noble-metal and base-metal metal-ceramic alloys, titanium and gold composite alloys are also discussed. A broad search of the published literature was performed using Medline to identify pertinent current articles on metal-ceramic alloys as well as articles providing a historical background about the development of these alloys. Textbooks, the internet, and manufacturers' literature were also used to supplement this information. The review discusses traditional as well as more recently-developed alloys and technologies used in dentistry for fabricating metal-ceramic restorations. Clear advantages and disadvantages for these alloy types are provided and discussed as well as the role that compositional variations have on the alloys' performance. This information should enable clinicians and technicians to easily identify the important physical properties of each type and their primary clinical indications. A number of alloys and metals are available for metal-ceramic use in dentistry. Each has its advantages and disadvantages, primarily based on its specific composition. Continuing research and development are resulting in the production of new technologies and products, giving clinicians even more choices in designing and fabricating metal-ceramic restorations.

  7. Phosphorus containing sintered alloys (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchnik, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus additives are considered for their effect on the properties of sintered alloys of different applications: structural, antifriction, friction, magnetic, hard, superhard, heavy etc. Data are presented on compositions and properties of phosphorus-containing materials produced by the powder metallurgy method. Phosphorus is shown to be an effective activator of sintering in some cases. When its concentration in the material is optimal it imparts the material such properties as strength, viscosity, hardness, wear resistance. Problems concerning powder metallurgy of amorphous phosphorus-containing alloys are reported

  8. Nickel-titanium alloys: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo do Amaral Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on nickel-titanium wires was performed. The strategy was focused on Entrez-PubMed-OLDMEDLINE, Scopus and BioMed Central from 1963 to 2008. METHODS: Papers in English and French describing the behavior of these wires and laboratorial methods to identify crystalline transformation were considered. A total of 29 papers were selected. RESULTS: Nickel-titanium wires show exceptional features in terms of elasticity and shape memory effects. However, clinical applications request a deeper knowledge of these properties in order to allow the professional to use them in a rational manner. In addition, the necessary information regarding each alloy often does not correspond to the information given by the manufacturer. Many alloys called "superelastic" do not present this effect; they just behave as less stiff alloys, with a larger springback if compared to the stainless steel wires. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory tests are the only means to observe the real behavior of these materials, including temperature transition range (TTR and applied tensions. However, it is also possible to determine in which TTR these alloys change the crystalline structure.

  9. Nuclear Physics Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker-Loud, Andre

    2014-11-01

    Anchoring low-energy nuclear physics to the fundamental theory of strong interactions remains an outstanding challenge. I review the current progress and challenges of the endeavor to use lattice QCD to bridge this connection. This is a particularly exciting time for this line of research as demonstrated by the spike in the number of different collaborative efforts focussed on this problem and presented at this conference. I first digress and discuss the 2013 Ken Wilson Award.

  10. Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, H; Virtanen, S; Boccaccini, A R

    2012-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers research carried out in the field of degradable coatings on Mg and Mg alloys for biomedical applications. Several coating methods are discussed, which can be divided, based on the specific processing techniques used, into conversion and deposition coatings. The literature review revealed that in most cases coatings increase the corrosion resistance of Mg and Mg alloys. The critical factors determining coating performance, such as corrosion rate, surface chemistry, adhesion and coating morphology, are identified and discussed. The analysis of the literature showed that many studies have focused on calcium phosphate coatings produced either using conversion or deposition methods which were developed for orthopaedic applications. However, the control of phases and the formation of cracks still appear unsatisfactory. More research and development is needed in the case of biodegradable organic based coatings to generate reproducible and relevant data. In addition to biocompatibility, the mechanical properties of the coatings are also relevant, and the development of appropriate methods to study the corrosion process in detail and in the long term remains an important area of research. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A review on hot tearing of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot tearing is often a major casting defect in magnesium alloys and has a significant impact on the quality of their casting products. Hot tearing of magnesium alloys is a complex solidification phenomenon which is still not fully understood, it is of great importance to investigate the hot tearing behaviour of magnesium alloys. This review attempts to summarize the investigations on hot tearing of magnesium alloys over the past decades. The hot tearing criteria including recently developed Kou's criterion are summarized and compared. The numeric simulation and assessing methods of hot tearing, factors influencing hot tearing, and hot tearing susceptibility (HTS of magnesium alloys are discussed.

  12. Two main and a new type rare earth elements in Mg alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghang

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys stand for the lightest structure engineering materials. Moreover, the strengthening of Mg alloys in ductility, toughness and corrosion predominates their wide applications. With adding rare earth elements in Mg, the mechanical properties will be improved remarkably, especially their plasticity and strength. A brief overview of the addition of rare earth elements for Mg alloys is shown. The basic mechanisms of strengthening Mg alloys with rare earth elements are reviewed, including the solid solution strengthening, grain refinement and long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase. Furthermore, the available rare earth elements are summarized by type, chemical or physical effects and other unique properties. Finally, some challenge problems that the research is facing and future expectations of ra-re-earth Mg alloys are stated and discussed.

  13. LASER SURFACE MODIFICATION OF TITANIUM ALLOYS — A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Y. S. TIAN; C. Z. CHEN; D. Y. WANG; T. Q. LEI

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments of laser surface modification of titanium alloys for increasing their corrosion, wear and oxidation resistance are introduced. The effects of laser processing parameters on the resulting surface properties of titanium alloys are reviewed. The problems to be solved and the prospects in the field of laser modification of Ti alloys are discussed. Due to the intrinsic properties, a laser beam can be focused onto the metallic surface to produce a broad range of treatments depen...

  14. Environmentally-induced cracking of zirconium alloys - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1990-01-01

    The general field of environmentally-induced cracking of zirconium alloys has been reviewed and the phenomena that are observed and the progress in understanding the mechanisms are summarized. The details of the industrially important pellet-clad interaction failures of nuclear reactor fuel have been left for a companion review, and only observations on the mechanism are summarized briefly here. It is concluded that in the zirconium alloy system, by virtue of the physical peculiarities of the system, it is easier to reach unambiguous conclusions about the environmental cracking mechanisms that are operating than with other systems. Thus, chemical dissolution in either liquid or vapour phase is thought to be the principal mechanism for intergranular cracking, while adsorption-induced embrittlement is thought to be the most common transgranular quasi-cleavage process. Hydrogen embrittlement in this system can be identified because it requires precipitated hydride that gives characteristic fractography when cracked. Only in a few instances does stress-corrosion cracking appear to proceed by a hydride cracking mechanism. (orig.)

  15. The physical metallurgy of mechanically-alloyed, dispersion-strengthened Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Powder processing of Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys by mechanical alloying (MA) is described, with a discussion of physical and mechanical properties of early experimental alloys of these compositions. The experimental samples were mechanically alloyed in a Szegvari attritor, extruded at 343 and 427 C, and some were solution-treated at 520 and 566 C and naturally, as well as artificially, aged at 170, 190, and 210 C for times of up to 1000 hours. All alloys exhibited maximum hardness after being aged at 170 C; lower hardness corresponds to the solution treatment at 566 C than to that at 520 C. A comparison with ingot metallurgy alloys of the same composition shows the MA material to be stronger and more ductile. It is also noted that properly aged MA alloys can develop a better combination of yield strength and notched toughness at lower alloying levels.

  16. Irradiation growth in zirconium alloys: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidleris, V.

    1980-09-01

    The change in shape during irradiation without external stress, irradiation growth, was first discovered in uranium and later in graphite, zirconium and other core materials which exhibit anisotropic physical properties. The direction of maximum growth of metals invariably corresponds with the direction of minimum thermal expansion. In polycrystalline zirconium alloys growth is positive in the direction of maximum deformation during fabrication and in other directions it can be either positive or negative depending on the preferred orientation of grains (crystallographic texture). Growth increases gradually with temperature between 300 K and 620 K and rapidly with fluence up to about 1 x 10 25 n.m. -2 (Eμ1 MeV). At higher fluences the growth appears to saturate in annealed materials and reach a steady rate approximately proportional to dislocation density in cold-worked materials. Above 600 K both annealed and cold-worked materials have similar steady growth rates. Irradiation growth is caused by the segregation to different sinks of the vacancies and interstitials generated by irradiation, but the dominant types of sinks for each type of point defect and the mode of transport of the point defects to sinks cannot therefore be predicted theoretically. For the purpose of designing reactor core components empirical equations have been derived that can satisfactorily predict the steady state growth behaviour from texture and microstructure. (auth)

  17. Review of tantalum and niobium alloy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the current state of niobium- and tantalum-base alloy production. The materials requirements, alloy compositions of interest, and production status are discussed. Finally, a list of developments needed to support the SP-100 program will be identified. A bibliography is included

  18. Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys Developed as Bone Repair Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone repair materials are rapidly becoming a hot topic in the field of biomedical materials due to being an important means of repairing human bony deficiencies and replacing hard tissue. Magnesium (Mg alloys are potentially biocompatible, osteoconductive, and biodegradable metallic materials that can be used in bone repair due to their in situ degradation in the body, mechanical properties similar to those of bones, and ability to positively stimulate the formation of new bones. However, rapid degradation of these materials in physiological environments may lead to gas cavities, hemolysis, and osteolysis and thus, hinder their clinical orthopedic applications. This paper reviews recent work on the use of Mg alloy implants in bone repair. Research to date on alloy design, surface modification, and biological performance of Mg alloys is comprehensively summarized. Future challenges for and developments in biomedical Mg alloys for use in bone repair are also discussed.

  19. Effect of hydrogen on aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibility of aluminium and its alloys towards hydrogen embrittlement has been well established. Still a lot of confusion exists on the question of transport of hydrogen and its possible role in stress corrosion cracking. This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of hydrogen...... in aluminium and its alloys and its effect on mechanical properties. The importance of hydrogen embrittlement over anodic dissolution to explain the stress corrosion cracking mechanism of these alloys is also examined in considerable detail. The various experimental findings concerning the link between...

  20. Hydrogen embrittlement of titanium and its alloys - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho-Mantila, I.; Haemaelaeinen, H.

    1986-05-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement data of titanium and its alloys is reviewed. Especially the results obtained in spent nuclear fuel repository conditions with commercially pure titanium and TiCode-12 alloy are examined. The results show that the mechanical properties of titanium are not much affected by hydrogen when tested by smooth specimens. Much greater effects can be expected with notched fracture mechanics specimens. However, only limeted data is available. Hydrogen distribution in titanium is affected by stress, alloy composition and temperature gradients. In order to model the hydrogen-induced crack growth in titanium much more mechanistic work is needed especially to understand the behaviour of hydrogen in crack tip stress field. (author)

  1. A review of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopp, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical properties of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-temperature strength and low-temperature ductility. Precipitate strengthening is highly effective at 0.4-0.8 Tsub(m) in these metals, with HfC being most effective in tungsten and molybdenum, and Ta(B,C) most effective in chromium. Low-temperature ductility can be improved by alloying to promote rhenium ductilizing or solution softening. The low-temperature mechanical properties of these alloys appear related to electronic interactions rather than to the usual metallurgical considerations. (Auth.)

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Physics 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, David; Gibbs, Keith; Hutchings, Robert

    2000-09-01

    Physics 1 is an attractive book designed to cover the whole of the AS physics course and has been endorsed by OCR for its Advanced AS and A2 specifications. Built on books from the Cambridge Modular Sciences series, it provides a clearly presented path through each of the three sections: Foundation Physics, Electrons and Photons, and Wave Properties. Each chapter has clearly stated objectives and is peppered with self-assessment questions, the answers to all of which are at the back of the book. Additional questions are given at the end of each chapter. There is an excellent use of colour, summary boxes and diagrams, but relatively few photographs. At the back of the book is a useful section on uncertainties and a glossary. The key feature of this book is its accessibility to students coming from a double-award science background. A great deal of thought has gone into lessening the trauma of the transition to Advanced Level and the results are impressive. Some of the main areas of concern for many students are the mathematical sections. These areas are not rushed, especially in the foundation physics, where there are plenty of worked examples. It is assumed, also, that students will not necessarily be confident with graphs so lots of examples are given. Diagrams of the type of practical equipment students are likely to encounter add another dimension to the book. It is good to see the use of light gates and motion sensors in addition to the more traditional ticker-timers for the calculations of speed and acceleration. Accessibility is the strength of this book. The use of colour and space, as well as the content, make it enjoyable to use and to read for any student embarking on the new AS courses. Helen Reynolds

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Complete Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Simon

    2000-03-01

    This book contains all the essential concepts for GCSE (or equivalent) physics courses or for general science courses at Key Stage 4. It claims to be ideal for use as a bridging resource for those intending to take physics beyond GCSE: it is no surprise, then, that the book is written at a level above that of the average Key Stage 4 student. It includes material not included in many GCSE syllabuses; this is clearly identified in the contents pages. It would be a useful resource for more able students at GCSE or for beginning A-level students. The layout of the book is attractive. It is well illustrated and colourful. Some of the illustrations are striking: each of the 12 main sections of the book begins with a title page that includes some unusual photographs illustrating physical ideas. Section 2, Forces and Motion, has a photograph of a bungee jumper leaping from the Sky Tower in New Zealand, taken at night looking along the length of the tower from its foot. Section 9, Magnets and Currents, has a computer-generated picture of the magnetic field in a fusion generator. These pictures, as well as contributing to the attractiveness of the book, could be used to initiate discussions of some of the physics. However, there are pictures that serve little useful purpose: a photograph of a recording station for seismic waves looks like any other building lit up at night. A photograph of a rock band in the middle of a section on sound carries no explanatory caption at all and is purely decorative. Other illustrations - in a variety of styles - do illustrate some physical ideas very well: the diagrams of motors and generators, for instance, are far clearer than my efforts on the blackboard! The book is divided into 14 sections with titles reflecting the traditional divisions of physics syllabuses, together with a beginning section on measurement and units and two final sections, `History of Key Ideas' and `Experimental Physics'. The first section, `Measurement and Units

  4. Physical and welding metallurgy of Gd-enriched austenitic alloys for spent nuclear fuel applications. Part II, nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Michael, Joseph Richard; Williams, David Brian; Dupont, John Neuman; Robino, Charles Victor

    2004-01-01

    The physical and welding a metallurgy of gadolinium- (Gd-) enriched Ni-based alloys has been examined using a combination of differential thermal analysis, hot ductility testing. Varestraint testing, and various microstructural characterization techniques. Three different matrix compositions were chosen that were similar to commercial Ni-Cr-Mo base alloys (UNS N06455, N06022, and N06059). A ternary Ni-Cr-Gd alloy was also examined. The Gd level of each alloy was ∼2 wt-%. All the alloys initiated solidification by formation of primary austenite and terminated solidification by a Liquid γ + Ni 5 Gd eutectic-type reaction at ∼1270 C. The solidification temperature ranges of the alloys varied from ∼100 to 130 C (depending on alloy composition). This is a substantial reduction compared to the solidification temperature range to Gd-enriched stainless steels (360 to 400 C) that terminate solidification by a peritectic reaction at ∼1060 C. The higher-temperature eutectic reaction that occurs in the Ni-based alloys is accompanied by significant improvements in hot ductility and solidification cracking resistance. The results of this research demonstrate that Gd-enriched Ni-based alloys are excellent candidate materials for nuclear criticality control in spent nuclear fuel storage applications that require production and fabrication of large amounts of material through conventional ingot metallurgy and fusion welding techniques

  5. Factors Influencing Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation(PEO) Coatings on Magnesium Alloys: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Gunchoo [KISTI ReSEAT Program, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Magnesium alloys, which possess excellent specific strength and castability, are highly susceptible to corrosion. Although anodizing is widely used to resolve this problem, it requires toxic electrolytes and produces relatively thin and weak surface coatings. Recently, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has emerged as an alternative to anodizing. Although it is derived from conventional anodizing, it uses eco-friendly electrolytes and forms thicker, denser, and harder coatings on the surface of magnesium alloys. However, PEO is a complex process involving physical, chemical, and electrochemical reactions, and it is influenced by various factors such as the alloy substrate composition, electrolyte/additive composition, and the electrical variables including the mode of power supply, applied voltage/current density, frequency, and duty cycle. In this article, the detailed effects of these parameters on the microstructure and properties of the PEO coatings are reviewed, and methods of improving the coatings are proposed.

  6. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.

  7. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Ren, Daxin; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research. PMID:28788646

  8. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Ren, Daxin; Liu, Fei

    2014-05-08

    Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) such as Mg 17 Al 12 and Mg₂Al₃. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.

  9. Corrosion-Resistant High-Entropy Alloys: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhu Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion destroys more than three percent of the world’s gross domestic product. Therefore, the design of highly corrosion-resistant materials is urgently needed. By breaking the classical alloy-design philosophy, high-entropy alloys (HEAs possess unique microstructures, which are solid solutions with random arrangements of multiple elements. The particular locally-disordered chemical environment is expected to lead to unique corrosion-resistant properties. In this review, the studies of the corrosion-resistant HEAs during the last decade are summarized. The corrosion-resistant properties of HEAs in various aqueous environments and the corrosion behavior of HEA coatings are presented. The effects of environments, alloying elements, and processing methods on the corrosion resistance are analyzed in detail. Furthermore, the possible directions of future work regarding the corrosion behavior of HEAs are suggested.

  10. Some observations on the physical metallurgy of nickel alloy weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skillern, C.G.; Lingenfelter, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Numerous nickel alloys play critical roles in various energy-related applications. Successful use of these alloys is almost always dependent on the availability of acceptable welding methods and welding products. An understanding of the physical metallurgy of these alloys and their weld metals and the interaction of weld metal and base metal is essential to take full advantage of the useful properties of the alloys. To illustrate this point, this paper presents data for two materials: INCONEL alloy 718 and INCONEL Welding Electrode 132. 8 figures, 9 tables

  11. Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Seismic Isolation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Alvandi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, there has been an increasing interest in structural engineering control methods. Shape memory alloys and seismic isolation systems are examples of passive control systems that use of any one alone, effectively improve the seismic performance of the structure. Characteristics such as large strain range without any residual deformation, high damping capacity, excellent re-centering, high resistance to fatigue and corrosion and durability have made shape memory alloy an effective damping device or part of base isolators. A unique characteristic of shape memory alloys is in recovering residual deformations even after strong ground excitations. Seismic isolation is a device to lessen earthquake damage prospects. In the latest research studies, shape memory alloy is utilized in combination with seismic isolation system and their results indicate the effectiveness of the application of them to control the response of the structures. This paper reviews the findings of research studies on base isolation system implemented in the building and/or bridge structures by including the unique behavior of shape memory alloys. This study includes the primary information about the characteristic of the isolation system as well as the shape memory material. The efficiency and feasibility of the two mechanisms are also presented by few cases in point.

  12. B physics - a theoretical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This overview of what we can hope to learn from high-statistics experiments in B physics in the next few years includes (a) a review of parameters of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix; (b) direct determination of magnitudes of CKM elements; (c) forthcoming information from studies of kaons; (d) CP violation in B decays; (e) aspects of rate measurements; (f) the role of charm-anticharm annihilation; (g) remarks on tagging; and (h) effects beyond the standard model. (orig.)

  13. Simple material physics experiment for studying phase diagrams and solid state transformations in alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S; Kamal, R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-09-01

    Study of phase diagram and accompanying solid state transformations is essential to determine the best possible composition, manufacturing techniques and physical properties of an alloy. A simple technique having wide applications in metallurgical industry is to study the temperature--time curve of the alloy undergoing cooling with an uniform rate. An experiment which uses this technique is described. It is widely applicable in the fields of materials science, applied solid state physics, physical metallurgy and physical chemistry.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravya Tekumalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-rare earth based alloys are increasingly being investigated due to the formation of highly stable strengthening phases, activation of additional deformation modes and improvement in mechanical properties. Several investigations have been done to study the effect of rare earths when they are alloyed to pure magnesium and other Mg alloys. In this review, the mechanical properties of the previously investigated different magnesium-rare earth based binary alloys, ternary alloys and other higher alloys with more than three alloying elements are presented.

  15. Physical Review: a family of journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Gene

    2013-03-01

    The expansion of research in physics in the last 100 years has been reflected in the expansion of the Physical Review(PR). Reviews of Modern Physics was the first ``new'' journal, starting in 1929. Physical Review Letters commenced in 1958, and was the first ``letters'' type of journal for important new results in all fields. By 1970 the Physical Review itself had grown so large that it was necessary to separate it by field into manageable volumes: PRA, PRB, PRC and PRD, and subsequently PRE, which was split off from PRA. More recently, two Special Topics journals for accelerator physics and physics education were pioneers of the open access business model, and the newest member of the family, Physical Review X, continues this trend. PRX is broad scope and very selective, setting it well above many of the new open access journals with a review standard of ``not incorrect.'' Some possible future directions for the Physical Review journals will be discussed.

  16. Insight of magnesium alloys and composites for orthopedic implant applications – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Radha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg and its alloys have been widely researched for orthopedic applications recently. Mg alloys have stupendous advantages over the commercially available stainless steel, Co-Cr-Ni alloy and titanium implants. Till date, extensive mechanical, in-vitro and in-vivo studies have been done to improve the biomedical performance of Mg alloys through alloying, processing conditions, surface modification etc. This review comprehensively describes the strategies for improving the mechanical and degradation performance of Mg alloys through properly tailoring the composition of alloying elements, reinforcements and processing techniques. It also highlights the status and progress of research in to (i the selection of nutrient elements for alloying, reinforcement and its effects (ii type of Mg alloy system (binary, ternary and quaternary and composites (iii grain refinement for strengthening through severe plastic deformation techniques. Furthermore it also emphasizes on the importance of Mg composites with regard to hard tissue applications.

  17. The Fifth International Ural seminar. Radiation damage physics of metals and alloys. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts of The Fifth International Ural seminar Damage physics of metals and alloys. General problems of radiation damage physics, radiation effect on change of microstucture and the properties of metals and alloys, as well as materials for nuclear and thermonuclear energetics are considered. The themes of reports are the following: correlation effects in cascades of atom-atomic collisions; radiation-induced strengthening critical current density in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductors; conditions of forming and hydrides growth in irradiated zirconium alloys [ru

  18. The degradation of zirconium alloys in nuclear reactors - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, D.; Graham, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of available non-Canadian literature on the oxidation and hydriding of zirconium alloys. Much of the literature was found to address the Zircaloys, particularly when used as fuel cladding subjected to a radioactive and oxidizing environment. Hydriding of Zircaloys is mainly attributed to oxidation. The survey revealed that Zr-Nb alloys have been included in some investigations; however, data on the long-term degradation of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb, in particular, were scarce. The reviewed literature did not lead to conclusions regarding the potential for accelerated hydriding due to corrosion at crevices and/or second-phase particles, nor did it lead to conclusions as to the potential for a 'breakaway' in oxidation and hydrogen acquisition in long service life of Zr-Nb alloys. Specific information on service experience in U.S.S.R. power reactors could not be obtained; however, most of the information surveyed leads to the conclusion that fuel channels having Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tubes should perform satisfactorily with respect to degradation from corrosion and hydriding provided they are installed correctly and are not operated under conditions that are far removed from those anticipated in design. 91 refs

  19. A review of the structural characteristics of alloy 800

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, J.

    1978-01-01

    The published literature is reviewed and supplemented by current information from the author's laboratory, to show the influence of various compositional, heat treatment and thermomechanical factors on the structural characteristics of Alloy 800. The features discussed include carbon, aluminium, titanium and boron, solution treatment, ageing treatments with and without applied strain, and cold working. Examples of the aspects reviewed include the effect of heat treatment and service or testing temperature on the austenite grain size, and the relative importance of M 23 C 6 and TiC, the influence of carbon level on gamma prime, the effect of residual or steady stress combined with time at temperature on changes in carbide or gamma prime morphology, and on the appearance of sigma or other intermetallic phases. The questions posed by these features are discussed generally, in terms of their effect on the mechanical properties at ambient and elevated temperatures and on the time-dependent properties. The review also suggests areas where further research work is required on Alloy 800. (Auth.)

  20. Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys: A Review of Material Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud-Sharma, Dharam; McGoron, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium based alloys possess a natural ability to biodegrade due to corrosion when placed within aqueous substances, which is promising for cardiovascular and orthopedic medical device applications. These materials can serve as a temporary scaffold when placed in vivo, which is desirable for treatments when temporary supportive structures are required to assist in the wound healing process. The nature of these materials to degrade is attributed to the high oxidative corrosion rates of magnesium. In this review, a summary is presented for magnesium material development, biocorrosion characteristics, as well as a biological translation for these results. PMID:22408600

  1. Brief review of neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciulli, F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper provides a brief review of neutrino physics. The running of the coupling constant, α/sub s/, predicted by QCD is not seen presently by using measurements of R/sub hadron/. However, the systematic errors on the measurements still allow a running α/sub s/. It should be noted that when calculating α/sub s/ at the J/psi and Υ using the technique of a previous work, a running α/sub s/ is also not observed, but is allowed within error. Evidence for the three gluon coupling predicted by QCD is still lacking. The search for gluonic mesons has continued to be inconclusive, even though candidate meson properties have been considerably refined. Searches for right-handed currents have so far proved negative, though impressive mass limits have been obtained. Searches for supersymmetric particles have also proved negative, with mass limits strongly coupled to accelerator energy. Much enthusiasm and inventiveness has been generated by the announcement of two possible new states, ξ and zeta however, the existence of these states is presently uncertain. In the case of the zeta, theoretical interpretation outside the S-M played a very prominent role

  2. A review on magnesium alloys as biodegradable materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xue-Nan; Zheng, Yu-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium alloys attracted great attention as a new kind of degradable biomaterials. One research direction of biomedical magnesium alloys is based on the industrial magnesium alloys system, and another is the self-designed biomedical magnesium alloys from the viewpoint of biomaterials. The mechanical, biocorrosion properties and biocompatibilities of currently reported Mg alloys were summarized in the present paper, with the mechanical properties of bone tissue, the healing period postsurgery, the pathophysiology and toxicology of the alloying elements being discussed. The strategy in the future development of biomedical Mg alloys was proposed.

  3. Thermo-physical Properties and Mechanical Properties of Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy Ti40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAI Yunjin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As a functional material of burn-resistant titanium alloy, the physical properties of Ti40 alloy were first reported. The chemical compositions of Ti40 alloy ingots by VAR were uniform. The microstructures of Ti40 alloy slab manufactured by HEFF+WPF were uniform. The results show that the room temperature tensile strength of Ti40 alloy is 950 MPa degree. The properties of high temperature heat exposure, creep resistance and lasting time are good at 500 ℃. In the range from room temperature to 600 ℃, Young's modulus and shear modulus are decreased linearly with increasing the temperature, Poisson's ratio is increases slowly as the temperature rises, and linear thermal expansion coefficient and average linear expansion coefficient is increase as the temperature rises.

  4. "Physical Review Letters" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Paul J.; Lynch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Ask any physicist what the preeminent journal in the field is, and I think the almost unanimous answer will be "Physical Review Letters" ("PRL"). This weekly journal of the American Physical Society publishes high-impact research from all the major subdisciplines of physics. This journal is not the one you would think is the first place a high…

  5. The effect of main alloying elements on the physical properties of Al–Si foundry alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, F.; Antrekowitsch, H.; Fragner, W.; Kaufmann, H.; Pinatel, E.R.; Uggowitzer, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we describe the effect of the main alloying elements Si, Cu and Ni on the thermal properties of hypoeutectic and near-eutectic Al–Si foundry alloys. By means of systematic variations of the chemical composition, the influence of the amount of ‘second phases’ on the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal shock resistance is evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations predicting the phase formation in multi-component Al–Si cast alloys were carried out and verified using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis. The experimentally obtained data are discussed on a systematic basis of thermodynamic calculations and compared to theoretical models for the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of heterogeneous solids.

  6. Book review: Physics of tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    Physics of Tsunamis”, second edition, provides a comprehensive analytical treatment of the hydrodynamics associated with the tsunami generation process. The book consists of seven chapters covering 388 pages. Because the subject matter within each chapter is distinct, an abstract appears at the beginning and references appear at the end of each chapter, rather than at the end of the book. Various topics of tsunami physics are examined largely from a theoretical perspective, although there is little information on how the physical descriptions are applied in numerical models.“Physics of Tsunamis”, by B. W. Levin and M. A. Nosov, Second Edition, Springer, 2016; ISBN-10: 33-1933106X, ISBN-13: 978-331933-1065

  7. Physics with polarized beams: experimental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1978-01-01

    In high energy physics, discussion of spin effects generally involves proton--proton scattering, that being the area where the best experiments could be performed. Several such experiments are reviewed

  8. Review of theoretical conceptions on regimes of oxidation and hydrogen pickup in Zr-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhanskii, V.; Evdokimov, I.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the following issues are presented: 1) Experimental observations published in the journals on corrosion regimes of zirconium alloys of various compositions both for ex-pile oxidation experiments and for in-pile operating conditions of the materials. Factors experimentally stated on the effect of alloying composition, microstructure and texture on the rate of uniform corrosion and susceptibility of alloys to nodular corrosion. 2) Phenomenological models existing in publications, which describe conditions of uniform and nodular corrosion for Zr-alloys of various composition and microstructures, effect of irradiation and oxidizing medium; 3) Experimental data and phenomenological models describing regimes of hydrogen absorption in zirconium alloys; 4) Examples of application of physical models in explaining regimes, peculiarities of oxidation and hydrogen pickup for zirconium claddings of various alloying composition and microstructure

  9. Literature Review of Dredging Physical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    This U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, special report presents a review of dredging physical ...model studies with the goal of understanding the most current state of dredging physical modeling, understanding conditions of similitude used in past...studies, and determining whether the flow field around a dredging operation has been quantified. Historical physical modeling efforts have focused on

  10. Computational studies of physical properties of Nb-Si based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Lizhi [Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro, TN (United States)

    2015-04-16

    The overall goal is to provide physical properties data supplementing experiments for thermodynamic modeling and other simulations such as phase filed simulation for microstructure and continuum simulations for mechanical properties. These predictive computational modeling and simulations may yield insights that can be used to guide materials design, processing, and manufacture. Ultimately, they may lead to usable Nb-Si based alloy which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. The main objectives of the proposed projects are: (1) developing a first principles method based supercell approach for calculating thermodynamic and mechanic properties of ordered crystals and disordered lattices including solid solution; (2) application of the supercell approach to Nb-Si base alloy to compute physical properties data that can be used for thermodynamic modeling and other simulations to guide the optimal design of Nb-Si based alloy.

  11. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Sankalp [Centre for Research in Engineering and Surface Technology, FOCAS Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); School of Food Science and Environmental Health, Cathal Brugha Street, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Curtin, James [School of Food Science and Environmental Health, Cathal Brugha Street, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Duffy, Brendan [Centre for Research in Engineering and Surface Technology, FOCAS Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland); Jaiswal, Swarna, E-mail: swarna.jaiswal@dit.ie [Centre for Research in Engineering and Surface Technology, FOCAS Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland)

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys and the effect of alloying elements on corrosion and biocompatibility is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of polymeric deposit coatings, namely sol-gel, synthetic aliphatic polyesters and natural polymers on corrosion and biological performance of Mg and its alloy for orthopaedic applications are presented. It was found that inclusion of alloying elements such as Al, Mn, Ca, Zn and rare earth elements provides improved corrosion resistance to Mg alloys. It has been also observed that sol-gel and synthetic aliphatic polyesters based coatings exhibit improved corrosion resistance as compared to natural polymers, which has higher biocompatibility due to their biomimetic nature. It is concluded that, surface modification is a promising approach to improve the performance of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. - Highlights: • The Mg based alloys are promising candidates for orthopaedic applications. • The rapid corrosion of Mg can affect human cells, and causes infection and implant failure. • The various physiological factors and Mg alloying elements affect the corrosion and mechanical properties of implants. • The polymeric deposit coatings enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

  12. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Sankalp; Curtin, James; Duffy, Brendan; Jaiswal, Swarna

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys and the effect of alloying elements on corrosion and biocompatibility is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of polymeric deposit coatings, namely sol-gel, synthetic aliphatic polyesters and natural polymers on corrosion and biological performance of Mg and its alloy for orthopaedic applications are presented. It was found that inclusion of alloying elements such as Al, Mn, Ca, Zn and rare earth elements provides improved corrosion resistance to Mg alloys. It has been also observed that sol-gel and synthetic aliphatic polyesters based coatings exhibit improved corrosion resistance as compared to natural polymers, which has higher biocompatibility due to their biomimetic nature. It is concluded that, surface modification is a promising approach to improve the performance of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. - Highlights: • The Mg based alloys are promising candidates for orthopaedic applications. • The rapid corrosion of Mg can affect human cells, and causes infection and implant failure. • The various physiological factors and Mg alloying elements affect the corrosion and mechanical properties of implants. • The polymeric deposit coatings enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

  13. The development of additive manufacturing technique for nickel-base alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadi-Maad, Ahmad; Basuki, Arif

    2018-04-01

    Nickel-base alloys are an attractive alloy due to its excellent mechanical properties, a high resistance to creep deformation, corrosion, and oxidation. However, it is a hard task to control performance when casting or forging for this material. In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) process has been implemented to replace the conventional directional solidification process for the production of nickel-base alloys. Due to its potentially lower cost and flexibility manufacturing process, AM is considered as a substitute technique for the existing. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the previous work related to the AM techniques for Ni-base alloys while highlighting current challenges and methods to solving them. The properties of conventionally manufactured Ni-base alloys are also compared with the AM fabricated alloys. The mechanical properties obtained from tension, hardness and fatigue test are included, along with discussions of the effect of post-treatment process. Recommendations for further work are also provided.

  14. Attitude Research in Physical Education: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of attitude research in physical education. The first section reviews theoretical models that are prevalent in attitude research. Then, the next section describes the methods that were used to locate the research used in the remainder of the paper. The third section discusses measurement issues in…

  15. Aluminium. II - A review of deformation properties of high purity aluminium and dilute aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The elastic and plastic deformation behavior of high-purity aluminum and of dilute aluminum alloys is reviewed. Reliable property data, including elastic moduli, elastic coefficients, tensile, creep, fatigue, hardness, and impact are presented. Single crystal tensile results are discussed. Rather comprehensive reference lists, containing publications of the past 20 years, are included for each of the above categories. Defect structures and mechanisms responsible for mechanical behavior are presented. Strengthening techniques (alloys, cold work, irradiation, quenching, composites) and recovery are briefly reviewed.

  16. A review of instanton physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, C.G. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This is a review paper on the developments in the understanding of QCD, that have flowed from the discovery of instanton. The underlying aim is to gain insight by identifying essential degrees of freedom and to simplify the mathematics by throwing away inessential degrees of freedom. By familiar arguments, all the information in a field theory is contained in the Euclidean Functional Integral (EFI). The solution called instanton is of the kind envisaged by Polyakov since it is localized and has finite action. The instanton can be examined from the point of view of vacuum tunneling. One massless fermion flavor makes some remarkable modification. Among the mathematical developments, the most important is the problem of finding the multi-instanton solution. Another useful development has been the calculation in explicit form of the effect of instantons on the propagation of other field. The contribution of single instantons to the vacuum functional is expected. Effects from instanton fluctuation can be determined qualitatively. Typical of these is the calculation of the heavy quark potential by the device of computing the effect of dilute instanton gas on the Wilson loop. Remarks on the interaction between instantons and the effective coupling of instantons of large scale size are described. (Kato, T.)

  17. Review of Particle Physics, 2014-2015

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, K A; Amsler, C; Antonelli, M; Arguin, J-F; Asner, D M; Baer, H; Band, H R; Barnett, R M; Basaglia, T; Bauer, C W; Beatty, J J; Belousov, V I; Beringer, J; Bernardi, G; Bethke, S; Bichsel, H; Biebel, O; Blucher, E; Blusk, S; Brooijmans, G; Buchmueller, O; Burkert, V; Bychkov, M A; Cahn, R N; Carena, M; Ceccucci, A; Cerri, A; Chakraborty, D; Chen, M-C; Chivukula, R S; Copic, K; Cowan, G; Dahl, O; D'Ambrosio, G; Damour, T; de Florian, D; de Gouvea, A; DeGrand, T; de Jong, P; Dissertori, G; Dobrescu, B A; Doser, M; Drees, M; Dreiner, H K; Edwards, D A; Eidelman, S; Erler, J; Ezhela, V V; Fetscher, W; Fields, B D; Foster, B; Freitas, A; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, H; Garren, L; Gerber, H-J; Gerbier, G; Gershon, T; Gherghetta, T; Golwala, S; Goodman, M; Grab, C; Gritsan, A V; Grojen, C; Groom, D E; Grunewald, M; Gurtu, A; Gutsche, T; Haber, H E; Hagiwara, K; Hanhart, C; Hashimoto, S; Hayato, Y; Hayes, K G; Heffner, M; Heltsley, B; Hernandez-Rey, J J; Hikasa, K; Hocker, A; Holder, J; Holtkamp, A; Huston, J; Jackson, J D; Johnson, K F; Junk, T; Kado, M; Karlen, D; Katz, U F; Klein, S R; Klempt, E; Kowalewski, R V; Krauss, F; Kreps, M; Krusche, B; Kuyanov, Yu V; Kwon, Y; Lahav, O; Laiho, J; Langacker, P; Liddle, A; Ligeti, Z; Lin, C-J; Liss, T M; Littenberg, L; Lugovsky, K S; Lugovsky, S B; Maltoni, F; Mannel, T; Manohar, A V; Marciano, W J; Martin, A D; Masoni, A; Matthews, J; Milstead, D; Molaro, P; Munig, K; Moortgat, F; Mortonson, M J; Murayama, H; Nakamura, K; Narain, M; Nason, P; Navas, S; Neubert, M; Nevski, P; Nir, Y; Pape, L; Parsons, J; Patrignani, C; Peacock, J A; Pennington, M; Petcov, S T; Piepke, A; Pomarol, A; Quadt, A; Raby, S; Rademacker, J; Raffelt, G; Ratcliff, B N; Richardson, P; Ringwald, A; Roesler, S; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Rosenberg, L J; Rosner, J L; Rybka, G; Sachrajda, C T; Sakai, Y; Salam, G P; Sarkar, S; Sauli, F; Schneider, O; Scholberg, K; Scott, D; Sharma, V; Sharpe, S R; Silari, M; Sjostrand, T; Skands, P; Smith, J G; Smoot, G F; Spanier, S; Spieler, H; Spiering, C; Stahl, A; Stanev, T; Stone, S L; Sumiyoshi, T; Syphers, M J; Takahashi, F; Tanabashi, M; Terning, J; Tiator, L; Titov, M; Tkachenko, N P; Tornqvist, N A; Tovey, D; Valencia, G; Venanzoni, G; Vincter, M G; Vogel, P; Vogt, A; Wakely, S P; Walkowiak, W; Walter, C W; Ward, D R; Weiglein, G; Weinberg, D H; Weinberg, E J; White, M; Wiencke, L R; Wohl, C G; Wolfenstein, L; Womersley, J; Woody, C L; Workman, R L; Yamamoto, A; Yao, W-M; Zeller, G P; Zenin, O V; Zhang, J; Zhu, R-Y; Zimmermann, F; Zyla, P A; Harper, G; Lugovsky, V.S; Schaffner, P

    2014-01-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosyn...

  18. A review of ordering phenomena in iron-silicon alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon steel is an industrially-desired alloy of iron and silicon, characterised by soft magnetic properties, low eddy-current losses, and low magnetostriction. Silicon steels have narrow hysteresis cycles, making them particularly advantageous in applications using electromagnetic fields, such as transformers, generators, electric motor cores, and few other components in industry. Despite its incontestable industrial value, there is not much agreement on the atomic structure of silicon steel. Gaining better understanding of e.g. ordering processes in Fe-Si alloys could not only explain their magnetic properties, but also open opportunities to reduce their weaker characteristics, such as brittleness that adversely affects silicon steel workability and its associated high production costs. This review summarises the state-of-the-art knowledge about ordering in silicon steel and describes the most relevant experimental techniques used for studying its microstructure. In addition, the process of building the iron rich part of the Fe-Si phase diagram is explained. Lastly, the influence of order on the alloy’s magnetic and mechanical properties is illustrated.El acero al silicio es una aleación de importancia industrial, caracterizada por propiedades magnéticas blandas, bajas pérdidas por corrientes de Foucault y baja magnetostricción. Los aceros al silicio tienen ciclo de histéresis estrecho, lo que es una ventaja en aplicaciones con campos electromagnéticos, como transformadores, generadores, núcleos de motores eléctricos y otros componentes industriales. A pesar de su incomparable valor industrial, no hay convenio sobre la estructura atómica del acero al silicio. Obtener mayor conocimiento sobre los procesos de orden no sólo podría explicar las propiedades magnéticas sino que también podría abrir vías para la reducción de sus características más débiles, como su fragilidad, la cual afecta negativamente a la fabricación del

  19. Physical and Mechanical Properties of LoVAR: A New Lightweight Particle-Reinforced Fe-36Ni Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Timothy; Tricker, David; Tarrant, Andrew; Michel, Robert; Clune, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Fe-36Ni is an alloy of choice for low thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) for optical, instrument and electrical applications in particular where dimensional stability is critical. This paper outlines the development of a particle-reinforced Fe-36Ni alloy that offers reduced density and lower CTE compared to the matrix alloy. A summary of processing capability will be given relating the composition and microstructure to mechanical and physical properties.

  20. Influence of aluminium content on the physical, mechanical and sliding wear properties of zinc-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, B.K.; Patwardhan, A.K.; Yegneswaran, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Attention has been focussed on the influence of Al content on the physical, mechanical and sliding wear properties of Zn-based alloys. Aspects studied include microstructure, density, electrical conductivity, hardness, tensile strength and elongation as well as sliding wear response of the alloys. Microstructural features of the alloys showed the presence of primary α, eutectic/eutectoid α + η (depending on whether the alloy was hypereutectic/hypereutectoid with regard to the concentration of Al) along with the meta stable ε phase. The study suggests that it is possible to design and develop Zn-based alloys with a wide range of concentration of Al. The alloys in turn attain different combinations of physical, mechanical and wear properties which could suit a variety of engineering applications. Increasing the Al content in the alloy system proves beneficial within limits. In other words, there exists an optimum quantity of Al which could reap its advantage to the maximum extent. This of course varies with reference to a specific property of the alloy(s). The changing response of the alloys has been explained in terms of their microstructural features and the effects produced as a result of the test conditions maintained while characterizing the specimens. (orig.)

  1. Review about laser nitriding of titanium alloys; Revision sobre nitruraciones laser de aleaciones de titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Artieda, M.G.; Fernandez-Carrasquilla, J.

    2010-07-01

    A common technique used to improve the wear response of titanium alloys is to nitride the surface, using chemical or physical vapour deposition, ion implantation or surface remelting in a nitrogen atmosphere. In this revision nitriding systems with laser technology are studied, used in titanium alloys surface treatments.For high temperature, high strength applications, titanium based alloys are an attractive light-weight alternative to steel, due to their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. In applications that require good wear resistance, titanium alloys pose a problem due to their poor tribological characteristics.Titanium alloys used with a suitable nitriding treatment could allow the replacement of steel in different applications, obtaining weight savings in fabricated components. (Author). 68 refs.

  2. Physical chemistry of the chlorination reactions of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Micco, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    This thesis has contributed towards the knowledge of complex systems.The chlorination reactions are non-catalytic solid-gas heterogeneous reactions which, in addition to the difficulties associated with the reactions occurring in an interface, have the particular features of chlorides compounds and their interactions.The questions arising from this type of study can not be solved by the application of an individual analysis technique.From the experimental point of view it is complicated, and many instrumental techniques need to be applied in order to obtain significant results as well as meaningful interpretations.The system under study is the chlorination of ternary and binary alloys containing Al, Cu and Zn and the pure metals, as these elements belong to the spent nuclear fuel cladding.The aim of the research has been to develop a process that eliminates most of the aluminium, which is the more abundant specie. In this way, the amount of material to be conditioned (vitrified) is reduced.The objectives proposed for each system have been achieved, and the results obtained can also be applied to similar systems for metal recycling [es

  3. Review of lithium iron-base alloy corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, J.H.; Selle, J.E.; Morris, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive literature search was conducted on the compatibility of ferrous alloys with lithium, with the emphasis on austenitic stainless steels. The information is summarized and is divided into two sections. The first section gives a brief summary and the second is an annotated bibliography. Comparisons of results are complicated by differences in lithium purity, alloy composition, alloy treatment, flow rates, and lithium handling procedures. For long-term application, austenitic stainless steels appear to be limited to about 500 0 C. While corrosion can probably not be decreased to zero, a considerable reduction to tolerable and predictable amounts appears possible

  4. Review of creep resistant alloys for power plant applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A paper describes the most popular alloys for power plant application as well as the most promising alloys for future application in that technology. The components in power plants operate in severe conditions (high temperatures and pressures and they are expected reliable service for 30 years and more. The correct choice of the material is, thus, of a very importance. The paper describes the development as well as advantages and disadvantages of convenient ferritic/martensitic steels, ferritic/bainitic steels, austenitic stainless steels and the new alloys for the application at temperatures of 650°C and more.

  5. A review on the effect of welding on the corrosion of magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, N. S.; Alias, J.

    2017-10-01

    Welding is an important joining technique for lightweight alloys with their increasing applications in aerospace, aircraft, automotive, electronics and other industries. The applications of lightweight alloys particularly magnesium alloys increased rapidly due to their beneficial properties such as low density, high strength-to-mass ratio, good dimensional stability, electromagnetic shielding and good recyclability. The effect of welding on the corrosion of magnesium alloys are reviewed in this paper, which closely related to the developed microstructure by the welding process. The paper focuses particularly on friction stir and laser welding. The basic principles of friction stir and laser welding are discussed, to present the likelihood of defects which significantly affect the corrosion of magnesium alloy. The finding in corrosion demonstrated the morphology of corrosion occurrence on each welded region, and observation on the potential and current values are also included.

  6. Effect of chromium and phosphorus on the physical properties of iron and titanium-based amorphous metallic alloy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, S.; Rameshan, R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous iron and titanium-based alloys containing various amounts of chromium, phosphorus, and boron exhibit high corrosion resistance. Some physical properties of Fe and Ti-based metallic alloy films deposited on a glass substrate by a dc-magnetron sputtering technique are reported. The films were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, stress analysis, SEM, XRD, SIMS, electron microprobe, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques.

  7. A personal mini-review in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    I review the major events in my personal history which more-or-less determined my particular career in physics. Much of the emphasis is on β-decay, since so much of my work, both experimental and theoretical has been bound up in this subject

  8. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sankalp; Curtin, James; Duffy, Brendan; Jaiswal, Swarna

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys and the effect of alloying elements on corrosion and biocompatibility is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of polymeric deposit coatings, namely sol-gel, synthetic aliphatic polyesters and natural polymers on corrosion and biological performance of Mg and its alloy for orthopaedic applications are presented. It was found that inclusion of alloying elements such as Al, Mn, Ca, Zn and rare earth elements provides improved corrosion resistance to Mg alloys. It has been also observed that sol-gel and synthetic aliphatic polyesters based coatings exhibit improved corrosion resistance as compared to natural polymers, which has higher biocompatibility due to their biomimetic nature. It is concluded that, surface modification is a promising approach to improve the performance of Mg-based biomaterials for orthopaedic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong; Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Ming-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants

  10. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Ming-Xing, E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants.

  11. A review on the martensitic transformation and shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Q.; Humbeeck, J. van; Delaey, L.

    1994-01-01

    The martensitic transformation and the shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si alloys received great attention recently due to its potential commercial value. In this paper, the mechanisms for the martensitic transformation and various parameters influencing the shape memory effect like alloy composition, applied stress, prestrain, crystal orientation, temperature, grain size, pre-existing martensite, thermal cycling and training etc. are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  12. Microstructure and physical properties of mechanically alloyed Fe-Mo powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Zábranský, Karel; Turek, Ilja; Buršík, Jiří; Jančík, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 477, - (2009), s. 55-61 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2111; GA ČR GD106/05/H008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Nanostructured materials * Mechanical alloying * Microstructure * Magnetic measurements * Mössbauer spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2009

  13. Influence of Molybdenum on the Alloying and Physical Properties of Fe-Al

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Buršík, Jiří; Hapla, Miroslav; Turek, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2015), s. 905-910 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1350; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Nanostructured materials * Mechanical alloying * Magnetic proprties * Grain core * Defects Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.100, year: 2015

  14. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabitto, Jorge [Prairie View A& M University; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Methane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately 1016?m3 of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detected by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical data collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed.

  15. Review of electron beam therapy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Almond, Peter R

    2006-01-01

    For over 50 years, electron beams have been an important modality for providing an accurate dose of radiation to superficial cancers and disease and for limiting the dose to underlying normal tissues and structures. This review looks at many of the important contributions of physics and dosimetry to the development and utilization of electron beam therapy, including electron treatment machines, dose specification and calibration, dose measurement, electron transport calculations, treatment and treatment-planning tools, and clinical utilization, including special procedures. Also, future changes in the practice of electron therapy resulting from challenges to its utilization and from potential future technology are discussed. (review)

  16. Review of physics results from the Tevatron: QCD physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesropian, Christina [Rockefeller U.; Bandurin, Dmitry [Virginia U.

    2015-02-17

    We present a summary of results from studies of quantum chromodynamics at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by the CDF and the D0 experiments. These include Run II results for the time period up to the end of Summer 2014. A brief description of Run I results is also given. This review covers a wide spectrum of topics, and includes measurements with jet and vector boson final states in the hard (perturbative) energy regime, as well as studies of soft physics such as diffractive and elastic scatterings, underlying and minimum bias events, hadron fragmentation, and multiple parton interactions.

  17. Fabrication, magnetostriction properties and applications of Tb-Dy-Fe alloys: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-juan Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As an excellent giant-magnetostrictive material, Tb-Dy-Fe alloys (based on Tb0.27-0.30Dy0.73-0.70Fe1.9-2 Laves compound can be applied in many engineering fields, such as sonar transducer systems, sensors, and micro-actuators. However, the cost of the rare earth elements Tb and Dy is too high to be widely applied for the materials. Nowadays, there are two different ways to substitute for these alloying elements. One is to partially replace Tb or Dy by cheaper rare earth elements, such as Pr, Nd, Sm and Ho; and the other is to use non-rare earth elements, such as Co, Al, Mn, Si, Ce, B, Be and C, to substitute Fe to form single MgCu2-type Laves phase and a certain amount of Re-rich phase, which can reduce the brittleness and improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy. This paper systemically introduces the development, the fabrication methods and the corresponding preferred growth directions of Tb-Dy-Fe alloys. In addition, the effects of alloying elements and heat treatment on magnetostrictive and mechanical properties of Tb-Dy-Fe alloys are also reviewed, respectively. Finally, some possible applications of Tb-Dy-Fe alloys are presented.

  18. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dugdill, L; Brettle, A; Hulme, C; McCluskey, S; Long, AF

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols and analysis regarding study quality as recommen...

  19. Electronic structures and relevant physical properties of Ni2MnGa alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Kim, J. B.; Huang, M. D.; Lee, N. N.; Lee, Y. P.; Kudryavtsev, Y. V.; Rhee, J. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic structures and physical properties of the ordered and disordered Ni 2 MnGa alloy films were investigated in this study. Ordered and disordered Ni 2 MnGa alloy films were prepared by flash evaporation onto substrates maintained at 720 K and 150 K, respectively. The results show that the ordered films behave in nearly the same way as the bulk Ni 2 MnGa ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy, including the martensitic transformation at 200 K. It was also revealed that the film deposition onto substrates cooled by liquid nitrogen leads to the formation of a substantially-disordered or an amorphous phase which is not ferromagnetically ordered at room temperature. An annealing of such an amorphous film restores its crystallinity and also recovers the ferromagnetic order. It was also clarified how the structural disordering in the films influences the physical properties, including the loss of ferromagnetism in the disordered films, by performing electronic-structure calculations and a photoemission study.

  20. Review of Particle Physics, 2012-2013

    CERN Document Server

    Beringer, J; Barnett, R M; Copic, K; Dahl, O; Groom, D E; Lin, C J; Lys, J; Murayama, H; Wohl, C G; Yao, W M; Zyla, P A; Amsler, C; Antonelli, M; Asner, D M; Baer, H; Band, H R; Basaglia, T; Bauer, C W; Beatty, J J; Belousov, V I; Bergren, E; Bernardi, G; Bertl, W; Bethke, S; Bichsel, H; Biebel, O; Blucher, E; Blusk, S; Brooijmans, G; Buchmueller, O; Cahn, R N; Carena, M; Ceccucci, A; Chakraborty, D; Chen, M C; Chivukula, R S; Cowan, G; D'Ambrosio, G; Damour, T; de Florian, D; de Gouvea, A; DeGrand, T; de Jong, P; Dissertori, G; Dobrescu, B; Doser, M; Drees, M; Edwards, D A; Eidelman, S; Erler, J; Ezhela, V V; Fetscher, W; Fields, B D; Foster, B; Gaisser, T K; Garren, L; Gerber, H J; Gerbier, G; Gherghetta, T; Golwala, S; Goodman, M; Grab, C; Gritsan, A V; Grivaz, J F; Grunewald, M; Gurtu, A; Gutsche, T; Haber, H E; Hagiwara, K; Hagmann, C; Hanhart, C; Hashimoto, S; Hayes, K G; Heffner, M; Heltsley, B; Hernandez-Rey, J J; Hikasa, K; Hocker, A; Holder, J; Holtkamp, A; Huston, J; Jackson, J D; Johnson, K F; Junk, T; Karlen, D; Kirkby, D; Klein, S R; Klempt, E; Kowalewski, R V; Krauss, F; Kreps, M; Krusche, B; Kuyanov, Yu.V; Kwon, Y; Lahav, O; Laiho, J; Langacker, P; Liddle, A; Ligeti, Z; Liss, T M; Littenberg, L; Lugovsky, K S; Lugovsky, S B; Mannel, T; Manohar, A V; Marciano, W J; Martin, A D; Masoni, A; Matthews, J; Milstead, D; Miquel, R; Monig, K; Moortgat, F; Nakamura, K; Narain, M; Nason, P; Navas, S; Neubert, M; Nevski, P; Nir, Y; Olive, K A; Pape, L; Parsons, J; Patrignani, C; Peacock, J A; Petcov, S T; Piepke, A; Pomarol, A; Punzi, G; Quadt, A; Raby, S; Raffelt, G; Ratcliff, B N; Richardson, P; Roesler, S; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Rosenberg, L J; Rosner, J L; Sachrajda, C T; Sakai, Y; Salam, G P; Sarkar, S; Sauli, F; Schneider, O; Scholberg, K; Scott, D; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Sharpe, S R; Silari, M; Sjostrand, T; Skands, P; Smith, J G; Smoot, G F; Spanier, S; Spieler, H; Stahl, A; Stanev, T; Stone, S L; Sumiyoshi, T; Syphers, M J; Takahashi, F; Tanabashi, M; Terning, J; Titov, M; Tkachenko, N P; Tornqvist, N A; Tovey, D; Valencia, G; van Bibber, K; Venanzoni, G; Vincter, M G; Vogel, P; Vogt, A; Walkowiak, W; Walter, C W; Ward, D R; Watari, T; Weiglein, G; Weinberg, E J; Wiencke, L R; Wolfenstein, L; Womersley, J; Woody, C L; Workman, R L; Yamamoto, A; Zeller, G P; Zenin, O V; Zhang, J; Zhu, R Y; Harper, G; Lugovsky, V S; Schaffner, P

    2012-01-01

    This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2658 new measurements from 644 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on Heavy-Quark and Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Event Generators, Lattice QCD, Heavy Quarkonium Spectroscopy, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Vcb & Vub, Quantum Chromodynamics, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Astrophysical Constants, Cosmological Parameters, and Dark Matter.

  1. Selective laser melting of Inconel super alloy-a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karia, M. C.; Popat, M. A.; Sangani, K. B.

    2017-07-01

    Additive manufacturing is a relatively young technology that uses the principle of layer by layer addition of material in solid, liquid or powder form to develop a component or product. The quality of additive manufactured part is one of the challenges to be addressed. Researchers are continuously working at various levels of additive manufacturing technologies. One of the significant powder bed processes for met als is Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Laser based processes are finding more attention of researchers and industrial world. The potential of this technique is yet to be fully explored. Due to very high strength and creep resistance Inconel is extensively used nickel based super alloy for manufacturing components for aerospace, automobile and nuclear industries. Due to law content of Aluminum and Titanium, it exhibits good fabricability too. Therefore the alloy is ideally suitable for selective laser melting to manufacture intricate components with high strength requirements. The selection of suitable process for manufacturing for a specific component depends on geometrical complexity, production quantity, and cost and required strength. There are numerous researchers working on various aspects like metallurgical and micro structural investigations and mechanical properties, geometrical accuracy, effects of process parameters and its optimization and mathematical modeling etc. The present paper represents a comprehensive overview of selective laser melting process for Inconel group of alloys.

  2. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the A ir Pollution Unit w ithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  3. Physical activity in spondyloarthritis: a systematic review

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, Tom

    2014-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE\\/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.

  4. Fe–Al–Mn–C lightweight structural alloys: a review on the microstructures and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansoo Kim, Dong-Woo Suh and Nack J Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding a large amount of light elements such as aluminum to steels is not a new concept recalling that several Fe–Al–Mn–C alloys were patented in 1950s for replacement of nickel or chromium in corrosion resistance steels. However, the so-called lightweight steels or low-density steels were revisited recently, which is driven by demands from the industry where steel has served as a major structural material. Strengthening without loss of ductility has been a triumph in steel research, but lowering the density of steel by mixing with light elements will be another prospect that may support the competitiveness against emerging alternatives such as magnesium alloys. In this paper, we review recent studies on lightweight steels, emphasizing the concept of alloy design for microstructures and mechanical properties. The influence of alloying elements on the phase constituents, mechanical properties and the change of density is critically reviewed. Deformation mechanisms of various lightweight steels are discussed as well. This paper provides a reason why the success of lightweight steels is strongly dependent on scientific achievements even though alloy development is closely related to industrial applications. Finally, we summarize some of the main directions for future investigations necessary for vitalizing this field of interest.

  5. Fe–Al–Mn–C lightweight structural alloys: a review on the microstructures and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansoo; Suh, Dong-Woo; Kim, Nack J

    2013-01-01

    Adding a large amount of light elements such as aluminum to steels is not a new concept recalling that several Fe–Al–Mn–C alloys were patented in 1950s for replacement of nickel or chromium in corrosion resistance steels. However, the so-called lightweight steels or low-density steels were revisited recently, which is driven by demands from the industry where steel has served as a major structural material. Strengthening without loss of ductility has been a triumph in steel research, but lowering the density of steel by mixing with light elements will be another prospect that may support the competitiveness against emerging alternatives such as magnesium alloys. In this paper, we review recent studies on lightweight steels, emphasizing the concept of alloy design for microstructures and mechanical properties. The influence of alloying elements on the phase constituents, mechanical properties and the change of density is critically reviewed. Deformation mechanisms of various lightweight steels are discussed as well. This paper provides a reason why the success of lightweight steels is strongly dependent on scientific achievements even though alloy development is closely related to industrial applications. Finally, we summarize some of the main directions for future investigations necessary for vitalizing this field of interest. PMID:27877553

  6. Fe-Al-Mn-C lightweight structural alloys: a review on the microstructures and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansoo; Suh, Dong-Woo; Kim, Nack J

    2013-02-01

    Adding a large amount of light elements such as aluminum to steels is not a new concept recalling that several Fe-Al-Mn-C alloys were patented in 1950s for replacement of nickel or chromium in corrosion resistance steels. However, the so-called lightweight steels or low-density steels were revisited recently, which is driven by demands from the industry where steel has served as a major structural material. Strengthening without loss of ductility has been a triumph in steel research, but lowering the density of steel by mixing with light elements will be another prospect that may support the competitiveness against emerging alternatives such as magnesium alloys. In this paper, we review recent studies on lightweight steels, emphasizing the concept of alloy design for microstructures and mechanical properties. The influence of alloying elements on the phase constituents, mechanical properties and the change of density is critically reviewed. Deformation mechanisms of various lightweight steels are discussed as well. This paper provides a reason why the success of lightweight steels is strongly dependent on scientific achievements even though alloy development is closely related to industrial applications. Finally, we summarize some of the main directions for future investigations necessary for vitalizing this field of interest.

  7. AN EFFECT OF SHOT PEENING ON GROWTH AND RETARDATION OF PHYSICALLY SHORT FATIGUE CRACKS IN AN AIRCRAFT Al-ALLOY

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Černý

    2009-01-01

    Results of an investigation of effect of shot peening on development of physically short fatigue crack in an aircraft V-95 Al-alloy, which is of a similar type as 7075 alloy, are described and discussed in the paper. The first part deals with adaptation and verification of direct current potential drop method for detection and measurement of short crack initiation and growth. The specific material and quite large dimensions of flat specimens with side necking of a low stress concentration fac...

  8. The ignition of magnesium and magnox alloys. A review of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, R.J.

    1987-07-01

    Available data on the ignition temperatures of magnesium and the Magnox alloys of interest in CEGB Magnox reactor operations have been reviewed. Two basic ignition modes, instantaneous where a continuing and high rate of temperature rise is applied to the metal and delayed where the metal is held at a predetermined ambient temperature until ignition occurs, are identified. (author)

  9. A Review of Alloy 800H for Applications in the Gen IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Weiju; Swindeman, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Alloy 800H is currently under consideration for applications in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant at operational temperatures above 750 C. To provide supporting information in this paper at the attempt to facilitate the consideration, service requirements of the nuclear system for structural materials is first described; and then an extensive review of Alloy 800H is given on its codification with respect to development and research history, mechanical behavior and design allowables, metallurgical aging resistance, environmental effect considerations, data requirements and availability, weldments, as well as many other aspects relevant to the intended nuclear application; an finally further research and development activities to support the materials qualification are suggested.

  10. Physical properties of Zr50Cu40-xAl10Pdx bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wencka, M.; Jagodic, M.; Gradisek, A.; Kocjan, A.; Jaglicic, Z.; McGuiness, P.J.; Apih, T.; Yokoyama, Y.; Dolinsek, J.

    2010-01-01

    It was shown recently (Yokoyama et al. ) that the addition of a small amount of Pd to the Zr 50 Cu 40 Al 10 bulk glassy alloy (BGA) has a beneficial effect on fatigue-strength enhancement, where the composition Zr 50 Cu 37 Al 10 Pd 3 behaved in a resonant-like way by showing the highest fatigue limit of 1050 MPa and the minimum Vickers hardness. We performed a study of the magnetic properties, the specific heat, the electrical resistivity and the hydrogen-diffusion constant for a series of compositions Zr 50 Cu 40-x Al 10 Pd x (x = 0-7 at.%), in order to determine their physical properties and to check for the influence of the Pd content on these properties. The Zr 50 Cu 40-x Al 10 Pd x BGAs are nonmagnetic, conducting alloys, where the Pauli spin susceptibility of the conduction electrons is the only source of paramagnetism. The low-temperature specific heat indicates an enhancement of the conduction-electron effective mass m* below 5 K, suggesting that the Zr 50 Cu 40-x Al 10 Pd x BGAs are not free-electron-like compounds. The electrical resistivities of the Zr 50 Cu 40-x Al 10 Pd x BGAs amount to about 200 μΩ cm and show a small, negative temperature coefficient (NTC) with an increase from 300 to 2 K of 4%. The hydrogen self-diffusion constant D in hydrogen-loaded samples shows classical over-barrier-hopping temperature dependence and is of comparable magnitude to the related icosahedral and amorphous Zr 69.5 Cu 12 Ni 11 Al 7.5 hydrogen-storage alloys. No correlation between the investigated physical parameters and the Pd content of the samples could be observed.

  11. Interfacial Reaction of Sn-Ag-Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloy on Cu: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Mei Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the function and importance of Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys in electronics industry and the interfacial reaction of Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu solder joint at various solder forms and solder reflow conditions. The Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys are examined in bulk and in thin film. It then examines the effect of soldering conditions to the formation of intermetallic compounds such as Cu substrate selection, structural phases, morphology evolution, the growth kinetics, temperature and time is also discussed. Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder alloys are the most promising candidate for the replacement of Sn-Pb solders in modern microelectronic technology. Sn-Ag-Cu solders could possibly be considered and adapted in miniaturization technologies. Therefore, this paper should be of great interest to a large selection of electronics interconnect materials, reliability, processes, and assembly community.

  12. Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Al/Al and Al/Non-Al Alloys: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangbin; Pan, Yi; Lados, Diana A.

    2018-05-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid-state welding technique that has many advantages over traditional fusion welding, and has been widely adopted in the aerospace and automotive industries. This article reviews research developments in friction stir welding of dissimilar alloys systems, including combinations of aluminum alloys with Mg alloys, Cu, and steel. Microstructural evolution, hardness, tensile and fatigue properties, residual stresses, and corrosion behavior of dissimilar welds will be reported. The effects of processing parameters such as tool rotation and traverse speeds, tool position, material position, and tool geometry on the weld quality are also presented. Discussions on future research directions in friction stir welding will also be provided in the context of existing literature and future high-integrity applications.

  13. Friction stir welding of T joints of dissimilar aluminum alloy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Shrikant B.; Kalyankar, Vivek D.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum alloys are preferred in the mechanical design due to their advantages like high strength, good corrosion resistance, low density and good weldability. In various industrial applications T joints configuration of aluminum alloys are used. In different fields, T joints having skin (horizontal sheet) strengthen by stringers (vertical sheets) were used to increase the strength of structure without increasing the weight. T joints are usually carried out by fusion welding which has limitations in joining of aluminum alloy due to significant distortion and metallurgical defects. Some aluminum alloys are even non weldable by fusion welding. The friction stir welding (FSW) has an excellent replacement of conventional fusion welding for T joints. In this article, FSW of T joints is reviewed by considering aluminum alloy and various joint geometries for defect analysis. The previous experiments carried out on T joints shows the factors such as tool geometry, fixturing device and joint configurations plays significant role in defect free joints. It is essential to investigate the material flow during FSW to know joining mechanism and the formation of joint. In this study the defect occurred in the FSW are studied for various joint configurations and parameters. Also the effect of the parameters and defects occurs on the tensile strength are studied. It is concluded that the T-joints of different joint configurations can be pretended successfully. Comparing to base metal some loss in tensile strength was observed in the weldments as well as overall reduction of the hardness in the thermos mechanically affected zone also observed.

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, F.

    2007-07-01

    This new book by Kenro Miyamoto provides an up-to-date overview of the status of fusion research and the important parts of the underlying plasma physics at a moment where, due to the start of ITER construction, an important step in fusion research has been made and many new research workers will enter the field. For them, and also for interested graduate students and physicists in other fields, the book provides a good introduction into fusion physics as, on the whole, the presentation of the material is quite appropriate for getting acquainted with the field on the basis of just general knowledge in physics. There is overlap with Miyamoto's earlier book Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, USA, 1989) but only in a few sections on subjects which have not evolved since. The presentation is subdivided into two parts of about equal length. The first part, following a concise survey of the physics basis of thermonuclear fusion and of plasmas in general, covers the various magnetic configurations studied for plasma confinement (tokamak; reversed field pinch; stellarator; mirror-type geometries) and introduces the specific properties of plasmas in these devices. Plasma confinement in tokamaks is treated in particular detail, in compliance with the importance of this field in fusion research. This includes a review of the ITER concept and of the rationale for the choice of ITER's parameters. In the second part, selected topics in fusion plasma physics (macroscopic instabilities; propagation of waves; kinetic effects such as energy transfer between waves and particles including microscopic instabilities as well as plasma heating and current drive; transport phenomena induced by turbulence) are presented systematically. While the emphasis is on displaying the essential physics, deeper theoretical analysis is also provided here. Every chapter is complemented by a few related problems, but only partial hints for their solution are given. A selection of

  15. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  17. Alloy 800 - A review of properties and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, P.G.; Orr, J.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the properties and metallurgy of alloy 800 are significantly influenced by relatively small changes in composition introduced by the nuclear industry in order to obtain better stress corrosion resistance. Two particular metallurgical effects are considered: the influence of lower TiC volume fraction on grain coarsening behavior and grain size; the influence of increased amounts of titanium in solid solution on Ni 3 (AlTi) precipitation. The first effect has a direct influence on proof stress properties, and the second on stress rupture strength and ductility. However, the important effect of aluminium on this behavior is emphasized. Other aspects considered are the effect of long reheating times during operation on proof strength and impact resistance. The final part of the paper deals with two fabrication aspects. After demonstrating the detrimental effect of cold working on stress rupture ductility, the susceptibility to premature failure is examined, using notched stress rupture specimens. Although notch sensitivity was found in short term tests, additional work suggests that it may not occur after longer testing times. The effect of stress relieving on this behavior is reported. The welding aspects considered include the compositional factors influencing liquation cracking, grain growth during welding, and the proof strength and stress rupture properties of welded material

  18. A Review Corrosion of TI Grade 7 and Other TI Alloys in Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; K. Mon; P. Pasupathi; G. Gordon

    2004-05-11

    Titanium alloy degradation modes are reviewed in relation to their performance in repository environments. General corrosion, localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, microbially influenced corrosion, and radiation-assisted corrosion of Ti alloys are considered. With respect to the Ti Grade 7 drip shields selected for emplacement in the repository at Yucca Mountain, general corrosion, hydrogen induced cracking, and radiation-assisted corrosion will not lead to failure within the 10,000 year regulatory period; stress corrosion cracking (in the absence of disruptive events) is of no consequence to barrier performance; and localized corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion are not expected to occur. To facilitate the discussion, Ti Grades 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, and 24 are included in this review.

  19. A Review Corrosion of TI Grade 7 and Other TI Alloys in Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, F.; Mon, K.; Pasupathi, P.; Gordon, G.

    2004-01-01

    Titanium alloy degradation modes are reviewed in relation to their performance in repository environments. General corrosion, localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, microbially influenced corrosion, and radiation-assisted corrosion of Ti alloys are considered. With respect to the Ti Grade 7 drip shields selected for emplacement in the repository at Yucca Mountain, general corrosion, hydrogen induced cracking, and radiation-assisted corrosion will not lead to failure within the 10,000 year regulatory period; stress corrosion cracking (in the absence of disruptive events) is of no consequence to barrier performance; and localized corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion are not expected to occur. To facilitate the discussion, Ti Grades 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, and 24 are included in this review

  20. Physical applications of GPS geodesy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Geodesy, the oldest science, has become an important discipline in the geosciences, in large part by enhancing Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities over the last 35 years well beyond the satellite constellation's original design. The ability of GPS geodesy to estimate 3D positions with millimeter-level precision with respect to a global terrestrial reference frame has contributed to significant advances in geophysics, seismology, atmospheric science, hydrology, and natural hazard science. Monitoring the changes in the positions or trajectories of GPS instruments on the Earth's land and water surfaces, in the atmosphere, or in space, is important for both theory and applications, from an improved understanding of tectonic and magmatic processes to developing systems for mitigating the impact of natural hazards on society and the environment. Besides accurate positioning, all disturbances in the propagation of the transmitted GPS radio signals from satellite to receiver are mined for information, from troposphere and ionosphere delays for weather, climate, and natural hazard applications, to disturbances in the signals due to multipath reflections from the solid ground, water, and ice for environmental applications. We review the relevant concepts of geodetic theory, data analysis, and physical modeling for a myriad of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the extensive global infrastructure that has been built to support GPS geodesy consisting of thousands of continuously operating stations. We also discuss the integration of heterogeneous and complementary data sets from geodesy, seismology, and geology, focusing on crustal deformation applications and early warning systems for natural hazards.

  1. Physics of intermediate shocks: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intermediate shocks (ISs) lead to a transition from super-Alfvenic to sub-Alfvenic flow and are different from slow and fast shocks in that an IS rotates the component of the magnetic field tangent to the shock plane by 180 deg. Another peculiarity of ISs is that for the same upstream conditions an IS can have two different downstream states. There also exist a second class of ISs which rotate the magnetic field by an angle other than 180 deg. Due to their noncoplanar nature they cannot be time-stationary and are referred to as time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDIS). The existence of ISs has been the subject of much controversy over the years. Early studies questioned the physical reality of ISs. However, the studies of ISs found a new impetus when C.C. Wu showed that ISs do exist and are stable within the resistive MHD framework. In this paper, after a brief historical overview of the subject, we will review the latest developments in the study of ISs. In particular, we will address the questions of stability and structure of ISs and the relationship between ISs and other discontinuities. One of the recent developments has been the finding that ISs can be unsteady, reforming in time. Details of this process will be discussed. Finally, we examine the effect of anisotropy on the resolutions and discuss the relevance of ISs to the observed field rotations at the Earth's magnetopause.

  2. Low temperature physical properties of Co-35Ni-20Cr-10Mo alloy MP35N®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Toplosky, V. J.; Goddard, R. E.; Han, K.

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase Co-35Ni-20Cr-10Mo alloy MP35N® is a high strength alloy with excellent corrosion resistance. Its applications span chemical, medical, and food processing industries. Thanks to its high modulus and high strength, it found applications in reinforcement of ultra-high field pulsed magnets. Recently, it has also been considered for reinforcement in superconducting wires used in ultra-high field superconducting magnets. For these applications, accurate measurement of its physical properties at cryogenic temperatures is very important. In this paper, physical properties including electrical resistivity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, and magnetization of as-received and aged samples are measured from 2 to 300 K. The electrical resistivity of the aged sample is slightly higher than the as-received sample, both showing a weak linear temperature dependence in the entire range of 2-300 K. The measured specific heat Cp of 430 J/kg-K at 295 K agrees with a theoretical prediction, but is significantly smaller than the values in the literature. The thermal conductivity between 2 and 300 K is in good agreement with the literature which is only available above 77 K. Magnetic property of MP35N® changes significantly with aging. The as-received sample exhibits Curie paramagnetism with a Curie constant C = 0.175 K. While the aged sample contains small amounts of a ferromagnetic phase even at room temperature. The measured MP35N® properties will be useful for the engineering design of pulsed magnets and superconducting magnets using MP35N® as reinforcement.

  3. Corrosion of titanium and titanium alloys in spent fuel repository conditions - literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho-Mantila, I.; Haenninen, H.; Aaltonen, P.; Taehtinen, S.

    1985-03-01

    The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed in Finnish bedrock. The canister of spent fuel in waste repository is one barrier to the release of radionuclides. It is possible to choose a canister material with a known, measurable corrosion rate and to make it with thickness allowing corrosion to occur. The other possibility is to use a material which is nearly immune to general corrosion. In this second category there are titanium and titanium alloys which exhibit a very high degree of resistance to general corrosion. In this literature study the corrosion properties of unalloyed titanium, titanium alloyed with palladium and titanium alloyed with molybdenum and nickel are reviewed. The two titanium alloys own in addition to the excellent general corrosion properties outstanding properties against localized corrosion like pitting or crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatique of titanium seem not to be a problem in the repository conditions, but the possibilities of delayed cracking caused by hydrogen should be carefully appreciated. (author)

  4. [Study on physical properties of titanium alloy sample fabricated with vacuum-sintered powder metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X; Liang, X; Chao, Y; Han, X

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the physical properties of titanium alloy fabricated with vacuum-sintered powder metallurgy. The titanium powders of three different particle sizes(-160mesh, -200 - +300mesh, -300mesh) were selected, and mixed with copper and aluminum powder in different proportions. Two other groups were made up of titanium powder(-200 - +300mesh) plated with copper and tin. The build-up and, condensation method and a double-direction press with a metal mold were used. The green compacts were sintered at 1000 degrees C for 15 minutes in a vacuum furnace at 0.025 Pa. In the double-direction press, the specimens were compacted at the pressure of 100 MPa, 200 MPa and 300 MPa respectively. Then the linear shrinkage ratio and the opening porosity of the sintered compacts were evaluated respectively. 1. The linear shrinkage ratio of specimens decreased with the increased compacted pressure(P powders at the same compacted pressure(P > 0.05), but that of titanium powder plated with copper and tin was higher than those of other specimens without plating(P powder did not affect the opening porosity at the same compacted pressure(P > 0.05). The composition of titanium-based metal powder mixtures and the compacted pressures affect the physical properties of sintered compacts. Titanium powder plated with copper and tin is compacted and sintered easily, and the physical properties of sintered compacts are greatly improved.

  5. Recent physics at COSY – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The COSY accelerator in Jülich is presented together with its internal and external detectors. The physics program performed recently is discussed with emphasis on strangeness physics and precision experiments.

  6. Review of time-dependent fatigue behaviour of structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    A review and assessment of time-dependent fatigue was needed to provide an understanding of time-dependent fatigue processes, to define the limits of our present knowledge, and to establish bases for the development of verified design methods for structural components and systems for operation at elevated temperatures. This report reviews the present state of understanding of that phenomena, commonly called 'creep fatigue', and separates it into crack-initiation and crack propagation processes. Criteria for describing material behavior for each of these processes are discussed and described within the extent of present knowledge, which is limited largely to experience with one-dimensional loading. Behaviors of types 304 and 316 stainless steel are emphasized. Much of the treatment of time-dependent failure present here is new and of a developing nature; areas of agreement and areas requiring further resolution are enumerated'. These words are from the abstract of the report on a comprehensive study of time-dependent fatigue. This paper briefly reviews some of the contents and discusses important conclusions reached, especially in terms of current status and needs for additional work. (Auth.)

  7. Phosphorus effect on structure and physical properties of iron-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berseneva, F.N.; Kalinin, V.M.; Rybalko, O.F.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and properties of iron-nickel alloys (30-50 % Ni) containing from 0.02 to 0.5 wt. % P have been investigated. It has been found that phosphorus solubility in iron-nickel alloys at most purified from impurities exceeds limiting solubility values usually observed for commercial alloys. Phosphide eutectics precipitation over the grain boundaries of studied alloys occurs but with phosphorus content equal 0.45 wt. %. The 0.4 wt. % P addition in invar alloys increases saturation magnetization and the Curie point and leads to a more homogeneous structure

  8. Physical Attractiveness and Health in Western Societies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Jason; Sabini, John

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from developed Western societies is reviewed for the claims that (a) physical attractiveness judgments are substantially based on body size and shape, symmetry, sex-typical hormonal markers, and other specific cues and (b) physical attractiveness and these cues substantially predict health. Among the cues that the authors review, only…

  9. Evaluating the Tensile Properties of Aluminum Foundry Alloys through Reference Castings-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilchandra, A R; Arnberg, Lars; Bonollo, Franco; Fiorese, Elena; Timelli, Giulio

    2017-08-30

    The tensile properties of an alloy can be exploited if detrimental defects and imperfections of the casting are minimized and the microstructural characteristics are optimized through several strategies that involve die design, process management and metal treatments. This paper presents an analysis and comparison of the salient characteristics of the reference dies proposed in the literature, both in the field of pressure and gravity die-casting. The specimens produced with these reference dies, called separately poured specimens, are effective tools for the evaluation and comparison of the tensile and physical behaviors of Al-Si casting alloys. Some of the findings of the present paper have been recently developed in the frame of the European StaCast project whose results are complemented here with some more recent outcomes and a comprehensive analysis and discussion.

  10. Evaluating the Tensile Properties of Aluminum Foundry Alloys through Reference Castings—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilchandra, A.R.; Arnberg, Lars; Bonollo, Franco; Fiorese, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The tensile properties of an alloy can be exploited if detrimental defects and imperfections of the casting are minimized and the microstructural characteristics are optimized through several strategies that involve die design, process management and metal treatments. This paper presents an analysis and comparison of the salient characteristics of the reference dies proposed in the literature, both in the field of pressure and gravity die-casting. The specimens produced with these reference dies, called separately poured specimens, are effective tools for the evaluation and comparison of the tensile and physical behaviors of Al-Si casting alloys. Some of the findings of the present paper have been recently developed in the frame of the European StaCast project whose results are complemented here with some more recent outcomes and a comprehensive analysis and discussion. PMID:28867796

  11. The physical and mechanical metallurgy of advanced O+BCC titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Christopher John

    This thesis comprises a systematic study of the microstructural evolution, phase transformation behavior, elevated-temperature creep behavior, room-temperature and elevated-temperature tensile behavior, and room-temperature fatigue behavior of advanced titanium-aluminum-niobium (Ti-Al-Nb) alloys with and without boron additions. The specific alloys studied were: Ti-5A1-45Nb (at%), Ti-15Al-33Nb (at%), Ti-15Al-33Nb-0.5B (at%), Ti-15Al-33Nb-5B (at%), Ti-21Al-29Nb (at%), Ti-22Al-26Nb (at%), and Ti-22Al-26Nb-5B (at%). The only alloy composition that had been previously studied before this thesis work began was Ti-22Al-26Nb (at%). Publication in peer-reviewed material science journals of the work performed in this thesis has made data available in the scientific literature that was previously non-existent. The knowledge gap for Ti-Al-Nb phase equilibria over the compositional range of Ti-23Al-27Nb (at%) to Ti-12Al-38Nb (at%) that existed before this work began was successfully filled. The addition of 5 at% boron to the Ti-15Al-33Nb alloy produced 5-9 volume percent boride phase needles within the microstructure. The chemical composition of the boride phase measured by electron microprobe was determined to be approximately B 2TiNb. The lattice parameters of the boride phase were simulated through density functional theory calculations by collaborators at the Air Force Research Laboratory based on the measured composition. Using the simulated lattice parameters, electron backscatter diffraction kikuchi patterns and selected area electron diffraction patterns obtained from the boride phase were successfully indexed according to the space group and site occupancies of the B27 orthorhombic crystal structure. This suggests that half the Ti (c) Wyckoff positions are occupied by Ti atoms and the other half are occupied by Nb atoms in the boride phase lattice. Creep deformation behavior is the main focus of this thesis and in particular understanding the dominant creep

  12. Physical Environment Correlates of Physical Activity in Developing Countries: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kristen

    2018-04-01

    Noncommunicable diseases and obesity are considered problems of wealthy, developed countries. These conditions are rising dramatically in developing countries. Most existing research on the role of the physical environment to support physical activity examines developed countries only. This review identifies physical environment factors that are associated with physical activity in developing countries. This review is modeled on a highly cited review by Saelens and Handy in 2008. The current review analyzes findings from 159 empirical studies in the 138 developing countries. Results discuss the association of physical environment features and physical activity for all developing countries and identify the patterns within regions. The review supports the association of traffic safety with physical activity for transportation. Rural (vs urban) residence, distance to nonresidential land uses, and "composite" features of the physical environment are associated with general physical activity. Rural (vs urban) residence is associated with physical activity for work. More research is needed on associations between the physical environment and physical activity in developing countries. Research should identify specific physical environment features in urban areas that are associated with higher activity levels.

  13. Mg and Mg alloys: how comparable are in vitro and in vivo corrosion rates? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Sanchez, Adela Helvia; Luthringer, Bérengère J C; Feyerabend, Frank; Willumeit, Regine

    2015-02-01

    Due to their biodegradability, magnesium and magnesium-based alloys could represent the third generation of biomaterials. However, their mechanical properties and time of degradation have to match the needs of applications. Several approaches, such as choice of alloying elements or tailored microstructure, are employed to tailor corrosion behaviour. Due to the high electrochemical activity of Mg, numerous environmental factors (e.g. temperature and surrounding ion composition) influence its corrosion behaviour, making it unpredictable. Nevertheless, the need of reliable in vitro model(s) to predict in vivo implant degradation is increasing. In an attempt to find a correlation between in vitro and vivo corrosion rates, this review presents a systematic literature survey, as well as an attempt to correlate the different results. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Review of the Methods for Production of Spherical Ti and Ti Alloy Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Spherical titanium alloy powder is an important raw material for near-net-shape fabrication via a powder metallurgy (PM) manufacturing route, as well as feedstock for powder injection molding, and additive manufacturing (AM). Nevertheless, the cost of Ti powder including spherical Ti alloy has been a major hurdle that prevented PM Ti from being adopted for a wide range of applications. Especially with the increasing importance of powder-bed based AM technologies, the demand for spherical Ti powder has brought renewed attention on properties and cost, as well as on powder-producing processes. The performance of Ti components manufactured from powder has a strong dependence on the quality of powder, and it is therefore crucial to understand the properties and production methods of powder. This article aims to provide a cursory review of the basic techniques of commercial and emerging methods for making spherical Ti powder. The advantages as well as limitations of different methods are discussed.

  15. Toys in Physics Lectures and Demonstrations--A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemez, J.; Fiolhais, C.; Fiolhais, M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of toys in physics teaching is common. This brief review of the physics of toys intends to show that they are not only very useful in lectures and demonstrations in order to motivate students but also very interesting from a scientific point of view. However, since their physics is sometimes too cumbersome, the effect can be the opposite.…

  16. Physical nature of strain rate sensitivity of metals and alloys at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, E. N.; Gruzdkov, A. A.; Mayer, A. E.; Selyutina, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    The role of instabilities of plastic flow at plastic deformation of various materials is one of the important cross-disciplinary problems which is equally important in physics, mechanics and material science. The strain rate sensitivities under slow and high strain rate conditions of loading have different physical nature. In the case of low strain rate, the sensitivity arising from the inertness of the defect structures evolution can be expressed by a single parameter characterizing the plasticity mechanism. In our approach, this is the value of the characteristic relaxation time. In the dynamic case, there are additional effects of “high-speed sensitivity” associated with the micro-localization of the plastic flow near the stress concentrators. In the frames of mechanical description, this requires to introduce additional strain rate sensitivity parameters, which is realized in numerous modifications of Johnson–Cook and Zerilli–Armstrong models. The consideration of both these factors is fundamental for an adequate description of the problems of dynamic deformation of highly inhomogeneous metallic materials such as steels and alloys. The measurement of the dispersion of particle velocities on the free surface of a shock-loaded material can be regarded as an experimental expression of the effect of micro-localization. This is also confirmed by our results of numerical simulation of the propagation of shock waves in a two-dimensional formulation and analytical estimations.

  17. Influence of structural transition on the electronic structures and physical properties of Ni2MnGa alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Kudryavtsev, Y. V.; Rhee, J. Y.; Lee, N. N.; Lee, Y. P.

    2004-01-01

    Ordered and disordered Ni 2 MnGa alloy films were prepared by flash evaporation onto substrates maintained at 720 K and 150 K, respectively. The results show that the ordered films behave in nearly the same way as the bulk Ni 2 MnGa ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy, including the martensitic transformation at 200 K, while the disordered films exhibit characteristics of amorphous alloys. It was also found that the disordering in Ni 2 MnGa alloy films did not change to any appreciable magnetic ordering down to 4 K. Annealing of the disordered films restores the ordered structure with an almost full recovery of the magnetic, magneto-optical and transport properties of the ordered Ni 2 MnGa alloy films. It was also understood, for the first time, how the structural ordering in the films influences the physical properties, including the surprising loss of ferromagnetism in the disordered films, as a result of performing electronic-structure calculations.

  18. Review of the physical and mechanical properties and potential applications of the B2 compound NiAl: Unabridged version of a paper published in International materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Bowman, Randy R.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable work has been performed on NiAl over the last three decades, with an extremely rapid growth in research on this intermetallic occurring in the last few years due to recent interest in this material for electronic and high temperature structural applications. However, many physical properties and the controlling fracture and deformation mechanisms over certain temperature regimes are still in question. Part of this problem lies in the incomplete characterization of many of the alloys previously investigated. Fragmentary data on processing conditions, chemistry, microstructure and the apparent difficulty in accurately measuring composition has made direct comparison between individual studies sometimes tenuous. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize all available mechanical and pertinent physical properties on NiAl, stressing the most recent investigations, in an attempt to understand the behavior of NiAl and its alloys over a broad temperature range.

  19. A review on shape memory alloys with applications to morphing aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarino, S; Saavedra Flores, E I; Ajaj, R M; Dayyani, I; Friswell, M I

    2014-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a unique class of metallic materials with the ability to recover their original shape at certain characteristic temperatures (shape memory effect), even under high applied loads and large inelastic deformations, or to undergo large strains without plastic deformation or failure (super-elasticity). In this review, we describe the main features of SMAs, their constitutive models and their properties. We also review the fatigue behavior of SMAs and some methods adopted to remove or reduce its undesirable effects. SMAs have been used in a wide variety of applications in different fields. In this review, we focus on the use of shape memory alloys in the context of morphing aircraft, with particular emphasis on variable twist and camber, and also on actuation bandwidth and reduction of power consumption. These applications prove particularly challenging because novel configurations are adopted to maximize integration and effectiveness of SMAs, which play the role of an actuator (using the shape memory effect), often combined with structural, load-carrying capabilities. Iterative and multi-disciplinary modeling is therefore necessary due to the fluid–structure interaction combined with the nonlinear behavior of SMAs. (topical review)

  20. Review of Physics Results from the Tevatron: Top Quark Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Cecilia E.; Vellidis, Costas

    2014-09-17

    We present results on top quark physics from the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron proton anti-proton collider. These include legacy results from Run II that were published or submitted for publication before mid-2014, as well as a summary of Run I results. The historical perspective of the discovery of the top quark in Run I is also described.

  1. Use of low fusing alloy in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, A G; Schneider, R L; Aquilino, S A

    1998-11-01

    Low fusing alloy has been used in dentistry for remount procedures in both fixed and removable prosthodontics, in implant prosthodontics for the fabrication of solid implant casts, in maxillofacial prosthetics as oral radiation shields, and in dental research for its unique properties. Previously, the use of low fusing alloy was thought to offer a high degree of dimensional accuracy. However, multiple in vitro studies have shown that its presumed dimensional accuracy may be questionable. This article reviews the physical properties, metallurgical considerations of low fusing alloy, its applications in dentistry, and a safe, simple method of using low fusing alloy.

  2. Correlates of Physical Activity in Asian Adolescents: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husna Hidayati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is important to prevent several chronic diseases in adulthood. Nowadays, young people do not regularly perform physical activity. Several factors may influence their decision. Most of studies were conducted in western countries. However the findings might not be generalized regarding the differences in culture and social condition. Therefore, reviewing the correlates of physical activity among adolescents in Asian countries is essential. Purpose: To update the state of knowledge on factors associated with adolescents’ physical activity in Asian countries. Methods: Literature review on existing articles retrieved from electronic databases was conducted. The review on factors of physical activity was set based on the setting of study, adolescents as participants of the study and the year of publication ranged from 2002-2011. Result: The findings compiled the evidence of relationships between physical activity and several influencing factors. Intrapersonal factors age, gender, socioeconomic status, parental education, and perceptions related to physical activity- perceived self efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, interpersonal factors (family and peer influences and extra-personal factors (school policy and living arrangement were identified. Self efficacy was manifested as the strongest influencing factor in most studies. This review highlighted the cultural issues on physical activities of adolescents in Asian countries. Conclusion: This paper provided comprehensive knowledge related to factors influencing physical activity in Asian adolescents. The issue of cultural sensitivity should be considered in the future intervention program designed to improve physical activity of adolescents. Keyword: adolescent, physical activity, health Promotion, Asian countries

  3. Physical properties of molten core materials: Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr alloys measured by electrostatic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Yuji, E-mail: ohishi@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Kondo, Toshiki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Ishikawa, Takehiko [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); SOKEN-DAI (Graduate University for Advanced Studies) (Japan); Okada, Junpei T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University (Japan); Watanabe, Yuki [Advanced Engineering Services Co. Ltd. (Japan); Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Yamanaka, Shinsuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    It is important to understand the behaviors of molten core materials to investigate the progression of a core meltdown accident. In the early stages of bundle degradation, low-melting-temperature liquid phases are expected to form via the eutectic reaction between Zircaloy and stainless steel. The main component of Zircaloy is Zr and those of stainless steel are Fe, Ni, and Cr. Our group has previously reported physical property data such as viscosity, density, and surface tension for Zr-Fe liquid alloys using an electrostatic levitation technique. In this study, we report the viscosity, density, and surface tension of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys (Zr{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr{sub 0.77}Cr{sub 0.23}) using the electrostatic levitation technique. - Highlights: • The physical properties of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys have been measured Zr{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr{sub 77}Cr{sub 23}. • The measurement was conducted using the electrostatic levitation technique. • The density, viscosity, and surface tension of each liquid alloy were measured.

  4. Physical properties of molten core materials: Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr alloys measured by electrostatic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yuji; Kondo, Toshiki; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei T.; Watanabe, Yuki; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    It is important to understand the behaviors of molten core materials to investigate the progression of a core meltdown accident. In the early stages of bundle degradation, low-melting-temperature liquid phases are expected to form via the eutectic reaction between Zircaloy and stainless steel. The main component of Zircaloy is Zr and those of stainless steel are Fe, Ni, and Cr. Our group has previously reported physical property data such as viscosity, density, and surface tension for Zr-Fe liquid alloys using an electrostatic levitation technique. In this study, we report the viscosity, density, and surface tension of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys (Zr 1-x Ni x (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr 0.77 Cr 0.23 ) using the electrostatic levitation technique. - Highlights: • The physical properties of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys have been measured Zr 1-x Ni x (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr 77 Cr 23 . • The measurement was conducted using the electrostatic levitation technique. • The density, viscosity, and surface tension of each liquid alloy were measured.

  5. Physical Modeling of Plastic Working Conditions for Rods of 7xxx Series Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyja H.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuing high level of demand for lightweight structural materials is the reason for the ever-growing interest in aluminum alloys. The main areas of application for aluminum alloys products are the aerospace and automotive industries. Production of profiles and structural elements from lightweight alloys gives possibility to reduce the curb weight of construction, which directly translates into among other reduction of fuel consumption and lower amount of generated exhaust gas.

  6. Physical and chemical grounds of electrolytic fabrication of aluminium-strontium alloying composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    It was revealed via study of literature sources that usage of alloying composition of strontium (not of sodium) is more expedient in modification of silumin-type alloys. In this case modification effect is keeping during long holdings and in repeated meltings. Electrolytic decomposition of strontium chloride with usage of liquid aluminium cathode is the most simple and cheap method for fabrication of alloying composition. The operation scheme for production of Al-Sr alloy was proposed in this work on the base of thermodynamic analysis

  7. Dissolution of metallic uranium and its alloys. Part 1. Review of analytical and process-scale metallic uranium dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, C.A.; Gates-Anderson, D.; Fitch, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on dissolution/reaction systems capable of treating uranium metal waste to remove its pyrophoric properties. The primary emphasis is the review of literature describing analytical and production-scale dissolution methods applied to either uranium metal or uranium alloys. A brief summary of uranium's corrosion behavior is included since the corrosion resistance of metals and alloys affects their dissolution behavior. Based on this review, dissolution systems were recommended for subsequent screening studies designed to identify the best system to treat depleted uranium metal wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). (author)

  8. Recent physics at COSY – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physics program performed recently is discussed with emphasis ... can also be stochastically extracted within time bins ranging from 10 s to several ..... In the first step a pion is produced in a nucleon–nucleon interaction while in the.

  9. Laser and electron beam welding of Ti-alloys: Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam, G; Santos, J.F. dos; Kocak, M [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1998-12-31

    The welding of titanium alloys must be conducted in completely inert or vacuum environments due to the strong affinity of titanium to oxygen. Residual stresses in titanium welds can greatly influence the performance of a fabricated aerospace component by degrading fatigue properties. Moreover, distortion can cause difficulties in the final assembly and operation of high-tolerance aerospace systems. Power beam welding processes, namely laser and electron beam welding, offer remarkable advantages over conventional fusion welding processes and have a great potential to produce full-penetration, single-pass autogenous welds with minimal component distortion due to low heat input and high reproducibility of joint quality. Moreover, electron beam welding process, which is conducted in a vacuum chamber, inherently provides better atmospheric protection. Although considerable progress has been made in welding of titanium alloys by power beam processes, there is still a lack of a complete set of mechanical properties data of these joints. Furthermore, the problem of solid-state cracking in fusion welding of {gamma}-TiAl intermetallic alloys due to their low ductility is still to be overcome. The purpose of this literature review is to outline the progress made in this area and to provide basic information for the Brite-Euram project entitled assessment of quality of power beam weld joints ``ASPOW``. (orig.) 31 refs.

  10. New Approaches to the Computer Simulation of Amorphous Alloys: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Ariel A; Díaz-Celaya, Juan A; Galván-Colín, Jonathan; Mejía-Mendoza, Luis M; Reyes-Retana, José A; Valladares, Renela M; Valladares, Alexander; Alvarez-Ramirez, Fernando; Qu, Dongdong; Shen, Jun

    2011-04-13

    In this work we review our new methods to computer generate amorphous atomic topologies of several binary alloys: SiH, SiN, CN; binary systems based on group IV elements like SiC; the GeSe 2 chalcogenide; aluminum-based systems: AlN and AlSi, and the CuZr amorphous alloy. We use an ab initio approach based on density functionals and computationally thermally-randomized periodically-continued cells with at least 108 atoms. The computational thermal process to generate the amorphous alloys is the undermelt-quench approach, or one of its variants, that consists in linearly heating the samples to just below their melting (or liquidus) temperatures, and then linearly cooling them afterwards. These processes are carried out from initial crystalline conditions using short and long time steps. We find that a step four-times the default time step is adequate for most of the simulations. Radial distribution functions (partial and total) are calculated and compared whenever possible with experimental results, and the agreement is very good. For some materials we report studies of the effect of the topological disorder on their electronic and vibrational densities of states and on their optical properties.

  11. The use of titanium alloys for dynamic risers: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torster, F.; Kocak, M.; Santos, J.F. dos [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung; Hutt, G. [Stolt Comex Seaway Ltd., Aberdeen, (Scotland)

    1997-12-31

    The main topic of this short literature review is to describe the material related aspects concerning the production and purpose of flexible titanium risers for offshore oil and gas production. Metallurgy and alloying of titanium are briefly introduced. The review concentrates on the materials properties that are relevant for the intended use in marine environment. The focus is put on {alpha}+{beta} Ti-alloys, because earlier investigations have shown that this alloy family is the most suitable one for this purpose. Further topics which are taken into account are welding processes for titanium, weld properties and aspects of the associated weld defects as well. This literature review has been carried out at GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH within the framework of the project `Titanium Risers for Deepwater Developments (contract nr. OG/175/95), supported by the THERMIE-JOULE Programme of the European Commission. The project consortium is formed by Stolt Comex Seaway Ltd. (UK), Seaflex AS (Norway) and GKSS (Germany). (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende kurze Literaturrecherche befasst sich vorrangig mit den materialbezogenen Aspekten der Produktion und des Einsatzes von flexiblen `Risern` aus Titanlegierungen fuer die Oel- und Gasfoerderung auf See. Die Metallurgie und das Legieren von Titan werden kurz vorgestellt. Die Recherche konzentriert sich im weiteren auf die Materialeigenschaften, die fuer den vorgesehenen Einsatz in mariner Umgebung von besonderer Bedeutung sind. In erster Linie wird dabei auf {alpha}+{beta}-Titanlegierungen eingegangen, da vorausgegangene Untersuchungen gezeigt haben, dass diese Legierungsfamilie die guenstigsten Eigenschaften fuer das vorgesehene Einsatzgebiet aufweist. Im weiteren werden die Schweissprozesse, die bei Titanlegierungen eingesetzt werden, vorgestellt und die Eigenschaften und moeglichen Schweissfehler der hergestellten Schweissverbindungen gegenuebergestellt. Diese Literaturrecherche wurde im GKSS-Forschungszentrum im

  12. Built environmental correlates of physical activity in China: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kristen

    2016-06-01

    China faces growing levels of physical inactivity and obesity, associated with increasing urbanization and changing lifestyles in recent years. China is expanding its cities to accommodate a growing urban population. This paper identifies built environment factors that are associated with physical activity in China. Findings can inform urban design and development in China to support increased physical activity. This paper is modeled on a review of built environment correlates of walking by Saelens and Handy (2008). Saelens and Handy reviewed research in developed countries. The present paper reviews 42 empirical studies that were conducted in China and were published between 2006 and 2014. Results discuss the association of built environment features and physical activity for transportation, recreation and work. Studies focus on adults and on major cities. Data on the built environment is typically self-reported. Strongest evidence was found for the positive association of physical activity with proximal non-residential locations, pedestrian infrastructure, aesthetics, and non-park physical activity facilities, and for the negative association of physical activity with urban residence. In terms of physical activity for transportation, evidence is strongest for associations between physical activity for transportation and proximal non-residential locations. More research is needed on the built environment and physical activity, especially including research on significant features of Chinese cities, such as air pollution, high density levels, traffic safety, and others. Research on associations between built environment features and physical activity should consider the specific social and built environment contexts of Chinese cities.

  13. Review of the expected behaviour of alpha titanium alloys under Yucca Mountain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    2000-03-01

    The use of titanium alloys in two different waste package designs has been reviewed under the, conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In the first design. they are considered as one of three barrier materials incorporated into the waste package design and potentially in galvanic contact with the other two waste package materials, 316L stainless steel and Alloy-22. In the second design the Ti alloy is considered as a drip shield placed over, and not in contact with, a dual wall waste package fabricated from the other two materials. The possible failure processes, crevice corrosion, pitting and hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) have been reviewed for the candidate titanium alloys (Ti-12, Ti-16 and Ti-7). Both pitting and crevice corrosion are very remote possibilities under these conditions. For Ti-12, a limited amount of crevice corrosion is possible but repassivation will occur before substantial damage is sustained. When Ti is considered as part of the triple wall waste package, hydrogen absorption leading to HIC, within an acidified but passive crevice, is the most likely failure mechanism. When the Ti alloy is utilized in the form of a drip shield then hydrogen absorption under potentially alkaline conditions is the major fear. Both Ti-12 and Ti-16 have been shown capable of tolerating substantial amounts of hydrogen (∼400 μ g·g -1 for Ti-12, and > 1000 μg.g -1 for Ti-16) before any effect on the materials fracture toughness is observed. The rate of absorption to a hydrogen content which exceeds these values will be the key feature determining if, or when, the material becomes susceptible to cracking. Once this condition is achieved, whether or not failure occurs will depend on the strength and location of stresses within the structure. For Ti to absorb hydrogen it is inevitably necessary to subject the material to cathodic polarization, either by coupling to a more active material or by the application of galvanic protection

  14. Review of the expected behaviour of alpha titanium alloys under Yucca Mountain conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W

    2000-03-01

    The use of titanium alloys in two different waste package designs has been reviewed under the, conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In the first design. they are considered as one of three barrier materials incorporated into the waste package design and potentially in galvanic contact with the other two waste package materials, 316L stainless steel and Alloy-22. In the second design the Ti alloy is considered as a drip shield placed over, and not in contact with, a dual wall waste package fabricated from the other two materials. The possible failure processes, crevice corrosion, pitting and hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) have been reviewed for the candidate titanium alloys (Ti-12, Ti-16 and Ti-7). Both pitting and crevice corrosion are very remote possibilities under these conditions. For Ti-12, a limited amount of crevice corrosion is possible but repassivation will occur before substantial damage is sustained. When Ti is considered as part of the triple wall waste package, hydrogen absorption leading to HIC, within an acidified but passive crevice, is the most likely failure mechanism. When the Ti alloy is utilized in the form of a drip shield then hydrogen absorption under potentially alkaline conditions is the major fear. Both Ti-12 and Ti-16 have been shown capable of tolerating substantial amounts of hydrogen ({approx}400 {mu} g{center_dot}g{sup -1} for Ti-12, and > 1000 {mu}g.g{sup -1} for Ti-16) before any effect on the materials fracture toughness is observed. The rate of absorption to a hydrogen content which exceeds these values will be the key feature determining if, or when, the material becomes susceptible to cracking. Once this condition is achieved, whether or not failure occurs will depend on the strength and location of stresses within the structure. For Ti to absorb hydrogen it is inevitably necessary to subject the material to cathodic polarization, either by coupling to a more active material or by the

  15. Review of lattice results concerning low energy particle physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Sinya; Aoki, Yasumichi; Bernard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f+(0), arising in semileptonic K -> pi transition...... Theory and review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing. The inclusion of heavy-quark quantities significantly expands the FLAG scope with respect to the previous review. Therefore, for this review, we focus on D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters...

  16. Book Review: Physics of the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1998-01-01

    Space physics, narrowly defined as the study of Earth's plasma environment, has had an identity crisis throughout its relatively brief existence as a discipline. - The limited and often serendipitous nature of the data requires the research style of an astrophysicist. However, the in situ observations and instrumentation that are central to the field are quite different from the remote observations and instrumentation of astronomy. Compared to neutral gases, the wealth of additional phenomena and the complexity associated with magnetized plasmas and their interaction leaves little in common with the atmospheric scientist. Although the phenomena studied in space physics are ultimately important to astrophysics, the intimate measurements of plasma properties provide a greater commonality with the plasma physicist. Space physics has experienced something of a renaissance in the past few years. The interdisciplinary umbrella "Solar-Terrestrial Physics" or "Sun-Earth Connection" has stimulated an increasing interaction of space physicists, solar physicists and atmospheric scientists. Spectacular images of the Sun from Yohkoh and SOHO and solar-activity-related damage to communications satellites have increased the public's awareness of and interest in "space weather". The dangers of energetic particles and currents in space to technological systems and to future space exploration have elevated space physics observations from interesting scientific measurements that can be included on a space probe to critically important measurements that must be made.

  17. A Unified Physical Model for Creep and Hot Working of Al-Mg Solid Solution Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Spigarelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of the dependence of steady-state creep rate on applied stress and temperature is almost invariably based on the Norton equation or on derived power-law relationships. In hot working, the Norton equation does not work, and is therefore usually replaced with the Garofalo (sinh equation. Both of these equations are phenomenological in nature and can be seldom unambiguously related to microstructural parameters, such as dislocation density, although early efforts in this sense led to the introduction of the “natural power law” with exponent 3. In an attempt to overcome this deficiency, a recent model with sound physical basis has been successfully used to describe the creep response of fcc metals, such as copper. The main advantage of this model is that it does not require any data fitting to predict the strain rate dependence on applied stress and temperature, which is a particularly attractive peculiarity when studying the hot workability of metals. Thus, the model, properly modified to take into account solid solution strengthening effects, has been here applied to the study of the creep and hot-working of simple Al-Mg single phase alloys. The model demonstrated an excellent accuracy in describing both creep and hot working regimes, still maintaining its most important feature, that is, it does not require any fitting of the experimental data.

  18. DIAGRAM OF STATE AND PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ALLOYS OF SYSTEM Ni-Cu-Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju. A. Ageev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that nickel-copper-magnesium alloys, the compositions of which lie above isobar 1,67 atm, must dissolve in cast iron with pyroeffect and with lower assimilation of magnesium than alloys, the compositions of which lie below indicated isobar.

  19. Review of $k^\\pm$ physics

    CERN Document Server

    Barnham, Keith W J

    1979-01-01

    Some of the topics on K/sup +or-/p physics are discussed. The application of quark-parton model ideas to low-p/sub T/ hadronic interactions appears to be a fruitful approach. In particular two- particle correlations place stringent restrictions on the possible dynamical mechanisms. The presence of a strange quark in K/sup +or-/p interactions greatly extends the possible tests. Inclusive resonance production is also discussed. Mention is also made of the use of bubble chamber data as a standard of known physics with which to compare any new effects. (15 refs).

  20. A review of two photon physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.

    1982-08-01

    This talk is intended as an introduction for those not yet expert in two-photon physics, especially those e + e - one-photon physicists who still think of two-photon events as background. I concentrate on the physics questions involved, especially emphasizing the areas where I feel progress can be made in the near future, and of necessity leaving most experimental details to be found in the references. After a quick survey of the field and a few words about kinematics, I discuss in detail two major fields: the photon structure function and resonance production. (orig.)

  1. Physically based multiscale-viscoplastic model for metals and steel alloys: Theory and computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Farid H.

    The main requirement of large deformation problems such as high-speed machining, impact, and various primarily metal forming, is to develop constitutive relations which are widely applicable and capable of accounting for complex paths of deformation. Achieving such desirable goals for material like metals and steel alloys involves a comprehensive study of their microstructures and experimental observations under different loading conditions. In general, metal structures display a strong rate- and temperature-dependence when deformed non-uniformly into the inelastic range. This effect has important implications for an increasing number of applications in structural and engineering mechanics. The mechanical behavior of these applications cannot be characterized by classical (rate-independent) continuum theories because they incorporate no 'material length scales'. It is therefore necessary to develop a rate-dependent (viscoplasticity) continuum theory bridging the gap between the classical continuum theories and the microstructure simulations. Physically based vicoplasticity models for different types of metals (body centered cubic, face centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed) and steel alloys are derived in this work for this purpose. We adopt a multi-scale, hierarchical thermodynamic consistent framework to construct the material constitutive relations for the rate-dependent behavior. The concept of thermal activation energy, dislocations interactions mechanisms and the role of dislocations dynamics in crystals are used in the derivation process taking into consideration the contribution of the plastic strain evolution of dislocation density to the flow stress of polycrystalline metals. Material length scales are implicitly introduced into the governing equations through material rate-dependency (viscosity). The proposed framework is implemented into the commercially well-known finite element software ABAQUS. The finite element simulations of material

  2. Trails and physical activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Heather A; Troped, Philip J; Klenosky, David B; Doehring, Angela M

    2011-11-01

    To provide a synthesis of research on trails and physical activity from the public health, leisure sciences, urban planning, and transportation literatures. A search of databases was conducted to identify studies published between 1980 and 2008. 52 studies were identified. The majority were cross-sectional (92%) and published after 1999 (77%). The evidence for the effects of trails on physical activity was mixed among 3 intervention and 5 correlational studies. Correlates of trail use were examined in 13 studies. Several demographic (eg, race, education, income) and environmental factors (eg, land-use mix and distance to trail) were related to trail use. Evidence from 31 descriptive studies identified several facilitators and barriers to trail use. Economic studies (n = 5) examining trails in terms of health or recreational outcomes found trails are cost-effective and produce significant economic benefits. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating important factors that should be considered in promoting trail use, yet the evidence for positive effects of trails on physical activity is limited. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of trails on physical activity. In addition, trail studies that include children and youth, older adults, and racial and ethnic minorities are a research priority.

  3. Physical activity in advanced cancer patients: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sonya S; Tan, Maria; Faily, Joan; Watanabe, Sharon M; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-03-11

    Progressive, incurable cancer is associated with increased fatigue, increased muscle weakness, and reduced physical functioning, all of which negatively impact quality of life. Physical activity has demonstrated benefits on cancer-related fatigue and physical functioning in early-stage cancer patients; however, its impact on these outcomes in end-stage cancer has not been established. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the potential benefits, harms, and effects of physical activity interventions on quality of life outcomes in advanced cancer patients. A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on physical activity in advanced cancer patients will be undertaken. Empirical quantitative studies will be considered for inclusion if they present interventional or observational data on physical activity in advanced cancer patients. Searches will be conducted in the following electronic databases: CINAHL; CIRRIE Database of International Rehabilitation Research; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); EMBASE; MEDLINE; PEDro: the Physiotherapy Evidence Database; PQDT; PsycInfo; PubMed; REHABDATA; Scopus; SPORTDiscus; and Web of Science, to identify relevant studies of interest. Additional strategies to identify relevant studies will include citation searches and evaluation of reference lists of included articles. Titles, abstracts, and keywords of identified studies from the search strategies will be screened for inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers will conduct quality appraisal using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (EPHPP) and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A descriptive summary of included studies will describe the study designs, participant and activity characteristics, and objective and patient-reported outcomes. This systematic review will summarize the current

  4. Review of Physics Results from the Tevatron: Higgs Boson Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junk, Thomas R.; Juste, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    We review the techniques and results of the searches for the Higgs boson performed by the two Tevatron collaborations, CDF and DO. The Higgs boson predicted by the Standard Model was sought in the mass range 90 GeV

  5. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Sinya; Aoki, Yasumichi; Bečirević, D.

    2017-01-01

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle-physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f+(0) , arising in the semileptonic K→ π transition...... review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing as well as the additional four B parameters that arise in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. The latter quantities are an addition compared to the previous review. For the heavy-quark sector, we provide results for mc and mb...... (also new compared to the previous review), as well as those for D- and B-meson-decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters. These are the heavy-quark quantities most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. Finally, we review the status...

  6. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, K.J.

    1993-08-01

    This document is the annual review of the Argonne National Laboratory Physics Division for the period April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993. Work on the ATLAS device is covered, as well as work on a number of others in lab, as well as collaborative projects. Heavy ion nuclear physics research looked at quasi-elastic, and deep-inelastic reactions, cluster states, superdeformed nuclei, and nuclear shape effects. There were programs on accelerator mass spectroscopy, and accelerator and linac development. There were efforts in medium energy nuclear physics, weak interactions, theoretical nuclear and atomic physics, and experimental atomic and molecular physics based on accelerators and synchrotron radiation

  7. Cosmology and particle physics: A general review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmology today does not stop at t = 1 s. Indeed, ''reasonable'' statements begin at the Planck epoch or when t ≅ 10/sup -44/s. In this review, the author attempts to highlight the current understanding of the various stages in the evolution of the universe from -- 10/sup -4/s to the period of galaxy formation at t≅10/sup 5/ years. He tries to follow a chronological order for the discussion and begins with the Planck epoch. In the section entitled INFLATION, discusses the inflationary epoch. In the section, GUTs and COSMOLOGY, he reviews the present status of big bang baryosynthesis, i.e., the origin of the apparent slight excess of baryons over antibaryons. This is perhaps the third most reliable piece of evidence indicating a hot big bang. He also reviews the present status of big bang nucleosynthesis and discuss why he feels it is one of the greatest successes of the standard big bang model. Finally, in the last section, he reviews the present role of particles in the universe; that is, their effects on galaxy formation and constraints from present observations that can be placed on particle properties

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, P. J.

    2007-02-01

    The widespread importance of plasmas in many areas of contemporary physics makes good textbooks in the field that are both introductory and comprehensive invaluable. This new book by Paul Bellen from CalTech by and large meets these goals. It covers the traditional textbook topics such as particle orbits, the derivation of the MHD equations from Vlasov theory, cold and warm plasma waves, Landau damping, as well as in the later chapters less common subjects such as magnetic helicity, nonlinear processes and dusty plasmas. The book is clearly written, neatly presented, and each chapter has a number of exercises or problems at their end. The author has also thankfully steered clear of the pitfall of filling the book with his own research results. The preface notes that the book is designed to provide an introduction to plasma physics for final year undergraduate and post-graduate students. However, it is difficult to see many physics undergraduates now at UK universities getting to grips with much of the content since their mathematics is not of a high enough standard. Students in Applied Mathematics departments would certainly fare better. An additional problem for the beginner is that some of the chapters do not lead the reader gently into a subject, but begin with quite advanced concepts. Being a multi-disciplinary subject, beginners tend to find plasma physics quite hard enough even when done simply. For postgraduate students these criticisms fade away and this book provides an excellent introduction. More senior researchers should also enjoy the book, especially Chapters 11-17 where more advanced topics are discussed. I found myself continually comparing the book with my favourite text for many years, `The Physics of Plasmas' by T J M Boyd and J J Sanderson, reissued by Cambridge University Press in 2003. Researchers would want both books on their shelves, both for the different ways basic plasma physics is covered, and the diversity of more advanced topics. For

  9. School Culture and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickwood, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This review examines literature on aspects of school culture and students' physical activity participation. The following questions were addressed: (1) what aspects of school culture have been examined in relation to physical activity, (2) what is the weight of evidence concerning the relationships between school culture factors and physical…

  10. Integration and Physical Education: A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttinen, Risto Harri Juhani; McLoughlin, Gabriella; Fredrick, Ray, III; Novak, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative has placed an increased focus on mathematics and English language arts. A relationship between physical activity and academic achievement is evident, but research on integration of academic subjects with physical education is still unclear. This literature review examined databases for the years…

  11. 78 FR 25309 - Proposal Review Panel Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with..., 2013 8:30 a.m.-6:30 p.m. May 15, 2013 8:30 a.m.-6:00 p.m. Place: University of Maryland, College Park... Physics Frontier Center; National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230. Telephone...

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Physics, 3rd edn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, David

    1999-09-01

    The number of broadly based physics texts written at a level corresponding to second year and above of UK physics degrees is limited. This is such a book thoroughly updated in a third edition, the first edition having been published 20 years ago. The book is unusual in that the reader is referred to the Freeman website www.whfreeman.com/physics for some additional sections. It will be interesting to see whether this proves to be an attractive feature. The coverage reflects the US emphasis on topics and contains both theoretical and experimental details. It should not be regarded as an introductory text although it is clearly written. Thus the first two chapters take the reader straight into relativity, concentrating mainly on special relativity but going on to general relativity. From here the reader is led to ideas of quantization of charge, light and energy, followed by an exploration of the nuclear atom, wavelike properties of particles and Schrödinger's equation. Solution of this equation for the hydrogen atom introduces a section on spectroscopy. The next chapter on statistical physics includes Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics and brings to a close Part 1, which concentrates on the theoretical groundwork. Consistent with its title, the book does not cover traditional aspects of thermodynamics and electromagnetic theory. Part 2 is entitled `Applications' and begins with a chapter on molecular structure and spectra. Lasers and masers are included here but geometrical, physical and nonlinear optics get limited or no coverage. Solid state physics follows but, despite the title of the book, there is little on modern devices, although the section on superconductivity mentions high temperature materials. The chapters on nuclear physics, fission, fusion reactors and medical applications and a chapter on particle physics are comprehensive. Finally a chapter on astrophysics and cosmology is referred to, but the reader must find this at the website. As this is

  13. Reviews on Physically Based Controllable Fluid Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzanu Kanongchaiyos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In computer graphics animation, animation tools are required for fluid-like motions which are controllable by users or animator, since applying the techniques to commercial animations such as advertisement and film. Many developments have been proposed to model controllable fluid simulation with the need in realistic motion, robustness, adaptation, and support more required control model. Physically based models for different states of substances have been applied in general in order to permit animators to almost effortlessly create interesting, realistic, and sensible animation of natural phenomena such as water flow, smoke spread, etc. In this paper, we introduce the methods for simulation based on physical model and the techniques for control the flow of fluid, especially focus on particle based method. We then discuss the existing control methods within three performances; control ability, realism, and computation time. Finally, we give a brief of the current and trend of the research areas.

  14. Correlates of Physical Activity in Asian Adolescents: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayati, Husna; Hatthakit, Urai; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is important to prevent several chronic diseases in adulthood. Nowadays, young people do not regularly perform physical activity. Several factors may influence their decision. Most of studies were conducted in western countries. However the findings might not be generalized regarding the differences in culture and social condition. Therefore, reviewing the correlates of physical activity among adolescents in Asian countries is essential. Purpose: To update the st...

  15. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Quyen G; Chen, Ted T L; Magnussen, Costan G; To, Kien G

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of workplace interventions in improving physical activity. EBSCO research database (and all subdatabases). Articles were published from 2000 to 2010 in English, had appropriate designs, and measured employees' physical activity, energy consumption, and/or body mass index (BMI) as primary outcomes. Articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. Data extracted included study design, study population, duration, intervention activities, outcomes, and results. Data were synthesized into one table. Results of each relevant outcome including p values were combined. Twelve (60%) of 20 selected interventions reported an improvement in physical activity level, steps, or BMI, and there was one slowed step reduction in the intervention group. Among these, 10 were less than 6 months in duration; 9 used pedometers; 6 applied Internet-based approaches; and 5 included activities targeting social and environmental levels. Seven of 8 interventions with pre-posttest and quasi-experimental controlled design showed improvement on at least one outcome. However, 7 of 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not prove effective in any outcome. Interventions that had less rigorous research designs, used pedometers, applied Internet-based approaches, and included activities at social and environmental levels were more likely to report being effective than those without these characteristics.

  16. 76 FR 8381 - Proposal Review for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Proposal Review for the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in...

  17. Physical Properties Of Some Pd-Au-Ag Ternary Alloys: A Md Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, G.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical properties of palladium (Pd), gold (Au) and silver (Ag) and their ternary alloys in the following concentrations (Au 5 0Ag 2 5Pd 2 5, Au 4 0Ag 2 0Pd 4 0) are studied by using by using molecular dynamics with Quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC) potential. Cell constants, densities, enthalpies, elastic constants and heat capacities are investigated. Calculations are performed in the solid phase. Rafii-Tabar combination rules are used and it is showed that these combination rules are valid for ternary alloys also. Additionally, temperature dependence of mechanical properties of alloys are investigated.

  18. Review of DREV uranium research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, J.P.; Erickson, W.H.; Tardif, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents a brief review of the DREV uranium research carried out on various aspects of the physical metallurgy of depleted uranium alloys. It includes (1) a survey of the early work on polynary alloys, (2) recent metallurgical investigations on various alloy systems and (3) miscellaneous studies on grain size refinement, grain growth, powder metallurgy, pyrophoricity and directional casting of uranium alloys. A general summary of most of the studies carried out during the last ten years is also presented

  19. Correlates associated with participation in physical activity among adults: a systematic review of reviews and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Choi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding which factors influence participation in physical activity is important to improve the public health. The aim of the present review of reviews was to summarize and present updated evidence on personal and environmental factors associated with physical activity. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for reviews published up to 31 Jan. 2017 reporting on potential factors of physical activity in adults aged over 18 years. The quality of each review was appraised with the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR checklist. The corrected covered area (CCA was calculated as a measure of overlap for the primary publications in each review. Results Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria which reviewed 90 personal and 27 environmental factors. The average quality of the studies was moderate, and the CCA ranged from 0 to 4.3%. For personal factors, self-efficacy was shown as the strongest factor for participation in physical activity (7 out of 9. Intention to exercise, outcome expectation, perceived behavioral control and perceived fitness were positively associated with physical activity in more than 3 reviews, while age and bad status of health or fitness were negatively associated with participation in physical activity in more than 3 reviews. For environmental factors, accessibility to facilities, presence of sidewalks, and aesthetics were positively associated with participation in physical activity. Conclusions The findings of this review of reviews suggest that some personal and environmental factors were related with participation in physical activity. However, an association of various factors with physical activity could not be established because of the lack of primary studies to build up the organized evidence. More studies with a prospective design should be conducted to understand the potential causes for physical activity.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Physics in One Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, David

    2004-05-01

    To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted pecularities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic---spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assumimg little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a refreshingly

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Physics in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Jim

    2000-05-01

    after stirring? I have a sense of déjà vu with this last question as it and others in this book were also discussed in the brilliantly written and illustrated volume Riddles in your Teacup, published by the Institute of Physics a few years ago. Miscellaneous. This section deals with topics such as quartz halogen lamps, degreening oranges, free-fall phenomena and a discussion on the origins of the terms `physics' and `physicist'. The concluding section is devoted exclusively to Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer and Santa Claus. It is clearly intended to convince readers that Physics is (still) Fun!

  2. Physical activity associate low back pain and intervention program: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhamad Aizat Mat; Hasbollah, Hasif Rafidee; Ibrahim, Mohd Asrul Hery; Marican, Nor Dalila; Halim, Muhd Hafzal Abdul; Rashid, Ahmad Faezi Ab.; Yasin, Nurul Hafizah Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The person who have low back pain often report impaired disability to performance daily activities which passive movement of daily life. The effects of low back pain on daily function of patients can describe as a patients level of disability or reduction in physical function it interferes with the movement of patients for running a daily lives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a review to examine the relationship between physical activity and low back pain. Besides that, the suggestion prevention program to patient who has low back pain. This systematic review study was used internet to find databases and search engines. Data were collected using Wiley online library, Bioline International, SAGE, Science Direct, NCBI, ProQuest, Biomed central, American Diabetes Association, PLOS One and Springer. The search was performed using keywords of "physical activity", "low back pain", "back pain", "activity level" and "intervention". The study was reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different section The results were classified based on several sections including years of reporting, who were reporting, the origins of articles and their health criteria about physical activity and low back pain. There are positive associate physical activity and low back pain from the systematic review. Future intervention treatment can reduce associate physical activity to low back pain.

  3. Environmental correlates of physical activity and dietary behaviours among young people: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, E; de Ridder, D T D; de Wit, J B F

    2011-05-01

    An extensive body of research exists on environmental influences on weight-related behaviours in young people. Existing reviews aimed to synthesize this body of work, but generally focused on specific samples, behaviours or environmental influences and integration of findings is lacking. Hereto, we reviewed 18 reviews representing 671 unique studies, aiming to identify what environmental factors do and do not affect physical activity and dietary behaviours in children and adolescents. Eleven reviews focused exclusively on physical activity, six on diet, and one review focused on both physical activity and dietary behaviours with only small overlap in included studies. Physical activity was more consistently related to school and neighbourhood characteristics than to interpersonal and societal environments. In contrast, interpersonal factors played a pronounced role in dietary behaviours; no school, neighbourhood or societal factors were consistently related to dietary behaviours. This review of reviews adds to the literature by providing a comprehensive synthesis of factors related to physical activity and dietary behaviours that could be targeted in interventions. Moreover, by identifying factors that are unrelated to physical activity and dietary behaviours, this review may help to narrow the scope of future studies and environmental interventions. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. A brief review of cavity swelling and hardening in irradiated copper and copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The literature on radiation-induced swelling and hardening in copper and its alloy is reviewed. Void formation does not occur during irradiation of copper unless suitable impurity atoms such as oxygen or helium are present. Void formation occurs for neutron irradiation temperatures of 180 to 550 degree C, with peak swelling occurring at ∼320 degree C for irradiation at a damage rate of 2 x 10 -7 dpa/s. The post-transient swelling rate has been measured to be ∼0.5%/dpa at temperatures near 400 degree C. Dispersion-strengthened copper has been found to be very resistant to void swelling due to the high sink density associated with the dispersion-stabilized dislocation structure. Irradiation of copper at temperatures below 400 degree C generally causes an increase in strength due to the formation of defect clusters which inhibit dislocation motion. The radiation hardening can be adequately described by Seeger's dispersed barrier model, with a barrier strength for small defect clusters of α ∼ 0.2. The radiation hardening apparently saturates for fluences greater than ∼10 24 n/m 2 during irradiation at room temperature due to a saturation of the defect cluster density. Grain boundaries can modify the hardening behavior by blocking the transmission of dislocation slip bands, leading to a radiation- modified Hall-Petch relation between yield strength and grain size. Radiation-enhanced recrystallization can lead to softening of cold-worked copper alloys at temperatures above 300 degree C

  5. Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Mark J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lonsdale, Chris; White, Rhiannon L; Lubans, David R

    2014-11-01

    Evidence suggests that physical self-concept is associated with physical activity in children and adolescents, but no systematic review of this literature has been conducted. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the strength of associations between physical activity and physical self-concept (general and sub-domains) in children and adolescents. The secondary aim was to examine potential moderators of the association between physical activity and physical self-concept. A systematic search of six electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC, Web of Science and Scopus) with no date restrictions was conducted. Random effects meta-analyses with correction for measurement were employed. The associations between physical activity and general physical self-concept and sub-domains were explored. A risk of bias assessment was conducted by two reviewers. The search identified 64 studies to be included in the meta-analysis. Thirty-three studies addressed multiple outcomes of general physical self-concept: 28 studies examined general physical self-concept, 59 examined perceived competence, 25 examined perceived fitness, and 55 examined perceived appearance. Perceived competence was most strongly associated with physical activity (r = 0.30, 95% CI 0.24-0.35, p self-concept (r = 0.25, 95% CI 0.16-0.34, p self-concept (p self-concept and its various sub-domains in children and adolescents. Age and sex are key moderators of the association between physical activity and physical self-concept.

  6. Some applications of mathematics in theoretical physics - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora, Kalpana [Physics Department, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam (India)

    2016-06-21

    Mathematics is a very beautiful subject−very much an indispensible tool for Physics, more so for Theoretical Physics (by which we mean here mainly Field Theory and High Energy Physics). These branches of Physics are based on Quantum Mechanics and Special Theory of Relativity, and many mathematical concepts are used in them. In this work, we shall elucidate upon only some of them, like−differential geometry, infinite series, Mellin transforms, Fourier and integral transforms, special functions, calculus, complex algebra, topology, group theory, Riemannian geometry, functional analysis, linear algebra, operator algebra, etc. We shall also present, some physics issues, where these mathematical tools are used. It is not wrong to say that Mathematics is such a powerful tool, without which, there can not be any Physics theory!! A brief review on our research work is also presented.

  7. Some applications of mathematics in theoretical physics - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kalpana

    2016-06-01

    Mathematics is a very beautiful subject-very much an indispensible tool for Physics, more so for Theoretical Physics (by which we mean here mainly Field Theory and High Energy Physics). These branches of Physics are based on Quantum Mechanics and Special Theory of Relativity, and many mathematical concepts are used in them. In this work, we shall elucidate upon only some of them, like-differential geometry, infinite series, Mellin transforms, Fourier and integral transforms, special functions, calculus, complex algebra, topology, group theory, Riemannian geometry, functional analysis, linear algebra, operator algebra, etc. We shall also present, some physics issues, where these mathematical tools are used. It is not wrong to say that Mathematics is such a powerful tool, without which, there can not be any Physics theory!! A brief review on our research work is also presented.

  8. Some applications of mathematics in theoretical physics - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is a very beautiful subject−very much an indispensible tool for Physics, more so for Theoretical Physics (by which we mean here mainly Field Theory and High Energy Physics). These branches of Physics are based on Quantum Mechanics and Special Theory of Relativity, and many mathematical concepts are used in them. In this work, we shall elucidate upon only some of them, like−differential geometry, infinite series, Mellin transforms, Fourier and integral transforms, special functions, calculus, complex algebra, topology, group theory, Riemannian geometry, functional analysis, linear algebra, operator algebra, etc. We shall also present, some physics issues, where these mathematical tools are used. It is not wrong to say that Mathematics is such a powerful tool, without which, there can not be any Physics theory!! A brief review on our research work is also presented.

  9. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Astrophysics (Advanced Physics Readers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2000-07-01

    Here is a handy and attractive reader to support students on post-16 courses. It covers the astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology that are demanded at A-level and offers anyone interested in these fields an interesting and engaging reference book. The author and the production team deserve credit for producing such an attractive book. The content, in ten chapters, covers what one would expect at this level but it is how it is presented that struck me as the book's most powerful asset. Each chapter ends with a summary of key ideas. Line drawings are clear and convey enough information to make them more than illustrations - they are as valuable as the text in conveying information. Full colour is used throughout to enhance illustrations and tables and to lift key sections of the text. A number of colour photographs complement the material and serve to maintain interest and remind readers that astrophysics is about real observable phenomena. Included towards the end is a set of tables offering information on physical and astronomical data, mathematical techniques and constellation names and abbreviations. This last table puzzled me as to its value. There is a helpful bibliography which includes society contacts and a website related to the text. Perhaps my one regret is that there is no section where students are encouraged to actually do some real astronomy. Astrophysics is in danger of becoming an armchair and calculator interest. There are practical projects that students could undertake either for school assessment or for personal interest. Simple astrophotography to capture star trails, observe star colours and estimate apparent magnitudes is an example, as is a simple double-star search. There are dozens more. However, the author's style is friendly and collaborative. He befriends the reader as they journey together through the ideas. There are progress questions at the end of each chapter. Their style tends to be rather closed and they emphasize factual recall

  11. Tribochemical Characterization and Tribocorrosive Behavior of CoCrMo Alloys: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Quan; Tan, Xipeng; Bhowmik, Ayan; Liu, Erjia; Tor, Shu Beng

    2017-12-26

    Orthopedic implants first started out as an all-metal hip joint replacement. However, poor design and machinability as well as unsatisfactory surface finish subjected the all-metal joint replacement to being superseded by a polyethylene bearing. Continued improvement in manufacturing techniques together with the reality that polyethylene wear debris can cause hazardous reactions in the human body has brought about the revival of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints in recent years. This has also led to a relatively new research area that links tribology and corrosion together. This article aims at reviewing the commonly used tribochemical methods adopted in the analysis of tribocorrosion and putting forward some of the models and environmental factors affecting the tribocorrosive behavior of CoCrMo alloys, a widely-used class of biomaterial for orthopedic implants.

  12. Tribochemical Characterization and Tribocorrosive Behavior of CoCrMo Alloys: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Quan Toh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic implants first started out as an all-metal hip joint replacement. However, poor design and machinability as well as unsatisfactory surface finish subjected the all-metal joint replacement to being superseded by a polyethylene bearing. Continued improvement in manufacturing techniques together with the reality that polyethylene wear debris can cause hazardous reactions in the human body has brought about the revival of metal-on-metal (MOM hip joints in recent years. This has also led to a relatively new research area that links tribology and corrosion together. This article aims at reviewing the commonly used tribochemical methods adopted in the analysis of tribocorrosion and putting forward some of the models and environmental factors affecting the tribocorrosive behavior of CoCrMo alloys, a widely-used class of biomaterial for orthopedic implants.

  13. [Are Interventions Promoting Physical Activity Cost-Effective? A Systematic Review of Reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionut; Schätzlein, Valentin; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-03-01

    On the basis of international published reviews, this systematic review aims to determine the health economic benefits of interventions promoting physical activity.This review of reviews is based on a systematic literature research in 10 databases (e. g. PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus) supplemented by hand searches from January 2000 to October 2015. Publications were considered in the English or German language only. Results of identified reviews were derived.In total, 18 reviews were identified that could be attributed to interventions promoting physical activity (2 reviews focusing on population-based physical activity interventions, 10 reviews on individual-based and 6 reviews on both population-based and individual-based physical activity interventions). Results showed that population-based physical activity interventions are of great health economic potential if reaching a wider population at comparably low costs. Outstanding are political and environmental strategies, as well as interventions supporting behavioural change through information. The most comprehensive documentation for interventions promoting physical activity could be found for individual-based strategies (i. e. exercise advice or exercise programs). However, such programs are comparatively less cost-effective due to limited reach and higher utilization of resources.The present study provides an extensive review and analysis of the current international state of research regarding the health economic evaluation of interventions promoting physical activity. Results show favourable cost-effectiveness for interventions promoting physical activity, though significant differences in the effectiveness between various interventions were noticed. The greatest potential for cost-effectiveness can be seen in population-based interventions. At the same time, there is a need to acknowledge the limitations of the economic evidence in this field which are attributable to methodological challenges and

  14. Dynamic restoration mechanism and physically based constitutive model of 2050 Al–Li alloy during hot compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ruihua; Liu, Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Jinfeng, E-mail: lijinfeng@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xiang, Sheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen, Yonglai; Zhang, Xuhu [Aerospace Research Institute of Materials and Processing Technology, Beijing 100076 (China)

    2015-11-25

    Dynamic restoration mechanism of 2050 Al–Li alloy and its constitutive model were investigated by means of hot compression simulation in the deformation temperature ranging from 340 to 500 °C and at strain rates of 0.001–10 s{sup −1}. The microstructures of the compressed samples were observed using optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. On the base of dislocation density theory and Avrami kinetics, a physically based constitutive model was established. The results show that dynamic recovery (DRV) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) are co-responsible for the dynamic restoration during the hot compression process under all compression conditions. The dynamic precipitation (DPN) of T1 and σ phases was observed after the deformation at 340 °C. This is the first experimental evidence for the DPN of σ phase in Al–Cu–Li alloys. The particle stimulated nucleation of DRX (PSN-DRX) due to the large Al–Cu–Mn particle was also observed. The error analysis suggests that the established constitutive model can adequately describe the flow stress dependence on strain rate, temperature and strain during the hot deformation process. - Highlights: • The experimental evidence for the DPN of σ phase in Al–Cu–Li alloys was found. • The PSN-DRX due to the large Al–Cu–Mn particle was observed. • A novel method was proposed to calculated the stress multiplier α.

  15. Dog Ownership and Physical Activity: A Review of the Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Hayley E; Westgarth, Carri; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Ryan E; Evenson, Kelly R; Mayer, Joni A; Thorpe, Roland J, Jr

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dog walking is a strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity (PA). Numerous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between dog ownership and PA have been conducted. The purpose was to review studies comparing PA of dog owners (DO) to non-dog owners (NDO), summarize the prevalence of dog walking, and provide recommendations for research. Methods: A review of published studies (1990-2010) examining DO and NDO PA and the prevalence of dog walking was ...

  16. Review on structural fatigue of NiTi shape memory alloys: Pure mechanical and thermo-mechanical ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Kang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Structural fatigue of NiTi shape memory alloys is a key issue that should be solved in order to promote their engineering applications and utilize their unique shape memory effect and super-elasticity more sufficiently. In this paper, the latest progresses made in experimental and theoretical analyses for the structural fatigue features of NiTi shape memory alloys are reviewed. First, macroscopic experimental observations to the pure mechanical and thermo-mechanical fatigue features of the alloys are summarized; then the state-of-arts in the mechanism analysis of fatigue rupture are addressed; further, advances in the construction of fatigue failure models are provided; finally, summary and future topics are outlined.

  17. Physical activity practiced by incarcerated women: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Merino, Nagore; Martín-González, Nerian; Usabiaga, Oidui; Martos-Garcia, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Our aim doing this systematic review was to identify and analyze studies about women prison inmates' engagement in sport and physical activities (SPAs). The review was conducted in three areas - SPAs, prison and women - and based on information obtained from different databases. Through a selection process, we singled out 33 empirical and review studies, the quality of which was analyzed. From our analysis, we learn that the benefits women prison inmates derive from SPAs are considerable, although they also reveal that obstacles exist to be overcome if their levels of participation are to rise.

  18. Physical simulation method for the investigation of weld seam formation during the extrusion of aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, G; Zhou, J.

    2017-01-01

    Extrusion through the porthole die is a predominant forming process used in the production of hollow aluminum alloy profiles across the aluminum extrusion industry. Longitudinal weld seams formed during the process may negatively influence the quality of extruded profiles. It is therefore of

  19. A Review of Swimming Cues and Tips for Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Kelsey; Barney, David

    2016-01-01

    Swimming is a low-impact activity that causes little stress on joints so it can be done for a lifetime. Many teachers may wish to teach swimming but do not have cues or ideas for doing so. This article reviews swimming cues, relays and equipment that can help a physical education teacher include a swimming unit in their curriculum. Certification…

  20. Physical processes in the Gulf of Kachchh: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.

    A brief review of various physical processes acting in the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK), which have prominent roles in Gulf dynamics, is presented in this article. The eddies present in the GoK confirm that they are permanent features of the Go...

  1. Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

  2. Paroxetine for Somatic Pain Associated With Physical Illness: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Masand, Prakash S.; Narasimhan, Meera; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the prevalence of somatic pain with and without depression or anxiety and the pharmacologic effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine on pain in physical conditions with and without comorbid depression or anxiety.

  3. 76 FR 19147 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting. Name: LIGO Laboratory Annual Review at Livingston Observatory for Physics...: Partially Closed. Contact Person: Thomas Carruthers, Program Director, Division of Physics, National Science...

  4. 78 FR 16301 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting. Name: LIGO Annual Review Site Visit at Hanford Observatory for Physics... Physics, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA (703) 292-4432. [[Page 16302

  5. Review of the early AP penetrator work at LASL which led to the selection of U-3/4 Ti alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A historical review is presented of the depleted uranium penetrator work. The following alloys were studied: U--Ti, U--Mo, U--Nb, and U--Nb--Ti. Ballistic properties, armor penetration, and corrosion resistance were studied. The U--Ti alloy was found to offer the best combination of properties. 12 figures

  6. Discussion of gender in Physical Education classes: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara da Rocha Matos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify through systematic review the implications of the possible participation or / non-participation of girls in physical education classes. It is a systematic literature review conducted in CAPES Journal Portal databases and Lilacs, and in scientific journals Motrivivência and Physical Education Magazine. Initially it found a total of 260 articles, analyzed which have been titles, abstracts, and later the full article, only 07 being selected articles. Therefore,  us articles selected there is a strong built influence historically and rooted in society about girls' participation in physical education classes, these are considered less skilled for sports compared to boys, society, as well as school end up further enhance this male superiority.

  7. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Aoki, Y.; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; Becirevic, D.

    2016-07-01

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f_+(0), arising in the semileptonic K→π transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio f_K/f_π and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements V_u_s and V_u_d. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R and SU(3)_L x SU(3)_R Chiral Perturbation Theory. We review the determination of the B_K parameter of neutral kaon mixing as well as the additional four B parameters that arise in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. The latter quantities are an addition compared to the previous review. For the heavy-quark sector, we provide results for m_c and m_b (also new compared to the previous review), as well as those for D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters. These are the heavy-quark quantities most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. Finally, we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant α_s.

  8. A review of physical and mental health in homeless persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, W H

    2001-01-01

    To review the physical and mental status in homeless people. A MEDLINE database search covering 5 decades was supplemented by tracing back through references from existing review work. Over 200 articles were extracted, and 106 were selected for review. Homeless persons suffer frequently from physical health problems like tuberculosis, asthma, bronchitis, HIV infection, and as a consequence, they run an increased risk for premature mortality. The prevalence of mental disorders among homeless individuals varies from 80-95% in the USA, Australia, Canada, Norway, and Germany to 25-33% in Ireland and Spain. The most prominent mental disorders among the homeless, which vary from country to country, are depression, affective disorders, substance abuse, psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. Homelessness is a major public health problem that should have our special interest.

  9. Systematic review of the association between physical activity and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naczenski, Lea M; Vries, Juriena D de; Hooff, Madelon L M van; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2017-11-25

    Burnout constitutes a health risk, and interventions are needed to reduce it. The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence regarding the relationship between physical activity and burnout by conducting a systematic review of longitudinal and intervention studies. A literature search resulted in the identification of a final set of ten studies: four longitudinal and six intervention studies. In separate analyses for each category, evidence was synthesized by extracting the study characteristics and assessing the methodological quality of each study. The strength of evidence was calculated with the standardized index of convergence (SIC). In longitudinal studies, we found moderately strong evidence (SIC (4) = -1) for a negative relationship between physical activity and the key component of burnout, i.e., exhaustion. We found strong evidence (SIC (6) = -0.86) for the effect of physical activity on reducing exhaustion in intervention studies. As only one study could be classified as a high quality study, these results of previous studies need to be interpreted with some caution. This systematic review suggests that physical activity constitutes an effective medium for the reduction of burnout. Although consistent evidence was found, there is a lack of high quality longitudinal and intervention studies considering the influence of physical activity on burnout. Therefore, future research should be conducted with the aim to produce high quality studies, to develop a full picture of physical activity as a strategy to reduce burnout.

  10. Increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Adrià; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Palou, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Physical inactivity is a health problem that affects people worldwide and has been identified as the fourth largest risk factor for overall mortality (contributing to 6% of deaths globally). Many researchers have tried to increase physical activity levels through traditional methods without much success. Thus, many researchers are turning to mobile technology as an emerging method for changing health behaviours. This systematic review sought to summarise and update the existing scientific literature on increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions, taking into account the methodological quality of the studies. The articles were identified by searching the PubMed, SCOPUS and SPORTDiscus databases for studies published between January 2003 and December 2013. Studies investigating efforts to increase physical activity through mobile phone or even personal digital assistant interventions were included. The search results allowed the inclusion of 11 studies that gave rise to 12 publications. Six of the articles included in this review reported significant increases in physical activity levels. The number of studies using mobile devices for interventions has increased exponentially in the last few years, but future investigations with better methodological quality are needed to draw stronger conclusions regarding how to increase physical activity through mobile device interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. AN EFFECT OF SHOT PEENING ON GROWTH AND RETARDATION OF PHYSICALLY SHORT FATIGUE CRACKS IN AN AIRCRAFT Al-ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Černý

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of an investigation of effect of shot peening on development of physically short fatigue crack in an aircraft V-95 Al-alloy, which is of a similar type as 7075 alloy, are described and discussed in the paper. The first part deals with adaptation and verification of direct current potential drop method for detection and measurement of short crack initiation and growth. The specific material and quite large dimensions of flat specimens with side necking of a low stress concentration factor had to be considered when position of electrodes was specified and the measurement method verified. The specimen type and dimensions were proposed taking account of the investigation of shot peening effects. Physically short fatigue cracks of the length from 0.2 mm to more than 3 mm, most of them between 0.8 – 1.5 mm, were prepared under high cycle fatigue loading of a constant nominal stress amplitude plus/minus 160 MPa. Specimens with existing short fatigue cracks were shot peened using two different groups of parameters. Development of crack growth after shot peening was measured and compared with crack growth in specimens without shot peening. Retardation of crack growth was significant particularly with cracks shorter than 2 mm. For the specific stress amplitude, evaluated results enable to estimate threshold length of defects, which after the application of shot peening will be reliably arrested.

  12. [Physical therapy in pediatric primary care: a review of experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Miriam Ribeiro Calheiros; Thomazinho, Paula de Almeida; Santos, Fabiano Luiz; Cavalcanti, Nicolette Celani; Ribeiro, Carla Trevisan Martins; Negreiros, Maria Fernanda Vieira; Vinhaes, Marcia Regina

    2014-11-01

    To review pediatric physical therapy experiences described in the literature and to analyze the production of knowledge on physical therapy in the context of pediatric primary health care (PPHC). A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA criteria. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane; Brazilian Ministry of Health's CAPES doctoral dissertations database; and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE). The following search terms were used: ["primary health care" and ("physical therapy" or "physiotherapy") and ("child" or "infant")] and equivalent terms in Portuguese and Spanish, with no restriction on publication year. Thirteen articles from six countries were analyzed and grouped into three main themes: professional dilemmas (three articles), specific competencies and skills required in a PPHC setting (seven articles), and practice reports (four articles). Professional dilemmas involved expanding the role of physical therapists to encompass community environments and sharing the decision-making process with the family, as well as collaborative work with other health services to identify the needs of children. The competencies and skills mentioned in the literature related to the identification of clinical and sociocultural symptoms that go beyond musculoskeletal conditions, the establishment of early physical therapy diagnoses, prevention of overmedication, and the ability to work as team players. Practice reports addressed stimulation in children with neurological diseases, respiratory treatment, and establishing groups with mothers of children with these conditions. The small number of studies identified in this review suggests that there is little knowledge regarding the roles of physical therapists in PPHC and possibly regarding the professional abilities required in this setting. Therefore, further studies are required to provide data on the field, along with a continuing

  13. Temperature and pressure dependent structural and thermo-physical properties of quaternary CoVTiAl alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Saleem; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2017-09-01

    Investigation of band structure and thermo-physical response of new quaternary CoVTiAl Heusler alloy within the frame work of density functional theory has been analyzed. 100% spin polarization with ferromagnetic stable ground state at the optimized lattice parameter of 6.01 Å is predicted for the compound. Slater-Pauling rule for the total magnetic moment of 3 μB and an indirect semiconducting behavior is also seen for the compound. In order to perfectly analyze the thermo-physical response, the lattice thermal conductivity and thermodynamic properties have been calculated. Thermal effects on some macroscopic properties of CoVTiAl are predicted using the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which the lattice vibrations are taken into account. The variations of the lattice constant, volume expansion coefficient, heat capacities, and Debye temperature with pressure and temperature in the ranges of 0 GPa to 15 GPa and 0 K to 800 K have been obtained.

  14. Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

  15. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EATING HABITS IN UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS: LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luiz Rodrigues Munaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, university professors engage in academic tasks often stressful and sedentary behaviors, making the practice of physical activity and healthier eating habits. The aim of this study was to review the literature Brazilian studies on physical activity and eating habits of university professors .The search was conducted between March and May 2013, in electronic databases. For the delimitation of the study, was used as descriptors: Physical Activity, University Teachers and Eating Habits. At the end of the article selection process, remaining 06 studies that have been described and discussed in the text. And all of a descriptive nature, with small samples with some robust and consistent methodology. The selected studies, regardless of their qualities, point to the need of this population to engage in more physical activity and healthy eating habits programs

  16. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EATING HABITS IN UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS: LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luiz Rodrigues Munaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, university professors engage in academic tasks often stressful and sedentary behaviors, making the practice of physical activity and healthier eating habits. The aim of this study was to review the literature Brazilian studies on physical activity and eating habits of university professors .The search was conducted between March and May 2013, in electronic databases. For the delimitation of the study, was used as descriptors: Physical Activity, University Teachers and Eating Habits. At the end of the article selection process, remaining 06 studies that have been described and discussed in the text. And all of a descriptive nature, with small samples with some robust and consistent methodology. The selected studies, regardless of their qualities, point to the need of this population to engage in more physical activity and healthy eating habits programs.

  17. Appreciation of the 2015 JGR Space Physics Peer Reviewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Balikhin, Michael; Kepko, Larry; Rodger, Alan; Wang, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    The Editors of the Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics are deeply indebted to the many people among the research community that serve this journal through peer review. The journal could not exist without the time and effort invested by the community through this voluntary activity, providing expert evaluations and thoughtful assessments of the work of others. In 2015, the journal had 1506 scientists contribute to the process with at least one peer review, for a total of 3575 reviews completed, including additional reviews of resubmitted manuscripts. There were 277 reviewers that contributed four or more reports in 2015. The average number of reviews per referee in 2015 was, therefore, 2.4. Note that the total number of manuscript final decisions (i.e., accept or reject) for Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) Space Physics was 1147 in 2015. Of this, 774 were accepted and 373 were declined, for an acceptance rate of 67% last year. If the 1334 "revision" decisions are included in the tally, then the total number of decisions made in 2015 was 2481. Working out the arithmetic, it means that on average, a manuscript gets about 1.2 revision decisions before a final accept-or-reject decision. This explains the 3.1 average number of reviews per manuscript throughout each paper's lifetime in the submission-revision editorial process. We are pleased and happy that the research community is willing and able to devote their resources toward this service endeavor. We appreciate each and every one of you that helped maintain the high quality of papers in JGR Space Physics last year. We look forward to another excellent year working with all of you through the year ahead.

  18. Correlates of Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterdt, Elena; Liersch, Sebastian; Walter, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify promoting and inhibiting correlates associated with the physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents (aged 3-18). The intention was to demonstrate the complexity of correlates of PA and to determine possible influencing factors. Design: A systematic review of reviews. Methods: Systematic…

  19. Nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys physically synthesized by ion milling deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavon, Luis Alberto Lopez [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (UANL), Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Cuellara, Enrique Lopez; Castro, Alejandro Torres; Cruza, Azael Martinez de la [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (CIIDIT/UANL), Nuevo Leon (Mexico). Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia; Ballesteros, Carmen [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Fisica; Araujo, Carlos Jose de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2012-05-15

    In this research, an ion milling equipment was used to elaborate nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al alloys with shape memory effect. Two different compositions were used, target A: 75.22Cu-17.12Zn-7.66Al at % with an Ms of -9 deg C and target B: 76.18Cu-15.84Zn-7.98Al with an Ms of 20 degree C. Nanoparticles were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles showed a small dispersion, with a size range of 3.2-3.5 nm. Their crystal structure is in good agreement with the bulk martensitic structure of the targets. In this sense, results on morphology, composition and crystal structure have indicated that it is possible to produce nanoparticles of CuZnAl shape memory alloys with martensitic structure in a single process using Ion Milling. (author)

  20. ZK60 alloy processed by ECAP: Microstructural, physical and mechanical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, F.-D., E-mail: dianadumitru1986@yahoo.com [Materials Science and Engineering Faculty, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Higuera-Cobos, O.F., E-mail: osfahico@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ETSEIB – Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Vereda La Julita, Pereira (Colombia); Cabrera, J.M., E-mail: jose.maria.cabrera@upc.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ETSEIB – Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnológic, Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain)

    2014-01-31

    Lately, magnesium alloys have been extensively investigated through severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods in order to extend their application to structural components. In the present work, as-extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy samples were subjected to 4 passes of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at a processing temperature of 250 °C, following route Bc. The microstructural evolution of the deformed grains was analyzed using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) maps, together with the grain boundary misorientation distribution showed a reduction in the grain size accompanied by a large proportion of high angle grain boundaries. Calorimetric analysis showed a slight increase in the recrystallization temperature of the ECAPed magnesium samples. Mechanical tests showed an improvement in the elongation-to-failure after 4 ECAP passes, which were about 2 times higher than in the as-extruded sample. Also a brittle to ductile transition was observed.

  1. ZK60 alloy processed by ECAP: Microstructural, physical and mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, F.-D.; Higuera-Cobos, O.F.; Cabrera, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lately, magnesium alloys have been extensively investigated through severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods in order to extend their application to structural components. In the present work, as-extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy samples were subjected to 4 passes of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at a processing temperature of 250 °C, following route Bc. The microstructural evolution of the deformed grains was analyzed using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) maps, together with the grain boundary misorientation distribution showed a reduction in the grain size accompanied by a large proportion of high angle grain boundaries. Calorimetric analysis showed a slight increase in the recrystallization temperature of the ECAPed magnesium samples. Mechanical tests showed an improvement in the elongation-to-failure after 4 ECAP passes, which were about 2 times higher than in the as-extruded sample. Also a brittle to ductile transition was observed

  2. Nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys physically synthesized by ion milling deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavon, Luis Alberto Lopez; Cuellara, Enrique Lopez; Castro, Alejandro Torres; Cruza, Azael Martinez de la; Ballesteros, Carmen; Araujo, Carlos Jose de

    2012-01-01

    In this research, an ion milling equipment was used to elaborate nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al alloys with shape memory effect. Two different compositions were used, target A: 75.22Cu-17.12Zn-7.66Al at % with an Ms of -9 deg C and target B: 76.18Cu-15.84Zn-7.98Al with an Ms of 20 degree C. Nanoparticles were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles showed a small dispersion, with a size range of 3.2-3.5 nm. Their crystal structure is in good agreement with the bulk martensitic structure of the targets. In this sense, results on morphology, composition and crystal structure have indicated that it is possible to produce nanoparticles of CuZnAl shape memory alloys with martensitic structure in a single process using Ion Milling. (author)

  3. Rhodiola rosea for physical and mental fatigue: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaque Sana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea is grown at high altitudes and northern latitudes. Due to its purported adaptogenic properties, it has been studied for its performance-enhancing capabilities in healthy populations and its therapeutic properties in a number of clinical populations. To systematically review evidence of efficacy and safety of R. rosea for physical and mental fatigue. Methods Six electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs, evaluating efficacy and safety of R. rosea for physical and mental fatigue. Two reviewers independently screened the identified literature, extracted data and assessed risk of bias for included studies. Results Of 206 articles identified in the search, 11 met inclusion criteria for this review. Ten were described as RCTs and one as a CCT. Two of six trials examining physical fatigue in healthy populations report R. rosea to be effective as did three of five RCTs evaluating R. rosea for mental fatigue. All of the included studies exhibit either a high risk of bias or have reporting flaws that hinder assessment of their true validity (unclear risk of bias. Conclusion Research regarding R. rosea efficacy is contradictory. While some evidence suggests that the herb may be helpful for enhancing physical performance and alleviating mental fatigue, methodological flaws limit accurate assessment of efficacy. A rigorously-designed well reported RCT that minimizes bias is needed to determine true efficacy of R. rosea for fatigue.

  4. Yoga and physical exercise - a review and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Ramajayam; Karmani, Sneha; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool with enhanced health and well-being as one of its positive effects. The components of yoga which are very commonly applied for health benefits are asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. This article aims at exploring the commonalities and differences between yoga and physical exercise in terms of concepts, possible mechanisms and effectiveness for health benefits. A narrative review is undertaken based on traditional and contemporary literature for yoga, along with scientific articles available on yoga and exercise including head-to-head comparative trials with healthy volunteers and patients with various disease conditions. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities, but also important differences. Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises.

  5. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Valerie A J; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A C; Allen, Diane D; Gelfand, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability.

  6. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611

  7. A Critical Review of High Entropy Alloys and Related Concepts (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    1301e1305. [306] C. Huang, Y.Z. Zhang, R. Vilar, J.Y. Shen, Dry sliding wear behavior of laser clad TiVCrAlSi high entropy alloy coatings on Ti-6Al...Res. 652e654 (2013) 1115e1118. [313] C. Huang, Y. Zhang, J. Shen, R. Vilar, Thermal stability and oxidation resis- tance of laser clad TiVCrAlSi high...Section 7.1.3). Finally, it is not always true that SS alloys are ductile. Well-known examples include b- titanium alloys, a- titanium alloys with small

  8. The Primary Schoolteacher and Physical Education: A Review of Research and Implications for Irish Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Tim; Mandigo, James

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews research on primary physical education (PE). In primary schools around the world PE is taught by the classroom teacher rather than by a PE specialist. Most classroom teachers feel poorly prepared to teach PE programmes that are meaningful to pupils and provide the types of experiences that lead to lifelong participation. This…

  9. Mechanism of growth, composition and structure of oxide films formed on ferrous alloys in molten salt electrolytes - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkoff, Tz.; Kolchakov, J.

    2004-01-01

    The growth kinetics, chemical composition and structure of scales formed during corrosion of Fe and its alloys in molten salts are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the effect of the composition of the molten salt mixture and the gas atmosphere on the stability and protective ability of corrosion layers. First, the thermodynamical background of the corrosion and oxidation of Fe-base engineering materials in molten salt media is briefly commented. A concise review of the growth kinetics of passivating oxide films is also presented. These two introductory chapters serve as a guide for the extensive survey of the growth mechanism, nature and properties of oxide and related scales on ferrous alloys in a range of molten electrolytes - chlorides, nitrates, sulphates, carbonates, hydroxides and mixtures thereof in gas atmospheres containing O 2 , CO 2 , SO 2 , SO 3 and HCl

  10. Low activation vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzenburg, W. van.

    1991-01-01

    The properties and general characteristics of vanadium-base alloys are reviewed in terms of the materials requirements for fusion reactor first wall and blanket structures. In this review attention is focussed on radiation response including induced radioactivity, mechanical properties, compatibility with potential coolants, physical and thermal properties, fabricability and resources. Where possible, properties are compared to those of other leading candidate structural materials, e.g. austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels. Vanadium alloys appear to offer advantages in the areas of long-term activation, mechanical properties at temperatures above 600 deg C, radiation resistance and thermo-hydraulic design, due to superior physical and thermal properties. They also have a potential for higher temperature operation in liquid lithium systems. Disadvantages are associated with their ability to retain high concentrations of hydrogen isotopes, higher cost, more difficult fabrication and welding. A particular concern regarding use of vanadium alloys relates their reactivity with non-metallic elements, such as oxygen and nitrogen. (author). 33 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Girls in the physics classroom: a review of the research on the participation of girls in physics

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Patricia; Whitelegg, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A review of research spanning the past 15 years into the participation of girls in physics at secondary school level. The review was commissioned by the Institute of Physics in order to inform policy setting agendas for the Institute and to reveal important messages about participation in physics which the Institute could use to develop plans for action.

  12. Measuring physical activity and sedentary behaviour at work: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Retamal, Marcelo; Hinckson, Erica A

    2011-01-01

    To identify methods used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour at the workplace and review the validity and reliability of these measures. Databases were searched for relevant published articles including MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Keywords used were physical-activity, workplace, sedentary-behaviour, measurement and questionnaire. Studies included were original, written in English, published between 1990 and 2009, and focused on validated physical activity and sedentary behaviour measures at work. Eleven papers were identified in which three used criterion standards, three objective measures, and five subjective measures. The most common method of data collection was through self-report, surveys or questionnaires. Physical activity measured with motion sensors, ranged from 4,422 to 10,334 steps/day (pedometers) and sedentary time ranged from 1.8 to 6 hours/day (h/d) (accelerometers). Self-report measures provided information relevant to the perception of physical activity at work (∼ 0.5 h/d), sitting time (> 3 h/d) and calculated energy expenditure (< 800 kcal/d). Physical activity levels at work were low while sedentary behaviour was high. This was largely a function of occupation (white-collar vs. blue-collar). None of the studies assessed validity or reliability of measures used however, instruments as assessed by others showed moderate to strong validity and reliability values.

  13. Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Soave, Fabio; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on

  14. Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of

  15. The physics of blackbody radiation: A review | Jain | JASSA: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physics of blackbody radiation: A review. Pushpendra K Jain, Latit K Sharma. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v4i2.16899 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  16. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Haidong; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications. PMID:28788539

  17. Review of key concepts in magnetic resonance physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael M. [Penn State Hershey Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, The Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States); Chung, Taylor [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    MR physics can be a challenging subject for practicing pediatric radiologists. Although many excellent texts provide very comprehensive reviews of the field of MR physics at various levels of understanding, the authors of this paper explain several key concepts in MR physics that are germane to clinical practice in a non-rigorous but practical fashion. With the basic understanding of these key concepts, practicing pediatric radiologists can build on their knowledge of current clinical MR techniques and future advances in MR applications. Given the challenges of both the increased need for rapid imaging in non-sedated children and the rapid physiological cardiovascular and respiratory motion in pediatric patients, many advances in complex MR techniques are being applied to imaging these children. The key concepts are as follows: (1) structure of a pulse sequence, (2) k-space, (3) ''trade-off triangle'' and (4) fat suppression. This review is the first of five manuscripts in a minisymposium on pediatric MR. The authors' goal for this review is to aid in understanding the MR techniques described in the subsequent manuscripts on brain imaging and body imaging in this minisymposium. (orig.)

  18. Review of key concepts in magnetic resonance physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael M; Chung, Taylor

    2017-05-01

    MR physics can be a challenging subject for practicing pediatric radiologists. Although many excellent texts provide very comprehensive reviews of the field of MR physics at various levels of understanding, the authors of this paper explain several key concepts in MR physics that are germane to clinical practice in a non-rigorous but practical fashion. With the basic understanding of these key concepts, practicing pediatric radiologists can build on their knowledge of current clinical MR techniques and future advances in MR applications. Given the challenges of both the increased need for rapid imaging in non-sedated children and the rapid physiological cardiovascular and respiratory motion in pediatric patients, many advances in complex MR techniques are being applied to imaging these children. The key concepts are as follows: (1) structure of a pulse sequence, (2) k-space, (3) "trade-off triangle" and (4) fat suppression. This review is the first of five manuscripts in a minisymposium on pediatric MR. The authors' goal for this review is to aid in understanding the MR techniques described in the subsequent manuscripts on brain imaging and body imaging in this minisymposium.

  19. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Aoki, Y. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi-Maskawa Inst. for the Origin of Particles and the Universe; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). RIKEN BNL Research Center; Becirevic, D. [Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France). CNRS; Collaboration: FLAG Working Group; and others

    2016-07-15

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f{sub +}(0), arising in the semileptonic K→π transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio f{sub K}/f{sub π} and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements V{sub us} and V{sub ud}. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} and SU(3){sub L} x SU(3){sub R} Chiral Perturbation Theory. We review the determination of the B{sub K} parameter of neutral kaon mixing as well as the additional four B parameters that arise in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. The latter quantities are an addition compared to the previous review. For the heavy-quark sector, we provide results for m{sub c} and m{sub b} (also new compared to the previous review), as well as those for D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters. These are the heavy-quark quantities most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. Finally, we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant α{sub s}.

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Physics and phenomena in pulsed magnetrons: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J. W.; Welzel, T.

    2009-05-01

    This paper reviews the contribution made to the observation and understanding of the basic physical processes occurring in an important type of magnetized low-pressure plasma discharge, the pulsed magnetron. In industry, these plasma sources are operated typically in reactive mode where a cathode is sputtered in the presence of both chemically reactive and noble gases typically with the power modulated in the mid-frequency (5-350 kHz) range. In this review, we concentrate mostly, however, on physics-based studies carried out on magnetron systems operated in argon. This simplifies the physical-chemical processes occurring and makes interpretation of the observations somewhat easier. Since their first recorded use in 1993 there have been more than 300 peer-reviewed paper publications concerned with pulsed magnetrons, dealing wholly or in part with fundamental observations and basic studies. The fundamentals of these plasmas and the relationship between the plasma parameters and thin film quality regularly have whole sessions at international conferences devoted to them; however, since many different types of magnetron geometries have been used worldwide with different operating parameters the important results are often difficult to tease out. For example, we find the detailed observations of the plasma parameter (particle density and temperature) evolution from experiment to experiment are at best difficult to compare and at worst contradictory. We review in turn five major areas of studies which are addressed in the literature and try to draw out the major results. These areas are: fast electron generation, bulk plasma heating, short and long-term plasma parameter rise and decay rates, plasma potential modulation and transient phenomena. The influence of these phenomena on the ion energy and ion energy flux at the substrate is discussed. This review, although not exhaustive, will serve as a useful guide for more in-depth investigations using the referenced

  1. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S. [Kyoto University, Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Aoki, Y. [Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya (Japan); Brookhaven National Laboratory, RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY (United States); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Becirevic, D. [Universite Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR8627), CNRS, Orsay (France); Bernard, C. [Washington University, Department of Physics, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Blum, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY (United States); University of Connecticut, Physics Department, Storrs, CT (United States); Colangelo, G.; Leutwyler, H.; Wenger, U. [Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bern (Switzerland); Della Morte, M. [University of Southern Denmark, CP3-Origins and Danish IAS, Odense M (Denmark); IFIC (CSIC), Paterna (Spain); Dimopoulos, P. [Centro Fermi-Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi Compendio del Viminale, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Duerr, S. [University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Juelich Supercomputing Center, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Fukaya, H.; Onogi, T. [Osaka University, Department of Physics, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Golterman, M. [San Francisco State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gottlieb, Steven; Lunghi, E. [Indiana University, Department of Physics, Bloomington, IN (United States); Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), School of High Energy Accelerator Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Heller, U.M. [American Physical Society (APS), Ridge, NY (United States); Horsley, R. [University of Edinburgh, Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Juettner, A.; Sachrajda, C.T. [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Lellouch, L. [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Universite, Universite de Toulon, Centre de Physique Theorique, UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Lin, C.J.D. [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Universite, Universite de Toulon, Centre de Physique Theorique, UMR 7332, Marseille (France); National Chiao-Tung University, Institute of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Lubicz, V. [Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Mawhinney, R. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Pena, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Sharpe, S.R. [University of Washington, Physics Department, Seattle, WA (United States); Simula, S. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Sommer, R. [DESY, John von Neumann Institute for Computing (NIC), Zeuthen (Germany); Vladikas, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); Wittig, H. [University of Mainz, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: Flavour Lattice Averaging Group (FLAG)

    2017-02-15

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle-physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f{sub +}(0), arising in the semileptonic K → π transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio f{sub K}/f{sub π} and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements V{sub us} and V{sub ud}. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} and SU(3){sub L} x SU(3){sub R} Chiral Perturbation Theory. We review the determination of the B{sub K} parameter of neutral kaon mixing as well as the additional four B parameters that arise in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. The latter quantities are an addition compared to the previous review. For the heavy-quark sector, we provide results for m{sub c} and m{sub b} (also new compared to the previous review), as well as those for D- and B-meson-decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters. These are the heavy-quark quantities most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. Finally, we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant α{sub s}. (orig.)

  2. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High temperature treatment effect on physical and mechanical properties of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinyaev, A.Ya.; Illarionov, Eh.I.

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of variations in electric conductivity, hardness, strength and plastic properties is studied for Ti - 0.75 % W, Ti - 3.5 % W, Ti - 3.5 % W - 2.8 % Zr, Ti - 3.7 % W - 5.4 % Al, Ti - 6.4 % Al - 3.5 % W - 3 % Zr alloys on quench ageing at 400 - 700 Deg C. In the temperature dependences of electric conductivity and mechanical properties the extreme values are observed which may be interpreted as evidence of β-solid solution binodal decomposition [ru

  4. A Review of Selective Laser Melted NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Zhong Xun; Shen, Yu Fang

    2018-01-01

    NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) have the best combination of properties among the different SMAs. However, the limitations of conventional manufacturing processes and the poor manufacturability of NiTi have critically limited its full potential applicability. Thus, additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has the potential to be a solution in fabricating complex NiTi smart structures. Recently, a number of studies on Selective Laser Melting (SLM) of NiTi were conducted to explore the various aspects of SLM-produced NiTi. Compared to producing conventional metals through the SLM process, the fabrication of NiTi SMA is much more challenging. Not only do the produced parts require a high density that leads to good mechanical properties, strict composition control is needed as well for the SLM NiTi to possess suitable phase transformation characteristics. Additionally, obtaining a good shape memory effect from the SLM NiTi samples is another challenging task that requires further understanding. This paper presents the results of the effects of energy density and SLM process parameters on the properties of SLM NiTi. Its shape memory properties and potential applications were then reviewed and discussed. PMID:29596320

  5. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S. [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Aoki, Y. [Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya (Japan); Brookhaven National Laboratory, RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY (United States); Bernard, C. [Washington University, Department of Physics, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Blum, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY (United States); University of Connecticut, Physics Department, Storrs, CT (United States); Colangelo, G.; Leutwyler, H.; Necco, S.; Wenger, U. [Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Della Morte, M. [University of Southern Denmark, CP3-Origins and Danish IAS, Odense M (Denmark); IFIC (CSIC), Paterna (Spain); Duerr, S. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Juelich Supercomputing Center, Juelich (Germany); El-Khadra, A.X. [University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); Fukaya, H.; Onogi, T. [Osaka University, Department of Physics, Osaka (Japan); Horsley, R. [University of Edinburgh, School of Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Juettner, A.; Sachrajda, C.T. [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Kaneko, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki (Japan); Laiho, J. [University of Glasgow, SUPA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Syracuse University, Department of Physics, Syracuse, New York (United States); Lellouch, L. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, La Garde (France); Lubicz, V. [Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Rome (Italy); Sezione di Roma Tre, INFN, Rome (Italy); Lunghi, E. [Indiana University, Physics Department, Bloomington, IN (United States); Pena, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC and Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Sharpe, S.R. [University of Washington, Physics Department, Seattle, WA (United States); Simula, S. [Sezione di Roma Tre, INFN, Rome (Italy); Sommer, R. [NIC rate at DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Water, R.S.V. de [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Vladikas, A. [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, INFN, Sezione di Tor Vergata, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Wittig, H. [University of Mainz, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: FLAG Working Group

    2014-09-15

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle-physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the lightquark masses, the form factor f{sub +}(0), arising in semileptonic K → π transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay-constant ratio f{sub K}/f{sub π} of decay constants and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements V{sub us} and V{sub ud}. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} andSU(3)L{sub L} x SU(3){sub R} Chiral Perturbation Theory and review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing. The inclusion of heavy-quark quantities significantly expands the FLAG scope with respect to the previous review. Therefore, we focus here on D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters, since these are most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. In addition we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant α{sub s}. (orig.)

  6. Obesity prevention for children with physical disabilities: a scoping review of physical activity and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; Keith, Rebekah; Swift, Judy A

    2014-01-01

    Children with disabilities are at higher risk of obesity, engage in less physical activity and report poorer quality dietary habits than their non-disabled peers. This study reviewed current evidence on interventions designed to facilitate weight management and/or weight-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity and/or healthy eating habits) in children with physical disabilities. A scoping review was performed using established methodology. Data from studies meeting specific inclusion criteria were extracted and analyzed using summary statistics, and common characteristics thematically identified. Thirty-four articles were included in the synthesis. No long-term obesity prevention interventions were identified. The majority of research focused upon children with cerebral palsy, and had case study, quasi- or non-experimental designs. All interventions reporting positive outcomes (n = 18) addressed physical activity, with common themes including using motivational strategies for the child and child self-direction. Incremental increases in workload and engaging in strength training for longer than 15 minutes were also effective. Interventions targeting body weight/composition did not report success in the long term. A robust evidence base is lacking for long-lasting obesity interventions for children with physical disabilities. Current research provides some insights into the specific components that should be considered when planning such interventions in the future.

  7. Modeling of Some Physical Properties of Zirconium Alloys for Nuclear Applications in Support of UFD Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael V. Glazoff

    2013-08-01

    Zirconium-based alloys Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 are widely used in the nuclear industry as cladding materials for light water reactor (LWR) fuels. These materials display a very good combination of properties such as low neutron absorption, creep behavior, stress-corrosion cracking resistance, reduced hydrogen uptake, corrosion and/or oxidation, especially in the case of Zircaloy-4. However, over the last couple of years, in the post-Fukushima Daiichi world, energetic efforts have been undertaken to improve fuel clad oxidation resistance during off-normal temperature excursions. Efforts have also been made to improve upon the already achieved levels of mechanical behavior and reduce hydrogen uptake. In order to facilitate the development of such novel materials, it is very important to achieve not only engineering control, but also a scientific understanding of the underlying material degradation mechanisms, both in working conditions and in storage of used nuclear fuel. This report strives to contribute to these efforts by constructing the thermodynamic models of both alloys; constructing of the respective phase diagrams, and oxidation mechanisms. A special emphasis was placed upon the role of zirconium suboxides in hydrogen uptake reduction and the atomic mechanisms of oxidation. To that end, computational thermodynamics calculations were conducted concurrently with first-principles atomistic modeling.

  8. Nuts for Physical Health and Fitness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are rich in various nutrients. Recent evidence suggests that nut consumption has beneficial effects on blood pressure, lipid profile, obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress, which reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that nut consumption improves body composition without causing weight gain, despite total energy intake increases. However, evidence regarding nut consumption and physical fitness is limited. The aim of this mini review is to summarize the evidence regarding effects of nuts on physical health, fitness, and exercise performance. Almond supplementation improves exercise performance, but pistachio supplementation does not. The effect of nuts on exercise performance was controversial. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acid-enriched nuts had a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle mass and oxygen consumption. A diet enriched with nuts also improved physical fitness, which was enhanced by exercise. Although the characteristics of the study participants and the interventions used in the studies are heterogeneous, nuts have a potential to improve physical fitness. However, further studies are required to reveal the effects of nuts on physical fitness, exercise performance, and endurance capacity.

  9. Biological physics in México: Review and new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Lemus, Enrique

    2011-03-01

    Biological and physical sciences possess a long-standing tradition of cooperativity as separate but related subfields of science. For some time, this cooperativity has been limited by their obvious differences in methods and views. Biological physics has recently experienced a kind of revival (or better a rebirth) due to the growth of molecular research on animate matter. New avenues for research have been opened for both theoretical and experimental physicists. Nevertheless, in order to better travel for such paths, the contemporary biological physicist should be armed with a set of specialized tools and methods but also with a new attitude toward multidisciplinarity. In this review article, we intend to somehow summarize what has been done in the past (in particular, as an example we will take a closer look at the Mexican case), to show some examples of fruitful investigations in the biological physics area and also to set a proposal of new curricula for physics students and professionals interested in applying their science to get a better understanding of the physical basis of biological function.

  10. Prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Djalalinia, Shirin; Mirarefin, Mojdeh; Arefirad, Tahereh; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Samami, Elham; Mansourian, Morteza; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and stroke. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran. Methods: We searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Irandoc, Barakat knowledge network system, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We collected data for outcome measures of prevalence of physical inactivity by sex, age, province, and year. Quality assessment and data extraction has been conducted independently by two independent research experts. There were no limitations for time and language. Results: We analyzed data for prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian population. According to our search strategy we found 254 records; of them 185 were from international databases and the remaining 69 were obtained from national databases after refining the data, 34 articles that met eligible criteria remained for data extraction. From them respectively; 9, 20, 2 and 3 studies were at national, provincial, regional and local levels. The estimates for inactivity ranged from approximately 30% to almost 70% and had considerable variation between sexes and studied sub-groups. Conclusion: In Iran, most of studies reported high prevalence of physical inactivity. Our findings reveal a heterogeneity of reported values, often from differences in study design, measurement tools and methods, different target groups and sub-population sampling. These data do not provide the possibility of aggregation of data for a comprehensive inference.

  11. Research activities of biomedical magnesium alloys in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Gu, Xuenan

    2011-04-01

    The potential application of Mg alloys as bioabsorable/biodegradable implants have attracted much recent attention in China. Advances in the design and biocompatibility evaluation of bio-Mg alloys in China are reviewed in this paper. Bio-Mg alloys have been developed by alloying with the trace elements existing in human body, such as Mg-Ca, Mg-Zn and Mg-Si based systems. Additionally, novel structured Mg alloys such as porous, composited, nanocrystalline and bulk metallic glass alloys were tried. To control the biocorrosion rate of bio-Mg implant to match the self-healing/regeneration rate of the surrounding tissue in vivo, surface modification layers were coated with physical and chemical methods.

  12. Electronic structure of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenreich, H.; Schwartz, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    The description of electronic properties of binary substitutional alloys within the single particle approximation is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on a didactic exposition of the equilibrium properties of the transport and magnetic properties of such alloys. Topics covered include: multiple scattering theory; the single band alloy; formal extensions of the theory; the alloy potential; realistic model state densities; the s-d model; and the muffin tin model. 43 figures, 3 tables, 151 references

  13. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Physical Education and School Sport Interventions Targeting Physical Activity, Movement Skills and Enjoyment of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Dean; Okely, Anthony; Pearson, Philip; Cotton, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of published literature on the effectiveness of physical education in promoting participation in physical activity, enjoyment of physical activity and movement skill proficiency in children and adolescents. The review utilized a literature search, specifically publications listed in Ovid, A+ Education,…

  14. A literature review of findings in physical elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kieran; Waa, Sheila; Jaffer, Hussein; Sauter, Agnes; Chan, Amanda

    2013-02-01

    To review the medical literature for reports on the types of physical injuries in elder abuse with the aim of eliciting patterns that will aid its detection. The databases of PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and TRIP were searched from 1975 to March 2012 for articles that contained the following phrases: "physical elder abuse," "older adult abuse," "elder mistreatment," "geriatric abuse," "geriatric trauma," and "nonaccidental geriatric injury." Distribution and description of injuries in physical elder abuse from case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports as seen at autopsy, in hospital emergency departments, or in medicolegal reports were tabulated and summarized. A review of 9 articles from a total of 574 articles screened yielded 839 injuries. The anatomic distribution in these was as follows: upper extremity, 43.98%; maxillofacial, dental, and neck, 22.88%; skull and brain, 12.28%; lower extremity, 10.61%; and torso, 10.25%. Two-thirds of injuries that occur in elder abuse are to the upper extremity and maxillofacial region. The social context in which the injuries takes place remains crucial to accurate identification of abuse. This includes a culture of violence in the family; a demented, debilitated, or depressed and socially isolated victim; and a perpetrator profile of mental illness, alcohol or drug abuse, or emotional and/or financial dependence on the victim. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical environmental correlates of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, G F; Kaplan, J; Wolch, J; Jerrett, M; Reynolds, K D

    2009-07-01

    Increasing rates of childhood obesity in the USA and other Western countries are a cause for serious public health concern. Neighborhood and community environments are thought to play a contributing role in the development of obesity among youth, but it is not well understood which types of physical environmental characteristics have the most potential to influence obesity outcomes. This paper reports the results of a systematic review of quantitative research examining built and biophysical environmental variables associated with obesity in children and adolescents through physical activity. Literature searches in PubMed, PsychInfo and Geobase were conducted. Fifteen quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The majority of studies were cross-sectional and published after 2005. Overall, few consistent findings emerged. For children, associations between physical environmental variables and obesity differed by gender, age, socioeconomic status, population density and whether reports were made by the parent or child. Access to equipment and facilities, neighborhood pattern (e.g. rural, exurban, suburban) and urban sprawl were associated with obesity outcomes in adolescents. For most environmental variables considered, strong empirical evidence is not yet available. Conceptual gaps, methodological limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  16. Physical activity and older adults: a review of health benefits and the effectiveness of interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, A.H.; Cable, N.T.; Faulkner, G.; Hillsdon, M.; Narici, M.; Bij, A.K. van der

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this multidisciplinary review paper is to critically review evidence from descriptive, efficacy and effectiveness studies concerned with physical activity and older people. Both levels of fitness (aerobic power, strength, flexibility and functional capability) and measures of physical

  17. Review criteria for the physical fitness training requirements in 10 CFR Part 73

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.

    1994-09-01

    This document provides review criteria that will be used in reviewing and approving revised physical security plans submitted by licensees which are required to meet the physical fitness requirements in 10 CFR Part 73

  18. Physical activity and older adults : a review of health benefits and the effectiveness of interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, AH; Cable, NT; Faulkner, G; Hillsdon, M; Narici, M

    The purpose of this multidisciplinary review paper is to critically review evidence from descriptive, efficacy and effectiveness studies concerned with physical activity and older people. Both levels of fitness (aerobic power, strength, flexibility and functional capability) and measures of physical

  19. Effect of hydrogen on Fe and Pd alloying and physical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Buršík, Jiří; Zemanová, Adéla; Čízek, J.; Hruška, P.; Životský, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 10 (2017), s. 6885-6901 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : positron-lifetime spectroscopy * neutron-diffraction * magnetic-properties * palladium-hydrogen * induced defects * iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  20. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Denise Araújo Bacil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders.

  1. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris at the micro-, and potentially also the nano-scale, are widespread in the environment. Microplastics have accumulated in oceans and sediments worldwide in recent years, with maximum concentrations reaching 100 000 particles m 3 . Due to their small size, microplastics may be ingested by low trophic fauna, with uncertain consequences for the health of the organism. This review focuses on marine invertebrates and their susceptibility to the physical impacts of microplastic uptake. Some of the main points discussed are (1) an evaluation of the factors contributing to the bioavailability of microplastics including size and density; (2) an assessment of the relative susceptibility of different feeding guilds; (3) an overview of the factors most likely to influence the physical impacts of microplastics such as accumulation and translocation; and (4) the trophic transfer of microplastics. These findings are important in guiding future marine litter research and management strategies. -- Highlights: •Accumulation of plastic waste in the oceans has become a pressing issue. •Here we review the susceptibility of marine invertebrates to microplastic uptake. •Size, shape and abundance influence uptake; microfibres are considered most harmful. •Colonisation of microplastics could have population-level impacts. •Results will inform future marine litter research and management strategies. -- Here we review microplastic uptake in marine organisms and assess individual, population and community level effects, highlighting the most susceptible species

  2. Microstructure and physical properties of laser Zn modified amorphous-nanocrystalline coating on a titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Ning; Gong, Shui-Li; Shi, Yi-Ning; Suo, Hong-Bo; Wang, Xi-Chang; Deng, Yun-Hua; Shan, Fei-Hu; Li, Jian-Quan

    2014-02-01

    A Zn modified amorphous-nanocrystalline coating was fabricated on a Ti-6Al-4V alloy by laser cladding of the Co-Ti-B4C-Zn-Y2O3 mixed powders. Such coating was researched by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), etc. Experimental results indicated that the Co5Zn21 and TiB2 nanocrystalline phases were produced through in situ metallurgical reactions, which blocked the motion of dislocation, and TiB2 grew along (010), (111) and (024). The Co5Zn21 nanocrystals were produced attached to the ceramics, which mainly consisted of the Co nanoparticles embedded in a heterogeneous zinc, and had varied crystalline orientations.

  3. First-principles investigations of the physical properties of binary uranium silicide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Long, Jianping; Yang, Lijun; Li, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Total density of states for USi 2 . Display Omitted -- Abstract: The structural, elastic properties and the Debye temperature of binary Uranium Silicide (U-Si) alloys are investigated by using the first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential density function theory within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The ground states properties are found to agree with the available experimental data. The mechanical properties like shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio σ and ratio B/G are also calculated. Finally, The averaged sound velocity (v m ), the longitudinal sound velocity (v l ), transverse sound velocity (v t ) and the Debye temperature (θ D ) are obtained. However, the theoretical values are slightly different from few existed experiment data because the latter was obtained at room temperature while the former one at 0 K

  4. Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning of Children: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Bidzan-Bluma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood is an important and sensitive period for cognitive development. There is limited published research regarding the relationship between sports and cognitive functions in children. We present studies that demonstrate the influence of physical activity on health, especially a positive correlation between sports and cognitive functions. The keywords “children, cognition, cognitive function, physical activity, and brain” were searched for using PsycInfo, Medline, and Google Scholar, with publication dates ranging from January 2000 to November 2017. Of the 617 results, 58 articles strictly connected to the main topics of physical activity and cognitive functioning were then reviewed. The areas of attention, thinking, language, learning, and memory were analyzed relative to sports and childhood. Results suggest that engaging in sports in late childhood positively influences cognitive and emotional functions. There is a paucity of publications that investigate the impact of sports on pre-adolescents’ cognitive functions, or explore which cognitive functions are developed by which sporting disciplines. Such knowledge would be useful in developing training programs for pre-adolescents, aimed at improving cognitive functions that may guide both researchers and practitioners relative to the wide range of benefits that result from physical activity.

  5. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-07-01

    Plastic debris at the micro-, and potentially also the nano-scale, are widespread in the environment. Microplastics have accumulated in oceans and sediments worldwide in recent years, with maximum concentrations reaching 100 000 particles m(3). Due to their small size, microplastics may be ingested by low trophic fauna, with uncertain consequences for the health of the organism. This review focuses on marine invertebrates and their susceptibility to the physical impacts of microplastic uptake. Some of the main points discussed are (1) an evaluation of the factors contributing to the bioavailability of microplastics including size and density; (2) an assessment of the relative susceptibility of different feeding guilds; (3) an overview of the factors most likely to influence the physical impacts of microplastics such as accumulation and translocation; and (4) the trophic transfer of microplastics. These findings are important in guiding future marine litter research and management strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. B Physics at the D0 experiment A Mexican review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Cruz-Burelo, E.

    2010-01-01

    On April of 1992 a Mexican group from Cinvestav officially joined the D0 experiment, one of the two experiments in the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The seed for this experimental group on high energy physics from Cinvestav was planted in Mexico in some measure by Augusto Garcia, to whom this workshop is in memorial. Augusto's efforts and support to groups dedicated to this area was clear and important. Some of these seeds have given origin to today's established Mexican groups on experimental high energy physics, one example of this is the Mexican group at D0. I present here a short review of some of the D0 results on which the Mexican group has contributed, emphasizing the last decade, which I have witnessed.

  7. Review of recent experiments in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P D [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)

    1978-01-01

    The data generated at intermediate-energy accelerator facilities has expanded rapidly over the past few years. A number of recent experiments chosen for their impact on nuclear structure questions are reviewed. Proton scattering together with pionic and muonic atom X-ray measurements are shown to be giving very precise determinations of gross nuclear properties. Pion scattering and reaction data although less precise, are starting to generate a new understanding of wave functions of specific nuclear states. Specific examples where new unpublished data are now available are emphasized. In addition, other medium-energy experiments that are starting to contribute to nuclear structure physics are summarized.

  8. A review of the physics of large urban fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brode, H.L.; Small, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    A review of historical urban fires can help to illustrate the nature of large fires and the devastation that they can cause. The observations and descriptions of those fires provide the basis for understanding the much larger fires that would result from a nuclear explosion. The focus of this paper is on the major physical factors that are relevant to the characterization of such fires. Atmospheric responses in the vicinity of a large smoke column are addressed, and the hazards expected to accompany nuclear fires are briefly discussed

  9. Thermophysical properties of solid and liquid pure and alloyed Pu: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivineau, M., E-mail: michel.boivineau@cea.f [CEA, Centre de Valduc, Departement de Recherches sur les Materiaux Nucleaires, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-08-01

    The thermophysical properties of both solid and liquid pure and alloyed plutonium have been investigated up to 4000 K by use of a resistive pulse heating technique, the so-called isobaric expansion experiment (IEX). Electrical resistivity, specific volume (density), latent heats of transformations, heat of fusion have been measured and extended in the whole liquid region. Additional static measurements have been also performed in order to determine the heat transport properties such as heat capacity, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of plutonium alloys. After a first part devoted to additional results on pure Pu under rapid heating, this paper mostly deals with studies on different delta-stabilized Pu alloys in the high temperature range, particularly in the liquid state which is the principal originality of this work. In addition to the thermophysical data mentioned above, an attention is also paid onto sound velocity measurements on these alloys in the solid and liquid states. Hence, an anomalous behavior such as elastic softening is confirmed in the delta phase as already reported previously. Moreover, sound velocity and equation of state parameters (adiabatic and thermal bulk moduli, Grueneisen parameter, and specific heats ratio) have been investigated on liquid alloyed Pu. Such results confirm previous works on liquid pure Pu by presenting an atypical dual behavior of sound velocity, and are discussed in terms of delocalization process of the 5f electrons of both liquid pure and alloyed Pu.

  10. A scoping review on smart mobile devices and physical strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeier, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Smart mobile devices gain increasing importance at work. Integrating these smart mobile devices into the workplace creates new opportunities and challenges for occupational health and safety. Therefore the aim of the following scoping review was to identify ergonomic challenges with the use of smart mobile devices at work with respect to physical problems. A review of 36 papers based on literature including January 2016 was conducted. Biomechanical measures in the reviewed studies demonstrated i.e., head flexion angles exceeding 20° in 20 out of 26 different conditions described. Furthermore, laterally deviated wrists were frequently noted and thumb and finger flexor muscle activities generally greater than 5% MVC were reported. The reviewed literature indicated an elevated biomechanical risk, especially for the neck, the wrists and thumb. This was due to poor posture, ongoing and intermitted muscle tension, and/or repetitive movements. Papers addressing specific risks for smartphone and tablet use in different work environments are scarce. As the technology, as well as the use of smart mobile devices is rapidly changing, further research, especially for prolonged periods in the workplace is needed.

  11. Computational prediction of the refinement of oxide agglomerates in a physical conditioning process for molten aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, M; Jagarlapudi, S C; Browne, D J; Patel, J B; Stone, I C; Fan, Z

    2015-01-01

    Physically conditioning molten scrap aluminium alloys using high shear processing (HSP) was recently found to be a promising technology for purification of contaminated alloys. HSP refines the solid oxide agglomerates in molten alloys, so that they can act as sites for the nucleation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases which can subsequently be removed by the downstream de-drossing process. In this paper, a computational modelling for predicting the evolution of size of oxide clusters during HSP is presented. We used CFD to predict the macroscopic flow features of the melt, and the resultant field predictions of temperature and melt shear rate were transferred to a population balance model (PBM) as its key inputs. The PBM is a macroscopic model that formulates the microscopic agglomeration and breakage of a population of a dispersed phase. Although it has been widely used to study conventional deoxidation of liquid metal, this is the first time that PBM has been used to simulate the melt conditioning process within a rotor/stator HSP device. We employed a method which discretizes the continuous profile of size of the dispersed phase into a collection of discrete bins of size, to solve the governing population balance equation for the size of agglomerates. A finite volume method was used to solve the continuity equation, the energy equation and the momentum equation. The overall computation was implemented mainly using the FLUENT module of ANSYS. The simulations showed that there is a relatively high melt shear rate between the stator and sweeping tips of the rotor blades. This high shear rate leads directly to significant fragmentation of the initially large oxide aggregates. Because the process of agglomeration is significantly slower than the breakage processes at the beginning of HSP, the mean size of oxide clusters decreases very rapidly. As the process of agglomeration gradually balances the process of breakage, the mean size of oxide clusters converges to a

  12. Computational prediction of the refinement of oxide agglomerates in a physical conditioning process for molten aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, M.; Jagarlapudi, S. C.; Patel, J. B.; Stone, I. C.; Fan, Z.; Browne, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    Physically conditioning molten scrap aluminium alloys using high shear processing (HSP) was recently found to be a promising technology for purification of contaminated alloys. HSP refines the solid oxide agglomerates in molten alloys, so that they can act as sites for the nucleation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases which can subsequently be removed by the downstream de-drossing process. In this paper, a computational modelling for predicting the evolution of size of oxide clusters during HSP is presented. We used CFD to predict the macroscopic flow features of the melt, and the resultant field predictions of temperature and melt shear rate were transferred to a population balance model (PBM) as its key inputs. The PBM is a macroscopic model that formulates the microscopic agglomeration and breakage of a population of a dispersed phase. Although it has been widely used to study conventional deoxidation of liquid metal, this is the first time that PBM has been used to simulate the melt conditioning process within a rotor/stator HSP device. We employed a method which discretizes the continuous profile of size of the dispersed phase into a collection of discrete bins of size, to solve the governing population balance equation for the size of agglomerates. A finite volume method was used to solve the continuity equation, the energy equation and the momentum equation. The overall computation was implemented mainly using the FLUENT module of ANSYS. The simulations showed that there is a relatively high melt shear rate between the stator and sweeping tips of the rotor blades. This high shear rate leads directly to significant fragmentation of the initially large oxide aggregates. Because the process of agglomeration is significantly slower than the breakage processes at the beginning of HSP, the mean size of oxide clusters decreases very rapidly. As the process of agglomeration gradually balances the process of breakage, the mean size of oxide clusters converges to a

  13. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM) alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable high-strength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO 2 laser . This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloy, over the last years. (Author) 16 refs

  14. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of zirconium alloys for nuclear applications: a multi-scale computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazoff, Michael Vasily [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In the post-Fukushima world, the stability of materials under extreme conditions is an important issue for the safety of nuclear reactors. Because the nuclear industry is going to continue using advanced zirconium cladding materials in the foreseeable future, it become critical to gain fundamental understanding of the several interconnected problems. First, what are the thermodynamic and kinetic factors affecting the oxidation and hydrogen pick-up by these materials at normal, off-normal conditions, and in long-term storage? Secondly, what protective coatings (if any) could be used in order to gain extremely valuable time at off-normal conditions, e.g., when temperature exceeds the critical value of 2200°F? Thirdly, the kinetics of oxidation of such protective coating or braiding needs to be quantified. Lastly, even if some degree of success is achieved along this path, it is absolutely critical to have automated inspection algorithms allowing identifying defects of cladding as soon as possible. This work strives to explore these interconnected factors from the most advanced computational perspective, utilizing such modern techniques as first-principles atomistic simulations, computational thermodynamics of materials, diffusion modeling, and the morphological algorithms of image processing for defect identification. Consequently, it consists of the four parts dealing with these four problem areas preceded by the introduction and formulation of the studied problems. In the 1st part an effort was made to employ computational thermodynamics and ab initio calculations to shed light upon the different stages of oxidation of ziraloys (2 and 4), the role of microstructure optimization in increasing their thermal stability, and the process of hydrogen pick-up, both in normal working conditions and in long-term storage. The 2nd part deals with the need to understand the influence and respective roles of the two different plasticity mechanisms in Zr nuclear alloys: twinning

  15. Recommendations for physical therapists on the treatment of lumbopelvic pain during pregnancy: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benten, E.; Pool, J.J.; Mens, J; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review of the literature. OBJECTIVES: To review and assess the peer-reviewed literature on the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions in treating lumbopelvic pain during pregnancy. BACKGROUND: Current guidelines on interventions for lumbopelvic pain during pregnancy

  16. Elastic and thermo-physical properties of TiC, TiN, and their intermediate composition alloys using ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jiwoong; Kang, Shinhoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Elastic properties of TiC, TiN and their alloys were calculated by ab initio calculations. ► Debye temperature and Gruneisen constant of TiC, TiN and their alloys were calculated as a function of nitrogen content. ► Thermo-physical properties were calculated as a function of nitrogen content. ► Thermal expansion of the alloys was fitted in different temperature range. - Abstract: The equilibrium lattice parameters, elastic properties, material brittleness, heat capacities, and thermal expansion coefficients of TiC, TiN, and their intermediate composition alloys (Ti(C 1−x N x ), x = 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75) were calculated using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) methods. We employed the Debye–Gruneisen model to calculate a finite temperature heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient. The calculated elastic moduli and thermal expansion coefficients agreed well with the experimental data and with other DFT calculations. Accurate heat capacities of TiC, TiN, and their intermediate composition alloys were obtained by calculating not only the phonon contributions but also the electron contributions to the heat capacity. Our calculations indicated that the heat capacity differences between each composition originated mainly from the electronic contributions.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Physics for Scientists and Engineers Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancoli, Douglas C.

    2000-09-01

    There are a large number of textbooks for the college and university student produced in the USA and here is one that I had not seen before even though it is now in the third edition. But it is so similar to many others. The standard version as reviewed here covers the usual topics of classical physics, namely kinematics, energy, waves and oscillations, thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism and light. Also, as is usual with the American coverage, it includes fluids, special relativity and a short chapter on quantum theory and the atom. An extended version is available covering modern physics, astrophysics and cosmology. There is also available back-up material such as instructor's manual, CD-ROM, video and other extra teaching material Full colour is used and the book is lavishly illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Calculus is used throughout the book, although this is limited to basic differentiation and integration. There is an extensive range of worked examples plus end-of-chapter questions and problems, with numerical answers given to the odd-numbered problems. The physics is illustrated with many everyday examples. The styles of course presentation and hence the styles of book used in the USA and the UK seem to be diverging. It is unlikely such a book as this would be used at A-level. This is not only because of the calculus, albeit simple, but because of the detailed coverage of classical topics. Increasingly there has been a trend in this country to be more selective in content, and yet at the same time to incorporate more modern topics such as solids, environmental and atmospheric physics, particle physics and cosmology, but described in a fairly elementary way. The book would be suitable for preliminary year and first-year university physics courses but its size and weight are daunting. I am not sure why physics described in such an encyclopaedic way is popular in the US but less so here. However, of its type this book is both attractive and

  18. Temporal trends in physical activity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Alan G; Hallal, Pedro C

    2009-09-01

    In spite of all accumulated scientific knowledge on the benefits of physical activity (PA) for health, high rates of sedentary lifestyle are still observed worldwide. The aim of this study was to systematically review articles on temporal trends of PA and fitness, with emphasis on differences between children/ adolescents and adults. An electronic search at the Medline/PubMed database was carried out using the following combination of keywords: temporal trends or trends or surveillance or monitoring and PA or exercise or physical fitness or motor activity or sedentary or fitness. By using this strategy, 23,088 manuscripts were detected. After examination, 41 articles fulfilled all inclusion criteria, and were, therefore, included. The data currently available in the literature for adults shows that leisure-time activity levels tend to be increasing over time, while occupational-related PA is decreasing over time. Youth PA seems to be decreasing over time, including a lower level of activity in physical education classes. As a consequence, fitness levels are also declining. PA surveillance must be strongly encouraged in all settings and age groups. Special attention must be paid to low and middle-income countries, where PA surveillance is virtually inexistent.

  19. Relaxation and physical aging in network glasses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaut, Matthieu

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in the description of glassy relaxation and aging are reviewed for the wide class of network-forming materials such as GeO2, Ge x Se1-x , silicates (SiO2-Na2O) or borates (B2O3-Li2O), all of which have an important usefulness in domestic, geological or optoelectronic applications. A brief introduction of the glass transition phenomenology is given, together with the salient features that are revealed both from theory and experiments. Standard experimental methods used for the characterization of the slowing down of the dynamics are reviewed. We then discuss the important role played by aspects of network topology and rigidity for the understanding of the relaxation of the glass transition, while also permitting analytical predictions of glass properties from simple and insightful models based on the network structure. We also emphasize the great utility of computer simulations which probe the dynamics at the molecular level, and permit the calculation of various structure-related functions in connection with glassy relaxation and the physics of aging which reveal the non-equilibrium nature of glasses. We discuss the notion of spatial variations of structure which leads to the concept of 'dynamic heterogeneities', and recent results in relation to this important topic for network glasses are also reviewed.

  20. Physical Exercise for Treatment of Mood Disorders: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearing, CM; Chang, WC; Szuhany, KL; Deckersbach, T; Nierenberg, AA; Sylvia, LG

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review The purpose of this review is to critically assess the evidence for exercise as an adjunct intervention for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, chronic conditions characterized by frequent comorbid conditions as well as interepisodic symptoms with poor quality of life and impaired functioning. Individuals with these mood disorders are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death in part because of increased rates of obesity, inactivity, and diabetes mellitus compared to the general population. Exercise may not only mitigate the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but could also potentially improve the long term outcomes of mood disorders. Recent findings We conducted a literature review on the impact of exercise on mood disorders and associated comorbid conditions as well as possible biological mechanisms. We found that exercise impacts both the physical health parameters of mood disorders as well as mental health outcomes. Exercise also positively impacts conditions frequently comorbid with mood disorders (i.e. anxiety, pain, and insomnia). There are multiple candidate biomarkers for exercise, with brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress as two main promising components of exercise’s anti-depressant effect. Summary Exercise appears to be a promising adjunct treatment for mood disorders. We conclude with recommendations for future research of exercise as an adjunct intervention for mood disorders. PMID:28503402

  1. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanism of formation of corrosion layers on nickel and nickel-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkoff, Tzvety; Gencheva, Petia

    2003-01-01

    A review of the corrosion of Ni and Ni-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions (nitrate, sulphate, hydroxide and carbonate) is presented, emphasising the mechanism of growth, the composition and structure of the passivating oxide films formed on the material in such conditions. First, the thermodynamical background involving solubility and point defect chemistry calculations for oxides formed on Ni, Cr and Ni-Cr alloys in molten salt media is briefly commented. The main passivation product on the Ni surface has been reported to be cubic NiO. In the transition stage, further oxidation of the compact NiO layer has been shown to take place in which Ni(III) ions and nickel cation vacancies are formed. Transport of nickel cation vacancies has been proposed to neutralise the charges of the excess oxide ions formed in the further oxidation reaction. Ex situ analysis studies reported in the literature indicated the possible formation of Ni 2 O 3 phase in the anodic layer. During the third stage of oxidation, a survey of the published data indicated that oxygen evolution from oxyanion melts is the predominant reaction taking place on the Ni/NiO electrode. This has been supposed to lead to a further accumulation of oxygen ions in the oxide lattice presumably as oxygen interstitials, and a NiO 2 phase formation has been also suggested. Literature data on the composition of the oxide film on industrial Ni-based alloys and superalloys in melts containing oxyanions are also presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the effect of the composition of the alloy, the molten salt mixture and the gas atmosphere on the stability and protective ability of corrosion layers

  3. High-pressure coolant effect on the surface integrity of machining titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wentao; Liu, Zhanqiang

    2018-03-01

    Machinability improvement of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is a challenging work in academic and industrial applications owing to its low thermal conductivity, low elasticity modulus and high chemical affinity at high temperatures. Surface integrity of titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V is prominent in estimating the quality of machined components. The surface topography (surface defects and surface roughness) and the residual stress induced by machining Ti-6Al-4V occupy pivotal roles for the sustainability of Ti-6Al-4V components. High-pressure coolant (HPC) is a potential choice in meeting the requirements for the manufacture and application of Ti-6Al-4V. This paper reviews the progress towards the improvements of Ti-6Al4V surface integrity under HPC. Various researches of surface integrity characteristics have been reported. In particularly, surface roughness, surface defects, residual stress as well as work hardening are investigated in order to evaluate the machined surface qualities. Several coolant parameters (including coolant type, coolant pressure and the injection position) deserve investigating to provide the guidance for a satisfied machined surface. The review also provides a clear roadmap for applications of HPC in machining Ti-6Al4V. Experimental studies and analysis are reviewed to better understand the surface integrity under HPC machining process. A distinct discussion has been presented regarding the limitations and highlights of the prospective for machining Ti-6Al4V under HPC.

  4. A Review of Solid-Solution Models of High-Entropy Alloys Based on Ab Initio Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyang Tian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Similar to the importance of XRD in experiments, ab initio calculations, as a powerful tool, have been applied to predict the new potential materials and investigate the intrinsic properties of materials in theory. As a typical solid-solution material, the large degree of uncertainty of high-entropy alloys (HEAs results in the difficulty of ab initio calculations application to HEAs. The present review focuses on the available ab initio based solid-solution models (virtual lattice approximation, coherent potential approximation, special quasirandom structure, similar local atomic environment, maximum-entropy method, and hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics and their applications and limits in single phase HEAs.

  5. Systematic review of guidelines for the physical management of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmer, Peter J; Reay, Nicholas D; Aubert, Elizabeth R; Kersten, Paula

    2014-02-01

    To undertake a systematic critical appraisal of guidelines to provide a summary of recommendations for the physical management of osteoarthritis (OA). The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus with Full Text, Scopus, ScienceDirect, PEDro, and Google Scholar databases were searched (2000-2013) to identify all guidelines, protocols, and recommendations for the management or treatment of OA. In addition, Internet searches of all relevant arthritis organizations were undertaken. All searches were performed between July 2012 and end of April 2013. Guidelines that included only pharmacological, injection therapy, or surgical interventions were excluded. Guidelines published only in English were retrieved. OA guidelines developed from evidence-based research, consensus, and/or expert opinion were retrieved. There were no restrictions on severity or site of OA, sex, or age. Nineteen guidelines were identified for evaluation. The quality of all guidelines was critically appraised using the Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation II instrument. Each guideline was independently reviewed. All relevant recommendations for the physical management of OA were synthesized, graded, and ranked according to available evidence. Seventeen guidelines with recommendations on the physical management of OA met the inclusion criteria and underwent a full critical appraisal. There were variations in the interventions, levels of evidence, and strength of recommendations across the guidelines. Forty different interventions were identified. Recommendations were graded from "strongly recommended" to "unsupported." Exercise and education were found to be strongly recommended by most guidelines. Exercise and education were key recommendations supporting the importance of rehabilitation in the physical management of OA. This critical appraisal can assist health care providers who are involved in the management of people with OA. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of

  6. Thermodynamic Tuning of Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloys: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Lu, Yanshan; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Mg-based hydrides are one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials because of their relatively high storage capacity, abundance, and low cost. However, slow kinetics and stable thermodynamics hinder their practical application. In contrast to the substantial progress in the enhancement of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics, thermodynamic tuning is still a great challenge for Mg-based alloys. At present, the main strategies to alter the thermodynamics of Mg/MgH2 are alloying, nanostructuring, and changing the reaction pathway. Using these approaches, thermodynamic tuning has been achieved to some extent, but it is still far from that required for practical application. In this article, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Based on the current progress, finding reversible systems with high hydrogen capacity and effectively tailored reaction enthalpy offers a promising route for tuning the thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys. PMID:28788353

  7. Review of properties of magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys and MSM actuator designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabdullin, N; Khan, S H

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic shape memory alloys are a new group of ''smart'' materials that exhibit large strain of 6-12% when subjected to magnetic fields. This indicates their enormous potential to be used in different electromagnetic (EM) devices such as actuators, sensors, energy harvesters and dampers. Shape change in MSM materials is controlled by magnetic field and doesn't involve phase transformation, allowing it to overcome a number of disadvantages of conventional shape memory alloys (SMAs). MSM devices are capable of producing large force and stroke output in considerably small dimensions. At the same time they can have fast response and potentially very long lifetime. This paper discusses different modern designs and approaches to MSM actuator design with their advantages and disadvantages. An overview on characteristics of MSM alloys is also presented in order to highlight how different properties of the material influence the total output of a device

  8. Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Betts, Lexxus; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept "bio-adaption" between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed.

  9. Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Betts, Lexxus; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept “bio-adaption” between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed. PMID:27698548

  10. Physical properties of the FeRh alloys: the antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Turek, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2015), "014435-1"-"014435-11" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : coherent-potential approximation * phase-transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  11. Review of alkali metal and refractory alloy compatibility for Rankine cycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The principal corrosion mechanisms in refractory metal-alkali systems are dissolution, mass transfer, and impurity reactions. In general, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten have low solubilities in the alkali metals, even to very high temperatures, and static corrosion studies have verified that the systems are basically compatible. Loop studies with niobium and tantalum based alloys do not indicate any serious problems due to temperature gradient mass transfer. Above 1000 K, dissimilar metal mass transfer is noted between the refractory metals and iron or nickel based alloys. The most serious corrosion problems encountered are related to impurity reactions associated with oxygen

  12. Stages of change toward physical activity: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Rodrigues Domingues

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to carry out a review of the literature about studies that investigated the stages of change for physical activity among adults. The search was conducted in the following electronic databases: Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Ovid, Biomed Central, Elsevier, Oxford, Sports Discus, PsycInfo e Lilacs. The terms used were: “transtheoretical model”, “stages of change”, “stages of readiness” combined with “physical activity” or “exercise”; when appropriated, the equivalent terms in Portuguese were used. Only original or reviews articles were selected, and other type of works were excluded. The issues discussed in this article addressed the background and the temporal evolution of the stages of change, ways of operationalize and analyze the stages, validity and reliability of the instruments applied to measure the stages, and the factors associated with the stages. In conclusion, the importance of the stages of change model to promote physical activity practice was highlighted. ResumoO objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar uma revisão da literatura acerca dos estudos que investigaram os estágios de mudança de comportamento para a prática de atividades físicas em adultos. Para isto, foi efetuada uma pesquisa nas seguintes bases de dados eletrônicas: Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Ovid, Biomed Central, Elsevier, Oxford, Sports Discus, PsycInfo e Lilacs. Os descritores utilizados foram: “transtheoretical model”, “stages of change”, “stages of readiness” combinados com “physical activity” ou “exercise”. Quando apropriado, empregaram-se seus termos correspondentes em português. Foram selecionados apenas artigos originais ou de revisão que tratassem sobre o assunto, sendo excluídos outros tipos de trabalhos. Os pontos discutidos neste artigo abordam os tópicos a seguir: origem e evolução dos estágios; formas de operacionalização e de análise dos estágios; validade e

  13. The Acute Relationships Between Affect, Physical Feeling States, and Physical Activity in Daily Life: A Review of Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, most studies investigating the acute relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity were conducted in controlled laboratory settings, whose results might not translate well to everyday life. This review was among the first attempts to synthesize current evidence on the acute (e.g., within a few hours) relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity from studies conducted in free-living, naturalistic settings ...

  14. A systematic review of financial incentives for physical activity: The effects on physical activity and related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Barte, J.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives for individuals. Twelve studies with unconditional incentives (eg, free membership sport facility) and conditional incentives (ie, rewards for reaching physical-activity goals) related to physical ...

  15. A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Interventions in Hispanic Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ickes, M.J.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n=20). Most of the interventions were community based (n=16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n=16), with social cognitive theory and trans theoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.

  16. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  17. A systematic review of physical activity interventions in Hispanic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; Sharma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n = 20). Most of the interventions were community based (n = 16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n = 16), with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.

  18. Influence of an alloy addition on the physical and clinical behaviour of glass ionomer cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abour, Mohamed Abour Bashir

    comparative evaluation of Hi-Dense with a disperse phase alloy placed as Class I restoration, the indirect assessment showed that Hi-Dense showed greater wear at six months than the amalgam using Ivoclar method of model assessment of wear. These studies indicate that the incorporation of a metal addition in the glass ionomer may have brought about a slight improvement in some of the properties tested. However, the performance of the experimental material with similar high powder content but no metal addition indicates that the use of a high powder content may be the predominant cause for the possible improvement.

  19. Physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naomi K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Steenland, Maria W; Marchbanks, Polly A

    2013-05-01

    Provision of contraception is often linked with physical examination, including clinical breast examination (CBE) and pelvic examination. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding outcomes among women with and without physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The PubMed database was searched from database inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning CBE and pelvic examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. The search did not identify any evidence regarding outcomes among women screened versus not screened with CBE prior to initiation of hormonal contraceptives. The search identified two case-control studies of fair quality which compared women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating oral contraceptives (OCs) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). No differences in risk factors for cervical neoplasia, incidence of sexually transmitted infections, incidence of abnormal Pap smears or incidence of abnormal wet mount findings were observed. Although women with breast cancer should not use hormonal contraceptives, there is little utility in screening prior to initiation, due to the low incidence of breast cancer and uncertain value of CBE among women of reproductive age. Two fair quality studies demonstrated no differences between women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating OCs or DMPA with respect to risk factors or clinical outcomes. In addition, pelvic examination is not likely to detect any conditions for which hormonal contraceptives would be unsafe. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Additive manufacturing of metals: a brief review of the characteristic microstructures and properties of steels, Ti-6Al-4V and high-entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsse, Stéphane; Hutchinson, Christopher; Gouné, Mohamed; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We present a brief review of the microstructures and mechanical properties of selected metallic alloys processed by additive manufacturing (AM). Three different alloys, covering a large range of technology readiness levels, are selected to illustrate particular microstructural features developed by AM and clarify the engineering paradigm relating process–microstructure–property. With Ti-6Al-4V the emphasis is placed on the formation of metallurgical defects and microstructures induced by AM and their role on mechanical properties. The effects of the large in-built dislocation density, surface roughness and build atmosphere on mechanical and damage properties are discussed using steels. The impact of rapid solidification inherent to AM on phase selection is highlighted for high-entropy alloys. Using property maps, published mechanical properties of additive manufactured alloys are graphically summarized and compared to conventionally processed counterparts. PMID:28970868

  1. Implementation of school based physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Race, Douglas; Hoy, Christa; Ashe, Maureen C; Wharf Higgins, Joan; McKay, Heather A

    2015-03-01

    Implementation science is an emerging area in physical activity (PA) research. We sought to establish the current state of the evidence related to implementation of school-based PA models to explore 1) the relationship between implementation and health outcomes, and 2) factors that influence implementation. We searched 7 electronic databases (1995-2014) and included controlled studies of school-based PA programmes for healthy youth (6-18 y) measuring at least one physical health-related outcome. For objective 1, studies linked implementation level to student-level health outcome(s). For objective 2, studies reported factors associated with implementation. There was substantial variability in how health outcomes and implementation were assessed. Few studies linked implementation and health outcomes (n=15 interventions). Most (11/15) reported a positive relationship between implementation and at least one health outcome. Implementation factors were reported in 29 interventions. Of 22 unique categories, time was the most prevalent influencing factor followed by resource availability/quality and supportive school climate. Implementation evaluation supports scale-up of effective school-based PA interventions and thus population-level change. Our review serves as a call to action to 1) address the link between implementation and outcome within the school-based PA literature and 2) improve and standardize definitions and measurement of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mindfulness Interventions in Physical Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Mark E; Roll, Shawn C

    2016-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to describe how mindfulness is used in physical rehabilitation, identify implications for occupational therapy practice, and guide future research on clinical mindfulness interventions. A systematic search of four literature databases produced 1,524 original abstracts, of which 16 articles were included. Although only 3 Level I or II studies were identified, the literature included suggests that mindfulness interventions are helpful for patients with musculoskeletal and chronic pain disorders and demonstrate trends toward outcome improvements for patients with neurocognitive and neuromotor disorders. Only 2 studies included an occupational therapist as the primary mindfulness provider, but all mindfulness interventions in the selected studies fit within the occupational therapy scope of practice according to the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process. Higher-level research is needed to evaluate the effects of mindfulness interventions in physical rehabilitation and to determine best practices for the use of mindfulness by occupational therapy practitioners. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. 76 FR 66998 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting. Name: LIGO Annual Review Site Visit at Hanford Observatory for Physics...: Partially Closed. Contact Person: Thomas Carruthers, Program Director, Division of Physics, National Science...

  4. 77 FR 14441 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting. Name: LIGO Annual Review Site Visit at Hanford Observatory for Physics...: Partially Closed. Contact Person: Thomas Carruthers, Program Director, Division of Physics, National Science...

  5. 75 FR 70951 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting. Name: LIGO Laboratory Annual Review at Hanford Observatory for Physics... Physics, National Science Foundation, (703) 292-7373. Purpose of Meeting: To provide an evaluation of the...

  6. Physical characteristics of cometary dust from dynamical studies - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Progress made in the determination of the physical characteristics of cometary dust particles from studies of dust tail dynamics is reviewed. Applications of the combined dynamical photometric approach of Finson and Probstein (1968) to studies of cometary tails exhibiting continuous light intensity variations are discussed, with attention given to determinations of the particle-size-related distribution function of the solar radiation pressure exerted on the particles, the contribution of comets to the interplanetary dust, calculations of dust ejection rates and a Monte Carlo approach to the analysis of dust tails. Investigations of dust streamers and striae, which are believed to be related to comet outbursts entailing brief but sharp enhancements of dust production, are then reviewed, with particular attention given to observations of Comet West 1976 VI. Finally, the question of cometary particle type is addressed, and it is pointed out that the presence of submicron absorbing particles in the striae of Comet West is not incompatible with the presence of micron-size dielectric particles in the inner coma.

  7. The physics of Martian weather and climate: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, P L; Mulholland, D P; Lewis, S R

    2015-01-01

    The planet Mars hosts an atmosphere that is perhaps the closest in terms of its meteorology and climate to that of the Earth. But Mars differs from Earth in its greater distance from the Sun, its smaller size, its lack of liquid oceans and its thinner atmosphere, composed mainly of CO 2 . These factors give Mars a rather different climate to that of the Earth. In this article we review various aspects of the martian climate system from a physicist’s viewpoint, focusing on the processes that control the martian environment and comparing these with corresponding processes on Earth. These include the radiative and thermodynamical processes that determine the surface temperature and vertical structure of the atmosphere, the fluid dynamics of its atmospheric motions, and the key cycles of mineral dust and volatile transport. In many ways, the climate of Mars is as complicated and diverse as that of the Earth, with complex nonlinear feedbacks that affect its response to variations in external forcing. Recent work has shown that the martian climate is anything but static, but is almost certainly in a continual state of transient response to slowly varying insolation associated with cyclic variations in its orbit and rotation. We conclude with a discussion of the physical processes underlying these long- term climate variations on Mars, and an overview of some of the most intriguing outstanding problems that should be a focus for future observational and theoretical studies. (review)

  8. Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Frank J; Dahn, Jason R

    2005-03-01

    This review highlights recent work evaluating the relationship between exercise, physical activity and physical and mental health. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, as well as randomized clinical trials, are included. Special attention is given to physical conditions, including obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disease and sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, studies relating physical activity to depression and other mood states are reviewed. The studies include diverse ethnic populations, including men and women, as well as several age groups (e.g. adolescents, middle-aged and older adults). Results of the studies continue to support a growing literature suggesting that exercise, physical activity and physical-activity interventions have beneficial effects across several physical and mental-health outcomes. Generally, participants engaging in regular physical activity display more desirable health outcomes across a variety of physical conditions. Similarly, participants in randomized clinical trials of physical-activity interventions show better health outcomes, including better general and health-related quality of life, better functional capacity and better mood states. The studies have several implications for clinical practice and research. Most work suggests that exercise and physical activity are associated with better quality of life and health outcomes. Therefore, assessment and promotion of exercise and physical activity may be beneficial in achieving desired benefits across several populations. Several limitations were noted, particularly in research involving randomized clinical trials. These trials tend to involve limited sample sizes with short follow-up periods, thus limiting the clinical implications of the benefits associated with physical activity.

  9. Meaningful Experiences in Physical Education and Youth Sport: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, Stephanie; Fletcher, Tim; Ní Chróinín, Déirdre

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to review the literature about young people's meaningful experiences in physical education and youth sport. We reviewed 50 empirical peer-reviewed articles published in English since 1987. Five themes were identified as central influences to young people's meaningful experiences in physical education and sport:…

  10. A review of ionic liquid surface film formation on Mg and its alloys for improved corrosion performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Peipei; Latham, Julie-Anne; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Howlett, Patrick C.; Forsyth, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are prone to corrosion upon exposure to atmosphere thus are usually protected by using a pretreatment before being employed. The use of ionic liquids (ILs) has emerged as a novel chemical in corrosion protection of reactive metals such as lithium and magnesium. This paper reviews the use of ILs in the corrosion protection of magnesium and aluminium with respect to a range of IL chemistries. Emphasis has also been placed on characterisation of the passivating films using various techniques, as well as proposed mechanisms for film formation. This review highlights that there is still much research needed to understand how to generate robust passivating films on reactive metal surfaces in the presence of ILs

  11. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    CD-ROM REVIEW (551) Essential Physics BOOK REVIEWS (551) Collins Advanced Science: Physics, 2nd edition Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang, 2nd edition Do Brilliantly: A2 Physics IGCSE Physics Geophysics in the UK Synoptic Skills in Advanced Physics Flash! The hunt for the biggest explosions in the universe Materials Maths for Advanced Physics

  12. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Hoffman, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys

  13. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Hoffman, E.E. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys. (DLC)

  14. Continuous Solidification of Immiscible Alloys and Microstructure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxiang; Zhao, Jiuzhou

    2018-05-01

    Immiscible alloys have aroused considerable interest in last few decades due to their excellent physical and mechanical characteristics as well as potential industrial applications. Up to date, plenty of researches have been carried out to investigate the solidification of immiscible alloys on the ground or in space and great progress has been made. It is demonstrated that the continuous solidification technique have great future in the manufacturing of immiscible alloys, it also indicates that the addition of surface active micro-alloying or inoculants for the nucleation of the minority phase droplets and proper application of external fields, e.g., static magnetic field, electric current, microgravity field, etc. may promote the formation of immiscible alloys with an expected microstructure. The objective of this article is to review the research work in this field.

  15. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, W.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report contains brief discusses on topics in the following areas: Research at atlas; operation and development of atlas; medium-energy nuclear physics and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; and atomic and molecular physics research.

  16. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1989--March 31, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report contains papers in the following research areas: research at atlas; operation and development of atlas; medium-energy nuclear physics and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; and atomic and molecular physics research

  17. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, W.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report contains brief discusses on topics in the following areas: Research at atlas; operation and development of atlas; medium-energy nuclear physics and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; and atomic and molecular physics research

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  19. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1990--March 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This report discusses: Research At Atlas; Operation and Development of Atlas; Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics and Weak Interactions; Theoretical Nuclear Physics; High-Resolution Laser-rf Spectroscopy with Beams of Atoms and Molecules; Fast Ion-Beam/Laser Studies of Atomic and Molecular Structure; Interactions of Fast Atomic and Molecular Ions with Solid and Gaseous Targets; Theoretical Atomic Physics; Atomic Physics at Atlas and the ECR Source; Atomic Physics at Synchrotron Light Sources; and Accelerator Facilities for Atomic Physics

  20. Physical behaviors of impure atoms during relaxation of impure NiAl-based alloy grain boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liping; Jiang Bingyao; Liu Xianghuai; Li Douxing

    2003-01-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation with the energetics described by the embedded atom method has been employed to mainly study physical behaviors of boron atoms during relaxation of the Ni 3 Al-x at.% B grain boundary. During relaxation of impure Ni 3 Al grain boundaries, authors suggest that for different types of impure atoms (Mg, B, Cr and Zr atoms etc.), as the segregating species, they have the different behaviors, but as the inducing species, they have the same behaviors, i.e. they all induce Ni atoms to substitute Al atoms. Calculations show that at the equilibrium, when x(the B bulk concentration) increases from 0.1 to 0.9, the peak concentration of B increases, correspondently, the peak concentration of Ni maximizes but the valley concentration of Al minimizes, at x=0.5. The calculations also show the approximate saturation of Ni at the grain boundary at x=0.5

  1. The Copper concentration variation to physical properties of high copper amalgam alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminatun Aminatun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of copper (Cu inside amalgam is to increase hardness and impact force and to decrease thermal expansion coefficient. In general, amalgam which is used in dentistry and available in the market is contain Cu 22%, while the maximum Cu concentration is 30%. It is necessary to determine the concentration Cu does generate the best physical properties to be used as dental restorative agent. Amalgam is made by mixing blended-metal Ag-Sn-Cu (with Cu concentration of 13%, 21%, 22%, and 29% and Hg, stirred manually in a bowl for 15 minutes,leave it in temperature 27°C for 24 hours to become hardened. The result of X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD, analyzed by Rietveld method and Rietica program, shows amalgam with Cu 29% concentration for Cu3Sn compound density is 31.790 sma/Å3, for Ag2Hg3 compound is 41.733 sma/ Å3, a Cu3Sn relative weight percentage of 43.23%, Ag2Hg3 of 54.54%, Cu 7Hg6 of 2.23% and hardness of Cu 29% is 90.700 ± 0.005 kgf/mm2. These numbers are the highest values on Cu 29% concentrations compared to other copper concentration variants. Whereas amalgam thermal expansion coefficient on Cu 29% is (2.17 ± 0.9110-3 mm/°C is the lowest value compared to other Cu concentration. The conclution is that adding Cu concentration into amalgam will increase density value, Cu3Sn relative weight percentage, hardness level and will decrease amalgam thermal expansion coefficient. Amalgam 29% Cu concentration has better physical properties compared to amalgam Cu 22% concentration.

  2. The effects of psychological treatments for adult depression on physical activity: A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; de Wit, L.M.; Taylor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity and depression have been consistently shown to be inversely associated in epidemiological surveys. It is not clear, however, whether successful treatment of depression results in increases in physical activity. Method Systematic review of randomized trials examining

  3. Increasing Asian International College Students' Physical Activity Behavior: A Review of the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Asian students attending American colleges and universities report relatively low levels of physical activity participation, which may hinder their ability to realize their full human potential (i.e., cognitively, physically, socially). This paper reviewed the possible reasons underlying their generally inactive lifestyle, addressed the importance…

  4. A systematic review of financial incentives for physical activity: The effects on physical activity and related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives

  5. Sorption isotherms: A review on physical bases, modeling and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, G. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France) and Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: guillaumelimousin@yahoo.fr; Gaudet, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Techtonophysique - CNRS-IRD-LCPC-UJF-Universite de Savoie, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Szenknect, S. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barthes, V. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Krimissa, M. [Electricite de France, Division Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et d' Environnement - P78, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2007-02-15

    The retention (or release) of a liquid compound on a solid controls the mobility of many substances in the environment and has been quantified in terms of the 'sorption isotherm'. This paper does not review the different sorption mechanisms. It presents the physical bases underlying the definition of a sorption isotherm, different empirical or mechanistic models, and details several experimental methods to acquire a sorption isotherm. For appropriate measurements and interpretations of isotherm data, this review emphasizes 4 main points: (i) the adsorption (or desorption) isotherm does not provide automatically any information about the reactions involved in the sorption phenomenon. So, mechanistic interpretations must be carefully verified. (ii) Among studies, the range of reaction times is extremely wide and this can lead to misinterpretations regarding the irreversibility of the reaction: a pseudo-hysteresis of the release compared with the retention is often observed. The comparison between the mean characteristic time of the reaction and the mean residence time of the mobile phase in the natural system allows knowing if the studied retention/release phenomenon should be considered as an instantaneous reversible, almost irreversible phenomenon, or if reaction kinetics must be taken into account. (iii) When the concentration of the retained substance is low enough, the composition of the bulk solution remains constant and a single-species isotherm is often sufficient, although it remains strongly dependent on the background medium. At higher concentrations, sorption may be driven by the competition between several species that affect the composition of the bulk solution. (iv) The measurement method has a great influence. Particularly, the background ionic medium, the solid/solution ratio and the use of flow-through or closed reactor are of major importance. The chosen method should balance easy-to-use features and representativity of the studied

  6. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, Marie L.; Kennedy, Mary A.; Polak, Rani; Phillips, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions Current results provide some support for

  7. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L. Dacey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA, few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results: Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions: Current results provide

  8. Physical properties and microstructure study of stainless steel 316L alloy fabricated by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nurul Kamariah Md Saiful; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan; Ghani, Saiful Anwar Che; Omar, Mohd Asnawi; Ramli, Mohd Hazlen; Ismail, Muhammad Hussain

    2017-12-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) demonstrates the 21st century's manufacturing infrastructure in which powdered raw material is melted by a high energy focused laser, and built up layer-by-layer until it forms three-dimensional metal parts. SLM process involves a variation of process parameters which affects the final material properties. 316L stainless steel compacts through the manipulation of building orientation and powder layer thickness parameters were manufactured by SLM. The effect of the manipulated parameters on the relative density and dimensional accuracy of the 316L stainless steel compacts, which were in the as-build condition, were experimented and analysed. The relationship between the microstructures and the physical properties of fabricated 316L stainless steel compacts was investigated in this study. The results revealed that 90° building orientation has higher relative density and dimensional accuracy than 0° building orientation. Building orientation was found to give more significant effect in terms of dimensional accuracy, and relative density of SLM compacts compare to build layer thickness. Nevertheless, the existence of large number and sizes of pores greatly influences the low performances of the density.

  9. A physically based constitutive model for a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, E.G.; Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    A constitutive model for low-to-intermediate temperatures, strains, and strain rates is developed for the program heat of V-4Cr-4Ti. The basic form of the model is derived from more general dislocation-based models of yield stress and strain hardening. The physically based forms are fit to a database derived from tensile tests carried out over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. Yield and post-yield strain-hardening contributions to the flow stress are additive. The yield stress has both thermally activated and athermal components. The former is described by a two-mechanism activated dislocation slip model, with contributions that appear to arise from both lattice friction (at lower temperatures) and dislocation pinning by interstitial impurities (at higher temperatures). The yield stress data can be correlated using a strain rate-compensated temperature. The model uses a temperature-weighted average of the two mechanisms. Post-yield strain hardening was found to be approximately athermal. Strain hardening is fit to a two-component modified Voce-type saturating flow stress model. The constitutive model is also used to determine the flow stability limits as estimates of uniform tensile strains. The relatively compact, but mechanism-based, semi-empirical model has a number of both fundamental and practical advantages that are briefly outlined

  10. Influence of alloy elements on physical and mechanical properties of single crystalline austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazutaka; Kaneda, Junya; Yoshinari, Akira; Aono, Yasuhisa

    2000-01-01

    The single crystalline austenitic stainless steels based on 316 L were developed to improve their resistance to intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. However the mechanical properties of the single crystals were lower than those of polycrystalline. The precipitation hardening methods were applied to the single crystal for the increase of their mechanical strength by addition of niobium and heat treatments. In this paper, the influences of niobium concentration on the several physical and mechanical properties of these single crystalline austenitic stainless steels were studied. The thermal conductivity, coefficients of thermal expansion and elastic constants of the single crystals were almost the same as those of polycrystalline independently of the niobium concentration. The mechanical properties of the single crystals strongly depended on the niobium concentration and the orientation. In the specimen which contains 1.0 mass% niobium, 0.2% proof stress were remarkably improved; 370 MPa, 337 MPa and 403 MPa were obtained in , and orientations at the room temperature. The creep rupture strength and the high cycle fatigue strength were also improved by addition of niobium. In the -orientated specimen which contains 1.0 mass% niobium, the creep rupture strength at 873 K for 103 hours, 245 MPa and the high cycle fatigue strength at 773 K for 107 cycles, 220 MPa were obtained. Furthermore, the single crystalline pipe, bolts and nuts were successfully manufactured for the application of these single crystals. (author)

  11. Solid-state reactions during mechanical alloying of ternary Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadef, Fatma, E-mail: hadef77@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, LRPCSI, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria)

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research in the field of nanocrystalline materials due to their enhanced properties. A lot of processing techniques were developed in order to synthesis these novel materials, among them mechanical alloying or high-energy ball milling. In fact, mechanical alloying is one of the most common operations in the processing of solids. It can be used to quickly and easily synthesize a variety of technologically useful materials which are very difficult to manufacture by other techniques. One advantage of MA over many other techniques is that is a solid state technique and consequently problems associated with melting and solidification are bypassed. Special attention is being paid to the synthesis of alloys through reactions mainly occurring in solid state in many metallic ternary Fe–Al–X systems, in order to improve mainly Fe–Al structural and mechanical properties. The results show that nanocrystallization is the common result occurring in all systems during MA process. The aim of this work is to illustrate the uniqueness of MA process to induce phase transformation in metallic Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems. - Highlights: • A review of state of the art on binary Fe–Al alloys was presented. • Structural and microstructural properties of MA ternary Fe–Al–X alloys were summerized. • MA process is a powerful tool for producing metallic alloys at the nanometer scale.

  12. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  13. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, K.J.

    1989-08-01

    This document discusses the following main topics: Research at Atlas; Operation and Development of Atlas; Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics and Weak Interactions; Theoretical Nuclear Physics; Interactions of Fast Atomic and Molecular Ions with Solid and Gaseous Targets; Atomic Physics at Synchrotron Light Sources; Atomic Physics at Atlas and the ECR Source; Theoretical Atomic Physics; High-Resolution Laser-rf Spectroscopy of Atomic and Molecular Beams; and Fast Ion-Beam/Laser Studies of Atomic and Molecular Structure

  14. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, K.J. (ed.)

    1989-08-01

    This document discusses the following main topics: Research at Atlas; Operation and Development of Atlas; Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics and Weak Interactions; Theoretical Nuclear Physics; Interactions of Fast Atomic and Molecular Ions with Solid and Gaseous Targets; Atomic Physics at Synchrotron Light Sources; Atomic Physics at Atlas and the ECR Source; Theoretical Atomic Physics; High-Resolution Laser-rf Spectroscopy of Atomic and Molecular Beams; and Fast Ion-Beam/Laser Studies of Atomic and Molecular Structure.

  15. Google matrix of the citation network of Physical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; Eom, Young-Ho; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2014-05-01

    We study the statistical properties of spectrum and eigenstates of the Google matrix of the citation network of Physical Review for the period 1893-2009. The main fraction of complex eigenvalues with largest modulus is determined numerically by different methods based on high-precision computations with up to p =16384 binary digits that allow us to resolve hard numerical problems for small eigenvalues. The nearly nilpotent matrix structure allows us to obtain a semianalytical computation of eigenvalues. We find that the spectrum is characterized by the fractal Weyl law with a fractal dimension df≈1. It is found that the majority of eigenvectors are located in a localized phase. The statistical distribution of articles in the PageRank-CheiRank plane is established providing a better understanding of information flows on the network. The concept of ImpactRank is proposed to determine an influence domain of a given article. We also discuss the properties of random matrix models of Perron-Frobenius operators.

  16. Systematic review of recess interventions to increase physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    With the rapid increase in obesity rates among youth, efforts to increase physical activity (PA) have become a priority. School-based strategies for PA promotion must be cost-effective, unobtrusive, and linked to improved academic performance. Efforts to maximize recess PA are advocated because of both health and academic benefits. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recess interventions aimed to improve PA among youth, and make recommendations to develop related best practices. An extensive literature search was conducted to include all primary research articles evaluating any recess intervention with PA as an outcome. The included 13 interventions represented both settings within the U.S and internationally, among preschools and elementary/primary schools. A variety of strategies were used within the design and implementation of each of the interventions including: added equipment/materials, markings, zones, teacher involvement, active video games, activity of the week, and activity cards. Of the included studies, 95% demonstrated positive outcomes as a result of the recess intervention. A number of simple, low-cost strategies can be implemented to maximize the amount of recess time students are allotted. Long-term follow-up studies are warranted for each of the recess strategies identified to be effective.

  17. Physical properties of Pd and Al transition metals and Pd-Al binary metal alloy investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coruh, A.; Uludogan, M.; Tomak, M.; Cagin, T.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, physical properties, such as Pair Distribution Function g(r), Structure Factor S(k)''1'',''4, Diffusion Coefficient D''2''.''4, Intermediate Scattering function S(k,t)''3'',''4 and Dynamical Structure Factor S(k,w)''3'',''4 of some transition metals and metal alloys are investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation method. The simulation is specified for Pd, Al transition metals and Pd-Al binary metal alloys in the liquid form for different concentrations and at various temperatures by using Quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC) inter atomic potential. Intermediate scattering function and dynamical structure factor are calculated for various values of wave vector k. Results are in good agreement with published data''1'',''3'',''4

  18. A physical model of the effect of irreversible changes in structure and properties of amorphous alloys caused by low-temperature treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajchenko, S.G.; Glezer, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    A low temperature ΔT-effect physical model for amorphous metallic alloys (AMA) is developed. Using Ni-P, Fe-Co-Si-B, Co-Ni-Fe-Si-B, Fe-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Si-B, Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloys the studies are carried out which results support basic concepts of the theory, namely: a motive force for atom drift, resulting in irreversible changes of a short-range order, is at the heart of longitudinal oscillations of AMA ribbon initiate the process of changing the initial short-range order. Variations of topological and short-range orders are responsible for a decrease in yield strength and Young modulus, a Curie point shift, an increase of saturation magnetization at an insignificant drop of coercive force or a significant drop of coercive force at a slight increase of saturation magnetization [ru

  19. Effect of Si addition to Al-8Mg alloy on the microstructure and thermo-physical properties of SiCp/Al composites prepared by pressureless infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shubin; He Xinbo; Qu Xuanhui; Humail, Islam S.; Li Yan

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-five volume percentage of SiCp/Al composites were prepared by pressureless infiltration to investigate the effect of Si addition to Al-8Mg alloy from 0 wt% to 18 wt% on the interfacial reaction between Al and SiC and the thermo-physical properties of the prepared composites. TEM and X-ray analysis showed that the degree of interfacial reaction decreased as the Si content increased, and that it ceased at 1273 K when the Si addition to the aluminum was greater than 12 wt%. The Si addition to Al-8Mg alloy reduced the CTE of the composites and increased their thermal conductivity (TC), but Si beyond 12 wt% led to the reduction of TC, though the CTE was lower. This is attributable to the combined action of the Si on the wettability, interfacial reaction and the TC and CTE of the matrix itself

  20. Noble metal alloys for metal-ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, K J

    1985-10-01

    A review of the comparative characteristics and properties of noble metal alloys used for metal-ceramic restorations has been presented. Selection of an alloy for one's practice should be based on long-term clinical data, physical properties, esthetic potential, and laboratory data on metal-ceramic bond strength and thermal compatibility with commercial dental porcelains. Although gold-based alloys, such as the Au-Pt-Pd, Au-Pd-Ag, and Au-Pd classes, may appear to be costly compared with the palladium-based alloys, they have clearly established their clinical integrity and acceptability over an extended period of time. Other than the relatively low sag resistance of the high gold-low silver content alloys and the potential thermal incompatibility with some commercial porcelain products, few clinical failures have been observed. The palladium-based alloys are less costly than the gold-based alloys. Palladium-silver alloys require extra precautions to minimize porcelain discoloration. Palladium-copper and palladium-cobalt alloys may also cause porcelain discoloration, as copper and cobalt are used as colorants in glasses. The palladium-cobalt alloys are least susceptible to high-temperature creep compared with all classes of noble metals. Nevertheless, insufficient clinical data exist to advocate the general use of the palladium-copper and palladium-cobalt alloys at the present time. One should base the selection and use of these alloys in part on their ability to meet the requirements of the ADA Acceptance Program. A list of acceptable or provisionally acceptable alloys is available from the American Dental Association and is published annually in the Journal of the American Dental Association. Dentists have the legal and ethical responsibility for selection of alloys used for cast restorations. This responsibility should not be delegated to the dental laboratory technician. It is advisable to discuss the criteria for selection of an alloy with the technician and the

  1. Systematic, Evidence-Based Review of Exercise, Physical Activity, and Physical Fitness Effects on Cognition in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W; Scudder, Mark R; DeLuca, John

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence suggests that exercise might have beneficial effects on cognition in this population. The current systematic, evidence-based review examined the existing literature on exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness effects on cognition in MS to accurately describe the current status of the field, offer recommendations for clinicians, and identify study-specific and participant-specific characteristics for providing future direction for ongoing MS research. We performed an open-dated search of Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL in December 2015. The search strategy involved using the terms 'exercise' OR 'physical activity' OR 'physical fitness' OR 'aerobic' OR 'resistance' OR 'balance' OR 'walking' OR 'yoga' OR 'training' OR 'rehabilitation' AND 'multiple sclerosis'. Articles were eliminated from the systematic review if it was a review article, theoretical paper, or textbook chapter; did not involve persons with MS; involved only persons with pediatric-onset MS; did not involve neuropsychological outcomes; did not include empirical data to evaluate outcomes; involved pharmacological interventions; or was not available in English. The selected articles were first classified as examining exercise, physical activity, or physical fitness, and were then randomly assigned to 2 independent reviewers who rated each article for level of evidence based on American Academy of Neurology criteria. Reviewers further completed a table to characterize important elements of each study (i.e., intervention characteristics), the cognitive domain(s) that were targeted, participant-specific characteristics, outcome measures, and study results. The present review resulted in 26 studies on the effects of exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness on cognition in persons with MS. This included 1 Class I study, 3 Class II studies, 8 Class III studies, and

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Introductory Nanoscience: Physical and Chemical Concepts Introductory Nanoscience: Physical and Chemical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bich Ha, Nguyen

    2011-12-01

    main aims of the textbook. The book consists of 15 chapters. According to their detailed contents they can be divided into three groups. In five chapters forming the first group (Introduction, Structure, Length Scales, Types of Nanostructures, Absorption and Emission Basics) the author presents the notions, definitions and concepts related to nanosystems, as well as the length scales of all their physical parameters. The contents of these chapters have been written for all readers studying any undergraduate academic programme in natural sciences and engineering. The subsequent seven chapters forming the second group (A Quantum Mechanics Review, Model Quantum Mechanics Problems, Additional Model Problems, Density of States, Bands, Time-Dependent Perturbation Theory, Interband Transitions) contain a comprehensive and easily understandable presentation of the theoretical basics of nanoscience. The last three chapters (Synthesis, Characterization, Applications) contain presentations on the fundamental methods in the experimental studies and applications of nanosystems. This book is very useful not only for training beginners in research and engineering in nanoscience and nanotechnology, but also for attracting the interest of specialists in other scientific disciplines to the application of the achievements of this new emerging multidisciplinary scientific field.

  3. Multiculturalism in Teaching Physical Education: A Review of U.S. Based Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonseok; Chepyator-Thomson, Rose

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review extant literature on multicultural education in the context of teaching physical education. More specifically, the article was designed to review the literature on physical education teachers' knowledge and skills related to teaching culturally diverse students. The findings revealed teachers' knowledge and…

  4. 77 FR 69505 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting. Name: LIGO Operations Proposal and Annual Review in Physics (1208). Date...

  5. 75 FR 15460 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting. Name: Proposal Review Panel for Physics, LIGO Site Visit in Louisiana (1208...

  6. Key improvements in machining of Ti6al4v alloy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katta, Sivakoteswararao; Chaitanya, G.

    2017-07-01

    Now a days the use of ti-6al-4v alloy is high in demand in many industries like aero space, bio medical automobile, space, military etc. the production rates in the industries are not sufficient because the machiniability of ti-6al-4v is the main problem, there are several cutting tools available for metal cutting operations still there is a gap in finding the proper cutting tool material for machining of ti-6al-4v. because the properties of titanium like high heat resistant, low thermal conductivity, low weight ratio, less corrosiveness, and more many properties attracting the industrialists to use titanium as their material for their products, many researchers done the research on machininbility of ti-6al-4v by using different tool materials. but as for my literature survey there is still lot of scope is available, to find better cutting tool with techniques for machining ti-6al-4v. in this paper iam discussing the work done by various researchers on ti-6al-4v alloy with different techniques.

  7. Determinants of physical activity in university students: a literary review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Caro-Freile

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity refers to the body movement that generates energy expenditure, its frequent practice improves physical and mental functions; Active transportation, daily activities and recreation correspond to the most common form of physical activity. In Colombia the majority of the population is inactive, children are more active, but this condition decreases with age, the percentage of college students who engage in physical activity is low, this practice is conditioned by internal motivation, physical condition, Availability of time and social support. The taste for sports, the competitive spirit, the improvement of the corporal image, the management of the stress and the benefits for the health are motivating factors for the practice of the physical activity in university students; On the other hand, laziness, fear of injury, lack of sports scenarios and insecurity of the environment are the most frequent barriers to physical activity in this population

  8. Quality Management and Control of Low Pressure Cast Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dianxi; Zhang, Yanbo; Yang, Xiufan; Chen, Zhaosong; Jiang, Zelan

    2018-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the history of low pressure casting and summarizes the major production processes of low pressure casting. It briefly introduces the quality management and control of low pressure cast aluminum alloy. The main processes include are: preparation of raw materials, Melting, refining, physical and chemical analysis, K-mode inspection, sand core, mold, heat treatment and so on.

  9. A life course examination of the physical environmental determinants of physical activity behaviour: A "Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity" (DEDIPAC) umbrella systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Angela; Perchoux, Camille; Puggina, Anna; Aleksovska, Katina; Buck, Christoph; Burns, Con; Cardon, Greet; Chantal, Simon; Ciarapica, Donatella; Condello, Giancarlo; Coppinger, Tara; Cortis, Cristina; D'Haese, Sara; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Hansen, Sylvia; Iacoviello, Licia; Issartel, Johann; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Kanning, Martina; Kennedy, Aileen; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Chun Man Ling, Fiona; Luzak, Agnes; Napolitano, Giorgio; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Sannella, Alessandra; Schulz, Holger; Sohun, Rhoda; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Walter; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Capranica, Laura; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a multitude of health benefits across the life course. However, many people fail to meet PA recommendations. Despite a plethora of studies, the evidence regarding the environmental (physical) determinants of physical activity remains inconclusive. To identify the physical environmental determinants that influence PA across the life course. An online systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and SPORTDiscus. The search was limited to studies published in English (January 2004 to April 2016). Only systematic literature reviews (SLRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies, that investigated the association between physical determinants and physical activity outcomes, were eligible for inclusion. The extracted data were assessed on the importance of determinants, strength of evidence and methodological quality. The literature search identified 28 SLRs and 3 MAs on 67 physical environmental characteristics potentially related to physical activity that were eligible for inclusion. Among preschool children, a positive association was reported between availability of backyard space and outdoor toys/equipment in the home and overall physical activity. The availability of physical activity programs and equipment within schools, and neighbourhood features such as pedestrian and cyclist safety structure were positively associated with physical activity in children and adolescents. Negative street characteristics, for example, lack of sidewalks and streetlights, were negatively associated with physical activity in adults. Inconsistent associations were reported for the majority of reviewed determinants in adults. This umbrella SLR provided a comprehensive overview of the physical environment determinants of physical activity across the life course and has highlighted, particularly amongst youth, a number of key determinants that may be associated with overall

  10. The Benefits of Active Video Games for Educational and Physical Activity Approaches: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino Campos, Carlos; del Castillo Fernández, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    This article sets out to conduct a systematic review of the current literature on active video games as potential educational tools for physical education or physical activity. To begin with, research on active video games for educational and physical purposes has been examined with the purpose of verifying improvement of attitudes, intellectual…

  11. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  12. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmerhorst, Hendrik J. F.; Brage, Søren; Warren, Janet; Besson, Herve; Ekelund, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA) and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and

  13. 78 FR 25101 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics, Notice of Meeting In accordance... Physics, 1208 Date and Time: Tuesday, April 30, 2013; 8:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m., Wednesday, May 1, 2013, 8:00 a... Meeting: Partially Closed. Contact Person: Mark Coles, Director of Large Facilities, Division of Physics...

  14. 75 FR 67142 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: Name: Site Visit to the Center for the Physics of Living Cells 1208. Dates... Physics of Living Cells (CPLC). Agenda Monday, November 8, 2010 9 a.m.-11:55 a.m.--Open--Directors...

  15. 75 FR 63865 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting. Name: Michigan State University Site Visit in Physics (1208). Date and Time... Reidy, Program Director for Elementary Particle Physics, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd...

  16. 75 FR 3493 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting. Name: University of Nebraska Site Visit in Physics (1208). Date and Time... Director for Elementary Particle Physics, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA...

  17. 75 FR 57298 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting. Name: University of Notre Dame Site Visit in Physics (1208). Date and Time..., Program Director for Physics Education and Disciplinary Research, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson...

  18. Final report on characterization of physical and mechanical properties of copper and copper alloys before and after irradiation. (ITER R and D Task no. T213)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Taehtinen, S.

    2001-12-01

    The present report summarizes and highlights the main results of the work carried out during the last 5 - 6 years on effects of neutron irradiation on physical and mechanical properties of copper and copper alloys. The work was an European contribution to ITER Research and Development programme and was carried out by the Associations Euratom - Risoe and Euratom - Tekes. Details of the investigations carried out within the framework of the present task and the main results have been reported in various reports and journal publication. On the basis of these results some conclusions are drawn regarding the suitability of a copper alloy for its use in the first wall and divertor components of ITER. It is pointed out that the present work has managed only to identify some of the critical problems and limitations of the copper alloys for their employment in the hostile environment of 14 MeV neutrons. A considerable amount of further effort is needed to find a realistic and optimum solution. (au)

  19. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coating with Si content on the nanotube-formed Ti–Nb–Zr alloy using electron beam-physical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on the nanotube-formed Ti–35Nb–10Zr alloy. The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) coatings on the nanotube structure were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition and anodization methods, and biodegradation properties were analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. The surface characteristics were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Si–HA layers were deposited with rough features having highly ordered nanotube structures on the titanium alloy substrate. The thickness of the Si–HA coating was less than that of the HA coating. The XRD results confirmed that the Si–HA coating on the nanotube structure consisted of TiO 2 anatase, TiO 2 rutile, hydroxyapatite, and calcium phosphate silicate. The Si–HA coating surface exhibited lower I corr than the HA coating, and the polarization resistance was increased by substitution of silicon in hydroxyapatite. - Highlights: • Silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) was coated on nanotubular titanium alloy. • The Si–HA coating thickness was less than single hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. • Si–HA coatings consisted of TiO 2 , HA, and Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 2 SiO 4 . • Polarization resistance of the coating was increased by Si substitution in HA

  20. Selective Laser Melting Technique of Co-Cr Dental Alloys: A Review of Structure and Properties and Comparative Analysis with Other Available Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoukis, Theodoros; Zinelis, Spiros; Eliades, George; Al-Wazzan, Khalid; Rifaiy, Mohammed Al; Al Jabbari, Youssef S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effect of selective laser melting (SLM) procedure on the properties of dental structures made of Co-Cr alloys and to evaluate its quality and compare it to those produced by conventional casting and milling fabrication techniques. A computerized database search using PubMed and Scopus was conducted for peer-reviewed scientific research studies regarding the use of SLM in Co-Cr dental alloys with no restrictions for publication years. The search engines provided hundreds of results, and only 48 scientific research papers, case studies, or literature reviews were considered relevant for this review. The innovative manufacturing concept of SLM offers many advantages compared with casting and milling fabrication techniques. SLM provides different microstructure from casting and milling with minimal internal porosity and internal fitting, marginal adaptation, and comparable bond strength to porcelain. Mechanical and electrochemical properties of SLM structures are enhanced compared to cast, while clinical longevity of single-metal ceramic crowns is comparable to Au-Pt dental alloy. The SLM technique provides dental prosthetic restorations more quickly and less expensively without compromising their quality compared with restorations prepared by casting and milling techniques. The current SLM devices provide metallic restorations made of Co-Cr alloys for removable and fixed partial dentures without compromising the alloy or restoration properties at a fraction of the time and cost, showing great potential to replace the aforementioned fabrication techniques in the long term; however, further clinical studies are essential to increase the acceptance of this technology by the worldwide dental community. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. A Review of Smartphone Applications for Promoting Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Whitehead, Mary; Sheats, Joyce Q; Mastromonico, Jeff; Smith, Selina

    Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in health promotion research and practice. Although many applications (apps) relating to physical activity are available from major smartphone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their effectiveness in promoting health. In this article, we summarize data on use of smartphone apps for promoting physical activity based upon bibliographic searches with relevant search terms in PubMed and CINAHL. After screening the abstracts or full texts of articles, 15 eligible studies of the acceptability or efficacy of smartphone apps for increasing physical activity were identified. Of the 15 included studies, 6 were qualitative research studies, 8 were randomized control trials, and one was a nonrandomized study with a pre-post design. The results indicate that smartphone apps can be efficacious in promoting physical activity although the magnitude of the intervention effect is modest. Participants of various ages and genders respond favorably to apps that automatically track physical activity (e.g., steps taken), track progress toward physical activity goals, and are user-friendly and flexible enough for use with several types of physical activity. Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to establish the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as physical activity.

  2. A Review of Smartphone Applications for Promoting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Whitehead, Mary; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Mastromonico, Jeff; Smith, Selina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in health promotion research and practice. Although many applications (apps) relating to physical activity are available from major smartphone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their effectiveness in promoting health. Methods In this article, we summarize data on use of smartphone apps for promoting physical activity based upon bibliographic searches with relevant search terms in PubMed and CINAHL. Results After screening the abstracts or full texts of articles, 15 eligible studies of the acceptability or efficacy of smartphone apps for increasing physical activity were identified. Of the 15 included studies, 6 were qualitative research studies, 8 were randomized control trials, and one was a nonrandomized study with a pre-post design. The results indicate that smartphone apps can be efficacious in promoting physical activity although the magnitude of the intervention effect is modest. Participants of various ages and genders respond favorably to apps that automatically track physical activity (e.g., steps taken), track progress toward physical activity goals, and are user-friendly and flexible enough for use with several types of physical activity. Discussion Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to establish the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as physical activity. PMID:27034992

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Key Science Physics: New Edition and Key Science Physics for International Schools: Extension File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybank, Maureen

    1999-09-01

    When handling , I recalled how one set of sixth-form students that I taught affectionately referred to Jim Breithaupt's large format book Understanding Physics for Advanced Level as `Big Jim'. This package, for GCSE students and teachers, is its younger brother. Key Science Physics was reviewed in this journal over four years ago. Now it is in a new edition with an expanded ring file of teacher resources (a Teacher's Guide and Extension File). It has been expanded for a wider range of students to meet the requirements of all GCSE syllabuses with additional topics for IGCSE and IB. The international bit seems to be among materials in the file of resources and does not appear in the title of the students' textbook. This is not one of those purchases that will only get occasional use and be left in a department library but it is one that contains sufficient excellent material to become central to any GCSE Physics course. For the students there is a single-volume 396-page textbook in full colour (not a heavyweight book). Marginal comments point out places where an Activity or Assignment from the Extension File fits in. All the materials in the teacher's Extension File are cross referenced to the numbering of this textbook, i.e. its Themes, Topics, Checkpoints, Tests etc, not to page numbers. The margin is used in other attractive ways to highlight a summary, propose a first thought or provide a topic summary. The text is fruitful mix of pure physics, applications and personalities. To support the students' practical work the Extension File contains photocopiable sheets. For the activities and assignments a few contain a harder version to give access to the higher levels of attainment. Four alternatives to practical questions are given; there are also exam questions and multiple choice questions for each topic. These all have helpful mark schemes on the teacher's answers pages. What else do you get? A Glossary collection of sheets to photocopy with space to enter a

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Introduction to Black Hole Physics Introduction to Black Hole Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takahiro

    2012-07-01

    Introduction to Black Hole Physics is a large volume (504 pages), and yet despite this it is still really an introductory text. The book gives an introduction to general relativity, but most of the text is dedicated to attracting the reader's attention to the interesting world of black hole physics. In this sense, the book is very distinct from other textbooks on general relativity. We are told that it was based on the lectures given by Professor Frolov, one of the authors, over the last 30 years. One can obtain the basic ideas about black holes, and also the necessary tips to understand general relativity at a very basic level. For example, in the discussion about particle motion in curved space, the authors start with a brief review on analytical mechanics. The book does not require its readers to have a great deal of knowledge in advance. If you are familiar with such a basic subject, you can simply omit that section. The reason why I especially picked up on this topic as an example is that the book devotes a significant number of pages to geodesic motions in black hole spacetime. One of the main motivations to study black holes is related to how they will actually be observed, once we develop the ability to observe them clearly. The book does explain such discoveries as, for instance, how the motion of a particle is related to a beautiful mathematical structure arising from the hidden symmetry of spacetime, which became transparent via the recent progress in the exploration of black holes in higher dimensions; a concise introduction to this latest topic is deferred to Appendix D, so as not to distract the reader with its mathematical complexities. It should be also mentioned that the book is not limited to general relativistic aspects: quantum fields on a black hole background and Hawking radiation are also covered. Also included are current hot topics, for instance the gravitational waves from a system including black holes, whose first direct detection is

  5. Promotion of physical activity interventions for community dwelling older adults: A systematic review of reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Zubala

    Full Text Available While there is strong evidence that regular participation in physical activity (PA brings numerous health benefits to older adults, and interventions to effectively promote PA are being developed and tested, the characteristics and components of the most effective interventions remain unclear. This systematically conducted review of systematic reviews evaluated the effects and characteristics of PA promotion interventions aimed at community dwelling people over 50 years old.Major databases were searched for reviews from January 1990 to May 2015. TIDieR guidelines aided data extraction and the ROBIS tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Primary outcomes were objective and self-reported levels of PA. Indicators of psychological wellbeing and participation rates were secondary outcomes.Of 1284 records identified, 19 reviews met inclusion criteria and eight included meta-analyses. Interventions typically incorporated behaviour change techniques (BCTs and were delivered as face-to-face, remote, group, individual or as combined interventions. Despite their heterogeneity, interventions often resulted in sustained improvements in PA over the study period, typically at 12 months, and led to improvements in general wellbeing. However, ways to ensure effective maintenance beyond one year are unclear. Certain intervention components were more clearly associated with positive effects (e.g. tailoring promotion strategy with combination of cognitive and behavioural elements, low to moderate intensity activity recommended. We found no evidence that certain other intervention characteristics were superior in achieving positive outcomes (e.g. mode of delivery, setting, professional background of the intervention provider, type of PA recommended.The evidence suggests that interventions to promote PA among older adults are generally effective but there is uncertainty around the most beneficial intervention components. There are indications that purely cognitive

  6. Promotion of physical activity interventions for community dwelling older adults: A systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubala, Ania; MacGillivray, Stephen; Frost, Helen; Kroll, Thilo; Skelton, Dawn A; Gavine, Anna; Gray, Nicola M; Toma, Madalina; Morris, Jacqui

    2017-01-01

    While there is strong evidence that regular participation in physical activity (PA) brings numerous health benefits to older adults, and interventions to effectively promote PA are being developed and tested, the characteristics and components of the most effective interventions remain unclear. This systematically conducted review of systematic reviews evaluated the effects and characteristics of PA promotion interventions aimed at community dwelling people over 50 years old. Major databases were searched for reviews from January 1990 to May 2015. TIDieR guidelines aided data extraction and the ROBIS tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Primary outcomes were objective and self-reported levels of PA. Indicators of psychological wellbeing and participation rates were secondary outcomes. Of 1284 records identified, 19 reviews met inclusion criteria and eight included meta-analyses. Interventions typically incorporated behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and were delivered as face-to-face, remote, group, individual or as combined interventions. Despite their heterogeneity, interventions often resulted in sustained improvements in PA over the study period, typically at 12 months, and led to improvements in general wellbeing. However, ways to ensure effective maintenance beyond one year are unclear. Certain intervention components were more clearly associated with positive effects (e.g. tailoring promotion strategy with combination of cognitive and behavioural elements, low to moderate intensity activity recommended). We found no evidence that certain other intervention characteristics were superior in achieving positive outcomes (e.g. mode of delivery, setting, professional background of the intervention provider, type of PA recommended). The evidence suggests that interventions to promote PA among older adults are generally effective but there is uncertainty around the most beneficial intervention components. There are indications that purely cognitive strategies

  7. Effects of heat treatments and neutron irradiation on the physical and mechanical properties of copper alloys at 100 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Eldrup, M.; Toft, P.; Edwards, D.J.

    1998-05-01

    The final irradiation experiment in a series of screening experiments aimed at investigating the effects of bonding and bakeout thermal cycles on irradiated copper alloys is described herein. Tensile specimens of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys were given various heat treatments corresponding to solution anneal, prime-ageing and bonding thermal treatment. Additional specimens were reaged and given a reactor bakeout treatment at 350 deg. C for 100 h. GlidCop TM CuAl-15 (previously referred to as CuAl-25) was given a heat treatment corresponding to a bonding thermal cycle only. Specimens were neutron irradiated at 100 deg. C to a dose level of ∼0.3 dpa. Post-irradiation tensile tests at (100 deg. C), electrical resistivity measurements (at 23 deg. C), and microstructural examinations were performed. The post-irradiation tests at 100 deg. C revealed that the greatest loss of ductility occurred in the CuCrZr alloys irradiated at 100 deg. C, irrespective of the pre-irradiation heat treatment, with the uniform elongation dropping to levels of less than 1.5%. The yield and ultimate strengths for all of the individual heat treated samples increased substantially after irradiation. The same trend was observed for the CuNiBe alloys, which exhibited much higher uniform elongation and strength after irradiation than that observed in the case of CuCrZr alloys. In both alloys irradiation-induced precipitation lead to a large increase in the strength of the solution annealed specimens with a noticeable decrease in uniform elongation. The CuAl-25 alloy also experienced an increase in the overall strength of the alloy after irradiation, accompanied by approximately a 50% decrease in the uniform and total elongation. The additional bakeout treatments given to the CuCrZr and CuNiBe before irradiation served to increase the strength, but in terms of the ductility no improvement or degradation resulted from the additional thermal exposure

  8. Simultaneous evaluation of physical and social environmental correlates of physical activity in adults: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Sawyer

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Inconsistent evidence of independent associations between environmental variables and physical activity could be partly due to unmeasured effect modification (e.g. interactive effects creating unaccounted variance in relationships between the environment and activity. Results supported multiple levels of environmental influence on physical activity. It is recommended that further research uses simultaneous or interaction analyses to gain insight into complex relationships between neighbourhood social and physical environments and physical activity, as there is currently limited research in this area.

  9. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Promotion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…

  10. Surface characterization and corrosion behavior of calcium phosphate-base composite layer on titanium and its alloys via plasma electrolytic oxidation: A review paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieerad, A R; Ashra, M R; Mahmoodian, R; Bushroa, A R

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Physical Therapy Education: A Review of Strategies and Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    2015-01-01

    Title: Promoting Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Physical Therapy Education: A Review of Strategies and Approaches Juneja H1, Brekke A F2 1,2 Physical Therapy Education, University College Zealand, Denmark Background: Clinical reasoning (CR) also referred to as “critical thinking” or “decision....... It is imperative that physical therapy educators utilize innovative pedagogical methods to facilitate learning of reasoning skills in students. Purpose: The review is an attempt to highlight and discuss selected pedagogical strategies and approaches to enhance clinical reasoning skills in undergraduate physical...... programs was shortlisted for the review. References of pertinent literature were scanned to identify further relevant citations. Results: The review provides a detailed insight into the interwoven nature of pedagogical techniques to promote clinical reasoning being used by different physical therapy...

  12. Physical Activity in Community Dwelling Older People: A Systematic Review of Reviews of Interventions and Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Olanrewaju

    Full Text Available The promotion and maintenance of higher physical activity (PA levels in the older population is an imperative for cognitive and healthy ageing but it is unclear what approaches are best suited to achieve this for the increasing number of older people living in the community. Effective policies should be informed by robust, multi-disciplinary and multi-dimensional evidence, which not only seeks what works, but in 'what context? In addition to evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of PA for maintaining cognitive health, social contexts such as 'how do we actually get older people to partake in PA?' and 'how do we sustain that activity long-term?' also need highlighting. This review is part of a comprehensive evidence synthesis of preventive interventions in older age, with a focus on healthy behaviours to identify evidence gaps and inform policy relating to ageing well and cognitive health. An overview of systematic reviews of PA was conducted to explore three topics: (1 PA efficacy or effectiveness for primary prevention of cognitive decline in 55+; (2 Interventions efficacious or effective for increasing PA uptake and maintenance in 55+; (3 barriers and facilitators to PA in 55+.Multiple databases were searched for studies in English from OECD countries between 2000 and 2016. Quality of included reviews in questions (1 and (2 were assessed using AMSTAR. Review protocols were registered on PROSPERO (CRD42014015554, 42014015584, CRD42014015557 and reviews follow PRISMA guideline.Overall, 40 systematic reviews were included. Question 1 (n = 14. 8,360 participants. Evidence suggests that PA confer mild positive effects on cognition in older adults with and without previous cognitive impairment. However, there is insufficient evidence of a dose-response relationship. Evidence on the effects of PA on delay of dementia onset is inconclusive. Question 2 (n = 17. 79,650 participants. Evidence supports the effectiveness of a variety of interventions

  13. Concentration dependence of physical properties of liquid NaF–LiF–NdF{sub 3} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulavin, L. [Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Faculty of Physics, 2 Glushkova Ave., 03022 Kyiv (Ukraine); Plevachuk, Yu., E-mail: plevachuk@mail.lviv.ua [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 8 Kyrylo and Mephodiy Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Sklyarchuk, V. [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 8 Kyrylo and Mephodiy Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Omelchuk, A.; Faidiuk, N.; Savchuk, R. [V.I. Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 prosp. Akad. Palladina, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Shtablavyy, I.; Vus, V. [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 8 Kyrylo and Mephodiy Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Yakymovych, A. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry (Materials Chemistry), University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Molten NaF–LiF–NdF{sub 3} eutectic and peritectic alloys can be used in liquid salt reactors. • A stepped dissociation exists well above melting in the both alloys. • Anomalous properties behaviour proves that a short-range order persists after melting. • Transformation of structure spread to a wide temperature range in the liquid phase. - Abstract: Experimental studies of viscosity, thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity of the ionic liquid alloys NaF–LiF–NdF{sub 3} were carried out in the wide temperature intervals above the melting points. Similar temperature dependences of these properties for different melt compositions have been revealed. The alloy composition has a significant influence on the interval of melt homogeneity and behaviour of the thermoelectric power temperature coefficient. It was found that a small shift from the peritectic to eutectic composition increases considerable the viscosity. A correlation between the structure and thermophysical properties has been analyzed. The results can be used in modelling a blanket for the liquid salt reactor.

  14. [Physical activity and cancer: Update and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnoyers, A; Riesco, E; Fülöp, T; Pavic, M

    2016-06-01

    Physical activity is a key determinant of public health and contributes to decreasing the prevalence of many diseases. Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Physical activity, accessible to the entire population, could prevent up to 25% of cancers, in addition to improving survival rates and quality of life in cancer patients. Physical activity acts via various mechanisms to slow or decrease tumor growth, including the production and bioavailability of sex hormones, insulin resistance and insulin secretion, and inflammation. In primary prevention, physical activity reduces breast cancer risk by 15-20% and colorectal cancer risk by 24%. All-cause mortality is reduced by 33% in cancer survivors who exercise. Health-related quality of life, fatigue and depression are enhanced by the practice of physical activity in cancer patients. In the general population, the global recommendations on physical activity for health, published by the World Health Organisation, are suggested as a means of primary prevention of cancer. In cancer patients, an adapted physical activity routine is promoted from the very beginning of patient care to decrease fatigue as well as improve tolerance and benefits of treatments. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of bonding bakeout thermal cycles on pre- and post irradiation microstructures, physical, and mechanical properties of copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.N.; Eldrup, M.; Toft, P.; Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    At present, dispersion strengthened (DS) copper is being considered as the primary candidate material for the ITER first wall and divertor components. Recently, it was agreed among the ITER parties that a backup alloy should be selected from the two well known precipitation hardened copper alloys, CuCrZr and CuNiBe. It was therefore decided to carry out screening experiments to simulate the effect of bonding and bakeout thermal cycles on microstructure, mechanical properties, and electrical resistivity of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys. On the basis of the results of these experiments, one of the two alloys will be selected as a backup material. Tensile specimens of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys were given various heat treatments corresponding to solution anneal, prime ageing, and bonding thermal cycle followed by reageing and the reactor bakeout treatment at 623K for 100 hours. Tensile specimens of the DS copper were also given the heat treatment corresponding to the bonding thermal cycle. A number of these heat treated specimens of CuCrZr, CuNiBe, and DS copper were neutron irradiated at 523K to a dose level of {approx}0.3 dpa (NRT) in the DR-3 reactor at Riso. Both unirradiated and irradiated specimens with the various heat treatments were tensile tested at 532K. The dislocation, precipitate and void microstructures and electrical resistivity of these specimens were also determined. Results of these investigations will be reported and discussed in terms of thermal and irradiation stability of precipitates and irradiation-induced precipitation and recovery of dislocation microstructure. Results show that the bonding and bakeout thermal cycles are not likely to have any serious deleterious effects on the performance of these alloys. The CuNiBe alloys were found to be susceptible to radiation-induced embrittlement, however, the exact mechanism is not yet known. It is thought that radiation-induced precipitation and segregation of the beryllium may be responsible.

  16. Impact damage resistance and damage suppression properties of shape memory alloys in hybrid composites—a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angioni, S L; Meo, M; Foreman, A

    2011-01-01

    Composite materials are known to have a poor resistance to through-the-thickness impact loading. There are various methods for improving their impact damage tolerance, such as fiber toughening, matrix toughening, interface toughening, through-the-thickness reinforcements, and selective interlayers and hybrids. Hybrid composites with improved impact resistance are particularly useful in military and commercial civil applications. Hybridizing composites using shape memory alloys (SMA) is one solution since SMA materials can absorb the energy of the impact through superelastic deformation or recovery stress, reducing the effects of the impact on the composite structure. The SMA material may be embedded in the hybrid composites (SMAHC) in many different forms and also the characteristics of the fiber reinforcements may vary, such as SMA wires in woven laminates or SMA foils in unidirectional laminates, only to cite two examples. We will review the state of the art of SMAHC for the purpose of damage suppression. Both the active and passive damage suppression mechanisms will be considered. (topical review)

  17. Recent advances in alloy design of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for structural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; George, E.P.

    1996-12-31

    This is a comprehensive review of recent advances in R&D of Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys for structural use at elevated temperatures in hostile environments. Recent studies indicate that polycrystalline Ni{sub 3}Al is intrinsically quite ductile at ambient temperatures, and its poor tensile ductility and brittle grain-boundary fracture are caused mainly by moisture-induced hydrogen embrittlement when the aluminide is tested in moisture- or hydrogen-containing environments. Tensile ductility is improved by alloying with substitutional and interstitial elements. Among these additives, B is most effective in suppressing environmental embrittlement and enhancing grain-boundary cohesion, resulting in a dramatic increase of tensile ductility at room temperature. Both B-doped and B-free Ni{sub 3}Al alloys exhibit brittle intergranular fracture and low ductility at intermediate temperatures (300-850 C) because of oxygen-induced embrittlement in oxidizing environments. Cr is found to be most effective in alleviating elevated-temperature embrittlement. Parallel efforts on alloy development using physical metallurgy principles have led to development of several Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for industrial use. The unique properties of these alloys are briefly discussed. 56 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs.

  18. An Evaluation of the Physical Environments of a Nuclear Power Plants for Human Factors Review in Periodic Safety Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Yong Hee

    2006-01-01

    Currently, operation of a nuclear power plants(NPP) is highly emphasized by the integrity of the H/W and the human factors security, so the periodic safety review(PSR) is performed to NPP. The PSR activities on human factors include physical environments (illumination, noise, vibration, temperature and humidity etc). The review on these physical environments is to verify the possible affect to the human error during the operation of the man machine interface. Physical environments affect the health, job stress and job satisfaction of NPP's employees. On the ground of the reason, we need integrating the management program for the sufficient satisfaction of the regulatory basis and standards of physical environment and considering a health, a job stress and satisfaction of NPP's employees. So, this paper describes the planning of the setup procedures of physical environments and the adequate management program for the field applications in NPPs

  19. An Evaluation of the Physical Environments of a Nuclear Power Plants for Human Factors Review in Periodic Safety Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, operation of a nuclear power plants(NPP) is highly emphasized by the integrity of the H/W and the human factors security, so the periodic safety review(PSR) is performed to NPP. The PSR activities on human factors include physical environments (illumination, noise, vibration, temperature and humidity etc). The review on these physical environments is to verify the possible affect to the human error during the operation of the man machine interface. Physical environments affect the health, job stress and job satisfaction of NPP's employees. On the ground of the reason, we need integrating the management program for the sufficient satisfaction of the regulatory basis and standards of physical environment and considering a health, a job stress and satisfaction of NPP's employees. So, this paper describes the planning of the setup procedures of physical environments and the adequate management program for the field applications in NPPs.

  20. Adaptive Review of Three Fundamental Questions in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    In the recent decades, the amazing changes have occurred in the theoretical physics and the rate of its improvement has been rising very extensively. The neutron and positron were discovered in 1932 which before that only electron, proton and photon were known. Today, the Standard Model of elemen......In the recent decades, the amazing changes have occurred in the theoretical physics and the rate of its improvement has been rising very extensively. The neutron and positron were discovered in 1932 which before that only electron, proton and photon were known. Today, the Standard Model....... Perhaps it is only a part of a bigger picture of the modern physics which includes the deeper and hidden layer of subatomic world that has been dipped into the darkness of the universe. The question is, where is the hidden part of modern physics? Hidden part of modern physics lies beyond the uncertainty...... principle. Included in the sub quantum scale, where quantum interactions between photons and gravitons done. Hidden and dark side of modern physics is also a place where charged particles absorb and emit energy quanta, without any description of the mechanism of absorption and emission by charged particles...

  1. A review of the effect of neutron irradiation on the deformation behaviour of copper and copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, H.R.

    1976-08-01

    The basic mechanisms of irradiation hardening are described. The effects of neutron dose, alloying and pre-irradiation deformation on the deformation behaviour of neutron-irradiatied copper and its alloys are considered. The discrepancy in the reported data is discussed. Substitutional and interstitial additions are found to influence the rate of irradiation hardening, while pre-irradiation deformation has no influence. The deformation behaviour of copper is found to alter as a result of irradiation and alloying. (author)

  2. The effectiveness of pretreatment physics plan review for detecting errors in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopan, Olga; Zeng, Jing; Novak, Avrey; Nyflot, Matthew; Ford, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The pretreatment physics plan review is a standard tool for ensuring treatment quality. Studies have shown that the majority of errors in radiation oncology originate in treatment planning, which underscores the importance of the pretreatment physics plan review. This quality assurance measure is fundamentally important and central to the safety of patients and the quality of care that they receive. However, little is known about its effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to analyze reported incidents to quantify the effectiveness of the pretreatment physics plan review with the goal of improving it. Methods: This study analyzed 522 potentially severe or critical near-miss events within an institutional incident learning system collected over a three-year period. Of these 522 events, 356 originated at a workflow point that was prior to the pretreatment physics plan review. The remaining 166 events originated after the pretreatment physics plan review and were not considered in the study. The applicable 356 events were classified into one of the three categories: (1) events detected by the pretreatment physics plan review, (2) events not detected but “potentially detectable” by the physics review, and (3) events “not detectable” by the physics review. Potentially detectable events were further classified by which specific checks performed during the pretreatment physics plan review detected or could have detected the event. For these events, the associated specific check was also evaluated as to the possibility of automating that check given current data structures. For comparison, a similar analysis was carried out on 81 events from the international SAFRON radiation oncology incident learning system. Results: Of the 356 applicable events from the institutional database, 180/356 (51%) were detected or could have been detected by the pretreatment physics plan review. Of these events, 125 actually passed through the physics review; however

  3. The effectiveness of pretreatment physics plan review for detecting errors in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopan, Olga; Zeng, Jing; Novak, Avrey; Nyflot, Matthew; Ford, Eric, E-mail: eford@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 356043, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: The pretreatment physics plan review is a standard tool for ensuring treatment quality. Studies have shown that the majority of errors in radiation oncology originate in treatment planning, which underscores the importance of the pretreatment physics plan review. This quality assurance measure is fundamentally important and central to the safety of patients and the quality of care that they receive. However, little is known about its effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to analyze reported incidents to quantify the effectiveness of the pretreatment physics plan review with the goal of improving it. Methods: This study analyzed 522 potentially severe or critical near-miss events within an institutional incident learning system collected over a three-year period. Of these 522 events, 356 originated at a workflow point that was prior to the pretreatment physics plan review. The remaining 166 events originated after the pretreatment physics plan review and were not considered in the study. The applicable 356 events were classified into one of the three categories: (1) events detected by the pretreatment physics plan review, (2) events not detected but “potentially detectable” by the physics review, and (3) events “not detectable” by the physics review. Potentially detectable events were further classified by which specific checks performed during the pretreatment physics plan review detected or could have detected the event. For these events, the associated specific check was also evaluated as to the possibility of automating that check given current data structures. For comparison, a similar analysis was carried out on 81 events from the international SAFRON radiation oncology incident learning system. Results: Of the 356 applicable events from the institutional database, 180/356 (51%) were detected or could have been detected by the pretreatment physics plan review. Of these events, 125 actually passed through the physics review; however

  4. Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys: Phase composition, texture, and anisotropy of mechanical properties (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsofen, S. Ya.; Antipov, V. V.; Knyazev, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    The results of studying the phase transformations, the texture formation, and the anisotropy of the mechanical properties in Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys are generalized. A technique and equations are developed to calculate the amounts of the S1 (Al2MgLi), T1 (Al2CuLi), and δ' (Al3Li) phases. The fraction of the δ' phase in Al-Cu-Li alloys is shown to be significantly higher than in Al-Mg-Li alloys. Therefore, the role of the T1 phase in the hardening of Al-Cu-Li alloys is thought to be overestimated, especially in alloys with more than 1.5% Li. A new model is proposed to describe the hardening of Al-Cu-Li alloys upon aging, and the results obtained with this model agree well with the experimental data. A texture, which is analogous to that in aluminum alloys, is shown to form in sheets semiproducts made of Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys. The more pronounced anisotropy of the properties of lithium-containing aluminum alloys is caused by a significant fraction of the ordered coherent δ' phase, the deformation mechanism in which differs radically from that in the solid solution.

  5. Strength-Ductility Property Maps of Powder Metallurgy (PM) Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: A Critical Review of Processing-Structure-Property Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Chandran, K. S. Ravi

    2017-05-01

    A comprehensive assessment of tensile properties of powder metallurgical (PM) processed Ti-6Al-4V alloy, through the mapping of strength-ductility property domains, is performed in this review. Tensile property data of PM Ti-6Al-4V alloys made from blended element (BE) and pre-alloyed powders including that additive manufactured (AM) from powders, as well as that made using titanium hydride powders, have been mapped in the form of strength-ductility domains. Based on this, porosity and microstructure have been identified as the dominant variables controlling both the strength and the tensile ductility of the final consolidated materials. The major finding is that tensile ductility of the PM titanium is most sensitive to the presence of pores. The significance of extreme-sized pores or defects in inducing large variations in ductility is emphasized. The tensile strength, however, has been found to depend only weakly on the porosity. The effect of microstructure on properties is masked by the variations in porosity and to some extent by the oxygen level. It is shown that any meaningful comparison of the microstructure can only be made under a constant porosity or density level. The beneficial effect of a refined microstructure is also brought out by logically organizing the data in terms of microstructure groups. The advantages of new processes, using titanium hydride powder to produce PM titanium alloys, in simultaneously increasing strength and ductility, are also highlighted. The tensile properties of AM Ti-6Al-4V alloys are also brought to light, in comparison with the other PM and wrought alloys, through the strength-ductility maps.

  6. Inspection methods for physical protection Task III review of other agencies' physical security activities for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Task I of this project, the current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) position-on physical security practices and procedures at research reactors were reviewed. In the second task, a sampling of the physical security plans was presented and the three actual reactor sites described in the security plans were visited. The purpose of Task III is to review other agencies' physical security activities for research reactors. During this phase, the actions, procedures and policies of two domestic and two foreign agencies other than the NRC that relate to the research reactor community were examined. The agencies examined were: International Atomic Energy Agency; Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board; Department of Energy; and American Nuclear Insurers

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  9. Homework in Physical Education? A Review of Physical Education Homework Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kory

    2018-01-01

    The use of homework in physical education has not historically been a topic of intense study. Relatively few studies have been devoted to the topic, particularly when compared to the use of homework in classroom settings. Nonetheless, some physical educators have suggested the assignment of homework as a way to meet important objectives and…

  10. Physical Activity Interventions With African American or Latino Men: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M; Bergner, Erin M; Cornish, Emily K; McQueen, Chelsea M

    2018-07-01

    Relatively little is known about what helps increase physical activity in African American men, and even less is known about promoting physical activity among Latino men. This systematic review aimed to address the key questions: (a) what is the state of the evidence on health-related behavior change interventions targeting physical activity among African American or Latino men? and (b) What factors facilitate physical activity for these men? For this review, nine electronic databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles published between 2011-2017 that reported interventions to promote physical activity among African American or Latino men. Following PRISMA guidelines, nine articles representing seven studies that met our criteria were identified: six published studies that provided data for African American men, and one published study provided data for Latino men. Consistent with previous reviews, more research is needed to better understand how gender can be incorporated in physical activity interventions for African American and Latino men. Future interventions should explore how being an adult male and a man of color shapes motivations, attitudes, and preferences to be physically active. Studies should consider how race and ethnicity intersect with notions of masculinity, manhood and Machismo to enhance the effectiveness of physical activity interventions for these populations. Despite the health benefits of physical activity, rates of these behaviors remain low among African American and Latino men. It is essential to determine how best to increase the motivation and salience for these men to overcome the obesogenic environments and contexts in which they often live.

  11. A low proportion of systematic reviews in physical therapy are registered: a survey of 150 published systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Crystian B; Elkins, Mark R; Lemes, Ítalo Ribeiro; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Briani, Ronaldo V; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz; Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis de; Pinto, Rafael Zambelli

    Systematic reviews provide the best evidence about the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. Although systematic reviews are conducted with explicit and transparent methods, discrepancies might occur between the protocol and the publication. To estimate the proportion of systematic reviews of physical therapy interventions that are registered, the methodological quality of (un)registered systematic reviews and the prevalence of outcome reporting bias in registered systematic reviews. A random sample of 150 systematic reviews published in 2015 indexed on the PEDro database. We included systematic reviews written in English, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. A checklist for assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews tool was used. Relative risk was calculated to explore the association between meta-analysis results and the changes in the outcomes. Twenty-nine (19%) systematic reviews were registered. Funding and publication in a journal with an impact factor higher than 5.0 were associated with registration. Registered systematic reviews demonstrated significantly higher methodological quality (median=8) than unregistered systematic reviews (median=5). Nine (31%) registered systematic reviews demonstrated discrepancies between protocol and publication with no evidence that such discrepancies were applied to favor the statistical significance of the intervention (RR=1.16; 95% CI: 0.63-2.12). A low proportion of systematic reviews in the physical therapy field are registered. The registered systematic reviews showed high methodological quality without evidence of outcome reporting bias. Further strategies should be implemented to encourage registration. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical Activity to Improve Erectile Function: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, Helle Nygaard; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Graugaard, Christian

    2018-01-01

    , and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity (PA) has proved to be a protective factor against erectile problems, and it has been shown to improve erectile function for men affected by vascular ED. This systematic review estimated the levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity...... for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was performed of research articles specifically investigating PA as a possible treatment of ED. The review included research on ED from physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases......Introduction: The leading cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) is arterial dysfunction, with cardiovascular disease as the most common comorbidity. Therefore, ED is typically linked to a web of closely interrelated cardiovascular risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension...

  13. Physical Examination Findings Among Children and Adolescents With Obesity: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sarah; Lazorick, Suzanne; Hampl, Sarah; Skelton, Joseph A; Wood, Charles; Collier, David; Perrin, Eliana M

    2016-02-01

    Overweight and obesity affects 1 in 3 US children and adolescents. Clinical recommendations have largely focused on screening guidelines and counseling strategies. However, the physical examination of the child or adolescent with obesity can provide the clinician with additional information to guide management decisions. This expert-based review focuses on physical examination findings specific to children and adolescents with obesity. For each physical examination element, the authors define the finding and its prevalence among pediatric patients with obesity, discuss the importance and relevance of the finding, describe known techniques to assess severity, and review evidence regarding the need for additional evaluation. The recommendations presented represent a comprehensive review of current evidence as well as expert opinion. The goal of this review is to highlight the importance of conducting a targeted physical examination during pediatric weight management visits. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Attitudes, barriers and enablers to physical activity in pregnant women: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Harrison

    2018-01-01

    Registration: PROSPERO CRD42016037643. [Harrison AL, Taylor NF, Shields N, Frawley HC (2018 Attitudes, barriers and enablers to physical activity in pregnant women: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 64: 24–32

  15. Precision forging technology for aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Wang, Xinyun; Jin, Junsong; Xia, Juchen

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum alloy is a preferred metal material for lightweight part manufacturing in aerospace, automobile, and weapon industries due to its good physical properties, such as low density, high specific strength, and good corrosion resistance. However, during forging processes, underfilling, folding, broken streamline, crack, coarse grain, and other macro- or microdefects are easily generated because of the deformation characteristics of aluminum alloys, including narrow forgeable temperature region, fast heat dissipation to dies, strong adhesion, high strain rate sensitivity, and large flow resistance. Thus, it is seriously restricted for the forged part to obtain precision shape and enhanced property. In this paper, progresses in precision forging technologies of aluminum alloy parts were reviewed. Several advanced precision forging technologies have been developed, including closed die forging, isothermal die forging, local loading forging, metal flow forging with relief cavity, auxiliary force or vibration loading, casting-forging hybrid forming, and stamping-forging hybrid forming. High-precision aluminum alloy parts can be realized by controlling the forging processes and parameters or combining precision forging technologies with other forming technologies. The development of these technologies is beneficial to promote the application of aluminum alloys in manufacturing of lightweight parts.

  16. Promoting physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a narrative review of behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Louise; Kennedy, Norelee; Gallagher, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Despite physical activity having significant health benefits for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), current levels of physical activity in this population are suboptimal. Changing behaviour is challenging and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in this context have had varying levels of success. This review provides an overview of common behaviour change theories used in interventions to promote physical activity and their application for promoting physical activity in people with RA. A scoping, narrative review was conducted of English language literature, using the search terms "physical activity/exercise" and keywords, which are associated with behaviour change interventions. The theoretical basis of such interventions in people with RA was assessed using the "theory coding scheme". Six theories which have been used in physical activity research are discussed. Further, four studies which aimed to increase physical activity levels in people with RA are explored in detail. To date, behaviour change interventions conducted in RA populations to increase physical activity levels have not had a strong theoretical underpinning. It is proposed that an intervention utilising the theory of planned behaviour is developed with the aim of increasing physical activity in people with RA. Implications for Rehabilitation Interventions to promote physical activity in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population have failed to change participants' behaviour. A small number of studies have used behaviour change theories in the development and delivery of interventions. The theory of planned behaviour is recommended as the theoretical basis for an intervention to promote physical activity in the RA population.

  17. Physical activity level in pediatric population: A comprehensive review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity (PA) is a key component in the maintenance and attainment of healthy, active, well-nourished and psycho-social well-being of a society. Hence, the reduction of sedentary lifestyle has featured in many countries as an important arm of policy designed to address childhood chronic diseases of lifestyle risk ...

  18. A review on the “Modern and Contemporary Physics at High School” research area

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Moreira; Fernanda Ostermann

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature regarding the subject “Modern and Contemporary Physics (MCP) at secondary school level” based on research papers, textbooks, master’s and doctoral’s dissertations, curriculum projects, and internet papers, approaching this topic. This review focus on publications targeting the teaching of physics and includes the first studies in this line of research published in the late seventies. Six large categories of studies were identified. Among them, it...

  19. Teaching Einsteinian physics at schools: part 3, review of research outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tejinder; Blair, David; Moschilla, John; Stannard, Warren; Zadnik, Marjan

    2017-11-01

    This paper reviews research results obtained from Einsteinian physics programs run by different instructors with Years 6, 9, 10 and 11 students using the models and analogies described in parts 1 and 2. The research aimed to determine whether it is possible to teach Einsteinian physics and to measure the changes in student attitudes to physics engendered by introducing the modern concepts that underpin technology today. Results showed that students easily coped with the concepts of Einsteinian physics, and considered that they were not too young for the material presented. Importantly, in all groups, girls improved their attitude to physics considerably more than the boys, generally achieving near parity with the boys.

  20. Copper alloys for high heat flux structure applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of copper alloys are reviewed and compared with the requirements for high heat flux structural applications in fusion reactors. High heat flux structural materials must possess a combination of high thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. The three most promising copper alloys at the present time are oxide dispersion-strengthened copper (Cu-Al 2 O 3 ) and two precipitation-hardened copper alloys (Cu-Cr-Zr and Cu-Ni-Be). These three alloys are capable of room temperature yield strengths >400 MPa and thermal conductivities up to 350 W/m-K. All of these alloys require extensive cold working to achieve their optimum strength. Precipitation-hardened copper alloys such Cu-Cr-Zr are susceptible to softening due to precipitate overaging and recrystallization during brazing, whereas the dislocation structure in Cu-Al 2 O 3 remains stabilized during typical high temperature brazing cycles. All three alloys exhibit good resistance to irradiation-induced softening and void swelling at temperatures below 300 degrees C. The precipitation-strengthened allows typically soften during neutron irradiation at temperatures above about 300 degrees C and therefore should only be considered for applications operating at temperatures 2 O 3 ) is considered to be the best candidate for high heat flux structural applications

  1. An integrative review: work environment factors associated with physical activity among white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Ping; McCullagh, Marjorie C; Kao, Tsui-Sui; Larson, Janet L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the research evidence for the role of the work environment-workplace physical activity policies and resources and job strain factors-in explaining physical activity in white-collar workers. White-collar workers are at risk for developing a sedentary lifestyle, which contributes to all-cause mortality. Understanding how work environment can influence worker physical activity is important for the development of effective interventions. We reviewed 15 research articles that describe the relationship between work environment factors and physical activity in predominantly white-collar workers. Relatively consistent evidence was found for the effects of supportive workplace policies and resources. Weak evidence was found for the effects of job strain. Both work environment factors have the potential to influence physical activity but require further exploration to fully understand their contribution to physical activity in white-collar workers. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  2. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Lee, Sarah M; Robin, Leah; Laris, B A; Russell, Lisa A; Coyle, Karin K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity (including physical education) and academic performance (including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement). Relevant research was identified through a search of nine electronic databases using both physical activity and academic-related search terms. Forty-three articles (reporting a total of 50 unique studies) met the inclusion criteria and were read, abstracted, and coded for this synthesis. Findings of the 50 studies were then summarized. Across all the studies, there were a total of 251 associations between physical activity and academic performance, representing measures of academic achievement, academic behavior, and cognitive skills and attitudes. Slightly more than half (50.5%) of all associations examined were positive, 48% were not significant, and 1.5% were negative. Examination of the findings by each physical activity context provides insights regarding specific relationships. Results suggest physical activity is either positively related to academic performance or that there is not a demonstrated relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Results have important implications for both policy and schools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of e+e- physics at PEP - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1982-10-01

    Results obtained at PEP by the MARK II, MAC and DELCO collaborations in the past year are reviewed. They include QED tests, measurements of tau lepton properties, charm and bottom fragmentation functions, scaling violations, energy correlations and the total hadronic cross section

  4. Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

  5. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  7. Management of physical child abuse in South Africa:Literature review and children's hospital data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.L. (T. L.); M. van Dijk (Monique); Al Malki, I. (I.); A.B. van As (Àrjan Bastiaan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The reason for this review is the lack of data on the management of physical abused children in Africa. The primary goal of the first part is to outline the management of physical child abuse in (South) Africa and provide suggestions for other governments in Africa on which

  8. A brief review on correlates of physical activity and sedentariness in youth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, K.; Paw, M.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Mechelen, W.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Better understanding of the correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in youth will support the development of effective interventions that promote a physically active lifestyle and prevent a sedentary lifestyle. The main goal of this systematic review is to summarize and

  9. Effect of Active Lessons on Physical Activity, Academic, and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie; Murtagh, Elaine M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of classroom-based physical activity interventions that integrate academic content and assess the effectiveness of the interventions on physical activity, learning, facilitators of learning, and health outcomes. Method: Six electronic databases (ERIC, PubMed, Google Scholar,…

  10. The Experiences of Students without Disabilities in Inclusive Physical Education Classrooms: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscitti, Robert Joseph; Thomas, Scott Gordon; Bentley, Danielle Christine

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to analyse studies of the experiences of students without disabilities (SWOD) in inclusive physical education (PE) classes. The literature published from 1975 to 2015 was compiled from three online databases (PsycInfo, Physical Education Index and ERIC). Included literature met inclusion criteria focussed…

  11. 78 FR 19026 - Submission for Review: Request to Disability Annuitant for Information on Physical Condition and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Request to Disability Annuitant for Information on Physical Condition and Employment, RI 30-1 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION... information collection request (ICR) 3206-0143, Request to Disability Annuitant for Information on Physical...

  12. Utility of Acculturation in Physical Activity Research in Latina Adults: An Integrative Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Tanya J.; Dodgson, Joan E.; Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Latina adults in the United States have a disproportionately higher prevalence of chronic diseases related to low physical activity levels than non-Hispanic women. Literature indicates that acculturation may be a contributing factor to being physically active, but the extent of this association remains unclear. An integrative review of literature…

  13. Physical Activity Benefits and Needs in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlo, Pamela; Klein, Penelope J.

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity is vital for adult individuals with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this review was to assess critically the evidence on effectiveness of physical activity interventions for adults with intellectual disability. An electronic database search was conducted. Research was then assessed for methodological rigor, and…

  14. A Systematic Review of Public Health-Aligned Recommendations for Preparing Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A.; Webster, Liana; Russ, Laura; Molina, Sergio; Lee, Heesu; Cribbs, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Since Sallis and McKenzie's seminal article in 1991 outlining physical education's role in public health, increased attention has been given to promoting youth physical activity in schools. The present study systematically reviewed the literature from 1991 to 2013 to identify recommendations for the preparation of physical…

  15. A systematic review - physical activity in dementia: The influence of the nursing home environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderiesen, H.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Goossens, R.H.; Sonneveld, M.

    2014-01-01

    Most older persons with dementia living in nursing homes spend their days without engaging in much physical activity. This study therefore looked at the influence that the environment has on their level of physical activity, by reviewing empirical studies that measured the effects of environmental

  16. The Educational Benefits Claimed for Physical Education and School Sport: An Academic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Richard; Armour, Kathleen; Kirk, David; Jess, Mike; Pickup, Ian; Sandford, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This academic review critically examines the theoretical and empirical bases of claims made for the educational benefits of physical education and school sport (PESS). An historical overview of the development of PESS points to the origins of claims made in four broad domains: physical, social, affective and cognitive. Analysis of the evidence…

  17. 75 FR 70952 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation... Director for Elementary Particle Physics, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA...

  18. Factors of physical activity among Chinese children and adolescents : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Congchao; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sijtsma, Anna; Wiersma, Rikstje; Huang, Guowei; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lack of physical activity is a growing problem in China, due to the fast economic development and changing living environment over the past two decades. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors related to physical activity in Chinese children and adolescents during this

  19. Magnetic susceptibility of Dirac fermions, Bi-Sb alloys, interacting Bloch fermions, dilute nonmagnetic alloys, and Kondo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buot, Felix A., E-mail: fbuot@gmu.edu [Computational Materials Science Center, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); TCSE Center, Spintronics Group, Physics Department, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu 6000 (Philippines); C& LB Research Institute, Carmen, Cebu 6005 (Philippines); Otadoy, Roland E.S.; Rivero, Karla B. [TCSE Center, Spintronics Group, Physics Department, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu 6000 (Philippines)

    2017-03-01

    Wide ranging interest in Dirac Hamiltonian is due to the emergence of novel materials, namely, graphene, topological insulators and superconductors, the newly-discovered Weyl semimetals, and still actively-sought after Majorana fermions in real materials. We give a brief review of the relativistic Dirac quantum mechanics and its impact in the developments of modern physics. The quantum band dynamics of Dirac Hamiltonian is crucial in resolving the giant diamagnetism of bismuth and Bi-Sb alloys. Quantitative agreement of the theory with the experiments on Bi-Sb alloys has been achieved, and physically meaningful contributions to the diamagnetism has been identified. We also treat relativistic Dirac fermion as an interband dynamics in uniform magnetic fields. For the interacting Bloch electrons, the role of translation symmetry for calculating the magnetic susceptibility avoids any approximation to second order in the field. The expressions for magnetic susceptibility of dilute nonmagnetic alloys give a firm theoretical foundation of the empirical formulas used in fitting experimental results. The unified treatment of all the above calculations is based on the lattice Weyl-Wigner formulation of discrete phase-space quantum mechanics. For completeness, the magnetic susceptibility of Kondo alloys is also given since Dirac fermions in conduction band and magnetic impurities exhibit Kondo effect.

  20. Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gleeson

    2014-09-01

    [Gleeson M, Sherrington C, Keay L (2014 Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 130–135

  1. Review of kaon physics at CERN and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzivino, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    After reporting on recent results of the measurement of R_K, the ratio of kaon leptonic decays rates, K"± → e"+ν and K"± → μ"+ν, the physics prospects and the status of the construction and commissioning of the NA62 experiment will be presented. The aim of NA62 is the measurement of the Branching Ratio (BR) of the K"+ → π"+νν-bar decay with ∼10% precision in two years of data taking. While the rate of the decay can be predicted with minimal theoretical uncertainty in the Standard Model (SM), the smallness of the BR and the challenging experimental signature make it very difficult to measure, making it a sensitive probe of the flavour sector of the SM. Kaon physics results and prospects from other experiments at CERN (e.g. LHCb) and in Europe (e.g. KLOE) will also be presented. (author)

  2. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coating with Si content on the nanotube-formed Ti–Nb–Zr alloy using electron beam-physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, 305 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, OH (United States); Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, 305 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on the nanotube-formed Ti–35Nb–10Zr alloy. The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) coatings on the nanotube structure were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition and anodization methods, and biodegradation properties were analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. The surface characteristics were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Si–HA layers were deposited with rough features having highly ordered nanotube structures on the titanium alloy substrate. The thickness of the Si–HA coating was less than that of the HA coating. The XRD results confirmed that the Si–HA coating on the nanotube structure consisted of TiO{sub 2} anatase, TiO{sub 2} rutile, hydroxyapatite, and calcium phosphate silicate. The Si–HA coating surface exhibited lower I{sub corr} than the HA coating, and the polarization resistance was increased by substitution of silicon in hydroxyapatite. - Highlights: • Silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) was coated on nanotubular titanium alloy. • The Si–HA coating thickness was less than single hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. • Si–HA coatings consisted of TiO{sub 2}, HA, and Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}. • Polarization resistance of the coating was increased by Si substitution in HA.

  3. Methods of analysis of physical activity among persons with spinal cord injury: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Jarmila Štěpánová; Martin Kudláček; Mirka Bednaříková

    2016-01-01

    Background: A spinal cord injury is one of the most devastating acquired physical disabilities. People with spinal cord injury are usually in a productive age, often interested in sports and physical activity. Therefore it is essential to support the development of monitoring of the quality and quantity of physical activity of people with spinal cord injury. Objective: The aim of this study was to perform systematic review of international studies from the period 2004-2014 with the aim to fin...

  4. Physical fitness in people with posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Richards, Justin; Ward, Philip B; Firth, Joseph; Schuch, Felipe B; Rosenbaum, Simon

    2017-12-01

    People with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Physical fitness is a key modifiable risk factor for CVD and associated mortality. We reviewed the evidence-base regarding physical fitness in people with PTSD. Two independent reviewers searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycARTICLES, PEDro, and SPORTDiscus from inception until May 2016 using the key words "fitness" OR "exercise" AND "posttraumatic stress disorder" OR "PTSD". In total, 5 studies involving 192 (44 female) individuals with PTSD met the inclusion criteria. Lower baseline physical fitness are associated with greater reductions in avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as with total, physical, and social symptoms of anxiety sensitivity. Rigorous data comparing physical fitness with age- and gender matched general population controls are currently lacking. The research field regarding physical fitness in people with PTSD is still in its infancy. Given the established relationships between physical fitness, morbidity and mortality in the general population and the current gaps in the PTSD literature, targets for future research include exploring: (a) whether people with PTSD are at risk of low physical fitness and therefore in need of intensified assessment, treatment and follow-up, (b) the relationships among physical fitness, overall health status, chronic disease risk reduction, disability, and mortality in individuals PTSD, (c) psychometric properties of submaximal physical fitness tests in PTSD, (d) physical fitness changes following physical activity in PTSD, and (e) optimal methods of integrating physical activity programs within current treatment models for PTSD. Implications for Rehabilitation People with PTSD should aim to achieve 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes vigorous physical activity per week while also engaging in resistance training exercises at least twice a week. Health care professionals should assist people with PTSD to

  5. Review on study of multi-physics in environment engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shanli; Zhao Jian; Sheng Jinchang

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes some problems on multi-field coupling ones between seepage mechanics and other physical and chemical processes (such as temperature field. stress field, solute transport. chemical action and so on) in environment engineering, it explains the research theory of multi-field coupling, it summarizes the abroad and domestic research about the model of multi-field problem and finally it looks into the future of research tendency in environment engineering. (authors)

  6. Short review of runoff and erosion physically based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrić Ognjen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes of runoff and erosion are one of the main research subjects in hydrological science. Based on the field and laboratory measurements, and analogous with development of computational techniques, runoff and erosion models based on equations which describe the physics of the process are also developed. Several models of runoff and erosion which describes entire process of genesis and sediment transport on the catchment are described and compared.

  7. 1984 Review of the Applied Plasma Physics Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report describes the present and planned programs of the Division of Applied Plasma Physics (APP), Office of Fusion Energy. The major activities of the division include fusion theory, experimental plasma research, advanced fusion concepts, and the magnetic fusion energy computer network. The planned APP program is consistent with the recently issued Comprehensive Program Management Plan for Magnetic Fusion Energy, which describes the overall objectives and strategy for the development of fusion energy

  8. Friendship networks and physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth: a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Hawe, Penelope; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K

    2013-12-01

    Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today's youth. Friend's health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks and both physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. After a search of seven scientific databases and reference scans, a total of thirteen articles were eligible for inclusion. All assessed the association between friendship networks and physical activity, while three also assessed sedentary behavior. Overall, higher levels of physical activity among friends are associated with higher levels of physical activity of the individual. Longitudinal studies reveal that an individual's level of physical activity changes to reflect his/her friends' higher level of physical activity. Boys tend to be influenced by their friendship network to a greater extent than girls. There is mixed evidence surrounding a friend's sedentary behavior and individual sedentary behavior. Friends' physical activity level appears to have a significant influence on individual's physical activity level. Evidence surrounding sedentary behavior is limited and mixed. Results from this review could inform effective public health interventions that harness the influence of friends to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents.

  9. Parenting Practices and Children's Physical Activity: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Amy; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to analyze the state of science concerning the influence of parenting practices on children's physical activity (PA) levels. A total of 38 studies met the inclusion criteria after full-text review. The body of research is limited in experimental designs with only three studies measuring the influence of…

  10. Critical literature review of relationships between processing parameters and physical properties of particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron W. Kelly

    1977-01-01

    The pertinent literature has been reviewed, and the apparent effects of selected processing parameters on the resultant particleboard properties, as generally reported in the literature, have been determined. Resin efficiency, type and level, furnish, and pressing conditions are reviewed for their reported effects on physical, strength, and moisture and dimensional...

  11. Curricular Space Allocated for Dance Content in Physical Education Teacher Education Programs: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Jenée Marie; Metzler, Mike

    2017-01-01

    This literature review examines curricular space allocated to activity based/movement content courses in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) pre-service programs, specifically focusing on how dance content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge are addressed within those programs. This review includes original empirical research…

  12. Review of diagnostic tools to investigate the physical state of rapid granular filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose; Binning, Philip John; Arvin, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews diagnostic tools that can be used at waterworks to investigate the physical and operational state of rapid granular filters. Diagnostic tools can be of interest for the Water Safety Plans of WHO to monitor filters in a proactive manner. The review considers conventional and state...

  13. 76 FR 54474 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request New proposed collection, Biospecimen and Physical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request New proposed collection, Biospecimen and Physical Measures Formative Research Methodology... and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve the information collection listed below. This...

  14. Social Marketing Interventions Aiming to Increase Physical Activity among Adults: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubacki, Krzysztof; Ronti, Rimante; Lahtinen, Ville; Pang, Bo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A significant proportion of the world's adult population is insufficiently active. One approach used to overcome barriers and facilitate participation in physical activity is social marketing. The purpose of this paper are twofold: first, this review seeks to provide a contemporary review of social marketing's effectiveness in changing…

  15. Educational Functioning of Children of Parents with Chronic Physical Illness: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cliff Yung-Chi

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed to answer the question: What are the effects of parental chronic physical illness on children's educational functioning? Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria for the purpose of this review were identified, indicating the paucity of research on the topic. The results found that…

  16. Understanding the physical attractiveness literature: Qualitative reviews versus meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Alan

    2017-01-01

    The target article is a qualitative review of selected findings in the physical attractiveness literature. This commentary explains why the meta-analytic approach, frequently used by other attractiveness reviewers, is preferable for drawing unbiased conclusions about the effects of attractiveness. The article's main contribution is affording a foundation for subsequent meta-analysis of the studies discussed in a subjective fashion.

  17. Models and theories in studies on educating and counseling children about physical health: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Tates, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this review is to gain a comprehensive view on the theories and models referred to in studies on educating and counseling children about physical health. A computer search was conducted using PubMed Medline, and Silverplatter Webspirs Psycinfo. Original studies, reviews, and theoretical

  18. The functional effects of physical exercise training in frail older people : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Uffelen, J.G.Z.; Riphagen, I.; van Mechelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review describes the effect of exercise training on physical performance in frail older people. Randomized controlled trials were identified from searches in PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL from January 1995 through August 2007. Two reviewers independently screened the trials for

  19. Literature Review: Weldability of Iridium DOP-26 Alloy for General Purpose Heat Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-19

    The basic purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review relative to fabrication of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) that is used to provide electrical power for deep space missions of NASA. The particular fabrication operation to be addressed here is arc welding of the GPHS encapsulation. A considerable effort was made to optimize the fabrication of the fuel pellets and of other elements of the encapsulation; that work will not be directly addressed in this paper. This report consists of three basic sections: 1) a brief description of the GPHS will be provided as background information for the reader; 2) mechanical properties and the optimization thereof as relevant to welding will be discussed; 3) a review of the arc welding process development and optimization will be presented. Since the welding equipment must be upgraded for future production, some discussion of the historical establishment of relevant welding variables and possible changes thereto will also be discussed.

  20. The many Metaphysics within Physics. Essay review of 'The Metaphysics within Physics' by Tim Maudlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Mauricio

    Tim Maudlin's new book The Metaphysics within Physics (Oxford University Press, 2007) collects six essays by one of the most thoughtful and original minds working in the philosophy of physics nowadays. Some had previously circulated informally for years. For example, Chapter 1 ('A Modest Proposal Concerning Laws, Counterfactuals and Explanations') is as old as my own philosophical career-I recall reading a draft in the early 1990s. The mere publication of such a long-awaited collection is therefore already good news. In addition, the degree of coherence and the lack of redundancy are greater than one would expect from a collection of disparate essays written at diverse times and with a range of different targets. The whole book can be understood coherently as an extended argument in favor of a particular 'physics-based' methodology for inquiry in metaphysics. This methodology recommends a detailed and thorough analysis of current physics as a benchmark for any thesis, dispute or argument in metaphysics. It follows that proper metaphysical inquiry must be suitably informed not just about the current state of play in analytical metaphysics but also about the current state of development of the relevant part of present day physics.

  1. How Games are Designed to Increase Students’ Motivation in Learning Physics? A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinedi, V.; Yohandri, Y.; Djamas, D.

    2018-04-01

    Game is a promising tool to help students in understanding physics concept. It can motivate and provide the opportunities for students to become independent in learning. In order to fulfil these functions, games should be carefully designed. Thus, the objective of this paper is to present how games are designed to increase students’ motivation in learning physics based on several literature reviews. The results showed that there are several ways to increase students’ motivation in learning physics and to achieve that, game dimensions are needed to be considered when designing a game. This literature review may have useful to assist teachers and contribute in improving the design of games.

  2. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Casey; Gibbons, Rebecca; Larouche, Richard; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Brussoni, Mariana; Chabot, Guylaine; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness. PMID:26062039

  3. Physical properties of nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahne, Roman; George, Chandramohan [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genoa (Italy). Nanostructures; Manna, Liberato [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genoa (Italy). Nanochemistry; Morello, Giovanni [CNR, Lecce (Italy). Nanoscience Institute; Figuerola, Albert [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Inst. de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia; Deka, Sasanka [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-06-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles are among the most investigated objects nowadays, both in fundamental science and in various technical applications. In this book the physical properties of nanowires formed by nanoparticles with elongated shape, i.e. rod-like or wire-like, are described. The transition in the physical properties is analyzed for nanorods and nanowires consisting of spherical and rod-like nanoparticles. The physical properties of nanowires and elongated inorganic nanoparticles are reviewed too. The optical, electrical, magnetic, mechanical and catalytic properties of nanowires consisting of semiconductors, noble and various other metals, metal oxides properties and metal alloys are presented. The applications of nanorods and nanowires are discussed in the book.

  4. A Review of Cyber-Physical Energy System Security Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    Increasing penetration of renewable energy resources (RES) and electrification of services by implementing distributed energy resources (DER) has caused a paradigm shift in the operation of the power system. The controllability of the power system is predicted to be shifted from the generation side...... to the consumption side. This transition entails that the future power system evolves into a complex cyber-physical energy system (CPES) with strong interactions between the power, communication and neighboring energy systems. Current power system security assessment methods are based on centralized computation...

  5. Patient-reported physical activity questionnaires: A systematic review of content and format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic illness are limited in their physical activities. This systematic review evaluates the content and format of patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires that measure physical activity in elderly and chronically ill populations. Methods Questionnaires were identified by a systematic literature search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO & CINAHL), hand searches (reference sections and PROQOLID database) and expert input. A qualitative analysis was conducted to assess the content and format of the questionnaires and a Venn diagram was produced to illustrate this. Each stage of the review process was conducted by at least two independent reviewers. Results 104 questionnaires fulfilled our criteria. From these, 182 physical activity domains and 1965 items were extracted. Initial qualitative analysis of the domains found 11 categories. Further synthesis of the domains found 4 broad categories: 'physical activity related to general activities and mobility', 'physical activity related to activities of daily living', 'physical activity related to work, social or leisure time activities', and '(disease-specific) symptoms related to physical activity'. The Venn diagram showed that no questionnaires covered all 4 categories and that the '(disease-specific) symptoms related to physical activity' category was often not combined with the other categories. Conclusions A large number of questionnaires with a broad range of physical activity content were identified. Although the content could be broadly organised, there was no consensus on the content and format of physical activity PRO questionnaires in elderly and chronically ill populations. Nevertheless, this systematic review will help investigators to select a physical activity PRO questionnaire that best serves their research question and context. PMID:22414164

  6. Relationship between the physical environment and different domains of physical activity in European adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Holle Veerle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, various reviews described the relationship between the physical environment and different physical activity (PA domains. Yet, the majority of the current review evidence relies on North American/Australian studies, while only a small proportion of findings refer to European studies. Given some clear environmental differences across continents, this raises questions about the applicability of those results in European settings. This systematic review aimed at summarizing Europe-specific evidence on the relationship between the physical environment and different PA domains in adults. Methods Seventy eligible papers were identified through systematic searches across six electronic databases. Included papers were observational studies assessing the relationship between several aspects of the physical environment and PA in European adults (18-65y. Summary scores were calculated to express the strength of the relationship between each environmental factor and different PA domains. Results Convincing evidence on positive relationships with several PA domains was found for following environmental factors: walkability, access to shops/services/work and the composite factor environmental quality. Convincing evidence considering urbanization degree showed contradictory results, dependent on the observed PA domain. Transportation PA was more frequently related to the physical environment than recreational PA. Possible evidence for a positive relationship with transportation PA emerged for walking/cycling facilities, while a negative relationship was found for hilliness. Some environmental factors, such as access to recreational facilities, aesthetics, traffic- and crime-related safety were unrelated to different PA domains in Europe. Conclusions Generally, findings from this review of European studies are in accordance with results from North American/Australian reviews and may contribute to a generalization of the

  7. A systematic review of perceived barriers and motivators to physical activity after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Sarah; Sniehotta, Falko F; van Wijck, Frederike; Greig, Carolyn A; Johnston, Marie; McMurdo, Marion E T; Dennis, Martin; Mead, Gillian E

    2013-07-01

    Physical fitness is impaired after stroke, may contribute to disability, yet is amenable to improvement through regular physical activity. To facilitate uptake and maintenance of physical activity, it is essential to understand stroke survivors' perceived barriers and motivators. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review of perceived barriers and motivators to physical activity after stroke. Electronic searches of EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, and PsychInfo were performed. We included peer-reviewed journal articles, in English, between 1 January 1966 and 30 August 2010 reporting stroke survivors' perceived barriers and motivators to physical activity. Searches identified 73,807 citations of which 57 full articles were retrieved. Six articles were included, providing data on 174 stroke survivors (range 10 to 83 per article). Two reported barriers and motivators, two reported only motivators, and two reported only barriers. Five were qualitative articles and one was quantitative. The most commonly reported barriers were lack of motivation, environmental factors (e.g. transport), health concerns, and stroke impairments. The most commonly reported motivators were social support and the need to be able to perform daily tasks. This review has furthered our understanding of the perceived barriers and motivators to physical activity after a stroke. This review will enable the development of tailored interventions to target barriers, while building upon perceived motivators to increase and maintain stroke survivors' physical activity. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  8. Rationale for promoting physical activity among cancer survivors: literature review and epidemiologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Lee, Hyo

    2014-03-01

    To review the extant literature on the link between physical activity and health outcomes among cancer survivors; identify evidence-based strategies to promote physical activity among this population; and conduct an epidemiologic study based on gaps from the literature review, examining the association between physical activity and various biologic markers. The authors used PubMed and Google Scholar up to July 2013, as well as data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the empirical study. Studies were examined through a systematic review process. In the epidemiologic study, 227 adult cancer survivors wore an accelerometer for four days or longer, with biologic markers (e.g., cholesterol) assessed from a blood sample. The review study demonstrated that cancer survivors are relatively inactive, but physical activity may help to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and cancer-related mortality, increase cancer treatment rates, reduce pain and other side effects associated with cancer treatment, and improve physical and mental health. The epidemiologic study showed that physical activity was associated with several understudied biomarkers (e.g., neutrophils, white blood cells) that are linked with cancer recurrence, cancer-related mortality, and other chronic diseases. Nurses are encouraged to promote physical activity in cancer survivors.

  9. The Physical Effect of Exergames in Healthy Elderly—A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth H.; Schou, Lone; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2013-01-01

    Exergames have been suggested as an innovative approach to enhance physical activity in the elderly. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of exergames on validated quantitative physical outcomes in healthy elderly individuals. We used Centre for Review and Disseminations...... of exergaming on the health of the elderly. However, the variation of intervention approaches and outcome data collected limited the extent to which studies could be compared. This review demonstrates how exergames have a potential to improve physical health in the elderly. However, there is a need...... guidance to conduct systematic reviews. Four electronic databases were searched. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the study participants were healthy elderly individuals, and the intervention of interest was exergaming. The title and abstract screening of the 1861 citations identified 36...

  10. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Barnett, Lisa M.; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A.; Papadopoulos, Nicole V.; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children’s physical activity (34–166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126–558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428–750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors. PMID

  11. Optimization of the dissolved hydrogen level in PWR to mitigate stress corrosion cracking of nickel alloys. Bibliographic review, modelling and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labousse, M.; Deforge, D.; Gressier, F.; Taunier, S.; Le Calvar, M.

    2012-09-01

    Nickel based alloys Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) has been a major concern for the Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) utilities since more than 40 years. At EDF, this issue led to the replacement of all upper vessel heads and of most of the steam generators with Alloy 600 MA tubes. Under the scope of plant lifetime extension, there is some concerns about the behaviour of Bottom Mounted Instrumentation Nozzles (BMI) made of Alloy 600 welded with Alloy 182 and a few vessel dissimilar metal welds made of Alloy 82, for only three 1450 MWe plants. It is considered for long that Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) is influenced by the dissolved hydrogen (DH) level in primary coolant. Now, the whole community clearly understands that there is a hydrogen level corresponding to a maximum in terms of SCC susceptibility. Many experimental studies were done worldwide to optimize the hydrogen level in primary water during power operation, both in terms of SCC initiation and propagation. From these studies, most of American plants decided to increase the dissolved hydrogen level in order to mitigate crack propagation. Conversely, in Japan, based on crack initiation data, it is thought that drastically decreasing the hydrogen content would rather be beneficial. In order to consolidate EDF position, a review of laboratory tests data was made. Studies on the influence of hydrogen on nickel alloys 600 and 182 PWSCC were compiled and rationalized. Data were collapsed using a classical Gaussian model, such as initially proposed by Morton et al. An alternative model based on more phenomenological considerations was also proposed. Both models lead to similar results. The maximum susceptibility to SCC cracking appears to be rather consistent with the Ni/NiO transition, which was not taken as an initial hypothesis. Regarding crack initiation, an inverse Gaussian model was proposed. Based on the current hydrogen concentration range during power operation and considering components

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book

  13. Physical activity in Brazil: lessons from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Almeida, Maria Conceição Chagas; Queiroz, Ciro Oliveira; Aquino, Estela Maria Leão de; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was conducted among civil servants at six higher education institutions located in six Brazilian state capitals. The objective of this review was to identify the publications produced within the scope of ELSA-Brasil that analyzed the participants' physical activity. Review study using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review of Brazilian studies on physical activity produced using data from ELSA-Brasil participants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among ELSA-Brasil participants was low (44.1% among men and 33.8% among women). The main factors associated were social (higher schooling and family income), environmental (living in places with conditions and opportunities for physical activity) and individual (not being obese, being retired, not smoking and positive perception of body image). The perception of facilities for walking in the neighborhood was positively associated with both LTPA and commuting-related physical activity. An active lifestyle was a protective factor against several cardiometa-bolic variables (hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk over the next 10 years). Comparison between LTPA and commuting-related physical activity showed that only LTPA had a protective effect against arterial hypertension. The prevalence of physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants was low. The main determinants were social, environmental and personal. LTPA had a greater protective efect on cardio-metabolic outcomes than did commuting-related physical activity.

  14. Physical activity in Brazil: lessons from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil was conducted among civil servants at six higher education institutions located in six Brazilian state capitals. The objective of this review was to identify the publications produced within the scope of ELSA-Brasil that analyzed the participants’ physical activity. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review study using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil. METHODS: Narrative review of Brazilian studies on physical activity produced using data from ELSA-Brasil participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA among ELSA-Brasil participants was low (44.1% among men and 33.8% among women. The main factors associated were social (higher schooling and family income, environmental (living in places with conditions and opportunities for physical activity and individual (not being obese, being retired, not smoking and positive perception of body image. The perception of facilities for walking in the neighborhood was positively associated with both LTPA and commuting-related physical activity. An active lifestyle was a protective factor against several cardiometa-bolic variables (hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk over the next 10 years. Comparison between LTPA and commuting-related physical activity showed that only LTPA had a protective effect against arterial hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants was low. The main determinants were social, environmental and personal. LTPA had a greater protective efect on cardio-metabolic outcomes than did commuting-related physical activity.

  15. Physical activity in type II Diabetes Mellitus, an effective therapeutic element: review of the clinical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Iván Arias-Vázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted in databases (PubMed, PEDro of type studies clinical trial, cohort study, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and clinical practice guidelines based on evidence they have studied the benefits of physical activity in the prevention , treatment and decreased risk of complications and death in patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Realization regular physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of developing Diabetes Mellitus; likewise was associated with decrease in glycated hemoglobin percentage A1C values. Diabetic patients undergoing high levels of physical activity had decreased risk of complications and death from cardiovascular disease and all causes. At present the scientific evidence on the impact of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of Diabetes Mellitus is solid, so it must be emphasized promoting physical activity as a fundamental part of the therapeutic regimens for this disease.

  16. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  17. Health physics aspects of advanced reactor licensing reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinson, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    The last Construction Permit to be issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a U.S. light water reactor (LWR) was granted in the late 1970s. In 1989 the NRC issued 10 CFR Part 52 which is intended to serve as a framework for the licensing of future reactor designs. The NRC is currently reviewing four different future on open-quotes next-generationclose quotes reactor designs. Two of these designs are classified as evolutionary designs (modified versions of current generation LWRs) and two are advanced designs (reactors incorporating simplified designs and passive means for accident mitigation). These open-quotes next-generationclose quotes reactor designs incorporate many innovative design features which are intended to maintain personnel doses ALARA and ensure that the annual average collective dose at these reactors does not exceed 100 person-rems (1 person-sievert) per year. This paper discusses some of the ALARA design features which are incorporated in the four open-quotes next-generationclose quotes reactor designs incorporate many innovative design features which are intended to maintain personnel doses ALARA and ensure that the annual average collective dose at these reactors does not exceed 100 person-rems (1 person-sievert) per year. This paper discusses some of the ALARA design features which are incorporated in the four open-quotes next-generationclose quotes reactor designs currently being reviewed by the NRC

  18. [Physical Exercise and Depression in the Elderly : A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Villada, Fredy Alonso; Arango Vélez, Elkin Fernando; Baena, Lucidia Zuleta

    2013-06-01

    The literature supports the benefits of exercise in people with depressive disorders, but there is controversy over these benefits in depressed elderly. To determine the effect of different types of exercise on depression in older adults using a systematic review of clinical trials. The Cochrane Library; PubMed-MEDLINE (1966-dic 2010); EMBASE (1980-dic 2010); LILACS (1986-dic 2010); SCIELO (1998-dic 2010); Register of Controlled Trials; manual search in other sources. Clinical trials with people >60 years with diagnosis of depression were included, without restriction by year of publication, language and sex, with exercise intervention structures, controlled with usual care (medication, psychotherapy, electric shock therapy), placebo or non-intervention. Three independent reviewers conducted the search, applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed methodological quality and extracted data; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. The primary outcome was the score for depressive symptoms. A total of 11 studies (n=7195) were identified. In general, exercise produces an improvement in depression in older adults with more evidence in the short-term (3 months) and strength training at high intensity. Exercise is beneficial for older persons with depression, but studies that support this are of low methodological quality and heterogeneous, which makes it necessary to develop clinical trials to clarify the magnitude of the effect and the levels at which it is beneficial. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Health physics aspects of advanced reactor licensing reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, C.S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The last Construction Permit to be issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a U.S. light water reactor (LWR) was granted in the late 1970s. In 1989 the NRC issued 10 CFR Part 52 which is intended to serve as a framework for the licensing of future reactor designs. The NRC is currently reviewing four different future on {open_quotes}next-generation{close_quotes} reactor designs. Two of these designs are classified as evolutionary designs (modified versions of current generation LWRs) and two are advanced designs (reactors incorporating simplified designs and passive means for accident mitigation). These {open_quotes}next-generation{close_quotes} reactor designs incorporate many innovative design features which are intended to maintain personnel doses ALARA and ensure that the annual average collective dose at these reactors does not exceed 100 person-rems (1 person-sievert) per year. This paper discusses some of the ALARA design features which are incorporated in the four {open_quotes}next-generation{close_quotes} reactor designs incorporate many innovative design features which are intended to maintain personnel doses ALARA and ensure that the annual average collective dose at these reactors does not exceed 100 person-rems (1 person-sievert) per year. This paper discusses some of the ALARA design features which are incorporated in the four {open_quotes}next-generation{close_quotes} reactor designs currently being reviewed by the NRC.

  20. Summary of the progress of reactor physics in Japan reviewing the activities related to NEA Committee on Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Jitsuya

    1984-09-01

    The progress of fast and thermal reactor physics, fusion neutronics and shielding researches in these twenty years can be clearly recognized in the reviews of reactor physics activities in Japan which had been perpared by the Special Committee on Reactor Physics: the joint committee under Atomic Energy Society of Japan and JAERI. Many topics of those discussed at the NEACRP meetings concerned fast reactor physics. Information exchange on the topics such as adjustment of group cross sections by integral data, central worth discrepancy, sodium void effect and heterogeneous core stimulated the researches in Japan. And achievements in Japan including those in the JAERI Fast Critical Facility FCA were reported and contributed largely to the international co-operation. In addition, the contribution from Japan was also made concerning a study of fusion blanket. Among various specialists' meetings recommended by NEACRP, those on nuclear data and benchmarks for reactor shielding were often held since 1973 and helpful to the progress of shielding researches in Japan. The Third Specialists' Meeting on Reactor Noise (SMORN-III) was held in Tokyo in 1981, indicating the recent progress in safety-related applications of reactor noise analysis. The NEACRP benchmark tests were quite useful to the progress of reactor physics in Japan, which included the benchmark calculations of BWR lattice cell, key parameters and burn-up characteristics of a large LMFBR, FBR and PWR shielding, and so on. It may be noted that the benchmark test on reactor noise analysis methods was successfully conducted by Japan in connection with SMORN-III. In addition, the co-operation was positively made to the compilation of light water lattice data, and the preparation of reviews on actinide production and burn-up, and blanket physics. (J.P.N.)

  1. Development of Biomimetic NiTi Alloy: Influence of Thermo-Chemical Treatment on the Physical, Mechanical and Biological Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez, Elisa; Manero, José María; Bravo-González, Luis-Alberto; Espinar, Eduardo; Gil, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    A bioactive layer, free of nickel, has been performed for its greater acceptability and reliability in clinical applications for NiTi shape memory alloys. In the first step, a safe barrier against Ni release has been produced on the surface by means of a thicker rutile/anastase protective layer free of nickel. In the second step, a sodium alkaline titanate hydrogel, which has the ability to induce apatite formation, has been performed from oxidized surface. An improvement of host tissue–implant integration has been achieved in terms of Ni ions release and the bioactivity of the treated NiTi alloys has been corroborated with both in vitro and in vivo studies. The transformation temperatures (As, Af, Ms, and Mf), as well as the critical stresses (σβ⇔M), have been slightly changed due to this surface modification. Consequently, this fact must be taken into account in order to design new surface modification on NiTi implants. PMID:28773526

  2. The effect of neutron spectrum on the mechanical and physical properties of pure copper and copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabritsiev, S.A.; Pokrovsky, A.S.; Sandakov, V.A.; Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Edwards, D.J.; Garner, F.A.; Singh, B.N.; Barabash, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and tensile properties of copper and oxide dispersion strengthened (DS) copper alloys have been measured before and after fission neutron irradiation to damage levels of 0.5 to 5 displacements per atom (dps) at ∼100 to 400 degrees C. Some of the specimens were irradiated inside a 1.5 mm Cd shroud in order to reduce the thermal neutron flux. The electrical resistivity data could be separated into two components, a solid transmutation component Δρ tr which was proportional to thermal neutron fluence and a radiation defect component Δρ rd which was independent of the displacement dose. The saturation value for Δρ rd was ∼1.2 nanohm-meters for pure copper and ∼1.6 nanohm-meters for the DS copper alloys irradiated at 100 degrees C in positions with a fast-to-thermal neutron flux ratio of 5. Considerable radiation hardening was observed in all specimens at irradiation temperatures below 200 degrees C. The yield strength was relatively insensitive to neutron spectrum in specimens strengthened by dispersoids or cold- working. 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  3. Evolution of the electronic structure and physical properties of Fe2MeAl (Me = Ti, V, Cr) Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreder, E; Streltsov, S V; Svyazhin, A; Makhnev, A; Marchenkov, V V; Lukoyanov, A; Weber, H W

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of experiments on the optical, electrical and magnetic properties and electronic structure and optical spectrum calculations of the Heusler alloys Fe 2 TiAl, Fe 2 VAl and Fe 2 CrAl. We find that the drastic transformation of the band spectrum, especially near the Fermi level, when replacing the Me element (Me = Ti, V, Cr), is accompanied by a significant change in the electrical and optical properties. The electrical and optical properties of Fe 2 TiAl are typical for metals. The abnormal behavior of the electrical resistivity and the optical properties in the infrared range for Fe 2 VAl and Fe 2 CrAl are determined by electronic states at the Fermi level. Both the optical spectroscopic measurements and the theoretical calculations demonstrate the presence of low-energy gaps in the band spectrum of the Heusler alloys. In addition, we demonstrate that the formation of Fe clusters may be responsible for the large enhancement of the total magnetic moment in Fe 2 CrAl

  4. Development of Biomimetic NiTi Alloy: Influence of Thermo-Chemical Treatment on the Physical, Mechanical and Biological Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Rupérez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A bioactive layer, free of nickel, has been performed for its greater acceptability and reliability in clinical applications for NiTi shape memory alloys. In the first step, a safe barrier against Ni release has been produced on the surface by means of a thicker rutile/anastase protective layer free of nickel. In the second step, a sodium alkaline titanate hydrogel, which has the ability to induce apatite formation, has been performed from oxidized surface. An improvement of host tissue–implant integration has been achieved in terms of Ni ions release and the bioactivity of the treated NiTi alloys has been corroborated with both in vitro and in vivo studies. The transformation temperatures (As, Af, Ms, and Mf, as well as the critical stresses (σβ⇔M, have been slightly changed due to this surface modification. Consequently, this fact must be taken into account in order to design new surface modification on NiTi implants.

  5. BOOK REVIEW Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakov, Slavik

    2010-11-01

    This is a multi-author handbook (66 authors) aiming to describe various applications of physics to medicine and biology, from anatomy and physiology to medical equipment. This unusual reference book has 44 chapters organized in seven sections: 1. Anatomical physics; 2. Physics of perception; 3. Biomechanics; 4. Electrical physics; 5. Diagnostic physics; 6. Physics of accessory medicine; 7. Physics of bioengineering. Each chapter has separate page numbering, which is inconvenient but understandable with the number of authors. Similarly there is some variation in the emphasis of chapters: for some the emphasis is more technical and for others clinical. Each chapter has a separate list of references. The handbook includes hundreds of diagrams, images and tables, making it a useful tool for both medical physicists/engineers and other medical/biology specialists. The first section (about 40 pages) includes five chapters on physics of the cell membrane; protein signaling; cell biology and biophysics of the cell membrane; cellular thermodynamics; action potential transmission and volume conduction. The physics of these is well explained and illustrated with clear diagrams and formulae, so it could be a suitable reference for physicists/engineers. The chapters on cellular thermodynamics and action potential transmission have a very good balance of technical/clinical content. The second section (about 85 pages) includes six chapters on medical decision making; senses; somatic senses: touch and pain; hearing; vision; electroreception. Again these are well illustrated and a suitable reference for physicists/engineers. The chapter on hearing stands out with good balance and treatment of material, but some other chapters contain less physics and are close to typical physiological explanations. One could query the inclusion of the chapter on medical decision making, which also needs more detail. The third section (about 80 pages) includes eight chapters on biomechanics

  6. Welding of refractory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessmann, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    This review primarily summarizes welding evaluations supported by NASA-Lewis Research Center in the 1960s. A literature search run in preparation for this review indicates that more recent work is modest by comparison. Hence, this review restates these accomplishments briefly and addresses opportunities which have evolved in welding technology (such as lasers) in the intervening decade. Emphasis in this review is given to tantalum- and niobium-base alloys. Considerable work was also done to assure that a consistent comparison was made with tungsten. A wide variety of candidate alloys derived primarily from developments directed at aircraft propulsion applications were available. Early efforts by NASA were directed at screening studies to select promising structural alloys for the space power application. This objective required fine tuning of welding procedures, e.g., the demonstration of stringent standards for control of welding atmosphere to assure good corrosion resistance in liquid alkali metals. 16 figures, 6 tables

  7. Inverse statistical physics of protein sequences: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Simona; Feinauer, Christoph; Figliuzzi, Matteo; Monasson, Rémi; Weigt, Martin

    2018-03-01

    In the course of evolution, proteins undergo important changes in their amino acid sequences, while their three-dimensional folded structure and their biological function remain remarkably conserved. Thanks to modern sequencing techniques, sequence data accumulate at unprecedented pace. This provides large sets of so-called homologous, i.e. evolutionarily related protein sequences, to which methods of inverse statistical physics can be applied. Using sequence data as the basis for the inference of Boltzmann distributions from samples of microscopic configurations or observables, it is possible to extract information about evolutionary constraints and thus protein function and structure. Here we give an overview over some biologically important questions, and how statistical-mechanics inspired modeling approaches can help to answer them. Finally, we discuss some open questions, which we expect to be addressed over the next years.

  8. Book Review: A Concise History of Solar and Stellar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth J. H.

    2005-01-01

    There is no doubt that the awareness of the often long history and its principal players of a scientific specialty is disappearing among present-day researchers. The reason is the inexorable rise of specialization, in which scientists are expected to keep pace with publications in their own field, not to mention the inevitable round of writing grant proposals and teaching and other mundane responsibilities. The authors of this small book had the intention of rectifying this for solar and stellar physics, disciplines which are still broad enough to embrace fields as diverse as nuclear fusion, magnetohydrodynamics, and the dynamic theory of gas spheres. They take the read on a journey from ancient Greek and middle Eastern astronomy to the late 1990s, one which has an emphasis very much on a theoretical point of view. For the authors, it is the ideas that are central, not the observations.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Conversations on the Dark Secrets of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Edward

    2003-07-01

    Over many years Edward Teller delivered a course of Physical Science Appreciation Lectures. This book is based on those lectures, which must have been very stimulating. In the preparation of the book, Edward Teller was assisted by his daughter, Wendy Teller, and also by Wilson Talley. On many pages there are footnotes in the form of conversations between 'ET', who explains, and 'WT', who asks intelligent questions. (It is never clear which 'WT' is which.) I mention these footnotes as they contribute enormously to the charm and humour of the book. The book contains numerous anecdotes, many of which were new to me. The verse in the New Yorker, by Harold Furth, recording the famous meeting between Dr Teller and Dr Anti-Teller, is included. Dr Teller's comment is `The remarkable fact is that Harold got paid for the poem'. Dr Anti-Teller's comment is anti-recorded. The topics in the book include simple mechanics, statistical mechanics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics and 'uses of new knowledge'. Despite its origins, the book does not avoid mathematics ('I will use mathematics because physics without mathematics is meaningless' (p1)), but Teller does attempt to explain the mathematics he uses. In much of the book the mathematics is at school level, but in his treatment of quantum mechanics he uses differential equations. If one skips past the equations then his final chapters are less mathematically demanding. I have enjoyed reading this book. Teller's approach is refreshing, and his coverage comprehensive and generally authoritative. My only disquiet is over his coverage of electrons in solids, where it would be clearer to consider the one-dimensional case first, before treating the three-dimensional case. There is a substantial discussion on the correspondence principle, wave-particle duality and on the uncertainty principle. His disposal of Schrödinger's notorious cat is masterly. There are questions at the end of each chapter. One question is based on a possible

  10. Influence of friends on children's physical activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Claire C; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2013-07-01

    We examined evidence for friendship influences on children's physical activity (PA) through systematic searches of online databases in May 2012. We identified 106 studies (25 qualitative) published in English since 2000 that analyzed indicators of friendship influences (e.g., communication about PA, friends' PA, and PA with friends) among persons younger than 19 years. Children's PA was positively associated with encouragement from friends (43 of 55 studies indicating a positive relationship), friends' own PA (30/35), and engagement with friends in PA (9/10). These findings are consistent with friends influencing PA, but most studies did not isolate influence from other factors that could explain similarity. Understanding friendship influences in childhood can facilitate the promotion of lifelong healthy habits. PA with friends should be considered in health promotion programs.

  11. The effect of physical activity on mood - a review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Łakomski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of physical activity on human health has many benefits. Equally important in improving physical fitness and normalizing cardiovascular system seems to be the impact of exercise on mood of patients. Physical activity improves well-being, satisfaction and self-confidence. However, the condition of effective therapeutic intervention is due to its regularity, since only systematic exercises allow to maintain the beneficial effects of physical activity. Otherwise, the results achieved are only temporary. This article aims to review the current literature and show the most important aspects of motion therapy in improving the psychophysical condition of patients.

  12. New Ti-Alloys and Surface Modifications to Improve the Mechanical Properties and the Biological Response to Orthopedic and Dental Implants: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmanidou, Yvoni; Sidira, Margarita; Drosou, Maria-Eleni; Bennani, Vincent; Bakopoulou, Athina; Tsouknidas, Alexander; Michailidis, Nikolaos; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are widely used in the orthopedic and dentistry fields for many decades, for joint arthroplasties, spinal and maxillofacial reconstructions, and dental prostheses. However, despite the quite satisfactory survival rates failures still exist. New Ti-alloys and surface treatments have been developed, in an attempt to overcome those failures. This review provides information about new Ti-alloys that provide better mechanical properties to the implants, such as superelasticity, mechanical strength, and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies, which investigate the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of these new biomaterials, are introduced. In addition, data regarding the bioactivity of new surface treatments and surface topographies on Ti-implants is provided. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current trends, advantages, and disadvantages of new titanium-based biomaterials, fabricated to enhance the quality of life of many patients around the world. PMID:26885506

  13. Open-Access Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: A Pragmatic and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balis, Laura E; Strayer, Thomas; Ramalingam, NithyaPriya; Wilson, Meghan; Harden, Samantha M

    2018-01-10

    Open-access, community-based programs are recommended to assist older adults in meeting physical activity guidelines, but the characteristics, impact, and scalability of these programs is less understood. The Land-Grant University Cooperative Extension System, an organization providing education through county-based educators, functions as a delivery system for these programs. A systematic review was conducted to determine characteristics of effective older adult physical activity programs and the extent to which programs delivered in Extension employ these characteristics. A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted from August 2016 to February 2017. The review was limited to open-access (available to all), community-based physical activity interventions for older adults (≥65 years of age). The peer-reviewed literature search was conducted in PubMed and EBSCOhost; the grey literature search for Extension interventions was conducted through Extension websites, Land-Grant Impacts, and the Journal of Extension. Sixteen peer-reviewed studies and 17 grey literature sources met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Peer-reviewed and Extension programs were similar in their limited use of behavioral theories and group-based strategies. Compared to Extension programs, those in the peer-reviewed literature were more likely to use a combination of physical activity components and be delivered by trained professionals. The results indicate notable differences between peer-reviewed literature and Extension programs and present an opportunity for Extension programs to more effectively use evidence-based program characteristics, including behavioral theories and group dynamics, a combination of physical activity components, and educator/agent-trained delivery agents. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Systematic review of reviews of intervention components associated with increased effectiveness in dietary and physical activity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Philip H

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop more efficient programmes for promoting dietary and/or physical activity change (in order to prevent type 2 diabetes it is critical to ensure that the intervention components and characteristics most strongly associated with effectiveness are included. The aim of this systematic review of reviews was to identify intervention components that are associated with increased change in diet and/or physical activity in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews of interventions targeting diet and/or physical activity in adults at risk of developing type 2 diabetes from 1998 to 2008. Two reviewers independently selected reviews and rated methodological quality. Individual analyses from reviews relating effectiveness to intervention components were extracted, graded for evidence quality and summarised. Results Of 3856 identified articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria and 129 analyses related intervention components to effectiveness. These included causal analyses (based on randomisation of participants to different intervention conditions and associative analyses (e.g. meta-regression. Overall, interventions produced clinically meaningful weight loss (3-5 kg at 12 months; 2-3 kg at 36 months and increased physical activity (30-60 mins/week of moderate activity at 12-18 months. Based on causal analyses, intervention effectiveness was increased by engaging social support, targeting both diet and physical activity, and using well-defined/established behaviour change techniques. Increased effectiveness was also associated with increased contact frequency and using a specific cluster of "self-regulatory" behaviour change techniques (e.g. goal-setting, self-monitoring. No clear relationships were found between effectiveness and intervention setting, delivery mode, study population or delivery provider. Evidence on long

  15. Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

  16. A review of the environmental behavior of uranium derived from depleted uranium alloy penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erikson, R.L.; Hostetler, C.J.; Divine, J.R.; Price, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    The use of depleted uranium (DU) penetrators as armor-piercing projectiles in the field results in the release of uranium into the environment. Elevated levels of uranium in the environment are of concern because of radioactivity and chemical toxicity. In addition to the direct contamination of the soil with uranium, the penetrators will also chemically react with rainwater and surface water. Uranium may be oxidized and leached into surface water or groundwater and may subsequently be transported. In this report, we review some of the factors affecting the oxidation of the DU metal and the factors influencing the leaching and mobility of uranium through surface water and groundwater pathways, and the uptake of uranium by plants growing in contaminated soils. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: The Physical Basis of the Direction of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulini, Domenico

    2008-10-01

    This is the fifth edition of H Dieter Zeh's classic text on the physical foundations of time-irreversibility in the phenomena. A forerunner of this book was the 1984 German text 'Die Physik der Zeitrichtung' of about 80 pages, which appeared as volume 200 in the Springer series Lecture Notes in Physics. It was soon followed by a largely revised and extended English edition of about twice the length. Since then each new edition has been thoroughly revised and, edition by edition, new topics and chapters have been added. As the author says in the introduction: 'The prime intention of this book is to discuss the relations between various arrows of time, and to search for a universal master arrow'. Correspondingly, after a short chapter on 'the physical concept of time', the author systematically discusses in the remaining five chapters the time arrows in electromagnetic radiation theory, in thermodynamics, in quantum mechanics, in black-hole physics and cosmology, and in quantum cosmology. The chapters on thermodynamics and quantum mechanics slightly outweigh the others in terms of length. The fifth edition now includes two new section on 'cosmic probabilities and history' and 'quantum computers', and the section on the 'expansion of the universe' has been restructured and extended. Other changes concentrate on the sections on radiation damping, decoherence, interpretation of quantum theory, and quantum cosmology. It should also be mentioned that the author maintains a regularly updated website for the book at www.time-direction.de. The reading is always highly stimulating and uses results and ideas from a very broad range of physics, with interspersed historical and philosophical comments. Somehow outstanding and of particular interest is the chapter on quantum cosmology, which raises novel interpretational issues that cannot be found in any other textbook I know of on time asymmetry. As regards the mathematical prerequisites, the reader is assumed to have some

  18. Physics Physics Annual Review, 1 April 1981-31 March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    In medium-energy pion physics, considerable progress has been made in understanding the propagation and absorption of pions (deltas) in the nuclear medium. An experiment to study neutrino oscillations is being planned at LAMPF with substantial involvement from Argonne. A major effort is being devoted to the scientific and technical considerations involved in proposing to build a multi-GeV C.W. electron accelerator: GEM at Argonne. In heavy-ion physics, the superconducting linac booster is being used with increasing scientific profit. Construction of the ATLAS facility began in FY 1982 and all progress has been on schedule. The importance of the time component of the weak axial-vector current has been studied through the #betta# decay of 16 N. A precision measurement is under way of the 7 Be(p,#betta#) cross section, one of the key components in the solar neutrino anomaly. In nuclear theory, the coupled-channel code for treating heavy-ion inelastic scattering was completed and application to particular experiments began. Nuclear structure theory was applied to interpret decays of high-spin states and inelastic pion scattering. Results of particular interest were obtained in the nuclear force program where the inclusion of 3-body forces led to simultaneous improvement in the binding of 3 He and 4 He and saturation of nuclear matter. The atomic physics research consists of six experimental programs as follows: (1) dissociation and other interactions of energetic molecular ions in solid and gaseous targets; (2) electron spectroscopy with fast atomic and molecular-ion beams; (3) beam-foil research and collision dynamics of heavy ions; (4) photoionization-photoelectron research; (5) high-resolution, laser-rf spectroscopy with atomic and molecular beams; and (6) theoretical atomic physics

  19. Physics Physics Annual Review, 1 April 1981-31 March 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    In medium-energy pion physics, considerable progress has been made in understanding the propagation and absorption of pions (deltas) in the nuclear medium. An experiment to study neutrino oscillations is being planned at LAMPF with substantial involvement from Argonne. A major effort is being devoted to the scientific and technical considerations involved in proposing to build a multi-GeV C.W. electron accelerator: GEM at Argonne. In heavy-ion physics, the superconducting linac booster is being used with increasing scientific profit. Construction of the ATLAS facility began in FY 1982 and all progress has been on schedule. The importance of the time component of the weak axial-vector current has been studied through the ..beta.. decay of /sup 16/N. A precision measurement is under way of the /sup 7/Be(p,..gamma..) cross section, one of the key components in the solar neutrino anomaly. In nuclear theory, the coupled-channel code for treating heavy-ion inelastic scattering was completed and application to particular experiments began. Nuclear structure theory was applied to interpret decays of high-spin states and inelastic pion scattering. Results of particular interest were obtained in the nuclear force program where the inclusion of 3-body forces led to simultaneous improvement in the binding of /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He and saturation of nuclear matter. The atomic physics research consists of six experimental programs as follows: (1) dissociation and other interactions of energetic molecular ions in solid and gaseous targets; (2) electron spectroscopy with fast atomic and molecular-ion beams; (3) beam-foil research and collision dynamics of heavy ions; (4) photoionization-photoelectron research; (5) high-resolution, laser-rf spectroscopy with atomic and molecular beams; and (6) theoretical atomic physics. (WHK)

  20. Review of multi-physics temporal coupling methods for analysis of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerkak, Omar; Kozlowski, Tomasz; Gajev, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of the numerical methods used for the multi-physics temporal coupling. • Review of high-order improvements to the Operator Splitting coupling method. • Analysis of truncation error due to the temporal coupling. • Recommendations on best-practice approaches for multi-physics temporal coupling. - Abstract: The advanced numerical simulation of a realistic physical system typically involves multi-physics problem. For example, analysis of a LWR core involves the intricate simulation of neutron production and transport, heat transfer throughout the structures of the system and the flowing, possibly two-phase, coolant. Such analysis involves the dynamic coupling of multiple simulation codes, each one devoted to the solving of one of the coupled physics. Multiple temporal coupling methods exist, yet the accuracy of such coupling is generally driven by the least accurate numerical scheme. The goal of this paper is to review in detail the approaches and numerical methods that can be used for the multi-physics temporal coupling, including a comprehensive discussion of the issues associated with the temporal coupling, and define approaches that can be used to perform multi-physics analysis. The paper is not limited to any particular multi-physics process or situation, but is intended to provide a generic description of multi-physics temporal coupling schemes for any development stage of the individual (single-physics) tools and methods. This includes a wide spectrum of situation, where the individual (single-physics) solvers are based on pre-existing computation codes embedded as individual components, or a new development where the temporal coupling can be developed and implemented as a part of code development. The discussed coupling methods are demonstrated in the framework of LWR core analysis

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Mastering Physics (4th edn) Macmillan Master Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The preface to the first edition of this book, in 1982, stated the aim as `presenting ideas with a directness and simplicity that will enable students to achieve maximum comprehension in the shortest possible time'. The fourth edition remains true to this aim, whilst paying some attention to the possibility of using the book alongside classroom work as well as a revision aid. However, it is as a clear concise summary of GCSE level physics (and a little bit beyond) that this book excels. I would recommend it to students as a revision aid at the end of the course and as a reference book during it. There should certainly be a few copies in the school library. Since I see the book's main role as being for the individual use of students it seemed sensible to ask one for his impression of the book having completed GCSE Physics a few months ago, and this is appended below. Philip Britton The book is split into many small, precise subsections and so allows easy reference to the topic you want to know about. The major equations are all included and explained well. The text is quite detailed and includes helpful examples. Concepts are explained in simple stages and in a way that is easy to understand; for example, the phases of the moon and ray diagrams. Resistors, which had been a little difficult for me, are very well explained. A simple detail like putting the names of the circuit symbols beside them on diagrams helps a lot. Throughout the book there are plenty of diagrams used to assist understanding rather than just illustrate the book. Overall I think that it would be best used as a revision aid. It reads very much like a syllabus with added explanation and examples. Perhaps it would be possible for a class to read a section before a lesson so less basic explanation is required during the lesson and other work can be done. The sections are brief enough to allow even the apathetic to complete such a homework assignment.

  2. Databases in High Energy Physics a critial review

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J D

    2007-01-01

    The year 2000 is marked by a plethora of significant milestones in the history of High Energy Physics. Not only the true numerical end to the second millennium, this watershed year saw the final run of CERN's Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP) - the world-class machine that had been the focus of the lives of many of us for such a long time. It is also closely related to the subject of this chapter in the following respects: - Classified as a nuclear installation, information on the LEP machine must be retained indefinitely. This represents a challenge to the database community that is almost beyond discussion - archiving of data for a relatively small number of years is indeed feasible, but retaining it for centuries, millennia or more is a very different issue; - There are strong scientific arguments as to why the data from the LEP machine should be retained for a short period. However, the complexity of the data itself, the associated metadata and the programs that manipulate it make even this a huge ch...

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco

    1998-04-01

    Professor Kenro Miyamoto, already well known for his textbook Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1976; revised edition 1989), has now published a new book entitled Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Iwanami Book Service Center, Tokyo, 1997). To a large extent, the new book is a somewhat shortened and well reorganized version of its predecessor. The style, concise and matter of fact, clearly shows the origin of the text in lectures given by the author to graduate students. As announced by the title, the book is divided into two parts: the first part (about 250 pages) is a general introduction to the physics of plasmas, while the second, somewhat shorter, part (about 150 pages), is devoted to a description of the most important experimental approaches to achieving controlled thermonuclear fusion. Even in the first part, moreover, the choice of subjects is consistently oriented towards the needs of fusion research. Thus, the introduction to the behaviour of charged particles (particle motion, collisions, etc.) and to the collective description of plasmas is quite short, although the reader will get a flavour of all the most important topics and will find a number of examples chosen for their relevance to fusion applications (only the presentation of the Vlasov equation, in the second section of Chapter 4, might be criticized as so concise as to be almost misleading, since the difference between microscopic and macroscopic fields is not even mentioned). Considerably more space is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of equilibrium and stability. This part includes the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation for circular tokamaks, a brief discussion of Pfirsch-Schlüter, neoclassical and anomalous diffusion, and two relatively long chapters on the most important ideal and resistive MHD instabilities of toroidal plasmas; drift and ion temperature gradient driven instabilities are also briefly presented. The

  4. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Physical Therapy Modalities in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Carroll, Marie-Soleil; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-07-01

    Pelvic floor muscle physical therapy is recommended in clinical guidelines for women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Including isolated or combined treatment modalities, physical therapy is viewed as an effective first-line intervention, yet no systematic review concerning the effectiveness of physical therapy has been conducted. To systematically appraise the current literature on the effectiveness of physical therapy modalities for decreasing pain during intercourse and improving sexual function in women with PVD. A systematic literature search using PubMed, Scopus, CINHAL, and PEDro was conducted until October 2016. Moreover, a manual search from reference lists of included articles was performed. Ongoing trials also were reviewed using clinicaltrial.gov and ISRCTNregistry. Randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohorts, and case reports evaluating the effect of isolated or combined physical therapy modalities in women with PVD were included in the review. Main outcome measures were pain during intercourse, sexual function, and patient's perceived improvement. The literature search resulted in 43 eligible studies including 7 randomized controlled trials, 20 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 6 case reports, and 6 study protocols. Most studies had a high risk of bias mainly associated with the lack of a comparison group. Another common bias was related to insufficient sample size, non-validated outcomes, non-standardized intervention, and use of other ongoing treatment. The vast majority of studies showed that physical therapy modalities such as biofeedback, dilators, electrical stimulation, education, multimodal physical therapy, and multidisciplinary approaches were effective for decreasing pain during intercourse and improving sexual function. The positive findings for the effectiveness of physical therapy modalities in women with PVD should be investigated further in robust and well-designed randomized controlled trials

  5. Workplace accommodations for persons with physical disabilities: evidence synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padkapayeva, Kathy; Posen, Andrew; Yazdani, Amin; Buettgen, Alexis; Mahood, Quenby; Tompa, Emile

    2017-10-01

    To identify and synthesize research evidence on workplace accommodations used by employers to recruit, hire, retain, and promote persons with physical disabilities. A structured search of six electronic journal databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature on the topic published from January 1990 to March 2016. Articles describing or evaluating workplace disability accommodation policies and practices were given a full-text review. Topic experts were contacted to identify additional studies. Details on specific accommodations described in 117 articles were synthesized and organized into three groups comprised of a total of 12 categories. The majority of studies did not rigorously evaluate effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of the accommodations under study. This evidence synthesis provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature of value to occupational rehabilitation professionals and employers seeking guidance on workplace accommodation policies and practices for persons with physical disabilities. A wide range of accommodation options is available for addressing physical, social, and attitudinal barriers to successful employment. Besides physical/technological modifications, accommodations to enhance workplace flexibility and worker autonomy and strategies to promote workplace inclusion and integration are important. More comprehensive reporting and evaluations of the effectiveness of accommodations in research literature are needed to develop best practices for accommodating persons with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation There is a substantial peer-reviewed literature that provides insights into the barriers for persons with physical disabilities and the workplace accommodation practices to address them, though rigorous evaluations of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are uncommon. Attitudinal and social barriers stemming from stereotypes, ignorance and lack of knowledge are as important as physical barriers to employment for

  6. Association between physical activity and vitamin D: A narrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    Full Text Available Summary This narrative review of the medical literature assessed whether outdoor and indoor physical activity would increase the plasma levels of vitamin D. Synthesis of this liposoluble vitamin is mainly mediated by sunlight on the skin, where it is activated to perform its main action, which is to control the serum levels of calcium as soon as the element is absorbed in the intestines, assisting in the regulation of bone metabolism. Physical activity is any body movement that results in energy expenditure, while outdoor physical activity refers to physical activity carried out at public parks or other open spaces, as is the case of the popular practice of taking walks. Exercising outdoors would have both the benefits of physical activity and of sun exposure, namely the synthesis of vitamin D. However, according to the studies analyzed, increased plasma concentration of vitamin D occurs with physical activity both indoors and outdoors.

  7. Gardening Activities and Physical Health Among Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-09-01

    Breithaupt's new book is big: at 727 pages, it will be a hefty addition to any student's bag. According to the preface, the book is designed to help students achieve the transition from GCSE to A-level and to succeed well at this level. It also aims to cover the requirements of the compulsory parts of all new syllabuses and to cover most of the optional material, too. The book is organized into seven themes along traditional lines: mechanics, materials, fields, waves, electricity, inside the atom, and physics in medicine. Each theme begins with a colourful title page that outlines what the theme is about, lists the applications that students will meet in their reading, identifies prior learning from GCSE and gives a checklist of what students should be able to do once they have finished their reading of the theme. This is all very useful. The text of the book is illustrated with many colourful photographs, pictures and cartoons, but despite this it looks very dense. There are a lot of words on every page in a small font that makes them seem very unfriendly, and although the book claims to be readable I rather doubt that the layout will encourage voluntary reading of the text. Each chapter ends with a useful summary and a selection of short questions that allow students to test their understanding. Each theme has a set of multiple choice and long questions. Some of the questions have an icon referring the student to the accompanying CD (more of this later). There is much up-to-date material in the book. For example, the section on cosmology gives a brief description of the inflationary scenario within the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe, although no mechanism for the inflation is given, which might prove unsatisfying to some students. I do have some reservations about the presentation of some topics within the book: the discussion of relativistic mass, for example, states that `Einstein showed that the mass ... is given by the formula ...' and quotes

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  10. A systematic review of workplace health promotion interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sumaira H; Blake, Holly; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    The benefits of an active lifestyle are widely documented, yet studies show that only a small proportion of adults engage in sufficient levels of physical activity. The workplace presents an ideal avenue for delivering initiatives to promote physical activity, overcoming commonly cited barriers such as a 'lack of time' and providing access to a large intersection of society. The purpose of this study was to (1) explore the types of interventions workplaces implement to promote physical activity among staff, (2) describe the characteristics of those interventions, (3) understand whether these interventions positively impact on activity levels, and (4) assess the methodological quality of studies. A systematic review of workplace physical activity interventions published up to April 2011 was conducted to identify types of interventions and their outcomes. Of the 58 studies included, the majority utilized health promotion initiatives. There were six physical activity/exercise interventions, 13 counselling/support interventions, and 39 health promotion messages/information interventions. Thirty-two of these studies showed a statistically significant increase in a measure of physical activity against a control group at follow-up. While the studies included in this review show some evidence that workplace physical activity interventions can be efficacious, overall the results are inconclusive. Despite the proliferation of research in this area, there is still a need for more well-designed studies to fully determine the effectiveness of workplace interventions for increasing physical activity and to identify the types of interventions that show the most promise. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. The Effects of Physical Activity on Serum Visfatin Level: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher concentration of plasma visfatin in obese and diabetic subjects compared with their healthy counterparts shows visfatin relationship to obesity and overweight. This article reviewed the studies on contradictory and different notions regarding the role of physical activity in visfatin response following aerobic and resistance exercises. Recent reports on the impact of physical activity and exercise on visfatin concentration is contradictory. Some studies have identified that exercise can reduce visfatin concentration depending on the duration of physical activity and calorie expenditure, while others have not reported any changes in visfatin concentration. The present review indicated that a balanced diet, low in fat, and physical exercise (aerobic and aerobic-resistance exercises can reduce blood visfatin levels depending on the severity and duration, while resistance training alone exerts no significant effects on serum visfatin level.

  12. Protection motivation theory and physical activity in the general population: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Linh; Mullan, Barbara; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate theoretical framework may be useful for guiding the development of physical activity interventions. This review investigates the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory (PMT), a model based on the cognitive mediation processes of behavioral change, in the prediction and promotion of physical activity participation. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and a manual search was conducted on relevant reference lists. Studies were included if they tested or applied the PMT, measured physical activity, and sampled from healthy populations. A total of 20 studies were reviewed, grouped into four design categories: prediction, stage discrimination, experimental manipulation, and intervention. The results indicated that the PMT's coping appraisal construct of self-efficacy generally appears to be the most effective in predicting and promoting physical activity participation. In conclusion, the PMT shows some promise, however, there are still substantial gaps in the evidence.

  13. Population attributable fraction of type 2 diabetes due to physical inactivity in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Tunaiji, Hashel; Davis, Jennifer C; Mackey, Dawn C; Khan, Karim M

    2014-05-18

    Physical inactivity is a global pandemic. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with physical inactivity ranges from 3% to 40%. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the best estimate of PAF for T2DM attributable to physical inactivity and absence of sport participation or exercise for men and women. We conducted a systematic review that included a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SportDiscus, and CINAHL (1946 to April 30 2013) limited by the terms adults and English. Two reviewers screened studies, extracted PAF related data and assessed the quality of the selected studies. We reconstructed 95% CIs for studies missing these data using a substitution method. Of the eight studies reporting PAF in T2DM, two studies included prospective cohort studies (3 total) and six were reviews. There were distinct variations in quality of defining and measuring physical inactivity, T2DM and adjusting for confounders. In the US, PAFs for absence of playing sport ranged from 13% (95% CI: 3, 22) in men and 29% (95% CI: 17, 41) in women. In Finland, PAFs for absence of exercise ranged from 3% (95% CI: -11, 16) in men to 7% (95% CI: -9, 20) in women. The PAF of physical inactivity due to T2DM is substantial. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for T2DM. The contribution of physical inactivity to T2DM differs by sex; PAF also differs if physical inactivity is defined as the absence of 'sport' or absence of 'exercise'.

  14. Physical activity interventions in the workplace: a review and future for New Zealand research

    OpenAIRE

    Badland, H. M.; Schofield, G. M.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To examine the worksite physical activity intervention literature and discuss whether the findings are applicable to New Zealand worksite environments. Data sources: Information was sourced from major health databases using key words physical activity, intervention, worksite, workplace, and health promotion. The remainder of the literature search was directed from citations in the articles sourced from the original search. Study selection: Studies included in the review were related to w...

  15. Physics Division annual review, 1 April 1986-31 March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This review presents a broad view of the research activities within the Division for the year ending in March 1987. Major topic areas are: Medium Energy Physics Research; Theoretical Nuclear Physics; Superconducting Linac Development, and Accelerator Operations. Research at ATLAS is also included as a broad topic. Included in this research are studies in the areas of: Quasielastic Processes and Strongly Damped Collisions; Fusion and Fission of Heavy Ions; High Angular Momentum States in Nuclei; Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy; and Equipment Development

  16. Review of the National Research Council report: Physics through the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The report of the National Research Council (NRC), Physics through the 1990s, highlights past developments and research opportunities in the various subfields of physics and addresses general issues concerning the present state of the discipline in the United States. At the request of the Secretary of Energy, the Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB) reviewed this report and identified the areas that relate to the programs and objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE). The present report provides the conclusions of this review and the recommendations for the Department's actions

  17. Review of physical and socio-economic characteristics and intervention approaches of informal settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wekesa, BW

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available -1 Habitat International Volume 35, Issue 2, April 2011, Pages 238-245 A review of physical and socio-economic characteristics and intervention approaches of informal settlements B.W. Wekesaa, b, , , G.S. Steyna, 1, , F.A.O. (Fred) Otienoc, 2, , a... a literature survey, this paper reviews physical and socio-economic characteristics and the factors attributed to proliferation of the informal settlements and intervention approaches. The main objective was to establish how such settlements could...

  18. Interphase thermodynamic bond in heterogeneous alloys: effects on alloy properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.M.; Konovalov, Yu.V.; Yuferov, O.I.

    2005-01-01

    Inconsistency between a conventional thermodynamic description of alloys as a mechanical mixture of phases and a real alloys state as a common thermodynamic system in which there is a complicated physical-chemical phases interaction has been considered. It is supposed that in heterogeneous alloys (eutectic ones, for instance), so called interphase thermodynamic bond can become apparent due to a partial electron levels splitting under phase interaction. Thermodynamic description of phase equilibrium in alloys is proposed taking into account a thermodynamic bond for the system with phase diagram of eutectic type, and methods of the value of this bond estimation are presented. Experimental evidence (Al-Cu-Si, Al-Si-Mg-Cu, U-Mo + Al) of the effect of interphase thermodynamic bond on temperature and enthalpy of melting of alloys are produced as well as possibility of its effects on alloys electrical conduction, strength, heat and corrosion resistance is substantiated theoretically [ru

  19. The gender gap in peer-reviewed publications by physical therapy faculty members: a productivity puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Regina R; Chevan, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Studies of peer-reviewed article publication by faculty in higher education show men publish more than women. Part of the difference in publishing appears to be attributable directly to gender. Gender differences in publishing productivity have not been explored in physical therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore effects of gender on peer-reviewed publication productivity in physical therapy. This was a cross-sectional study using survey methods. A survey was administered to a random sample of 881 physical therapy faculty members; 459 responses were used for analysis. Men were more likely than women to be married, have children, hold a PhD degree, be tenured or on a tenure track, and hold the position of department chair. There was a significant difference in peer-reviewed publication rates between male and female respondents. Negative binomial regression models revealed that female gender was a negative predictor of peer-reviewed publication, accounting for between 0.51 and 0.58 fewer articles per year for women than for men over the course of a career. Reasons for the gender differences are not clear. Factors such as grant funding, laboratory resources, nature of collaborative relationships, values for different elements of the teaching/research/service triad, and ability to negotiate the academic culture were not captured by our model. The gender gap in peer-reviewed publishing productivity may have implications for individuals and the profession of physical therapy and should be subject to further exploration.

  20. Physical Activity Interventions in Faith-Based Organizations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristão Parra, Maíra; Porfírio, Gustavo J M; Arredondo, Elva M; Atallah, Álvaro N

    2018-03-01

    To review and assess the effectiveness of physical activity interventions delivered in faith-based organizations. We searched the Cochrane Library, DoPHER, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, WHO ICTRP, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases until January 2016, without restriction of language or publication date. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials investigating physical activity interventions for adults delivered in faith-based organizations. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed study methodological quality. We used relative risk and mean difference with 95% confidence interval to estimate the effect of the interventions on measures of physical activity, physical fitness, and health. The review included 18 studies. Study participants were predominantly female, and the majority of trials were conducted in the United States. Study heterogeneity did not allow us to conduct meta-analyses. Although interventions delivered in faith-based organizations increased physical activity and positively influenced measures of health and fitness in participants, the quality of the evidence was very low. Faith-based organizations are promising settings to promote physical activity, consequently addressing health disparities. However, high-quality randomized clinical trials are needed to adequately assess the effectiveness of interventions delivered in faith-based organizations.

  1. Methods of analysis of physical activity among persons with spinal cord injury: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Štěpánová

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A spinal cord injury is one of the most devastating acquired physical disabilities. People with spinal cord injury are usually in a productive age, often interested in sports and physical activity. Therefore it is essential to support the development of monitoring of the quality and quantity of physical activity of people with spinal cord injury. Objective: The aim of this study was to perform systematic review of international studies from the period 2004-2014 with the aim to find appropriate questionnaires focused on the subjective perception of the amount of physical activity of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI to be used in The Czech Republic. Methods: A systematic literature review incorporated the databases of Medline, SPORTDiscus, Ebsco and PSYCInfo. Results: This type of questionnaire has not been used previously in the Czech Republic yet the following international surveys have been used: 1. Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD, 2. The Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury (PARA-SCI, 3. Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Spinal Cord Injury (LTPAQ-SCI. In the database search we found studies also focusing on the objective measurements of physical activity of wheelchair users with SCI. The physical switches used by intact populations are adapted for measurements (pedometers, accelerometers, speedometers. Most recent studies utilize Accelerometer based Activity Monitors which are attached to wheel of wheelchair or body of wheelchair users (wrist, leg or chest. Conclusions: This study is essential to critically approach issues of health and active lifestyle of persons with SCI and its use for teaching of students of adapted physical activity and physiotherapy.

  2. Systematic review of behaviour change techniques to promote participation in physical activity among people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Adamczewska, Natalia; Howlett, Neil

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence for the potential promise of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to increase physical activity among people with dementia (PWD). PsychINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched 01/01/2000-01/12/2016. Randomized controlled/quasi-randomized trials were included if they recruited people diagnosed/suspected to have dementia, used at least one BCT in the intervention arm, and had at least one follow-up measure of physical activity/adherence. Studies were appraised using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool, and BCTs were coded using Michie et al., 2013, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81. taxonomy. Intervention findings were narratively synthesized as either 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising', and BCTs were judged as having potential promise if they featured in at least twice as many very/quite promising than non-promising interventions (as per Gardner et al., 2016, Health Psychology Review, 10, 89). Nineteen articles from nine trials reported physical activity findings on behavioural outcomes (two very promising, one quite promising, and two non-promising) or intervention adherence (one quite promising and four non-promising). Thirteen BCTs were used across the interventions. While no BCT had potential promise to increase intervention adherence, three BCTs had potential promise for improving physical activity behaviour outcomes: goal setting (behaviour), social support (unspecified), and using a credible source. Three BCTs have potential promise for use in future interventions to increase physical activity among PWD. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While physical activity is a key lifestyle factor to enhance and maintain health and wellbeing amongst the general population, adults rarely participate in sufficient levels to obtain these benefits. Systematic reviews suggest that

  3. Interventions to promote physical activity in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazlina eShariff-Ghazali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among people aged 60 years and above is a growing public health problem. Regular physical activity is one of the key elements in the management of T2DM. Recommendations suggest that older people with T2DM will benefit from regular physical activity for better disease control and delaying complications. Despite the known benefits, many remain sedentary. Hence, this review assessed interventions for promoting physical activity in persons aged 65 years and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A literature search was conducted using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published between January 2000 and December 2012. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs comparing different strategies to increase physical activity level in persons aged 65 years and older with T2DM were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed.Results: Twenty-one eligible studies were reviewed, only six studies were rated as good quality and only one study specifically targeted persons aged 65 years and older. Personalised coaching, goal setting, peer support groups, use of technology and physical activity monitors were proven to increase the level of physical activity. Incorporation of health behaviour theories and follow-up supports also were successful strategies. However, the methodological quality and type of interventions promoting physical activity of the included studies in this review varied widely across the eligible studies.Conclusion: Strategies that increased level of physical activity in persons with T2DM are evident but most studies focused on middle-aged persons and there was a lack of well-designed trials. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with interventions promoting physical activity in older people are required.

  4. Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Louise; Gallagher, Stephen; Cramp, Fiona; Brand, Charles; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.

  5. Physics-based simulation modeling and optimization of microstructural changes induced by machining and selective laser melting processes in titanium and nickel based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisoy, Yigit Muzaffer

    Manufacturing processes may significantly affect the quality of resultant surfaces and structural integrity of the metal end products. Controlling manufacturing process induced changes to the product's surface integrity may improve the fatigue life and overall reliability of the end product. The goal of this study is to model the phenomena that result in microstructural alterations and improve the surface integrity of the manufactured parts by utilizing physics-based process simulations and other computational methods. Two different (both conventional and advanced) manufacturing processes; i.e. machining of Titanium and Nickel-based alloys and selective laser melting of Nickel-based powder alloys are studied. 3D Finite Element (FE) process simulations are developed and experimental data that validates these process simulation models are generated to compare against predictions. Computational process modeling and optimization have been performed for machining induced microstructure that includes; i) predicting recrystallization and grain size using FE simulations and the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model, ii) predicting microhardness using non-linear regression models and the Random Forests method, and iii) multi-objective machining optimization for minimizing microstructural changes. Experimental analysis and computational process modeling of selective laser melting have been also conducted including; i) microstructural analysis of grain sizes and growth directions using SEM imaging and machine learning algorithms, ii) analysis of thermal imaging for spattering, heating/cooling rates and meltpool size, iii) predicting thermal field, meltpool size, and growth directions via thermal gradients using 3D FE simulations, iv) predicting localized solidification using the Phase Field method. These computational process models and predictive models, once utilized by industry to optimize process parameters, have the ultimate potential to improve performance of

  6. Commentary: The Hmong and their Perceptions about Physical Disabilities: An Overview and Review of Selected Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Cha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are one of the fastest growing populations in Central California. Hmong refugee families arrived in Fresno in the late 1970s facing a variety of challenges regarding their traditional health beliefs and the customs of mainstream Western biomedicine. Differing and sometimes conflicting perceptions about physical disabilities have resulted in painful misunderstandings between Hmong families and Western health care providers. The aim of this paper is to present a review of some of the Hmong health belief literature concerning physical disabilities in children. It also includes commentaries from those who work with the Hmong families of physically disabled children.

  7. Narrow-gap physical vapour deposition synthesis of ultrathin SnS1-xSex (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) two-dimensional alloys with unique polarized Raman spectra and high (opto)electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Li, Yongtao; Guo, Jianhua; Ni, Muxun; Liao, Ming; Mo, Haojie; Li, Jingbo

    2018-05-10

    Here we report ultrathin SnS1-xSex alloyed nanosheets synthesized via a narrow-gap physical vapour deposition approach. The SnS1-xSex alloy presents a uniform quadrangle shape with a lateral size of 5-80 μm and a thickness of several nanometers. Clear orthorhombic symmetries and unique in-plane anisotropic properties of the 2D alloyed nanosheets were found with the help of X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and polarized Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, 2D alloyed field-effect transistors were fabricated, exhibiting a unipolar p-type semiconductor behavior. This study also provided a lesson that the thickness of the alloyed channels played the major role in the current on/off ratio, and the high ratio of 2.10 × 102 measured from a large ultrathin SnS1-xSex device was two orders of magnitude larger than that of previously reported SnS, SnSe nanosheet based transistors because of the capacitance shielding effect. Obviously enhanced Raman peaks were also found in the thinner nanosheets. Furthermore, the ultrathin SnS0.5Se0.5 based photodetector showed a highest responsivity of 1.69 A W-1 and a short response time of 40 ms under illumination of a 532 nm laser from 405 to 808 nm. Simultaneously, the corresponding highest external quantum efficiency of 392% and detectivity of 3.96 × 104 Jones were also achieved. Hopefully, the narrow-gap synthesis technique provides us with an improved strategy to obtain large ultrathin 2D nanosheets which may tend to grow into thicker ones for stronger interlayer van der Waals forces, and the enhanced physical and (opto)electrical performances in the obtained ultrathin SnS1-xSex alloyed nanosheets prove their great potential in the future applications for versatile devices.

  8. Physical articular examination in the activity of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review of the literature : Systematic review of the literature regarding physical examination in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Yimy F; Ruíz-Gaviria, Rafael Eduardo; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Villota, Catalina

    2018-06-01

    To summarize evidence concerning the articular examination needed to determine rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity (follow-up or control) via a systematic review. A search of Medline, Embase, Lilacs, SciELO, the Web of Science, the National Technical Reports Library, and the reference lists of relevant studies through March 2017 was conducted using a systematic methodology to identify studies of patients with RA older than 18 years in which a detailed description of the physical examination or a description of the components of the articular examination was provided. Of 8322 references, 74 studies were included according to the selection criteria, and 6 references were ultimately included at the end of the review. Most of the included studies (n = 5) were associated with a moderate risk of bias. There was great variability among the studies and the articular examination methods used. Some studies presented the examination with a complete specification of the technique (n = 2), the consensus of rheumatologists (n = 2), or training through audiovisual materials and face-to-face courses (n = 2), but none of the studies explicitly showed the technique by which the physical examination was performed. Despite the importance of the clinical evaluation and physical examination of patients with RA for diagnosis, prognosis, clinimetrics, and follow-up, evidence concerning how to perform the articular examination is scarce.

  9. The Clinical anatomy of the physical examination of the abdomen: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Voin, Vlad; Topale, Nitsa; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-04-01

    Physical examination of the abdomen is an essential skill. Knowledge of its clinical anatomy and application is vital for making diagnoses. Misinterpretation of anatomy during examination can have serious consequences. This review addresses understanding of the anatomy, methodology, and complications of abdominal physical examination. It includes particular reference to modern technology and investigations. Physical examination is performed for diagnostic purposes. However, the art of physical examination is declining as more and more clinicians rely on newer technology. This can have regrettable consequences: negligence, waste of time and resources, and deterioration of clinical skills. With a sound knowledge of clinical anatomy, and realization of the importance of physical examination of the abdomen, clinician, and patients alike can benefit. Clin. Anat. 30:352-356, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Novel Dilute Bismide, Epitaxy, Physical Properties and Device Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dilute bismide in which a small amount of bismuth is incorporated to host III-Vs is the least studied III-V compound semiconductor and has received steadily increasing attention since 2000. In this paper, we review theoretical predictions of physical properties of bismide alloys, epitaxial growth of bismide thin films and nanostructures, surface, structural, electric, transport and optic properties of various binaries and bismide alloys, and device applications.

  11. The Benefits of Active Video Games for Educational and Physical Activity Approaches: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Merino-Campos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to conduct a systematic review of the current literature on active video games as potential educational tools for physical education or physical activity. To begin with, research on active video games for educational and physical purposes has been examined with the purpose of verifying improvement of attitudes, intellectual skills, knowledge, motor skills and physical properties associated with physical activity and physical education. A second aim will be to determine the effectiveness of active video games compared with traditional approaches to physical activity. From this perspective, a systematic literature search from relevant international databases was conducted from January to July 2015 in order to find papers published in journals or conference proceedings from January 2010 onwards. Then, 2648 references were identified in database searches and 100 of these papers met the inclusion criteria. Two main conclusions are to be drawn from this research. Firstly, controlled studies demonstrate that active video games increase capacities in relation to physical activity and education. Secondly, Research also shows that physical activity interventions designed and measured using behavioural theories are more likely to be successful in comparison with traditional exercise activities.

  12. Material science and solid state physics studies with positive muon spin precession. [fe(a1) alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The hyperfine field on the muon, B sub hf, at interstitial sites in dilute Fe(Al) alloys was measured for four different concentrations of Al and as a function of temperature by the muon spin rotation method. The magnitude of B sub hf, which is negative, decreases at rates ranging from 0.09 + or - 0.03% per at.% Al at 200 K to an asymptotic limit of 0.35 + or - far above 440 K. This behavior shows that sites near the Al impurity are weakly repulsive to the muon, with an interaction potential of 13 + or - 3 meV. In order to fit the temperature dependence of the hyperfine field, it is necessary to hypothesize the existence of a small concentration of unidentified defects, possibly dislocations, which are attractive to the muon. Although the Al impurity acts as a non-magnetic hole in the Fe lattice, the observed decrease in B sub hf is only 35% of the decrease in the bulk magnetization. It is concluded that B sub hf is determined mainly by the enhanced screening of conduction electrons in Fe and Fe(Al). Since the influence of the Al impurity on the neighboring Fe monents is very small, most of the change in B sub hf is therefore attributed to the increase in conduction electron polarization of the Al impurity.

  13. Factors of physical activity among Chinese children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Congchao; Stolk, Ronald P; Sauer, Pieter J J; Sijtsma, Anna; Wiersma, Rikstje; Huang, Guowei; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2017-03-21

    Lack of physical activity is a growing problem in China, due to the fast economic development and changing living environment over the past two decades. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors related to physical activity in Chinese children and adolescents during this distinct period of development. A systematic search was finished on Jan 10 th , 2017, and identified 2200 hits through PubMed and Web of Science. English-language published studies were included if they reported statistical associations between factors and physical activity. Adapted criteria from the Strengthening The Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement and evaluation of the quality of prognosis studies in systematic reviews (QUIPS) were used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. Related factors that were reported in at least three studies were summarized separately for children and adolescents using a semi-quantitative method. Forty two papers (published 2002-2016) were included. Most designs were cross-sectional (79%), and most studies used questionnaires to assess physical activity. Sample size was above 1000 in 18 papers (43%). Thirty seven studies (88%) showed acceptable quality by methodological quality assessment. Most studies reported a low level of physical activity. Boys were consistently more active than girls, the parental physical activity was positively associated with children and adolescents' physical activity, children in suburban/rural regions showed less activity than in urban regions, and, specifically in adolescents, self-efficacy was positively associated with physical activity. Family socioeconomic status and parental education were not associated with physical activity in children and adolescents. The studies included in this review were large but mostly of low quality in terms of study design (cross-sectional) and methods (questionnaires). Parental physical activity and self-efficacy are promising targets for future

  14. First principles thermodynamics of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducastelle, F.

    1993-01-01

    We present a brief report on the methods of solid state physics (electronic structure, statistical thermodynamics) that allow us to discuss the phase stability of alloys and to determine their phase diagrams. (orig.)

  15. Physical Activity, Biomarkers, and Disease Outcomes in Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenreich, Christine M.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Siddiqi, Sameer M.; McTiernan, Anne; Alfano, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors often seek information about how lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, may influence their prognosis. We systematically reviewed studies that examined relationships between physical activity and mortality (cancer-specific and all-cause) and/or cancer biomarkers. Methods We identified 45 articles published from January 1950 to August 2011 through MEDLINE database searches that were related to physical activity, cancer survival, and biomarkers potentially relevant to cancer survival. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement to guide this review. Study characteristics, mortality outcomes, and biomarker-relevant and subgroup results were abstracted for each article that met the inclusion criteria (ie, research articles that included participants with a cancer diagnosis, mortality outcomes, and an assessment of physical activity). Results There was consistent evidence from 27 observational studies that physical activity is associated with reduced all-cause, breast cancer–specific, and colon cancer–specific mortality. There is currently insufficient evidence regarding the association between physical activity and mortality for survivors of other cancers. Randomized controlled trials of exercise that included biomarker endpoints suggest that exercise may result in beneficial changes in the circulating level of insulin, insulin-related pathways, inflammation, and, possibly, immunity; however, the evidence is still preliminary. Conclusions Future research directions identified include the need for more observational studies on additional types of cancer with larger sample sizes; the need to examine whether the association between physical activity and mortality varies by tumor, clinical, or risk factor characteristics; and the need for research on the biological mechanisms involved in the association between physical activity and survival after a cancer diagnosis. Future randomized

  16. Physical activity and exercise for chronic pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneen, Louise J; Moore, R Andrew; Clarke, Clare; Martin, Denis; Colvin, Lesley A; Smith, Blair H

    2017-04-24

    Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning.Physical activity and exercise programmes are increasingly being promoted and offered in various healthcare systems, and for a variety of chronic pain conditions. It is therefore important at this stage to establish the efficacy and safety of these programmes, and furthermore to address the critical factors that determine their success or failure. To provide an overview of Cochrane Reviews of adults with chronic pain to determine (1) the effectiveness of different physical activity and exercise interventions in reducing pain severity and its impact on function, quality of life, and healthcare use; and (2) the evidence for any adverse effects or harm associated with physical activity and exercise interventions. We searched theCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on the Cochrane Library (CDSR 2016, Issue 1) for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), after which we tracked any included reviews for updates, and tracked protocols in case of full review publication until an arbitrary cut-off date of 21 March 2016 (CDSR 2016, Issue 3). We assessed the methodological quality of the reviews using the AMSTAR tool, and also planned to analyse data for each painful condition based on quality of the evidence.We extracted data for (1) self-reported pain severity, (2) physical function (objectively or subjectively measured), (3) psychological function, (4) quality of

  17. A 5-year review of physical and verbal aggression in a psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 5-year review of physical and verbal aggression in a psychiatric ward in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... p=0.6) and previous episode of mental illness in patient (÷=00; p=1.0). ... of ward culture, staff-to-staff and staff-to-patient dynamics and environment.

  18. A review of the physics methods for advanced gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of steady-state reactor physics methods and associated codes used in AGR design and operation. These range from the basic lattice codes (ARGOSY, WIMS), through homogeneous-diffusion theory fuel management codes (ODYSSEUS, MOPSY) to a fully heterogeneous code (HET). The current state of development of the methods is discussed, together with illustrative examples of their application. (author)

  19. Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model-Based Programmes in Physical Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Pablo; Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Pérez-Ordás, Raquel

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a review of research on the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility model-based programme within physical education. Papers selected for analysis were found through searches of Web of Science, SportDiscus (EBSCO), SCOPUS, and ERIC (ProQuest) databases. The keywords "responsibility model" and…

  20. Adolescents' Perspectives on the Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João; Marques, Adilson; Sarmento, Hugo; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This article examined qualitative studies of adolescents' perspectives about the facilitators and barriers of physical activity, published from 2007 to 2014. A systematic review of "Web of Science", "EBSCO", "Psychinfo" and "ERIC" databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic…