WorldWideScience

Sample records for alloying physical review

  1. Review and study of physics driven pitting corrosion modeling in 2024-T3 aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingyu; Jata, Kumar V.

    2015-04-01

    Material degradation due to corrosion and corrosion fatigue has been recognized to significantly affect the airworthiness of civilian and military aircraft, especially for the current fleet of airplanes that have served beyond their initial design life. The ability to predict the corrosion damage development in aircraft components and structures, therefore, is of great importance in managing timely maintenance for the aging aircraft vehicles and in assisting the design of new ones. The assessment of aircraft corrosion and its influence on fatigue life relies on appropriate quantitative models that can evaluate the initiation of the corrosion as well as the accumulation during the period of operation. Beyond the aircraft regime, corrosion has also affected the maintenance, safety and reliability of other systems such as nuclear power systems, steam and gas turbines, marine structures and so on. In the work presented in this paper, we reviewed and studied several physics based pitting corrosion models that have been reported in the literature. The classic work of particle induced pitting corrosion by Wei and Harlow is reviewed in detail. Two types of modeling, a power law based simplified model and a microstructure based model, are compared for 2024-T3 alloy. Data from literatures are used as model inputs. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for future work.

  2. Physical Metallurgy of High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Two definitions of high-entropy alloys (HEAs), based on composition and entropy, are reviewed. Four core effects, i.e., high entropy, sluggish diffusion, severe lattice distortion, and cocktail effects, are mentioned to show the uniqueness of HEAs. The current state of physical metallurgy is discussed. As the compositions of HEAs are entirely different from that of conventional alloys, physical metallurgy principles might need to be modified for HEAs. The thermodynamics, kinetics, structure, and properties of HEAs are briefly discussed relating with the four core effects of HEAs. Among these, a severe lattice distortion effect is particularly emphasized because it exerts direct and indirect influences on many aspects of microstructure and properties. Because a constituent phase in HEAs can be regarded as a whole-solute matrix, every lattice site in the matrix has atomic-scale lattice distortion. In such a distorted lattice, point defects, line defects, and planar defects are different from those in conventional matrices in terms of atomic configuration, defect energy, and dynamic behavior. As a result, mechanical and physical properties are significantly influenced by such a distortion. Suitable mechanisms and theories correlating composition, microstructure, and properties for HEAs are required to be built in the future. Only these understandings make it possible to complete the physical metallurgy of the alloy world.

  3. Nonprecious alloys for use in fixed prosthodontics: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J R; Rose, T C

    1983-03-01

    The physical properties of nonprecious alloys can differ significantly from those of alloys containing a high percent of gold. Relationships among constituents, physical properties, and handling characteristics of base metal alloys were surveyed. Toxicity of nickel, beryllium, and their compounds was discussed with attention given to the dental environment. Allergic contact dermatitis appears to be a health risk to certain patients from nickel-containing prostheses. Beryllium dust is apparently not a hazard in properly ventilated and exhausted grinding and polishing areas. Lack of data on nickel-related health problems in dental laboratory workers should be interpreted with caution. This article also reviewed research on porcelain bonding and corrosion of nonprecious alloys. Although this research cannot yet predict an alloy's porcelain bonding behavior in mouths, little or no porcelain bond problems have been reported. A few controlled clinical studies report little corrosion in up to 4 years. PMID:6341550

  4. Reviews of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    "Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24," edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence

  5. Charm physics: theoretical review

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, Alexey A.

    2003-01-01

    We review recent developments in charm physics, focusing on the physics of charmed mesons. We discuss charm spectroscopy, decay constants, as well as searches for new physics with charmed mesons. We discuss D0-anti-D0 mixing and CP-violation in charm decays. We also present the modified Nelson plot of charm mixing predictions.

  6. Physical Properties of Film Alloys Based on Ferromagnetic and Noble Metals (Review. І. Film Materials Based on Fe and Ag or Au

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Odnodvorets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of analysis of literature and own data on the phase composition, electrophysical and magnetoresistive properties of granular film alloys based on Fe and Ag or Au are present. Analyzed the question about system designations of film structures, which adopted in the literature and does not meet their physical nature in its original state and after annealing. A new system of signs ordered and disordered solid solutions without and with the presence elements of granular state; quasigranular alloys, in which the role played granules of ferromagnetic island films; intermetallic and others was proposed. It is established that the electrophysical properties (temperature coefficient of resistance – TCR and strain coefficient – SC defined conductive matrix as s.s., and in nanoscale granules realized the ballistic conductivity mechanism that does not affect the value of TCR and SC. In granular film alloys s.s. Au (Fe + granules at the plastic deformation observed abnormal increase in comparison with the elastic deformation value SC (10 times at a concentration cFe  55-75 аt. %.

  7. Nuclear Physics Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker-Loud, Andre

    2014-11-01

    Anchoring low-energy nuclear physics to the fundamental theory of strong interactions remains an outstanding challenge. I review the current progress and challenges of the endeavor to use lattice QCD to bridge this connection. This is a particularly exciting time for this line of research as demonstrated by the spike in the number of different collaborative efforts focussed on this problem and presented at this conference. I first digress and discuss the 2013 Ken Wilson Award.

  8. Review of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, C.; Particle Data Group; et al.

    2016-10-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,062 new measurements from 721 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as supersymmetric particles, heavy bosons, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Higgs Boson Physics, Supersymmetry, Grand Unified Theories, Neutrino Mixing, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Cosmology, Particle Detectors, Colliders, Probability and Statistics. Among the 117 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised, including those on Pentaquarks and Inflation. The complete Review is published online in a journal and on the website of the Particle Data Group (http://pdg.lbl.gov). The printed PDG Book contains the Summary Tables and all review articles but no longer includes the detailed tables from the Particle Listings. A Booklet with the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the review articles is also available. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (150 KB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (456 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (155 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (134 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (84 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (871 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (300 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (91 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (330 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (37 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (278 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (7.3 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (2.7 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.8 MB) Mathematical Tools or Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group

  9. Review of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, K. A.; Particle Data Group

    2014-08-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov. Contents Abstract, Contributors, Highlights and Table of ContentsAcrobat PDF (4.4 MB) IntroductionAcrobat PDF (595 KB) Particle Physics Summary Tables Gauge and Higgs bosonsAcrobat PDF (204 KB) LeptonsAcrobat PDF (167 KB) QuarksAcrobat PDF (115 KB) MesonsAcrobat PDF (976 KB) BaryonsAcrobat PDF (384 KB) Searches (Supersymmetry, Compositeness, etc.)Acrobat PDF (120 KB) Tests of conservation lawsAcrobat PDF (383 KB) Reviews, Tables, and Plots Detailed contents for this sectionAcrobat PDF (73 KB) Constants, Units, Atomic and Nuclear PropertiesAcrobat PDF (395 KB) Standard Model and Related TopicsAcrobat PDF (8.37 MB) Astrophysics and CosmologyAcrobat PDF (3.79 MB) Experimental Methods and CollidersAcrobat PDF (3.82 MB) Mathematical Tools of Statistics, Monte Carlo, Group Theory Acrobat

  10. Kaon Physics Review

    CERN Document Server

    Lellouch, L

    2009-01-01

    I critically review recent lattice QCD results relevant for kaon phenomenology, as well as the methods that are used to obtain them. The focus is on calculations with N_f=2 and N_f=2+1 flavors of sea quarks. Concerning methodology, the subjects covered include a discussion of how best to extrapolate and/or interpolate results to the physical quark-mass point, a scheme for assessing the extent to which a lattice QCD calculation includes the various effects required to compute a given quantity reliably and a procedure for averaging lattice results. The phenomenological topics that I review comprise leptonic and semileptonic kaon decays, as well as neutral kaon mixing and CP violation in K->\\pi\\pi decays.

  11. Nickel-titanium alloys: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo do Amaral Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on nickel-titanium wires was performed. The strategy was focused on Entrez-PubMed-OLDMEDLINE, Scopus and BioMed Central from 1963 to 2008. METHODS: Papers in English and French describing the behavior of these wires and laboratorial methods to identify crystalline transformation were considered. A total of 29 papers were selected. RESULTS: Nickel-titanium wires show exceptional features in terms of elasticity and shape memory effects. However, clinical applications request a deeper knowledge of these properties in order to allow the professional to use them in a rational manner. In addition, the necessary information regarding each alloy often does not correspond to the information given by the manufacturer. Many alloys called "superelastic" do not present this effect; they just behave as less stiff alloys, with a larger springback if compared to the stainless steel wires. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory tests are the only means to observe the real behavior of these materials, including temperature transition range (TTR and applied tensions. However, it is also possible to determine in which TTR these alloys change the crystalline structure.

  12. Efimov Physics: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Naidon, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews theoretical and experimental advances in Efimov physics, an array of quantum few-body and many-body phenomena arising for particles interacting via short-range resonant interactions, that is based on the appearance of a scale-invariant three-body attraction theoretically discovered by Vitaly Efimov in 1970. This three-body effect was originally proposed to explain the binding of nuclei such as the triton and the Hoyle state of carbon-12, and later considered as a simple explanation for the existence of some halo nuclei. It was subsequently evidenced in trapped ultra-cold atomic clouds and in diffracted molecular beams of gaseous helium. These experiments revealed that the previously undetermined three-body parameter introduced in the Efimov theory to stabilise the three-body attraction typically scales with the range of atomic interactions. The few- and many-body consequences of the Efimov attraction have been since investigated theoretically, and are expected to be observed in a broader ...

  13. Mechanical and physical properties of refractory metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides some discussion of the technology of refractory metals and alloys for application to space nuclear power. This paper was designed to focus on the mechanical and physical properties of this group of materials with the intent of identifying the status of existing information. Another objective of this paper was to make some assessment of the existing property information and then to determine those measurements that must be made in order to serve the needs of the space nuclear power programs. The review portion of this paper focuses on the following properties: thermal expansion; thermal conductivity; enthalpy and heat capacity; tensile strength; stress rupture and creep strength; and fatigue strength. 62 references, 25 figures

  14. A review on hot tearing of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot tearing is often a major casting defect in magnesium alloys and has a significant impact on the quality of their casting products. Hot tearing of magnesium alloys is a complex solidification phenomenon which is still not fully understood, it is of great importance to investigate the hot tearing behaviour of magnesium alloys. This review attempts to summarize the investigations on hot tearing of magnesium alloys over the past decades. The hot tearing criteria including recently developed Kou's criterion are summarized and compared. The numeric simulation and assessing methods of hot tearing, factors influencing hot tearing, and hot tearing susceptibility (HTS of magnesium alloys are discussed.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Physics 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, David; Gibbs, Keith; Hutchings, Robert

    2000-09-01

    Physics 1 is an attractive book designed to cover the whole of the AS physics course and has been endorsed by OCR for its Advanced AS and A2 specifications. Built on books from the Cambridge Modular Sciences series, it provides a clearly presented path through each of the three sections: Foundation Physics, Electrons and Photons, and Wave Properties. Each chapter has clearly stated objectives and is peppered with self-assessment questions, the answers to all of which are at the back of the book. Additional questions are given at the end of each chapter. There is an excellent use of colour, summary boxes and diagrams, but relatively few photographs. At the back of the book is a useful section on uncertainties and a glossary. The key feature of this book is its accessibility to students coming from a double-award science background. A great deal of thought has gone into lessening the trauma of the transition to Advanced Level and the results are impressive. Some of the main areas of concern for many students are the mathematical sections. These areas are not rushed, especially in the foundation physics, where there are plenty of worked examples. It is assumed, also, that students will not necessarily be confident with graphs so lots of examples are given. Diagrams of the type of practical equipment students are likely to encounter add another dimension to the book. It is good to see the use of light gates and motion sensors in addition to the more traditional ticker-timers for the calculations of speed and acceleration. Accessibility is the strength of this book. The use of colour and space, as well as the content, make it enjoyable to use and to read for any student embarking on the new AS courses. Helen Reynolds

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Complete Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Simon

    2000-03-01

    This book contains all the essential concepts for GCSE (or equivalent) physics courses or for general science courses at Key Stage 4. It claims to be ideal for use as a bridging resource for those intending to take physics beyond GCSE: it is no surprise, then, that the book is written at a level above that of the average Key Stage 4 student. It includes material not included in many GCSE syllabuses; this is clearly identified in the contents pages. It would be a useful resource for more able students at GCSE or for beginning A-level students. The layout of the book is attractive. It is well illustrated and colourful. Some of the illustrations are striking: each of the 12 main sections of the book begins with a title page that includes some unusual photographs illustrating physical ideas. Section 2, Forces and Motion, has a photograph of a bungee jumper leaping from the Sky Tower in New Zealand, taken at night looking along the length of the tower from its foot. Section 9, Magnets and Currents, has a computer-generated picture of the magnetic field in a fusion generator. These pictures, as well as contributing to the attractiveness of the book, could be used to initiate discussions of some of the physics. However, there are pictures that serve little useful purpose: a photograph of a recording station for seismic waves looks like any other building lit up at night. A photograph of a rock band in the middle of a section on sound carries no explanatory caption at all and is purely decorative. Other illustrations - in a variety of styles - do illustrate some physical ideas very well: the diagrams of motors and generators, for instance, are far clearer than my efforts on the blackboard! The book is divided into 14 sections with titles reflecting the traditional divisions of physics syllabuses, together with a beginning section on measurement and units and two final sections, `History of Key Ideas' and `Experimental Physics'. The first section, `Measurement and Units

  17. Electroless alloy/composite coatings: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R C Agarwala; Vijaya Agarwala

    2003-06-01

    Since the inception of electroless coating by Brenner & Riddell in 1946, it has been the subject of research interest and, in the past two decades, emphasis has shifted to the studies of its properties and applications. The co-deposition of particulate matter or substance within the growing film has led to a new generation of electroless composite coatings, many of which possess excellent wear and corrosion resistance. This valuable process can coat not only electrically conductive materials including graphite but also fabrics, insulators like plastics, rubber etc. The low coating rates with these can provide better reflectivity of plated surfaces and many more applications. Coatings can be tailored for desired properties by selecting the composition of the coating alloy/composite/metallic to suit specific requirements. The market for these coatings is expanding fast as the potential applications are on the rise. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review different electroless alloy/composite coatings with respect to bath types and their composition, properties and applications. Different characterisation studies have been conducted on various electroless nickel-based coatings with emphasis on wear and corrosion properties.

  18. CliffsQuickReview Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huetinck, Linda; Ph., D.; Adams, Scott

    2001-06-01

    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest subjects. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. Whether you need a course supplement, help preparing for a physics exam, or a concise reference for physics, CliffsQuickReview Physics can help. This guide provides a valuable introduction to the concepts of classical mechanics, thermodynamics, magnetism, and electricity. In no time, you'll be ready to tackle other concepts in this book such as Wave motion and sound Current and resistance Electromagnetic induction Geometrical optics Nuclear physics Quantum mechanics CliffsQuickReview Physics acts as a supplement to your other learning material. Use this reference in any way that fits your personal style for study and review -- you decide what works best with your needs. You can flip through the book until you find what you're looking for -- it's organized to gradually build on key concepts. Or, here are just a few other ways you can search for topics: Use the free Pocket Guide full of essential information Get a glimpse of what you'll gain from a chapter by reading through the Chapter Check-In at the beginning of each chapter Use the Chapter Checkout at the end of each chapter to gauge your grasp of the important information you need to know Test your knowledge more completely in the CQR Review and look for additional sources of information in the CQR Resource Center Use the glossary to find key terms fast. With titles available for all the most popular high school and college courses, CliffsQuickReview guides are a comprehensive resource that can help you get the best possible grades.

  19. Theoretical review of K physics

    OpenAIRE

    Buras, Andrzej J.

    1996-01-01

    We review several aspects of K-Physics: i) Main targets of the field, ii) The theoretical framework for K-decays, iii) Standard analysis of the unitarity triangle, iv) epsilon'/epsilon, v) Rare and CP violating K-decays, vi) Comparision of the potentials of K --> pi nu nu-bar and CP-B asymmetries. vii) Some aspects of the physics beyond the Standard Model.

  20. High temperature strain of metals and alloys. Physical fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitin, V. [National Technical Univ., Zaporozhye (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    The author shows how new in-situ X-ray investigations and transmission electron microscope studies lead to novel explanations of high-temperature deformation and creep in pure metals, solid solutions and super alloys. This approach is the first to find unequivocal and quantitative expressions for the macroscopic deformation rate by means of three groups of parameters: substructural characteristics, physical material constants and external conditions. Creep strength of the studied uptodate single crystal super alloys is greatly increased over conventional polycrystalline super alloys. The contents of this book include: macroscopic characteristics of strain at high temperatures; experimental equipment and technique of in situ X-ray investigations; experimental data and structural parameters in deformed metals; sub-boundaries as dislocation sources and obstacles; the physical mechanism of creep and the quantitative structural model; simulation of the parameters evolution; system of differential equations; high-temperature deformation of industrial super alloys; single crystals of super alloys; effect of composition, orientation and temperature on properties; and creep of some refractory metals.

  1. Physical Review Online Archives (PROLA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, T.; Davies, J.; Kilman, D.; Laroche, F. [and others

    1997-05-01

    In cooperation with the American Physical Society, the Computer Research and Applications Group (CIC-3 -- see Section 13 for an acronym glossary) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed and deployed a journal archive system called, The Physical Review OnLine Archive (PROLA). It is intended to be a complete, full service on-line archive of the existing issues of the journal Physical Review from its inception to the advent of a full-service electronic version. The fundamental goals of PROLA are to provide screen-viewable and printable images of every article, full-text and fielded search capability, good browsing features, direct article retrieval tools, and hyperlinking to all references, errata, and comments. The research focus is on transitioning large volumes of paper journals to a modern electronic environment.

  2. Novel Magnesium Alloys Developed for Biomedical Application: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Li; Yufeng Zheng

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the development of magnesium alloys both for industrial and biomedical applications.Industrial interest in magnesium alloys is based on strong demand of weight reduction of transportation vehicles for better fuel efficiency,so higher strength,and better ductility and corrosion resistance are required.Nevertheless,biomedical magnesium alloys require appropriate mechanical properties,suitable degradation rate in physiological environment,and what is most important,biosafety to human body.Rather than simply apply commercial magnesium alloys to biomedical field,new alloys should be designed from the point of view of nutriology and toxicology.This article provides a review of state-of-the-art of magnesium alloy implants and devices for orthopedic,cardiovascular and tissue engineering applications.Advances in new alloy design,novel structure design and surface modification are overviewed.The factors that influence the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloys are discussed and the strategy in the future development of biomedical magnesium alloys is proposed.

  3. The physical metallurgy of mechanically-alloyed, dispersion-strengthened Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Powder processing of Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys by mechanical alloying (MA) is described, with a discussion of physical and mechanical properties of early experimental alloys of these compositions. The experimental samples were mechanically alloyed in a Szegvari attritor, extruded at 343 and 427 C, and some were solution-treated at 520 and 566 C and naturally, as well as artificially, aged at 170, 190, and 210 C for times of up to 1000 hours. All alloys exhibited maximum hardness after being aged at 170 C; lower hardness corresponds to the solution treatment at 566 C than to that at 520 C. A comparison with ingot metallurgy alloys of the same composition shows the MA material to be stronger and more ductile. It is also noted that properly aged MA alloys can develop a better combination of yield strength and notched toughness at lower alloying levels.

  4. Effect of hydrogen on aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibility of aluminium and its alloys towards hydrogen embrittlement has been well established. Still a lot of confusion exists on the question of transport of hydrogen and its possible role in stress corrosion cracking. This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of hydrogen...... in aluminium and its alloys and its effect on mechanical properties. The importance of hydrogen embrittlement over anodic dissolution to explain the stress corrosion cracking mechanism of these alloys is also examined in considerable detail. The various experimental findings concerning the link between...

  5. Physical Review: a family of journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Gene

    2013-03-01

    The expansion of research in physics in the last 100 years has been reflected in the expansion of the Physical Review(PR). Reviews of Modern Physics was the first ``new'' journal, starting in 1929. Physical Review Letters commenced in 1958, and was the first ``letters'' type of journal for important new results in all fields. By 1970 the Physical Review itself had grown so large that it was necessary to separate it by field into manageable volumes: PRA, PRB, PRC and PRD, and subsequently PRE, which was split off from PRA. More recently, two Special Topics journals for accelerator physics and physics education were pioneers of the open access business model, and the newest member of the family, Physical Review X, continues this trend. PRX is broad scope and very selective, setting it well above many of the new open access journals with a review standard of ``not incorrect.'' Some possible future directions for the Physical Review journals will be discussed.

  6. The Eighth International Ural Seminar Radiation damage physics of metals and alloys. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book includes abstracts of the Eight International Ural Seminar Radiation damage physics of metals and alloys (Snezhinsk, 23 February - 1 March, 2009). Reports on the characteristics of point defects in different alloys and compounds including Fe-Cr(Ni) systems are presented. Effects of irradiation and strong deformation on changing microstructure and properties of metals and alloys are discussed. Gaseous impurities in irradiated metals and alloys, materials problems in nuclear and thermonuclear powers, physical properties and atomic defects in actinides and actinide alloys, and model analogs are discussed. Reports on physics of radiation effects in magnetics, superconductors, semiconductors and nonconductors, as well as technology and experimental technique, ion implantation are performed

  7. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Composites and Light Alloys Reinforced with Detonation Nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakovich, G. V.; Vorozhtsov, S. A.; Vorozhtsov, A. B.; Potekaev, A. I.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of introduction of particles of detonation-synthesized nanodiamonds into composites and aluminum-base light alloys on their physical and mechanical properties is analyzed. The data on microstructure and physical and mechanical properties of composites and cast aluminum alloys reinforced with diamond nanoparticles are presented. The introduction of nanoparticles is shown to result in a significant improvement of the material properties.

  8. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.

  9. Electroless nickel, alloy, composite and nano coatings - A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Sudagar, Jothi; Lian, Jianshe; Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The development of metal deposition processes based on electroless nickel, alloy and composite coatings on various surfaces has witnessed a surge in interest among researchers, with many recent applications made possible from many excellent properties. In recent years, these coatings have shown promising corrosion and wear resistance properties and large number of newer developments became most important from macro to nano level applications. After a brief review of the fundamental aspects un...

  10. Review of studies on corrosion of magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rong-chang; ZHANG jin; HUANG Wei-jiu; W. DIETZEL; K. U. KAINER; C. BLAWERT; KE Wei

    2006-01-01

    This review provided some recent progress of the research on corrosion mechanisms of magnesium and its alloys and a basis for follow-on research. Galvanic corrosion,pitting corrosion,intergranular corrosion (IGC),filiform corrosion,crevice corrosion,stress corrosion cracking (SCC),and corrosion fatigue (CF) were discussed. The influence of metallurgical factors such as alloying elements,microstructure and secondary phases,processing factors such as heat treatment and weld,and environmental factors including temperature,relative humidity,solution pH values and concentration on corrosion were discussed. In particular,a mechanism of pitting corrosion caused by AlMn particles was proposed. The corrosion properties of AZ91D weld material were investigated.

  11. Review of the oxidation rate of zirconium alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causey, Rion A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Cowgill, Donald F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-01

    The oxidation of zirconium alloys is one of the most studied processes in the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to provide in a concise form a review of the oxidation process of zirconium alloys in the moderate temperature regime. In the initial ''pre-transition'' phase, the surface oxide is dense and protective. After the oxide layer has grown to a thickness of 2 to 3 {micro}m's, the oxidation process enters the ''post-transition'' phase where the density of the layer decreases and becomes less protective. A compilation of relevant data suggests a single expression can be used to describe the post-transition oxidation rate of most zirconium alloys during exposure to oxygen, air, or water vapor. That expression is: Oxidation Rate = 13.9 g/(cm{sup 2}-s-atm{sup -1/6}) exp(-1.47 eV/kT) x P{sup 1/6} (atm{sup 1/6}).

  12. REVIEW AND PROSPECT OF HIGH STRENGTH LOW ALLOY TRIP STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Li; P. Wollants; Y.L. He; B.C. De Cooman; X.C. Wei; Z.Y. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Research status of high strength low alloy TRIP (transformation induced plasticity)steels for automobile structural parts is briefly described. Composition and microstructure factors especially the morphology, size and volume fraction of retained austenite,which largely influence the strength and ductility of the steel, are reviewed and discussed one after another. Modelling of the inter-critical annealing and martempering processes as well as the designing of the TRIP steel aided by commercial software are introduced. Some special aspects of the dynamic mechanical properties of TRIP steel are firstly reported.

  13. The Fifth International Ural seminar. Radiation damage physics of metals and alloys. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are the abstracts of The Fifth International Ural seminar Damage physics of metals and alloys. General problems of radiation damage physics, radiation effect on change of microstucture and the properties of metals and alloys, as well as materials for nuclear and thermonuclear energetics are considered. The themes of reports are the following: correlation effects in cascades of atom-atomic collisions; radiation-induced strengthening critical current density in YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductors; conditions of forming and hydrides growth in irradiated zirconium alloys

  14. Protection of copper and its alloys using corrosion inhibitor-literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić, Milorad V.; Pavlović, Miomir; Jotanović, Milovan; Fuchs-Godec, Regina

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the electrochemical corrosion of copper and its alloys with purpose to find the most suitable inhibitor for its protection has been done. According to their chemical composition of corrosion inhibitors are divided into inorganic and organic inhibitors. Inhibition of alloying metals are possible (such as the addition of arsenic alloy components in brass, preventing its unzincanization). The paper reviews the theoretical basis of application of inhibitors...

  15. Review of Particle Physics, 2014-2015

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, K A; Amsler, C; Antonelli, M; Arguin, J-F; Asner, D M; Baer, H; Band, H R; Barnett, R M; Basaglia, T; Bauer, C W; Beatty, J J; Belousov, V I; Beringer, J; Bernardi, G; Bethke, S; Bichsel, H; Biebel, O; Blucher, E; Blusk, S; Brooijmans, G; Buchmueller, O; Burkert, V; Bychkov, M A; Cahn, R N; Carena, M; Ceccucci, A; Cerri, A; Chakraborty, D; Chen, M-C; Chivukula, R S; Copic, K; Cowan, G; Dahl, O; D'Ambrosio, G; Damour, T; de Florian, D; de Gouvea, A; DeGrand, T; de Jong, P; Dissertori, G; Dobrescu, B A; Doser, M; Drees, M; Dreiner, H K; Edwards, D A; Eidelman, S; Erler, J; Ezhela, V V; Fetscher, W; Fields, B D; Foster, B; Freitas, A; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, H; Garren, L; Gerber, H-J; Gerbier, G; Gershon, T; Gherghetta, T; Golwala, S; Goodman, M; Grab, C; Gritsan, A V; Grojen, C; Groom, D E; Grunewald, M; Gurtu, A; Gutsche, T; Haber, H E; Hagiwara, K; Hanhart, C; Hashimoto, S; Hayato, Y; Hayes, K G; Heffner, M; Heltsley, B; Hernandez-Rey, J J; Hikasa, K; Hocker, A; Holder, J; Holtkamp, A; Huston, J; Jackson, J D; Johnson, K F; Junk, T; Kado, M; Karlen, D; Katz, U F; Klein, S R; Klempt, E; Kowalewski, R V; Krauss, F; Kreps, M; Krusche, B; Kuyanov, Yu V; Kwon, Y; Lahav, O; Laiho, J; Langacker, P; Liddle, A; Ligeti, Z; Lin, C-J; Liss, T M; Littenberg, L; Lugovsky, K S; Lugovsky, S B; Maltoni, F; Mannel, T; Manohar, A V; Marciano, W J; Martin, A D; Masoni, A; Matthews, J; Milstead, D; Molaro, P; Munig, K; Moortgat, F; Mortonson, M J; Murayama, H; Nakamura, K; Narain, M; Nason, P; Navas, S; Neubert, M; Nevski, P; Nir, Y; Pape, L; Parsons, J; Patrignani, C; Peacock, J A; Pennington, M; Petcov, S T; Piepke, A; Pomarol, A; Quadt, A; Raby, S; Rademacker, J; Raffelt, G; Ratcliff, B N; Richardson, P; Ringwald, A; Roesler, S; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Rosenberg, L J; Rosner, J L; Rybka, G; Sachrajda, C T; Sakai, Y; Salam, G P; Sarkar, S; Sauli, F; Schneider, O; Scholberg, K; Scott, D; Sharma, V; Sharpe, S R; Silari, M; Sjostrand, T; Skands, P; Smith, J G; Smoot, G F; Spanier, S; Spieler, H; Spiering, C; Stahl, A; Stanev, T; Stone, S L; Sumiyoshi, T; Syphers, M J; Takahashi, F; Tanabashi, M; Terning, J; Tiator, L; Titov, M; Tkachenko, N P; Tornqvist, N A; Tovey, D; Valencia, G; Venanzoni, G; Vincter, M G; Vogel, P; Vogt, A; Wakely, S P; Walkowiak, W; Walter, C W; Ward, D R; Weiglein, G; Weinberg, D H; Weinberg, E J; White, M; Wiencke, L R; Wohl, C G; Wolfenstein, L; Womersley, J; Woody, C L; Workman, R L; Yamamoto, A; Yao, W-M; Zeller, G P; Zenin, O V; Zhang, J; Zhu, R-Y; Zimmermann, F; Zyla, P A; Harper, G; Lugovsky, V.S; Schaffner, P

    2014-01-01

    The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosyn...

  16. REVIEW ON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Yaug; J.P.Li; J.X.Zhang; G.W.Lorimer; J.Robson

    2008-01-01

    The current research and development of magnesium alloys is summarized. Several aspects of magnesium alloys are described: cast Mg alloy, wrought Mg alloy, and novel processing. The subjects are discussed individually and recommendations for further study arc listed in the final section.

  17. Mechanical alloying in immiscible alloy systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, mechanical alloying (MA) of immiscible alloy systems characterized by positive heat of mixing has been extensively investigated. The present article reviews the latest progress in MA of immiscible alloy systems including the mechanisms of non-equilibrium phase transformation and metastable phase formation of the MA-driven supersaturated solid solutions, amorphous phases and nanophase composites as well as their mechanical and physical properties related to those metastable phases.

  18. Biodegradation of Secondary Phase Particles in Magnesium Alloys: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M. Bobby [James Cook University, Townsville (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Magnesium alloys have been extensively studied in recent years for potential biodegradable implant applications. A great deal of work has been done on the evaluation of the corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloys under in vitro and in vivo conditions. However, magnesium alloys, in general, contain secondary phase particles distributed in the matrix and/or along the grain boundaries. Owing to their difference in chemistry in comparison with magnesium matrix, these particles may exhibit different corrosion behaviour. It is essential to understand the corrosion behaviour of secondary phase particles in magnesium alloys in physiological conditions for implant applications. This paper critically reviews the biodegradation behaviour of secondary phase particles in magnesium alloys.

  19. Review of Recent Results in Charm Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Engelfried, J

    2003-01-01

    A biased review of recent results in charm physics is presented. New results on D0 anti-D0 mixing, rare decays of D0 and D+/-, scalar resonances in D+ and Ds decays, and new decay modes and mass measurements in Lambda_c, Xi_c, Omega_c, and Xi_cc are discussed.

  20. Review of Particle Physics, 2010-2011

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, K; Hikasa, K; Murayama, H; Tanabashi, M; Watari, T; Amsler, C; Antonelli, M; Asner, D M; Baer, H; Band, H R; Barnett, R M; Basaglia, T; Bergren, E; Beringer, J; Bernardi, G; Bertl, W; Bichsel, H; Biebel, O; Blucher, E; Blusk, S; Cahn, R N; Carena, M; Ceccucci, A; Chakraborty, D; Chen, M-C; Chivukula, R S; Cowan, G; Dahl, O; D’Ambrosio, G; Damour, T; de Florian, D; de Gouvêa, A; DeGrand, T; Dissertori, G; Dobrescu, B; Doser, M; Drees, M; Edwards, D A; Eidelman, S; Erler, J; Ezhela, V V; Fetscher, W; Fields, B D; Foster, B; Gaisser, T K; Garren, L; Gerber, H-J; Gerbier, G; Gherghetta, T; Giudice, G F; Golwala, S; Goodman, M; Grab, C; Gritsan, A V; Grivaz, J-F; Groom, D E; Grünewald, M; Gurtu, A; Gutsche, T; Haber, H E; Hagmann, C; Hayes, K G; Heffner, M; Heltsley, B; Hernández-Rey, J J; Höcker, A; Holder, J; Huston, J; Jackson, J D; Johnson, K F; Junk, T; Karle, A; Karlen, D; Kayser, B; Kirkby, D; Klein, S R; Kolda, C; Kowalewski, R V; Krusche, B; Kuyanov, Yu V; Kwon, Y; Lahav, O; Langacker, P; Liddle, A; Ligeti, Z; Lin, C-J; Liss, T M; Littenberg, L; Lugovsky, K S; Lugovsky, S B; Lys, J; Mahlke, H; Mannel, T; Manohar, A V; Marciano, W J; Martin, A D; Masoni, A; Milstead, D; Miquel, R; Mönig, K; Narain, M; Nason, P; Navas, S; Nevski, P; Nir, Y; Olive, K A; Pape, L; Patrignani, C; Peacock, J A; Petcov, S T; Piepke, A; Punzi, G; Quadt, A; Raby, S; Raffelt, G; Ratcliff, B N; Richardson, P; Roesler, S; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Rosenberg, L J; Rosner, J L; Sachrajda, C T; Sakai, Y; Salam, G P; Sarkar, S; Sauli, F; Schneider, O; Scholberg, K; Scott, D; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Silari, M; Sjöstrand, T; Smith, J G; Smoot, G F; Spanier, S; Spieler, H; Stahl, A; Stanev, T; Stone, S L; Sumiyoshi, T; Syphers, M J; Terning, J; Titov, M; Tkachenko, N P; Törnqvist, N A; Tovey, D; Trippe, T G; Valencia, G; van Bibber, K; Venanzoni, G; Vincter, M G; Vogel, P; Vogt, A; Walkowiak, W; Walter, C W; Ward, D R; Webber, B R; Weiglein, G; Weinberg, E J; Wells, J D; Wheeler, A; Wiencke, L R; Wohl, C G; Wolfenstein, L; Womersley, J; Woody, C L; Workman, R L; Yamamoto, A; Yao, W-M; Zenin, O V; Zhang, J; Zhu, R-Y; Zyla, P A; Harper, G; Lugovsky, V S; Schaffner, P

    2010-01-01

    This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2158 new measurements from 551 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 108 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on neutrino mass, mixing, and oscillations, QCD, top quark, CKM quark-mixing matrix, Vud & Vus, Vcb & Vub, fragmentation functions, particle detectors for accelerator and non-accelerator physics, magnetic monopoles, cosmological parameters, and big bang cosmology.

  1. Review of Reactivity Experiments for Lithium Ternary Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolind, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers high tritium breeding, excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is attempting to develop a lithium-based alloy—most likely a ternary alloy—which maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns for use in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The LLNL concept employs inertial confinement fusion (ICF) through the use of lasers aimed at an indirect-driven target composed of deuterium-tritium fuel. The fusion driver/target design implements the same physics currently experimented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium related hazards are of primary concern. Reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, and it is therefore important to come up with proper ways to conduct experiments that can physically study this phenomenon. This paper will start to explore this area by outlining relevant past experiments conducted with lithium/air reactions and lithium/water reactions. Looking at what was done in the past will then give us a general idea of how we can setup our own experiments to test a variety of lithium alloys.

  2. Porous shape memory alloy scaffolds for biomedical applications: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, C E; Xiong, J Y; Li, Y C; Hodgson, P D [Institute for Technology Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC 3217 (Australia)

    2010-05-01

    The interest in using porous shape memory alloy (SMA) scaffolds as implant materials has been growing in recent years due to the combination of their unique mechanical and functional properties, i.e. shape memory effect and superelasticity, low elastic modulus combined with new bone tissue ingrowth ability and vascularization. These attractive properties are of great benefit to the healing process for implant applications. This paper reviews current state-of-the art on the processing, porous characteristics and mechanical properties of porous SMAs for biomedical applications, with special focus on the most widely used SMA nickel-titanium (NiTi), including (i) microstructural features, mechanical and functional properties of NiTi SMAs; (ii) main processing methods for the fabrication of porous NiTi SMAs and their mechanical properties and (iii) new-generation Ni-free, biocompatible porous SMA scaffolds.

  3. Review of Physics Results from the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandurin, D. [Virginia U.; Bernardi, G. [Paris U., VI-VII; Gerber, C. [Chicago U., EFI; Junk, T. [Fermilab; Juste, A. [Barcelona, IFAE; Kotwal, A. [Duke U.; Lewis, J. [Fermilab; Mesropian, C. [Rockefeller U.; Schellman, H. [Northwestern U.; Sekaric, J. [Kansas U.; Toback, D. [Texas A-M; Van Kooten, R. [Indiana U.; Vellidis, C. [Fermilab; Zivkovic, L. [Clemson U.

    2015-02-27

    We present a comprehensive review of the physics results obtained by the CDF and D0 collaborations up to summer 2014, with emphasis on those achieved in the Run II of the Tevatron collider which delivered a total integrated luminosity of ~10 fb$^{-1}$ at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96~{\\rm TeV}$. The results are presented in six main physics topics: QCD, Heavy Flavor, Electroweak, Top quark, Higgs boson and searches for New Particles and Interactions. The characteristics of the accelerator, detectors, and the techniques used to achieve these results are also briefly summarized.

  4. Review of physics results from the Tevatron: QCD physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesropian, Christina [Rockefeller U.; Bandurin, Dmitry [Virginia U.

    2015-02-17

    We present a summary of results from studies of quantum chromodynamics at the Fermilab Tevatron collider by the CDF and the D0 experiments. These include Run II results for the time period up to the end of Summer 2014. A brief description of Run I results is also given. This review covers a wide spectrum of topics, and includes measurements with jet and vector boson final states in the hard (perturbative) energy regime, as well as studies of soft physics such as diffractive and elastic scatterings, underlying and minimum bias events, hadron fragmentation, and multiple parton interactions.

  5. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Dugdill, L.; Brettle, A; Hulme, C.; McCluskey, Serena; Long, A F

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Design/methodology/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols and analysis regarding study quality as recommended...

  6. Review of Some Promising Fractional Physical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2015-01-01

    Fractional dynamics is a field of study in physics and mechanics investigating the behavior of objects and systems that are characterized by power-law non-locality, power-law long-term memory or fractal properties by using integrations and differentiation of non-integer orders, i.e., by methods of the fractional calculus. This paper is a review of physical models that look very promising for future development of fractional dynamics. We suggest a short introduction to fractional calculus as a theory of integration and differentiation of non-integer order. Some applications of integro-differentiations of fractional orders in physics are discussed. Models of discrete systems with memory, lattice with long-range inter-particle interaction, dynamics of fractal media are presented. Quantum analogs of fractional derivatives and model of open nano-system systems with memory are also discussed.

  7. Review of Particle Physics, 2012-2013

    CERN Document Server

    Beringer, J; Barnett, R M; Copic, K; Dahl, O; Groom, D E; Lin, C J; Lys, J; Murayama, H; Wohl, C G; Yao, W M; Zyla, P A; Amsler, C; Antonelli, M; Asner, D M; Baer, H; Band, H R; Basaglia, T; Bauer, C W; Beatty, J J; Belousov, V I; Bergren, E; Bernardi, G; Bertl, W; Bethke, S; Bichsel, H; Biebel, O; Blucher, E; Blusk, S; Brooijmans, G; Buchmueller, O; Cahn, R N; Carena, M; Ceccucci, A; Chakraborty, D; Chen, M C; Chivukula, R S; Cowan, G; D'Ambrosio, G; Damour, T; de Florian, D; de Gouvea, A; DeGrand, T; de Jong, P; Dissertori, G; Dobrescu, B; Doser, M; Drees, M; Edwards, D A; Eidelman, S; Erler, J; Ezhela, V V; Fetscher, W; Fields, B D; Foster, B; Gaisser, T K; Garren, L; Gerber, H J; Gerbier, G; Gherghetta, T; Golwala, S; Goodman, M; Grab, C; Gritsan, A V; Grivaz, J F; Grunewald, M; Gurtu, A; Gutsche, T; Haber, H E; Hagiwara, K; Hagmann, C; Hanhart, C; Hashimoto, S; Hayes, K G; Heffner, M; Heltsley, B; Hernandez-Rey, J J; Hikasa, K; Hocker, A; Holder, J; Holtkamp, A; Huston, J; Jackson, J D; Johnson, K F; Junk, T; Karlen, D; Kirkby, D; Klein, S R; Klempt, E; Kowalewski, R V; Krauss, F; Kreps, M; Krusche, B; Kuyanov, Yu.V; Kwon, Y; Lahav, O; Laiho, J; Langacker, P; Liddle, A; Ligeti, Z; Liss, T M; Littenberg, L; Lugovsky, K S; Lugovsky, S B; Mannel, T; Manohar, A V; Marciano, W J; Martin, A D; Masoni, A; Matthews, J; Milstead, D; Miquel, R; Monig, K; Moortgat, F; Nakamura, K; Narain, M; Nason, P; Navas, S; Neubert, M; Nevski, P; Nir, Y; Olive, K A; Pape, L; Parsons, J; Patrignani, C; Peacock, J A; Petcov, S T; Piepke, A; Pomarol, A; Punzi, G; Quadt, A; Raby, S; Raffelt, G; Ratcliff, B N; Richardson, P; Roesler, S; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Rosenberg, L J; Rosner, J L; Sachrajda, C T; Sakai, Y; Salam, G P; Sarkar, S; Sauli, F; Schneider, O; Scholberg, K; Scott, D; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Sharpe, S R; Silari, M; Sjostrand, T; Skands, P; Smith, J G; Smoot, G F; Spanier, S; Spieler, H; Stahl, A; Stanev, T; Stone, S L; Sumiyoshi, T; Syphers, M J; Takahashi, F; Tanabashi, M; Terning, J; Titov, M; Tkachenko, N P; Tornqvist, N A; Tovey, D; Valencia, G; van Bibber, K; Venanzoni, G; Vincter, M G; Vogel, P; Vogt, A; Walkowiak, W; Walter, C W; Ward, D R; Watari, T; Weiglein, G; Weinberg, E J; Wiencke, L R; Wolfenstein, L; Womersley, J; Woody, C L; Workman, R L; Yamamoto, A; Zeller, G P; Zenin, O V; Zhang, J; Zhu, R Y; Harper, G; Lugovsky, V S; Schaffner, P

    2012-01-01

    This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2658 new measurements from 644 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on Heavy-Quark and Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Event Generators, Lattice QCD, Heavy Quarkonium Spectroscopy, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Vcb & Vub, Quantum Chromodynamics, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Astrophysical Constants, Cosmological Parameters, and Dark Matter.

  8. Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.

  9. Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues. PMID:27540827

  10. Aluminium. II - A review of deformation properties of high purity aluminium and dilute aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The elastic and plastic deformation behavior of high-purity aluminum and of dilute aluminum alloys is reviewed. Reliable property data, including elastic moduli, elastic coefficients, tensile, creep, fatigue, hardness, and impact are presented. Single crystal tensile results are discussed. Rather comprehensive reference lists, containing publications of the past 20 years, are included for each of the above categories. Defect structures and mechanisms responsible for mechanical behavior are presented. Strengthening techniques (alloys, cold work, irradiation, quenching, composites) and recovery are briefly reviewed.

  11. A New Physical Metallurgy Phenomenon-the Shock Wave Nanocrystallization of Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some results of amorphous alloy nanocrystallization by shock wave are presented. Compared with the well knownannealing crystallization, these results seem novel and are very difficult to be explained by the diffusion theory, such asnucleation and growth mechanism in the solid state phase transitions. The shock wave crystallization of amorphousalloy is a new metallurgical phenomenon with possibilities for improving the crystallization theory in physics.

  12. METHODS OF PHYSICAL MODELING OF HYDRODYNAMIC PROCESSES AT CASTING OF ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ju. Stetsenko

    2012-01-01

    The method of physical modeling of hydrodynamic processes of alloys molding is developed. It is shown that as a liquid it is necessary to use water and diethyl ether at molding of steel, silumins, tin-base bronzes and waterglycerine solutions.

  13. Physical properites of O- and N-containing V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Kupperman, D.; Park, E.T.; Dragel, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Incorporation of O in the surface of V-Ti-Cr alloys has been investigated in controlled environments at 550-750{degrees}C, and test were performed to determine the physical properties of V-Cr-Ti-O solid solutions. The amount of O in the alloys has been determined by weight change measurements. Microhardness was used to determine O depth profiles of the alloys. X-ray diffraction indicated a phase transformation from body-centered cubic (bcc) to tetragonal in the lattice that was highly stressed because of O incorporation. Back-scattered-electron images and electron-energy-dispersive spectra revealed Cr depletion near alloy grain boundaries. Elastic modulus and Vickers hardness increased in O-enriched V-Cr-Ti alloys. Hardening of the alloys results from O atoms on face-centered interstitial sites in the bcc sublattice and the formation of homogeneous oxide or nitride phases via internal oxidation or nitridation. The O,N-enriched surface region exhibited the extraordinarily high Vickers hardness of {approx}18 GPa (1800 kg/mm{sup 2}), a value that is typical of oxides nitrides, or carbides, or that is obtainable by ion-beam irradiation of metals.

  14. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the Air Pollution Unitwithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  15. Statistical physics of crime: A review

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orsogna, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    Containing the spreading of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics o...

  16. Pseudoelasticity and thermoelasticity of nickel-titanium alloys: a clinically oriented review. Part II: Deactivation forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; Nicolay, O F; Cangialosi, T J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to organize a systematic reference to help orthodontists evaluate commonly used orthodontic nickel-titanium alloys. Part I of the article reviewed the data available in the literature regarding the temperature transitional ranges of the alloys. The thermomechanical behavior of these compounds is, in fact, strictly dependent upon the correlation between the temperature transitional range and the oral temperature range. Part II focuses on the mechanical characteristics of the alloys, such as the magnitude of the forces delivered and correlations with the temperature transitional range and oral temperature.

  17. Effect of heat treatment on the physical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koek, Mediha, E-mail: msoglu@firat.edu.tr [Firat University, Sciences Faculty, Department of Physics Elazig (Turkey); Aydogdu, Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I ld Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I r Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I m, E-mail: y.aydogdu@gazi.edu.tr [Superconductivity and Thermal Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-11-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat treatment on the physical properties of Ni{sub 50.5}Mn{sub 29.5}Ga{sub 20} alloys was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The heat treatments were conducted at 800 Degree-Sign C, 900 Degree-Sign C, and 1000 Degree-Sign C for 2 h in argon atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat treatment emerged as a new phase, which improves ductility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat treatment changed the thermal properties of NiMnGa alloys. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of heat treatment on physical properties such as crystal structure, transformation temperatures, thermodynamic behavior and activation energy of Ni{sub 50.5}Mn{sub 29.5}Ga{sub 20} (at.%) off-stoichiometric Heusler alloys was investigated. The heat treatments were conducted at 800 Degree-Sign C, 900 Degree-Sign C and 1000 Degree-Sign C for 2 h in argon atmosphere and then samples were quenched in ice brine. It has been found that the heat treated alloys possess a coexistence phase of martensite and gamma ({gamma}) phases while the untreated alloy is {gamma} phase free. Moreover, elevating the annealing temperature resulted in increased martensitic transformation temperatures.

  18. Physical activity in spondyloarthritis: a systematic review

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, Tom

    2014-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE\\/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.

  19. A review of ordering phenomena in iron-silicon alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon steel is an industrially-desired alloy of iron and silicon, characterised by soft magnetic properties, low eddy-current losses, and low magnetostriction. Silicon steels have narrow hysteresis cycles, making them particularly advantageous in applications using electromagnetic fields, such as transformers, generators, electric motor cores, and few other components in industry. Despite its incontestable industrial value, there is not much agreement on the atomic structure of silicon steel. Gaining better understanding of e.g. ordering processes in Fe-Si alloys could not only explain their magnetic properties, but also open opportunities to reduce their weaker characteristics, such as brittleness that adversely affects silicon steel workability and its associated high production costs. This review summarises the state-of-the-art knowledge about ordering in silicon steel and describes the most relevant experimental techniques used for studying its microstructure. In addition, the process of building the iron rich part of the Fe-Si phase diagram is explained. Lastly, the influence of order on the alloy’s magnetic and mechanical properties is illustrated.El acero al silicio es una aleación de importancia industrial, caracterizada por propiedades magnéticas blandas, bajas pérdidas por corrientes de Foucault y baja magnetostricción. Los aceros al silicio tienen ciclo de histéresis estrecho, lo que es una ventaja en aplicaciones con campos electromagnéticos, como transformadores, generadores, núcleos de motores eléctricos y otros componentes industriales. A pesar de su incomparable valor industrial, no hay convenio sobre la estructura atómica del acero al silicio. Obtener mayor conocimiento sobre los procesos de orden no sólo podría explicar las propiedades magnéticas sino que también podría abrir vías para la reducción de sus características más débiles, como su fragilidad, la cual afecta negativamente a la fabricación del

  20. Physical chemistry of the chlorination reactions of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis has contributed towards the knowledge of complex systems.The chlorination reactions are non-catalytic solid-gas heterogeneous reactions which, in addition to the difficulties associated with the reactions occurring in an interface, have the particular features of chlorides compounds and their interactions.The questions arising from this type of study can not be solved by the application of an individual analysis technique.From the experimental point of view it is complicated, and many instrumental techniques need to be applied in order to obtain significant results as well as meaningful interpretations.The system under study is the chlorination of ternary and binary alloys containing Al, Cu and Zn and the pure metals, as these elements belong to the spent nuclear fuel cladding.The aim of the research has been to develop a process that eliminates most of the aluminium, which is the more abundant specie. In this way, the amount of material to be conditioned (vitrified) is reduced.The objectives proposed for each system have been achieved, and the results obtained can also be applied to similar systems for metal recycling

  1. A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hou-Tong; Yu, Nanfang

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials are composed of periodic subwavelength metal/dielectric structures that resonantly couple to the electric and/or magnetic components of the incident electromagnetic fields, exhibiting properties that are not found in nature. Planar metamaterials with subwavelength thickness, or metasurfaces, consisting of single-layer or few-layer stacks of planar structures, can be readily fabricated using lithography and nanoprinting methods, and the ultrathin thickness in the wave propagation direction can greatly suppress the undesirable losses. Metasurfaces enable a spatially varying optical response, mold optical wavefronts into shapes that can be designed at will, and facilitate the integration of functional materials to accomplish active control and greatly enhanced nonlinear response. This paper reviews recent progress in the physics of metasurfaces operating at wavelengths ranging from microwave to visible. We provide an overview of key metasurface concepts such as anomalous reflection and refraction, ...

  2. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Ming-Xing, E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants.

  3. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants

  4. Silver-cadmium alloys: Physical and metallurgical properties. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the metallurgical and physical properties of silver-cadmium alloys, oxides, and sulfides. The phase relationships and crystal structure of this alloy system are presented. Applications for electrical contact devices are discussed extensively. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization. PMID:25468514

  6. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization.

  7. Review of grain refinement methods for as-cast microstructure of magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Changjiang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As the lightest structural metal, Mg and Mg-based alloys have great potential applications in the aerospace, automotive and nuclear industries. However, such applications have been limited by low ductility and strength. Theoretically, small grain sized structure can synchronously improve its ductility and strength. Yet, universally reliable grain refi nement techniques for the magnesium alloys are still under investigation and some are in strong debating. This paper presents a brief review of development of grain refi nement methods for magnesium alloys, which would contribute to a better understanding of the factors controlling grain refi nement and provide an outlook of future research in this field.

  8. The alloy with a memory, 55-Nitinol: Its physical metallurgy, properties, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. M.; Wagner, H. J.; Wasilewski, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A series of nickel titanium alloys (55-Nitinol), which are unique in that they possess a shape memory, are described. Components made of these materials that are altered in their shapes by deformation under proper conditions return to predetermined shapes when they are heated to the proper temperature range. The shape memory, together with the force exerted and the ability of the material to do mechanical work as it returns to its predetermined shape, suggest a wide variety of industrial applications for the alloy. Also included are discussions of the physical metallurgy and the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of 55-Nitinol; procedures for melting and processing the material into useful shapes; and a summary of applications.

  9. Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Magnesium-Alloy Hydrides Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnasambandam G. Manivasagam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As potential hydrogen storage media, magnesium based hydrides have been systematically studied in order to improve reversibility, storage capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics. The present article deals with the electrochemical and optical properties of Mg alloy hydrides. Electrochemical hydrogenation, compared to conventional gas phase hydrogen loading, provides precise control with only moderate reaction conditions. Interestingly, the alloy composition determines the crystallographic nature of the metal-hydride: a structural change is induced from rutile to fluorite at 80 at.% of Mg in Mg-TM alloy, with ensuing improved hydrogen mobility and storage capacity. So far, 6 wt.% (equivalent to 1600 mAh/g of reversibly stored hydrogen in MgyTM(1-yHx (TM: Sc, Ti has been reported. Thin film forms of these metal-hydrides reveal interesting electrochromic properties as a function of hydrogen content. Optical switching occurs during (dehydrogenation between the reflective metal and the transparent metal hydride states. The chronological sequence of the optical improvements in optically active metal hydrides starts with the rare earth systems (YHx, followed by Mg rare earth alloy hydrides (MgyGd(1-yHx and concludes with Mg transition metal hydrides (MgyTM(1-yHx. In-situ optical characterization of gradient thin films during (dehydrogenation, denoted as hydrogenography, enables the monitoring of alloy composition gradients simultaneously.

  10. Thermo-physical properties of body-centered cubic iron-magnesium alloys under extreme conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kádas, K.; Ahuja, R.; Johansson, B; Eriksson, O.; Vitos, L.

    2011-01-01

    Using density functional theory formulated within the framework of the exact muffin-tin orbitals method, we investigate the thermo-physical properties of body-centered cubic (bcc) iron-magnesium alloys, containing 5 and 10 atomic % Mg, under extreme conditions, at high pressure and high temperature. The temperature effect is taken into account via the Fermi-Dirac distribution of the electrons. We find that at high pressures pure bcc iron is dynamically unstable at any temperature, having a ne...

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  12. Fabrication, magnetostriction properties and applications of Tb-Dy-Fe alloys: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-juan Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As an excellent giant-magnetostrictive material, Tb-Dy-Fe alloys (based on Tb0.27-0.30Dy0.73-0.70Fe1.9-2 Laves compound can be applied in many engineering fields, such as sonar transducer systems, sensors, and micro-actuators. However, the cost of the rare earth elements Tb and Dy is too high to be widely applied for the materials. Nowadays, there are two different ways to substitute for these alloying elements. One is to partially replace Tb or Dy by cheaper rare earth elements, such as Pr, Nd, Sm and Ho; and the other is to use non-rare earth elements, such as Co, Al, Mn, Si, Ce, B, Be and C, to substitute Fe to form single MgCu2-type Laves phase and a certain amount of Re-rich phase, which can reduce the brittleness and improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy. This paper systemically introduces the development, the fabrication methods and the corresponding preferred growth directions of Tb-Dy-Fe alloys. In addition, the effects of alloying elements and heat treatment on magnetostrictive and mechanical properties of Tb-Dy-Fe alloys are also reviewed, respectively. Finally, some possible applications of Tb-Dy-Fe alloys are presented.

  13. Physical applications of GPS geodesy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Geodesy, the oldest science, has become an important discipline in the geosciences, in large part by enhancing Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities over the last 35 years well beyond the satellite constellation's original design. The ability of GPS geodesy to estimate 3D positions with millimeter-level precision with respect to a global terrestrial reference frame has contributed to significant advances in geophysics, seismology, atmospheric science, hydrology, and natural hazard science. Monitoring the changes in the positions or trajectories of GPS instruments on the Earth's land and water surfaces, in the atmosphere, or in space, is important for both theory and applications, from an improved understanding of tectonic and magmatic processes to developing systems for mitigating the impact of natural hazards on society and the environment. Besides accurate positioning, all disturbances in the propagation of the transmitted GPS radio signals from satellite to receiver are mined for information, from troposphere and ionosphere delays for weather, climate, and natural hazard applications, to disturbances in the signals due to multipath reflections from the solid ground, water, and ice for environmental applications. We review the relevant concepts of geodetic theory, data analysis, and physical modeling for a myriad of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the extensive global infrastructure that has been built to support GPS geodesy consisting of thousands of continuously operating stations. We also discuss the integration of heterogeneous and complementary data sets from geodesy, seismology, and geology, focusing on crustal deformation applications and early warning systems for natural hazards. PMID:27552205

  14. Review of Top Quark Physics Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehoe, R.; Narain, M.; Kumar, A.

    2007-12-01

    As the heaviest known fundamental particle, the top quark has taken a central role in the study of fundamental interactions. Production of top quarks in pairs provides an important probe of strong interactions. The top quark mass is a key fundamental parameter which places a valuable constraint on the Higgs boson mass and electroweak symmetry breaking. Observations of the relative rates and kinematics of top quark final states constrain potential new physics. In many cases, the tests available with study of the top quark are both critical and unique. Large increases in data samples from the Fermilab Tevatron have been coupled with major improvements in experimental techniques to produce many new precision measurements of the top quark. The first direct evidence for electroweak production of top quarks has been obtained, with a resulting direct determination of V{sub tb}. Several of the properties of the top quark have been measured. Progress has also been made in obtaining improved limits on potential anomalous production and decay mechanisms. This review presents an overview of recent theoretical and experimental developments in this field. We also provide a brief discussion of the implications for further efforts.

  15. Development of Laser Surface Technologies for Anti-Corrosion on Magnesium Alloys: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rujian; Guan, Yingchun; Zhu, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been increasingly used in industries and biomaterial fields due to low density, high specific strength and biodegradability. However, poor surface-related properties are major factors that limit their practical applications. This paper mainly focuses on laser-based anti-corrosion technologies for Mg alloys, beginning with a brief review of conventional methods, and then demonstrates the feasibility of laser surface technologies including laser surface melting (LSM), laser surface alloying (LSA), laser surface cladding (LSC) and laser shock peening (LSP) in achieving enhancement of corrosion resistance. The mechanism and capability of each technique in corrosion resistance is carefully discussed. Finally, an outlook of the development of laser surface technology for Mg alloy is further concluded, aiming to serve as a guide for further research both in industry applications and biomedical devices.

  16. Teacher Reviews of Widely Used Physics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Holt Physics (Serway & Faughn), Physics Principles and Problems (Zitzewitz), Conceptual Physics (Hewitt), and Physics: Principles with Applications (Giancoli) were the most widely used textbooks for regular high school physics courses during the 2008-09 academic year. Holt Physics and Zitzewitz were each used by about one-third of the teachers responding to our Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Hewitt's text was used by approximately one-fourth of the teachers who responded, and 6% of the respondents reported using Giancoli. We also asked the respondents to tell us how well the text worked for the course. The good news is that well over 80% of the teachers find that all four of these texts work quite well or somewhat well for teaching regular physics.

  17. Recent physics at COSY – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Machner

    2006-05-01

    The COSY accelerator in Jülich is presented together with its internal and external detectors. The physics program performed recently is discussed with emphasis on strangeness physics and precision experiments.

  18. Recent Physics at COSY - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Machner, H.

    2006-01-01

    The COSY accelerator in J\\"{u}lich is presented together with its internal and external detectors. The physics program performed recently is discussed with emphasis on strangeness physics and precision experiments.

  19. Physical applications of GPS geodesy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Geodesy, the oldest science, has become an important discipline in the geosciences, in large part by enhancing Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities over the last 35 years well beyond the satellite constellation’s original design. The ability of GPS geodesy to estimate 3D positions with millimeter-level precision with respect to a global terrestrial reference frame has contributed to significant advances in geophysics, seismology, atmospheric science, hydrology, and natural hazard science. Monitoring the changes in the positions or trajectories of GPS instruments on the Earth’s land and water surfaces, in the atmosphere, or in space, is important for both theory and applications, from an improved understanding of tectonic and magmatic processes to developing systems for mitigating the impact of natural hazards on society and the environment. Besides accurate positioning, all disturbances in the propagation of the transmitted GPS radio signals from satellite to receiver are mined for information, from troposphere and ionosphere delays for weather, climate, and natural hazard applications, to disturbances in the signals due to multipath reflections from the solid ground, water, and ice for environmental applications. We review the relevant concepts of geodetic theory, data analysis, and physical modeling for a myriad of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the extensive global infrastructure that has been built to support GPS geodesy consisting of thousands of continuously operating stations. We also discuss the integration of heterogeneous and complementary data sets from geodesy, seismology, and geology, focusing on crustal deformation applications and early warning systems for natural hazards.

  20. A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hou-Tong; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Yu, Nanfang

    2016-07-01

    Metamaterials are composed of periodic subwavelength metal/dielectric structures that resonantly couple to the electric and/or magnetic components of the incident electromagnetic fields, exhibiting properties that are not found in nature. This class of micro- and nano-structured artificial media have attracted great interest during the past 15 years and yielded ground-breaking electromagnetic and photonic phenomena. However, the high losses and strong dispersion associated with the resonant responses and the use of metallic structures, as well as the difficulty in fabricating the micro- and nanoscale 3D structures, have hindered practical applications of metamaterials. Planar metamaterials with subwavelength thickness, or metasurfaces, consisting of single-layer or few-layer stacks of planar structures, can be readily fabricated using lithography and nanoprinting methods, and the ultrathin thickness in the wave propagation direction can greatly suppress the undesirable losses. Metasurfaces enable a spatially varying optical response (e.g. scattering amplitude, phase, and polarization), mold optical wavefronts into shapes that can be designed at will, and facilitate the integration of functional materials to accomplish active control and greatly enhanced nonlinear response. This paper reviews recent progress in the physics of metasurfaces operating at wavelengths ranging from microwave to visible. We provide an overview of key metasurface concepts such as anomalous reflection and refraction, and introduce metasurfaces based on the Pancharatnam–Berry phase and Huygens’ metasurfaces, as well as their use in wavefront shaping and beam forming applications, followed by a discussion of polarization conversion in few-layer metasurfaces and their related properties. An overview of dielectric metasurfaces reveals their ability to realize unique functionalities coupled with Mie resonances and their low ohmic losses. We also describe metasurfaces for wave guidance and

  1. A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hou-Tong; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Yu, Nanfang

    2016-07-01

    Metamaterials are composed of periodic subwavelength metal/dielectric structures that resonantly couple to the electric and/or magnetic components of the incident electromagnetic fields, exhibiting properties that are not found in nature. This class of micro- and nano-structured artificial media have attracted great interest during the past 15 years and yielded ground-breaking electromagnetic and photonic phenomena. However, the high losses and strong dispersion associated with the resonant responses and the use of metallic structures, as well as the difficulty in fabricating the micro- and nanoscale 3D structures, have hindered practical applications of metamaterials. Planar metamaterials with subwavelength thickness, or metasurfaces, consisting of single-layer or few-layer stacks of planar structures, can be readily fabricated using lithography and nanoprinting methods, and the ultrathin thickness in the wave propagation direction can greatly suppress the undesirable losses. Metasurfaces enable a spatially varying optical response (e.g. scattering amplitude, phase, and polarization), mold optical wavefronts into shapes that can be designed at will, and facilitate the integration of functional materials to accomplish active control and greatly enhanced nonlinear response. This paper reviews recent progress in the physics of metasurfaces operating at wavelengths ranging from microwave to visible. We provide an overview of key metasurface concepts such as anomalous reflection and refraction, and introduce metasurfaces based on the Pancharatnam-Berry phase and Huygens’ metasurfaces, as well as their use in wavefront shaping and beam forming applications, followed by a discussion of polarization conversion in few-layer metasurfaces and their related properties. An overview of dielectric metasurfaces reveals their ability to realize unique functionalities coupled with Mie resonances and their low ohmic losses. We also describe metasurfaces for wave guidance and

  2. Physical Attractiveness and Health in Western Societies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Jason; Sabini, John

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from developed Western societies is reviewed for the claims that (a) physical attractiveness judgments are substantially based on body size and shape, symmetry, sex-typical hormonal markers, and other specific cues and (b) physical attractiveness and these cues substantially predict health. Among the cues that the authors review, only…

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW On the glass forming ability of liquid alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Waseda et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the concepts of the short-range order (SRO and middle-range order (MRO characterizing structures, an attempt has been made to describe the glass forming ability (GFA of liquid alloys. This includes the effect of more than two kinds of SRO in the liquid caused by the addition of second and third elements to a metallic solvent. The minimum solute concentration is related to the atomic volume mismatch estimated from the cube of the atomic radius. The optimum solute concentration for good glass formability in several binary and some ternary alloys is discussed on the basis of the empirical guideline. A new approach to obtaining good GFA of liquid alloys is based on four main factors: (i formation of new SRO and coexistence of two or more kinds of SRO, (ii stabilization of dense random packing structure by restraining the atomic redistribution for initiating the nucleation and growth process, (iii formation of a stable cluster (SC or the MRO by the harmonious coupling of SROs, and (iv difference between SRO characterizing the liquid structure and the near-neighbor environment in the corresponding equilibrium crystalline phases. The use of interaction parameters, widely used in the thermodynamics of multicomponent metallic solutions, is proposed for effectively selecting the third solute element (X3 for enhancing the GFA of a metallic liquid (M containing the second solute (X2. Fe70-B20-(X310 alloys (X3=Cr, W, Nb, Zr and Hf are used for illustration. Two typical model structures denoted by the Bernal and chemical-order types are used in describing the new glass structure as a function of solute concentration.

  4. Radiation-Induced Dislocation and Growth Behavior of Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys - A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium and zirconium alloys are widely used as nuclear reactor core materials such as fuel cladding and guide tubes because they have excellent corrosion- and radiation-resistant properties. In the reactor core, zirconium alloys are subjected to high-energy neutron fluence, causing radiation-induced dislocation and growth. To discern a possible correlation between radiation-induced dislocation and growth, characteristics of dislocation and growth in zirconium and its alloys are examined. The radiation-induced dislocation including and dislocation loops is reviewed in various temperature and fluence ranges, and their growth behavior is examined in the same way. To further a fundamental understanding, radiation-induced growth prediction models are briefly reviewed. This research will assist in the design of zirconium based components as well as the safety analysis of various reactor conditions, in both research and commercial reactors

  5. Review of PWSCC and mitigation management strategies of Alloy 600 materials of PWRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seong Sik

    2013-11-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), pressurizer instrumentation, and pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of the steam generators (SGs) in Korea. PWSCC crack indication in CRDM was also detected in a Korea plant. It is necessary to set up a rigid maintenance and inspection guidelines for the components. The PWSCC history of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles of PWRs and maintenance strategies are reviewed based upon the open literature and some experiences in Korea. The inspection requirements, repair techniques such as material changes, the isolation, weld overlays, stress improvements, water chemistry changes are reviewed. Management strategies for the Alloy 600 nozzles are also described.

  6. Review of PWSCC and mitigation management strategies of Alloy 600 materials of PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seong Sik, E-mail: sshwang@kaeri.re.kr

    2013-11-15

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), pressurizer instrumentation, and pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of the steam generators (SGs) in Korea. PWSCC crack indication in CRDM was also detected in a Korea plant. It is necessary to set up a rigid maintenance and inspection guidelines for the components. The PWSCC history of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles of PWRs and maintenance strategies are reviewed based upon the open literature and some experiences in Korea. The inspection requirements, repair techniques such as material changes, the isolation, weld overlays, stress improvements, water chemistry changes are reviewed. Management strategies for the Alloy 600 nozzles are also described.

  7. Review of PWSCC and mitigation management strategies of Alloy 600 materials of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), pressurizer instrumentation, and pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of the steam generators (SGs) in Korea. PWSCC crack indication in CRDM was also detected in a Korea plant. It is necessary to set up a rigid maintenance and inspection guidelines for the components. The PWSCC history of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles of PWRs and maintenance strategies are reviewed based upon the open literature and some experiences in Korea. The inspection requirements, repair techniques such as material changes, the isolation, weld overlays, stress improvements, water chemistry changes are reviewed. Management strategies for the Alloy 600 nozzles are also described

  8. Toys in Physics Lectures and Demonstrations--A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemez, J.; Fiolhais, C.; Fiolhais, M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of toys in physics teaching is common. This brief review of the physics of toys intends to show that they are not only very useful in lectures and demonstrations in order to motivate students but also very interesting from a scientific point of view. However, since their physics is sometimes too cumbersome, the effect can be the opposite.…

  9. 78 FR 25309 - Proposal Review Panel Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... Proposal Review Panel Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... Closed. Contact Person: Jean Cottam-Allen, Program Director for Physics Frontier Center; National Science... the progress of the Center for the Physics of Living Cells, and a proposed in for supplemental...

  10. 78 FR 29780 - Proposal Review Panel Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Proposal Review Panel Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... for Nuclear Physics; National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230. Telephone..., Operations, Upgrades and Commissioning Overview 10:15 a.m.-11:15 a.m. Open--Accelerator Physics Research,...

  11. 76 FR 45509 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico, 75 FR 67685 (November 3, 2010...) concrete reinforcing bars and rods. Also excluded are (f) free machining steel products (i.e., products... percent or more of bismuth, 0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent of phosphorus,...

  12. TENSILE TEST AND PHYSICAL MODEL OF NiTi SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUZi-li; WANGXin-wei; XIONGKe

    2004-01-01

    The tensile stress-strain curves of NiTi wires are obtained by tensile experiments under different heat treatments. A phenomenological physical model based on hysteresis element method is developed to describe the experimentally determined stress-strain curves of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Numerical simulations are made. Simulation results show that:(1) a series of unusual changes on physical and mechanical properties of SMA wires occur when martensitic, especially R (rhombohedral) phase transformation emerge. The stress-strain relation of SMA wires is highly non-linear; (2) there are no notable yielding phenomena before NiTi wires are broken; (3) numerical results obtained by the physical model are in good agreement with experimental data.

  13. Aqueous Corrosion Behavior of Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO)-Coated Magnesium Alloys: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Krishna, L.; Sundararajan, G.

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, in the current era of persistently growing engineering demands, have become the most promising materials finding widespread industrial applications. Numerous processes are available for surface protection of Mg and its alloys to potentially minimize corrosion damage. The micro arc oxidation (MAO), a fairly recent and eco-friendly coating process, emerged as a novel means to provide an adherent, hard, scratch-resistant, wear-resistant, and corrosion-resistant coatings on Mg alloys. However, the successful utilization of such coatings demands a thorough understanding of the influence of a relatively large number of process parameters such as electrolytic composition, presence of insoluble additives in the electrolyte, electrical parameters employed, and the composition of the Mg alloy substrate on the corrosion resistance. The detailed influence of all the above parameters on the corrosion behavior of Mg alloys is critically reviewed and presented in this article. In addition, this article also reviews the recent trends in terms of duplexing the MAO process using different techniques/processes such that the composite coatings are produced with enhanced corrosion resistance.

  14. Functions and mechanism of modification elements in eutectic solidification of Al-Si alloys: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu Fangqiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Being used more and more widely in engineering, Al-Si alloys comprise about 80% of all kinds of aluminum alloys, which are the most widely utilized nonferrous alloys. Although most Al-Si alloys consist of multiple components, the eutectics in the structure accounts for 50%-90% of the sum volume of such alloys. Therefore, understanding the modification mechanism and function rules of the Al-Si eutectic solidification is the technical key in controlling the structures and properties of such casting alloys. The present paper chiefly reviews recent investigation developments and important conclusions along the lines of the functions of modification elements and their modification mechanism in the eutectic solidification of Al-Si alloys.

  15. Mechanical and Physical Properties of In-Zn-Ga Lead-Free Solder Alloy for Low Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervina Efzan, M. N.; Nur Faziera, M. N.; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Due to the demand in the use of electronics devices in industry, the usage of solder connections has increased. Concerning with the toxicity of lead in Sn-37Pb solder alloy, developing lead free solder alloy with low melting temperature is one of the most important issues in electronic industry. Previously, researchers found out that the most promising candidate of lead free solder alloy is Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC). However, the melting temperature of this solder alloy is 217°C, 34°C higher than Sn-37Pb. This can lead to high energy consumption in electronic industry. In this paper, In-Zn-Ga solder alloy was investigated as a potential candidate replacing SAC. This study covers on the physical and mechanical properties of the solder alloy. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) testing shows that this solder alloy gave low melting temperature as low as 141.31°C. The addition of Ga in In-Zn solder alloy lowered the melting temperature compared to SAC and Sn-37Pb. From coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) analysis, the In-Zn-Ga solder alloy gives good expansion properties and able to avoid the mismatch between the solder and copper substrates. The density of In-Zn-Ga solder alloy is 6.801g/cm3, lower than SAC and Sn-37Pb. For the strength, single lap shear testing was conducted on the In-Zn-Ga solder alloy and the results is near to the strength of SAC.

  16. Correlates of Physical Activity in Asian Adolescents: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husna Hidayati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is important to prevent several chronic diseases in adulthood. Nowadays, young people do not regularly perform physical activity. Several factors may influence their decision. Most of studies were conducted in western countries. However the findings might not be generalized regarding the differences in culture and social condition. Therefore, reviewing the correlates of physical activity among adolescents in Asian countries is essential. Purpose: To update the state of knowledge on factors associated with adolescents’ physical activity in Asian countries. Methods: Literature review on existing articles retrieved from electronic databases was conducted. The review on factors of physical activity was set based on the setting of study, adolescents as participants of the study and the year of publication ranged from 2002-2011. Result: The findings compiled the evidence of relationships between physical activity and several influencing factors. Intrapersonal factors age, gender, socioeconomic status, parental education, and perceptions related to physical activity- perceived self efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, interpersonal factors (family and peer influences and extra-personal factors (school policy and living arrangement were identified. Self efficacy was manifested as the strongest influencing factor in most studies. This review highlighted the cultural issues on physical activities of adolescents in Asian countries. Conclusion: This paper provided comprehensive knowledge related to factors influencing physical activity in Asian adolescents. The issue of cultural sensitivity should be considered in the future intervention program designed to improve physical activity of adolescents. Keyword: adolescent, physical activity, health Promotion, Asian countries

  17. Final report on characterization of physical and mechanical properties of copper and copper alloys before and after irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Tähtinen, S.

    2002-01-01

    The present report summarizes and highlights the main results of the work carried out during the last 5-6 years on effects of neutron irradiation on physical and mechanical properties of copper and copper alloys. The work was an European contribution toITER Research and Development programme and...... regarding the suitability of a copper alloy for its use in the first wall and divertor components of ITER. It is pointed out that the present work has managed onlyto identify some of the critical problems and limitations of the copper alloys for their employment in the hostile environment of 14 MeV neutrons...

  18. Review of Physics Results from the Tevatron: Top Quark Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Cecilia E.; Vellidis, Costas

    2014-09-17

    We present results on top quark physics from the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron proton anti-proton collider. These include legacy results from Run II that were published or submitted for publication before mid-2014, as well as a summary of Run I results. The historical perspective of the discovery of the top quark in Run I is also described.

  19. Neuroergonomics: a review of applications to physical and cognitive work

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ranjana K.; Raja Parasuraman

    2013-01-01

    Neuroergonomics is an emerging science that is defined as the study of the human brain in relation to performance at work and in everyday settings. This paper provides a critical review of the neuroergonomic approach to evaluating physical and cognitive work, particularly in mobile settings. Neuroergonomics research employing mobile and immobile brain imaging techniques are discussed in the following areas of physical and cognitive work: 1) physical work parameters; 2) physical fatigue; 3) vi...

  20. Factors associated with physical activity in children and adolescents with a physical disability: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.A.T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Takken, T.; Wittink, H.; Benner, J.; Mollema, J.; Groot, J.F. de

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this review was to summarize the important factors associated with participation in physical activity in children and adolescents with physical disabilities. Method: A systematic mixed-studies review was conducted using the databases Academic Search Elite, CINAHL, The Cochrane Librar

  1. Factors associated with physical activity in children and adolescents with a physical disability : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Manon A T; Backx, FJG; Takken, Tim; Wittink, H; Benner, Joyce; Mollema, Jurgen; de Groot, Janke F.

    2015-01-01

    AimThe aim of this review was to summarize the important factors associated with participation in physical activity in children and adolescents with physical disabilities. MethodA systematic mixed-studies review was conducted using the databases Academic Search Elite, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, E

  2. A Review of Titanium Zirconium (TiZr) Alloys for Use in Endosseous Dental Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Dard; H. Michelle Grandin; Simon Berner

    2012-01-01

    Dental implants made from binary titanium-zirconium (TiZr) alloys have shown promise as a high strength, yet biocompatible alternative to pure titanium, particularly for applications requiring small diameter implants. The aim of this review is to summarize existing literature reporting on the use of binary TiZr alloys for endosseous dental implant applications as tested in vitro, in animals and clinically. And furthermore to show that TiZr is “at least as good as” pure ti...

  3. Impact of Intermetallic Precipitates on the Tribological and/or Corrosion Performance of Cast Aluminium Alloys: a Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Culliton, David; Betts, Tony; Kennedy, David

    2013-01-01

    The role of various intermetallic precipitates (IMP), or secondary phase particles, in governing the wear and corrosion performance characteristics of cast aluminium alloys is outlined in this brief review. Such alloys are especially important in transport applications where their low weight, low cost and recyclability make them very attractive. However alloy wear and/or corrosion behaviour often limit their industrial application and more work needs to done to extend their use into other are...

  4. Top Quark Physics -- a Popular Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lampe, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    The top quark has been discovered at FERMILAB last year. The following features of top quark physics will be discussed in this article: the top quark in the standard model production and decay of the top quark in proton collisions (direct evidence for top) virtual effects of top quarks in electroweak observables (indirect evidence for top)

  5. Review of the physical and mechanical properties and potential applications of the B2 compound NiAl: Unabridged version of a paper published in International materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Bowman, Randy R.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable work has been performed on NiAl over the last three decades, with an extremely rapid growth in research on this intermetallic occurring in the last few years due to recent interest in this material for electronic and high temperature structural applications. However, many physical properties and the controlling fracture and deformation mechanisms over certain temperature regimes are still in question. Part of this problem lies in the incomplete characterization of many of the alloys previously investigated. Fragmentary data on processing conditions, chemistry, microstructure and the apparent difficulty in accurately measuring composition has made direct comparison between individual studies sometimes tenuous. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize all available mechanical and pertinent physical properties on NiAl, stressing the most recent investigations, in an attempt to understand the behavior of NiAl and its alloys over a broad temperature range.

  6. Fracture mechanics of pseudoelastic NiTi alloys: review of the research activities carried out at University of Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sgambitterra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a brief review of the research activities on fracture mechanics of nickel-titanium based shape memory alloys carried out at University of Calabria. In fact, this class of metallic alloys show a unusual fracture response due to the reversible stress-induced and thermally phase transition mechanisms occurring in the crack tip region as a consequence of the highly localized stresses. The paper illustrates the main results concerning numerical, analytical and experimental research activities carried out by using commercial NiTi based pseudoelastic alloys. Furthermore, the effect of several thermo-mechanical loading conditions on the fracture properties of NiTi alloys are illustrated.

  7. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the annual review of the Argonne National Laboratory Physics Division for the period April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993. Work on the ATLAS device is covered, as well as work on a number of others in lab, as well as collaborative projects. Heavy ion nuclear physics research looked at quasi-elastic, and deep-inelastic reactions, cluster states, superdeformed nuclei, and nuclear shape effects. There were programs on accelerator mass spectroscopy, and accelerator and linac development. There were efforts in medium energy nuclear physics, weak interactions, theoretical nuclear and atomic physics, and experimental atomic and molecular physics based on accelerators and synchrotron radiation

  8. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, K.J. [ed.

    1993-08-01

    This document is the annual review of the Argonne National Laboratory Physics Division for the period April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993. Work on the ATLAS device is covered, as well as work on a number of others in lab, as well as collaborative projects. Heavy ion nuclear physics research looked at quasi-elastic, and deep-inelastic reactions, cluster states, superdeformed nuclei, and nuclear shape effects. There were programs on accelerator mass spectroscopy, and accelerator and linac development. There were efforts in medium energy nuclear physics, weak interactions, theoretical nuclear and atomic physics, and experimental atomic and molecular physics based on accelerators and synchrotron radiation.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, P. J.

    2007-02-01

    The widespread importance of plasmas in many areas of contemporary physics makes good textbooks in the field that are both introductory and comprehensive invaluable. This new book by Paul Bellen from CalTech by and large meets these goals. It covers the traditional textbook topics such as particle orbits, the derivation of the MHD equations from Vlasov theory, cold and warm plasma waves, Landau damping, as well as in the later chapters less common subjects such as magnetic helicity, nonlinear processes and dusty plasmas. The book is clearly written, neatly presented, and each chapter has a number of exercises or problems at their end. The author has also thankfully steered clear of the pitfall of filling the book with his own research results. The preface notes that the book is designed to provide an introduction to plasma physics for final year undergraduate and post-graduate students. However, it is difficult to see many physics undergraduates now at UK universities getting to grips with much of the content since their mathematics is not of a high enough standard. Students in Applied Mathematics departments would certainly fare better. An additional problem for the beginner is that some of the chapters do not lead the reader gently into a subject, but begin with quite advanced concepts. Being a multi-disciplinary subject, beginners tend to find plasma physics quite hard enough even when done simply. For postgraduate students these criticisms fade away and this book provides an excellent introduction. More senior researchers should also enjoy the book, especially Chapters 11-17 where more advanced topics are discussed. I found myself continually comparing the book with my favourite text for many years, `The Physics of Plasmas' by T J M Boyd and J J Sanderson, reissued by Cambridge University Press in 2003. Researchers would want both books on their shelves, both for the different ways basic plasma physics is covered, and the diversity of more advanced topics. For

  10. Clinical Prediction Rules for Physical Therapy Interventions: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Beneciuk, Jason M.; Bishop, Mark D; George, Steven Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) involving physical therapy interventions have been published recently. The quality of the studies used to develop the CPRs was not previously considered, a fact that has potential implications for clinical applications and future research. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the quality of published CPRs developed for physical therapy interventions.

  11. Physical Fitness in People After Burn Injury : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Mouton, Leonora J.

    2011-01-01

    Disseldorp LM, Nieuwenhuis MK, Van Baar ME, Mouton U. Physical fitness in people after burn injury: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1501-10. Objective: To gain insight into the physical fitness of people after burn injury compared with healthy subjects, and to present an overview

  12. The role of Hydrogen and Creep in Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water Environments ? a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Hua, F H

    2004-07-12

    Intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 in PWR steam generator environment has been extensively studied for over 30 years without rendering a clear understanding of the essential mechanisms. The lack of understanding of the IGSCC mechanism is due to a complex interaction of numerous variables such as microstructure, thermomechanical processing, strain rate, water chemistry and electrochemical potential. Hydrogen plays an important role in all these variables. The complexity, however, significantly hinders a clearer and more fundamental understanding of the mechanism of hydrogen in enhancing intergranular cracking via whatever mechanism. In this work, an attempt is made to review the role of hydrogen based on the current understanding of grain boundary structure and chemistry and intergranular fracture of nickel alloys, effect of hydrogen on electrochemical behavior of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 (e.g. the passive film stability, polarization behavior and open-circuit potential) and effect of hydrogen on PWSCC behavior of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690. Mechanistic studies on the PWSCC are briefly reviewed. It is concluded that further studies on the role of hydrogen on intergranular cracking in both inert and primary side environments are needed. These studies should focus on the correlation of the results obtained at different laboratories by different methods on materials with different metallurgical and chemical parameters.

  13. Multiple myeloma and physical activity: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, L; McCourt, O.; Heinrich, M.; Paton, B.; Yong, K.; Wardle, J; Fisher, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Multiple myeloma is the second most common haematological cancer. A growing body of literature is emerging that investigates the role physical activity plays in all stages of multiple myeloma (prevention and survivorship) and to date no attempt has been made to collate and understand this literature. Therefore, this scoping review aims to (1) outline what is already known about physical activity in all stages of multiple myeloma (2) map the literature on physical activity and mult...

  14. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  15. Inclusion in Physical Education: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jing; Ha, Amy S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyse empirical studies on inclusion in physical education (PE) over the past 20 years and then propose recommendations for future research. A systematic process was used to search the literature for this review. First, a total of 75 research-based articles from computerised education databases were included in…

  16. Physical theory of measuring process : a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    榛葉, 豊; 福地, 充; 坂田, 亮

    1980-01-01

    After a survey of the orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics and von Neumann's approach to a measurement theory, the measurement theory of Daneri, Loinger and Prosperi is critically reviewed in regard in particular to their aims and assumptions. The review will lead us to see what is still desirable of a physical theory of measurement on quantum mechanical systems.

  17. Physical metallurgy of nickel aluminides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Dey

    2003-02-01

    A description of the important physical metallurgy aspects of Ni$_3Al and NiAl encompassing structure, crystallographic defects, slip systems and phase stability has been presented in this article. The microstructures generated in the two alloys by conventional as well as novel processing techniques have been discussed. The effect of alloying additions on the microstructure has been enumerated. Besides description of the aforementioned physical metallurgy aspects, an important purpose of this review is to focus on the reasons of brittleness in the two alloys and means of alleviating this problem primarily by alloying. The effect of alloying on the slip behaviour has also been described.

  18. A Review Corrosion of TI Grade 7 and Other TI Alloys in Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; K. Mon; P. Pasupathi; G. Gordon

    2004-05-11

    Titanium alloy degradation modes are reviewed in relation to their performance in repository environments. General corrosion, localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, microbially influenced corrosion, and radiation-assisted corrosion of Ti alloys are considered. With respect to the Ti Grade 7 drip shields selected for emplacement in the repository at Yucca Mountain, general corrosion, hydrogen induced cracking, and radiation-assisted corrosion will not lead to failure within the 10,000 year regulatory period; stress corrosion cracking (in the absence of disruptive events) is of no consequence to barrier performance; and localized corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion are not expected to occur. To facilitate the discussion, Ti Grades 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, and 24 are included in this review.

  19. A Review Corrosion of TI Grade 7 and Other TI Alloys in Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium alloy degradation modes are reviewed in relation to their performance in repository environments. General corrosion, localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, microbially influenced corrosion, and radiation-assisted corrosion of Ti alloys are considered. With respect to the Ti Grade 7 drip shields selected for emplacement in the repository at Yucca Mountain, general corrosion, hydrogen induced cracking, and radiation-assisted corrosion will not lead to failure within the 10,000 year regulatory period; stress corrosion cracking (in the absence of disruptive events) is of no consequence to barrier performance; and localized corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion are not expected to occur. To facilitate the discussion, Ti Grades 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, and 24 are included in this review

  20. Quaternionic Groups in Physics A Panoramic Review

    CERN Document Server

    De Leo, S

    1999-01-01

    Due to the non-commutative nature of quaternions we introduce the concept of left and right action for quaternionic numbers. This gives the opportunity to manipulate appropriately the $H$-field. The standard problems arising in the definitions of transpose, determinant and trace for quaternionic matrices are overcome. We investigate the possibility to formulate a new approach to Quaternionic Group Theory. Our aim is to highlight the possibility of looking at new quaternionic groups by the use of left and right operators as fundamental step toward a clear and complete discussion of Unification Theories in Physics.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Physics in One Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, David

    2004-05-01

    To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted pecularities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic---spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assumimg little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a refreshingly

  2. Magnetars: the physics behind observations. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turolla, R; Zane, S; Watts, A L

    2015-11-01

    Magnetars are the strongest magnets in the present universe and the combination of extreme magnetic field, gravity and density makes them unique laboratories to probe current physical theories (from quantum electrodynamics to general relativity) in the strong field limit. Magnetars are observed as peculiar, burst-active x-ray pulsars, the anomalous x-ray pulsars (AXPs) and the soft gamma repeaters (SGRs); the latter emitted also three 'giant flares', extremely powerful events during which luminosities can reach up to 10(47) erg s(-1) for about one second. The last five years have witnessed an explosion in magnetar research which has led, among other things, to the discovery of transient, or 'outbursting', and 'low-field' magnetars. Substantial progress has been made also on the theoretical side. Quite detailed models for explaining the magnetars' persistent x-ray emission, the properties of the bursts, the flux evolution in transient sources have been developed and confronted with observations. New insight on neutron star asteroseismology has been gained through improved models of magnetar oscillations. The long-debated issue of magnetic field decay in neutron stars has been addressed, and its importance recognized in relation to the evolution of magnetars and to the links among magnetars and other families of isolated neutron stars. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview in which the observational results are discussed in the light of the most up-to-date theoretical models and their implications. This addresses not only the particular case of magnetar sources, but the more fundamental issue of how physics in strong magnetic fields can be constrained by the observations of these unique sources. PMID:26473534

  3. Magnetars: the physics behind observations. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turolla, R; Zane, S; Watts, A L

    2015-11-01

    Magnetars are the strongest magnets in the present universe and the combination of extreme magnetic field, gravity and density makes them unique laboratories to probe current physical theories (from quantum electrodynamics to general relativity) in the strong field limit. Magnetars are observed as peculiar, burst-active x-ray pulsars, the anomalous x-ray pulsars (AXPs) and the soft gamma repeaters (SGRs); the latter emitted also three 'giant flares', extremely powerful events during which luminosities can reach up to 10(47) erg s(-1) for about one second. The last five years have witnessed an explosion in magnetar research which has led, among other things, to the discovery of transient, or 'outbursting', and 'low-field' magnetars. Substantial progress has been made also on the theoretical side. Quite detailed models for explaining the magnetars' persistent x-ray emission, the properties of the bursts, the flux evolution in transient sources have been developed and confronted with observations. New insight on neutron star asteroseismology has been gained through improved models of magnetar oscillations. The long-debated issue of magnetic field decay in neutron stars has been addressed, and its importance recognized in relation to the evolution of magnetars and to the links among magnetars and other families of isolated neutron stars. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview in which the observational results are discussed in the light of the most up-to-date theoretical models and their implications. This addresses not only the particular case of magnetar sources, but the more fundamental issue of how physics in strong magnetic fields can be constrained by the observations of these unique sources.

  4. NRC regulatory practices in reactor physics code reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the process taken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in reviewing physics codes and methods. In recent years, because of increased computing storage capability, enhanced computation times, and general progress in analytical techniques and methods, applicants (licensee and vendors), have sought to take advantage of these improvements by asking the NRC staff to review these analytical physics codes and methods. These requests reflect a desire to exploit better methods to provide enhanced computational accuracy and reduce uncertainties, leading to overall improved fuel management core designs and, usually, increased safety margin. This paper describes the review process and gives examples of typical requests for reviews of code improvements and new codes by nuclear power plant licensees and vendors. In addition, it provides examples of the NRC staff technical requirements in evaluating and approving these enhanced codes and methods. Finally, this paper also includes a brief overview of the review process for non-light-water reactors. (authors)

  5. Effects of sputtering conditions on electrochemical behavior and physical properties of Ni-Mo alloy electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jin-zhao; XU Zheng; LI Hai-ling; KANG Guo-hu; WANG Wen-jing

    2006-01-01

    Sputtering method was used to prepare Ni-Mo alloy electrodes for hydrogen production in alkaline solution. The influences of the working pressure during deposition and the substrate temperature on the electrochemical behavior of electrode were characterized by steady-state polarization plot and Tafel polarization curve measurements. And the physical properties of electrodes were characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM and EDS. It is found that the overpotential is significantly influenced by the working pressure which affects critically the electrode surface morphology, and two Tafel regions are observed for each sample. The overpotential value does not change very much with the substrate temperature. The XRD results indicates that the electrodes should be considered nanocrystalline. Thornton model for the microstructure of sputter-deposited electrodes is referred to explain the observed microstructure change.

  6. Developments in the Ni-Nb-Zr amorphous alloy membranes. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, S.; Chandra, D. [University of Nevada, Materials Science and Engineering, Reno, NV (United States); Hirscher, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Intelligente Systeme, Stuttgart (Germany); Dolan, M.; Viano, D. [CSIRO, QCAT, Energy, Pullenvale, QLD (Australia); Isheim, D. [Northwestern University, Materials Science and Engineering, Evanston, IL (United States); Wermer, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baricco, M. [University of Turin, Department of Chemistry and NIS, Turin (Italy); Udovic, T.J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Grant, D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Palumbo, O.; Paolone, A. [CNR-ISC, U.O.S. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Cantelli, R. [University of Rome, La Sapienza, Roma (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Most of the global H{sub 2} production is derived from hydrocarbon-based fuels, and efficient H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation is necessary to deliver a high-purity H{sub 2} product. Hydrogen-selective alloy membranes are emerging as a viable alternative to traditional pressure swing adsorption processes as a means for H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation. These membranes can be formed from a wide range of alloys, and those based on Pd are the closest to commercial deployment. The high cost of Pd (USD ∝31,000 kg{sup -1}) is driving the development of less-expensive alternatives, including inexpensive amorphous (Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40}){sub 100-x} Zr{sub x} alloys. Amorphous alloy membranes can be fabricated directly from the molten state into continuous ribbons via melt spinning and depending on the composition can exhibit relatively high hydrogen permeability between 473 and 673 K. Here we review recent developments in these low-cost membrane materials, especially with respect to permeation behavior, electrical transport properties, and understanding of local atomic order. To further understand the nature of these solids, atom probe tomography has been performed, revealing amorphous Nb-rich and Zr-rich clusters embedded in majority Ni matrix whose compositions deviated from the nominal overall composition of the membrane. (orig.)

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Physics in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Jim

    2000-05-01

    after stirring? I have a sense of déjà vu with this last question as it and others in this book were also discussed in the brilliantly written and illustrated volume Riddles in your Teacup, published by the Institute of Physics a few years ago. Miscellaneous. This section deals with topics such as quartz halogen lamps, degreening oranges, free-fall phenomena and a discussion on the origins of the terms `physics' and `physicist'. The concluding section is devoted exclusively to Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer and Santa Claus. It is clearly intended to convince readers that Physics is (still) Fun!

  8. Hydroxyapatite coating on the Ti-35Nb-xZr alloy by electron beam-physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Division of Restorative and Prosthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, 305 W. 12th Ave. Columbus, OH (United States); Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Sang-Won [Department of Applied Advanced Materials, Korea Polytechnic V Colleges (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hydroxyapatite coating on the Ti-35Nb-xZr alloy by electron beam-physical vapor deposition. The Ti-35Nb-xZr ternary alloys contained from 3 wt.% to 10 wt.% Zr content were manufactured by arc melting furnace. Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were prepared by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method, and crystallization treatment was performed in Ar atmosphere at 300 and 500 deg. C for 1 h. The coated surface morphology of Ti-35Nb-xZr alloy was examined by FE-SEM, EDX and XRD, respectively. In order to evaluate the corrosion behavior, the tests were performed by potentiodynamic, cyclic polarization and AC impedance test. All the electrochemical data were obtained using a potentiostat. The Ti-35Nb-xZr alloys exhibited equiaxed structure with {beta} phase, the peak of {beta} phase increased with Zr contents. The hardness and elastic modulus of Ti-35Nb-xZr alloys decreased as Zr content increased. The HA coated layer was approximately 150 nm and Ca/P ratio of HA coated surface after heat treatment at 500 deg. C was around 1.67. The HA thin film consisted of small droplets with spherical shape by crystallization. From the anodic polarization curves, HA coated and heat treated Ti-35Nb-10Zr alloy showed higher corrosion potential than other samples. HA coated film on the Ti-35Nb-10Zr alloy can be shown high polarization resistance by crystallization.

  9. Physical Activity in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Carrie; Aronow, Laura; Mackey, Eleanor; Streisand, Randi

    2016-09-01

    Youth with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing cardiovascular disease, and regular physical activity is strongly recommended as one strategy for prevention, as well as for good glycemic control. Despite recommendations, families in this pediatric population face unique barriers to physical activity, including fear of hypoglycemia. Moreover, families are not routinely counseled in the specific health and psychosocial benefits of following physical activity recommendations for youth with type 1 diabetes. To bridge this gap, the recent literature regarding physical activity in children with type 1 diabetes is reviewed with particular focus on young children. A discussion of the limitations of the current body of research, and recommendations for objectively measured physical activity are provided. Specific recommendations for clinical practice are given, including provider endorsements for regular physical activity for longer than 60 minutes, at least three times a week. PMID:27475093

  10. Some applications of mathematics in theoretical physics - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kalpana

    2016-06-01

    Mathematics is a very beautiful subject-very much an indispensible tool for Physics, more so for Theoretical Physics (by which we mean here mainly Field Theory and High Energy Physics). These branches of Physics are based on Quantum Mechanics and Special Theory of Relativity, and many mathematical concepts are used in them. In this work, we shall elucidate upon only some of them, like-differential geometry, infinite series, Mellin transforms, Fourier and integral transforms, special functions, calculus, complex algebra, topology, group theory, Riemannian geometry, functional analysis, linear algebra, operator algebra, etc. We shall also present, some physics issues, where these mathematical tools are used. It is not wrong to say that Mathematics is such a powerful tool, without which, there can not be any Physics theory!! A brief review on our research work is also presented.

  11. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  12. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Science Fair Projects: Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-11-01

    I have often thought that the notion of a Science Fair is intrinsically a good one but have never set one up. With this book such an undertaking is possible, with 47 projects from which you can choose. Each project has a clearly stated purpose with an overview that contains the physics you need to get started. A hypothesis, or sometimes two, and a procedure detailing what the student should do follow this. The materials to be used are those you should be able to find at home, and safety guidelines as well as places the student needs adult help are clearly marked. Every project asks the student to write down the results of their experiment and decide whether or not their hypothesis was correct. There are also suggestions for taking each project further. Some of these projects are standard experiments that you may already do with students in class, for example, making plasticine boats, string telephones and levers. Most are interesting twists on standard experiments such as using a wedge as a simple machine, home-made spinning toys and the experiments with light bulbs. The latter are the only real cause for concern if students were to do these things at home as adult supervision would be essential. This is obviously an American book, though. Teachers in British classrooms would need to work out how to deal with the references to temperature in Fahrenheit and mass in ounces. Length is usually given in centimetres as well as inches. Translations of soda bottles and bobby pins would also be needed. This book is designed to be full of ideas and to give structure to projects students can do at home, not to provide ideas that you can transport into the classroom. It does this very well and I would recommend it to anyone thinking of starting up a Science Fair. Alternatively, this is an excellent resource for more interesting homework assignments that would put more responsibility on the student and give them something fun to do.

  14. Social skills development in school physical education : A review

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Jiandong; Yoshio SUGIYAMA

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a review of studies on social skills development in school physical education (PE). First, several theories and models related to social development in school PE were introduced. Then, studies tested the effects of adopting those theories and models as well as other strategies on developing social skills in school PE settings were reviewed. Finally, the current status and future outlook of studies on social skills development as a function of PE in China were discussed.

  15. The physical and mechanical metallurgy of advanced O+BCC titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Christopher John

    This thesis comprises a systematic study of the microstructural evolution, phase transformation behavior, elevated-temperature creep behavior, room-temperature and elevated-temperature tensile behavior, and room-temperature fatigue behavior of advanced titanium-aluminum-niobium (Ti-Al-Nb) alloys with and without boron additions. The specific alloys studied were: Ti-5A1-45Nb (at%), Ti-15Al-33Nb (at%), Ti-15Al-33Nb-0.5B (at%), Ti-15Al-33Nb-5B (at%), Ti-21Al-29Nb (at%), Ti-22Al-26Nb (at%), and Ti-22Al-26Nb-5B (at%). The only alloy composition that had been previously studied before this thesis work began was Ti-22Al-26Nb (at%). Publication in peer-reviewed material science journals of the work performed in this thesis has made data available in the scientific literature that was previously non-existent. The knowledge gap for Ti-Al-Nb phase equilibria over the compositional range of Ti-23Al-27Nb (at%) to Ti-12Al-38Nb (at%) that existed before this work began was successfully filled. The addition of 5 at% boron to the Ti-15Al-33Nb alloy produced 5-9 volume percent boride phase needles within the microstructure. The chemical composition of the boride phase measured by electron microprobe was determined to be approximately B 2TiNb. The lattice parameters of the boride phase were simulated through density functional theory calculations by collaborators at the Air Force Research Laboratory based on the measured composition. Using the simulated lattice parameters, electron backscatter diffraction kikuchi patterns and selected area electron diffraction patterns obtained from the boride phase were successfully indexed according to the space group and site occupancies of the B27 orthorhombic crystal structure. This suggests that half the Ti (c) Wyckoff positions are occupied by Ti atoms and the other half are occupied by Nb atoms in the boride phase lattice. Creep deformation behavior is the main focus of this thesis and in particular understanding the dominant creep

  16. A review on shape memory alloys with applications to morphing aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a unique class of metallic materials with the ability to recover their original shape at certain characteristic temperatures (shape memory effect), even under high applied loads and large inelastic deformations, or to undergo large strains without plastic deformation or failure (super-elasticity). In this review, we describe the main features of SMAs, their constitutive models and their properties. We also review the fatigue behavior of SMAs and some methods adopted to remove or reduce its undesirable effects. SMAs have been used in a wide variety of applications in different fields. In this review, we focus on the use of shape memory alloys in the context of morphing aircraft, with particular emphasis on variable twist and camber, and also on actuation bandwidth and reduction of power consumption. These applications prove particularly challenging because novel configurations are adopted to maximize integration and effectiveness of SMAs, which play the role of an actuator (using the shape memory effect), often combined with structural, load-carrying capabilities. Iterative and multi-disciplinary modeling is therefore necessary due to the fluid–structure interaction combined with the nonlinear behavior of SMAs. (topical review)

  17. Physical activity and Native American/span>s: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, James D; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2006-07-01

    The physical activity behaviors of Native-American populations in the United States and Canada have received little attention in the health literature. The purpose of this review was to unite the literature regarding the physical activity behaviors of Native Americans. A majority of the literature was obtained using online databases. Reference lists were also reviewed to gain further access to the literature. Key-word searches included various combinations of Aboriginal, Native Indian, American Indian, Native American, First Nation, Métis, or Alaska Native with physical activity, exercise, and health behavior. Articles included were those published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals from 1990 until November 2005 that focused on participants aged 18 years and older. This review is organized according to ecologic models of health behavior, which take into account several correlates to explain human behavior, including demographic, personal health, environmental, and psychosocial. Correlates were included if they appeared at least three times in the literature. As a result of these inclusion criteria, the number of reviewed articles includes 28 quantitative, 4 qualitative, and 3 intervention studies. Results indicate that age, gender, and social support are important factors associated with physical activity. The remaining correlates show inconsistent or indeterminate results due in part to the paucity of research. It is suggested that an increase in the number of studies, especially those using longitudinal designs, is needed. Further, the application of psychosocial models to understand physical activity motivations as well as culturally appropriate and validated measurement tools are largely absent in the Native-American physical activity literature. PMID:16777541

  18. Using new physics and technology to advance electrostimulated rolling of metals and alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantin; M.; Klimov; Ivan; I.; Novikov

    2005-01-01

    Electrostimulated deformation of metals and alloys, using groove or smooth rolling, requires that several important conditions are satisfied. (1) The deformation site must geometrically overlap with the flow of electric current passing through a strip between the rolls; (2) The density of direct or alternating electric current supplied to deformation site must be sufficiently high (of an order of 104-106A/cm2 ); (3) An efficient heat removal from the deformation site must be achieved. In general, the temperature of a strip must be within the range of 100-300℃. (4) The electric resistance at the roll-strip interface must be minimized. Our recent studies also indicate that the electrostimulated rolling in the shortcut regime is a further condition for obtaining high quality rolling of metals. In this regime, the rolls are placed in physical contact even in the absence of a strip that ensures an uninterrupted passage of electric current between the rolls.Provided that the aforementioned conditions are met, the plastic rolling deformation of various metals and lloys, including the most refractory and deformation resistant ones such as tungsten, molybdenum,their allows with rhenium, becomes possible. A single pass through the rolls is usually sufficient to deform a strip by about 50%- 70% as is the case for tungsten. Significantly, the temperature in the deformation site does not exceed 150-200℃.In our opinion, excellent results for electrostimulated rolling obtained by us are related to new previously unknown behavior of metals and alloys, being subject to pressure treatment and rolling.

  19. Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

  20. Strangeness nuclear physics: a critical review on selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, Elena; Garbarino, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    Selected topics in strangeness nuclear physics are critically reviewed. This includes production, structure and weak decay of $\\Lambda$--Hypernuclei, the $\\bar K$ nuclear interaction and the possible existence of $\\bar K$ bound states in nuclei. Perspectives for future studies on these issues are also outlined.

  1. 76 FR 8381 - Proposal Review for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting:...

  2. A Review of Swimming Cues and Tips for Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Kelsey; Barney, David

    2016-01-01

    Swimming is a low-impact activity that causes little stress on joints so it can be done for a lifetime. Many teachers may wish to teach swimming but do not have cues or ideas for doing so. This article reviews swimming cues, relays and equipment that can help a physical education teacher include a swimming unit in their curriculum. Certification…

  3. Expectations, Impressions, and Judgments of Physically Attractive Students: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritts, Vicki; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A descriptive and metanalytic research review indicates that physically attractive students are usually judged more favorably than their unattractive counterparts by teachers on several dimensions including intelligence, academic potential, grades, and social skills. The influence of moderating variables and possible mechanisms responsible for the…

  4. Paroxetine for Somatic Pain Associated With Physical Illness: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Masand, Prakash S.; Narasimhan, Meera; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the prevalence of somatic pain with and without depression or anxiety and the pharmacologic effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine on pain in physical conditions with and without comorbid depression or anxiety.

  5. Do attributes in the physical environment influence children's physical activity? A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Catherine T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many youth today are physically inactive. Recent attention linking the physical or built environment to physical activity in adults suggests an investigation into the relationship between the built environment and physical activity in children could guide appropriate intervention strategies. Method Thirty three quantitative studies that assessed associations between the physical environment (perceived or objectively measured and physical activity among children (ages 3 to 18-years and fulfilled selection criteria were reviewed. Findings were categorized and discussed according to three dimensions of the physical environment including recreational infrastructure, transport infrastructure, and local conditions. Results Results across the various studies showed that children's participation in physical activity is positively associated with publicly provided recreational infrastructure (access to recreational facilities and schools and transport infrastructure (presence of sidewalks and controlled intersections, access to destinations and public transportation. At the same time, transport infrastructure (number of roads to cross and traffic density/speed and local conditions (crime, area deprivation are negatively associated with children's participation in physical activity. Conclusion Results highlight links between the physical environment and children's physical activity. Additional research using a transdisciplinary approach and assessing moderating and mediating variables is necessary to appropriately inform policy efforts.

  6. Review of the Maxus 8 Sounding Rocket Experiment to Investigate Solidification in a Ti-Al-Nb Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Robin; Browne, David; Budenkova, Olga; Fautrelle, Yves R; Froyen, Ludo; Kartavykh, Andrey; Rex, Stephan; Schmitz, Burkhard; Voss, Daniella; McFadden, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    A review of the MAXUS 8 sounding rocket microgravity experiment to investigate solidification structures in a Ti-Al-Nb intermetallic alloy is presented. The experiment was part of the Intermetallic Materials Processing in Relation to Earth and Space Solidification (IMPRESS) EU FP6 project. Key objectives were to investigate columnar and equiaxed solidification, and to achieve Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition (CET) in the alloy. A microgravity experiment was designed to achieve this using a con...

  7. High Damping Alloys and Their Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxing Yin

    2000-01-01

    Damping alloys show prospective applications in the elimination of unwanted vibrations and acoustic noise. The basic definitions and characterization methods of damping capacity are reviewed in this paper. Several physical mechanisms controlled by the alloy microstructure are responsible for the damping behavior in the damping alloys. Composite, dislocation, ferromagnetic and planar defect types are commonly classified for the alloys, which show the different damping behavior against temperature, frequency of vibration,amplitude of vibration and damping modes. Development of practically applicable damping alloys requires the higher mechanical properties and adequate workability, besides the high damping capacity. A new Mn-Cu damping alloy, named as M2052 alloy, is recently developed with possible industrial applications.

  8. Review of physical sciences research, 1979 - 1990 (Gas Research Institute)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    To meet the expectations and needs of the gas industry and its customers, basic research management techniques were developed that are appropriate for GRI's unique mission oriented research program. These techniques differ from those used in private industry and government. These techniques are described focussing on how GRI selects appropriate research topics, builds consensus for the Physical Sciences research program, and maintains an emphasis on providing useful results. Each of GRI's 37 active research topics are reviewed, describing their goals, results, and future plans. The reviews are presented in three groups: Physics, Chemistry, and Combustion, and each group begins with a summary of recent important results. Useful results of Physical Sciences Research are described throughout, but a comprehensive record of results is not presented.

  9. New Approaches to the Computer Simulation of Amorphous Alloys: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alvarez-Ramirez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we review our new methods to computer generate amorphous atomic topologies of several binary alloys: SiH, SiN, CN; binary systems based on group IV elements like SiC; the GeSe2 chalcogenide; aluminum-based systems: AlN and AlSi, and the CuZr amorphous alloy. We use an ab initio approach based on density functionals and computationally thermally-randomized periodically-continued cells with at least 108 atoms. The computational thermal process to generate the amorphous alloys is the undermelt-quench approach, or one of its variants, that consists in linearly heating the samples to just below their melting (or liquidus temperatures, and then linearly cooling them afterwards. These processes are carried out from initial crystalline conditions using short and long time steps. We find that a step four-times the default time step is adequate for most of the simulations. Radial distribution functions (partial and total are calculated and compared whenever possible with experimental results, and the agreement is very good. For some materials we report studies of the effect of the topological disorder on their electronic and vibrational densities of states and on their optical properties.

  10. Observing Tin-Lead Alloys by Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Physical Chemistry Experiment Investigating Macro-Level Behaviors and Micro-Level Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Hu, Huikang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced into undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum to help students observe the phase composition and morphology characteristics of tin-lead alloys and thus further their understanding of binary alloy phase diagrams. The students were captivated by this visual analysis method, which…

  11. Review of cast-on-strap joints and strap alloys for lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, C. S.

    This review examines the influence of the various parameters involved in the cast-on-strap (COS) process on the quality of the resulting lug-strap joints. In addition, it provides the findings of an investigation on the macroscopic and microscopic features of COS joints in commercial lead-acid batteries. Some examples of the most common defects that can affect the performance and life of batteries are presented. The nature of the fusion at the lug-strap interface for the various lugs and strap alloy compositions used in conventional, hybrid and valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are also discussed.

  12. An Insight into Evolution of Light Weight High Entropy Alloys: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High Entropy Alloys (HEAs are the most recently developed new class of materials, which are known for their unique structural properties. Lightweight materials are currently in excessive demand for transportation and energy saving applications. In this review, efforts have been made to summarize the work done towards the development of HEAs targeting lightweight applications. Some new synthesis techniques are suggested for the fabrication of lightweight HEAs (LWHEAs. The concept of porous structure fabrication, microwave sintering of green compact, casting by disintegration melt deposition and advanced manufacturing using additive manufacturing are discussed as future directions of LWHEAs synthesis. LWHEAs for potential biomedical applications have also been addressed.

  13. Review on laser powder injection additive manufacturing of novel alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; Yang, N.; Yee, J.; Gaiser, K.; Lu, W. Y.; Clemon, L.; Zhou, Y.; Lavernia, E. J.; Schoenung, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, recent research and progress associated with development of alloys and composites using LENS are reviewed. The microstructure of novel materials can be tailored by controlling both composition and process parameters. For process control, closed-loop diagnostics and controls such as in-situ molten pool sensor and Z-height control subsystems are utilized, while the thermal behavior measurement with thermal imaging methods and numerical simulation are also investigated. The existing problems with residual stress and porosity in deposited materials are discussed.

  14. Correlates of Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterdt, Elena; Liersch, Sebastian; Walter, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify promoting and inhibiting correlates associated with the physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents (aged 3-18). The intention was to demonstrate the complexity of correlates of PA and to determine possible influencing factors. Design: A systematic review of reviews. Methods: Systematic…

  15. Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

  16. Review of the expected behaviour of alpha titanium alloys under Yucca Mountain conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W

    2000-03-01

    The use of titanium alloys in two different waste package designs has been reviewed under the, conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In the first design. they are considered as one of three barrier materials incorporated into the waste package design and potentially in galvanic contact with the other two waste package materials, 316L stainless steel and Alloy-22. In the second design the Ti alloy is considered as a drip shield placed over, and not in contact with, a dual wall waste package fabricated from the other two materials. The possible failure processes, crevice corrosion, pitting and hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) have been reviewed for the candidate titanium alloys (Ti-12, Ti-16 and Ti-7). Both pitting and crevice corrosion are very remote possibilities under these conditions. For Ti-12, a limited amount of crevice corrosion is possible but repassivation will occur before substantial damage is sustained. When Ti is considered as part of the triple wall waste package, hydrogen absorption leading to HIC, within an acidified but passive crevice, is the most likely failure mechanism. When the Ti alloy is utilized in the form of a drip shield then hydrogen absorption under potentially alkaline conditions is the major fear. Both Ti-12 and Ti-16 have been shown capable of tolerating substantial amounts of hydrogen ({approx}400 {mu} g{center_dot}g{sup -1} for Ti-12, and > 1000 {mu}g.g{sup -1} for Ti-16) before any effect on the materials fracture toughness is observed. The rate of absorption to a hydrogen content which exceeds these values will be the key feature determining if, or when, the material becomes susceptible to cracking. Once this condition is achieved, whether or not failure occurs will depend on the strength and location of stresses within the structure. For Ti to absorb hydrogen it is inevitably necessary to subject the material to cathodic polarization, either by coupling to a more active material or by the

  17. Systematic review of core muscle activity during physical fitness exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscello, Jason M; Nuzzo, James L; Ashley, Candi D; Campbell, Bill I; Orriola, John J; Mayer, John M

    2013-06-01

    A consensus has not been reached among strength and conditioning specialists regarding what physical fitness exercises are most effective to stimulate activity of the core muscles. Thus, the purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 3 core muscles (lumbar multifidus, transverse abdominis, quadratus lumborum) during physical fitness exercises in healthy adults. CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PubMed, SPORTdiscus, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant articles using a search strategy designed by the investigators. Seventeen studies enrolling 252 participants met the review's inclusion/exclusion criteria. Physical fitness exercises were partitioned into 5 major types: traditional core, core stability, ball/device, free weight, and noncore free weight. Strength of evidence was assessed and summarized for comparisons among exercise types. The major findings of this review with moderate levels of evidence indicate that lumbar multifidus EMG activity is greater during free weight exercises compared with ball/device exercises and is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. Transverse abdominis EMG activity is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. No studies were uncovered for quadratus lumborum EMG activity during physical fitness exercises. The available evidence suggests that strength and conditioning specialists should focus on implementing multijoint free weight exercises, rather than core-specific exercises, to adequately train the core muscles in their athletes and clients. PMID:23542879

  18. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, S; Becirevic, D; Bernard, C; Blum, T; Colangelo, G; Della Morte, M; Dimopoulos, P; Dürr, S; Fukaya, H; Golterman, M; Gottlieb, Steven; Hashimoto, S; Heller, U M; Horsley, R; Jüttner, A; Kaneko, T; Lellouch, L; Leutwyler, H; Lin, C -J D; Lubicz, V; Lunghi, E; Mawhinney, R; Onogi, T; Pena, C; Sachrajda, C T; Sharpe, S R; Simula, S; Sommer, R; Vladikas, A; Wenger, U; Wittig, H

    2016-01-01

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f+(0), arising in the semileptonic K -> pi transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio fK/fpi and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements Vus and Vud. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2)LxSU(2)R and SU(3)LxSU(3)R Chiral Perturbation Theory. We review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing as well as the additional four B parameters that arise in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. The latter quantities are an addition compared to the previous review. For the heavy-quark sector, we provide results for mc and mb (also new compared to the previous review), as well as those for D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing p...

  19. Yoga and physical exercise - a review and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Ramajayam; Karmani, Sneha; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool with enhanced health and well-being as one of its positive effects. The components of yoga which are very commonly applied for health benefits are asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. This article aims at exploring the commonalities and differences between yoga and physical exercise in terms of concepts, possible mechanisms and effectiveness for health benefits. A narrative review is undertaken based on traditional and contemporary literature for yoga, along with scientific articles available on yoga and exercise including head-to-head comparative trials with healthy volunteers and patients with various disease conditions. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities, but also important differences. Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises. PMID:27044898

  20. Peer-Assisted Learning in School Physical Education, Sport and Physical Activity Programmes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Kate. A.; Naughton, Geraldine; Benson, Amanda C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL) is a teaching strategy utilised in both the general classroom and physical education. Through the interaction with same-age or cross-age peers, learning can occur across various domains. Purpose: This review aimed to identify school-based PAL interventions and assess the tutor training provided, as well as…

  1. Physical-chemical principles of corrosion inhibitors for metals and metallic alloys and the inhibition mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of corrosion inhibitors is one of the most important cheapest, easy and efficient methods for controlling the process of the metallic corrosion. This method relies on adding one or more chemical substance at certain concentration to the corroding mediums for retarding of the corrosion process of surfaces corrosion of the metals and alloys. The corrosion inhibitors are considered as a first line of defense against the corrosion process in the petroleum, chemical industrial plants and in the water treating stations. The inhibitor is a complicated subject and applied successfully only in special cases. For example some inhibitors may be effective for one metal or more. The optimum efficiency of each inhibitor can be achieved at certain conditions (such as concentration, temperature and ph). The effective inhibitor for a metal (in the special conditions) may be a corrosive media for another metal (or in other conditions). There are a lot of inhibitors used for preventing process of the corrosion but there is no classification of the inhibitors until now. Several attempts for the classification of inhibitors in accordance to their chemical nature (organic, inorganic, biological and green), to their properties (an oxidizer or inoxidizer) or to their application field (cleaning, or peeling). On the other hand, the incorrect utilization of inhibitors could lead to an increase in the corrosion rate and/or in the hydrogenous creep of the metals and alloys. The inhibition mechanism of the inorganic inhibitors depends on the forming of protective layers on metals surface which retard the corrosion process. organic inhibitors mechanism depends on the surfactant's group adsorption like N, S, COOH, NH2 SH on the metal surface forming micelle which act as physical barrier for protecting the surface against the corrosive media or forming a stable surface complexes. The efficiency of the inhibitors performance can be measured by extent of the adhesion of their molecules on

  2. Girls in the physics classroom: a review of the research on the participation of girls in physics

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Patricia; Whitelegg, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A review of research spanning the past 15 years into the participation of girls in physics at secondary school level. The review was commissioned by the Institute of Physics in order to inform policy setting agendas for the Institute and to reveal important messages about participation in physics which the Institute could use to develop plans for action.

  3. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dacey, Marie L.; Kennedy, Mary A.; Polak, Rani; Edward M Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools.Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for art...

  4. Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of

  5. Environmental Cracking of Corrosion Resistant Alloys in the Chemical Process Industry - A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-04

    A large variety of corrosion resistant alloys are used regularly in the chemical process industry (CPI). The most common family of alloys include the iron (Fe)-based stainless steels, nickel (Ni) alloys and titanium (Ti) alloys. There also other corrosion resistant alloys but their family of alloys is not as large as for the three groups mentioned above. All ranges of corrosive environments can be found in the CPI, from caustic solutions to hot acidic environments, from highly reducing to highly oxidizing. Stainless steels are ubiquitous since numerous types of stainless steels exist, each type tailored for specific applications. In general, stainless steels suffer stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in hot chloride environments while high Ni alloys are practically immune to this type of attack. High nickel alloys are also resistant to caustic cracking. Ti alloys find application in highly oxidizing solutions. Solutions containing fluoride ions, especially acid, seem to be aggressive to almost all corrosion resistant alloys.

  6. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors.

  7. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S. [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Aoki, Y. [Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya (Japan); Brookhaven National Laboratory, RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY (United States); Bernard, C. [Washington University, Department of Physics, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Blum, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY (United States); University of Connecticut, Physics Department, Storrs, CT (United States); Colangelo, G.; Leutwyler, H.; Necco, S.; Wenger, U. [Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Della Morte, M. [University of Southern Denmark, CP3-Origins and Danish IAS, Odense M (Denmark); IFIC (CSIC), Paterna (Spain); Duerr, S. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Juelich Supercomputing Center, Juelich (Germany); El-Khadra, A.X. [University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); Fukaya, H.; Onogi, T. [Osaka University, Department of Physics, Osaka (Japan); Horsley, R. [University of Edinburgh, School of Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Juettner, A.; Sachrajda, C.T. [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Kaneko, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki (Japan); Laiho, J. [University of Glasgow, SUPA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Syracuse University, Department of Physics, Syracuse, New York (United States); Lellouch, L. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, La Garde (France); Lubicz, V. [Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Rome (Italy); Sezione di Roma Tre, INFN, Rome (Italy); Lunghi, E. [Indiana University, Physics Department, Bloomington, IN (United States); Pena, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC and Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Sharpe, S.R. [University of Washington, Physics Department, Seattle, WA (United States); Simula, S. [Sezione di Roma Tre, INFN, Rome (Italy); Sommer, R. [NIC rate at DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Water, R.S.V. de [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Vladikas, A. [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, INFN, Sezione di Tor Vergata, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Wittig, H. [University of Mainz, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: FLAG Working Group

    2014-09-15

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle-physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the lightquark masses, the form factor f{sub +}(0), arising in semileptonic K → π transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay-constant ratio f{sub K}/f{sub π} of decay constants and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements V{sub us} and V{sub ud}. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} andSU(3)L{sub L} x SU(3){sub R} Chiral Perturbation Theory and review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing. The inclusion of heavy-quark quantities significantly expands the FLAG scope with respect to the previous review. Therefore, we focus here on D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters, since these are most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. In addition we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant α{sub s}. (orig.)

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brian C.; Patterson, Michael S.

    2008-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses light-activated drugs to treat diseases ranging from cancer to age-related macular degeneration and antibiotic-resistant infections. This paper reviews the current status of PDT with an emphasis on the contributions of physics, biophysics and technology, and the challenges remaining in the optimization and adoption of this treatment modality. A theme of the review is the complexity of PDT dosimetry due to the dynamic nature of the three essential components—light, photosensitizer and oxygen. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the problem and in developing instruments to measure all three, so that optimization of individual PDT treatments is becoming a feasible target. The final section of the review introduces some new frontiers of research including low dose rate (metronomic) PDT, two-photon PDT, activatable PDT molecular beacons and nanoparticle-based PDT.

  9. Effect of topical fluoride application on titanium alloys: a review of effects and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragou, Stella; Eliades, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this review were to: summarize the currently available evidence on the effect of fluoride on titanium alloys; discuss the mechanisms involved; and assess the clinical relevance and validity of statements deriving from in vitro approaches. The spectrum of effects noted include: morphological variations, such as increased roughness with adverse effects on sliding mechanics; mechanical properties of the wires, which may entail effects on the superelastic plateau of nickel-titanium wires, or reduction in the strength of wires, which can result in frequent intraoral failures; and release of ions during service. Reduced nickel release rates have been documented, however, from retrieved nickel-titanium wires presumably due to the passive layer formed. In relevant research, forming oxide on titanium alloys has been proposed to provide immunity to further degradation and ionic release, since nickel ions must diffuse through this layer to be released. The described evidence of fluoride on titanium alloys derives mostly from in vitro research, which includes oversimplifications in simulating the oral environment. The reactivity in laboratory experiments is dramatically increased relative to the actual clinical conditions, which exaggerates the effects noted. The effects shown have not been validated in vivo, since the only available evidence on intraorally fractured nickel-titanium archwires did not support the implication of hydrogen embrittlement as a failure mechanism. Rather, fractures were found to be related to: (1) mechanical factors associated with loading of the wire in specific arch sites; and (2) the masticatory forces. Clinically, the use of fluoride varnishes at specific, caries-risk sites may provide protection while minimizing the potential risk of adverse effects.

  10. Prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Djalalinia, Shirin; Mirarefin, Mojdeh; Arefirad, Tahereh; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Samami, Elham; Mansourian, Morteza; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and stroke. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran. Methods: We searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Irandoc, Barakat knowledge network system, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We collected data for outcome measures of prevalence of physical inactivity by sex, age, province, and year. Quality assessment and data extraction has been conducted independently by two independent research experts. There were no limitations for time and language. Results: We analyzed data for prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian population. According to our search strategy we found 254 records; of them 185 were from international databases and the remaining 69 were obtained from national databases after refining the data, 34 articles that met eligible criteria remained for data extraction. From them respectively; 9, 20, 2 and 3 studies were at national, provincial, regional and local levels. The estimates for inactivity ranged from approximately 30% to almost 70% and had considerable variation between sexes and studied sub-groups. Conclusion: In Iran, most of studies reported high prevalence of physical inactivity. Our findings reveal a heterogeneity of reported values, often from differences in study design, measurement tools and methods, different target groups and sub-population sampling. These data do not provide the possibility of aggregation of data for a comprehensive inference. PMID:27777692

  11. Physical Simulation of Friction Stir Welding and Processing of Nickel-Base Alloys Using Hot Torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, James R.; Lippold, John C.

    2013-08-01

    The Gleeble hot torsion test was utilized in an attempt to simulate the friction stir-processed microstructure of three Ni-base alloys: Hastelloy X, Alloy 625, and Alloy 718. The simulation temperatures were based on actual thermal cycles measured by embedded thermocouples during friction stir processing of these alloys. Peak process temperatures were determined to be approximately 1423 K (1150 °C) for Hastelloy X and Alloy 625 K and 1373 K (352 °C and 1100 °C) for Alloy 718. The peak temperature and cooling rates were programed into the Gleeble™ 3800 thermo-mechanical simulator to reproduce the stir zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) microstructures. The TMAZ was successfully simulated using this technique, but the stir zone microstructure could not be accurately reproduced, with hot torsion samples exhibiting larger grain size than actual friction stir processing trials. Shear stress and strain rates as a function of temperature were determined for each material using hot torsion simulation.

  12. Structural alloys for superconducting magnets in fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of selected alloys for superconducting magnet structures in fusion energy systems is reviewed with emphasis on the following austenitic stainless steels (AISI grades 304, 310S and 316), nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steels (types 304LN, 316LN and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn) and aluminium alloys (grades 5083, 6061 and 2219). The mechanical and physical properties of the selected alloys at 4 K are reviewed. Welding, the properties of weldments, and other fabrication considerations are briefly discussed. The available information suggests that several commercial alloys have adequate properties at 4 K and sufficient fabrication characteristics for the large magnet structures needed for fusion energy systems. (orig.)

  13. Structural alloys for superconducting magnets in fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of selected alloys for superconducting magnet structures in fusion energy systems is reviewed with emphasis on austenitic stainless steels (AISI grades 304, 310S, and 316), nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steels (304LN, 316LN, and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn) and aluminum alloys (5083, 6061, and 2219). The mechanical and physical properties of the selected alloys at 40K are reviewed. Welding, properties of weldments, and other fabrication considerations are briefly discussed. The available information suggests that several commercial alloys have adequate properties at 40K and sufficient fabrication characteristics for the large magnet structures needed for fusion energy systems

  14. Review criteria for the physical fitness training requirements in 10 CFR Part 73

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides review criteria that will be used in reviewing and approving revised physical security plans submitted by licensees which are required to meet the physical fitness requirements in 10 CFR Part 73

  15. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Denise Araújo Bacil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders.

  16. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastic debris at the micro-, and potentially also the nano-scale, are widespread in the environment. Microplastics have accumulated in oceans and sediments worldwide in recent years, with maximum concentrations reaching 100 000 particles m3. Due to their small size, microplastics may be ingested by low trophic fauna, with uncertain consequences for the health of the organism. This review focuses on marine invertebrates and their susceptibility to the physical impacts of microplastic uptake. Some of the main points discussed are (1) an evaluation of the factors contributing to the bioavailability of microplastics including size and density; (2) an assessment of the relative susceptibility of different feeding guilds; (3) an overview of the factors most likely to influence the physical impacts of microplastics such as accumulation and translocation; and (4) the trophic transfer of microplastics. These findings are important in guiding future marine litter research and management strategies. -- Highlights: •Accumulation of plastic waste in the oceans has become a pressing issue. •Here we review the susceptibility of marine invertebrates to microplastic uptake. •Size, shape and abundance influence uptake; microfibres are considered most harmful. •Colonisation of microplastics could have population-level impacts. •Results will inform future marine litter research and management strategies. -- Here we review microplastic uptake in marine organisms and assess individual, population and community level effects, highlighting the most susceptible species

  17. Review of the expected behaviour of alpha titanium alloys under Yucca Mountain conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W

    2000-03-01

    The use of titanium alloys in two different waste package designs has been reviewed under the, conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In the first design. they are considered as one of three barrier materials incorporated into the waste package design and potentially in galvanic contact with the other two waste package materials, 316L stainless steel and Alloy-22. In the second design the Ti alloy is considered as a drip shield placed over, and not in contact with, a dual wall waste package fabricated from the other two materials. The possible failure processes, crevice corrosion, pitting and hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) have been reviewed for the candidate titanium alloys (Ti-12, Ti-16 and Ti-7). Both pitting and crevice corrosion are very remote possibilities under these conditions. For Ti-12, a limited amount of crevice corrosion is possible but repassivation will occur before substantial damage is sustained. When Ti is considered as part of the triple wall waste package, hydrogen absorption leading to HIC, within an acidified but passive crevice, is the most likely failure mechanism. When the Ti alloy is utilized in the form of a drip shield then hydrogen absorption under potentially alkaline conditions is the major fear. Both Ti-12 and Ti-16 have been shown capable of tolerating substantial amounts of hydrogen ({approx}400 {mu} g{center_dot}g{sup -1} for Ti-12, and > 1000 {mu}g.g{sup -1} for Ti-16) before any effect on the materials fracture toughness is observed. The rate of absorption to a hydrogen content which exceeds these values will be the key feature determining if, or when, the material becomes susceptible to cracking. Once this condition is achieved, whether or not failure occurs will depend on the strength and location of stresses within the structure. For Ti to absorb hydrogen it is inevitably necessary to subject the material to cathodic polarization, either by coupling to a more active material or by the

  18. A brief review of calcium phosphate conversion coating on magnesium and its alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaludin, Mohd Amin Farhan; Jamal, Zul Azhar Zahid; Jamaludin, Shamsul Baharin; Derman, Mohd Nazree

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments have shown that magnesium is a promising candidate to be used as a biomaterial. Owing to its light weight, biocompatibility and compressive strength comparable with natural bones makes magnesium as an excellent choice for biomaterial. However, high reactivity and low corrosion resistance properties have restricted the application of magnesium as biomaterials. At the moment, several strategies have been developed to solve this problem. Surface modification of magnesium is one of the popular solutions to solve the problem. Among many techniques developed in the surface modification, conversion coating method is one of the simple and effective techniques. From various types of conversion coating, calcium phosphate-based conversion coating is the most suitable for biomedical fields. This paper reviews some studies on calcium phosphate coating on Mg and its alloys via chemical conversion method and discusses some factors determining the coating performance.

  19. A review of modeling techniques for advanced effects in shape memory alloy behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, Cheikh; Zaki, Wael; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2016-10-01

    micro, micro-macro and macro scales focusing pseudoelastic and shape memory effects. The paper reviews and discusses various techniques used in the literature for modeling complex behaviors observed in shape memory alloys (SMAs) that go beyond the core pseudoelastic and shape memory effects. These behaviors, which will be collectively referred to herein as ‘secondary effects’, include mismatch between austenite and martensite moduli, martensite reorientation under nonproportional multiaxial loading, slip and transformation-induced plasticity and their influence on martensite transformation, strong thermomechanical coupling and the influence of loading rate, tensile-compressive asymmetry, and the formation of internal loops due to incomplete phase transformation. In addition, because of their importance for practical design considerations, the paper discusses functional and structural fatigue, and fracture mechanics of SMAs.

  20. Investigations into the physical mechanisms that facilitate transformation hysteresis in shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Reginald F.

    Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) undergo a reversible martensitic transformation (MT) that may be thermal- or stress-induced enabling the recovery of large deformations, up to 12% strain, can be fully recovered, albeit a hysteresis exists. Characterizing the hysteresis for classes of SMAs is essential for their practical application. It is well known that the hysteresis is due to energy dissipative mechanisms, with the primary mechanisms being frictional resistance to interfacial motion and partial plastic accommodation of shape and volume changes. In previous work, however, the origins of potential dissipative mechanisms have not been clarified, and the factors that influence these mechanisms (i.e. external stress fields, matrix strength properties, precipitate microstructure, plastic accommodation, detwinning, etc.) have not been investigated with rigorous experimentation. In this study, an experimental program is designed to address this issue. This comprehensive experimental program, including stress-free thermal cycling, constant load thermal cycling, and constant temperature stress/strain cycling, is undertaken for NiTi, CoNiAl, NiFeGa, and NiMnGa SMAs in the aged and unaged states. The NiFeGa and NiMnGa classes of SMAs undergo martensite to martensite inter-martensitic transformations. The experimental findings characterize the effect of second-phase particles and inter-martensitic transformations on the level of hysteresis. To ascertain physical mechanisms responsible for the hysteresis, in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis provides insight into microstructure features. The results expose the role of frictional resistance and partial plastic accommodation on the observed differential magnitudes of thermal and stress hysteresis. In particular, larger hysteresis magnitudes are mainly attributed to dislocation emissions at the austenite/martensite phase boundary, designated micro-scale plasticity, that lower coherent interface strains, and thus

  1. Mindfulness Interventions in Physical Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Mark E; Roll, Shawn C

    2016-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to describe how mindfulness is used in physical rehabilitation, identify implications for occupational therapy practice, and guide future research on clinical mindfulness interventions. A systematic search of four literature databases produced 1,524 original abstracts, of which 16 articles were included. Although only 3 Level I or II studies were identified, the literature included suggests that mindfulness interventions are helpful for patients with musculoskeletal and chronic pain disorders and demonstrate trends toward outcome improvements for patients with neurocognitive and neuromotor disorders. Only 2 studies included an occupational therapist as the primary mindfulness provider, but all mindfulness interventions in the selected studies fit within the occupational therapy scope of practice according to the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process. Higher-level research is needed to evaluate the effects of mindfulness interventions in physical rehabilitation and to determine best practices for the use of mindfulness by occupational therapy practitioners.

  2. Densities of Molten and Solid Alloys of (Fe, Cu, Ni, Co)-S at Elevated Temperatures - Literature Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfaye, Fiseha; Taskinen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Densities of solid and liquid Fe, Cu, Ni and Co, and their alloys both at the presence and absence of sulfur have been reviewed. Volumetric thermal expansions were used to estimate the densities at different temperatures. Densities of the alloys generally decrease with increasing temperature. For the pure metals the reduction in density as temperature rises from 25 oC to their respective melting point can be estimated to be about 7.05 ± 0.4 % just before melting and about 11.63 ± 0.92 on comp...

  3. Review of the physical oceanography of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, L.; Zimmerman, J. T. F.; Furnes, G. K.; Mork, M.; Saetre, R.; Becker, G.

    After a general consideration of the physical factors that are of special interest to ecology, the typical character of the North Sea is discussed. The emphasis is on the processes that are responsible for the physical environment. The dominant feature is the tidal motion. This is not only a mechanism for vertical and horizontal mixing. The tidal residuals also contribute to a basic circulation pattern that together with the long-term net effects of the wind-driven circulation and the baroclinic effects results in an overall transport that determines the major features of the distribution of the water properties. Superimposed on this there are variations (mainly wind-induced) and regional differences in a wide range of time- and length-scales. Some typical features of both the southern and northern part of the North Sea are discussed. The review is concluded with a discussion on the long-term variations in the physical conditions of the North Sea. These are mainly to changes in temperature, salinity and sea-level.

  4. Review of Heavy-Ion Inertial Fusion Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata1, S; Ogoyski, A I

    2015-01-01

    In this review paper on heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF), the state-of-the-art scientific results are presented and discussed on the HIF physics, including physics of the heavy ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, the HIBs-ion illumination on a direct-drive fuel target, the fuel target physics, the uniformity of the HIF target implosion, the smoothing mechanisms of the target implosion non- uniformity and the robust target implosion. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of ~ 30-40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50-70 to operate a HIF fusion reactor with the standard energy output of 1GW of electricity. The HIF reactor operation frequency would be ~10~15 Hz or so. Several- MJ HIBs illuminate a fusion fuel target, and the fuel target is imploded to about a...

  5. Relaxation and physical aging in network glasses: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaut, Matthieu

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in the description of glassy relaxation and aging are reviewed for the wide class of network-forming materials such as GeO2, Ge x Se1‑x , silicates (SiO2–Na2O) or borates (B2O3–Li2O), all of which have an important usefulness in domestic, geological or optoelectronic applications. A brief introduction of the glass transition phenomenology is given, together with the salient features that are revealed both from theory and experiments. Standard experimental methods used for the characterization of the slowing down of the dynamics are reviewed. We then discuss the important role played by aspects of network topology and rigidity for the understanding of the relaxation of the glass transition, while also permitting analytical predictions of glass properties from simple and insightful models based on the network structure. We also emphasize the great utility of computer simulations which probe the dynamics at the molecular level, and permit the calculation of various structure-related functions in connection with glassy relaxation and the physics of aging which reveal the non-equilibrium nature of glasses. We discuss the notion of spatial variations of structure which leads to the concept of ‘dynamic heterogeneities’, and recent results in relation to this important topic for network glasses are also reviewed.

  6. Relaxation and physical aging in network glasses: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaut, Matthieu

    2016-06-01

    Recent progress in the description of glassy relaxation and aging are reviewed for the wide class of network-forming materials such as GeO2, Ge x Se1-x , silicates (SiO2-Na2O) or borates (B2O3-Li2O), all of which have an important usefulness in domestic, geological or optoelectronic applications. A brief introduction of the glass transition phenomenology is given, together with the salient features that are revealed both from theory and experiments. Standard experimental methods used for the characterization of the slowing down of the dynamics are reviewed. We then discuss the important role played by aspects of network topology and rigidity for the understanding of the relaxation of the glass transition, while also permitting analytical predictions of glass properties from simple and insightful models based on the network structure. We also emphasize the great utility of computer simulations which probe the dynamics at the molecular level, and permit the calculation of various structure-related functions in connection with glassy relaxation and the physics of aging which reveal the non-equilibrium nature of glasses. We discuss the notion of spatial variations of structure which leads to the concept of ‘dynamic heterogeneities’, and recent results in relation to this important topic for network glasses are also reviewed.

  7. Reflective practice in physical education and physical education teacher education: A review of the literature since 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Standal, Øyvind Førland; Moe, Vegard Fusche

    2013-01-01

    Reflection and reflective practice are key concepts in the educational literature as well as in research on physical education (PE) and physical education teacher education (PETE). The purpose of this article is to review the current empirical knowledge base for reflection and reflective practice in PE and PETE from 1995 to 2011. The review includes empirical research published in peer reviewed journals on the topics on reflection and reflective practice in the contexts of PE and PETE. There ...

  8. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies.

  9. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies. PMID:25084562

  10. 钛合金的研究进展与应用现状%Review on the Research Progress and Application of Titanium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昂; 毛振东

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the research progress of titanium alloys in China and other countries, especially aerospace titanium alloys, marine titanium alloys, and low-cost titanium alloys. It also briefly summaries the application of titanium alloys in the aerospace, naval ship and automobile and chemical industry, and gives the development trends of titanium alloys.%综述了国内外钛合金的研究进展和应用现状,具体介绍了航空用钛合金、船用钛合金及低成本钛合金的研究进展,简要概述了钛合金在航空航天、舰船及汽车和化工行业的应用现状,并对我国钛行业的发展进行了展望。

  11. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  12. A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Interventions in Hispanic Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda J. Ickes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n=20. Most of the interventions were community based (n=16, although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n=16, with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.

  13. A systematic review of physical activity interventions in Hispanic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; Sharma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n = 20). Most of the interventions were community based (n = 16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n = 16), with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions. PMID:22496702

  14. A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Interventions in Hispanic Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n=20). Most of the interventions were community based (n=16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n=16), with social cognitive theory and trans theoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions.

  15. Coauthorship and citation patterns in the Physical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Travis; Ball, Brian; Karrer, Brian; Newman, M. E. J.

    2013-07-01

    A large number of published studies have examined the properties of either networks of citation among scientific papers or networks of coauthorship among scientists. Here we study an extensive data set covering more than a century of physics papers published in the Physical Review, which allows us to construct both citation and coauthorship networks for the same set of papers. We analyze these networks to gain insight into temporal changes in citation and collaboration over the long time period of the data, as well as correlations and interactions between the two. Among other things, we investigate the change over time in the number of publishing authors, the number of papers they publish, and the number of others with whom they collaborate, changes in the typical number of citations made and received, the extent to which individuals tend to cite themselves or their collaborators more than others, the extent to which they cite themselves or their collaborators more quickly after publication, and the extent to which they tend to return the favor of a citation from another scientist.

  16. Mineral trioxide aggregate: a review of physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Agarwal, Antara; Mala, Kundabala

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this two-part series is to review the composition, properties, products, and clinical aspects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) materials. Electronic search of scientific papers from January 1991 to May 2010 was accomplished using PubMed and MedLine search engines to include relevant scientific citations from the peer-reviewed journals published in English. MTA is a refined form of the parent compound, Portland cement (PC). It demonstrates a strong biocompatible nature owing to the high pH and its ability to form hydroxyapatite. MTA materials provide a better seal than traditional endodontic materials as observed in dye leakage, fluid filtration, protein leakage, and bacterial penetration leakage studies, and it has been recognized as a bioactive material. Currently a variety of MTA commercial products are available, including Proroot Gray MTA and White MTA both from DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties (www.DENTSPLY.com), and MTA Angelus (Angelus,www.angelus.ind.br). Although these materials are indicated for various dental uses/applications, long-term in-vivo clinical studies are still needed to claim the same. This first of this series highlights and discusses the composition, physical, and/or chemical properties of MTA. A subsequent article will offer an overview of the material aspect (commercial products) and clinical considerations for MTA materials. PMID:23627406

  17. ZK60 alloy processed by ECAP: Microstructural, physical and mechanical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, F.-D., E-mail: dianadumitru1986@yahoo.com [Materials Science and Engineering Faculty, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Higuera-Cobos, O.F., E-mail: osfahico@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ETSEIB – Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Vereda La Julita, Pereira (Colombia); Cabrera, J.M., E-mail: jose.maria.cabrera@upc.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ETSEIB – Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnológic, Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain)

    2014-01-31

    Lately, magnesium alloys have been extensively investigated through severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods in order to extend their application to structural components. In the present work, as-extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy samples were subjected to 4 passes of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at a processing temperature of 250 °C, following route Bc. The microstructural evolution of the deformed grains was analyzed using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) maps, together with the grain boundary misorientation distribution showed a reduction in the grain size accompanied by a large proportion of high angle grain boundaries. Calorimetric analysis showed a slight increase in the recrystallization temperature of the ECAPed magnesium samples. Mechanical tests showed an improvement in the elongation-to-failure after 4 ECAP passes, which were about 2 times higher than in the as-extruded sample. Also a brittle to ductile transition was observed.

  18. Effect of extrusion temperature on the physical properties of high-silicon aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fuliang; GAN Weiping; CHEN Zhaoke

    2007-01-01

    Light-weight high-silicon aluminum alloys are used for electronic packaging in the aviation and space- flight industry. Al-30Si and Al-40Si are fabricated with air- atomization and vacuum-canning hot-extrusion process. The density, thermal conductivity, hermeticity and thermal expan- sion coefficients of the material are measured, and the relationship between extrusion temperature and properties is obtained. Experimental results show that the density of high- silicon aluminum alloys prepared with this method is as high as 99.64% of the theory density, and increases with elevating extrusion temperature. At the same time, thermal conductiv- ity varies between 104-140W/(m.K); with the extrusion temperature, thermal expansion coefficient also increases but within 13 × 10-6 (at 100℃) and hermeticity of the material is high to 10-9 order of magnitude.

  19. ZK60 alloy processed by ECAP: Microstructural, physical and mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lately, magnesium alloys have been extensively investigated through severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods in order to extend their application to structural components. In the present work, as-extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy samples were subjected to 4 passes of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at a processing temperature of 250 °C, following route Bc. The microstructural evolution of the deformed grains was analyzed using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) maps, together with the grain boundary misorientation distribution showed a reduction in the grain size accompanied by a large proportion of high angle grain boundaries. Calorimetric analysis showed a slight increase in the recrystallization temperature of the ECAPed magnesium samples. Mechanical tests showed an improvement in the elongation-to-failure after 4 ECAP passes, which were about 2 times higher than in the as-extruded sample. Also a brittle to ductile transition was observed

  20. Nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys physically synthesized by ion milling deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavon, Luis Alberto Lopez [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (UANL), Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Cuellara, Enrique Lopez; Castro, Alejandro Torres; Cruza, Azael Martinez de la [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (CIIDIT/UANL), Nuevo Leon (Mexico). Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia; Ballesteros, Carmen [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Fisica; Araujo, Carlos Jose de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2012-05-15

    In this research, an ion milling equipment was used to elaborate nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al alloys with shape memory effect. Two different compositions were used, target A: 75.22Cu-17.12Zn-7.66Al at % with an Ms of -9 deg C and target B: 76.18Cu-15.84Zn-7.98Al with an Ms of 20 degree C. Nanoparticles were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles showed a small dispersion, with a size range of 3.2-3.5 nm. Their crystal structure is in good agreement with the bulk martensitic structure of the targets. In this sense, results on morphology, composition and crystal structure have indicated that it is possible to produce nanoparticles of CuZnAl shape memory alloys with martensitic structure in a single process using Ion Milling. (author)

  1. 78 FR 16301 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: LIGO Annual Review Site Visit at Hanford Observatory for Physics (1208). Date and Time: Tuesday, April.... Contact Person: Mark Coles, Director of Large Facilities, Division of Physics, National Science...

  2. 77 FR 14441 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: LIGO Annual Review Site Visit at Hanford Observatory for Physics, 1208. Date and Time: Wednesday, April...: Thomas Carruthers, Program Director, Division of Physics, National Science Foundation, (703)...

  3. 78 FR 25101 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Physics, Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: AdvLIGO Construction Review Site Visit at Livingston Observatory for Physics, 1208 Date and Time.... Contact Person: Mark Coles, Director of Large Facilities, Division of Physics, National Science...

  4. 75 FR 70951 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: LIGO Laboratory Annual Review at Hanford Observatory for Physics (1208). Date and Time: Tuesday.... Contact Person: Thomas Carruthers, Program Director, Division of Physics, National Science...

  5. 76 FR 66998 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: LIGO Annual Review Site Visit at Hanford Observatory for Physics (1208). Date and Time: Wednesday...: Thomas Carruthers, Program Director, Division of Physics, National Science Foundation, (703)...

  6. 76 FR 19147 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: LIGO Laboratory Annual Review at Livingston Observatory for Physics. Date and Time: Monday, April 25...: Thomas Carruthers, Program Director, Division of Physics, National Science Foundation, (703)...

  7. On the Physics of Machining Titanium Alloys: Interactions between Cutting Parameters, Microstructure and Tool Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nouari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current work deals with the analysis of mechanisms involved during the machining process of titanium alloys. Two different materials were chosen for the study: Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-55531. The objective was to understand the effect of all cutting parameters on the tool wear behavior and stability of the cutting process. The investigations were focused on the mechanisms of the chip formation process and their interaction with tool wear. At the microstructure scale, the analysis confirms the intense deformation of the machined surface and shows a texture modification. As the cutting speed increases, cutting forces and temperature show different progressions depending on the considered microstructure (Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-55531 alloy. Results show for both materials that the wear process is facilitated by the high cutting temperature and the generation of high stresses. The analysis at the chip-tool interface of friction and contact nature (sliding or sticking contact shows that machining Ti55531 often exhibits an abrasion wear process on the tool surface, while the adhesion and diffusion modes followed by the coating delamination process are the main wear modes when machining the usual Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: The Physics of the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Douglas

    2007-11-01

    The physics of the very small and the very large were successfully brought together in the 1980s through the idea of 'the universe as a particle accelerator'. The manifesto of this new campaign was laid out in the book 'The Early Universe' by Kolb and Turner in 1990. For at least the next decade that book was to be found on the shelves of every theorist (and many experimentalists) who professed an interest in this topic. But science marches on, and the last 10 15 years has seen an explosion in our understanding of the physics of the very earliest times and the very largest scales. Experimentally our world-view has changed utterly, through exquisitely precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background, galaxy clustering and supernova distances, with a refinement of the basic inflationary big bang paradigm into the new 'standard cosmological model'. And in tandem with these changes has been the development of new theoretical ideas, particularly involving dark energy and connections between string/brane theory and cosmology. So what is the new book for the shelves of today's cohort of young Rockys and Mikes? Despite a recent number of promising-sounding cosmology books, there is nothing at the advanced level which is broad enough to be a general introduction to the 'early universe' topic. Perhaps the best of the bunch is 'The Physics of the Early Universe', edited by E Papantonopoulos as part of Springer's series 'Lecture notes in physics'. This is a set of 9 review articles given as part of a 2003 summer school on Syros Island, Greece. Although far from perfect, the core of this book provides a solid introduction to current research in early universe physics, which should be useful for PhD students or postdoctoral researchers who want the real thing. The book starts with a competent introduction by Kyriakos Tamvakis, serving essentially as a summary of where we were in Kolb and Turner's text. We have learned since then, however, that inflation is really all

  9. Statistical Classification of Soft Solder Alloys by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Review of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdunek, R.; Nowak, M.; Pliński, E.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reviews machine-learning methods that are nowadays the most frequently used for the supervised classification of spectral signals in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). We analyze and compare various statistical classification methods, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes method, probabilistic neural networks (PNN), and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) method. The theoretical considerations are supported with experiments conducted for real soft-solder-alloy spectra obtained using LIBS. We consider two decision problems: binary and multiclass classification. The former is used to distinguish overheated soft solders from their normal versions. The latter aims to assign a testing sample to a given group of materials. The measurements are obtained for several laser-energy values, projection masks, and numbers of laser shots. Using cross-validation, we evaluate the above classification methods in terms of their usefulness in solving both classification problems.

  10. Design for additive manufacturing of composite materials and potential alloys: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegab Hussien A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a first step of applying additive manufacturing (AM technology, plastic prototypes have been produced using various AM Process such as Fusion Deposition Modeling (FDM, Stereolithography (SLA and other processes. After more research and development, AM has become capable of producing complex net shaped in materials which can be used in applicable parts. These materials include metals, ceramics, and composites. Polymers and metals are considered as commercially available materials for AM processes; however, ceramics and composites are still considered under research and development. In this study, a literature review on design for AM of composite materials and potential alloys is discussed. It is investigated that polymer matrix, ceramic matrix, metal matrix, and fiber reinforced are most common composites through AM. Furthermore, Functionally Graded Materials (FGM is considered as an effective application of AM because AM offers the ability to control the composition and optimize the properties of the built part. An example of FGM through using AM technology is the missile nose cone which includes an ultra-high temperature ceramic graded to a refractory metal from outside to inside and it used for sustaining extreme external temperatures. During this work, different applications of AM on different classifications of composite materials are shown through studying of industrial objective, the importance of application, processing, results and future challenges.

  11. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains brief discusses on topics in the following areas: Research at atlas; operation and development of atlas; medium-energy nuclear physics and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; and atomic and molecular physics research

  12. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1989--March 31, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains papers in the following research areas: research at atlas; operation and development of atlas; medium-energy nuclear physics and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; and atomic and molecular physics research

  13. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, W.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report contains brief discusses on topics in the following areas: Research at atlas; operation and development of atlas; medium-energy nuclear physics and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; and atomic and molecular physics research.

  14. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1990--March 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses: Research At Atlas; Operation and Development of Atlas; Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics and Weak Interactions; Theoretical Nuclear Physics; High-Resolution Laser-rf Spectroscopy with Beams of Atoms and Molecules; Fast Ion-Beam/Laser Studies of Atomic and Molecular Structure; Interactions of Fast Atomic and Molecular Ions with Solid and Gaseous Targets; Theoretical Atomic Physics; Atomic Physics at Atlas and the ECR Source; Atomic Physics at Synchrotron Light Sources; and Accelerator Facilities for Atomic Physics

  15. Industrial Experience on the Caustic Cracking of Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys - A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2005-10-09

    Caustic environments are present in several industries, from nuclear power generation to the fabrication of alkalis and alumina. The most common material of construction is carbon steel but its application is limited to a maximum temperature of approximately 80 C. The use of Nickel (Ni) alloys is recommended at higher temperatures. Commercially pure Ni is the most resistant material for caustic applications both from the general corrosion and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) perspectives. Nickel rich alloys also offer a good performance. The most important alloying elements are Ni and chromium (Cr). Molybdenum (Mo) is not a beneficial alloying element and it dissolves preferentially from the alloy in presence of caustic environments. Austenitic stainless steels such as type 304 and 316 seem less resistant to caustic conditions than even plain carbon steel. Experimental evidence shows that the most likely mechanism for SCC is anodic dissolution.

  16. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Casey Gray; Rebecca Gibbons; Richard Larouche; Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter; Adam Bienenstock; Mariana Brussoni; Guylaine Chabot; Susan Herrington; Ian Janssen; William Pickett; Marlene Power; Nick Stanger; Margaret Sampson; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fi...

  17. Hot compression deformation behavior and a modified physically-based constitutive model of Cu-6 %Ag alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lie; Wang, Menghan; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Fenglin

    2016-04-01

    In order to reveal the flow characteristics of Cu-6 %Ag alloy on the condition of hot deformation, the isothermal compression experiments are carried out at the temperatures of 973-1123 K under strain rates of 0.01-10 s-1. The effects of deformation condition on the hot compression deformation behavior are investigated. The low instability strain (ɛ i) behavior at high strain rate (10 s-1) is discussed in this paper. According to the experiment results and analyses, the deformation twinning and inhomogeneous grains are thought to be the possible reasons for low strain cracking. Then, a modified physically based constitutive model is established. The strain for maximum softening rate (\\varepsilon_{ *} ) is quoted in the constitutive equation which is proved that there is a nearly linear relationship between { ln }\\varepsilon_{ *} and { ln }Z . What's more, the correlation coefficient (R) and the average absolute relative error (AARE) are used to evaluate the accuracy of the established constitutive model. The values of R and AARE are 0.99612 and 3.47 %, respectively, which show that the modified constitutive model can exactly reveal the flow stress of Cu-6 %Ag alloy.

  18. A Review on Natural Reality with Physical Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao L.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A natural behavior is used to characterize by differential equation established on hu- man observations, which is assumed to be on one particle or on e field complied with reproducibility. However, the multilateral property of a particle P and the mathematical consistence determine that such an understanding is only local, not the whole reality on P , which leads to a central thesis for knowing the nature, i.e. how to establish a physical equation with a proper interpretation on a thing . As it is well-known, a thing consists of parts. Reviewing on observations, we classify them into two categories, i.e. out-observation and in-observation for discussion. The former is such an observation that the observer is out of the particle or the field P , which is in fact a macroscopic observation and its dynamic equation characterizes the coherent behavior of all parts in P , but the later is asked into the particle or the field by arranging observers simultane- ously on different subparticles or subfields in P and respectively establishing physical equations, which are contradictory and given up in classical because there are not ap- plicable conclusions on contradictory systems in mathematics. However, the existence naturally implies the necessity of the nature. Applying a combinatorial notion, i.e. G L - solutions on non-solvable equations, a new notion for holding on the reality of nature is suggested in this paper, which makes it clear that the knowing on the nature by solv- able equations is macro, only holding on these coherent behaviors of particles, but the non-coherent naturally induces non-solvable equations, which implies that the knowing by G L -solution of equations is the effective, includes the classical characterizing as a special case by solvable equations, i.e. mathematical combinatorics.

  19. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L. Dacey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA, few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results: Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions: Current results provide

  20. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (353) Dr Dyer's Academy Further Advanced Physics Physics 11-14, with Biology 11-14 and Chemistry 11-14 Nelson Modular Science: Books 1 and 2 Key Science: Physics, 3rd Edition Nelson Science: Physics, 2nd Edition Physics for AQA: Separate Award, Coordinated Award Physical Processes: A Visual Approach WEB WATCH (359) Physics Favourites: John Miller's selection

  1. Reflective Practice in Physical Education and Physical Education Teacher Education: A Review of the Literature since 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Oyvind F.; Moe, Vegard F.

    2013-01-01

    Reflection and reflective practice are key concepts in the educational literature as well as in research on physical education (PE) and physical education teacher education (PETE). The purpose of this article is to review the current empirical knowledge base for reflection and reflective practice in PE and PETE from 1995 to 2011. The review…

  2. Increasing Asian International College Students' Physical Activity Behavior: A Review of the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Asian students attending American colleges and universities report relatively low levels of physical activity participation, which may hinder their ability to realize their full human potential (i.e., cognitively, physically, socially). This paper reviewed the possible reasons underlying their generally inactive lifestyle, addressed the importance…

  3. Theoretical study of radiation and other defects of crystalline lattice influence on physical and mechanical properties of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalized model of main regularities of metals and alloys radiation creep used in capacity of nuclear reactors constructive materials is worked out. The model heeds dislocations slip and crawling over, as well as force over coming obstacles by its. This model brought contribution in physical conceptions development about processes character leading to metallic materials deformation under simultaneous impact on its irradiation and mechanical loading. It is suggested, that received dependences of radiation creep rate from temperature, tension, irradiation dose can be used for forecasting of materials properties change, irradiated in reactors under given temperature-force conditions. Kind of radiation creep rate correlation dependence from critical tension of shift allowing define creep rate is established on the base of momentary tests on stretching. Calculations of impurity atmospheres influence around dislocations and pores on rate of swelling and creep of irradiated materials during simulation of cracks propagation and its interaction with point defects are carried out

  4. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework th...

  5. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, K.J. (ed.)

    1989-08-01

    This document discusses the following main topics: Research at Atlas; Operation and Development of Atlas; Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics and Weak Interactions; Theoretical Nuclear Physics; Interactions of Fast Atomic and Molecular Ions with Solid and Gaseous Targets; Atomic Physics at Synchrotron Light Sources; Atomic Physics at Atlas and the ECR Source; Theoretical Atomic Physics; High-Resolution Laser-rf Spectroscopy of Atomic and Molecular Beams; and Fast Ion-Beam/Laser Studies of Atomic and Molecular Structure.

  6. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses the following main topics: Research at Atlas; Operation and Development of Atlas; Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics and Weak Interactions; Theoretical Nuclear Physics; Interactions of Fast Atomic and Molecular Ions with Solid and Gaseous Targets; Atomic Physics at Synchrotron Light Sources; Atomic Physics at Atlas and the ECR Source; Theoretical Atomic Physics; High-Resolution Laser-rf Spectroscopy of Atomic and Molecular Beams; and Fast Ion-Beam/Laser Studies of Atomic and Molecular Structure

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  8. Google matrix of the citation network of Physical Review

    CERN Document Server

    Frahm, Klaus M; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2013-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of spectrum and eigenstates of the Google matrix of the citation network of Physical Review for the period 1893 - 2009. The main fraction of complex eigenvalues with largest modulus is determined numerically by different methods based on high precision computations with up to $p=16384$ binary digits that allows to resolve hard numerical problems for small eigenvalues. The nearly nilpotent matrix structure allows to obtain a semi-analytical computation of eigenvalues. We find that the spectrum is characterized by the fractal Weyl law with a fractal dimension $d_f \\approx 1$. It is found that the majority of eigenvectors are located in a localized phase. The statistical distribution of articles in the PageRank-CheiRank plane is established providing a better understanding of information flows on the network. The concept of ImpactRank is proposed to determine an influence domain of a given article. We also discuss the properties of random matrix models of Perron-Frobenius oper...

  9. Google matrix of the citation network of Physical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; Eom, Young-Ho; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2014-05-01

    We study the statistical properties of spectrum and eigenstates of the Google matrix of the citation network of Physical Review for the period 1893-2009. The main fraction of complex eigenvalues with largest modulus is determined numerically by different methods based on high-precision computations with up to p =16384 binary digits that allow us to resolve hard numerical problems for small eigenvalues. The nearly nilpotent matrix structure allows us to obtain a semianalytical computation of eigenvalues. We find that the spectrum is characterized by the fractal Weyl law with a fractal dimension df≈1. It is found that the majority of eigenvectors are located in a localized phase. The statistical distribution of articles in the PageRank-CheiRank plane is established providing a better understanding of information flows on the network. The concept of ImpactRank is proposed to determine an influence domain of a given article. We also discuss the properties of random matrix models of Perron-Frobenius operators.

  10. The physics of Martian weather and climate: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, P L; Lewis, S R; Mulholland, D P

    2015-12-01

    The planet Mars hosts an atmosphere that is perhaps the closest in terms of its meteorology and climate to that of the Earth. But Mars differs from Earth in its greater distance from the Sun, its smaller size, its lack of liquid oceans and its thinner atmosphere, composed mainly of CO(2). These factors give Mars a rather different climate to that of the Earth. In this article we review various aspects of the martian climate system from a physicist's viewpoint, focusing on the processes that control the martian environment and comparing these with corresponding processes on Earth. These include the radiative and thermodynamical processes that determine the surface temperature and vertical structure of the atmosphere, the fluid dynamics of its atmospheric motions, and the key cycles of mineral dust and volatile transport. In many ways, the climate of Mars is as complicated and diverse as that of the Earth, with complex nonlinear feedbacks that affect its response to variations in external forcing. Recent work has shown that the martian climate is anything but static, but is almost certainly in a continual state of transient response to slowly varying insolation associated with cyclic variations in its orbit and rotation. We conclude with a discussion of the physical processes underlying these long- term climate variations on Mars, and an overview of some of the most intriguing outstanding problems that should be a focus for future observational and theoretical studies. PMID:26534887

  11. Modeling of Some Physical Properties of Zirconium Alloys for Nuclear Applications in Support of UFD Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael V. Glazoff

    2013-08-01

    Zirconium-based alloys Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 are widely used in the nuclear industry as cladding materials for light water reactor (LWR) fuels. These materials display a very good combination of properties such as low neutron absorption, creep behavior, stress-corrosion cracking resistance, reduced hydrogen uptake, corrosion and/or oxidation, especially in the case of Zircaloy-4. However, over the last couple of years, in the post-Fukushima Daiichi world, energetic efforts have been undertaken to improve fuel clad oxidation resistance during off-normal temperature excursions. Efforts have also been made to improve upon the already achieved levels of mechanical behavior and reduce hydrogen uptake. In order to facilitate the development of such novel materials, it is very important to achieve not only engineering control, but also a scientific understanding of the underlying material degradation mechanisms, both in working conditions and in storage of used nuclear fuel. This report strives to contribute to these efforts by constructing the thermodynamic models of both alloys; constructing of the respective phase diagrams, and oxidation mechanisms. A special emphasis was placed upon the role of zirconium suboxides in hydrogen uptake reduction and the atomic mechanisms of oxidation. To that end, computational thermodynamics calculations were conducted concurrently with first-principles atomistic modeling.

  12. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications.

  13. Effect of long-period stacking ordered phase on microstructure, mechanical property and corrosion resistance of Mg alloys:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daokui Xu; En-hou Han; Yongbo Xu

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys containing long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase have been received a great deal of attention in the last decade owing to their excellent comprehensive properties of mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. In this paper, some fundamental aspects of LPSO containing Mg alloys have been reviewed, including:(1) microstructural characterization, formation conditions and the associated phase transformation of LPSO phases in Mg alloys;(2) deformation mechanism of LPSO phases and their influence on the deformation mechanism of the Mg matrix; (3) effect of LPSO structure on the me-chanical performance such as tensile strength, creep resistance, fracture toughness and fatigue strength;(4) corrosion behavior of LPSO containing Mg alloys and their possible applications as the biomaterials. Moreover, some remaining unsolved issues of the LPSO containing Mg alloys and the future target about how to further improve their service properties have been also described.

  14. Physical preparation and optical properties of CuSbS2 nanocrystals by mechanical alloying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; Xu, Qishu; Tan, Guolong

    2016-09-01

    CuSbS2 nanocrystals have been synthesized through mechanical alloying Cu, Sb and S elemental powders for 40 hs. The optical spectrum of as-milled CuSbS2 nano-powders demonstrates a direct gap of 1.35 eV and an indirect gap of 0.36 eV, which are similar to that of silicon and reveals the evidence for the indirect semiconductor characterization of CuSbS2. Afterwards, CuSbS2 nanocrystals were capped with trioctylphosphine oxide/trioctylphosphine/pyridine (TOPO/TOP). There appear four sharp absorption peaks within the region of 315 to 355 nm for the dispersion solution containing the capped nanocrystals. The multiple peaks are proposed to be originating from the energy level splitting of 1S electronic state into four discrete sub-levels, where electrons were excited into the conduction band and thus four exciton absorption peaks were produced.

  15. Physical simulation of hot deformation of TiAl based alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊红; 黄伯云; 贺跃辉; 周科朝; 孟力平

    2002-01-01

    In order to establish a model between the grain size and the process parameters, the hot deformation behaviors of Ti-49.5Al alloy was investigated by isothermal compressive tests at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100 ℃ with strain rates of 10-3-10-1 s-1. Within this range, the deformation behavior obeys the power law relationship, which can be described using the kinetic rate equation. The stress exponent, n, has a value of about 5.0, and the apparent activation energy is about 320 J/mol, which fits well with the value estimated in previous investigations. The results show that, the dependence of flow stress on the recrystallized grain size can be expressed by the equation: σ=K1drex-0.56. The relationship between the deformed microstructure and the process control parameter can be expressed by the formula: lgdrex=-0.2811gZ+3.9081.

  16. Physics Division annual review, 1 April 1977--31 March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This review of research activity for the year ending in April 1978 contains information on the following subjects: the superconducting linac, medium-energy physics, heavy-ion physics, charged-particle research, accelerator operations, neutron physics, theoretical physics, and experimental atomic and molecular physics. Lists of publications and personnel are also given. Twenty-one items with significant data were abstracted and indexed individually. 58 figures, 4 tables. (RWR)

  17. Phase formation, liquid structure, and physical properties of amorphous and quasicrystal-forming alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Victor Medgar

    2009-12-01

    Since the discovery of quasicrystals in 1985 and the development of commercially viable bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) in the mid 1990's a great deal of attention has been given to the characterization of new alloys with desirable properties, such as larger amorphous casting thickness, higher mechanical strength, or hydrogen storage capacity. Here, the results of a number of investigations into the structures and properties of some noncrystalline solid alloys will be presented and analyzed. Beamline electrostatic levitation (BESL), a method for determining supercooled liquid structure and phase formation in-situ, was used. Using BESL, the development of structural and chemical inhomogeneity was observed in supercooled liquid Cu46Zr 54 (a BMG when cast) with an onset at 845 +/- 5°C, providing experimental support for structural changes determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of these liquids. Differing segregation of Hf and Zr atoms was observed in solidified Ti45Zr(38-x)HfxNi 17 using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and correlated to a previously observed, sharp boundary in phase formation near x = 19 that was further investigated using BESL. In addition to the BESL studies, results will be presented and discussed on changes in microstructure and devitrification mechanisms with the addition of Ag in Mg65Cu(25-x)AgxGd 10 BMGs, interesting for their light weight and resistance to oxygen during casting, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SEM, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Previous, preliminary results on the hydrogen storage capacity of icosahedral quasicrystal Ti45Zr38Ni 17 were re-examined, using an improved apparatus and analysis method developed as part of this work, and the previous results found to be in error.

  18. Effects of the substitution of gallium with boron on the physical and mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Yildirim; Turabi, Ali Sadi; Kok, Mediha; Aydogdu, Ayse; Tobe, Hirobumi; Karaca, Haluk Ersin

    2014-12-01

    The effects of the substitution of gallium with boron on the physical, mechanical and magnetic shape memory properties of Ni51Mn28.5Ga20.5- xBx (at.%) ( x = 0, 1, 2, 3) polycrystalline alloys are investigated. It has been found that transformation temperatures are decreasing while hardness is increasing with boron addition. B-doping of NiMnGa alloys results in the formation of a second phase that increases its ductility and strength in compression. Moreover, saturation magnetization of austenite is decreasing, while Curie temperature of austenite is increasing with B-doping.

  19. Physical activity, physical fitness and the effect of exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaete, Nele; Wolter, Pascal; Verhoef, Gregor; Gosselink, Rik

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and most distressing problems in lymphoma patients. A vicious circle is presumed between fatigue, physical activity and physical fitness. It is plausible that an exercise training program would be effective in reducing fatigue, by breaking this vicious circle. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the literature on physical activity and physical fitness in lymphoma patients before, during and after anticancer treatment, and to summarise the literature on exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients. We conducted a search for studies reporting on physical activity, physical fitness or the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients. A total of 13 articles were selected. Due to a small number of articles and methodological issues, it was not possible to make final conclusions. The results indicated that 21 % to 29 % of lymphoma survivors meet the American College of Sports Medicine public health guidelines for physical activity. Maximal exercise capacity was decreased before treatment, especially in patients with advanced disease, and was close to normal during and/or after treatment. Lower levels of physical activity as well as lower physical fitness seemed to be associated with more symptoms of fatigue. Aerobic exercise training interventions seemed to be feasible and safe and had positive effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue and self-reported physical functioning. Further research is needed to examine physical activity and physical fitness in a longitudinal, objective way in large samples and to examine the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients.

  20. Multiculturalism in Teaching Physical Education: A Review of U.S. Based Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonseok; Chepyator-Thomson, Rose

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review extant literature on multicultural education in the context of teaching physical education. More specifically, the article was designed to review the literature on physical education teachers' knowledge and skills related to teaching culturally diverse students. The findings revealed teachers' knowledge and…

  1. Are persons with rheumatoid arthritis deconditioned? A review of physical activity and aerobic capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsterman, Tjerk; Takken, Tim; Wittink, Harriët

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the general assumption is that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have decreased levels of physical activity, no review has addressed whether this assumption is correct. Methods: Our objective was to systematically review the literature for physical activity levels and aero

  2. 77 FR 69505 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: LIGO Operations Proposal and Annual Review in Physics (1208). Date and Time: Tuesday, December 4,...

  3. 75 FR 15460 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: Proposal Review Panel for Physics, LIGO Site Visit in Louisiana (1208). Date and Time: Wednesday, April...

  4. Research activities of biomedical magnesium alloys in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Gu, Xuenan

    2011-04-01

    The potential application of Mg alloys as bioabsorable/biodegradable implants have attracted much recent attention in China. Advances in the design and biocompatibility evaluation of bio-Mg alloys in China are reviewed in this paper. Bio-Mg alloys have been developed by alloying with the trace elements existing in human body, such as Mg-Ca, Mg-Zn and Mg-Si based systems. Additionally, novel structured Mg alloys such as porous, composited, nanocrystalline and bulk metallic glass alloys were tried. To control the biocorrosion rate of bio-Mg implant to match the self-healing/regeneration rate of the surrounding tissue in vivo, surface modification layers were coated with physical and chemical methods.

  5. A Physically Based Dynamic Recrystallization Model Considering Orientation Effects for a Nitrogen Alloyed Ultralow Carbon Stainless Steel during Hot Forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan-lin XIE; An HE; Hai-long ZHANG; Gen-qi WANG; Xi-tao WANG

    2016-01-01

    The nitrogen alloyed ultralow carbon stainless steel is a good candidate material for primary loop pipes of AP1000 nuclear power plant.These pipes are manufactured by hot forging,during which dynamic recrystallization acts as the most important microstructural evolution mechanism.A physically based model was proposed to describe and predict the microstructural evolution in the hot forging process of those pipes.In this model,the coupled effects of dislocation density change,dynamic recovery,dynamic recrystallization and grain orientation function were con-sidered.Besides,physically based simulation experiments were conducted on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical sim-ulator,and the specimens after deformation were observed by optical metallography (OM)and electron back-scat-tered diffraction (EBSD)method.The results confirm that dynamic recrystallization is easy to occur with increasing deformation temperature or strain rate.The grains become much finer after full dynamic recrystallization.The model shows a good agreement with experimental results obtained by OM and EBSD in terms of stress-strain curves,grain size,and recrystallization kinetics.Besides,this model obtains an acceptable accuracy and a wide applying scope for engineering calculation.

  6. Computational prediction of the refinement of oxide agglomerates in a physical conditioning process for molten aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, M.; Jagarlapudi, S. C.; Patel, J. B.; Stone, I. C.; Fan, Z.; Browne, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    Physically conditioning molten scrap aluminium alloys using high shear processing (HSP) was recently found to be a promising technology for purification of contaminated alloys. HSP refines the solid oxide agglomerates in molten alloys, so that they can act as sites for the nucleation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases which can subsequently be removed by the downstream de-drossing process. In this paper, a computational modelling for predicting the evolution of size of oxide clusters during HSP is presented. We used CFD to predict the macroscopic flow features of the melt, and the resultant field predictions of temperature and melt shear rate were transferred to a population balance model (PBM) as its key inputs. The PBM is a macroscopic model that formulates the microscopic agglomeration and breakage of a population of a dispersed phase. Although it has been widely used to study conventional deoxidation of liquid metal, this is the first time that PBM has been used to simulate the melt conditioning process within a rotor/stator HSP device. We employed a method which discretizes the continuous profile of size of the dispersed phase into a collection of discrete bins of size, to solve the governing population balance equation for the size of agglomerates. A finite volume method was used to solve the continuity equation, the energy equation and the momentum equation. The overall computation was implemented mainly using the FLUENT module of ANSYS. The simulations showed that there is a relatively high melt shear rate between the stator and sweeping tips of the rotor blades. This high shear rate leads directly to significant fragmentation of the initially large oxide aggregates. Because the process of agglomeration is significantly slower than the breakage processes at the beginning of HSP, the mean size of oxide clusters decreases very rapidly. As the process of agglomeration gradually balances the process of breakage, the mean size of oxide clusters converges to a

  7. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of zirconium alloys for nuclear applications: a multi-scale computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael V. Glazoff

    2014-10-01

    In the post-Fukushima world, the stability of materials under extreme conditions is an important issue for the safety of nuclear reactors. Because the nuclear industry is going to continue using advanced zirconium cladding materials in the foreseeable future, it become critical to gain fundamental understanding of the several interconnected problems. First, what are the thermodynamic and kinetic factors affecting the oxidation and hydrogen pick-up by these materials at normal, off-normal conditions, and in long-term storage? Secondly, what protective coatings (if any) could be used in order to gain extremely valuable time at off-normal conditions, e.g., when temperature exceeds the critical value of 2200°F? Thirdly, the kinetics of oxidation of such protective coating or braiding needs to be quantified. Lastly, even if some degree of success is achieved along this path, it is absolutely critical to have automated inspection algorithms allowing identifying defects of cladding as soon as possible. This work strives to explore these interconnected factors from the most advanced computational perspective, utilizing such modern techniques as first-principles atomistic simulations, computational thermodynamics of materials, diffusion modeling, and the morphological algorithms of image processing for defect identification. Consequently, it consists of the four parts dealing with these four problem areas preceded by the introduction and formulation of the studied problems. In the 1st part an effort was made to employ computational thermodynamics and ab initio calculations to shed light upon the different stages of oxidation of ziraloys (2 and 4), the role of microstructure optimization in increasing their thermal stability, and the process of hydrogen pick-up, both in normal working conditions and in long-term storage. The 2nd part deals with the need to understand the influence and respective roles of the two different plasticity mechanisms in Zr nuclear alloys: twinning

  8. Physical and Mechanical Metallurgy of Zirconium Alloys for Nuclear Applications: A Multi-Scale Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazoff, Michael Vasily

    In the post-Fukushima world, thermal and structural stability of materials under extreme conditions is an important issue for the safety of nuclear reactors. Because the nuclear industry will continue using zirconium (Zr) cladding for the foreseeable future, it becomes critical to gain a fundamental understanding of several interconnected problems. First, what are the thermodynamic and kinetic factors affecting oxidation and hydrogen pick-up by these materials at normal, off-normal conditions, and in long-term storage? Secondly, what protective coatings could be used in order to gain valuable time at off-normal conditions (temperature exceeds ~1200°C (2200°F)? Thirdly, the kinetics of the coating's oxidation must be understood. Lastly, one needs automated inspection algorithms allowing identifying cladding's defects. This work attempts to explore the problem from a computational perspective, utilizing first principles atomistic simulations, computational thermodynamics, plasticity theory, and morphological algorithms of image processing for defect identification. It consists of the four parts dealing with these four problem areas preceded by the introduction. In the 1st part, computational thermodynamics and ab initio calculations were used to shed light upon the different stages of zircaloy oxidation and hydrogen pickup, and microstructure optimization to increase thermal stability. The 2 nd part describes the kinetic theory of oxidation of the several materials considered to be perspective coatings for Zr alloys: SiC and ZrSiO4. The 3rd part deals with understanding the respective roles of the two different plasticity mechanisms in Zr nuclear alloys: twinning (at low T) and crystallographic slip (higher T's). For that goal, an advanced plasticity model was proposed. In the 4th part projectional algorithms for defect identification in zircaloy coatings are described. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in the 5th part. This integrative approach's value

  9. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of zirconium alloys for nuclear applications: a multi-scale computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the post-Fukushima world, the stability of materials under extreme conditions is an important issue for the safety of nuclear reactors. Because the nuclear industry is going to continue using advanced zirconium cladding materials in the foreseeable future, it become critical to gain fundamental understanding of the several interconnected problems. First, what are the thermodynamic and kinetic factors affecting the oxidation and hydrogen pick-up by these materials at normal, off-normal conditions, and in long-term storage? Secondly, what protective coatings (if any) could be used in order to gain extremely valuable time at off-normal conditions, e.g., when temperature exceeds the critical value of 2200°F? Thirdly, the kinetics of oxidation of such protective coating or braiding needs to be quantified. Lastly, even if some degree of success is achieved along this path, it is absolutely critical to have automated inspection algorithms allowing identifying defects of cladding as soon as possible. This work strives to explore these interconnected factors from the most advanced computational perspective, utilizing such modern techniques as first-principles atomistic simulations, computational thermodynamics of materials, diffusion modeling, and the morphological algorithms of image processing for defect identification. Consequently, it consists of the four parts dealing with these four problem areas preceded by the introduction and formulation of the studied problems. In the 1st part an effort was made to employ computational thermodynamics and ab initio calculations to shed light upon the different stages of oxidation of ziraloys (2 and 4), the role of microstructure optimization in increasing their thermal stability, and the process of hydrogen pick-up, both in normal working conditions and in long-term storage. The 2nd part deals with the need to understand the influence and respective roles of the two different plasticity mechanisms in Zr nuclear alloys: twinning

  10. Effect of low intensity exercise on physical and cognitive health in older adults: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Andy C. Y.; Wong, Thomson W. L.; Lee, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well known that physical exercise is important to promote physical and cognitive health in older population. However, inconsistent research findings were shown regarding exercise intensity, particularly on whether low-intensity exercise (1.5 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) to 3.0 METs) can improve physical and cognitive health of older adults. This systematic review aimed to fill this research gap. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the effecti...

  11. The association between physical activity and neck and low back pain: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitthipornvorakul, E.; Janwantanakul, P.; Purepong, N.; Pensri, P.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical activity on neck and low back pain is still controversial. No systematic review has been conducted on the association between daily physical activity and neck and low back pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and the incid

  12. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  13. 75 FR 63865 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: Michigan State University Site Visit in Physics (1208). Date and Time: Tuesday, November 9, 2010; 8 a.m.-6... Elementary Particle Physics, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230....

  14. 75 FR 57298 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: University of Notre Dame Site Visit in Physics (1208). Date and Time: Tuesday, October 19, 2010; 8 a.m.-6 p.m...: Partially Closed. Contact Person: Dr. Kathleen McCloud, Program Director for Physics Education...

  15. 75 FR 67142 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: Site Visit to the Center for the Physics of Living Cells 1208. Dates/Time: November 8, 2010, 9 a.m.- 4... advice and recommendations concerning progress of the Center for the Physics of Living Cells...

  16. 75 FR 3493 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory.... Name: University of Nebraska Site Visit in Physics (1208). Date and Time: Monday, February 1, 2010; 8 a... Particle Physics, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230. Telephone: (703)...

  17. The Physical Effect of Exergames in Healthy Elderly—A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Lisbeth H.; Schou, Lone; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Langberg, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Exergames have been suggested as an innovative approach to enhance physical activity in the elderly. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of exergames on validated quantitative physical outcomes in healthy elderly individuals. We used Centre for Review and Disseminations guidance to conduct systematic reviews. Four electronic databases were searched. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the study participants were healthy elderly individuals, and the int...

  18. Adaptive Review of Three Fundamental Questions in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    In the recent decades, the amazing changes have occurred in the theoretical physics and the rate of its improvement has been rising very extensively. The neutron and positron were discovered in 1932 which before that only electron, proton and photon were known. Today, the Standard Model of elemen...... the different results, we need to change our thoughts and scientific beliefs. In this paper, by a new viewpoint to the basic laws of physics, three fundamental questions in physics has been discussed and analyzed in hidden parts of the standard model and physical theories....

  19. Physical properties of FeRh alloys: The antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrnovský, J.; Drchal, V.; Turek, I.

    2015-01-01

    The electronic, magnetic, thermodynamical, and transport properties of FeRh alloys are studied from first principles. We present a unified approach to the phase stability, an estimate of exchange interactions in various magnetic phases, and transport properties including the effect of temperature which are all based on the same electronic-structure model. Emphasis is put on the transition between the ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases. Such a study is motivated by a recent suggestion of FeRh as a room-temperature antiferromagnetic memory resistor. The theory predicts the order-disorder transformation from the hypothetical disordered bcc phase into ordered B2 phase. Comparison of exchange interactions in the magnetically ordered FM and AFM phases with corresponding spin-disordered counterparts allows us to identify relevant interactions which are precursors of magnetically ordered phases. The most important result is the explanation of a dramatic decrease of the resistivity accompanying the AFM to FM phase transition which is due to the spin disorder present in the system. The study of the anisotropic magnetoresistance in the AFM phase found recently experimentally is extended also to finite temperatures.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Key Science Physics: New Edition and Key Science Physics for International Schools: Extension File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybank, Maureen

    1999-09-01

    When handling , I recalled how one set of sixth-form students that I taught affectionately referred to Jim Breithaupt's large format book Understanding Physics for Advanced Level as `Big Jim'. This package, for GCSE students and teachers, is its younger brother. Key Science Physics was reviewed in this journal over four years ago. Now it is in a new edition with an expanded ring file of teacher resources (a Teacher's Guide and Extension File). It has been expanded for a wider range of students to meet the requirements of all GCSE syllabuses with additional topics for IGCSE and IB. The international bit seems to be among materials in the file of resources and does not appear in the title of the students' textbook. This is not one of those purchases that will only get occasional use and be left in a department library but it is one that contains sufficient excellent material to become central to any GCSE Physics course. For the students there is a single-volume 396-page textbook in full colour (not a heavyweight book). Marginal comments point out places where an Activity or Assignment from the Extension File fits in. All the materials in the teacher's Extension File are cross referenced to the numbering of this textbook, i.e. its Themes, Topics, Checkpoints, Tests etc, not to page numbers. The margin is used in other attractive ways to highlight a summary, propose a first thought or provide a topic summary. The text is fruitful mix of pure physics, applications and personalities. To support the students' practical work the Extension File contains photocopiable sheets. For the activities and assignments a few contain a harder version to give access to the higher levels of attainment. Four alternatives to practical questions are given; there are also exam questions and multiple choice questions for each topic. These all have helpful mark schemes on the teacher's answers pages. What else do you get? A Glossary collection of sheets to photocopy with space to enter a

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Introduction to Black Hole Physics Introduction to Black Hole Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takahiro

    2012-07-01

    Introduction to Black Hole Physics is a large volume (504 pages), and yet despite this it is still really an introductory text. The book gives an introduction to general relativity, but most of the text is dedicated to attracting the reader's attention to the interesting world of black hole physics. In this sense, the book is very distinct from other textbooks on general relativity. We are told that it was based on the lectures given by Professor Frolov, one of the authors, over the last 30 years. One can obtain the basic ideas about black holes, and also the necessary tips to understand general relativity at a very basic level. For example, in the discussion about particle motion in curved space, the authors start with a brief review on analytical mechanics. The book does not require its readers to have a great deal of knowledge in advance. If you are familiar with such a basic subject, you can simply omit that section. The reason why I especially picked up on this topic as an example is that the book devotes a significant number of pages to geodesic motions in black hole spacetime. One of the main motivations to study black holes is related to how they will actually be observed, once we develop the ability to observe them clearly. The book does explain such discoveries as, for instance, how the motion of a particle is related to a beautiful mathematical structure arising from the hidden symmetry of spacetime, which became transparent via the recent progress in the exploration of black holes in higher dimensions; a concise introduction to this latest topic is deferred to Appendix D, so as not to distract the reader with its mathematical complexities. It should be also mentioned that the book is not limited to general relativistic aspects: quantum fields on a black hole background and Hawking radiation are also covered. Also included are current hot topics, for instance the gravitational waves from a system including black holes, whose first direct detection is

  2. Chest physical therapy in acute viral bronchiolitis: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiaux, Guy; Zwaenepoel, Bruno; Louis, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    We describe the various therapies for infant acute viral bronchiolitis and the contradictory results obtained with chest physical therapy. The treatment target is bronchial obstruction, which is a multifactorial phenomenon that includes edema, bronchoconstriction, and increased mucus production, with a clinical grading defined as severe, moderate, or mild. Chest physical therapy is revisited in its various modalities, according to preliminary scoring of the disease.

  3. Microstructure control techniques in primary hot working of titanium alloy bars: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lianggang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available How to control the microstructure of titanium alloy bars is important to fabricating high-performance aerial forgings. This paper gives a thorough survey of the manufacturing methods and microstructure control techniques for titanium alloy bars. It summarizes the effects of processing parameters on the mechanisms and laws of microstructure evolution during β working and (α + β working, including the kinetics and grains size of dynamic recrystallization (DRX during β deformation and the kinetics and grains size of spheroidization during (α + β deformation. The trends in microstructure control techniques are presented for fabricating titanium alloy bars with high efficiency, low cost, and high quality by means of β/(α + β working, and the puzzles and challenges in the future are also pointed out.

  4. Thermodynamic Tuning of Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloys: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mg-based hydrides are one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials because of their relatively high storage capacity, abundance, and low cost. However, slow kinetics and stable thermodynamics hinder their practical application. In contrast to the substantial progress in the enhancement of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics, thermodynamic tuning is still a great challenge for Mg-based alloys. At present, the main strategies to alter the thermodynamics of Mg/MgH2 are alloying, nanostructuring, and changing the reaction pathway. Using these approaches, thermodynamic tuning has been achieved to some extent, but it is still far from that required for practical application. In this article, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Based on the current progress, finding reversible systems with high hydrogen capacity and effectively tailored reaction enthalpy offers a promising route for tuning the thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys.

  5. Microstructure control techniques in primary hot working of titanium alloy bars:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Lianggang; Fan Xiaoguang; Yu Gaofeng; Yang He

    2016-01-01

    How to control the microstructure of titanium alloy bars is important to fabricating high-performance aerial forgings. This paper gives a thorough survey of the manufacturing meth-ods and microstructure control techniques for titanium alloy bars. It summarizes the effects of pro-cessing parameters on the mechanisms and laws of microstructure evolution during b working and (a+b) working, including the kinetics and grains size of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) during b deformation and the kinetics and grains size of spheroidization during (a+b) deformation. The trends in microstructure control techniques are presented for fabricating titanium alloy bars with high efficiency, low cost, and high quality by means of b/(a+b) working, and the puzzles and chal-lenges in the future are also pointed out.

  6. The association between physical activity and neck and low back pain: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sitthipornvorakul, E.; Janwantanakul, P.; Purepong, N.; Pensri, P.; Beek, van de, A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical activity on neck and low back pain is still controversial. No systematic review has been conducted on the association between daily physical activity and neck and low back pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and the incidence/prevalence of neck and low back pain. Publications were systematically searched from 1980 to June 2009 in several databases. The following key words were used: neck pain, back pain, physical a...

  7. An Evaluation of the Physical Environments of a Nuclear Power Plants for Human Factors Review in Periodic Safety Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, operation of a nuclear power plants(NPP) is highly emphasized by the integrity of the H/W and the human factors security, so the periodic safety review(PSR) is performed to NPP. The PSR activities on human factors include physical environments (illumination, noise, vibration, temperature and humidity etc). The review on these physical environments is to verify the possible affect to the human error during the operation of the man machine interface. Physical environments affect the health, job stress and job satisfaction of NPP's employees. On the ground of the reason, we need integrating the management program for the sufficient satisfaction of the regulatory basis and standards of physical environment and considering a health, a job stress and satisfaction of NPP's employees. So, this paper describes the planning of the setup procedures of physical environments and the adequate management program for the field applications in NPPs.

  8. The Physical Effect of Exergames in Healthy Elderly—A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth H.; Schou, Lone; Lund, Henrik Hautop;

    2013-01-01

    Exergames have been suggested as an innovative approach to enhance physical activity in the elderly. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of exergames on validated quantitative physical outcomes in healthy elderly individuals. We used Centre for Review and Disseminations...... of exergaming on the health of the elderly. However, the variation of intervention approaches and outcome data collected limited the extent to which studies could be compared. This review demonstrates how exergames have a potential to improve physical health in the elderly. However, there is a need...

  9. Physical Examination Findings Among Children and Adolescents With Obesity: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sarah; Lazorick, Suzanne; Hampl, Sarah; Skelton, Joseph A; Wood, Charles; Collier, David; Perrin, Eliana M

    2016-02-01

    Overweight and obesity affects 1 in 3 US children and adolescents. Clinical recommendations have largely focused on screening guidelines and counseling strategies. However, the physical examination of the child or adolescent with obesity can provide the clinician with additional information to guide management decisions. This expert-based review focuses on physical examination findings specific to children and adolescents with obesity. For each physical examination element, the authors define the finding and its prevalence among pediatric patients with obesity, discuss the importance and relevance of the finding, describe known techniques to assess severity, and review evidence regarding the need for additional evaluation. The recommendations presented represent a comprehensive review of current evidence as well as expert opinion. The goal of this review is to highlight the importance of conducting a targeted physical examination during pediatric weight management visits.

  10. Exercise therapy and other types of physical therapy for patients with neuromuscular diseases: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cup, E.H.C.; Pieterse, A.J.; Broek-Pastoor, J.M. Ten; Munneke, M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Hendricks, H.T.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Oostendorp, R.A.B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize and critically appraise the available evidence on exercise therapy and other types of physical therapies for patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD). DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, CINAHL,

  11. Changes in physical and chemical properties of a dental palladium-silver alloy during metal-porcelain bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, J; Moya, G E; Meyer, J M; Moya, F

    1986-07-01

    The hardening ability of a dental palladium-silver (Pd-Ag-Sn-In) bonding alloy has been investigated, and the distribution of the elements along the metal-ceramic interface have been studied by microprobe analysis. The alloy was found to be highly heterogeneous in its 'as-cast' condition, but homogenized alloy was obtained after heating the alloy at 1000 degrees C for 2 h. Hardening occurred after annealing at 650 degrees C for 1 h. A longer thermal treatment caused the hardness to decrease (over-ageing). The change in hardness could be attributed to an internal oxidation phenomenon. The additional elements tin and indium segregated towards the ceramic-metal interface, with a diffusion of indium only into the porcelain. Diffusion of silver in the ceramics, supposed to be the cause of the 'greening' of dental porcelains baked on silver-rich alloys, has not been detected by the microprobe across the interface. PMID:3531444

  12. Physical behaviors of impure atoms during relaxation of impure NiAl-based alloy grain boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation with the energetics described by the embedded atom method has been employed to mainly study physical behaviors of boron atoms during relaxation of the Ni3Al-x at.% B grain boundary. During relaxation of impure Ni3Al grain boundaries, we suggest that for different types of impure atoms(Mg, B, Cr and Zr atoms etc.), as the segregating species, they have the different behaviors, but as the inducing species, they have the same behaviors, i.e. they all induce Ni atoms to substitute Al atoms. Calculations show that at the equilibrium, when x(the B bulk concentration) increases from 0.1 to 0.9 , the peak concentration of B increases, correspondently, the peak concentration of Ni maximizes but the valley concentration of Al minimizes, at x = 0.5. The calculations also show the approximate saturation of Ni at the grain boundary at x = 0.5.

  13. The Copper concentration variation to physical properties of high copper amalgam alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminatun Aminatun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of copper (Cu inside amalgam is to increase hardness and impact force and to decrease thermal expansion coefficient. In general, amalgam which is used in dentistry and available in the market is contain Cu 22%, while the maximum Cu concentration is 30%. It is necessary to determine the concentration Cu does generate the best physical properties to be used as dental restorative agent. Amalgam is made by mixing blended-metal Ag-Sn-Cu (with Cu concentration of 13%, 21%, 22%, and 29% and Hg, stirred manually in a bowl for 15 minutes,leave it in temperature 27°C for 24 hours to become hardened. The result of X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD, analyzed by Rietveld method and Rietica program, shows amalgam with Cu 29% concentration for Cu3Sn compound density is 31.790 sma/Å3, for Ag2Hg3 compound is 41.733 sma/ Å3, a Cu3Sn relative weight percentage of 43.23%, Ag2Hg3 of 54.54%, Cu 7Hg6 of 2.23% and hardness of Cu 29% is 90.700 ± 0.005 kgf/mm2. These numbers are the highest values on Cu 29% concentrations compared to other copper concentration variants. Whereas amalgam thermal expansion coefficient on Cu 29% is (2.17 ± 0.9110-3 mm/°C is the lowest value compared to other Cu concentration. The conclution is that adding Cu concentration into amalgam will increase density value, Cu3Sn relative weight percentage, hardness level and will decrease amalgam thermal expansion coefficient. Amalgam 29% Cu concentration has better physical properties compared to amalgam Cu 22% concentration.

  14. The Learning Strategy of the Total Physical Response: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, James J.

    1966-01-01

    Described in this article are five pilot studies that explored the effects of the learning strategy of the total physical response under a variety of conditions using Japanese and Russian with adults and children. Some general conclusions suggest that dramatic facilitation in learning listening skills for a second language is related to acting out…

  15. Efficacy of tailored-print interventions to promote physical activity: a systematic review of randomised trials

    OpenAIRE

    Plotnikoff Ronald C; James Erica L; Short Camille E; Girgis Afaf

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Computer-tailored physical activity interventions are becoming increasingly popular. Recent reviews have comprehensively synthesised published research on computer-tailored interventions delivered via interactive technology (e.g. web-based programs) but there is a paucity of synthesis for interventions delivered via traditional print-based media in the physical activity domain (i.e. tailored-print interventions). The current study provides a systematic review of the tailore...

  16. Strategies to Promote Physical Activity During Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Intervention Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Emily E.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Downs, Danielle Symons; Steckler, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity during pregnancy has been associated with significant health benefits, however most women in the United States do not meet current guidelines. This systematic review evaluates evidence for interventions to improve physical activity during pregnancy in order to identify best practices and inform future research. Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, SportDISCUS, Embase, ERIC, Psych Info and ISI Web of Science) were searched in July 2011 for peer-reviewed journal articles. Stu...

  17. Fractographic features of W-Ni-Fe (90:7:3) alloy fractures. Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakova, R.V.; Vojtenko, V.L.; Verkhovodov, P.A.; Nedelyaeva, L.P.; Kalinyuk, N.N. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Materialovedeniya)

    1985-02-01

    Fractographic peculiarities of W-Ni-Fe (90:7:3) alloy fractures are considered as well as their correlation with mechanical properties depending on thermal treatment conditions after liquid phase sintering and conditions of mechanical tests. It is shown that intergranular and transcrystallite failure of structural components occurs on the stages of crack formation and propagation. Tungsten-base refractory component may transcrystallitically fail forming fan and herring-bone patterns. Nickel-base ..gamma..-solid solution may fail transcrystallitically and on grain-colonies boundaries. The main failure varieties are established on boundaries of basic structural components. Their formation is associated with variation of adhesion strength of the boundary and geometry of ..gamma..-solid solution (grain body and near-boundary volumes) depending on conditions of thermal treatment after liquid phase sintering. It is shown that the greatest plasticity and strength at room temperature is peculiar for the alloy where transcrystallitic failure is predominant for both components.

  18. Review of e+e--physics with PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews the most recent experiments at PETRA. These concern studies of toponium, magnetic monopoles, excited leptons, supersymmetric particles, lepton pair production as test of the standard model, branching ratios for the decays of the tau and heavy quarks, and studies of inclusive hadron production. (HSI)

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  1. Utility of Acculturation in Physical Activity Research in Latina Adults: An Integrative Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Tanya J.; Dodgson, Joan E.; Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Latina adults in the United States have a disproportionately higher prevalence of chronic diseases related to low physical activity levels than non-Hispanic women. Literature indicates that acculturation may be a contributing factor to being physically active, but the extent of this association remains unclear. An integrative review of literature…

  2. Systematic Review of Service-Learning in Youth Physical Activity Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L.; Raguse, Allison L.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which service-learning exists in the field of kinesiology broadly, and more specifically related to the physical activity of youth, remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the service-learning literature in kinesiology, with a specific focus on youth physical activity settings.…

  3. Management of physical child abuse in South Africa:Literature review and children's hospital data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.L. (T. L.); M. van Dijk (Monique); Al Malki, I. (I.); A.B. van As (Àrjan Bastiaan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The reason for this review is the lack of data on the management of physical abused children in Africa. The primary goal of the first part is to outline the management of physical child abuse in (South) Africa and provide suggestions for other governments in Africa on which t

  4. The Identification and Reporting of Physical Abuse by Physicians: A Review and Implications for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jody E.; Hansen, David J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the multistep, multibehavior process of identification and reporting of physical abuse; presents a literature review examining factors influencing the identification and reporting of physical child abuse by physicians; and outlines future directions for research. (Author/JDD)

  5. Manual therapy with or without physical medicine modalities for neck pain: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. D'Sylva; J. Miller; A. Gross; S.J. Burnie; C.H. Goldsmith; N. Graham; T. Haines; G. Brønfort; J.L. Hoving

    2010-01-01

    Manual therapy interventions are often used with or without physical medicine modalities to treat neck pain. This review assessed the effect of 1) manipulation and mobilisation, 2) manipulation, mobilisation and soft tissue work, and 3) manual therapy with physical medicine modalities on pain, funct

  6. The Educational Benefits Claimed for Physical Education and School Sport: An Academic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Richard; Armour, Kathleen; Kirk, David; Jess, Mike; Pickup, Ian; Sandford, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This academic review critically examines the theoretical and empirical bases of claims made for the educational benefits of physical education and school sport (PESS). An historical overview of the development of PESS points to the origins of claims made in four broad domains: physical, social, affective and cognitive. Analysis of the evidence…

  7. Determinants of dietary behavior and physical activity among Canadian Inuit: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akande, V.O.; Hendriks, A.M.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased dependence on Western diets and low physical activity have largely contributed to weight gain and associated chronic diseases in the Canadian Inuit population. The purpose of this study was to systematically review factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviors to

  8. Physical environmental stimuli that turn healthcare facilities into healing environments through psychologically mediated effects: systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karin; Pieterse, Marcel; Pruyn, Ad

    2006-01-01

    Aim. This paper reports a systematic review to determine the effects of physical environmental stimuli in healthcare settings on the health and well-being of patients. Background. The concept of healing environments suggests that the physical environment of the healthcare setting can encourage the

  9. Physical Activity in Depressed Elderly. A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mura, Gioia; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Background: exercise may reduce depressive symptoms both in healthy aged populations and in old patients diagnosed with MDD, but few specific analysis were conducted on the efficacy of exercise as an adjunctive treatment with antidepressants, which may be probably more useful in clinical practice, considered the high prevalence of treatment resistant depression in late life, the low cost and safety of physical activity interventions. Objective: to establish the new findings on the effectivene...

  10. 1984 Review of the Applied Plasma Physics Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the present and planned programs of the Division of Applied Plasma Physics (APP), Office of Fusion Energy. The major activities of the division include fusion theory, experimental plasma research, advanced fusion concepts, and the magnetic fusion energy computer network. The planned APP program is consistent with the recently issued Comprehensive Program Management Plan for Magnetic Fusion Energy, which describes the overall objectives and strategy for the development of fusion energy

  11. Physical Activity Associated with Public Transport Use—A Review and Modelling of Potential Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Greenaway; Adrian Bauman; Nada Curac; Chris Rissel

    2012-01-01

    Active travel, particularly walking and cycling, has been recommended because of the health benefits associated with increased physical activity. Use of public transport generally involves some walking to bus stops or train stations. This paper is a systematic review of how much time is spent in physical activity among adults using public transport. It also explores the potential effect on the population level of physical activity if inactive adults in NSW, Australia, increased their walking ...

  12. A systematic review of the evidence for Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Warburton, Darren ER; Charlesworth, Sarah; Ivey, Adam; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Bredin, Shannon SD

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review examines critically the scientific basis for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Healthy Active Living for adults. Particular reference is given to the dose-response relationship between physical activity and premature all-cause mortality and seven chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer, type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus) and osteoporosis). The strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific heal...

  13. A systematic review of the evidence for Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ivey Adam; Charlesworth Sarah; Warburton Darren ER; Nettlefold Lindsay; Bredin Shannon SD

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This systematic review examines critically the scientific basis for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Healthy Active Living for adults. Particular reference is given to the dose-response relationship between physical activity and premature all-cause mortality and seven chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer, type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus) and osteoporosis). The strength of the relationship between physical activity and spec...

  14. Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions Based on the Transtheoretical Model: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Andrew J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Johnston, Lynne H.

    2009-01-01

    This review critically examines Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based interventions for physical activity (PA) behavior change. It has been suggested that the TTM may not be the most appropriate theoretical model for applications to PA behavior change. However, previous reviews have paid little or no attention to how accurately each intervention…

  15. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  16. Research on Teaching in Physical Education: A Commentary on Silverman's Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Presents a positive commentary on Stephen Silverman's research review on teaching in physical education (RT-PE). The article discusses the need for a clearer definition of teaching, reviews Silverman's RT-PE schema, examines another framework for conceptualizing research methods for teaching, and suggests the Spectrum of Teaching Styles for…

  17. Essay: Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  18. Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gleeson

    2014-09-01

    [Gleeson M, Sherrington C, Keay L (2014 Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 130–135

  19. Effectiveness of Manual Physical Therapy for Painful Shoulder Conditions: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Camarinos, James; Marinko, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Multiple disease-specific systematic reviews on the effectiveness of physical therapy intervention for shoulder dysfunction have been inconclusive. To date, there have been two systematic reviews that examined manual therapy specifically but both considered effects within diagnoses. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the effectiveness of manual therapy to the glenohumeral joint across all painful shoulder conditions. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane...

  20. Mental and Physical Health and Intimate Partner Violence against Women: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gina Dillon; Rafat Hussain; Deborah Loxton; Saifur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Associations between intimate partner violence (IPV) and poor physical and mental health of women have been demonstrated in the international and national literature across numerous studies. This paper presents a review of the literature on this topic. The 75 papers included in this review cover both original research studies and those which undertook secondary analyses of primary data sources. The reviewed research papers published from 2006 to 2012 include quantitative and qualitative studi...

  1. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys

  2. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Hoffman, E.E. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys. (DLC)

  3. Role of Ge incorporation in the physical and dielectric properties of Se$_{75}$Te$_{25}$ and Se$_{85}$Te$_{15}$ glassy alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHARMA J; KUMAR S

    2016-05-01

    The effect of Ge additive on the physical and dielectric properties of Se$_{75}$Te$_{25}$ and Se$_{85}$Te$_{15}$ glassy alloys has been investigated. It is inferred that on adding Ge, the physical propertiesi.e., average coordination number, average number of constraints and average heat of atomization increase but lone pair electrons, fraction of floppy modes, electronegativity, degree of crosslinking and deviation of stoichiometry (R) decrease. The effect of Ge doping on the dielectric propertiesof the bulk Se$_{75}$Te$_{25}$ and Se$_{85}$Te$_{15}$ glassy alloys has also been studied in the temperature range 300–350 K for different frequencies (1 kHz–5 MHz). It is found that, with doping, the dielectric constant $\\epsilon'$ and dielectric loss $\\epsilon "$ increase with increase in temperature and decrease with increase in frequency. The role of the third element Ge, as an impurity in the two pure binary Se$_{75}$Te$_{25}$ and Se$_{85}$Te$_{15}$ glassy alloys has been discussed in terms of the nature of covalent bonding and electronegativity difference between the elements used in making the aforesaid glassy systems.

  4. Cyclodestructive procedures. II. Optical fibers, endoscopy, physics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Franz; Kwasniewska, Sylwia

    2004-01-01

    Methods used in laser destructive procedures are detailed. While in noncontact procedures laser energy is delivered via the optics of a slitlamp, often enhanced by contact lenses, the contact method takes advantage of optical fibers for the delivery of energy. Endpieces such as hemispherical or microlens probes enhance the cyclodestructive effect and/or allow the dose of laser energy to be reduced. Laser energy may also be delivered under direct view by endoscopic systems. Advances in laser cyclodestruction are possible by studying the physical effects.

  5. On modeling of neutron in classical physics: a methodical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the given work it is shown that the question about the neutron as a non-elementary particle started recently by B.V.Vasiliev in JINR Communication P3-2014-77 (Dubna, 2014) demands to take into consideration the entire system of the logically relevant and experimentally confirmed knowledge which was found by M. Gryzinski in the deterministic atomic physics, and also the two interpretations declared in this communication are refuted: of an electron-like elementary particle in the neutron structure that has no magnetic properties and of the planetary-type model for a neutron with point objects

  6. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Gray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1 physical activity, (2 cardiorespiratory fitness, (3 musculoskeletal fitness, (4 sedentary behaviour; or (5 motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness.

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  8. Physical activity benefits for Alzheimer's disease patients (A Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Pano, Genti

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic and degenerative disease which is the main cause for dementia in older adults. It is well known that exercise can reduce the risk level for vascular risk factors, heart diseases (Blair et al., 1996), atherosclerosis (Lakka et al., 2001), stroke (Kurl et al., 2001) and diabetes (Seals et al., 1984; Houmard et al., 1996), diseases that can increase the risk for dementia and AD (Gustafson et al., 2003). Main objective of this study was to review the latest l...

  9. A review of advantages of high-efficiency X-ray spectrum imaging for analysis of nanostructured ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) exhibit complex microstructures consisting of 100–500 nm ferrite grains, grain boundary solute enrichment, and multiple populations of precipitates and nanoclusters (NCs). Understanding these materials’ excellent creep and radiation-tolerance properties requires a combination of multiple atomic-scale experimental techniques. Recent advances in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) hardware and data analysis methods have the potential to revolutionize nanometer-to micrometer-scale materials analysis. Modern high-brightness, high-X-ray collection STEM instruments are capable of enabling advanced experiments, such as simultaneous energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy spectrum imaging at nm to sub-nm resolution, that are now well-established for the study of nuclear materials. In this paper, we review past results and present new results illustrating the effectiveness of latest-generation STEM instrumentation and data analysis

  10. A review of advantages of high-efficiency X-ray spectrum imaging for analysis of nanostructured ferritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Chad M.; Miller, Michael K.

    2015-07-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) exhibit complex microstructures consisting of 100-500 nm ferrite grains, grain boundary solute enrichment, and multiple populations of precipitates and nanoclusters (NCs). Understanding these materials' excellent creep and radiation-tolerance properties requires a combination of multiple atomic-scale experimental techniques. Recent advances in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) hardware and data analysis methods have the potential to revolutionize nanometer-to micrometer-scale materials analysis. Modern high-brightness, high-X-ray collection STEM instruments are capable of enabling advanced experiments, such as simultaneous energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy spectrum imaging at nm to sub-nm resolution, that are now well-established for the study of nuclear materials. In this paper, we review past results and present new results illustrating the effectiveness of latest-generation STEM instrumentation and data analysis.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: The Physical Basis of the Direction of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulini, Domenico

    2008-10-01

    This is the fifth edition of H Dieter Zeh's classic text on the physical foundations of time-irreversibility in the phenomena. A forerunner of this book was the 1984 German text 'Die Physik der Zeitrichtung' of about 80 pages, which appeared as volume 200 in the Springer series Lecture Notes in Physics. It was soon followed by a largely revised and extended English edition of about twice the length. Since then each new edition has been thoroughly revised and, edition by edition, new topics and chapters have been added. As the author says in the introduction: 'The prime intention of this book is to discuss the relations between various arrows of time, and to search for a universal master arrow'. Correspondingly, after a short chapter on 'the physical concept of time', the author systematically discusses in the remaining five chapters the time arrows in electromagnetic radiation theory, in thermodynamics, in quantum mechanics, in black-hole physics and cosmology, and in quantum cosmology. The chapters on thermodynamics and quantum mechanics slightly outweigh the others in terms of length. The fifth edition now includes two new section on 'cosmic probabilities and history' and 'quantum computers', and the section on the 'expansion of the universe' has been restructured and extended. Other changes concentrate on the sections on radiation damping, decoherence, interpretation of quantum theory, and quantum cosmology. It should also be mentioned that the author maintains a regularly updated website for the book at www.time-direction.de. The reading is always highly stimulating and uses results and ideas from a very broad range of physics, with interspersed historical and philosophical comments. Somehow outstanding and of particular interest is the chapter on quantum cosmology, which raises novel interpretational issues that cannot be found in any other textbook I know of on time asymmetry. As regards the mathematical prerequisites, the reader is assumed to have some

  12. Fe–Al–Mn–C lightweight structural alloys: a review on the microstructures and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hansoo Kim, Dong-Woo Suh and Nack J Kim

    2013-01-01

    Adding a large amount of light elements such as aluminum to steels is not a new concept recalling that several Fe–Al–Mn–C alloys were patented in 1950s for replacement of nickel or chromium in corrosion resistance steels. However, the so-called lightweight steels or low-density steels were revisited recently, which is driven by demands from the industry where steel has served as a major structural material. Strengthening without loss of ductility has been a triumph in steel research, but lowe...

  13. A physical model of the effect of irreversible changes in structure and properties of amorphous alloys caused by low-temperature treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low temperature ΔT-effect physical model for amorphous metallic alloys (AMA) is developed. Using Ni-P, Fe-Co-Si-B, Co-Ni-Fe-Si-B, Fe-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Si-B, Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloys the studies are carried out which results support basic concepts of the theory, namely: a motive force for atom drift, resulting in irreversible changes of a short-range order, is at the heart of longitudinal oscillations of AMA ribbon initiate the process of changing the initial short-range order. Variations of topological and short-range orders are responsible for a decrease in yield strength and Young modulus, a Curie point shift, an increase of saturation magnetization at an insignificant drop of coercive force or a significant drop of coercive force at a slight increase of saturation magnetization

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book

  15. Book Review: A Concise History of Solar and Stellar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth J. H.

    2005-01-01

    There is no doubt that the awareness of the often long history and its principal players of a scientific specialty is disappearing among present-day researchers. The reason is the inexorable rise of specialization, in which scientists are expected to keep pace with publications in their own field, not to mention the inevitable round of writing grant proposals and teaching and other mundane responsibilities. The authors of this small book had the intention of rectifying this for solar and stellar physics, disciplines which are still broad enough to embrace fields as diverse as nuclear fusion, magnetohydrodynamics, and the dynamic theory of gas spheres. They take the read on a journey from ancient Greek and middle Eastern astronomy to the late 1990s, one which has an emphasis very much on a theoretical point of view. For the authors, it is the ideas that are central, not the observations.

  16. BOOK REVIEW Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakov, Slavik

    2010-11-01

    This is a multi-author handbook (66 authors) aiming to describe various applications of physics to medicine and biology, from anatomy and physiology to medical equipment. This unusual reference book has 44 chapters organized in seven sections: 1. Anatomical physics; 2. Physics of perception; 3. Biomechanics; 4. Electrical physics; 5. Diagnostic physics; 6. Physics of accessory medicine; 7. Physics of bioengineering. Each chapter has separate page numbering, which is inconvenient but understandable with the number of authors. Similarly there is some variation in the emphasis of chapters: for some the emphasis is more technical and for others clinical. Each chapter has a separate list of references. The handbook includes hundreds of diagrams, images and tables, making it a useful tool for both medical physicists/engineers and other medical/biology specialists. The first section (about 40 pages) includes five chapters on physics of the cell membrane; protein signaling; cell biology and biophysics of the cell membrane; cellular thermodynamics; action potential transmission and volume conduction. The physics of these is well explained and illustrated with clear diagrams and formulae, so it could be a suitable reference for physicists/engineers. The chapters on cellular thermodynamics and action potential transmission have a very good balance of technical/clinical content. The second section (about 85 pages) includes six chapters on medical decision making; senses; somatic senses: touch and pain; hearing; vision; electroreception. Again these are well illustrated and a suitable reference for physicists/engineers. The chapter on hearing stands out with good balance and treatment of material, but some other chapters contain less physics and are close to typical physiological explanations. One could query the inclusion of the chapter on medical decision making, which also needs more detail. The third section (about 80 pages) includes eight chapters on biomechanics

  17. Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

  18. Temperature-Induced Liquid-Liquid Transition in Metallic Melts: A Brief Review on the New Physical Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Qiu Zu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of liquid structures and properties remains an open problem for many fundamental and applied fields. It is well known that there is no other defined phase line above liquidus (TL in phase diagrams of ordinary alloys. However, via resorts of internal friction, electric resistivity, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, solidification, etc., the results of our research on lots of single- and multiple-component melts show a novel physical image: temperature induced liquid-liquid structure transition (TI-LLST can occur above TL. Moreover, the solidification behaviors and structures out of the melts that experienced TI-LLST are distinct from those out of the melts before TI-LLST. In this paper, some typical examples of TI-LLST and characteristic aspects of the TI-LLST are briefly reviewed, in which the main contents are limited in our own achievements, although other groups have also observed similar phenomena using different methods. In the sense of phenomenology, TI-LLST reported here is quite different from other recognized liquid transitions, i.e., there are only a few convincing cases of liquid P, Si, C, H2O, Al2O3-Y2O3, etc. in which the transition occurs, either induced by pressure or at a supercooled state and near liquidus.

  19. Physics Physics Annual Review, 1 April 1981-31 March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In medium-energy pion physics, considerable progress has been made in understanding the propagation and absorption of pions (deltas) in the nuclear medium. An experiment to study neutrino oscillations is being planned at LAMPF with substantial involvement from Argonne. A major effort is being devoted to the scientific and technical considerations involved in proposing to build a multi-GeV C.W. electron accelerator: GEM at Argonne. In heavy-ion physics, the superconducting linac booster is being used with increasing scientific profit. Construction of the ATLAS facility began in FY 1982 and all progress has been on schedule. The importance of the time component of the weak axial-vector current has been studied through the #betta# decay of 16N. A precision measurement is under way of the 7Be(p,#betta#) cross section, one of the key components in the solar neutrino anomaly. In nuclear theory, the coupled-channel code for treating heavy-ion inelastic scattering was completed and application to particular experiments began. Nuclear structure theory was applied to interpret decays of high-spin states and inelastic pion scattering. Results of particular interest were obtained in the nuclear force program where the inclusion of 3-body forces led to simultaneous improvement in the binding of 3He and 4He and saturation of nuclear matter. The atomic physics research consists of six experimental programs as follows: (1) dissociation and other interactions of energetic molecular ions in solid and gaseous targets; (2) electron spectroscopy with fast atomic and molecular-ion beams; (3) beam-foil research and collision dynamics of heavy ions; (4) photoionization-photoelectron research; (5) high-resolution, laser-rf spectroscopy with atomic and molecular beams; and (6) theoretical atomic physics

  20. Physics Physics Annual Review, 1 April 1981-31 March 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    In medium-energy pion physics, considerable progress has been made in understanding the propagation and absorption of pions (deltas) in the nuclear medium. An experiment to study neutrino oscillations is being planned at LAMPF with substantial involvement from Argonne. A major effort is being devoted to the scientific and technical considerations involved in proposing to build a multi-GeV C.W. electron accelerator: GEM at Argonne. In heavy-ion physics, the superconducting linac booster is being used with increasing scientific profit. Construction of the ATLAS facility began in FY 1982 and all progress has been on schedule. The importance of the time component of the weak axial-vector current has been studied through the ..beta.. decay of /sup 16/N. A precision measurement is under way of the /sup 7/Be(p,..gamma..) cross section, one of the key components in the solar neutrino anomaly. In nuclear theory, the coupled-channel code for treating heavy-ion inelastic scattering was completed and application to particular experiments began. Nuclear structure theory was applied to interpret decays of high-spin states and inelastic pion scattering. Results of particular interest were obtained in the nuclear force program where the inclusion of 3-body forces led to simultaneous improvement in the binding of /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He and saturation of nuclear matter. The atomic physics research consists of six experimental programs as follows: (1) dissociation and other interactions of energetic molecular ions in solid and gaseous targets; (2) electron spectroscopy with fast atomic and molecular-ion beams; (3) beam-foil research and collision dynamics of heavy ions; (4) photoionization-photoelectron research; (5) high-resolution, laser-rf spectroscopy with atomic and molecular beams; and (6) theoretical atomic physics. (WHK)

  1. Databases in High Energy Physics a critial review

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J D

    2007-01-01

    The year 2000 is marked by a plethora of significant milestones in the history of High Energy Physics. Not only the true numerical end to the second millennium, this watershed year saw the final run of CERN's Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP) - the world-class machine that had been the focus of the lives of many of us for such a long time. It is also closely related to the subject of this chapter in the following respects: - Classified as a nuclear installation, information on the LEP machine must be retained indefinitely. This represents a challenge to the database community that is almost beyond discussion - archiving of data for a relatively small number of years is indeed feasible, but retaining it for centuries, millennia or more is a very different issue; - There are strong scientific arguments as to why the data from the LEP machine should be retained for a short period. However, the complexity of the data itself, the associated metadata and the programs that manipulate it make even this a huge ch...

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco

    1998-04-01

    Professor Kenro Miyamoto, already well known for his textbook Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1976; revised edition 1989), has now published a new book entitled Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Iwanami Book Service Center, Tokyo, 1997). To a large extent, the new book is a somewhat shortened and well reorganized version of its predecessor. The style, concise and matter of fact, clearly shows the origin of the text in lectures given by the author to graduate students. As announced by the title, the book is divided into two parts: the first part (about 250 pages) is a general introduction to the physics of plasmas, while the second, somewhat shorter, part (about 150 pages), is devoted to a description of the most important experimental approaches to achieving controlled thermonuclear fusion. Even in the first part, moreover, the choice of subjects is consistently oriented towards the needs of fusion research. Thus, the introduction to the behaviour of charged particles (particle motion, collisions, etc.) and to the collective description of plasmas is quite short, although the reader will get a flavour of all the most important topics and will find a number of examples chosen for their relevance to fusion applications (only the presentation of the Vlasov equation, in the second section of Chapter 4, might be criticized as so concise as to be almost misleading, since the difference between microscopic and macroscopic fields is not even mentioned). Considerably more space is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of equilibrium and stability. This part includes the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation for circular tokamaks, a brief discussion of Pfirsch-Schlüter, neoclassical and anomalous diffusion, and two relatively long chapters on the most important ideal and resistive MHD instabilities of toroidal plasmas; drift and ion temperature gradient driven instabilities are also briefly presented. The

  3. A review of RSICC software for medical and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RSICC (Radiation Safety Information Computational Center) collects, organizes, evaluates and disseminates technical information (software and nuclear data) involving the transport of neutral and charged particle radiation, and shielding and protection from the radiation associated with: nuclear weapons and materials, fission and fusion reactors, outer space applications, accelerators, medical facilities, and nuclear waste management. The Center provides in-depth coverage of radiation transport topics. An RSICC software package consists of an abstract, source code, sample problem input, sample problem output, documentation, and an executable program.The paper is a synopsis of various computer code and nuclear data packages, maintained, tested and distributed by RSICC,used for medical and health physics dosimetry applications. The codes are classified into 5 categories: 1) radiation transport, shielding, and supporting codes for radiation therapy (12 codes); 2) codes devoted to medical X-ray calculations (6 codes); 3) codes for internal and external dose calculations (4 codes); 4) data collections and supporting codes useful in nuclear medicine (3 codes) and 5) codes and data collections dealing with the microdosimetry of radiation therapy. (A.C.)

  4. A review of physical and cognitive interventions in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidis, P D; Vivas, A B; Styliadis, C; Frantzidis, C; Klados, M; Schlee, W; Siountas, A; Papageorgiou, S G

    2014-07-01

    Maintaining a healthy brain is a critical factor for the quality of life of elderly individuals and the preservation of their independence. Challenging aging brains through cognitive training and physical exercises has shown to be effective against age-related cognitive decline and disease. But how effective are such training interventions? What is the optimal combination/strategy? Is there enough evidence from neuropsychological observations, animal studies, as well as, structural and functional neuroimaging investigations to interpret the underlying neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the observed neuroplasticity of the aging brain? This piece of work summarizes recent findings toward these questions, but also highlights the role of functional brain connectivity work, an emerging discipline for future research in healthy aging and the study of the underlying mechanisms across the life span. The ultimate aim is to conclude on recommended multimodal training, in light of contemporary trends in the design of exergaming interventions. The latter issue is discussed in conjunction with building up neuroscientific knowledge and envisaged future research challenges in mapping, understanding and training the aging brain. PMID:24705268

  5. Surface characterization and corrosion behavior of calcium phosphate-base composite layer on titanium and its alloys via plasma electrolytic oxidation: A review paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieerad, A R; Ashra, M R; Mahmoodian, R; Bushroa, A R

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features.

  6. Current research situation of titanium alloys in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys possess excellent comprehensive properties, and they are widely used in many fields. China pays great attentions to the research on new titanium alloys. This paper mainly reviews the research on new Ti alloys in China, for example, high strength and high toughness Ti alloys, burn resistant Tialloys, high temperature Ti alloys, low cost Ti alloys and so on.New basic theories on Ti alloys developed in China in recent years are also reviewed.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-09-01

    Breithaupt's new book is big: at 727 pages, it will be a hefty addition to any student's bag. According to the preface, the book is designed to help students achieve the transition from GCSE to A-level and to succeed well at this level. It also aims to cover the requirements of the compulsory parts of all new syllabuses and to cover most of the optional material, too. The book is organized into seven themes along traditional lines: mechanics, materials, fields, waves, electricity, inside the atom, and physics in medicine. Each theme begins with a colourful title page that outlines what the theme is about, lists the applications that students will meet in their reading, identifies prior learning from GCSE and gives a checklist of what students should be able to do once they have finished their reading of the theme. This is all very useful. The text of the book is illustrated with many colourful photographs, pictures and cartoons, but despite this it looks very dense. There are a lot of words on every page in a small font that makes them seem very unfriendly, and although the book claims to be readable I rather doubt that the layout will encourage voluntary reading of the text. Each chapter ends with a useful summary and a selection of short questions that allow students to test their understanding. Each theme has a set of multiple choice and long questions. Some of the questions have an icon referring the student to the accompanying CD (more of this later). There is much up-to-date material in the book. For example, the section on cosmology gives a brief description of the inflationary scenario within the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe, although no mechanism for the inflation is given, which might prove unsatisfying to some students. I do have some reservations about the presentation of some topics within the book: the discussion of relativistic mass, for example, states that `Einstein showed that the mass ... is given by the formula ...' and quotes

  8. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeneman Margot A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1 population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2 reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was

  9. Correlates of children’s time-specific physical activity: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Rebecca M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Assessment of correlates of physical activity occurring at different times of the day, locations and contexts, is imperative to understanding children’s physical activity behaviour. The purpose of this review was to identify the correlates of children’s physical activity (aged 8–14 years occurring during the school break time and after-school periods. A review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature, published between 1990 and January 2011. A total of 22 studies (12 school break time studies, 10 after-school studies were included in the review. Across the 22 studies, 17 studies were cross-sectional and five studies were interventions. In the school break time studies, 39 potential correlates were identified, of which gender and age were consistently associated with school break time physical activity in two or more studies, and family affluence, access to a gym, access to four or more physical activity programs and the condition of a playing field were all associated with school break time physical activity in only one study. Access to loose and fixed equipment, playground markings, size of and access to play space and the length of school break time were all positively associated with changes in school break time physical activity in intervention studies. Thirty-six potential correlates of after-school physical activity were identified. Gender (with boys more active, younger age, lower body mass index (for females, lower TV viewing/playing video games, and greater access to facilities were associated with higher levels of after-school physical activity in two or more studies. Parent supervision was negatively associated with females’ after-school physical activity in one study. This review has revealed a relatively small number of studies investigating the school break time and after-school periods in the specified age range and only a few correlates have demonstrated a consistent association with physical activity

  10. Promoting Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Physical Therapy Education: A Review of Strategies and Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    2015-01-01

    . It is imperative that physical therapy educators utilize innovative pedagogical methods to facilitate learning of reasoning skills in students. Purpose: The review is an attempt to highlight and discuss selected pedagogical strategies and approaches to enhance clinical reasoning skills in undergraduate physical......Title: Promoting Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Physical Therapy Education: A Review of Strategies and Approaches Juneja H1, Brekke A F2 1,2 Physical Therapy Education, University College Zealand, Denmark Background: Clinical reasoning (CR) also referred to as “critical thinking” or “decision...... in this area. This has resulted in diverse methods and strategies to transfer reasoning skills effectively to students. Awareness about recommended pedagogical techniques to enhance clinical reasoning skills can significantly influence the educator’s choice of methods within and beyond the classroom teaching...

  11. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coating with Si content on the nanotube-formed Ti–Nb–Zr alloy using electron beam-physical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on the nanotube-formed Ti–35Nb–10Zr alloy. The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) coatings on the nanotube structure were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition and anodization methods, and biodegradation properties were analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. The surface characteristics were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Si–HA layers were deposited with rough features having highly ordered nanotube structures on the titanium alloy substrate. The thickness of the Si–HA coating was less than that of the HA coating. The XRD results confirmed that the Si–HA coating on the nanotube structure consisted of TiO2 anatase, TiO2 rutile, hydroxyapatite, and calcium phosphate silicate. The Si–HA coating surface exhibited lower Icorr than the HA coating, and the polarization resistance was increased by substitution of silicon in hydroxyapatite. - Highlights: • Silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) was coated on nanotubular titanium alloy. • The Si–HA coating thickness was less than single hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. • Si–HA coatings consisted of TiO2, HA, and Ca5(PO4)2SiO4. • Polarization resistance of the coating was increased by Si substitution in HA

  12. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  13. Models of Particle Physics from Type IIB String Theory and F-theory: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Maharana, Anshuman

    2012-01-01

    We review particle physics model building in type IIB string theory and F-theory. This is a region in the landscape where in principle many of the key ingredients required for a realistic model of particle physics can be combined successfully. We begin by reviewing moduli stabilisation within this framework and its implications for supersymmetry breaking. We then review model building tools and developments in the weakly coupled type IIB limit, for both local D3-branes at singularities and global models of intersecting D7-branes. Much of recent model building work has been in the strongly coupled regime of F-theory due to the presence of exceptional symmetries which allow for the construction of phenomenologically appealing Grand Unified Theories. We review both local and global F-theory model building starting from the fundamental concepts and tools regarding how the gauge group, matter sector and operators arise, and ranging to detailed phenomenological properties explored in the literature.

  14. Friendship networks and physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth: a systematized review

    OpenAIRE

    Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Hawe, Penelope; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today’s youth. Friend’s health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks...

  15. Physics Division annual review, 1 April 1986-31 March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review presents a broad view of the research activities within the Division for the year ending in March 1987. Major topic areas are: Medium Energy Physics Research; Theoretical Nuclear Physics; Superconducting Linac Development, and Accelerator Operations. Research at ATLAS is also included as a broad topic. Included in this research are studies in the areas of: Quasielastic Processes and Strongly Damped Collisions; Fusion and Fission of Heavy Ions; High Angular Momentum States in Nuclei; Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy; and Equipment Development

  16. Obesity and Physical Frailty in Older Adults: A Scoping Review of Intervention Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2014-01-01

    Many frail older adults are thin, weak, and undernourished; this component of frailty remains a critical concern in the geriatric field. However, there is also strong evidence that excessive adiposity contributes to frailty by reducing the ability of older adults to perform physical activities and increasing metabolic instability. Our scoping review explores the impact of being obese on physical frailty in older adults by summarizing the state of the science for both clinical markers of physi...

  17. Measuring and Influencing Physical Activity with Smartphone Technology: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bort Roig, Judit; Gilson, Nicholas D.; Puig Ribera, Anna; Contreras, Ruth S. (Ruth Sofhía); Trost, Stewart G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in physical activity research, although little is known regarding their effectiveness as measurement and intervention tools. Objective This study systematically reviewed evidence on smartphones and their viability for measuring and influencing physical activity. Data Sources Research articles were identified in September 2013 by literature searches in Web of Knowledge, PubMed, PsycINF...

  18. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: Systematic Review and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Waldemar, Gunhild; Simonsen, Anja Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Background The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or mild cognitive impairment have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia. Methods The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to F...

  19. Biochemical markers of physical exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia; systematic review and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Steen Jensen; Steen Gregers Hasselbalch; Gunhild eWaldemar; Anja Hviid Simonsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia.Methods: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to Febru...

  20. Evaluation methods for physical activity-promoting mobile technologies: an interdisciplinary scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Claire McCallum; John Rooksby

    2015-01-01

    There are many thousands of mobile apps, wearables and other technologies available to support and promote physical activity. However, the rapidly evolving nature of these technologies means that the methodologies traditionally used to evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions (such as the randomised controlled trial) may not be appropriate to evaluate their effectiveness. A scoping review was conducted to identify the methods currently being used to evaluate physical activ...

  1. Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients during critical illness: an overview of systematic reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Bronwen; Brenda, O'Neill; Salisbury, Lisa; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical rehabilitation interventions aim to ameliorate the effects of critical illness-associated muscle dysfunction in survivors. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews (SR) evaluating the effect of these interventions across the continuum of recovery.Methods Six electronic databases (Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, DARE, Medline, Embase, and Cinahl) were searched. Two review authors independently screened articles for eligibility and conducted data extraction and quality appr...

  2. A Review on Technical and Clinical Impact of Microsoft Kinect on Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Mousavi Hondori; Maryam Khademi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews technical and clinical impact of the Microsoft Kinect in physical therapy and rehabilitation. It covers the studies on patients with neurological disorders including stroke, Parkinson’s, cerebral palsy, and MS as well as the elderly patients. Search results in Pubmed and Google scholar reveal increasing interest in using Kinect in medical application. Relevant papers are reviewed and divided into three groups: (1) papers which evaluated Kinect’s accuracy and reliability, (2...

  3. Interventions to promote physical activity in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazlina eShariff-Ghazali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among people aged 60 years and above is a growing public health problem. Regular physical activity is one of the key elements in the management of T2DM. Recommendations suggest that older people with T2DM will benefit from regular physical activity for better disease control and delaying complications. Despite the known benefits, many remain sedentary. Hence, this review assessed interventions for promoting physical activity in persons aged 65 years and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A literature search was conducted using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published between January 2000 and December 2012. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs comparing different strategies to increase physical activity level in persons aged 65 years and older with T2DM were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed.Results: Twenty-one eligible studies were reviewed, only six studies were rated as good quality and only one study specifically targeted persons aged 65 years and older. Personalised coaching, goal setting, peer support groups, use of technology and physical activity monitors were proven to increase the level of physical activity. Incorporation of health behaviour theories and follow-up supports also were successful strategies. However, the methodological quality and type of interventions promoting physical activity of the included studies in this review varied widely across the eligible studies.Conclusion: Strategies that increased level of physical activity in persons with T2DM are evident but most studies focused on middle-aged persons and there was a lack of well-designed trials. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with interventions promoting physical activity in older people are required.

  4. Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Coon, J; Boddy, K; Stein, K; Whear, R; Barton, J; Depledge, M H

    2011-03-01

    Our objective was to compare the effects on mental and physical wellbeing, health related quality of life and long-term adherence to physical activity, of participation in physical activity in natural environments compared with physical activity indoors. We conducted a systematic review using the following data sources: Medline, Embase, Psychinfo, GreenFILE, SportDISCUS, The Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index--Science and BIOSIS from inception to June 2010. Internet searches of relevant Web sites, hand searches of relevant journals, and the reference lists of included papers and other review papers identified in the search were also searched for relevant information. Controlled trials (randomized and nonrandomized) were included. To be eligible trials had to compare the effects of outdoor exercise initiatives with those conducted indoors and report on at least one physical or mental wellbeing outcome in adults or children. Screening of articles for inclusion, data extraction, and quality appraisal were performed by one reviewer and checked by a second with discrepancies resolved by discussion with a third if necessary. Due to the heterogeneity of identified studies a narrative synthesis was performed. Eleven trials (833 adults) were included. Most participants (6 trials; 523 adults) were young students. Study entry criteria and methods were sparsely reported. All interventions consisted of a single episode of walking or running indoors with the same activity at a similar level conducted outdoors on a separate occasion. A total of 13 different outcome measures were used to evaluate the effects of exercise on mental wellbeing, and 4 outcome measures were used to assess attitude to exercise. Most trials (n = 9) showed some improvement in mental wellbeing on one or other of the outcome measures. Compared with exercising indoors, exercising in

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  6. Physical properties of nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahne, Roman; George, Chandramohan [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genoa (Italy). Nanostructures; Manna, Liberato [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genoa (Italy). Nanochemistry; Morello, Giovanni [CNR, Lecce (Italy). Nanoscience Institute; Figuerola, Albert [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Inst. de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia; Deka, Sasanka [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-06-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles are among the most investigated objects nowadays, both in fundamental science and in various technical applications. In this book the physical properties of nanowires formed by nanoparticles with elongated shape, i.e. rod-like or wire-like, are described. The transition in the physical properties is analyzed for nanorods and nanowires consisting of spherical and rod-like nanoparticles. The physical properties of nanowires and elongated inorganic nanoparticles are reviewed too. The optical, electrical, magnetic, mechanical and catalytic properties of nanowires consisting of semiconductors, noble and various other metals, metal oxides properties and metal alloys are presented. The applications of nanorods and nanowires are discussed in the book.

  7. Commentary: The Hmong and their Perceptions about Physical Disabilities: An Overview and Review of Selected Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Cha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are one of the fastest growing populations in Central California. Hmong refugee families arrived in Fresno in the late 1970s facing a variety of challenges regarding their traditional health beliefs and the customs of mainstream Western biomedicine. Differing and sometimes conflicting perceptions about physical disabilities have resulted in painful misunderstandings between Hmong families and Western health care providers. The aim of this paper is to present a review of some of the Hmong health belief literature concerning physical disabilities in children. It also includes commentaries from those who work with the Hmong families of physically disabled children.

  8. Vanadium alloys - overview and recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroga, T.; Nagasaka, T.; Abe, K.; Chernov, V. M.; Matsui, H.; Smith, D. L.; Xu, Z.-Y.; Zinkle, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in research on vanadium alloys with emphasis on V-4Cr-4Ti as a reference composition. New high purity V-4Cr-4Ti ingots and products (NIFS-HEATs) were made. The improved purity of the alloys made a practical demonstration of enhanced feasibility of recycling as a method of handling after use in fusion reactors. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of physical metallurgy of V-4Cr-4Ti and effects of O, N and C on the alloy properties such as low and high temperature mechanical properties, welding properties and low temperature irradiation effects, by means of including the comparison of various large heats and model alloys with different impurity levels. The effects of other trace impurities on some of the properties are also discussed. Other current efforts to characterize V-4Cr-4Ti, to improve its properties and to explore advanced vanadium alloys are reviewed. Issues remaining for the future investigations are discussed.

  9. A systematic review of intervention effects on potential mediators of children’s physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Helen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many interventions aiming to increase children’s physical activity have been developed and implemented in a variety of settings, and these interventions have previously been reviewed; however the focus of these reviews tends to be on the intervention effects on physical activity outcomes without consideration of the reasons and pathways leading to intervention success or otherwise. To systematically review the efficacy of physical activity interventions targeting 5-12 year old children on potential mediators and, where possible, to calculate the size of the intervention effect on the potential mediator. Methods A systematic search identified intervention studies that reported outcomes on potential mediators of physical activity among 5-12 year old children. Original research articles published between 1985 and April 2012 were reviewed. Results Eighteen potential mediators were identified from 31 studies. Positive effects on cognitive/psychological potential mediators were reported in 15 out of 31 studies. Positive effects on social environmental potential mediators were reported in three out of seven studies, and no effects on the physical environment were reported. Although no studies were identified that performed a mediating analysis, 33 positive intervention effects were found on targeted potential mediators (with effect sizes ranging from small to large and 73% of the time a positive effect on the physical activity outcome was reported. Conclusions Many studies have reported null intervention effects on potential mediators of children’s physical activity; however, it is important that intervention studies statistically examine the mediating effects of interventions so the most effective strategies can be implemented in future programs.

  10. Effects of bonding bakeout thermal cycles on pre- and post irradiation microstructures, physical, and mechanical properties of copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.N.; Eldrup, M.; Toft, P.; Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    At present, dispersion strengthened (DS) copper is being considered as the primary candidate material for the ITER first wall and divertor components. Recently, it was agreed among the ITER parties that a backup alloy should be selected from the two well known precipitation hardened copper alloys, CuCrZr and CuNiBe. It was therefore decided to carry out screening experiments to simulate the effect of bonding and bakeout thermal cycles on microstructure, mechanical properties, and electrical resistivity of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys. On the basis of the results of these experiments, one of the two alloys will be selected as a backup material. Tensile specimens of CuCrZr and CuNiBe alloys were given various heat treatments corresponding to solution anneal, prime ageing, and bonding thermal cycle followed by reageing and the reactor bakeout treatment at 623K for 100 hours. Tensile specimens of the DS copper were also given the heat treatment corresponding to the bonding thermal cycle. A number of these heat treated specimens of CuCrZr, CuNiBe, and DS copper were neutron irradiated at 523K to a dose level of {approx}0.3 dpa (NRT) in the DR-3 reactor at Riso. Both unirradiated and irradiated specimens with the various heat treatments were tensile tested at 532K. The dislocation, precipitate and void microstructures and electrical resistivity of these specimens were also determined. Results of these investigations will be reported and discussed in terms of thermal and irradiation stability of precipitates and irradiation-induced precipitation and recovery of dislocation microstructure. Results show that the bonding and bakeout thermal cycles are not likely to have any serious deleterious effects on the performance of these alloys. The CuNiBe alloys were found to be susceptible to radiation-induced embrittlement, however, the exact mechanism is not yet known. It is thought that radiation-induced precipitation and segregation of the beryllium may be responsible.

  11. Nanoscale strained-Si MOSFET physics and modeling approaches: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhry, Amit; Joshi, Garima [University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 91160047 (India); Roy, J. N., E-mail: amit_chaudhry01@yahoo.co [Solar Semiconductor Private Limited, Hyderabad 91510001 (India)

    2010-10-15

    An attempt has been made to give a detailed review of strained silicon technology. Various device models have been studied that consider the effect of strain on the devices, and comparisons have been drawn. A review of some modeling issues in strained silicon technology has also been outlined. The review indicates that this technology is very much required in nanoscale MOSFETs due to its several potential benefits, and there is a strong need for an analytical model which describes the complete physics of the strain technology. (semiconductor devices)

  12. The Benefits of Active Video Games for Educational and Physical Activity Approaches: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Merino-Campos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to conduct a systematic review of the current literature on active video games as potential educational tools for physical education or physical activity. To begin with, research on active video games for educational and physical purposes has been examined with the purpose of verifying improvement of attitudes, intellectual skills, knowledge, motor skills and physical properties associated with physical activity and physical education. A second aim will be to determine the effectiveness of active video games compared with traditional approaches to physical activity. From this perspective, a systematic literature search from relevant international databases was conducted from January to July 2015 in order to find papers published in journals or conference proceedings from January 2010 onwards. Then, 2648 references were identified in database searches and 100 of these papers met the inclusion criteria. Two main conclusions are to be drawn from this research. Firstly, controlled studies demonstrate that active video games increase capacities in relation to physical activity and education. Secondly, Research also shows that physical activity interventions designed and measured using behavioural theories are more likely to be successful in comparison with traditional exercise activities.

  13. Corrosion resistant amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of publication data on corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys and the methods of amorphization of surface layers of massive materials (laser treatment, iron implantation, detonation-gas spraying, cathode and ion sputtering, electrodeposition) was made. A study was made on corrosion properties of Fe66Cr11B10Si4 alloy in cast state and after laser irradiation, rendering the surface amorphous as well as the samples of Arenco iron and steel 20 with ion-plasma coatings of Fe-Cr-Ni-Ti alloy. It was established that amorphous coatings posses much higher corrosion resistance as compared to crystalline alloys on the same base

  14. Population physical activity behaviour change : A review for the European College of Sport Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biddle, S.J.H.; Brehm, W.; Verheijden, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    The academic study of sport and exercise science has expanded greatly into the arena of public health over the past 20 years or more and Europe has played a significant role in this. It is opportune to review evidence concerning ways to change population levels of physical activity for health. This

  15. Exploring the Potential of Computer and Video Games for Health and Physical Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergiou, Marina

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at critically reviewing recently published scientific literature on the use of computer and video games in Health Education (HE) and Physical Education (PE) with a view: (a) to identifying the potential contribution of the incorporation of electronic games as educational tools into HE and PE programs, (b) to present a synthesis of…

  16. What is the evidence for physical therapy poststroke? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, J.M.; Wegen, E. van; Peppen, R. van; Wees, P.J. van der; Hendriks, E.; Rietberg, M.; Kwakkel, G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical therapy (PT) is one of the key disciplines in interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update of the evidence for stroke rehabilitation interventions in the domain of PT. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs

  17. Quark Physics without Quarks: A Review of Recent Developments in S-Matrix Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Fritjof

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the developments in S-matrix theory over the past five years which have made it possible to derive results characteristic of quark models without any need to postulate the existence of physical quarks. In the new approach, the quark patterns emerge as a consequence of combining the general S-matrix principles with the concept of order.…

  18. Daily physical activities of patients with chronic pain or fatigue versus asymptomatic controls : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weering, van Marit; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.M.R.; Kotte, E.M.; Hermens, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To gain an insight into the daily physical activity levels of patients with chronic pain or fatigue compared with asymptomatic controls. Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Picarta, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, reference tracking and a manual search of relevant journals.

  19. Computer-tailored physical activity behavior change interventions targeting adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Leonie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity is important in the promotion of better health. Computer-tailored behavior change programs have shown promise in changing lifestyle risk factors. Purpose To provide a narrative systematic review describing the range of evidence on 'second' and 'third' generation computer-tailored primary prevention interventions for physical activity, to determine their effectiveness and key characteristics of success. Unlike previous reviews, this review used specific criteria to measure the external validity of studies, was exclusive to primary prevention interventions in which tailoring was generated through an expert system, and excluded first generation computer-tailored interventions. Methods Computer-tailored intervention studies published from January 1996–2008 were identified through a search of five databases: Medline; Embase; PsycINFO; CINAHL; and All EBM Reviews and by examining reference lists of relevant articles. Results Seventeen articles were included, describing the evaluation of 16 interventions, ten of which found significant positive effects of the computer-tailored interventions on physical activity or weight reduction outcomes. Conclusion The evidence of effectiveness for computer-tailored physical activity interventions is inconclusive. They have potential to reach large groups of people however there is uncertainty whether reported effects are generalizable and sustained.

  20. Adherence to Diet and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Lindsay N; Garcia, David O; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal; Roe, Denise J; Jacobs, Elizabeth T

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have reported that adherence to health promotion guidelines for diet, physical activity, and maintenance of healthy body weight may decrease cancer incidence and mortality. A systematic review was performed to examine associations between adherence to established cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity and overall cancer incidence and mortality. PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched following the current recommendations of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Approach (PRISMA). Twelve studies met inclusion criteria for this review. High versus low adherence to established nutrition and physical activity cancer prevention guidelines was consistently and significantly associated with decreases of 10% to 61% in overall cancer incidence and mortality. Consistent significant reductions were also shown for breast cancer incidence (19%-60%), endometrial cancer incidence (23%-60%), and colorectal cancer incidence in both men and women (27%-52%). Findings for lung cancer incidence were equivocal, and no significant relationships were found between adherence and ovarian or prostate cancers. Adhering to cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity is consistently associated with lower risks of overall cancer incidence and mortality, including for some site-specific cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1018-28. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27340121

  1. The Evaluation of Physical Learning Environments: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Benjamin; Fisher, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    This article critically reviews the methodologies and methods that have been used for the evaluation of physical learning environments. To contextualize discussion about the evaluation of learning spaces, we initially chart the development of post-occupancy evaluation (POE) for non-domestic buildings. We then discuss the recent evolution of POE…

  2. 75 FR 70952 - Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Physics; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: Partially Closed. Contact Person: Dr. Marvin Goldberg, Program Director for Elementary Particle...

  3. Validity and reliability of instruments to assess potential mediators of children's physical activity: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, H.; Hume, C.; Chin A Paw, J.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aimed to (1) identify potential mediators reported in children's physical activity interventions; and (2) review the psychometric properties of measures of potential mediators included in such interventions. A systematic search of the literature was conducted and studies that reported pot

  4. Adolescents' Perspectives on the Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João; Marques, Adilson; Sarmento, Hugo; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This article examined qualitative studies of adolescents' perspectives about the facilitators and barriers of physical activity, published from 2007 to 2014. A systematic review of "Web of Science", "EBSCO", "Psychinfo" and "ERIC" databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic…

  5. Measurement of Habitual Physical Activity Performance in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanchy, Kelly M.; Tweedy, Sean M.; Boyd, Roslyn

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review compares the validity, reliability, and clinical use of habitual physical activity (HPA) performance measures in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Measures of HPA across Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V for adolescents (10-18y) with CP were included if at least 60% of items…

  6. Book review: Elizabeth Leane, Reading Popular Physics: Disciplinary Skirmishes and Textual Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Book review: Elizabeth Leane, Reading Popular Physics: Disciplinary Skirmishes and Textual Strategies (Hampshire: Ashgate, 2007). 208pp. ISBN 0 7546 5850 3. US$99.95, #50.00, DOI Science Communication--> , Imperial College--> , London--> - UNITED KINGDOM (Bell, Alice) UNITED KINGDOM

  7. Efficiency of Physical Exercise Programs on Chronic Psychiatry Patients: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Lok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and exercise have recently been used as an effective method for the treatment of several mental disorders. In this systematic review, the objective is to evaluate the efficiency of the physical activity programs which are applied on the chronic psychiatric patients. The review is made in direction with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination 2009 guide which is developed by the York University, National Health Care Research Institute. Seven studies are included within the scope of this research. The patients with chronic mental disorders who participate in the physical activity programs experience positive outcomes like that they feel themselves mentally better, they are more compatible with the medical treatment and therapeutic interventions, the programs diminish the anxiety, their perceptions of physical self are strengthened, the social functionality is increased, the duration of morning sleep is decreased and the quality of night sleep is increased. Accordingly, personalized, planned and continuous physical activity programs should be developed for all the psychiatric patients and these programs should be applied on such patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 354-366

  8. The Physical Effect of Exergames in Healthy Elderly-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lisbeth H; Schou, Lone; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Langberg, Henning

    2013-08-01

    Exergames have been suggested as an innovative approach to enhance physical activity in the elderly. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of exergames on validated quantitative physical outcomes in healthy elderly individuals. We used Centre for Review and Disseminations guidance to conduct systematic reviews. Four electronic databases were searched. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the study participants were healthy elderly individuals, and the intervention of interest was exergaming. The title and abstract screening of the 1861 citations identified 36 studies as potentially eligible for this review, and an additional nine were identified from reference lists. The full text screening identified seven studies with a total of 311 participants, all reporting RCTs with low-to-moderate methodological quality. Six of the seven studies found a positive effect of exergaming on the health of the elderly. However, the variation of intervention approaches and outcome data collected limited the extent to which studies could be compared. This review demonstrates how exergames have a potential to improve physical health in the elderly. However, there is a need for additional and better-designed studies that assess the effectiveness and long-term adherence of exergames designed specifically for the elderly. PMID:26192224

  9. Physics Division annual review, 1 April 1983-31 March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad but necessarily incomplete review of the research activities within the Division is presented. Activities in medium-energy physics research include studies of pion reaction mechanisms, nuclear structure studies, two-nucleon physics with pions and electrons, weak interactions and particle searches. Research at the Superconducting Linac Accelerator includes studies on quasi-elastic processes and reaction strengths, heavy-ion fusion reactions, high angular momentum states in nuclei, accelerator mass spectrometry and equipment development at the Tandem-Linac Facility. Theoretical nuclear physics studies reviewed are grouped in the areas: nuclear forces and subnucleon degrees of freedom, variational calculation of finite many-body systems, nuclear shell theory and nuclear structure, intermediate energy physics, heavy-ion reactions and other theoretical studies. The status of the superconducting linac program is detailed, and operation and development of the tandem-linac accelerator and the Dynamitron Facility are described. The atomic and molecular physics research is detailed in the five ongoing programs: photoionization-photoelectron research, high-resolution laser-rf spectroscopy with atomic and molecular beams, photon interactions involving fast ions, interactions of fast atomic and molecular ions with solid and gaseous targets, and theoretical atomic physics. A complete list of publications and the Division roster are included

  10. A systematic review of the evidence for Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivey Adam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This systematic review examines critically the scientific basis for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Healthy Active Living for adults. Particular reference is given to the dose-response relationship between physical activity and premature all-cause mortality and seven chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer, type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis. The strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific health outcomes is evaluated critically. Literature was obtained through searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE, cross-referencing, and through the authors' knowledge of the area. For inclusion in our systematic review articles must have at least 3 levels of physical activity and the concomitant risk for each chronic disease. The quality of included studies was appraised using a modified Downs and Black tool. Through this search we identified a total of 254 articles that met the eligibility criteria related to premature all-cause mortality (N = 70, cardiovascular disease (N = 49, stroke (N = 25, hypertension (N = 12, colon cancer (N = 33, breast cancer (N = 43, type 2 diabetes (N = 20, and osteoporosis (N = 2. Overall, the current literature supports clearly the dose-response relationship between physical activity and the seven chronic conditions identified. Moreover, higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk for premature all-cause mortality. The current Canadian guidelines appear to be appropriate to reduce the risk for the seven chronic conditions identified above and all-cause mortality.

  11. Constitution and magnetism of iron and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are covered: structure of iron, magnetism of iron, thermal properties (heat capacity and enthalpy), substitutional alloys of iron, interstitial Fe alloys and compounds, influence of magnetism on the physical properties of Fe alloys (WL)

  12. Dezincification and Brass Lead Leaching in Premise Plumbing Systems: Effects of Alloy, Physical Conditions and Water Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yaofu

    2009-01-01

    Brass components are widely used in drinking water distribution systems as valves, faucets and other fixtures. They can be corroded by â dezincification,â which is the selective leaching of zinc from the alloy. Dezincification in potable water systems has important practical consequences that include clogged water lines, premature system failure and leaks, and release of contaminants such as lead. Brass failures attributed to dezincification are known to occur at least occasionally all ove...

  13. Titanium alloys in total joint replacement--a materials science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M; Rack, H J

    1998-09-01

    Increased use of titanium alloys as biomaterials is occurring due to their lower modulus, superior biocompatibility and enhanced corrosion resistance when compared to more conventional stainless steels and cobalt-based alloys. These attractive properties were a driving force for the early introduction of alpha (cpTi) and alpha + beta (Ti-6A1-4V) alloys as well as for the more recent development of new Ti-alloy compositions and orthopaedic metastable beta titanium alloys. The later possess enhanced biocompatibility, reduced elastic modulus, and superior strain-controlled and notch fatigue resistance. However, the poor shear strength and wear resistance of titanium alloys have nevertheless limited their biomedical use. Although the wear resistance of beta-Ti alloys has shown some improvement when compared to alpha + beta alloys, the ultimate utility of orthopaedic titanium alloys as wear components will require a more complete fundamental understanding of the wear mechanisms involved. This review examines current information on the physical and mechanical characteristics of titanium alloys used in artifical joint replacement prostheses, with a special focus on those issues associated with the long-term prosthetic requirements, e.g., fatigue and wear.

  14. A review of accelerator and particle physics at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last meeting of the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings Committee (ISRC) was held on 27 January 1984, following the closing of the ISR for colliding-beam physics in December 1983. This report consists of the written versions of the two review talks presented at that meeting. K. Johnsen describes the history and importance of the ISR for accelerator physics, from the first ideas on colliding-beam devices to the final operation. M. Jacob gives his view of the role of the ISR physics programme in the development of particle physics up to and including the latest available results. The preface is by G. Bellettini, the last chairman of the ISR Committee. (orig.)

  15. Literature Review: Weldability of Iridium DOP-26 Alloy for General Purpose Heat Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-19

    The basic purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review relative to fabrication of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) that is used to provide electrical power for deep space missions of NASA. The particular fabrication operation to be addressed here is arc welding of the GPHS encapsulation. A considerable effort was made to optimize the fabrication of the fuel pellets and of other elements of the encapsulation; that work will not be directly addressed in this paper. This report consists of three basic sections: 1) a brief description of the GPHS will be provided as background information for the reader; 2) mechanical properties and the optimization thereof as relevant to welding will be discussed; 3) a review of the arc welding process development and optimization will be presented. Since the welding equipment must be upgraded for future production, some discussion of the historical establishment of relevant welding variables and possible changes thereto will also be discussed.

  16. A Review: Welding Of Dissimilar Metal Alloys by Laser Beam Welding & Friction Stir Welding Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Deepika Harwani; Mr. Kapil Banker

    2014-01-01

    Welding of dissimilar metals has attracted attention of the researchers worldwide, owing to its many advantages and challenges. There is no denial in the fact that dissimilar welded joints offer more flexibility in the design and production of the commercial and industrial components. Many welding techniques have been analyzed to join dissimilar metal combinations. The objective of this paper is to review two such techniques – Laser welding and Friction stir welding. Laser beam we...

  17. Effects of School-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Cognition and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Gioia; Vellante, Marcello; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Schools are an ideal setting to implement physical activity programs targeted at youths' learning and intellectual abilities, as exercise has been associated with improvement in cognitive skills and academic proficiency. A systematic review of the literature was performed to examine the effects of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and cognitive outcomes. A search for relevant papers was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar. Only quasi-experimental and experimental studies were included, if focused on school-based physical activity interventions targeting 3 to 18 year-old healthy pupils, and designed to establish a relationship between exercise performed in a school setting and cognitive/academic performance. Thirty-one papers were retrieved by the search, reporting the findings of twenty-eight school-based physical activity interventions. Most of the included studies were published in the past five years. A large majority of the studies showed positive results in terms of academic achievement and, above all, cognitive skills. In the recent years, the number of studies on school-based physical interventions aimed to establish a relationship between physical activity performed in school setting and cognitive/academic outcomes significantly increased, as well as high quality assessments and designs. This review highlights the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and, above all, on youths' cognitive performance. Some interesting findings come from studies assessing brain functional changes, from interventions targeting culturally diverse or low-income samples, and from interventions where physical activity is in the form of active videogames. PMID:26556088

  18. Effects of School-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Cognition and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Gioia; Vellante, Marcello; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Schools are an ideal setting to implement physical activity programs targeted at youths' learning and intellectual abilities, as exercise has been associated with improvement in cognitive skills and academic proficiency. A systematic review of the literature was performed to examine the effects of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and cognitive outcomes. A search for relevant papers was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar. Only quasi-experimental and experimental studies were included, if focused on school-based physical activity interventions targeting 3 to 18 year-old healthy pupils, and designed to establish a relationship between exercise performed in a school setting and cognitive/academic performance. Thirty-one papers were retrieved by the search, reporting the findings of twenty-eight school-based physical activity interventions. Most of the included studies were published in the past five years. A large majority of the studies showed positive results in terms of academic achievement and, above all, cognitive skills. In the recent years, the number of studies on school-based physical interventions aimed to establish a relationship between physical activity performed in school setting and cognitive/academic outcomes significantly increased, as well as high quality assessments and designs. This review highlights the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and, above all, on youths' cognitive performance. Some interesting findings come from studies assessing brain functional changes, from interventions targeting culturally diverse or low-income samples, and from interventions where physical activity is in the form of active videogames.

  19. Validity of the international physical activity questionnaire short form (IPAQ-SF: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Sunita M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form (IPAQ-SF has been recommended as a cost-effective method to assess physical activity. Several studies validating the IPAQ-SF have been conducted with differing results, but no systematic review of these studies has been reported. Methods The keywords "IPAQ", "validation", and "validity" were searched in PubMed and Scopus. Studies published in English that validated the IPAQ-SF against an objective physical activity measuring device, doubly labeled water, or an objective fitness measure were included. Results Twenty-three validation studies were included in this review. There was a great deal of variability in the methods used across studies, but the results were largely similar. Correlations between the total physical activity level measured by the IPAQ-SF and objective standards ranged from 0.09 to 0.39; none reached the minimal acceptable standard in the literature (0.50 for objective activity measuring devices, 0.40 for fitness measures. Correlations between sections of the IPAQ-SF for vigorous activity or moderate activity level/walking and an objective standard showed even greater variability (-0.18 to 0.76, yet several reached the minimal acceptable standard. Only six studies provided comparisons between physical activity levels derived from the IPAQ-SF and those obtained from objective criterion. In most studies the IPAQ-SF overestimated physical activity level by 36 to 173 percent; one study underestimated by 28 percent. Conclusions The correlation between the IPAQ-SF and objective measures of activity or fitness in the large majority of studies was lower than the acceptable standard. Furthermore, the IPAQ-SF typically overestimated physical activity as measured by objective criterion by an average of 84 percent. Hence, the evidence to support the use of the IPAQ-SF as an indicator of relative or absolute physical activity is weak.

  20. Complex metallic alloys as new materials for additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additive manufacturing processes allow freeform fabrication of the physical representation of a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data model. This area has been expanding rapidly over the last 20 years. It includes several techniques such as selective laser sintering and stereolithography. The range of materials used today is quite restricted while there is a real demand for manufacturing lighter functional parts or parts with improved functional properties. In this article, we summarize recent work performed in this field, introducing new composite materials containing complex metallic alloys. These are mainly Al-based quasicrystalline alloys whose properties differ from those of conventional alloys. The use of these materials allows us to produce light-weight parts consisting of either metal–matrix composites or of polymer–matrix composites with improved properties. Functional parts using these alloys are now commercialized. (review)

  1. A review of Ramadan fasting and regular physical activity on metabolic syndrome indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome constitutes a cluster of risk factors such as obesity, hyperglycemia,  hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. In this review article, we aimed to discuss the possible effects of fasting and regular physical activity on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.  Methods: Online databases including Google Scholar, SID, PubMed, and MagIran were searched, using the following keywords:  “training”, “exercise”, “physical activity”, “fasting”, “Ramadan”, “metabolic syndrome”, “fat percentage”, “blood pressure”, “blood sugar”, “cholesterol”, “triglyceride”, and “lowdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol”. All articles including research studies, review articles, descriptive and analytical studies, and ross-sectional research, published during 2006-2015, were reviewed. In case of any errors in the methodologyof articles, they were removed from our analysis. Results:Based on our literature review, inconsistent findings have been reported on risk factors formetabolic syndrome. However, the majority of conducted studies have suggested the positive effects offasting on reducing the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Although fasting in different seasons of the year has no significant impacts on mental health or physical fitness, it can reduce the risk of various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Also, based on the conducted studies, if individuals adhere to a proper diet, avoid excessive eating, drink sufficient amounts of fluids, and keep a healthy level of physical activity, fasting can improve their physical health.

  2. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina

    2014-03-10

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (≥ 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories "physical activity", "media" and "older adults". The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n=11), compared to internet (n=3) and other media (n=2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n=10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n=6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed the results varied considerably. One

  3. Modern meta-heuristics based on nonlinear physics processes: A review of models and design procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sanz, S.

    2016-10-01

    Meta-heuristic algorithms are problem-solving methods which try to find good-enough solutions to very hard optimization problems, at a reasonable computation time, where classical approaches fail, or cannot even been applied. Many existing meta-heuristics approaches are nature-inspired techniques, which work by simulating or modeling different natural processes in a computer. Historically, many of the most successful meta-heuristic approaches have had a biological inspiration, such as evolutionary computation or swarm intelligence paradigms, but in the last few years new approaches based on nonlinear physics processes modeling have been proposed and applied with success. Non-linear physics processes, modeled as optimization algorithms, are able to produce completely new search procedures, with extremely effective exploration capabilities in many cases, which are able to outperform existing optimization approaches. In this paper we review the most important optimization algorithms based on nonlinear physics, how they have been constructed from specific modeling of a real phenomena, and also their novelty in terms of comparison with alternative existing algorithms for optimization. We first review important concepts on optimization problems, search spaces and problems' difficulty. Then, the usefulness of heuristics and meta-heuristics approaches to face hard optimization problems is introduced, and some of the main existing classical versions of these algorithms are reviewed. The mathematical framework of different nonlinear physics processes is then introduced as a preparatory step to review in detail the most important meta-heuristics based on them. A discussion on the novelty of these approaches, their main computational implementation and design issues, and the evaluation of a novel meta-heuristic based on Strange Attractors mutation will be carried out to complete the review of these techniques. We also describe some of the most important application areas, in

  4. Does Physical Activity Increase Life Expectancy? A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Reimers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity reduces many major mortality risk factors including arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. All-cause mortality is decreased by about 30% to 35% in physically active as compared to inactive subjects. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the literature on life expectancy in relation to physical activity. A systematic PubMed search on life expectancy in physically active and inactive individuals was performed. In addition, articles comparing life expectancy of athletes compared to that of nonathletes were reviewed. Results of 13 studies describing eight different cohorts suggest that regular physical activity is associated with an increase of life expectancy by 0.4 to 6.9 years. Eleven studies included confounding risk factors for mortality and revealed an increase in life expectancy by 0.4 to 4.2 years with regular physical activity. Eleven case control studies on life expectancy in former athletes revealed consistently greater life expectancy in aerobic endurance athletes but inconsistent results for other athletes. None of these studies considered confounding risk factors for mortality. In conclusion, while regular physical activity increases life expectancy, it remains unclear if high-intensity sports activities further increase life expectancy.

  5. Physics Division annual review, 1 April 1978-31 March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    A broad review is presented of work in the areas of nuclear physics research (the superconducting linac; medium-energy physics; heavy-ion research at the tandem and superconducting linac accelerators - resonant structures in heavy-ion reactions, fusion cross sections, high-angular-momentum-states in nuclei; charged-particle research; accelerator operations and development; neutron and photonuclear physics; theoretical physics - heavy-ion direct reactions, nuclear shell theory and nuclear structure, nuclear matter, intermediate-energy physics, dense nuclear matter and classical calculations of the high-energy collisions of heavy ions; radiative transitions and nuclear resonance reactions experimental atomic and molecular physics research (dissociation and other interactions of energetic molecular ions in solid and gaseous targets, beam-foil research and collision dynamics of heavy ions, photoionization-photon-electron research, spectroscopy of free atoms, Moessbauer effect research, monochromatic x-ray beam project); and applied physics (interaction of energetic particles with solids scanning secondary-ion microprobe). Most of the reports are quite brief (about a page); 24 pages of references are included. 21 items with significant amounts of information are abstracted individually. (RWR)

  6. Motivators and barriers for physical activity in the oldest old: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Veerle; Gorus, Ellen; Mets, Tony; Geerts, Christel; Bautmans, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide, people engage insufficiently in physical activity, particularly subjects aged 80 years and over. For optimal life-style campaigns, knowledge of motivators and barriers for physical activity is mandatory. Given their specific needs, it is conceivable that these would be different for the oldest old compared to younger subjects. Pubmed, Web of Science and Psychinfo were systematically screened for articles reporting motivators and barriers for physical activity. Papers were excluded if data regarding elderly aged >79 years were absent. Forty-four relevant articles were included, involving a total of 28,583 subjects. Sixty one motivators and 59 barriers for physical activity in the elderly were identified, including those who are relevant for persons aged 80 years and over. Based on the results of our literature review, we recommend that when promoting physical activity in the oldest old, special attention is paid to the health benefits of physical activity, to the subject's fears, individual preferences and social support, and to constraints related to the physical environment. However, no studies were found exclusively describing people aged 80 years and over, and future research is necessary to differentiate the barriers or motivators that are specific for the oldest old from those of younger elderly.

  7. Clinical Case Reporting in the Peer-Reviewed Physical Therapy Literature: Time to Move Toward Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Todd E

    2015-12-01

    Physical therapists increasingly are contributing clinical case reports to the health literature, which form the basis for higher quality evidence that has been incorporated into clinical practice guidelines. Yet, few resources exist to assist physical therapists with the basic mechanics and quality standards of producing a clinical case report. This situation is further complicated by the absence of uniform standards for quality in case reporting. The importance of including a concise yet comprehensive description of patient functioning in all physical therapy case reports suggest the potential appropriateness of basing quality guidelines on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) model. The purpose of this paper is to assist physical therapists in creating high-quality clinical case reports for the peer-reviewed literature using the ICF model as a guiding framework. Along these lines, current recommendations related to the basic mechanics of writing a successful clinical case report are reviewed, as well and a proposal for uniform clinical case reporting requirements is introduced with the aim to improve the quality and feasibility of clinical case reporting in physical therapy that are informed by the ICF model.

  8. Nonabusive physical punishment and child behavior among African-American children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ivor Braden; Joseph, Jill G.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of nonabusive physical punishment as a form of discipline has been greatly debated in the scientific and popular literature. Impact on child behavioral outcomes has frequently been found; however, the effects of its use are not clear, particularly for African-American children. This systematic review of the literature examined the impact of exposure to nonabusive physical punishment on the behavior of African-American children. METHODS: A search was conducted of PubMed and Psyclnfo from 1970 to 2000 using the key terms: corporal punishment, physical punishment, disciplinary practices, and discipline and parenting. Studies that described ethnicity of the population and included a majority of a well-described African-American population were included. Each study was required to include measurable data on child behavioral outcomes and at least one measure of discipline that assessed use of nonabusive physical punishment in children 0-14 years of age. RESULTS: All seven included studies used lower socioeconomic status (SES) and/or urban African-American populations. Study design and rural versus urban populations differentiated beneficial and detrimental outcomes. In all longitudinal studies, African-American children had beneficial or neutral outcomes. DISCUSSION: This review suggests that it is possible that there are benefits to nonabusive physical punishment for African-American children. However, needed are further longitudinal studies that better assess the multiple confounders that impact the use of discipline, such as SES, parental education level, and exposure to community or domestic violence. PMID:15481744

  9. Do author-suggested reviewers rate submissions more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers? A study on atmospheric chemistry and physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ratings in journal peer review can be affected by sources of bias. The bias variable investigated here was the information on whether authors had suggested a possible reviewer for their manuscript, and whether the editor had taken up that suggestion or had chosen a reviewer that had not been suggested by the authors. Studies have shown that author-suggested reviewers rate manuscripts more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers do. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reviewers' ratings on three evaluation criteria and the reviewers' final publication recommendations were available for 552 manuscripts (in total 1145 reviews that were submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, an interactive open access journal using public peer review (authors' and reviewers' comments are publicly exchanged. Public peer review is supposed to bring a new openness to the reviewing process that will enhance its objectivity. In the statistical analysis the quality of a manuscript was controlled for to prevent favorable reviewers' ratings from being attributable to quality instead of to the bias variable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results agree with those from other studies that editor-suggested reviewers rated manuscripts between 30% and 42% less favorably than author-suggested reviewers. Against this backdrop journal editors should consider either doing without the use of author-suggested reviewers or, if they are used, bringing in more than one editor-suggested reviewer for the review process (so that the review by author-suggested reviewers can be put in perspective.

  10. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coating with Si content on the nanotube-formed Ti–Nb–Zr alloy using electron beam-physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, 305 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, OH (United States); Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, 305 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on the nanotube-formed Ti–35Nb–10Zr alloy. The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) coatings on the nanotube structure were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition and anodization methods, and biodegradation properties were analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. The surface characteristics were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Si–HA layers were deposited with rough features having highly ordered nanotube structures on the titanium alloy substrate. The thickness of the Si–HA coating was less than that of the HA coating. The XRD results confirmed that the Si–HA coating on the nanotube structure consisted of TiO{sub 2} anatase, TiO{sub 2} rutile, hydroxyapatite, and calcium phosphate silicate. The Si–HA coating surface exhibited lower I{sub corr} than the HA coating, and the polarization resistance was increased by substitution of silicon in hydroxyapatite. - Highlights: • Silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) was coated on nanotubular titanium alloy. • The Si–HA coating thickness was less than single hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. • Si–HA coatings consisted of TiO{sub 2}, HA, and Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}. • Polarization resistance of the coating was increased by Si substitution in HA.

  11. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides reviews of four computer software packages designed for use in science education. Describes courseware dealing with a variety of tips for teaching physics concepts, chemical reactions in an aqueous solution, mitosis and meiosis, and photosynthesis. (TW)

  12. Frail Institutionalized Older Persons A Comprehensive Review on Physical Exercise, Physical Fitness, Activities of Daily Living, and Quality-of-Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening-Dijksterhuis, Elizabeth; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2011-01-01

    Weening-Dijksterhuis E, de Greef MHG, Scherder EJA, Slaets JPJ, van der Schans CP: Frail institutionalized older persons: A comprehensive review on physical exercise, physical fitness, activities of daily living, and quality-of-life. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011;90:156Y168. The objective of this study

  13. Review of recent developments in lithium metal-bearing alloys and composites for in-vessel fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, A. B.; Scott, P. A.; Chu, J.; Krauss, A. R.

    1990-12-01

    An extensive program has been underway over the last several years to develop lithium metal-bearing alloys and composites as a means of reducing plasma impurities and sputter erosion of fusion first wall and limiter/divertor surfaces. One major issue that has slowed the introduction of the lithium metal bearing alloys/composites into the experimental tokamak environment is the result of the deleterious oxidation effects upon these materials. The uptake of oxygen may be responsible for the observed increases in the lithium vapor pressure, the reduction of the secondary-ion fraction, and the inability to sustain a lithium overlayer for long-term sputter-erosion periods. However, these problems have been overcome by optimizing the process parameters of the starting lithium metal-bearing alloys and/or by the alloying addition of dilute concentrations of a getter and/or barrier metal in the host metal matrix. Incomplete Cu-Li alloying, second-phase alloys and/or oxides, and the inclusion of lithium interstitials may be responsible for the oxygen uptake in lithium metal-bearing Cu alloys. Beryllium and titanium oxygen getters have been added to Cu-Li alloys and to W-(LiAl) composites, respectively, resulting in lithium residing in the metal-state as a uniform and continuous overlayer when subjected to elevated temperature and/or sputter-erosion conditions. Without the getter metal additions, lithium tends to reside as an oxide or a mixed metal/metal-oxide on the respective Cu-Li and W-(LiAl) surfaces. A small alloying addition of Ag (<1 at%) into Cu-Li has been shown apparently either to reduce the oxygen uptake at the surface or to act as a barrier to bulk oxygen diffusing to the surface, thus allowing the formation of lithium-metal overlayers without any detectable oxygen.

  14. The Case for Increased Physical Activity in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R J

    2016-06-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer, but there is little information on the merits of such activity in the prevention and management of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD). The present systematic review thus documents current levels of habitual physical activity and aerobic and muscular function in CIBD, and examines the safety, practicality and efficacy of exercise programmes in countering the disease process, correcting functional deficits and enhancing quality of life. A systematic search of the Ovid/Medline database from January 1996 to May 2015 linked the terms physical activity/motor activity/physical fitness/physical training/physical education/training/exercise/exercise therapy with Crohn's disease/colitis/ulcerative colitis/inflammatory bowel disease, supplementing this information by a scanning of reference lists and personal files.12 of 16 published studies show a low level of habitual physical activity in CIBD, with sub-normal values for aerobic power, lean tissue mass and muscular strength. 3 of 4 studies suggest physical activity may reduce the risk of developing IBD, and 11 interventions all note that exercise programmes are well tolerated with some decreases of disease activity, and functional gains leading to an increased health-related quality of life. Moreover, programme compliance rates compare favourably with those seen in the treatment of other chronic conditions. More information on mechanisms is needed, but regular moderate aerobic and/or resistance exercise improves the health status of patients with CIBD both by modulating immune function and by improving physical function. A regular exercise programme should thus become an important component in the management of CIBD. PMID:27116344

  15. Review of Effects of Physical Activity on Strength, Balance, Mobility and ADL Performance in Elderly Subjects with Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Boersma, Froukje; Luning, Helga; de Jong, Jeltsje; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Elderly individuals with dementia are vulnerable for a decline in physical functioning and basic activities of daily living (BADL) which can lead to a decline in autonomy and participation. This study reviews the effect of physical activity on physical functioning and BADL in elderl

  16. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  17. Environment as 'Brain Training': A review of geographical and physical environmental influences on cognitive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassarino, Marica; Setti, Annalisa

    2015-09-01

    Global ageing demographics coupled with increased urbanisation pose major challenges to the provision of optimal living environments for older persons, particularly in relation to cognitive health. Although animal studies emphasize the benefits of enriched environments for cognition, and brain training interventions have shown that maintaining or improving cognitive vitality in older age is possible, our knowledge of the characteristics of our physical environment which are protective for cognitive ageing is lacking. The present review analyses different environmental characteristics (e.g. urban vs. rural settings, presence of green) in relation to cognitive performance in ageing. Studies of direct and indirect associations between physical environment and cognitive performance are reviewed in order to describe the evidence that our living contexts constitute a measurable factor in determining cognitive ageing. PMID:26144974

  18. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION. A THEORETICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Rodríguez Quijada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we tour the treatment of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the field of physical education by the professed and the students. For this purpose we review the existing lines of research on the topic and how the most remarkable works of different authors, with special attention to the situation in the autonomous community of Galicia. Finally the main problems related to the use of these technologies in classrooms are analyzed. All this in order t to shed light on a very topical issue regarding the education of our youth. Studies show that ICTs are increasingly present in the field of physical education, but much remains to be done to make an effective use of them in education. 

  19. A Review: Welding Of Dissimilar Metal Alloys by Laser Beam Welding & Friction Stir Welding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Deepika Harwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Welding of dissimilar metals has attracted attention of the researchers worldwide, owing to its many advantages and challenges. There is no denial in the fact that dissimilar welded joints offer more flexibility in the design and production of the commercial and industrial components. Many welding techniques have been analyzed to join dissimilar metal combinations. The objective of this paper is to review two such techniques – Laser welding and Friction stir welding. Laser beam welding, a high power density and low energy-input process, employs a laser beam to produce welds of dissimilar materials. Friction stir welding, a solid-state joining process, is also successfully used in dissimilar welding applications like aerospace and ship building industries. This paper summarizes the trends and advances of these two welding processes in the field of dissimilar welding. Future aspects of the study are also discussed.

  20. First-principles calculation of the physical properties of GaAs1-xBix alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarki, M.; Rebey, A.

    2011-10-01

    The structural, electronic and optical properties of GaAs1-xBix alloy are investigated using the density functional theory based on the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method as implemented in the Wien2k package. The exchange correlation potential is treated by generalized gradient approximation. We have studied the effect of Bi composition on equilibrium volume, energy band gap, electron and hole effective masses and dielectric function. For the electron and hole effective masses and the dielectric function variations versus bismuth composition, our results represent an attempt to investigate their qualitative trends.

  1. A review of Ramadan fasting and regular physical activity on metabolic syndrome indices

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini; keyvan Hejazi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome constitutes a cluster of risk factors such as obesity, hyperglycemia,  hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. In this review article, we aimed to discuss the possible effects of fasting and regular physical activity on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.  Methods: Online databases including Google Scholar, SID, PubMed, and MagIran were searched, using the following keywords:  “tra...

  2. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, B.; Lehmann, J.; Zech, W.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record Rapid turnover of organic matter leads to a low efficiency of organic fertilizers applied to increase and sequester C in soils of the humid tropics. Charcoal was reported to be responsible for high soil organic matter contents and soil fertility of anthropogenic soils (Terra Preta) found in central Amazonia. Therefore, we reviewed the available information about the physical and chemical properties of charcoal as affected by different combustion procedures, and the eff...

  3. The relationship between physical activity and low back pain outcomes: a systematic review of observational studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrick, Paul; Milosavljevic, S.; Hale, L; Hurley, D. A.; McDonough, S; Ryan, B; Baxter, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    Although clinical guidelines advocate exercise and activity in the management of non-specific low back pain (NSLBP), the link between levels of physical activity and outcomes is unclear. This systematic review investigated the relationships between free living activity levels after onset of low back pain (LBP) and measures of pain, and disability in patients with NSLBP. Cohort and cross-sectional studies were located using OVID, CINAHL, Medline, AMED, Embase, Biomed, PubMed-National Library o...

  4. Virtual reality using games for improving physical functioning in older adults: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Karina Iglesia; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; de Moraes, Suzana Albuquerque; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The use of virtual reality through exergames or active video game, i.e. a new form of interactive gaming, as a complementary tool in rehabilitation has been a frequent focus in research and clinical practice in the last few years. However, evidence of their effectiveness is scarce in the older population. This review aim to provide a summary of the effects of exergames in improving physical functioning in older adults. A search for randomized controlled trials was performed in the databases E...

  5. Review on Physically Flexible Nonvolatile Memory for Internet of Everything Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed T. Ghoneim; Muhammad M. Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state memory is an essential component of the digital age. With advancements in healthcare technology and the Internet of Things (IoT), the demand for ultra-dense, ultra-low-power memory is increasing. In this review, we present a comprehensive perspective on the most notable approaches to the fabrication of physically flexible memory devices. With the future goal of replacing traditional mechanical hard disks with solid-state storage devices, a fully flexible electronic system will nee...

  6. New Ti-Alloys and Surface Modifications to Improve the Mechanical Properties and the Biological Response to Orthopedic and Dental Implants: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmanidou, Yvoni; Sidira, Margarita; Drosou, Maria-Eleni; Bennani, Vincent; Bakopoulou, Athina; Tsouknidas, Alexander; Michailidis, Nikolaos; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are widely used in the orthopedic and dentistry fields for many decades, for joint arthroplasties, spinal and maxillofacial reconstructions, and dental prostheses. However, despite the quite satisfactory survival rates failures still exist. New Ti-alloys and surface treatments have been developed, in an attempt to overcome those failures. This review provides information about new Ti-alloys that provide better mechanical properties to the implants, such as superelasticity, mechanical strength, and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies, which investigate the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of these new biomaterials, are introduced. In addition, data regarding the bioactivity of new surface treatments and surface topographies on Ti-implants is provided. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current trends, advantages, and disadvantages of new titanium-based biomaterials, fabricated to enhance the quality of life of many patients around the world. PMID:26885506

  7. New Ti-Alloys and Surface Modifications to Improve the Mechanical Properties and the Biological Response to Orthopedic and Dental Implants: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmanidou, Yvoni; Sidira, Margarita; Drosou, Maria-Eleni; Bennani, Vincent; Bakopoulou, Athina; Tsouknidas, Alexander; Michailidis, Nikolaos; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are widely used in the orthopedic and dentistry fields for many decades, for joint arthroplasties, spinal and maxillofacial reconstructions, and dental prostheses. However, despite the quite satisfactory survival rates failures still exist. New Ti-alloys and surface treatments have been developed, in an attempt to overcome those failures. This review provides information about new Ti-alloys that provide better mechanical properties to the implants, such as superelasticity, mechanical strength, and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies, which investigate the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of these new biomaterials, are introduced. In addition, data regarding the bioactivity of new surface treatments and surface topographies on Ti-implants is provided. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current trends, advantages, and disadvantages of new titanium-based biomaterials, fabricated to enhance the quality of life of many patients around the world. PMID:26885506

  8. New Ti-Alloys and Surface Modifications to Improve the Mechanical Properties and the Biological Response to Orthopedic and Dental Implants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvoni Kirmanidou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are widely used in the orthopedic and dentistry fields for many decades, for joint arthroplasties, spinal and maxillofacial reconstructions, and dental prostheses. However, despite the quite satisfactory survival rates failures still exist. New Ti-alloys and surface treatments have been developed, in an attempt to overcome those failures. This review provides information about new Ti-alloys that provide better mechanical properties to the implants, such as superelasticity, mechanical strength, and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies, which investigate the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of these new biomaterials, are introduced. In addition, data regarding the bioactivity of new surface treatments and surface topographies on Ti-implants is provided. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current trends, advantages, and disadvantages of new titanium-based biomaterials, fabricated to enhance the quality of life of many patients around the world.

  9. The effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes in adolescents: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, Anouk; Assink, Mark; van Vugt, Eveline; van der Put, Claudia; Stams, Geert Jan

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity interventions are often implemented in the adolescent mental health care practice to prevent or treat psychosocial problems. To date, no systematic review of the effect of these physical activity interventions in adolescents has been conducted. In the current study, four multilevel meta-analyses were performed to assess the overall effect of physical activity interventions on externalizing problems, internalizing problems, self-concept, and academic achievement in adolescents. In addition, possible moderating factors were examined. In total, 57 studies reporting on 216 effect sizes were included, and the results showed significant small-to-moderate effects of physical activity interventions on externalizing problems (d=0.320), internalizing problems (d=0.316), self-concept (d=0.297), and academic achievement (d=0.367). Further, moderator analyses showed that outcome, study, sample, and intervention characteristics influenced the effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes. Implications for theory and practice concerning the use of physical activity interventions in adolescent mental health care practice are discussed. PMID:27064552

  10. Measurement of physical activity in obese persons: how and why? A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for poor health, especially in children. Reduced physical activity, prompted by a sedentary lifestyle, is a major contributor. Hence, it is important to assess physical activity using standardized methods in public health to identify the risks associated with obesity. There have been no recent reports comparing such modalities for use by clinicians and researchers. In this article, some of these methods for use in the assessment of physical activity are reviewed, and their advantages and disadvantages are described. [Subjects and Methods] Electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar were searched for literature, using key words Obesity, Physical activity, and Physical Behavior Monitoring. [Results] With advances in technology, various novel methods have been developed to assess physical behavior, but conventional methods are still relevant and easy to administer. [Conclusion] There are various measurement options available. Researchers may choose devices providing more accurate measurements, while clinicians may prefer portability and affordability for patients. PMID:27799717

  11. Critical narrative review to identify educational strategies promoting physical activity in preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Krombholz, H; Gibson, E L; Vögele, C; Nixon, C A; Douthwaite, W; Moore, H J; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this narrative review is critically to evaluate educational strategies promoting physical activity that are used in the preschool setting in the context of obesity prevention programmes. Literature search was conducted between April and August 2010 in English and German databases (PubMED, PsychINFO, PSYNDEX, ERIC, FIS Bildung). Outcomes considered were time and intensity of physical activity, motor skills or measures of body composition. A total of 19 studies were included. Ten studies added physical activity lessons into their curriculum, one study provided more time for free play, eight studies focused on the social and play environment. Studies reporting positive outcomes implemented physical activity sessions that lasted at least 30 min d(-1). Several studies showed that children are most active in the first 10-15 min. The existence or installation of playground markings or fixed play equipment had no effect, whereas the presence or addition of portable play equipment was positively correlated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Teacher training may be a key element for successful interventions. To overcome time constraints, a suggested solution is to integrate physical activity into daily routines and other areas of the preschool curriculum.

  12. Virtual reality using games for improving physical functioning in older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Karina Iglesia; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; de Moraes, Suzana Albuquerque; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The use of virtual reality through exergames or active video game, i.e. a new form of interactive gaming, as a complementary tool in rehabilitation has been a frequent focus in research and clinical practice in the last few years. However, evidence of their effectiveness is scarce in the older population. This review aim to provide a summary of the effects of exergames in improving physical functioning in older adults. A search for randomized controlled trials was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyInfo, Cochrane data base, PEDro and ISI Web of Knowledge. Results from the included studies were analyzed through a critical review and methodological quality by the PEDro scale. Thirteen studies were included in the review. The most common apparatus for exergames intervention was the Nintendo Wii gaming console (8 studies), followed by computers games, Dance video game with pad (two studies each) and only one study with the Balance Rehabilitation Unit. The Timed Up and Go was the most frequently used instrument to assess physical functioning (7 studies). According to the PEDro scale, most of the studies presented methodological problems, with a high proportion of scores below 5 points (8 studies). The exergames protocols and their duration varied widely, and the benefits for physical function in older people remain inconclusive. However, a consensus between studies is the positive motivational aspect that the use of exergames provides. Further studies are needed in order to achieve better methodological quality, external validity and provide stronger scientific evidence.

  13. Evaluation methods for physical activity-promoting mobile technologies: an interdisciplinary scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire McCallum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many thousands of mobile apps, wearables and other technologies available to support and promote physical activity. However, the rapidly evolving nature of these technologies means that the methodologies traditionally used to evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions (such as the randomised controlled trial may not be appropriate to evaluate their effectiveness. A scoping review was conducted to identify the methods currently being used to evaluate physical activity-promoting mobile technologies across health and computing science disciplines. In addition to the range of methods used, the review explored their strengths and weaknesses. The results improve understandings of when and why to use existing methods from health and computing science. Opportunities for combining and hybridising methods across the two disciplines are also identified. The review will be used to inform the development and piloting of novel, ‘fit-for-purpose’ research designs that will allow rigorous evaluation of the effectiveness of rapidly-evolving physical activity-promoting mobile technologies and their ‘active ingredients’ to build an evidence base of what works, why and for whom.

  14. The influence of nontraditional training modalities on physical performance: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Reginald B; Serres, Jennifer; Traver, Kyle L; Wright, Bruce; Vojta, Chris; Eveland, Ed

    2012-10-01

    The primary purpose of this effort was to review several forms of nontraditional (NT) training programs, including heavy lower extremity strength training, CrossFit training, kettlebell training, and agility training, and discuss the effects of these exercise regimens on physical performance. The secondary purpose was to evaluate NT fitness training programs for evidence that they may provide beneficial options to help airmen improve their fitness scores. A search of the literature for 1980-2010 was performed using the Franzello Aeromedical Library, Public Medicine, and Air Force Institute of Technology search engines. There were 50 articles located and the authors selected 29 articles that specifically addressed the primary and secondary purposes of this literature review. This review indicates that an NT training approach is warranted in the general Air Force population. Heavy leg strength training and agility training show promise in enhancing aerobic fitness and improving fitness scores, particularly among members who have difficulty passing a physical fitness test. Most of the nontraditional forms of physical training are not supported in the scientific literature, with the exception of heavy leg strength training and agility training. However, even these NT forms of training require further investigation. PMID:23066621

  15. Virtual reality using games for improving physical functioning in older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Karina Iglesia; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; de Moraes, Suzana Albuquerque; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The use of virtual reality through exergames or active video game, i.e. a new form of interactive gaming, as a complementary tool in rehabilitation has been a frequent focus in research and clinical practice in the last few years. However, evidence of their effectiveness is scarce in the older population. This review aim to provide a summary of the effects of exergames in improving physical functioning in older adults. A search for randomized controlled trials was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyInfo, Cochrane data base, PEDro and ISI Web of Knowledge. Results from the included studies were analyzed through a critical review and methodological quality by the PEDro scale. Thirteen studies were included in the review. The most common apparatus for exergames intervention was the Nintendo Wii gaming console (8 studies), followed by computers games, Dance video game with pad (two studies each) and only one study with the Balance Rehabilitation Unit. The Timed Up and Go was the most frequently used instrument to assess physical functioning (7 studies). According to the PEDro scale, most of the studies presented methodological problems, with a high proportion of scores below 5 points (8 studies). The exergames protocols and their duration varied widely, and the benefits for physical function in older people remain inconclusive. However, a consensus between studies is the positive motivational aspect that the use of exergames provides. Further studies are needed in order to achieve better methodological quality, external validity and provide stronger scientific evidence. PMID:25399408

  16. Mediators of physical activity behaviour change among adult non-clinical populations: a review update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaeffli Leila A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the determinants of physical activity through mediators of behaviour change is important in order to evaluate the efficacy of interventions. Prior reviews on this topic noted that few studies employed mediator analyses in experimental physical activity trials; the purpose of this review is to update these prior reviews in order to evaluate the state of our present understanding of interventions that include proposed mediators of behaviour change. Methods Literature was identified through electronic database (e.g., MEDLINE, psychINFO searching. Studies were eligible if they described a published experimental or quasi-experimental trial examining the effect of an intervention on physical activity behaviour and mediator change in non-clinical adult populations. Quality of included studies was assessed and the analyses examined the symmetry between mediators and behaviour change. Results Twenty seven unique trials passed the eligibility criteria and 22 were included in the analysis with scores of moderate or higher quality. Half of the studies reviewed failed to show an intervention effect on PA. The remaining studies showed evidence that the intervention affected changes in the proposed mediators, but tests of mediated effect were performed in only six of these 11 cases and demonstrated mixed outcomes. Differences by theory were not discernable at this time, but self-regulation constructs had the most evidence for mediation. Conclusion Published literature employing mediators of change analyses in experimental designs is still relatively elusive since the time of prior reviews; however, the general null findings of changes in mediating constructs from these interventions are a more timely concern. Changes in self-regulation constructs may have the most effect on changes in PA while self-efficacy and outcome expectation type constructs have negligible but limited findings. Innovation and increased fidelity of

  17. Reducing the decline in physical activity during pregnancy: a systematic review of behaviour change interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Currie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA typically declines throughout pregnancy. Low levels of PA are associated with excessive weight gain and subsequently increase risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension disorders, delivery by caesarean section and stillbirth. Systematic reviews on PA during pregnancy have not explored the efficacy of behaviour change techniques or related theory in altering PA behaviour. This systematic review evaluated the content of PA interventions to reduce the decline of PA in pregnant women with a specific emphasis on the behaviour change techniques employed to elicit this change. SEARCH AND REVIEW METHODOLOGY: Literature searches were conducted in eight databases. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed. Two reviewers independently evaluated each intervention using the behaviour change techniques (BCT taxonomy to identify the specific behaviour change techniques employed. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias using the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Overall quality was determined using the GRADE approach. FINDINGS: A total of 1140 potentially eligible papers were identified from which 14 studies were selected for inclusion. Interventions included counselling (n = 6, structured exercise (n = 6 and education (n = 2. Common behaviour change techniques employed in these studies were goal setting and planning, feedback, repetition and substitution, shaping knowledge and comparison of behaviours. Regular face-to-face meetings were also commonly employed. PA change over time in intervention groups ranged from increases of 28% to decreases of 25%. In 8 out of 10 studies, which provided adequate data, participants in the intervention group were more physically active post intervention than controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Physical activity interventions incorporating behaviour change techniques help reduce the decline in PA throughout pregnancy

  18. Physics of solid-liquid interfaces: From the Young equation to the superhydrophobicity (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2016-08-01

    The state-of-art in the field of physics of phenomena occurring at solid/liquid interfaces is presented. The notions of modern physics of wetting are introduced and discussed including: the contact angle hysteresis, disjoining pressure and wetting transitions. The physics of low temperature wetting phenomena is treated. The general variational approach to interfacial problems, based on the application of the transversality conditions to variational problems with free endpoints is presented. It is demonstrated that main equations, predicting contact angles, namely the Young, Wenzel, and Cassie-Baxter equations arise from imposing the transversality conditions on the appropriate variational problem of wetting. Recently discovered effects such as superhydrophobicity, the rose petal effect and the molecular dynamic of capillarity are reviewed.

  19. Health-Promoting Physical Activity of Children Who Use Assistive Mobility Devices: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy L; Kerfeld, Cheryl I

    2016-01-01

    Children with physical disabilities who use assistive mobility devices (AMDs) are at risk for obesity and other secondary health conditions. Habitual physical activity is one lifestyle factor that may prevent obesity and contribute to overall health, and an active lifestyle in childhood improves prospects for lifelong healthy behaviors. Child, family, and environmental facilitators and barriers influence health-promoting physical activity (HPPA) for children without disabilities, but comparable models and levels of understanding for children who use AMDs are lacking. In this scoping review, we identified a similar set of child, family, and environmental facilitators and barriers relevant to HPPA participation among children who use AMDs. Noted gaps in the literature included limited reporting of AMD use, inconsistent HPPA definitions, and inadequate measurement tools for children who are nonambulatory. The identified child, family, and environmental factors provide a framework for occupational therapy practitioners and interprofessional teams to develop HPPA opportunities and interventions for an underserved population. PMID:27548861

  20. Effectiveness of therapeutic physical exercise in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Martín, Pablo; Gallego-Izquierdo, T; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Conclusion] The intervention programs that were most effective in relieving pain and improving function in patellofemoral pain syndrome included proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and strengthening exercises for the hip external rotator and abductor muscles and knee extensor muscles. PMID:26311988

  1. Chronic Physical Health Problems in Sexual Minority Women: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Michele J

    2014-12-01

    Although there is substantial literature about sexual minority women's mental health and use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD), only recently has attention been focused on chronic physical health disorders thought to stem from stress and exposure to ATOD use. The most extensively studied aspect of physical health has been weight, with the majority of studies reporting higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. In addition, many studies report higher levels of stressful experiences in both childhood and adulthood for sexual minority women. In this paper, the hypothesized relationship between stress, unhealthy behaviors, and five common chronic physical health disorders is explored via review of the literature. Only asthma appeared to be consistently more common in sexual minority women, and few or no differences in diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and most cancers were found. The limitations of these studies are reviewed, and the need for studies that directly address the relationships among stress, health-damaging practices, and chronic disorder is emphasized. However, if these findings hold up, and sexual minority women are not more prone to these disorders, the field may need better theoretical frameworks from which to explore potential differences in the manifestation of mental versus chronic physical health disparities. PMID:26789854

  2. Development of Biomimetic NiTi Alloy: Influence of Thermo-Chemical Treatment on the Physical, Mechanical and Biological Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Rupérez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A bioactive layer, free of nickel, has been performed for its greater acceptability and reliability in clinical applications for NiTi shape memory alloys. In the first step, a safe barrier against Ni release has been produced on the surface by means of a thicker rutile/anastase protective layer free of nickel. In the second step, a sodium alkaline titanate hydrogel, which has the ability to induce apatite formation, has been performed from oxidized surface. An improvement of host tissue–implant integration has been achieved in terms of Ni ions release and the bioactivity of the treated NiTi alloys has been corroborated with both in vitro and in vivo studies. The transformation temperatures (As, Af, Ms, and Mf, as well as the critical stresses (σβ⇔M, have been slightly changed due to this surface modification. Consequently, this fact must be taken into account in order to design new surface modification on NiTi implants.

  3. Influence of Aging Time on the Physical Properties in the Synthesis ofCuNiAl Shape Memory Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of CuNiAl metal alloy using powder metallurgy technique hasbeen carried out. All three mixture with ratio volume percentage(83.3:3.8:12.9, 83.1:3.9:13.0, 82.9:4.0:13.1, 82.7:4.1:13.2) has beenprocessed into a homogeneous mixture with ball mill, and the cold pressed at5.0 ton/cm2. This was heated at 650 oC for 45 minutes. The mixture washeated for solid solution treatment at 1000 oC, for 45 minutes then quenchedin water media aged at 200 oC for 2, 6, 10, 14, and 24 hours to obtain alloyin shape memory basis. The product of CuNiAl alloy was then characterized forits, microstructure, hardness test, and density. The result ofmicrostructural investigation show that the martensite phase consists oflamellar plates which tend to get coarse with additional aging time. Theresult of density show that the density tends to increased with aging time,with density value of 7.43 - 8.11 g/cm3. The result of hardness show thathardness also tends to increase with aging time, with hardness value of 132.5- 147.3 Hv. (author)

  4. A Systematic Review of Mapping Strategies for the Sonification of Physical Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubus, Gaël; Bresin, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of sonification has progressed greatly over the past twenty years and currently constitutes an established area of research. This article aims at exploiting and organizing the knowledge accumulated in previous experimental studies to build a foundation for future sonification works. A systematic review of these studies may reveal trends in sonification design, and therefore support the development of design guidelines. To this end, we have reviewed and analyzed 179 scientific publications related to sonification of physical quantities. Using a bottom-up approach, we set up a list of conceptual dimensions belonging to both physical and auditory domains. Mappings used in the reviewed works were identified, forming a database of 495 entries. Frequency of use was analyzed among these conceptual dimensions as well as higher-level categories. Results confirm two hypotheses formulated in a preliminary study: pitch is by far the most used auditory dimension in sonification applications, and spatial auditory dimensions are almost exclusively used to sonify kinematic quantities. To detect successful as well as unsuccessful sonification strategies, assessment of mapping efficiency conducted in the reviewed works was considered. Results show that a proper evaluation of sonification mappings is performed only in a marginal proportion of publications. Additional aspects of the publication database were investigated: historical distribution of sonification works is presented, projects are classified according to their primary function, and the sonic material used in the auditory display is discussed. Finally, a mapping-based approach for characterizing sonification is proposed. PMID:24358192

  5. Effects of physical activity in telomere length: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundstock, Eduardo; Zatti, Helen; Louzada, Fernanda Mattos; Oliveira, Suelen Goecks; Guma, Fátima T C R; Paris, Mariana Migliorini; Rueda, Angélica Barba; Machado, Denise Greff; Stein, Renato T; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sarria, Edgar E; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia M; Mattiello, Rita

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effects of exercise on telomeres length. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), Scopus, LILACS, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science from inception to August 2014. All articles that assessed the effects of exercise in telomere length were included in this review. The search strategy used the following combinations of terms: telomere AND "motor activity" OR exercise OR "physical activity". Two reviewers, working independently, screened all titles and abstracts to identify studies that could meet inclusion criteria. Whenever possible, and if appropriate, we performed a random-effect meta-analysis of study outcomes. Thirty-seven original studies were included in this systematic review, including 41,230 participants. Twenty articles did not find statistically significant association, whereas 15 described a positive association. Two papers found an inverted "U" correlation. There is a tendency toward demonstrating an effect of exercise on telomere length. Few prospective studies were found, many studies did not reach statistical significance and there was an important methodological diversity. For this reason, a possible significant association between physical activity and telomere length remains an open question.

  6. A Review on Technical and Clinical Impact of Microsoft Kinect on Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mousavi Hondori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews technical and clinical impact of the Microsoft Kinect in physical therapy and rehabilitation. It covers the studies on patients with neurological disorders including stroke, Parkinson’s, cerebral palsy, and MS as well as the elderly patients. Search results in Pubmed and Google scholar reveal increasing interest in using Kinect in medical application. Relevant papers are reviewed and divided into three groups: (1 papers which evaluated Kinect’s accuracy and reliability, (2 papers which used Kinect for a rehabilitation system and provided clinical evaluation involving patients, and (3 papers which proposed a Kinect-based system for rehabilitation but fell short of providing clinical validation. At last, to serve as technical comparison to help future rehabilitation design other sensors similar to Kinect are reviewed.

  7. Enhanced Physical Activity Improves Selected Outcomes in Children With ADHD: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, MinKyoung; Lauseng, Deborah; Lee, Soohee; Nordstrom, Megan; Katch, Victor

    2016-09-01

    This review examines associations between physical activity (PA) and cognitive, behavioral, and physiological outcomes in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We reviewed studies on participants ≤18 years old, published in English between January 1998 and December 2014, in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Reviews. Twenty-six studies were grouped into two categories: those that did and did not account for effects of ADHD medications. The first category showed lower levels of PA and improved cognitive and behavioral outcomes in youth whose ADHD was treated with medications. The second category showed a positive association between PA levels and cognitive and behavioral outcomes in youth whose ADHD was not treated with medications. For both categories of studies, results were inconclusive regarding physiological outcomes. Randomized controlled trials are needed to better clarify the relationship between PA and outcomes in youth with ADHD, and particularly to understand the impact of ADHD medications on that relationship. PMID:27226208

  8. Barriers to and facilitators of sports participation for people with physical disabilities: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, E A; Dijkstra, P U; Geertzen, J H B; Dekker, R

    2014-12-01

    Most people with physical disabilities do not participate in sports regularly, which could increase the chances of developing secondary health conditions. Therefore, knowledge about barriers to and facilitators of sports participation is needed. Barriers and facilitators for people with physical disabilities other than amputation or spinal cord injuries (SCI) are unknown. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature focusing on barriers to and facilitators of sports participation for all people with various physical disabilities. Four databases were searched using MeSH terms and free texts up to April 2012. The inclusion criteria were articles focusing on people with physical disabilities, sports and barriers and/or facilitators. The exclusion criteria were articles solely focusing on people with cognitive disabilities, sensory impairments or disabilities related to a recent organ transplant or similar condition. Fifty-two articles were included in this review, with 27 focusing on people with SCI. Personal barriers were disability and health; environmental barriers were lack of facilities, transport and difficulties with accessibility. Personal facilitators were fun and health, and the environmental facilitator was social contacts. Experiencing barriers to and facilitators of sports participation depends on age and type of disability and should be considered when advising people about sports. The extent of sports participation for people with physical disabilities also increases with the selection of the most appropriate sport. PMID:24730752

  9. Physically based mathematical models in soil science: History, current state, problems, and outlook (Analytical Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    The formation, development, and some problems of the current physically based models of water and solute transfer are considered in this review. These models appeared about a half century ago. They were based on the basic laws of soil physics and other branches of soil science (laws of balance, transfer, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, etc.) described by the corresponding equations and programs and supported by the experimental data in the form of physically based parameters. At present, one of the main problems in the development, adaptation, and application of these models is that the current and future mathematical models should rest upon the experimental support with a clear physical basis characterizing the nature of the phenomenon described. This experimental support enables creating research models, drawing conceptual conclusions, and, hence, understanding, analyzing, and managing soil processes. This is apparently possible only if the set of methods for the experimental support of models is substantiated, preferably in direct physical experiments and under field conditions close to the future model prognoses.

  10. Physical Activity Associated with Public Transport Use—A Review and Modelling of Potential Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Greenaway

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Active travel, particularly walking and cycling, has been recommended because of the health benefits associated with increased physical activity. Use of public transport generally involves some walking to bus stops or train stations. This paper is a systematic review of how much time is spent in physical activity among adults using public transport. It also explores the potential effect on the population level of physical activity if inactive adults in NSW, Australia, increased their walking through increased use of public transport. Of 1,733 articles, 27 met the search criteria, and nine reported on absolute measures of physical activity associated with public transport. A further 18 papers reported on factors associated with physical activity as part of public transport use. A range of 8–33 additional minutes of walking was identified from this systematic search as being attributable to public transport use. Using “bootstrapping” statistical modelling, if 20% of all inactive adults increased their walking by only 16 minutes a day for five days a week, we predict there would be a substantial 6.97% increase in the proportion of the adult population considered “sufficiently active”. More minutes walked per day, or a greater uptake of public transport by inactive adults would likely lead to significantly greater increases in the adult population considered sufficiently active.

  11. Effectiveness of β-blockers in physically active patients with hypertension: protocol of a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tučková, Dagmar; Klugar, Miloslav; Sovová, Eliška; Sovová, Markéta; Štégnerová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Based on more than 5 decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher physical activity patterns and levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with better health outcomes. Therefore, it is necessary to consider how treatment methods affect these two components. Clinically, one very important question concerns the influence of aerobic performance on patients being treated for hypertension. The administration of β-blockers can significantly reduce maximal—and especially submaximal—aerobic exercise capacity. The objective of this review is to determine, by comparison of existing mono and combination therapy, which β-blockers are less physically limiting for patients with hypertension who are physically active. Methods A three-step strategy will be adopted in the review, following the methods used by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). The initial search will be conducted using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The second search will involve the listed databases for the published literature (MEDLINE, Biomedica Czechoslovaca, Tripdatabase, Pedro, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cinahl, WoS) and the unpublished literature (Open Grey, Current Controlled Trials, MedNar, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cos Conference Papers Index, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the WHO). Following the JBI methodology, analysis of title/abstracts and full texts, critical appraisal and data extraction will be carried out on selected studies using the JBI tool, MAStARI. This will be performed by two independent reviewers. If possible, statistical meta-analysis will be pooled. Statistical heterogeneity will be assessed. Subgroup analysis will be used for different age and gender characteristics. Funnel plots, Begg's rank correlation and Egger's regression test will be used to detect or correct publication bias. Ethics and dissemination The results will be disseminated by publishing in a peer-reviewed

  12. The effect of neutron spectrum on the mechanical and physical properties of pure copper and copper alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabritsiev, S.A.; Pokrovsky, A.S.; Zinkle, S.J.;

    1996-01-01

    -irradiated inside a 1.5 mm Cd shroud in order to reduce the thermal neutron flux. The electrical resistivity data could be separated into two components, a solid transmutation component Delta rho(tr) which was proportional to thermal neutron fluence and a radiation defect component Delta rho(rd) which...... was independent of displacement dose. The saturation value for Delta rho(rd) was similar to 1.2 n Omega m for pure copper and similar to 1.6 n Omega m for the DS copper alloys irradiated at 100 degrees C in positions with a fast-to-thermal neutron flux ratio of 5, Considerable radiation hardening was observed...... in all specimens at irradiation temperatures below 200 degrees C. The yield strength was relatively insensitive to neutron spectrum in specimens strengthened by dispersoids or cold-working....

  13. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  14. US/Japan Cooperation in High Energy Physics. Review of activities, 1988--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-16

    The objective of the Implementing Arrangement was to further the energy programs of both countries by establishing a framework for cooperation in the field of high energy physics, including research, accelerator and detector instrumentation research and development, the fabrication and subsequent use of new experimental devices and facilities, and related joint efforts as may be mutually agreed. Over the years, this cooperation has been very effective and has strengthened the overall collaborative efforts and the understanding between our nations and their citizens. It has demonstrated to the world our ability to work together to attack difficult problems. High Energy Physics goes across national borders; the bond is clearly intellectual and common ground is shared for the benefit of all in a most effective manner. This review covers the activities conducted under the aegis of the US/Japan Committee for Cooperation in High Energy Physics during the past five years (1988--1993). This was the second such US review of the US/Japan cooperative activities; the first was held in 1987.

  15. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and forty-two studies (twenty-seven qualitative, fourteen quantitative, one mixed method) published since 1990 (range 1998-2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women.

  16. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and forty-two studies (twenty-seven qualitative, fourteen quantitative, one mixed method) published since 1990 (range 1998-2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women. PMID:25909603

  17. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murer Kurt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the

  18. Mental and Physical Health and Intimate Partner Violence against Women: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Dillon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between intimate partner violence (IPV and poor physical and mental health of women have been demonstrated in the international and national literature across numerous studies. This paper presents a review of the literature on this topic. The 75 papers included in this review cover both original research studies and those which undertook secondary analyses of primary data sources. The reviewed research papers published from 2006 to 2012 include quantitative and qualitative studies from Western and developing countries. The results show that while there is variation in prevalence of IPV across various cultural settings, IPV was associated with a range of mental health issues including depression, PTSD, anxiety, self-harm, and sleep disorders. In most studies, these effects were observed using validated measurement tools. IPV was also found to be associated with poor physical health including poor functional health, somatic disorders, chronic disorders and chronic pain, gynaecological problems, and increased risk of STIs. An increased risk of HIV was reported to be associated with a history of sexual abuse and violence. The implications of the study findings in relation to methodological issues, clinical significance, and future research direction are discussed.

  19. The Role of Oxygen Transfer in Sintering of Low Alloy Steel Powder Compacts: A Review of the "Internal Getter" Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl-Mayer, Christian; de Oro Calderon, Raquel; Danninger, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The chemical aspects of sintering have to be considered, in particular the role of oxygen. For sintered alloy steels used for highly stressed components, traditional alloy elements have been Cu, Ni and Mo, which in their oxygen affinity are very similar to the base constituent iron. Advanced alloying systems however contain Cr, Mn and/or Si. In the present study it is shown that one of the principal aspects of sintering to be considered is oxygen transfer from the base iron oxides to the alloy elements, which then form oxides that are more difficult to reduce. This process, defined as "internal gettering", occurs both in mixed powder compacts and in prealloyed materials, although through different mechanisms. The effect can at least be alleviated by presintering in H2 in the 400°C range, part of the oxygen being removed as H2O before internal gettering becomes kinetically effective. However, in industrial practice, this collides with delubricaton. Furthermore for both alloy variants high temperature sintering is advantageous because it enhances reduction of the more stable oxides, thus eliminating the effects of internal gettering.

  20. The Impact of Physical Activity on Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusso, Melanie E; Donald, Kenneth J; Khoo, Tien K

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss, and Scopus using the MeSH search terms "Parkinson's," "Parkinson," and "Parkinsonism" in conjunction with "exercise," "physical activity," "physiotherapy," "occupational therapy," "physical therapy," "rehabilitation," "dance," and "martial arts." Twenty studies matched inclusion criteria of having 10 or more participants with diagnosed idiopathic PD participating in the intervention as well as having to evaluate the effects of physical activity on NMS in PD as controlled, randomized intervention studies. The outcomes of interest were NMS, including depression, cognition, fatigue, apathy, anxiety, and sleep. Risk of bias in the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Comparability of the various intervention methods, however, was challenging due to demographic variability and methodological differences. Nevertheless, physical activity can positively impact the global NMS burden including depression, apathy, fatigue, day time sleepiness, sleep, and cognition, thus supporting its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions such as PD. It is recommended that further adequately powered studies are conducted to assess the therapeutic role of physical activity on both motor and non-motor aspects of PD. These studies should be optimally designed to assess non-motor elements of disease using instruments validated in PD. PMID:27583249

  1. Economic instruments for population diet and physical activity behaviour change: a systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Shemilt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unhealthy diet and low levels of physical activity are common behavioural factors in the aetiology of many non-communicable diseases. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of policy and research interest in the use of taxes and other economic instruments to improve population health. OBJECTIVE: To assemble, configure and analyse empirical research studies available to inform the public health case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change. METHODS: We conducted a systematic scoping review of evidence for the effects of specific interventions to change, or general exposure to variations in, prices or income on dietary and physical activity behaviours and corollary outcomes. Systematic electronic searches and parallel snowball searches retrieved >1 million study records. Text mining technologies were used to prioritise title-abstract records for screening. Eligible studies were selected, classified and analysed in terms of key characteristics and principal findings, using a narrative, configuring synthesis focused on implications for policy and further research. RESULTS: We identified 880 eligible studies, including 192 intervention studies and 768 studies that incorporated evidence for prices or income as correlates or determinants of target outcomes. Current evidence for the effects of economic instruments and exposures on diet and physical activity is limited in quality and equivocal in terms of its policy implications. Direct evidence for the effects of economic instruments is heavily skewed towards impacts on diet, with a relative lack of evidence for impacts on physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence-based case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change may be less compelling than some proponents have claimed. Future research should include measurement of people's actual behavioural responses using study designs capable of

  2. Review of searches for rare processes and physics beyond the Standard Model at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, David M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Turcato, Monica [Hamburg University, Institute of Experimental Physics, Hamburg (Germany); European X-ray Free-Electron Laser Facility GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The electron-proton collisions collected by the H1 and ZEUS experiments at HERA comprise a unique particle physics data set, and a comprehensive range of measurements has been performed to provide new insight into the structure of the proton. The high centre of mass energy at HERA has also allowed rare processes to be studied, including the production of W and Z{sup 0} bosons and events with multiple leptons in the final state. The data have also opened up a new domain to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model including contact interactions, leptoquarks, excited fermions and a number of supersymmetric models. This review presents a summary of such results, where the analyses reported correspond to an integrated luminosity of up to 1 fb{sup -1}, representing the complete data set recorded by the H1 and ZEUS experiments. (orig.)

  3. Promoting Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Physical Therapy Education: A Review of Strategies and Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    2015-01-01

    curricula. Under the broad paradigm of Problem Based Learning (PBL), which is being viewed as the key shift in educations in the last few years, many other models have been proposed. Strategies such as case based teaching, blended learning, co-operative learning, interactive learning, blogging and clinical......Title: Promoting Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Physical Therapy Education: A Review of Strategies and Approaches Juneja H1, Brekke A F2 1,2 Physical Therapy Education, University College Zealand, Denmark Background: Clinical reasoning (CR) also referred to as “critical thinking” or “decision...... in this area. This has resulted in diverse methods and strategies to transfer reasoning skills effectively to students. Awareness about recommended pedagogical techniques to enhance clinical reasoning skills can significantly influence the educator’s choice of methods within and beyond the classroom teaching...

  4. Utilisation of transparent synthetic soil surrogates in geotechnical physical models:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abideen Adekunle Ganiyu; Ahmad Safuan A. Rashid; Mohd Hanim Osman

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to obtain non-intrusive measurement of deformations and spatial flow within soil mass prior to the advent of transparent soils have perceptible limitations. The transparent soil is a two-phase medium composed of both the synthetic aggregate and fluid components of identical refractive indices aiming at attaining transparency of the resulting soil. The transparency facilitates real life visualisation of soil continuum in physical models. When applied in conjunction with advanced photogrammetry and image processing techniques, transparent soils enable the quantification of the spatial deformation, displace-ment and multi-phase flow in physical model tests. Transparent synthetic soils have been successfully employed in geotechnical model tests as soil surrogates based on the testing results of their geotechnical properties which replicate those of natural soils. This paper presents a review on transparent synthetic soils and their numerous applications in geotechnical physical models. The properties of the aggregate materials are outlined and the features of the various transparent clays and sands available in the literature are described. The merits of transparent soil are highlighted and the need to amplify its application in geotechnical physical model researches is emphasised. This paper will serve as a concise compendium on the subject of transparent soils for future researchers in this field.

  5. Utilisation of transparent synthetic soil surrogates in geotechnical physical models: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abideen Adekunle Ganiyu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to obtain non-intrusive measurement of deformations and spatial flow within soil mass prior to the advent of transparent soils have perceptible limitations. The transparent soil is a two-phase medium composed of both the synthetic aggregate and fluid components of identical refractive indices aiming at attaining transparency of the resulting soil. The transparency facilitates real life visualisation of soil continuum in physical models. When applied in conjunction with advanced photogrammetry and image processing techniques, transparent soils enable the quantification of the spatial deformation, displacement and multi-phase flow in physical model tests. Transparent synthetic soils have been successfully employed in geotechnical model tests as soil surrogates based on the testing results of their geotechnical properties which replicate those of natural soils. This paper presents a review on transparent synthetic soils and their numerous applications in geotechnical physical models. The properties of the aggregate materials are outlined and the features of the various transparent clays and sands available in the literature are described. The merits of transparent soil are highlighted and the need to amplify its application in geotechnical physical model researches is emphasised. This paper will serve as a concise compendium on the subject of transparent soils for future researchers in this field.

  6. Evaluations of the effects of Sweden's spanking ban on physical child abuse rates: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, R E; Johnson, B

    1999-10-01

    Sweden's 1979 law banning corporal punishment by parents was welcomed by many as a needed policy to help reduce physical abuse of children. This study reviews the published empirical evidence relevant to that goal. Only seven journal articles with pertinent data were located. One study reported that the rate of physical child abuse was 49% higher in Sweden than in the USA, comparing its 1980 Swedish national survey with the average rates from two national surveys in the United States in 1975 and 1985. In contrast, a 1981 retrospective survey of university students suggested that the Swedish abuse rate had been 79% less than the American rate prior to the Swedish spanking ban. Some unpublished evidence suggests that Swedish rates of physical child abuse have remained high, although child abuse mortality rates have stayed low there. A recent Swedish report suggested that the spanking ban has made little change in problematic forms of physical punishment. The conclusion calls for more timely and rigorous evaluations of similar social experiments in the future. PMID:10611766

  7. Biochemical markers of physical exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia; systematic review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Steen Jensen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia.Methods: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to February 2015. We included intervention studies investigating the effect of physical exercise activity on biomarkers in patients with MCI or dementia. Results: A total of eight studies were identified (n= 447 patients evaluating exercise regimes with variable duration (single session - 3 sessions pr week for 26 weeks and intensity (light resistance training – high intensity aerobic exercise. Various biomarkers were measured before and after intervention. Seven of the eight studies found a significant effect on their selected biomarkers with a positive effect of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiadrosterone and insulin in the intervention groups compared with controls.Conclusion: Although few studies suggest a beneficial effect on selected biomarkers, we need more knowledge of the biochemical effect of physical exercise in dementia or MCI.

  8. Physics-based simulation modeling and optimization of microstructural changes induced by machining and selective laser melting processes in titanium and nickel based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisoy, Yigit Muzaffer

    Manufacturing processes may significantly affect the quality of resultant surfaces and structural integrity of the metal end products. Controlling manufacturing process induced changes to the product's surface integrity may improve the fatigue life and overall reliability of the end product. The goal of this study is to model the phenomena that result in microstructural alterations and improve the surface integrity of the manufactured parts by utilizing physics-based process simulations and other computational methods. Two different (both conventional and advanced) manufacturing processes; i.e. machining of Titanium and Nickel-based alloys and selective laser melting of Nickel-based powder alloys are studied. 3D Finite Element (FE) process simulations are developed and experimental data that validates these process simulation models are generated to compare against predictions. Computational process modeling and optimization have been performed for machining induced microstructure that includes; i) predicting recrystallization and grain size using FE simulations and the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model, ii) predicting microhardness using non-linear regression models and the Random Forests method, and iii) multi-objective machining optimization for minimizing microstructural changes. Experimental analysis and computational process modeling of selective laser melting have been also conducted including; i) microstructural analysis of grain sizes and growth directions using SEM imaging and machine learning algorithms, ii) analysis of thermal imaging for spattering, heating/cooling rates and meltpool size, iii) predicting thermal field, meltpool size, and growth directions via thermal gradients using 3D FE simulations, iv) predicting localized solidification using the Phase Field method. These computational process models and predictive models, once utilized by industry to optimize process parameters, have the ultimate potential to improve performance of

  9. Review of diagnostic tools to investigate the physical state of rapid granular filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose; Binning, Philip John; Arvin, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews diagnostic tools that can be used at waterworks to investigate the physical and operational state of rapid granular filters. Diagnostic tools can be of interest for the Water Safety Plans of WHO to monitor filters in a proactive manner. The review considers conventional and state...... of the art tools and tools currently in development or conception stage. The development status, usability and availability of each tool and procedure are discussed. Some conventional, simple and low-tech tools are available which can rapidly provide both qualitative and quantitative information. However......, it is difficult to relate this information to guideline values or design criteria because the tools are often not documented and are most often used with past experience or rules of thumb. New tools such as the total dissolved gas probe, salt tracers and ammonium profiles are presented. Potential tools from...

  10. The gatekeepers of modern physics: periodicals and peer review in 1920s Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Imogen

    2015-03-01

    This essay analyzes the processes behind the publication of physics papers in two British journals in the 1920s: the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Series A and the Philosophical Magazine. On the surface, it looked as though the Philosophical Magazine was managed very informally, while the Proceedings had in place a seemingly rigid system of committee approval and peer review. This essay shows, however, that in practice the two journals were both influenced by networks of expertise that afforded small groups of physicists considerable control over the content of these prestigious scientific publications. This study explores the nature of peer review, suggesting how a historical approach can contribute to contemporary debates. In studying these relationships, the essay also considers the interplay of "classical" and "modern" ideas and physicists in 1920s Britain and cautions against an anachronistic approach to this classification. PMID:26027308

  11. Physical therapies for Achilles tendinopathy: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussmilch-Leitch Samuel P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achilles tendinopathy (AT is a common condition, causing considerable morbidity in athletes and non-athletes alike. Conservative or physical therapies are accepted as first-line management of AT; however, despite a growing volume of research, there remains a lack of high quality studies evaluating their efficacy. Previous systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence for non-surgical interventions for AT, but lack key quality components as outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA Statement. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis (where possible of the evidence for physical therapies for AT management. Methods A comprehensive strategy was used to search 11 electronic databases from inception to September 2011. Search terms included Achilles, tendinopathy, pain, physical therapies, electrotherapy and exercise (English language full-text publications, human studies. Reference lists of eligible papers were hand-searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs were included if they evaluated at least one non-pharmacological, non-surgical intervention for AT using at least one outcome of pain and/or function. Two independent reviewers screened 2852 search results, identifying 23 suitable studies, and assessed methodological quality and risk of bias using a modified PEDro scale. Effect size calculation and meta-analyses were based on fixed and random effects models respectively. Results Methodological quality ranged from 2 to 12 (/14. Four studies were excluded due to high risk of bias, leaving 19 studies, the majority of which evaluated midportion AT. Effect sizes from individual RCTs support the use of eccentric exercise. Meta-analyses identified significant effects favouring the addition of laser therapy to eccentric exercise at 12 weeks (pain VAS: standardised mean difference −0.59, 95% confidence interval −1.11 to −0.07, as well as no

  12. Cyber-Physical Modeling and Control of Crowd of Pedestrians: A Review and New Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Ke-cai; Stuart, Dan; Yue, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling and control of crowds of pedestrians are briefly surveyed in this paper. Possibilities of applying fractional calculus in the modeling of crowd of pedestrians have been shortly reviewed and discussed from different aspects such as descriptions of motion, interactions of long range and effects of memory. Control of the crowd of pedestrians have also been formulated using the framework of Cyber-Physical Systems and been realized using networked Segways with onboard emergency response personnels to regulate the velocity and flux of the crowd. Platform for verification of the theoretical results are also provided in this paper.

  13. Heavy-ion physics at the LHC: Review of Run I results

    CERN Document Server

    Bala, Renu; Bielcikova, Jana; Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this work we review what we consider are, some of the most relevant results of heavy-ion physics at the LHC. This paper is not intended to cover all the many important results of the experiments, instead we present a brief overview of the current status on the characterization of the hot and dense QCD medium produced in the heavy-ion collisions. Recent exciting results which are still under debate are discussed too, leading to intriguing questions like whether we have a real or fake QGP formation in small systems.

  14. Do peers matter? A review of peer and/or friends' influence on physical activity among American adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Fitzgerald, Noelle; Aherne, Cian

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the relationship between peer and/or friend variables and physical activity among adolescents by synthesising cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research conducted in the US. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify related articles published within the last 10 years and the articles reviewed included adolescents between 10 and 18 years. Studies reporting a measure of physical activity for adolescents and at ...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  16. INCOLOY 908, a low coefficient of expansion alloy for high-Strength cryogenic applications: Part I. Physical metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, M. M.; Ballinger, R. G.; Hwang, I. S.

    1992-12-01

    INCOLOY 908 is a low coefficient of thermal expansion (COE) iron-nickel base superalloy that was developed jointly by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the International Nickel Company for cryogenic service. The alloy is stable against phase transformation during prolonged thermal treatments and has a COE compatible with that of Nb3Sn. These properties make the material ideal for use as a structural component in superconducting magnets using Nb3Sn. The evolution of microstructure has been studied as a function of time at temperature over the temperature range of 650 °C to 900 °C for times between 50 and 200 hours. A detailed analysis of precipitated phases has been conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and analytical scanning and scanning transmission electron mi- croscopy (STEM) techniques. The primary strengthening phase has been found to be γ ', Ni3(Al, Ti). INCOLOY 908 is stable against overaging, which is defined as the transformation of γ' to η, Ni3Ti, for times to 100 hours at temperatures up to 750 °C. Upon overaging, the strengthening phase transforms to η. A new phase, H x , has been identified and characterized.

  17. Material science and solid state physics studies with positive muon spin precession. [fe(a1) alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The hyperfine field on the muon, B sub hf, at interstitial sites in dilute Fe(Al) alloys was measured for four different concentrations of Al and as a function of temperature by the muon spin rotation method. The magnitude of B sub hf, which is negative, decreases at rates ranging from 0.09 + or - 0.03% per at.% Al at 200 K to an asymptotic limit of 0.35 + or - far above 440 K. This behavior shows that sites near the Al impurity are weakly repulsive to the muon, with an interaction potential of 13 + or - 3 meV. In order to fit the temperature dependence of the hyperfine field, it is necessary to hypothesize the existence of a small concentration of unidentified defects, possibly dislocations, which are attractive to the muon. Although the Al impurity acts as a non-magnetic hole in the Fe lattice, the observed decrease in B sub hf is only 35% of the decrease in the bulk magnetization. It is concluded that B sub hf is determined mainly by the enhanced screening of conduction electrons in Fe and Fe(Al). Since the influence of the Al impurity on the neighboring Fe monents is very small, most of the change in B sub hf is therefore attributed to the increase in conduction electron polarization of the Al impurity.

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  20. Computational physics and applied mathematics capability review June 8-10, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Stephen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory will review its Computational Physics and Applied Mathematics (CPAM) capabilities in 2010. The goals of capability reviews are to assess the quality of science, technology, and engineering (STE) performed by the capability, evaluate the integration of this capability across the Laboratory and within the scientific community, examine the relevance of this capability to the Laboratory's programs, and provide advice on the current and future directions of this capability. This is the first such review for CPAM, which has a long and unique history at the Laboratory, starting from the inception of the Laboratory in 1943. The CPAM capability covers an extremely broad technical area at Los Alamos, encompassing a wide array of disciplines, research topics, and organizations. A vast array of technical disciplines and activities are included in this capability, from general numerical modeling, to coupled multi-physics simulations, to detailed domain science activities in mathematics, methods, and algorithms. The CPAM capability involves over 12 different technical divisions and a majority of our programmatic and scientific activities. To make this large scope tractable, the CPAM capability is broken into the following six technical 'themes.' These themes represent technical slices through the CPAM capability and collect critical core competencies of the Laboratory, each of which contributes to the capability (and each of which is divided into multiple additional elements in the detailed descriptions of the themes in subsequent sections), as follows. Theme 1: Computational Fluid Dynamics - This theme speaks to the vast array of scientific capabilities for the simulation of fluids under shocks, low-speed flow, and turbulent conditions - which are key, historical, and fundamental strengths of the Laboratory. Theme 2: Partial Differential Equations - The technical scope of this theme is the applied mathematics and numerical solution

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-03-01

    Physics has a long history, but more physics has been discovered in the twentieth century than in all previous eras together. That in itself would be a sufficient justification for a history of physics in the twentieth century, but the end of the previous century also marked a discontinuity, from Newtonian classical physics to relativity and quantum mechanics. If any single event marks the start of the process it is the discovery of x-rays in 1895, and Kragh's century spans from about 1895 to about 1995. It is, of course, too much for a single volume, even a large one, and Kragh recognizes from the outset that he has to be selective and concentrate on those subjects that define twentieth-century physics. For the early part of the century the author relies on carefully chosen secondary sources, to avoid the near-impossible task of absorbing a multitude of original papers. The recent period is more difficult, and the sources are articles, reviews, and the recollections of physicists. The book is in three main sections, roughly to the end of World War I, to the end of World War II, and up to 1995, plus a retrospective summary. It deals with more than just discoveries in physics, looking also at physicists and institutions, and at their interactions with the rest of society. The broad outlines of many discoveries are often known to physicists who have no special interest in history, and Kragh is careful to point out where these conventional accounts are inadequate. The first chapters set the scene at the end of the nineteenth century, acknowledging that there was a belief that all the grand underlying principles had been established, but also pointing out that there was a ferment of attempts to reinterpret physics in terms of concepts like vortices and hyperspaces. The history begins with the mould-breaking discoveries of x-rays, radioactivity and the electron. The chapters that follow look at theories about atomic structure, and at quantum physics, relativity and

  2. A systematic review of randomized trials on the effectiveness of computer-tailored education on physical activity and dietary behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, W.; Werkman, A.M.; Brug, J.

    2006-01-01

    Although computer-tailored promotion of dietary change and physical activity has been identified as a promising intervention strategy, there is a need for a more systematic evaluation of the evidence. Purpose: This study systematically reviews the scientific literature on computer-tailored physical

  3. Physical exercise in cancer patients during and after medical treatment: a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knols, R.H.; Aaronson, N.K.; Uebelhart, D.; Fransen, J.; Aufdemkampe, G.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To systematically review the methodologic quality of, and summarize the evidence from trials examining the effectiveness of physical exercise in improving the level of physical functioning and psychological well-being of cancer patients during and after medical treatment. METHODS: Thirty-fo

  4. Zirconium alloy oxidation and hydriding under irradiation: Review of Pacific Northwest Laboratories' test program results: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects on zirconium alloy oxidation and hydriding were investigated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). The investigations represent one of the largest data bases on oxidation and hydriding of zirconium alloys. Much of the data base has been published, but some results were unpublished when the federal programs terminated. Due to the renewed interest in zirconium alloy cladding behavior, the Electric Power Research Institute sponsored documentation of the unpublished results and a summary of principal results from the prior publications. The data base involves nine zirconium alloys; multiple metallurgical conditions; neutron flux levels from ∼1012 to 1.8 x 1014 n/cm2 .sec, > 1 MeV; fluence levels to 1.5 x 1022 n/cm2, > 1 MeV; oxygenated and low-oxygen coolants; in flux, out-of-flux, and out-of-reactor comparisons on identical specimens; transfer of specimens exposed in one loop water chemistry to another loop chemistry; dissimilar metal combinations; investigation of surface pretreatment effects. The loop results parallel in several respects oxidation and hydriding characteristics of water reactor fuel cladding and pressure tubes. The report summarizes results on the following areas; oxidation and hydriding trends under irradiation; localized phenomena; unusual oxidation effects; dissimilar metal effects; effects of fluoride contamination; metal density changes; deposition phenomena

  5. Review of Physics and Monte Carlo Techniques as Relevant to a Cryogenic, Phonon and Ionization Readout, Radiation-Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Leman, S W

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses detector physics and Monte Carlo techniques for cryogenic, radiation detectors that utilize combined phonon and ionization readout. Particular focus is placed on instrumentation that is used in the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detectors however the discussion is quite general and includes phonon and charge transport physics relevant at low temperatures. Sufficient tutorials and physics references are provided such that an interested reader can jump right into a detector Monte Carlo campaign.

  6. A systematic review of the relation between physical capacity and future low back and neck/shoulder pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg - Reenen, H.H. van; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    The results of longitudinal studies reporting on the relation between physical capacity and the risk of musculoskeletal disorders have never been reviewed in a systematic way. The objective of the present systematic review is to investigate if there is evidence that low muscle strength, low muscle e

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  8. Urbanity and Urbanization: An Interdisciplinary Review Combining Cultural and Physical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schneider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review paper focuses on research schemes regarding urbanity and urbanization, and brings together both cultural and physical approaches. First, we review the cultural and social construction of urbanity (as related to urbanization in Germany. In the early 20th century, urbanity was mainly the result of identity derived from a historical perspective in cities. This has changed profoundly in recent decades as urbanity stems more and more from various urban lifestyles and the staging of societal experiences, as summarized in the German term, “Erlebnisgesellschaft” (thrill-seeking society. The discussion is extended by an assessment of the recent state of the art regarding physical urban research. The focus lies on different fields of research; we address topics such as biodiversity, urban climate, air pollution, and resilience, as well as their impact on urban planning and governance. In conclusion, in order to tackle recent developments and future challenges regarding social and environmental issues, an integrative approach urges novel cross- and inter-disciplinary research efforts in urban studies, including urban-rural linkages. A newly constituted assessment of urbanization and city quarter development is proposed; the assessment focuses on the conjoint analysis of mobility, “Energiewende” (energy transition, cultural drivers, demographic development, and environmental issues.

  9. Physical activity as a treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liverdisease: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To review the effectiveness of exercise as atherapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)and potential benefits in treating insulin resistance andatherosclerosis.METHODS: Medline (EBSCOhost) and PubMed weresearched for English-language randomized controlledtrials and prospective cohort studies in human adultsaged ≥ 18 which investigated the various effects ofexercise alone, a combination of exercise and diet, orexercise and diet coupled with behavioral modificationon NAFLD from 2010 to Feburary 2015.RESULTS: Eighteen of 2298 available studies werechosen for critical review, which included 6925 patients.Nine (50%) studies were randomized controlled trials.Five (27.8%) studies utilized biopsy to examine theeffects of physical activity on hepatic histology. The mostcommonly employed imaging modality to determinechange in hepatic steatosis was hydrogen-magneticresonance spectroscopy. Only two studies examined theeffects of low impact physical activity for patients withsignificant mobility limitations and one compared theefficacy of aerobic and resistance exercise. No studiesexamined the exact duration of exercise required forhepatic and metabolic improvement in NAFLD.CONCLUSION: While exercise improved hepaticsteatosis and underlying metabolic abnormalities inNAFLD, more studies are needed to define the mostbeneficial form and duration of exercise treatment.

  10. Physical activity and sport participation: A systematic review of the impact of fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Niek; Keizer, Renske

    2016-12-01

    Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA), including sport participation, is an important component of a healthy lifestyle. Scholars have devoted considerable attention to understanding the impact of parenthood on MVPA, albeit only for women. As the impact of fatherhood on men's lives is drawing more and more scholarly and societal attention, the aim of the current article is to provide an systematic overview of studies examining the impact of fatherhood on MVPA. A systematic review was conducted in Google Scholar, Web of Science and Web of Knowledge, using (combinations of) the search terms: father(hood), parent(hood), exercise, physical activity, sport and leisure time. This resulted in 54 papers reporting differences in MVPA and/or sport between fathers and childless men or within men that became father, of which 13 were included. Our overview of findings suggested that fathers spent less time on MVPA compared with childless men, but that fathers did not differ from their childless counterparts on the subarea of sport participation. Differences in time spent on MVPA were strongest between childless men and fathers with young children (systematic review revealed that fathers spent less time on MVPA compared to childless men, especially when they had young children. Interestingly, linkages between parental status and the subarea of sport participation were not found, which suggests that fathers cut back on other areas of MVPA. Given the impact of MVPA on a healthy lifestyle, future research in this field is warranted. PMID:27413672

  11. Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Pedro J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motivation is a critical factor in supporting sustained exercise, which in turn is associated with important health outcomes. Accordingly, research on exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT has grown considerably in recent years. Previous reviews have been mostly narrative and theoretical. Aiming at a more comprehensive review of empirical data, this article examines the empirical literature on the relations between key SDT-based constructs and exercise and physical activity behavioral outcomes. Methods This systematic review includes 66 empirical studies published up to June 2011, including experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective studies that have measured exercise causality orientations, autonomy/need support and need satisfaction, exercise motives (or goal contents, and exercise self-regulations and motivation. We also studied SDT-based interventions aimed at increasing exercise behavior. In all studies, actual or self-reported exercise/physical activity, including attendance, was analyzed as the dependent variable. Findings are summarized based on quantitative analysis of the evidence. Results The results show consistent support for a positive relation between more autonomous forms of motivation and exercise, with a trend towards identified regulation predicting initial/short-term adoption more strongly than intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation being more predictive of long-term exercise adherence. The literature is also consistent in that competence satisfaction and more intrinsic motives positively predict exercise participation across a range of samples and settings. Mixed evidence was found concerning the role of other types of motives (e.g., health/fitness and body-related, and also the specific nature and consequences of introjected regulation. The majority of studies have employed descriptive (i.e., non-experimental designs but similar results are found across

  12. The Effectiveness of Physical Agents for Lower-Limb Soft Tissue Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hainan; Randhawa, Kristi; Côté, Pierre; Optima Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Background Soft tissue injuries to the lower limb bring a substantial health and economic burden to society. Physical agents are commonly used to treat these injuries. However, the effectiveness of many such physical agents is not clearly established in the literature. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Methods We searched 5 databases from 1990 to 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies. Paired reviewers independently screened the retrieved literature and appraised relevant studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Studies with a high risk of bias were excluded. We synthesized low-risk-of-bias studies according to principles of best-evidence synthesis. Results We screened 10261 articles. Of 43 RCTs identified, 20 had a high risk of bias and were excluded from the analysis, and 23 RCTs had a low risk of bias and were included in the analysis. The available higher-quality evidence suggests that patients with persistent plantar fasciitis may benefit from ultrasound or foot orthoses, while those with persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy may benefit from shockwave therapy. However, the current evidence does not support the use of shockwave therapy for recent plantar fasciitis, low-Dye taping for persistent plantar fasciitis, low-level laser therapy for recent ankle sprains, or splints for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Finally, evidence on the effectiveness of the following interventions is not established in the current literature: (1) shockwave therapy for persistent plantar fasciitis, (2) cryotherapy or assistive devices for recent ankle sprains, (3) braces for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy, and (4) taping or electric muscle stimulation for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Conclusion Almost half the identified RCTs that evaluated the effectiveness of

  13. The Impact of Physical and Ergonomic Hazards on Poultry Abattoir Processing Workers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmse, Johannes L; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C; Bekker, Johan L

    2016-02-01

    The poultry abattoir industry continues to grow and contribute significantly to the gross domestic product in many countries. The industry expects working shifts of eight to eleven hours, during which workers are exposed to occupational hazards which include physical hazards ranging from noise, vibration, exposure to cold and ergonomic stress from manual, repetitive tasks that require force. A PubMed, Medline and Science Direct online database search, using specific keywords was conducted and the results confirmed that physical and ergonomic hazards impact on abattoir processing workers health, with harm not only to workers' health but also as an economic burden due to the loss of their livelihoods and the need for treatment and compensation in the industry. This review endeavours to highlight the contribution poultry processing plays in the development of physical agents and ergonomic stress related occupational diseases in poultry abattoir processing workers. The impact includes noise-induced hearing loss, increased blood pressure, menstrual and work related upper limb disorders. These are summarised as a quick reference guide for poultry abattoir owners, abattoir workers, poultry associations, occupational hygienists and medical practitioners to assist in the safer management of occupational health in poultry abattoirs.

  14. Physics model of a gas-cooled fast reactor: Review and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H. [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121-1122 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The current physics design and analysis model was reviewed and assessed for its application to a long-life gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) design. The physics design uses MICROX, BURP, and DIF3D for the cross section generation, depletion calculation, and criticality and flux calculation, respectively. For the application to the long-life GFR, the depletion model was adjusted such that more lumped fission products are included in the burn-up chain to preserve the reaction rate and fuel mass. The performance of the physics design tools including the adjustment of the depletion model was assessed against Monte Carlo depletion calculations. The comparison has shown that the excess reactivity and cycle length of the long-life GFR are reasonably predicted. Some discrepancies were found at the beginning of cycle, which can be attributed to the differences between the nuclear data used in each model. Further studies will be carried out to update the cross section library of the MICROX code for agreement with the latest sets and to expand the fuel burn-up chain for the high burn-up and recycling fuel cycle analysis. (authors)

  15. Physics model of a gas-cooled fast reactor: Review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current physics design and analysis model was reviewed and assessed for its application to a long-life gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) design. The physics design uses MICROX, BURP, and DIF3D for the cross section generation, depletion calculation, and criticality and flux calculation, respectively. For the application to the long-life GFR, the depletion model was adjusted such that more lumped fission products are included in the burn-up chain to preserve the reaction rate and fuel mass. The performance of the physics design tools including the adjustment of the depletion model was assessed against Monte Carlo depletion calculations. The comparison has shown that the excess reactivity and cycle length of the long-life GFR are reasonably predicted. Some discrepancies were found at the beginning of cycle, which can be attributed to the differences between the nuclear data used in each model. Further studies will be carried out to update the cross section library of the MICROX code for agreement with the latest sets and to expand the fuel burn-up chain for the high burn-up and recycling fuel cycle analysis. (authors)

  16. The worldwide prevalence of insufficient physical activity in adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto César Ferreira de Moraes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To perform a systematic review of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of insufficient physical activity (IPA based on a WHO-defined cutoff point (< 60 min/d of moderate and vigorous physical activity. Methods: The search was carried out using online databases (BioMed Central, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, PubMed MEDLINE, SCOPUS, SPORT-Discus, and included articles published from the beginning of the databases until February18th, 2012, as well as references cited by the retrieved articles and information provided by the authors. Only original articles using questionnaires in the diagnosis were considered. Results: Of 2,384 papers initially retrieved, fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria, of which seven were conducted in Brazil. The prevalence of IPA varied from 18.7% to 90.6%, with a median of 79.7%. In all surveys, the prevalence was higher among girls than boys and the developing countries have higher prevalence. Conclusions: We concluded that the prevalence of IPA is high among adolescents and that the definition adopted in this study is rarely used in the literature. These results suggesting that is necessary the development of interventions for increasing physical activity levels among adolescents.

  17. The Impact of Physical and Ergonomic Hazards on Poultry Abattoir Processing Workers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmse, Johannes L; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C; Bekker, Johan L

    2016-02-01

    The poultry abattoir industry continues to grow and contribute significantly to the gross domestic product in many countries. The industry expects working shifts of eight to eleven hours, during which workers are exposed to occupational hazards which include physical hazards ranging from noise, vibration, exposure to cold and ergonomic stress from manual, repetitive tasks that require force. A PubMed, Medline and Science Direct online database search, using specific keywords was conducted and the results confirmed that physical and ergonomic hazards impact on abattoir processing workers health, with harm not only to workers' health but also as an economic burden due to the loss of their livelihoods and the need for treatment and compensation in the industry. This review endeavours to highlight the contribution poultry processing plays in the development of physical agents and ergonomic stress related occupational diseases in poultry abattoir processing workers. The impact includes noise-induced hearing loss, increased blood pressure, menstrual and work related upper limb disorders. These are summarised as a quick reference guide for poultry abattoir owners, abattoir workers, poultry associations, occupational hygienists and medical practitioners to assist in the safer management of occupational health in poultry abattoirs. PMID:26861374

  18. Physics Division annual review, 1 April 1975--31 March 1976. [ANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, G. T.

    1976-01-01

    An overview is given of Physics Division activities in the following areas: the heavy-ion booster; medium-energy physics; heavy-ion physics; low-energy charged-particle physics; accelerator operations; neutron physics; theoretical nuclear physics, and atomic and molecular physics. A bibliography of publications amounts to 27 pages. (RWR)

  19. Do peers matter? A review of peer and/or friends' influence on physical activity among American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Fitzgerald, Noelle; Aherne, Cian

    2012-08-01

    This systematic review investigated the relationship between peer and/or friend variables and physical activity among adolescents by synthesising cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research conducted in the US. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify related articles published within the last 10 years and the articles reviewed included adolescents between 10 and 18 years. Studies reporting a measure of physical activity for adolescents and at least one potential peer and/or friend variable were included. Research demonstrated that peers and friends have an important role to play in the physical activity behavior of adolescents. Six processes were identified through which peers and/or friends may have an influence on physical activity including: peer and/or friend support, presence of peers and friends, peer norms, friendship quality and acceptance, peer crowds, and peer victimization. The theoretical significance of these results is assessed and the development of peer-related physical activity programs for adolescents is discussed.

  20. Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ashley Carvalho,1,2 Irene Maeve Rea,2 Tanyalak Parimon,3,4 Barry J Cusack3,51Department of Public Health, 2School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK; 3Research and Development Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boise, ID, USA; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 5Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USABackground: It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition.Methods: Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age.Results: Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation.Conclusion: The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine

  1. The Impact of Long-Term Physical Activity Interventions for Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women on Adiposity Indicators, Physical Capacity, and Mental Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Baker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity interventions have recently become a popular strategy to help postmenopausal women prevent and manage obesity. The current systematic review evaluates the efficacy of physical activity interventions among overweight and obese postmenopausal women and sheds light on the behavioral change techniques that were employed in order to direct future research. Method. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all prospective RCT studies that examine the impact of physical activity on adiposity indicators, physical capacity, and/or mental health outcomes among healthy, sedentary overweight, and obese postmenopausal women in North America. The behavior change technique taxonomy was used to identify the various strategies applied in the programs. Results. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The findings showed that adiposity indicators and physical capacity outcomes significantly improved following long-term interventions; however, mental health outcomes showed nonsignificant changes. Furthermore, 17 behavior change techniques were identified with the taxonomy across all trials. The intrapersonal-level techniques were the most common. Conclusion. Physical activity interventions had a positive effect on adiposity measures and physical capacity. Future research should focus on testing the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on mental health and incorporate strategies at the individual and environmental level to maximize the health impact on the population.

  2. Processing, physical metallurgy and creep of NiAl + Ta and NiAl + Nb alloys. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Contractor Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Viren M.

    1988-01-01

    Powder processed NiAl + Ta alloys containing 1, 2, and 4.5 at percent tantalum and NiAl + Nb alloys containing 1 and 2 at percent niobium were developed for improved creep properties. In addition, a cast alloy with 5 at percent tantalum was also studied. Hot extrusion parameters for processing alloys with 1 and 2 at percent of tantalum or niobium were designed. The NiAl + 4.5 at percent Ta alloy could be vacuum hot pressed successfully, even though it could not be extruded. All the phases in the multiphase alloys were identified and the phase transformations studied. The Ni2AlTa in NiAl + 4.5 at percent Ta alloy transforms into a liquid phase above 1700 K. Solutionizing and annealing below this temperature gives rise to a uniform distribution of fine second phase precipitates. Compressive creep properties were evaluated at 1300 K using constant load and constant velocity tests. In the higher strain rate region single phase NiAl + 1 at percent Ta and NiAl + 1 at percent Nb alloys exhibit a stress exponent of 5 characteristic of climb controlled dislocation creep. In slower strain rate regime diffusional creep becomes important. The two phase alloys containing 2 to 5 at percent Ta and 2 at percent Nb show considerable improvement over binary NiAl and single phase alloys. Loose dislocation networks and tangles stabilized by the precipitates were found in the as crept microstructure. The cast alloy which has larger grains and a distribution of fine precipitates shows the maximum improvement over binary NiAl.

  3. A Quantitative Review of Physical Activity, Health, and Learning Outcomes Associated with Classroom-Based Physical Activity Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Beighle, Aaron; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that physical activity may foster improved academic performance, yet schools are receiving more pressure to achieve high academic standards. It is important for classroom teachers, administrators and school psychologists to understand the benefits of incorporating physical activity into the school day. This article serves as a…

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  5. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  6. Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition: A review of physics,technology, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, Jacques; Anders, Andre

    2005-05-16

    After pioneering work in the 1980s, plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) can now be considered mature technologies for surface modification and thin film deposition. This review starts by looking at the historical development and recalling the basic ideas of PBII. Advantages and disadvantages are compared to conventional ion beam implantation and physical vapor deposition for PBII and PBIID, respectively, followed by a summary of the physics of sheath dynamics, plasma and pulse specifications, plasma diagnostics, and process modeling. The review moves on to technology considerations for plasma sources and process reactors. PBII surface modification and PBIID coatings are applied in a wide range of situations. They include the by-now traditional tribological applications of reducing wear and corrosion through the formation of hard, tough, smooth, low-friction and chemically inert phases and coatings, e.g. for engine components. PBII has become viable for the formation of shallow junctions and other applications in microelectronics. More recently, the rapidly growing field of biomaterial synthesis makes used of PBII&D to produce surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible surfaces and coatings, etc. With limitations, also non-conducting materials such as plastic sheets can be treated. The major interest in PBII processing originates from its flexibility in ion energy (from a few eV up to about 100 keV), and the capability to efficiently treat, or deposit on, large areas, and (within limits) to process non-flat, three-dimensional workpieces, including forming and modifying metastable phases and nanostructures. We use the acronym PBII&D when referring to both implantation and deposition, while PBIID implies that deposition is part of the process.

  7. Examination of the physical processes associated with the keyhole region of variable polarity plasma arc welds in aluminum alloy 2219

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel W.

    1987-01-01

    The morphology and properties of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld composite zone are intimately related to the physical processes associated with the keyhole. This study examined the effects of oxide, halide, and sulfate additions to the weld plate on the keyhole and the weld pool. Changes in both the arc plasma character and the bead morphology were correlated to the chemical environment of the weld. Pool behavior was observed by adding flow markers to actual VPPA welds. A low temperature analog to the welding process was developed. The results of the study indicate that oxygen, even at low partial pressures, can disrupt the stable keyhole and weld pool. The results also indicate that the Marangoni surface tension driven flows dominate the weld pool over the range of welding currents studied.

  8. Cast bulk glassy alloys:fabrication,alloy development and properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingsheng Zhang; Chunling Qin; Akihisa Inoue

    2010-01-01

    Metallic glasses represent an interesting group of materials as they possess outstanding physical, chemical and mechanical properties compared to their crystalline counterparts. Currently, with well designed compositions it is possible to cast liquid alloys into the glassy state at low critical cooling rates from 100 K·s-1 to 1 K·s-1 and in large critical sample sizes up to several centimeters, which significantly enhances the promise for possible applications as advanced engineering materials. This paper reviews the development of(ZrCu)-based bulk metallic glasses with large sizes by copper mold casting and their unique properties. Additionally, the ex-situ and in-situ second phases reinforced BMG composites with large plasticity are also presented.

  9. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, I; Bird, J P

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q   +   P   =   1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In

  10. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, I.; Bird, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q   +   P   =   1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In

  11. [A review on urban metabolism research based on physical space entities for environmental management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Liu, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Urban metabolism is a basic theory for coping with global environmental problems, which is coherent with the aims of national environmental management. This paper analyzed the concept of urban metabolism, and pointed out the meaning for urban metabolism in physical space entities; reviewed the current methods for urban metabolism and its merits and shortages; analyzed the system boundaries, connotation, and methodologies; and summarized the advances on urban meta-bolism practices in physical space entities. At last, we made conclusions that there were shortages, including conception system, basic theory system, and interdisciplinary integrated theory system in current urban metabolism research, and the current cases studied in urban metabolism were limited and not suitable to the harmony development between society, economy, and environment. In the future, we need to strengthen comparison between different case studies from different countries, develop the prior modes of typical urban metabolism research, identify the mechanism for urban ecosystem, and strengthen the spatial decision support system of environmental management taking urban spatial entity spaces as units.

  12. Oral health in children with physical (Cerebral Palsy) and intellectual (Down Syndrome) disabilities: Systematic review I

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nova-García, Manuel-Joaquín; Mourelle-Martínez, Mª Rosa; Bartolomé-Villar, Begona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Traditionally, patients with physical and/or intellectual disabilities presented greater oral pathology, owing to their condition and to other external factors. Improved social and health conditions make it necessary to update knowledge on their oral and dental health. Material and Methods For this purpose, a bibliographic review was done regarding the state of oral health of children with these two types of disability, in comparison with a control group. Some of the guidelines of the PRISMA statement were taken into account. The ranking of the articles found is based on the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The final number of articles evaluated was 14. Parameters such as dental caries, oral hygiene, gingival health, dental traumas, malocclusion and habits were considered. Results There is no consensus among authors regarding dental caries, oral hygiene and gingival health. The different results obtained are due in part to the fact that the methodologies used were not the same. However, it has been noted that, when studying other parameters and regardless of the methodology employed, the results obtained are similar. Conclusions Children with physical and intellectual disabilities constitute a group that needs early and regular dental care in order to prevent and limit the severity of the pathologies observed. Key words:Oral health, dental caries, malocclusion, oral habits, dental trauma, oral hygiene, disabled child, cerebral palsy and Down syndrome. PMID:27398187

  13. Impact of physical activity and fitness in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, A; Audet, M; Baillargeon, J P; Dionne, I J; Valiquette, L; Rosa-Fortin, M M; Abou Chakra, C N; Comeau, E; Langlois, M F

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to appraise current knowledge on the impact of physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) on the health of class II and III obese subjects and bariatric surgery (BS) patients. All original studies were searched using four databases (Medline®, Scopus®, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected studies assessing the impact of PA or PF on specific health outcomes (anthropometric parameters, body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, PF, wellness) in adults with a body mass index ≥35 kg m(-2) or in BS patients. Conclusions were drawn based on a rating system of evidence. From 3,170 papers identified, 40 papers met the inclusion criteria. The vast majority of studies were recently carried out with a predominance of women. Less than one-third of these studies were experimental and only three of them were of high quality. Each study reported at least one beneficial effect of PA or PF. However, a lack of high-quality studies and heterogeneity in designs prevented us from finding high levels of evidence. In conclusion, although results support the importance of PA and PF to improve the health of this population, higher-quality trials are required to strengthen evidence-based recommendations. PMID:24712685

  14. Increasing physical activity and exercise in lung cancer: reviewing safety, benefits, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Brett C; Thomas, D David; Scott, JoAnn B; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer continues to be a difficult disease frequently diagnosed in late stages with a high mortality and symptom burden. In part because of frequent lung comorbidity, even lung cancer survivors often remain symptomatic and functionally limited. Though targeted therapy continues to increase treatment options for advanced-stage disease, symptom burden remains high with few therapeutic options. In the last several decades, exercise and physical activity have arisen as therapeutic options for obstructive lung disease and lung cancer. To date, exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms, increase exercise tolerance, improve quality of life, and potentially reduce length of stay and postoperative complications. Multiple small trials have been performed in perioperative non-small-cell lung cancer patients, although fewer studies are available for patients with advanced-stage disease. Despite the increased interest in this subject over the last few years, a validated exercise regimen has not been established for perioperative or advanced-stage disease. Clinicians underutilize exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation as a therapy, in part because of the lack of evidence-based consensus as to how and when to implement increasing physical activity. This review summarizes the existing evidence on exercise in lung cancer patients. PMID:25831230

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  18. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among physical therapists: A comprehensive narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Milhem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare workers, especially those with direct patient contact are amongst professions with the highest rate of workrelated musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs, physical therapists (PTs being one of them. Our objective was to review current knowledge relating to the prevalence, risk factors and prevention of WMSDs among PTs. Pubmed, Google Scholar and PEDro databases were searched for terms relating to WMSDs in PTs from inception to 2015. The prevalence of WMSDs among PTs was high, with lifetime prevalence reported as 55–91%, and 12-month prevalence ranges 40–91.3%, and the lower back as the most frequently affected, with estimates of a lifetime prevalence ranging 26–79.6%, and a 12-month prevalence ranging 22–73.1%, followed most often by the neck, upper back and shoulders. The major risk factors for workrelated low back pain (LBP were: lifting, transferring, repetitive movements, awkward and static postures, physical load, treating a large number of patients in a single day and working while injured. Low back pain seems to be age- and genderrelated with a higher prevalence in females, younger PTs and PTs working in rehabilitation settings. Physical therapists, as a consequence of work-related LBP, may seek treatment, modify their daily living and leisure (lifestyle activities, use aids and equipment or change their specialty area either within the profession or by leaving it. Skills and knowledge as to correct body mechanics do not prevent work-related injuries. Mechanical aids used for a patient transfer should be adopted by PTs and new strategies should be developed to reduce their WMSDs without compromising the quality of treatment. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5:735–747

  19. Predictors of physical functioning after total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buirs, L D; Van Beers, L W A H; Scholtes, V A B; Pastoors, T; Sprague, S; Poolman, R W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this systematic review of the literature was to identify the predictors of functional outcome after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Method A systematic literature search in Web of Science, CINAHL, EMBASE and PubMed was conducted on 23 June 2015. The articles were selected based on their quality, relevance and measurement of the predictive factor. The level of evidence of all studies was determined using the GRADE rating scheme. Results The initial search resulted in 1092 citations. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 33 articles met our eligibility criteria and were graded. Included studies were classified as level of evidence low (11), moderate (17) or high (5). Of the included studies, 18 evaluated body mass index (BMI), 17 evaluated preoperative physical functions, 15 evaluated age, 15 evaluated gender and 13 evaluated comorbidity. There was strong evidence suggesting an association between BMI, age, comorbidity, preoperative physical functions and mental health with functional outcome after THA. There was weak evidence suggesting an association between quadriceps strength and education with functional outcome after THA. The evidence was inconsistent for associations with gender and socioeconomic status and functional outcome following THA. We found limited evidence suggesting that alcohol consumption, vitamin D insufficiency and allergies were predictors of functional outcome following THA. Conclusions We have identified multiple predictors of functional outcome after THA, which will enable general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons to better predict the improvement in physical functioning for their patients with THA. They can use this information to provide patient-specific advice regarding the referral for THA and the expected outcomes after THA. Further research with consistent measurement tools, outcomes and duration of follow-up across studies is needed to confirm the influence of these factors. PMID

  20. Problem solving in physics: research review, analysis, and a methodological proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Fávero

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on problem solving in Physics based on the scientific articles published in periodicals of the related field of study. The articles considered for this study were published in the period between the end of the 70`s until 1999. A categorization of the publications , according to the issue investigated, the theoretical background used, the research method adopted, the results and conclusions are considered as a starting point in order to present a research profile of the field of study. Next, this profile is discussed and analyzed , pointing out the convergent aspects that characterize the field. Taking this analysis into account, the following thesis (based on Fávero`s proposal, 2000 is defended: in order to generate tools for the teaching practice of Physics through the study of problem solving, a method that substitutes the idea of knowledge transmission in the communication processes that takes place in the classroom should be developed. This method should comprise the idea of interlocution (Vion, 2000 which focuses on social interaction as a means to reveal metacognitive regulations of the subjects, pariticipants in the process, and their development of awareness in relation to a conceptual field (Vergnaud, 1990 – Physics, in this case. The analysis of these processes considers the verbal exchanges among the subjects (Bromberg & Chabrol, 1999 developed in the situation of interaction. This thesis is supported by the articulation of concepts in Psychology, including its interface with linguistics, such as conceptual field, development of awareness and acts of speech, which are reconsidered in this study.