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Sample records for alloy-vtz-1

  1. Effect of alloying Mo on mechanical strength and corrosion resistance of Zr-1% Sn-1% Nb-1% Fe alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugondo

    2011-01-01

    It had been done research on Zr-1%Sn-1%Nb-1%Fe-(x)%Mo alloy. The ingot was prepared by means of electrical electrode technique. The chemical analysis was identified by XRF, the metallography examination was perform by an optical microscope, the hardness test was done by Vickers microhardness, and the corrosion test was done in autoclave. The objective of this research were making Zr-1%Sn-1%Nb-1%Fe-(x)%Mo alloy with Mo concentration; comparing effect of Mo concentration to metal characteristics of Zr-1%Sn-1%Nb-1%Fe which covered microstructure; composition homogeneity, mechanical strength; and corrosion resistance in steam, and determining the optimal Mo concentration in Zr-1%Sn-1%Nb-1%Fe-(x)% Mo alloy for nuclear fuel cladding which had corrosion resistance and high hardness. The results were as follow: The alloying Mo refined grains at concentration in between 0,1%-0,3% and the concentration more than that could coarsened grains. The hardness of the Zr-1%Sn-1%Nb-1%Fe-(x)%Mo alloy was controlled either by the flaw or the dislocation, the intersection of the harder alloying element, the solid solution of the alloying element and the second phase formation of ZrMo 2 . The corrosion rate of the Zr-1%Sn-1%Nb-1%Fe-(x)%Mo alloy was controlled by the second phase of ZrMo 2 . The 0.3% Mo concentration in Zr-1%Sn-1%Nb-1%Fe-(x)%Mo alloy was the best for second phase formation. The Mo concentration in between 0,3-0,5% in Zr-1%Sn-1%Nb-1%Fe-(x)%Mo alloy was good for the second phase formation and the solid solution. (author)

  2. Grain refinement of an AZ63B magnesium alloy by an Al-1C master alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yichuan Pan; Xiangfa Liu; Hua Yang [The Key Lab. of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)

    2005-12-01

    In order to develop a refiner of Mg-Al alloys, an Al-1C (in wt.%) master alloy was synthesized using a casting method. The microstructure and grain-refining performance of the Al-1C master alloy were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and a grain-refining test. The microstructure of the Al-1C master alloy is composed of {alpha}-Al solid solution, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} particles, and graphite phases. After grain refinement of AZ63B alloy by the Al-1C master alloy, the mean grain size reached a limit when 2 wt.% Al-C master alloy was added at 800 C and held for 20 min in the melt before casting. The minimum mean grain size is approximately 48 {mu}m at the one-half radius of the ingot and is about 17% of that of the unrefined alloy. The Al-1C master alloy results in better grain refinement than C{sub 2}Cl{sub 6} and MgCO{sub 3} carbon-containing refiners. (orig.)

  3. In vitro corrosion of Mg–1.21Li–1.12Ca–1Y alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongchang Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the microstructure on mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the Mg–1.21Li–1.12Ca–1Y alloy was investigated using OM, SEM, XRD, EPMA, EDS, tensile tests and corrosion measurements. The results demonstrated that the microstructure of the Mg–1.21Li–1.12Ca–1Y alloy was characterized by α-Mg substrate and intermetallic compounds Mg2Ca and Mg24Y5. Most of the fine Mg2Ca particles for the as-cast alloy were distributed along the grain boundaries, while for the as-extruded along the extrusion direction. The Mg24Y5 particles with a larger size than the Mg2Ca particles were positioned inside the grains. The mechanical properties of Mg–1.21Li–1.12Ca–1Y alloy were improved by the grain refinement and dispersion strengthening. Corrosion pits initiated at the α-Mg matrix neighboring the Mg2Ca particles and subsequently the alloy exhibited general corrosion and filiform corrosion as the corrosion product layer of Mg(OH2 and MgCO3 became compact and thick.

  4. Investigation of fretting corrosion of vacuum-chrome-plated vt3-1 titanium alloy in pair with unprotected vt3-1 alloy and 40khnma steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkh, I.L.; Koltunova, L.N.; Vejtsman, M.G.; Birman, Ya.N.; Skosarev, A.V.; Kogan, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The character of destruction of contacting surfaces in the process of fretting corrosion of titanium alloy VT3-1 chromized in vacuum in pair with unprotected alloy VT3-1 and steel 40KhNMA has been studied by scanning electron microscopy, electronography, and recording the surface profile. The specific load was 200 kg/cm 2 , vibration amplitude 50 mkm and frequency 500 Hz. It has been established that pairs unprotected with coating are subjected to intensive fretting corrosion especially when they are made of titanium alloy. For the pair chromized alloy VT3-1 - unprotected alloy VT3-1 no destruction of a chromized surface is observed. Vacuum chromium coating in the pair with steel 40KhNMA reveals similar properties as in pair with a titanium alloy. The surface of a steel sample is destroyed because of fretting corrosion, though the intensity of corrosion is lower than in the case of unprotected pairs. Vacuum chromium coating is recommended for protection of titanium alloy VT3-1 from fretting corrosion in pair with steel 40KhNMA or an alloy VT3-1 especially in those cases when various organic coatings are unsuitable

  5. Moessbauer effect study on mechanically alloyed amorphous Fe1-xTix alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong; Xu Zuxiong; Ma Ruzhang; Zhao Zhongtao; Ping Jueyun

    1994-01-01

    Amorphous Fe 1-x Ti x (x = 0.50, 0.60) powders were produced by mechanical alloying from pure elemental powders in a vibratory ball-mill. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer effect (ME) were used to study the progress of amorphization and the property of hydrogen absorption in Fe-Ti alloys. The amorphization process and the properties of the amorphous phase are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Oxidation kinetics of amorphous AlxZr1−x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, K.; Wang, Z.M.; Jeurgens, L.P.H.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of amorphous Al x Zr 1−x alloys (solid solution) has been studied as function of the alloy composition (0.26 ≤ x ≤ 0.68) and the oxidation temperature (350 °C ≤ T ≤ 400 °C; at constant pO 2  = 1 × 10 5  Pa) by a combinatorial approach using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Thermal oxidation of the am-Al x Zr 1−x alloys results in the formation of an amorphous oxide overgrowth with a thermodynamically preferred singular composition, corresponding to a constant Al ox /Zr ox ratio of 0.5. Both the solubility and the diffusivity of oxygen in the am-Al x Zr 1−x alloy substrate increase considerably with increasing Zr content, in particular for Zr contents above 49 at.% Zr. Strikingly, the oxidation kinetics exhibit a transition from parabolic oxide growth kinetics for Al-rich am-Al x Zr 1−x alloys (x ≥ 0.51) to linear oxide growth kinetics for Zr-rich am-Al x Zr 1−x alloys (x < 0.35). The underlying oxidation mechanism is discussed. It is concluded that the oxidation kinetics of the amorphous Al x Zr 1−x alloys for 0.26 ≤ x ≤ 0.68 and 350 °C ≤ T ≤ 400 °C are governed by: (i) the atomic mobilities of O and Al in the alloy substrate at the reacting oxide/alloy interface, (ii) the solubility of O in the substrate and (iii) the compositional constraint due to the thermodynamically preferred formation of an amorphous oxide phase of singular composition.

  7. Muonium hyperfine parameters in Si1-x Ge x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Philip; Lichti, Roger; Cottrell, Stephen; Yonenaga, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    We present studies of muonium behaviour in bulk, Czochralski-grown Si 1- x Ge x alloy material, focusing in particular on the hyperfine parameter of the tetrahedral muonium species. In contrast to the bond-centred species, the hyperfine parameter of the tetrahedral-site muonium centre (Mu T ) appears to vary non-linearly with alloy composition. The temperature dependence of the Mu T hyperfine parameter observed in low-Ge alloy material is compared with that seen in pure Si, and previous models of the Mu T behaviour in Si are discussed in the light of results from Si 1- x Ge x alloys

  8. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; McDonald, I.G.; Moore, B.T.; Silva, V.M.

    1988-10-01

    The corrosion behaviour of four tungsten alloys has been evaluated through weight loss measurements after total immersion in both distilled water insight into the mechanism of corrosion was afforded by an examination of the and 5% sodium chloride solutions. Some insight the mechanism of corrosion was afforded by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy and through an analysis of the corrosion products. Pure tungsten and all the alloys studied underwent corrosion during the tests, and in each case the rare of corrosion in sodium chloride solution was markedly less than that in distilled water. A 95% W, 3.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe alloy was found to be the most corrosion resistant of the alloys under the experimental conditions. Examination of the data shows that for each of the tests, copper as an alloying element accelerates corrosion of tungsten alloys. 9 refs., 7 tabs., 12 figs

  9. Features of ultrafine-grained structure forming in Zr-1Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanova, Ekaterina N.; Prosolov, Konstantin A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Grabovetskaya, Galina P.; Mishin, Ivan P. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Ultrafine-grained structure forming by the method combined reversible hydrogenation and hot pressing in Zr-1Nb alloy was investigated. Preliminary hydrogenation to concentrations of (0.14–0.4) % at 873 K is found to lead to yield strength decreasing in Zr-1Nb alloy during hot pressing by 1,5–2 times. During uniaxial compression at (70–72) % under isothermal conditions at a temperature of 873 K in Zr-1Nb alloy, hydrogenated to concentration of 0.22 %, homogeneous ultrafine grained structure with an average grain size of 0,4 P m was formed. Key words: zirconium alloy, ultrafine-grained structure, hydrogen.

  10. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. F.; Xie, X. H.; Zheng, Y. F.; Cong, Y.; Zhou, F. Y.; Qiu, K. J.; Wang, X.; Chen, S. H.; Huang, L.; Tian, L.; Qin, L.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals. PMID:26023878

  11. Development of biodegradable Zn-1X binary alloys with nutrient alloying elements Mg, Ca and Sr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H F; Xie, X H; Zheng, Y F; Cong, Y; Zhou, F Y; Qiu, K J; Wang, X; Chen, S H; Huang, L; Tian, L; Qin, L

    2015-05-29

    Biodegradable metals have attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Besides the early launched biodegradable Mg and Fe metals, Zn, an essential element with osteogenic potential of human body, is regarded and studied as a new kind of potential biodegradable metal quite recently. Unfortunately, pure Zn is soft, brittle and has low mechanical strength in the practice, which needs further improvement in order to meet the clinical requirements. On the other hand, the widely used industrial Zn-based alloys usually contain biotoxic elements (for instance, ZA series contain toxic Al elements up to 40 wt.%), which subsequently bring up biosafety concerns. In the present work, novel Zn-1X binary alloys, with the addition of nutrition elements Mg, Ca and Sr were designed (cast, rolled and extruded Zn-1Mg, Zn-1Ca and Zn-1Sr). Their microstructure and mechanical property, degradation and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility were studied systematically. The results demonstrated that the Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys have profoundly modified the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of pure Zn. Zn-1X (Mg, Ca and Sr) alloys showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants, opening up a new avenue in the area of biodegradable metals.

  12. Microstructural evolution and structure property correlation in Zr-1Nb and Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neogy, S.; Srivastava, D.; Chakravartty, J.K.; Dey, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    This study summarizes the evolution of microstructure and precipitation behavior in binary Zr-1Nb and quaternary Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe alloys after different thermo mechanical processing. The processed microstructure and morphology of constituent phases and precipitates have been studied in detail using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microstructural studies have revealed the shape, size, size distribution and the nature of precipitate phases. Martensite formation and its tempering behavior have been studied in detail in both the alloys. Recrystallization studies on these alloys have been carried out with a view to understand the recrystallization mechanism. In case of the binary alloy the second phase recipitates were of the β type having composition varying from β I (20 wt% Nb) to β II (85 wt% Nb) depending on the heat treatment temperature and time. The second phase precipitates in the quaternary alloy were intermetallic Zr-Nb-Fe type and also β type rich in Zr. The orientation relationship existing between the precipitating phases and the a matrix were established in case of both the alloys. High resolution electron microscopy (HREM) of the martensitic microstructure and the recrystallized microstructure has revealed the internal structure and the interface structure of the martensite and the precipitating phases respectively. Structure-property correlation studies have been carried out on the heat-treated samples to evaluate the effect of the thermo mechanical processing on the microstructures and hence mechanical properties. (author)

  13. Corrosion properties of cladding materials from Zr1Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloc, K.; Kosler, S.

    1975-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour was observed of the Zr1Nb alloy in hot water and superheated steam and the effects of impurity content, of the purity of the corrosion environment and of the heat treatment of the alloy were studied on the alloy corrosion resistance. Also studied were the absorption of hydrogen by the alloy and its behaviour in reactor situations. It was ascertained that the alloy has a good corrosion resistance up to a temperature of 350 degC. The corrosion resistance is reduced by the presence of nitrogen above 50 to 70 ppm and of carbon above 50 to 90 ppm. A graphic representation is given of the dependence of corrosion resistance on the temperature of annealing, the nitrogen content of the alloy and the time of the action of hot water or steam, as well as the dependence of the hydrogen content in the alloy on the peripheral tension of the cladding in hot water both in non-active environment and at irradiation with a neutron flux of approximately 10 20 n/cm 2 . (J.B.)

  14. Effects of scandium and zirconium combination alloying on as-cast microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-4Cu-1.5Mg alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Qingchun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The influences of minor scandium and zirconium combination alloying on the as-cast microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-4Cu-1.5Mg alloy have been experimentally investigated. The experimental results show that when the minor elements of scandium and zirconium are simultaneously added into the Al-4Cu-1.5Mg alloy, the as-cast microstructure of the alloy is effectively modified and the grains of the alloy are greatly refined. The coarse dendrites in the microstructure of the alloy without Sc and Zr additions are refined to the uniform and fine equiaxed grains. As the additions of Sc and Zr are 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively, the tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of the alloy are relatively better, which are 275.0 MPa, 176.0 MPa and 8.0% respectively. The tensile strength is increased by 55.3%, and the elongation is nearly raised three times, compared with those of the alloy without Sc and Zr additions.

  15. Hydrogen absorption in CexGd1−x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznitsky, M.; Bloch, J.; Yonovich, M.; Schweke, D.; Mintz, M.H.; Jacob, I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ce x Gd 1−x alloys exhibit the most negative heats of hydride formation ever found. ► Thermodynamics of H absorption in Ce x Gd 1−x correlates with the alloys hardness. ► The entropies of H solution and hydride formation reflect the hydrogen vibrations. ► Terminal hydrogen solubilities change in a monotonic way between Ce and Gd. - Abstract: The effect of alloying on the thermodynamics of hydrogen absorption was studied for Ce x Gd 1−x alloys (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) at temperatures between 850 K and 1050 K in the 1–10 −4 Torr pressure range. The temperature-dependent hydrogen solubilities and plateau pressures for hydride formation were obtained from hydrogen absorption isotherms. The terminal hydrogen solubility (THS) at a given temperature changes in a monotonic way as a function of x. It is approximately three times higher in Gd, than in Ce, throughout the investigated temperature range. This monotonic behavior is opposed to that of many other substitutional alloys, for which the hydrogen terminal solubility increases with increasing solute concentrations. The enthalpies, ΔH f , and the entropies, ΔS f , of the dihydride formation exhibit a pronounced and broad negative minimum starting at x ≈ 0.15, yielding the most negative ΔH f values ever found for metal hydrides. On the other hand, the enthalpies and entropies of ideal solution display a positive trend at x = 0.15 and x = 0.3. Both behaviors are considered in view of a reported distinct variation of the Ce x Gd 1−x hardness as a function of x. The particular compositional variations of the entropies of solution and formation as a function of x reflect most likely the vibrational properties of the hydrogen atoms in the metal matrices.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an extruded Mg-8Bi-1Al-1Zn (wt%) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Shuaiju [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yu, Hui, E-mail: yuhuidavid@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Materials Commercialization Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Huixing [Mechanical and Material School, Tianjin Sino-German University of Applied Sciences, Tianjin 300350 (China); Cui, Hongwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shangdong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Park, Sung Hyuk [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702701 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Weiming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); You, Bong Sun [Materials Commercialization Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-06

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a newly developed rare earth free Mg-8Bi-1Al-1Zn (BAZ811, in wt%) alloy were investigated and compared with those of a commercial AZ31 alloy. The as-extruded BAZ811 alloy with much finer grain size shows more homogeneous dynamical recrystallized (DRXed) microstructure and weaker basal texture than those of AZ31 alloy. In addition, compared with bimodal structure AZ31 alloy containing only relatively coarse and sparse Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} phases, the coexistence of strip-like fragmented Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} precipitate and nano-size Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} particles in the microstructure was observed in BAZ811 alloy. Moreover, the BAZ811 alloy exhibits a tensile yield stress of 291 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 331 MPa, an elongation to failure of 14.6% as well as a reduction in yield asymmetry, which is mainly attributed to the combined effects of grain refinement and micro-scale broken Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} particles together with nano-scale spherical Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} precipitates. The strain hardening behavior of both BAZ811 and AZ31 alloys were also discussed in terms of microstructure variation.

  17. The electronic band structures of InNxAs1-x, InNxSb1-x and InAsxSb1-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Rezek; Katircioglu, Senay

    2009-01-01

    The band gap bowings of InN x As 1-x , InN x Sb 1-x , and InAs x Sb 1-x alloys defined by the optimized lattice constants are investigated using empirical tight binding (ETB) method. The present ETB energy parameters which take the nearest neighbor interactions into account with sp 3 d 2 basis are determined to be sufficient to provide a typical feature for the band gap bowings of the alloys. The band gap bowing parameter is found to be relatively large in both InN x As 1-x and InN x Sb 1-x compared to InAs x Sb 1-x alloys. Moreover, the variation of the fundamental band gaps of InN x Sb 1-x alloys is sharper than that of InN x As 1-x alloys for small concentrations of N. Besides, a small amount of nitrogen is determined to be more effective in InN x Sb 1-x than in InN x As 1-x alloys to decrease the corresponding effective masses of the electrons around Γ points

  18. Resistance of WE43 and ZRE1 Magnesium Alloys to Gas Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przeliorz R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that in most applications, magnesium alloys are intended for operation in environments with room temperature, these alloys are subject to elevated temperature and oxidizing atmosphere in various stages of preparation (casting, welding, thermal treatment. At present, the studies focus on development of alloys with magnesium matrix, intended for plastic forming. The paper presents results of studies on oxidation rate of WE43 and ZRE1 magnesium foundry alloys in dry and humidified atmosphere of N2+1%O2. Measurements of the oxidation rate were carried out using a Setaram thermobalance in the temperature range of 350-480°C. Corrosion products were analyzed by SEM-SEI, BSE and EDS. It was found that the oxide layer on the WE43 alloy has a very good resistance to oxidation. The high protective properties of the layer should be attributed to the presence of yttrium in this alloy. On the other hand, a porous, two-layer scale with a low adhesion to the substrate forms on the ZRE1 alloy. The increase in the sample mass in dry gas is lower than that in humidified gas.

  19. Inhibiting the corrosion of MNZh 5-1 alloy in neutral solutions of 5-chloro-1,2,3-benzotrialzol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. I.; Agafonkina, M. O.; Andreeva, N. P.; Arkhipushkin, I. A.; Kazansky, L. P.

    2017-11-01

    The adsorption and protective properties of 5-chloro-1,2,3-benzotriazol (5-chloro-BTA) are studied in relation to MNZh 5-1 alloy in a chloride borate buffer solution with pH 7.4. It is shown that this inhibitor can stabilize the passive state of the alloy at a concentration of 0.12 mmol/g. The adsorption of 5-chloro-BTA on a surface of MNZh 5-1 alloy is polymolecular; the free energy of adsorption is about 80 kJ/mol. The advantages of adsorption and protective properties of 5-chloro-BTA compared to BTA on both MNZh 5-1 alloy and the metals contained in the alloy (Ni, Cu) are shown. XPS data indicate a 5-chloro-BTA monolayer formed on the surface of the alloy. This monolayer was composed of inhibitor molecules, which are normally oriented toward a surface and are not removed during ultrasonic washing of the electrode.

  20. Laser and electron beam welding study on niobium based Nb-1Zr-0.1C alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badgujar, B.P.; Kushwaha, R.P.; Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    The refractory metal based alloys are most suitable for the structural applications in high temperature reactors envisaged to operate at temperature higher than 1000°C. The Nb-1Zr-0.1C (wt. %) is being considered for structural applications in the proposed Compact High Temperature Reactors (CHTR). The welding of this alloy is a difficult task due to its reactive nature and higher thermal conductivity. Laser and Electron Beam (EB) welds were produced on sheet of Nb-1Zr-0.1C alloy at various processing parameters and their effects on weld quality was studied by characterizing their optical and SEM micrographs and microhardness profile. The joining efficiency of both welding processes were also studied. The laser welds done in air with argon shielding showed higher hardness values compared to EB welds indicating need for adequate shielding. This study will help to find the optimized welding parameters to produce defect free welds of Nb-1Zr-0.1C alloy. (author)

  1. Defect interactions in Sn1−xGex random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander; Bracht, H.; Grimes, R. W.; Jiang, C.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2009-01-01

    Sn1−xGex alloys are candidates for buffer layers to match the lattices of III-V or II-VI compounds with Si or Ge for microelectronic or optoelectronic applications. In the present work electronic structure calculations are used to study relative energies of clusters formed between Sn atoms and lattice vacancies in Ge that relate to alloys of low Sn content. We also establish that the special quasirandom structure approach correctly describes the random alloy nature of Sn1−xGex with higher Sn content. In particular, the calculated deviations of the lattice parameters from Vegard’s Law are consistent with experimental results.

  2. Defect interactions in Sn1−xGex random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander

    2009-06-23

    Sn1−xGex alloys are candidates for buffer layers to match the lattices of III-V or II-VI compounds with Si or Ge for microelectronic or optoelectronic applications. In the present work electronic structure calculations are used to study relative energies of clusters formed between Sn atoms and lattice vacancies in Ge that relate to alloys of low Sn content. We also establish that the special quasirandom structure approach correctly describes the random alloy nature of Sn1−xGex with higher Sn content. In particular, the calculated deviations of the lattice parameters from Vegard’s Law are consistent with experimental results.

  3. Microstructural characterization of Zr1Nb alloy after hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, A.C. [Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), MS (Brazil); Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G.; Mucsi, C.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tsakiropoulos, P. [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Ceoni, F.C.; Grandini, C.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The different research lines within the scope in engineering and materials science have developed new materials that can be used in different industrial sectors, such as, energy, health and transportation. For the nuclear industry, for example, the Zr alloys, are of great interest due to its good mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and above all, the high permeability to thermal neutrons. In the health sector, the zirconium poses one of the lowest Young's modulus when compared to other metallic biomaterials, e.g., pure Zr is 68 GPa, bone mineral hydroxyapatite is 80 GPa, for Ti alloys is 90 GPa and above, for Nb is 105 GPa and stainless steels above 189 GPa. This is particularly important for implants in bones, whose elasticity modulus can reach 30 GPa and it is desirable an as close match as possible. However, the zirconium alloys, have great chemical affinity with oxygen and nitrogen. Moreover, oxides and nitrides may form during the melting process, heat treatment and hot rolling, changing the physic-chemical properties of the alloy. This experimental work shows the results of the evolution of the microstructure after hot rolling of the Zr1Nb alloy. It was possible to confirm the absence of formation of oxides and nitrides, thus confirming the of the experimental method of melting and hot rolling of the Zr1Nb alloy. (author)

  4. Atom probe tomographic studies of precipitation in Al-0.1Zr-0.1Ti (at.%) alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipling, Keith E; Dunand, David C; Seidman, David N

    2007-12-01

    Atom probe tomography was utilized to measure directly the chemical compositions of Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates with a metastable L1(2) structure formed in Al-0.1Zr-0.1Ti (at.%) alloys upon aging at 375 degrees C or 425 degrees C. The alloys exhibit an inhomogeneous distribution of Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates, as a result of a nonuniform dendritic distribution of solute atoms after casting. At these aging temperatures, the Zr:Ti atomic ratio in the precipitates is about 10 and 5, respectively, indicating that Ti remains mainly in solid solution rather than partitioning to the Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates. This is interpreted as being due to the very small diffusivity of Ti in alpha-Al, consistent with prior studies on Al-Sc-Ti and Al-Sc-Zr alloys, where the slower diffusing Zr and Ti atoms make up a small fraction of the Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates. Unlike those alloys, however, the present Al-Zr-Ti alloys exhibit no interfacial segregation of Ti at the matrix/precipitate heterophase interface, a result that may be affected by a significant disparity in the evaporation fields of the alpha-Al matrix and Al(3)(Zr(1)-(x)Ti(x)) precipitates and/or a lack of local thermodynamic equilibrium at the interface.

  5. A Novel Zr-1Nb Alloy and a New Look at Hydriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Mariani; James I. Cole; Assel Aitkaliyeva

    2013-09-01

    A novel Zr-1Nb has begun development based on a working model that takes into account the hydrogen permeabilities for zirconium and niobium metals. The beta-Nb secondary phase particles (SPPs) in Zr-1Nb are believed to promote more rapid hydrogen dynamics in the alloy in comparison to other zirconium alloys. Furthermore, some hydrogen release is expected at the lower temperatures corresponding to outages when the partial pressure of H2 in the coolant is less. These characteristics lessen the negative synergism between corrosion and hydriding that is otherwise observed in cladding alloys without niobium. In accord with the working model, development of nanoscale precursors was initiated to enhance the performance of existing Zr-1Nb alloys. Their characteristics and properties can be compared to oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys, and material additions have been proposed to zirconium-based LWR cladding to guard further against hydriding and to fix the size of the SPPs for microstructure stability enhancements. A preparative route is being investigated that does not require mechanical alloying, and 10 nanometer molybdenum particles have been prepared which are part of the nanoscale precursors. If successful, the approach has implications for long term dry storage of used fuel and for new routes to nanoferritic and ODS alloys.

  6. Shape memory and superelastic behavior of Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-1Sn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.C.; Lin, J.G.; Jiang, W.J.; Ma, M.; Peng, Z.G.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A Ti-based shape memory alloy, Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-1Sn, was designed. → The martensitic transformation start temperature of the alloy, M s , is 261 K. → The alloy exhibits good shape memory and superelastic behaviors. → The alloy also shows a good superelastic stability at room temperature. → The Ti-5Mo-7.5Nb-1Sn alloy has a potential application as a biomedical material. -- Abstract: In the present work, a Ti-based shape memory alloy with the composition of Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-1Sn was designed based on the d-electron orbit theory. The shape memory and superelastic behavior of the alloy were investigated. It is found that the martensitic transformation temperature of the alloy is near 261 K. The tensile and the thermal cycling testing results show that the alloy exhibits the stable shape memory effect and superelasticity at room temperature. The maximum recovered strain of the alloy is 4.83%.

  7. Postirradiation notch ductility tests of ESR alloy HT-9 and modified 9Cr-1Mo alloy from UBR reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    During this period, irradiation exposures at 300 0 C and 150 0 C to approx. 8 x 10 19 n/cm 2 , E > 0.1 MeV, were completed for the Alloy HT-9 plate and the modified Alloy 9Cr-1Mo plates, respectively. Postirradiation tests of Charpy-V (C/sub v/) specimens were completed for both alloys; other specimen types included in the reactor assemblies were fatigue precracked Charpy-V (PCC/sub v/), half-size Charpy-V, and in the case of the modified 9Cr-1Mo, 2.54 mm thick compact tension specimens

  8. Creep-rupture behavior of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, Alloy 800H and Hastelloy Alloy X in a simulated HTGR helium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, G.Y.; Wolwowicz, R.J.

    1979-12-01

    Creep-rupture testing was conducted on 1 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, Alloy 800H and Hastelloy Alloy X in flowing helium containing nominal concentration of following gases: 1500 μatm H 2 , 450 μatm CO, 50 μatm CH 4 , 50 μatm H 2 O and 5 μatm CO 2 . This environment is believed to represent maximum permissible levels of impurities in the primary coolant for the steam-cycle system of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) when it is operating continuously with a water and/or steam leak at technical specification limits. Two or three heats of material for each alloy were investigated. Tests were conducted at 482 0 C and 760 0 C (1200 0 F and 1400 0 F) for Alloy 800H, and at 760 0 C and 871 0 C (1400 0 F and 1600 0 F) for Hastelloy Alloy X for times up to 10,000 h. Selected tests were performed on same heat of material in both air and helium environments to make a direct comparison of creep-rupture behaviors between two environments. Metallurgical evaluation was performed on selected post test specimens with respect to gas-metal interactions which included oxidation, carburization and/or decarburization. Correlation between gaseous corrosion and creep-rupture behavior was attempted. Limited tests were also performed to investigate the specimen size effects on creep-rupture behavior in the helium environment

  9. Topological Weyl semimetals in Bi1 -xSbx alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Hsin; Shi, Wujun; Felser, Claudia; Sun, Yan

    2018-04-01

    We investigated Weyl semimetal (WSM) phases in bismuth antimony (Bi1 -xSbx ) alloys by combination of atomic composition and arrangement. Via first-principles calculations, we found two WSM states with Sb concentrations of x =0.5 and 0.83 with specific inversion-symmetry-broken elemental arrangement. The Weyl points are close to the Fermi level in both of these two WSM states. Therefore, it is likely to obtain Weyl points in Bi-Sb alloy. The WSM phase provides a reasonable explanation for the current transport study of Bi-Sb alloy with the violation of Ohm's law [D. Shin, Y. Lee, M. Sasaki, Y. H. Jeong, F. Weickert, J. B. Betts, H.-J. Kim, K.-S. Kim, and J. Kim, Nat. Mater. 16, 1096 (2017), 10.1038/nmat4965]. This paper shows that the topological phases in Bi-Sb alloys depend on both elemental composition and their specific arrangement.

  10. Superelasticity, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Pengfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Kangming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [Life Tech Scientific Corporation, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zhou, Chungen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Microstructure, mechanical properties, superelasticity and biocompatibility of a Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe alloy are investigated. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations show that the as-cast Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe alloy is composed of α′ and β phases, but only the β phase exists in the as-rolled and as-quenched alloys. The tensile stress–strain tests indicate that the as-quenched alloy exhibits a good combination of mechanical properties with a large elongation of 25%, a low Young's modulus of 59 GPa and a high ultimate tensile stress of 723 MPa. Superelastic recovery behavior is found in the as-quenched alloy during tensile tests, and the corresponding maximum of superelastic strain is 4.7% at the pre-strain of 6%. A superelastic recovery of 4% with high stability is achieved after 10 cyclic loading–unloading training processes. Potentiodynamic polarization and ion release measurements indicate that the as-quenched alloy shows a lower corrosion rate in Hank's solution and a much less ion release rate in 0.9% NaCl solution than those of the NiTi alloys. Cell culture results indicate that the osteoblasts' adhesion and proliferation are similar on both the Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe and NiTi alloys. A better hemocompatibility is confirmed for the as-quenched Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe alloy, attributed to more stable platelet adhesion and small activation degree, and a much lower hemolysis rate compared with the NiTi alloy. - Highlights: • A stable superelastic strain of 4.0% is achieved for the Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe alloy. • The ion release rates of Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe are much lower than that of Ni in NiTi. • Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe has a similar cytocompatibility compared with the NiTi alloy. • Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe exhibits a better hemocompatibility than the NiTi alloy.

  11. Effect of Alloy 625 Buffer Layer on Hardfacing of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Using Nickel Base Hardfacing Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Gopa; Das, C. R.; Albert, S. K.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Murugesan, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-04-01

    Dashpot piston, made up of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, is a part of diverse safety rod used for safe shutdown of a nuclear reactor. This component was hardfaced using nickel base AWS ER NiCr-B alloy and extensive cracking was experienced during direct deposition of this alloy on dashpot piston. Cracking reduced considerably and the component was successfully hardfaced by application of Inconel 625 as buffer layer prior to hardface deposition. Hence, a separate study was undertaken to investigate the role of buffer layer in reducing the cracking and on the microstructure of the hardfaced deposit. Results indicate that in the direct deposition of hardfacing alloy on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, both heat-affected zone (HAZ) formed and the deposit layer are hard making the thickness of the hard layer formed equal to combined thickness of both HAZ and deposit. This hard layer is unable to absorb thermal stresses resulting in the cracking of the deposit. By providing a buffer layer of Alloy 625 followed by a post-weld heat treatment, HAZ formed in the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is effectively tempered, and HAZ formed during the subsequent deposition of the hardfacing alloy over the Alloy 625 buffer layer is almost completely confined to Alloy 625, which does not harden. This reduces the cracking susceptibility of the deposit. Further, unlike in the case of direct deposition on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, dilution of the deposit by Ni-base buffer layer does not alter the hardness of the deposit and desired hardness on the deposit surface could be achieved even with lower thickness of the deposit. This gives an option for reducing the recommended thickness of the deposit, which can also reduce the risk of cracking.

  12. Microstructure of a commercial W–1% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yinzhong, E-mail: shenyz@sjtu.edu.cn; Xu, Zhiqiang; Cui, Kai; Yu, Jie

    2014-12-15

    W–1% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy is considered as the most promising material for plasma-facing components of fusion reactors. The microstructure of a commercial W–1% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy was investigated using optical and transmission electron microscopes. The microstructure of pure tungsten can be improved significantly by fabrication of W–1% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys. W–1% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys can be produced with no porosities and cracks, and with various oxide phases dispersed in alloy matrix. La{sub 2}O{sub 3} with different crystal structures, La{sub 6}W{sub 2}O{sub 15}, WO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3} and W{sub 3}O{sub 8} phases were identified in as-forged W–1% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy. Long strip-like La{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a very large size, whereas spherical La{sub 6}W{sub 2}O{sub 15}, navicular WO{sub 3}, hexagonal W{sub 3}O{sub 8} and short rod-like La{sub 2}O{sub 3} are smaller particles. Most identified phases have a heterogeneous distribution. Forging leads to a more dispersive distribution of large-sized La{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles but not of fine WO{sub 3} particles compared with rolling. The mechanical properties of the alloys are also discussed.

  13. First-principles study for the enhanced sulfur tolerance of Ni(1 1 1) surface alloyed with Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxing; Yang, Zongxian

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption of H2S, HS, S, H and the dissociation of H2S on the Ni2Pb/Ni (1 1 1) are systematically studied using the first-principles method based on density functional theory. It is found that H2S dissociation barriers are greatly increased by alloying with Pb atoms in the Ni(1 1 1) surface, while the barrier for H2S formation is greatly reduced. In addition, the adsorption of sulfur atom is weakened a lot. The results indicate that alloying with Pb may be a good way to increase the sulfur tolerance of Ni based anode catalysts of solid oxide fuel cells.

  14. Alloy formation during the electrochemical growth of a Ag-Cd ultrathin film on Au(1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, M.C. del; Garcia, S.G.; Salinas, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    The electrodeposition of a Ag/Cd ultrathin film on a Au(1 1 1) surface and the formation of a surface alloy during this process have been studied using classical electrochemical techniques and in situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). The films were obtained from separate electrolytes containing Ag + or Cd 2+ ions and from a multicomponent solution containing both ions. First, the polarization conditions were adjusted in order to form a Ag film by overpotential deposition. Afterwards, a Cd monolayer was formed onto this Au(1 1 1)/Ag modified surface by underpotential deposition. The voltammetric behavior of the Cd UPD and the in situ STM images indicated that the ultrathin Ag films were uniformly deposited and epitaxially oriented with respect to the Au(1 1 1) surface. Long time polarization experiments showed that a significant Ag-Cd surface alloying accompanied the formation of the Cd monolayer on the Au(1 1 1)/Ag modified surface, independent of the Ag film thickness. In the case of an extremely thin Ag layer (1 Ag ML) the STM images and long time polarization experiments revealed a solid state diffusion process of Cd, Ag, and Au atoms which can be responsible for the formation of different Ag-Cd or Au-Ag-Cd alloy phases.

  15. Dislocation Climb Sources Activated by 1 MeV Electron Irradiation of Copper-Nickel Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, P.; Leffers, Torben

    1977-01-01

    Climb sources emitting dislocation loops are observed in Cu-Ni alloys during irradiation with 1 MeV electrons in a high voltage electron microscope. High source densities are found in alloys containing 5, 10 and 20% Ni, but sources are also observed in alloys containing 1 and 2% Ni. The range of ...

  16. Hot temperature corrosion of a zircon-1%niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Sebastian; Lanzani, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of the Zr-1%Niobium alloy to corrosion is studied in this work, which is used as fuel elements sheath material in Russian VVER reactors. For comparative purposes, the conventional alloys Zircaloy-4 y Zr-2.5%Nb have been tested as well. Autoclave tests were carried out in water and in solutions of LiOH with concentrations of 0-1 to 1M at 343 o C and in water vapor at 400 o C (following ASTM G2/G2M-06). The gain in weight/unit of area of the autoclaved samples was determined in order to evaluate the corrosion, and metallographics were performed to characterize the oxides and hydrides that formed. The results show that for tests of 16 hours, a minimum concentration of 0.65M LiOH is needed to accelerate corrosion in Zr-1%Nb and Zr-2.5%Nb, while acceleration occurs in Zircaloy-4 at a concentration of 0.45M. In solutions of LiOH 1M the hydrogen 'uptake' in Zr-1Nb and Zr-2,5Nb is considerably lower in Zircaloy-4. The lesser amount of β-Zr phase present in the Zr-1Nb alloy produces thinner and more compact oxides, with better visual characteristics than for those formed in Zr-2.5Nb

  17. Phase transformations behavior in a Cu-8.0Ni-1.8Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Z., E-mail: lizhou6931@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China) and Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha, 410083 (China); Wang, M.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha, 410083 (China); Zhang, L.; Gong, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Xiao, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L693 GH (United Kingdom); Pan, Z.Y. [Hunan Nonferrous Metals Holding Group Co., Ltd., Changsha, 410015 (China)

    2011-02-24

    Research highlights: > High solute concentrations Cu-Ni-Si alloy with super high strength and high conductivity has a good prospect for replacing Cu-Be alloys. At least four different kinds of precipitation products (DO{sub 22} ordered structure, {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si precipitate, {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si precipitate and {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Si{sub 2} precipitate) have been observed in previous investigation. Therefore, the overall phase transformation behavior of Cu-Ni-Si alloy appears to be very complex. And most previous studies on the phase transformation usually investigated the precipitation process at only one temperature or at most a few temperatures, which is far away to establish a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for Cu-Ni-Si alloy. > The phase transformation behavior of Cu-8.0Ni-1.8Si alloy has been studied systematically at wide temperature range in this paper. The results we have gained are that: after solution treatment, followed by different conditions of isothermal treatment, DO{sub 22} ordering, discontinuous precipitation and continuous precipitation were observed in the alloy; discontinuous precipitates of {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si phase appeared when the alloy isothermal treated at 550 deg. C for short time, which had not been reported by the previous Cu-Ni-Si system alloy's researchers in their papers; two kinds of precipitates of {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si and {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si were determined by the TEM characterization; the orientation relationship between the two kinds of precipitates and Cu-matrix is that: (1 1 0){sub Cu}//(1 1 0){sub {beta}}//(211-bar){sub {delta}}, [112-bar]{sub Cu}//[11-bar 2]{sub {beta}}//[3 2 4]{sub {delta}}; during overaging treatment, Cu-matrix, {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si, {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si and {delta}'-Ni{sub 2}Si were distinguished in the samples and the orientation relationship between the precipitates and Cu-matrix can be expressed as that: (0 2 2){sub Cu}//(0 2 2){sub {beta}}//(1 0 0){sub {delta}}, (02-bar 2){sub Cu

  18. Effect of strontium on the texture and mechanical properties of extruded Mg–1%Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, Hemant; Hoseini, Majid; Pekguleryuz, Mihriban

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mg–1%Mn and Mg–1%Mn–(0.3–2)Sr alloys were extruded at elevated temperature. ► Strontium additions refine extruded microstructure of M1 alloys. ► Sr additions weaken the basal texture of extruded M1, improve the ductility and reduce the yield asymmetry. ► Texture weakening with increasing strontium additions is the result of particle stimulated nucleation (PSN). - Abstract: Magnesium–manganese, M1, alloy is preferred for extrusion applications due to its extrudability. It is mainly used as a sacrificial anode or as a creep resistant alloy at elevated temperatures in the nuclear industry. Since Mn does not provide a significant strengthening effect, the alloy is not considered for structural applications. The basal texture which forms after extrusion orients the basal planes parallel to the extrusion direction causing anisotropy in mechanical properties. This basal texture, as well as the low strength of the alloy are the main challenges in its widespread applications. In this study, the effect of Sr addition on the texture and mechanical properties of M1 alloy was studied. M1–Sr alloys showed weakened texture by developing random texture components during extrusion. The texture randomisation is attributed to particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) around Mg–Sr intermetallics during recrystallisation. M1–Sr compositions are found to show improved strength and ductility as well as reduced yield asymmetry.

  19. Microstructure and grain refining performance of melt-spun Al-5Ti-1B master alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhonghua; Bian Xiufang; Wang Yan; Liu Xiangfa

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, the microstructure and grain refining performance of the melt-spun Al-5Ti-1B (wt%) master alloy have been investigated, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and grain refining tests. It has been found that the microstructure of the melt-spun Al-5Ti-1B master alloy is mainly composed of two phases: metastable, supersaturated α-Al solid solution and uniformly dispersed TiB 2 particles, quite different from that of the rod-like alloy consisting of three phases: α-Al, blocky TiAl 3 , and clusters of TiB 2 particles. Quenching temperatures and wheel speeds (cooling rates), however, have no obvious effect on the microstructure of the melt-spun Al-5Ti-1B alloy. Grain refining tests show that rapid solidification has a significant effect on the grain refining performance of Al-5Ti-1B alloy and leads to the great increase of nucleation rate of the alloy. Nevertheless, the melt-spun Al-5Ti-1B master alloy prepared at different wheel speeds and quenching temperatures possesses the similar grain refining performance. The reasons for the microstructure formation and the improvement of the grain refining performance of the melt-spun Al-5Ti-1B master alloy have been also discussed

  20. High-temperature, low-cycle fatigue of advanced copper-base alloys for rocket nozzles. Part II: NASA 1.1, Glidcop, and sputtered copper alloys. Contractor report, Mar.--Sep. 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.B.; Stentz, R.H.; Berling, J.T.

    1974-11-01

    Short-term tensile and low-cycle fatigue data are reported for five advance Cu-base alloys: Sputtered Zr--Cu as received, sputtered Zr--Cu heat-treated, Glidcop AL-10, and alloys 1-1A and 1-1B. Tensile tests were performed in argon at 538 0 C using an axial strain rate of 0.002/s. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength data are reported along with reduction in area values. Axial strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests were performed in argon at 538 0 C using an axial strain rate of 0.002/s to define the fatigue life over the range from 100 to 3000 cycles for the five materials studied. Fatigue characteristics of the NASA 1-1A and NASA 1-1B compositions are identical and represent fatigue life values which are much greater than those for the other materials tested. The effect of temperature on NASA 1-1B alloy at a strain rate of 0.002/s and effect of strain rates of 0.0004 and 0.01/s at 538 0 C were evaluated. Hold-time data are reported for the NASA 1-1B alloy at 538 0 C using 5 minute hold periods in tension only and compression only at two different strain range values. (U.S.)

  1. XHM-1 alloy as a promising structural material for water-cooled fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.; Alekseev, A.B.; Kazennov, Yu.I.; Khramtsov, V.F.; Kondrat'ev, V.P.; Krasina, T.A.; Rechitsky, V.N.; Stepankov, V.N.; Votinov, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    Experience gained in utilizing austenitic stainless steel components in water-cooled power reactors indicates that the main cause of their failure is the steel's propensity for corrosion cracking. In search of a material immune to this type of corrosion, different types of austenitic steels and chromium-nickel alloys were investigated and tested at VNIINM. This paper presents the results of studying physical and mechanical properties, irradiation and corrosion resistance in a water coolant at <350 C of the alloy XHM-1 as compared with austenitic stainless steels 00Cr16Ni15Mo3Nb, 00Cr20Ni25Nb and alloy 00Cr20Ni40Mo5Nb. Analysis of the results shows that, as distinct from the stainless steels studied, the XHM-1 alloy is completely immune to corrosion cracking (CC). Not a single induced damage was encountered within 50 to 350 C in water containing different amounts of chlorides and oxygen under tensile stresses up to the yield strength of the material. One more distinctive feature of the alloy compared to steels is that no change in the strength or total elongation is encountered in the alloy specimens irradiated to 32 dpa at 350 C. The XHM-1 alloy has adequate fabricability and high weldability characteristics. As far as its properties are concerned, the XHM-1 alloy is very promising as a material for water-cooled fusion reactor components. (orig.)

  2. Grain refinement of Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy by novel Al-3.5FeNb-1.5C master alloy and its effect on mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparao, K. Ch; Birru, Anil Kumar

    2018-01-01

    A novel Al-3.5FeNb-1.5C master alloy with uniform microstructure was prepared using a melt reaction process for this study. In the master alloy, basic intermetallic particles such as NbAl3, NbC act as heterogeneous nucleation substrates during the solidification of aluminium. The grain refining performance of the novel master alloy on Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy has also been investigated. It is observed that the addition of 0.1 wt.% of Al-3.5FeNb-1.5C master alloy can induce very effective grain refinement of the Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy. The average grain size of α-Al is reduced to 22.90 μm from about 61.22 μm and most importantly, the inoculation of Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy with FeNb-C is not characterised by any visible poisoning effect, which is the drawback of using commercial Al-Ti-B master alloys on aluminium cast alloys. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy have been improved obviously by the addition of the 0.1 wt.% of Al-3.5FeNb-1.5C master alloy, including the yield strength and elongation.

  3. Understanding hydride formation in Zr-1Nb alloy through microstructural characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neogy, S.; Srivastava, D.; Tewari, R.; Singh, R.N.; Dey, G.K.; De, P.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2003-07-01

    In this study the experimental results of hydride formation and their microstructure evolution in Zr-1Nb alloy is presented. This Zr-1Nb binary alloy and other Zr-1 Nb based ternary and quaternary alloys are being used as fuel tube materials and have the potential for meeting the requirement of high burn up fuel. Hydriding of Zr-1Nb alloy having a microstructure comprising equiaxed α grains and a uniform distribution of spherical particles of the β phase has been carried out in this study. The specimens have been hydrided by gaseous charging method to different hydrogen levels. The microstructures of hydrided samples were examined as a function of hydrogen content. The formation of δ hydride in slow cooled specimens and formation of γ hydride in rapidly cooled specimens has been studied with their morphology, habit plane and orientation relationship with the α matrix in view. The habit planes of either type of hydride phase has been determined and compared with those observed in other Zr-Nb alloys. The orientation relationship between the α matrix and the δ hydride was found to be the following: (0001) α // (111) δ and [1120] α // [110] δ . The orientation relationship between the α matrix and the γ hydride was of the following type: (0001) α // (111) γ and [1120] α // [110] γ . The internal structure of both types of hydride has been examined. The effect of the presence of the spherical β phase particles in the a matrix on the growth of the hydride plates has been investigated. (author)

  4. Influence of Rare Earth Elements on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 1}RE{sub 1} Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonghyun, E-mail: joindoc@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Material Science, Magnesium Research Center (MRC), Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Kawamura, Y. [Department of Material Science, Magnesium Research Center (MRC), Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 1}RE{sub 1} (RE=La, Ce, Nd and Sm, at. %) alloys were prepared by high-frequency induction melting in an Ar atmosphere. Rods were extruded at 623 K and a ram speed of 2.5 mm·s{sup −1} using a circular die with an extrusion ratio of 10. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the extruded alloys were investigated. The Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 1}Nd{sub 1} and Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 1}Sm{sub 1} alloys consisted of only two phases: α-Mg and a Mg-RE intermetallic compound. The Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 1}La{sub 1} and Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 1}Ce{sub 1} alloys consisted of three phases: α-Mg, a Mg-RE intermetallic compound, and a Mg{sub 12}ZnY phase with a long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase. Additionally, after extrusion, the three-phase Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 1}RE{sub 1} alloys, i.e., those with an LPSO phase, had a stratified microstructure and exhibited better mechanical properties than those without an LPSO. At room temperature, the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the three-phase Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 1}La{sub 1} and Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 1}Ce{sub 1} alloys were 381–384 MPa and 427–429 MPa, respectively, and yield strengths greater than 280 MPa were observed at the elevated temperature of 523 K.

  5. Textural states of a hot-worked MA2-1 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryany, V. N.; Kochubei, A. Ya.; Kurtasov, S. F.; Mel'Nikov, K. E.

    2007-02-01

    Quantitative texture analysis is used to study texture formation in an MA2-1 magnesium alloy subjected to axisymmetric upsetting at temperatures of 250-450°C and strain rates of 10-4-100 -1. The deformed structure is examined by optical microscopy, and the results obtained are used to plot the structural-state diagram of the alloy after 50% upsetting. The experimental textures are compared with the textures calculated in terms of a thermoactivation model.

  6. Electronic properties and charge density of BexZn1− xTe alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electronic band structure calculations are performed for the BeZn1−Te (0 ≤ ≤ 1 in steps of 0.2) alloys following the empirical pseudopotential method. The alloying effects are modelled through the modified virtual crystal approximation. Throughout the composition, valence band maximum resides at the point.

  7. Research for magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub 1-x}Dy{sub x} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xueling; Shitao, Li; An, Zhang; Hui, Xu; Ni, Jiansen; Zhou, Bangxin [Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 20007 (China)

    2007-12-15

    The magnetocaloric effect (MEC) in Gd{sub 1-x}Dy{sub x} (x=0.13,0.20,0.27,0.34,0.40) alloys is investigated using commercial elements with purity of up to 99.80% for Gd and Dy. These alloys are prepared by arc melting in stoichiometric proportions on a water-cooled copper crucible under high pure argon atmosphere. As a result, when x was changed from 0 to 40at%, the adiabatic temperature change ({delta}T) increases from 1.6 K to 3.1 K, the Curie temperature decreased from 288 K to 245.5 K. Gd{sub 73}Dy{sub 27} exhibits the largest {delta}T{sub max} value of 3.1 K at the T{sub C} value of 260 K among the alloys investigated up to 1.2 T (tesla) applied field, it is almost same as the {delta}T of high pure unitary Gd (99.99%) and is clearly superior to commercial unitary Gd (99.80%). The T{sub C} of Gd{sub 73}Dy{sub 27} alloy is minor to high pure unitary Gd (99.99%) and commercially unitary Gd (99.80%). But this alloy prepared by commercial elements with low cost has better MEC to be a promising candidate for magnetic working substances for room temperature magnetic refrigeration. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Fabrication by powder metallurgy of the niobium based alloy Nb-1-Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, M.; Delaunay, C.; Walder, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Nb-1Zr alloy has been produced by the powder metallurgy technique. Production of powders was performed by centrifugal atomization with the rotating electrode process (REP) under an inert atmosphere of argon-helium. Alloy powders were characterized by granulometric spectra, oxygen content and the various types of structures which were found. After consolidation by extrusion, materials were evaluated by tensile test under vacuum at ambient temperature, 750 and 900 0 C and compared with the same alloy elaborated by ingot metallurgy. 8 refs., 9 figs. (Author)

  9. Hydrogen absorption in Ce{sub x}Gd{sub 1-x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereznitsky, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Bloch, J. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Yonovich, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Schweke, D. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Mintz, M.H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Jacob, I., E-mail: izi@bgu.ac.il [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce{sub x}Gd{sub 1-x} alloys exhibit the most negative heats of hydride formation ever found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamics of H absorption in Ce{sub x}Gd{sub 1-x} correlates with the alloys hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The entropies of H solution and hydride formation reflect the hydrogen vibrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Terminal hydrogen solubilities change in a monotonic way between Ce and Gd. - Abstract: The effect of alloying on the thermodynamics of hydrogen absorption was studied for Ce{sub x}Gd{sub 1-x} alloys (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) at temperatures between 850 K and 1050 K in the 1-10{sup -4} Torr pressure range. The temperature-dependent hydrogen solubilities and plateau pressures for hydride formation were obtained from hydrogen absorption isotherms. The terminal hydrogen solubility (THS) at a given temperature changes in a monotonic way as a function of x. It is approximately three times higher in Gd, than in Ce, throughout the investigated temperature range. This monotonic behavior is opposed to that of many other substitutional alloys, for which the hydrogen terminal solubility increases with increasing solute concentrations. The enthalpies, {Delta}H{sub f}, and the entropies, {Delta}S{sub f}, of the dihydride formation exhibit a pronounced and broad negative minimum starting at x Almost-Equal-To 0.15, yielding the most negative {Delta}H{sub f} values ever found for metal hydrides. On the other hand, the enthalpies and entropies of ideal solution display a positive trend at x = 0.15 and x = 0.3. Both behaviors are considered in view of a reported distinct variation of the Ce{sub x}Gd{sub 1-x} hardness as a function of x. The particular compositional variations of the entropies of solution and formation as a function of x reflect most likely the vibrational properties of the hydrogen atoms in the metal matrices.

  10. Study of transformation behavior in a Ti-4.4 Ta-1.9 Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mythili, R.; Paul, V. Thomas; Saroja, S.; Vijayalakshmi, M.; Raghunathan, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    An alloy of composition Ti-4.4 wt.% Ta-1.9 wt.% Nb is being developed as a structural material for corrosion applications, as titanium and its alloys possess excellent corrosion resistance in many oxidizing media. The primary physical metallurgy database for the Ti-4.4 wt.% Ta-1.9 wt.% Nb alloy is being presented for the first time. Determination of the β transus, M s temperature and classification of the alloy have been carried out, employing a variety of microscopy techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-hardness and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The β transition temperature or β transus determined using different experimental techniques was found to agree very well with evaluations based on empirical calculations. Based on chemistry and observed room temperature microstructure, the alloy has been classified as an α + β titanium alloy. The high temperature β transforms to either α' or α + β by a martensitic or Widmanstatten transformation. The mechanisms of transformation of β under different conditions and characteristics of different types of α have been studied and discussed in this paper

  11. Thermal decomposition of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ): A density functional theory and ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veals, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory and ab initio methods are employed to investigate decomposition pathways of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine initiated by unimolecular loss of NO 2 or HONO. Geometry optimizations are performed using M06/cc-pVTZ and coupled-cluster (CC) theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, CCSD(T), is used to calculate accurate single-point energies for those geometries. The CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ energies for NO 2 elimination by N–N and C–N bond fission are, including zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections, 43.21 kcal/mol and 50.46 kcal/mol, respectively. The decomposition initiated by trans-HONO elimination can occur by a concerted H-atom and nitramine NO 2 group elimination or by a concerted H-atom and nitroalkyl NO 2 group elimination via barriers (at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level with ZPE corrections) of 47.00 kcal/mol and 48.27 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level, the ordering of these four decomposition steps from energetically most favored to least favored is: NO 2 elimination by N–N bond fission, HONO elimination involving the nitramine NO 2 group, HONO elimination involving a nitroalkyl NO 2 group, and finally NO 2 elimination by C–N bond fission

  12. Thermal decomposition of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ): A density functional theory and ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veals, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Donald L.

    2014-04-01

    Density functional theory and ab initio methods are employed to investigate decomposition pathways of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine initiated by unimolecular loss of NO2 or HONO. Geometry optimizations are performed using M06/cc-pVTZ and coupled-cluster (CC) theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, CCSD(T), is used to calculate accurate single-point energies for those geometries. The CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ energies for NO2 elimination by N-N and C-N bond fission are, including zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections, 43.21 kcal/mol and 50.46 kcal/mol, respectively. The decomposition initiated by trans-HONO elimination can occur by a concerted H-atom and nitramine NO2 group elimination or by a concerted H-atom and nitroalkyl NO2 group elimination via barriers (at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level with ZPE corrections) of 47.00 kcal/mol and 48.27 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level, the ordering of these four decomposition steps from energetically most favored to least favored is: NO2 elimination by N-N bond fission, HONO elimination involving the nitramine NO2 group, HONO elimination involving a nitroalkyl NO2 group, and finally NO2 elimination by C-N bond fission.

  13. Microstructure, Tensile Properties, and Corrosion Behavior of Die-Cast Mg-7Al-1Ca- xSn Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Dong, Haikuo; Sun, Shijie; Wang, Zhi; Mao, Pingli; Liu, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    The microstructure, tensile properties, and corrosion behavior of die-cast Mg-7Al-1Ca- xSn ( x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.%) alloys were studied using OM, SEM/EDS, tensile test, weight loss test, and electrochemical test. The experimental results showed that Sn addition effectively refined grains and intermetallic phases and increased the amount of intermetallic phases. Meanwhile, Sn addition to the alloys suppressed the formation of the (Mg,Al)2Ca phase and resulted in the formation of the ternary CaMgSn phase and the binary Mg2Sn phase. The Mg-7Al-1Ca-0.5Sn alloy exhibited best tensile properties at room temperature, while Mg-7Al-1Ca-1.0Sn alloy exhibited best tensile properties at elevated temperature. The corrosion resistance of studied alloys was improved by the Sn addition, and the Mg-7Al-1Ca-0.5Sn alloy presented the best corrosion resistance.

  14. Postirradiation fracture toughness tests of ESR alloy HT-9 and modified 9Cr-1Mo alloy from UBR reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, J.R.; Reed, J.R.; Sprague, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Alloy HT-9 and Modified 9Cr-1Mo are being evaluated for potential applications as first wall materials in magnetic fusion reactors. Objectives of the current research task were to test fatigue-precracked Charpy-V (PCC/sub v/) specimens from representative plates irradiated in the UBR reactor at 149 0 C or 300 0 C, and, to compare the results against postirradiation notch ductility data developed previously for the materials. Both plates represent electroslag refined (ESR) melt processing. PCC/sub v/ specimens of Alloy HT-9 and Modified 9Cr-1Mo alloy were irradiated at 300 0 C and 149 0 C, respectively, to approx.0.8 X 10 20 n/cm 2 , E > 0.1 MeV. During this period, postirradiation tests for fracture toughness were completed and results compared to notch ductility determinations from standard Charpy-V (C/sub v/) specimens irradiated in the same reactor experiments. Fracture surface examinations by SEM are also reported

  15. High Temperature Strength and Hot Working Technology for As-Cast Mg–1Zn–1Ca (ZX11 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamineni Pitcheswara Rao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cast Mg–1Zn–1Ca alloy (ZX11 has been tested to evaluate its compressive strength between 25 °C and 250 °C, and workability in the range of 260–500 °C. The ultimate compressive strength of this alloy is about 30% higher than that of creep-resistant alloy Mg–3Sn–2Ca (TX32 between 25 °C and 200 °C, and exhibits a plateau between 100 °C and 175 °C, similar to TX32. This is attributed to Mg2Ca particles present at grain boundaries that reduce their sliding. The processing map, developed between 260 and 420 °C in the strain rate limits of 0.0003 s−1 to 1 s−1, exhibited two domains in the ranges: (1 280–330 °C and 0.0003–0.01 s−1 and (2 330–400 °C and 0.0003–0.1 s−1. In these domains, dynamic recrystallization occurs, with basal slip dominating in the first domain and prismatic slip in the second, while the recovery mechanism being climb of edge dislocations in both. The activation energy estimated using standard kinetic rate equation is 191 kJ/mol, which is higher than the value for lattice self-diffusion in magnesium indicating that a large back stress is created by the presence of Ca2Mg6Zn3 intermetallic particles in the matrix. It is recommended that the alloy be best processed at 380 °C and 0.1 s−1 at which prismatic slip is favored due to Zn addition. At higher strain rates, the alloy exhibits flow instability and adiabatic shear band formation at <340 °C while flow localization and cracking at grain boundaries occurs at temperatures >400 °C.

  16. Structure of Sn1−xGex random alloys as obtained from the coherent potential approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Pulikkotil, J. J.

    2011-08-09

    The structure of the Sn1−xGex random alloys is studied using density functional theory and the coherent potential approximation. We report on the deviation of the Sn1−xGex alloys from Vegard’s law, addressing their full compositional range. The findings are compared to the related Si1−xGex alloys and to experimental results. Interestingly, the deviation from Vegard’s law is quantitatively and qualitatively different between the Sn1−xGex and Si1−xGex alloys. An almost linear dependence of the bulk modulus as a function of composition is found for Si1−xGex, whereas for Sn1−xGex the dependence is strongly nonlinear.

  17. Effect of Ni Addition on the Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Fe-20Cr-1.7C-1Si Hardfacing Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Seon Jin

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance of Fe-20Cr-1.7C-1Si hardfacing alloy without a loss of wear resistance, the effect of Ni addition was investigated. As expected, the corrosion resistance of the alloy increased with increasing Ni concentration. The wear resistance of the alloy did not decrease, even though the hardness decreased, up to Ni concentration of 5 wt.%. This was attributed to the fact that the decrease in hardness was counterbalanced by the strain-induced martensitic transformation. The wear resistance of the alloy, however, decreased abruptly with increases of the Ni concentration over 5 wt.%.

  18. Thermomechanical processing of Nb-1Zr-0.1C alloy for use in compact high temperature reactors: a first report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravartty, J.K.; Kapoor, R.; Suri, A.K.

    2011-08-01

    Nb-1Zr-0.1C is a potential material for use in high temperature nuclear reactors. Use of this alloy in components requires appropriate thermomechanical processing to break the cast microstructure and to obtain uniformly distributed fine stable precipitates so as to produce the desired mechanical properties at the high operating temperatures. This report reviews the thermomechanical processing of Nb-1Zr-0.1C alloy carried out over the years by other researchers and the high temperature creep behavior of the alloy. The hot deformation of Nb-1Zr-0.1C alloy carried out at Mechanical Metallurgy Division is also presented here. From this review it is evident that most primary hot working studies were carried out between 1500 to 1700 degC. The subsequent annealing treatments, which require holding at lower temperatures of about 1100 to 1300 degC for very long times help further transform the precipitates from coarse orthorhombic to very fine cubic. Our studies on Nb-1Zr-0.1C alloy also confirm that optimum hot working lies at temperatures beyond 1500 degC where dynamic recrystallization initiates, and optimally around 1700 degC where dynamic recrystallization transforms the microstructure. Working at temperatures lower than 1000 degC may lead to the undesirable effect of both micro as well as macro strain localization, and should be avoided. (author)

  19. Tuning the energy band gap of ternary alloyed Cd1-xPbxS quantum dots for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Tuning the energy band gap of ternary alloyed Cd1-xPbxS (x: 0, 0.33, 0.5, 0.67 and 1) quantum dots (QDs) for photovoltaic applications is studied. Alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDs were adsorbed onto TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) using ssuccessive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methode. EDX measurements ensure the success adsorption of alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDs onto the TiO2 electrode. At 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5) sun illumination, the photovoltaic performance of alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDs sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) was measured. The maximum values of Jsc (1.92 mA/cm2) and η (0.36%) for the alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDSSCs were obtained when the molar ratio of Cd/Pb is 0.33/0.67. the open circuit voltage (Voc) is equal 0.61 ± 0.01 V for all alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDSSCs. The electron back recombination rates decrease considerably for alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDSSCs as x value increases, peaking at 0.67. The electron lifetime (τ) for Cd0.33Pb0.67S QDSSCs is one order of magnitude larger than that of the other alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDSSCs with different x value. Under ON-OFF cycles to solar illumination, the open circuit voltage decay measurements show the high sensitivity and reproducibility of alloyed Cd1-xPbxS QDSSCs.

  20. Investigation into electrochemical behavior of molybdenum VM-1 alloy at high current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatarinova, O M; Amirkhanova, N A; Akhmadiev, A G

    1975-01-01

    The effect of the composition and concentration of electrolyte on the workability of the molybdenum VM-1 alloy has been studied and a number of anions has been determined relative to their activation capacity. The best workability of the alloy is achieved in a 15% NaOH solution and a composite electrolyte 15% NaNO/sub 3/+5%NaOH. It is shown that in polarization of the VM-1 alloy both in alkali- and salt solutions a film of oxides of different valence molybdenum is formed: Mo/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Mo/sub 4/O/sub 11/, Mo/sub 9/O/sub 26/, MoO/sub 3/, but molybdenum gets dissolved only in a hexavalent form, its content in a solution being in conformity with the polarizing current densities. Using a temperature-kinetic technique it has been found that the concentrational polarization is the limiting stage in the reaction of molybdenum and VM-1 alloy anodic dissolution in 15% NaNO/sub 3/ solution and in the composite electrolyte 15%NaNO/sub 3/+5%NaOH.

  1. Intermetallic precipitation in rare earth-treated A413.1 alloy. A metallographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Agnes M.; Samuel, Fawzy H.

    2018-01-01

    The present study was performed mainly on A413.1 alloy. Measured amounts of La, Ce or La+Ce, Ti and Sr were added to the molten alloy in the form of master alloys. Samples sectioned from castings obtained from thermal analysis experiments were used for preparing samples for metallographic examination. The results show that addition of rare earth (RE) metals to Al-Si alloys increased the α-Al nucleation temperature and depressed the Al-Si eutectic formation temperature, thereby increasing the solidification range. Depending upon the alloying elements/additives, a large number of RE-based intermetallics could be formed: Al 4 (Ce,La), Al 13 (Ce,La) 2 Cu 3 , Al 7 (Cu,Fe) 6 (Ce,La) 6 Si 2 , Al 4 La, Al 2 La 5 Si 2 , Al 2 Ce 5 Si 2 , Al 2 (Ce,La) 5 Si 2 . Under an electron microscope, these phases appear in backscatter imaging mode in the form of thin grayish-white platelets on the dark gray Al matrix. The average thickness of these platelets is about 1.5 μm. When the alloy is grain refined with Ti-based master alloys, precipitation of a gray phase in the form of sludge is observed: Al 12 La 3 Ti 2 , or Al 12 (Ce,La) 3 Ti 2 . Regardless the alloy composition, the RE/Al ratios remain constant in each type of intermetallic. Rare earth metals have a strong affinity to react with Sr (resulting in partial modification of the eutectic Si particles) as well as some transition elements, in particular Ti and Cu. Iron has a very low affinity for interaction with RE metals. It is only confined to Fe-based intermetallics.

  2. Intermetallic precipitation in rare earth-treated A413.1 alloy. A metallographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Agnes M.; Samuel, Fawzy H. [Univ. du Quebec a Chicoutimi (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Doty, Herbert W. [General Motors, Pontiac, MI (United States). Materials Engineering; Valtierra, Salvador [Nemak, S.A., Garza Garcia (Mexico)

    2018-02-15

    The present study was performed mainly on A413.1 alloy. Measured amounts of La, Ce or La+Ce, Ti and Sr were added to the molten alloy in the form of master alloys. Samples sectioned from castings obtained from thermal analysis experiments were used for preparing samples for metallographic examination. The results show that addition of rare earth (RE) metals to Al-Si alloys increased the α-Al nucleation temperature and depressed the Al-Si eutectic formation temperature, thereby increasing the solidification range. Depending upon the alloying elements/additives, a large number of RE-based intermetallics could be formed: Al{sub 4}(Ce,La), Al{sub 13}(Ce,La){sub 2}Cu{sub 3}, Al{sub 7}(Cu,Fe){sub 6}(Ce,La){sub 6}Si{sub 2}, Al{sub 4}La, Al{sub 2}La{sub 5}Si{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}Ce{sub 5}Si{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}(Ce,La){sub 5}Si{sub 2}. Under an electron microscope, these phases appear in backscatter imaging mode in the form of thin grayish-white platelets on the dark gray Al matrix. The average thickness of these platelets is about 1.5 μm. When the alloy is grain refined with Ti-based master alloys, precipitation of a gray phase in the form of sludge is observed: Al{sub 12}La{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}, or Al{sub 12}(Ce,La){sub 3}Ti{sub 2}. Regardless the alloy composition, the RE/Al ratios remain constant in each type of intermetallic. Rare earth metals have a strong affinity to react with Sr (resulting in partial modification of the eutectic Si particles) as well as some transition elements, in particular Ti and Cu. Iron has a very low affinity for interaction with RE metals. It is only confined to Fe-based intermetallics.

  3. Structural evolution of Cu{sub (1−X)}Y{sub X} alloys prepared by mechanical alloying: Their thermal stability and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mula, Suhrit, E-mail: smulafmt@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Setman, Daria [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Youssef, Khaled [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Scattergood, R.O.; Koch, Carl C [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • Metastable solid solutions were prepared from Cu–Y nonequilibrium compositions by mechanical alloying. • Gibbs free energy change as per Miedema’s model confirms the formation of metastable alloys. • High Y content alloys showed high thermal stability during extensive annealing at high temperatures. • Stabilized alloys showed very high hardness and improved yield strength. • Mechanisms of high thermal stability and improved mechanical properties were discussed. - Abstract: In the present study, an attempt has been made to synthesize copper based disordered solid solutions by mechanical alloying (MA) of non-equilibrium compositions. The blended compositions of Cu–1% Y, Cu–3% Y, Cu–5% Y and Cu–7.5% Y (at.%) (all the compositions will be addressed as % only hereafter until unless it is mentioned) were ball-milled for 8 h, and then annealed at different temperatures (200–800 °C) for different length of duration (1–5 h) under high purity argon + 2 vol.% H{sub 2} atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Gibbs free energy change calculation confirm the formation of disordered solid solution (up to 7.5%) of Y in Cu after milling at a room temperature for 8 h. The XRD grain size was calculated to be as low as 7 nm for 7.5% Y and 22 nm for 1% Y alloy. The grain size was retained within 35 nm even after annealing for 1 h at 800 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis substantiates the formation of ultra-fine grained nanostructures after milling. Microhardness value of the as-milled samples was quite high (3.0–4.75 GPa) compared to that of pure Cu. The hardness value increased with increasing annealing temperatures up to 400 °C for the alloys containing 3–7.5% Y, and thereafter it showed a decreasing trend. The increase in the hardness after annealing is attributed to the formation of uniformly distributed ultrafine intermetallic phases in the nanocrystalline grains. The stabilization effect is achieved due to

  4. Fe(Co)SiBPCCu nanocrystalline alloys with high Bs above 1.83 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Kong, Fengyu; Xie, Lei; Wang, Anding; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin; Liu, Chain-Tsuan

    2017-11-01

    Fe84.75-xCoxSi2B9P3C0.5Cu0.75 (x = 0, 2.5 and 10) nanocrystalline alloys with excellent magnetic properties were successfully developed. The fully amorphous alloy ribbons exhibit wide temperature interval of 145-156 °C between the two crystallization events. It is found that the excessive substitution of Co for Fe greatly deteriorates the magnetic properties due to the non-uniform microstructure with coarse grains. The alloys with x = 0 and 2.5 exhibit high saturation magnetization (above 1.83 T), low core loss and relatively low coercivity (below 5.4 A/m) after annealing. In addition, the Fe84.75Si2B9P3C0.5Cu0.75 nanocrystalline alloy also exhibits good frequency properties and temperature stability. The excellent magnetic properties were explained by the uniform microstructure with small grain size and the wide magnetic domains of the alloy. Low raw material cost, good manufacturability and excellent magnetic properties will make these nanocrystalline alloys prospective candidates for transformer and motor cores.

  5. Substituent influence on the structural, vibrational and electronic properties of 2,5-dihydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide by experimental and DFT methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Thirunarayanan, S; Durga Devi, G; Mohan, S

    2015-11-05

    Spectroscopic and theoretical quantum chemical studies of 2,5-dihydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide and 3-methyl-2,5-dihydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide have been carried out by FTIR and FT-Raman spectral techniques along with B3LYP methods. The geometry of the compounds have been optimised by B3LYP method with 6-311++G(∗∗) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The geometrical parameters obtained at B3LYP levels have been compared with the experimental values. Molecular electrostatic potential surface, total electron density distribution and frontier molecular orbital are constructed at B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level to understand the electronic properties. The charge density distribution and sites of chemical reactivity of the molecules have been obtained by mapping electron density isosurface with electrostatic potential surfaces. Natural bond orbital analysis of the molecules are carried out and the occupancies and the atomic hybrid contributions are calculated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The structural phases and vibrational properties of Mo1-xWxTe2 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sean M.; Beams, Ryan; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Kalish, Irina; Singh, Arunima K.; Bruma, Alina; Tavazza, Francesca; Joshi, Jaydeep; Stone, Iris R.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Davydov, Albert V.; Vora, Patrick M.

    2017-12-01

    The structural polymorphism in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provides exciting opportunities for developing advanced electronics. For example, MoTe2 crystallizes in the 2H semiconducting phase at ambient temperature and pressure, but transitions into the 1T‧ semimetallic phase at high temperatures. Alloying MoTe2 with WTe2 reduces the energy barrier between these two phases, while also allowing access to the T d Weyl semimetal phase. The \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloy system is therefore promising for developing phase change memory technology. However, achieving this goal necessitates a detailed understanding of the phase composition in the MoTe2-WTe2 system. We combine polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy with x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to study bulk \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys over the full compositional range x from 0 to 1. We identify Raman and XRD signatures characteristic of the 2H, 1T‧, and T d structural phases that agree with density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, and use them to identify phase fields in the MoTe2-WTe2 system, including single-phase 2H, 1T‧, and T d regions, as well as a two-phase 1T‧  +  T d region. Disorder arising from compositional fluctuations in \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys breaks inversion and translational symmetry, leading to the activation of an infrared 1T‧-MoTe2 mode and the enhancement of a double-resonance Raman process in \\text{2H-M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys. Compositional fluctuations limit the phonon correlation length, which we estimate by fitting the observed asymmetric Raman lineshapes with a phonon confinement model. These observations reveal the important role of disorder in \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys, clarify the structural phase boundaries, and provide a foundation for future explorations of phase transitions and electronic phenomena in this

  7. Nano ZrO{sub 2} particles in nanocrystalline Fe–14Cr–1.5Zr alloy powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W.Z.; Li, L.L.; Saber, M.; Koch, C.C.; Zhu, Y.T., E-mail: ytzhu@ncsu.edu; Scattergood, R.O.

    2014-09-15

    Here we report on the formation of nano ZrO{sub 2} particles in Fe–14Cr–1.5Zr alloy powders synthesized by mechanical alloying. The nano ZrO{sub 2} particles were found uniformly dispersed in the ferritic matrix powders with an average size of about 3.7 nm, which rendered the alloy powders so stable that it retained nanocrystalline structure after annealing at 900 °C for 1 h. The ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a tetragonal crystal structure and the following orientation relationship with the matrix: (0 0 2){sub ZrO2}//(0 0 2){sub Matrix} and [0 1 0]{sub ZrO2}//[1 2 0]{sub Matrix}. The size and dispersion of the ZrO{sub 2} particles are comparable to those of Y–Ti–O enriched oxides reported in irradiation-resistant ODS alloys. This suggests a potential application of the new alloy powders for nuclear energy applications.

  8. Studies of alloy structures and properties. Annual summary report, December 1, 1976--December 1, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duwez, P.

    1977-01-01

    Brief summaries of research activities in the following areas are given: superconductivity to ferromagnetism in amorphous Gd--La--Au alloys; magnetic regimes in amorphous Ni--Fe--P--B alloys; electronic and magnetic properties of amorphous Fe--P--B alloys; critical phenomena and magnetic properties of amorphous gadolinium based ferromagnets; Kondo effect, spin correlations, and superconductivity in amorphous alloys doped with magnetic impurities; flux pinning by crystalline phase precipitates embedded in an amorphous superconducting matrix; kinetics of crystallization of amorphous alloys; properties of the flux lattice in amorphous superconductors; low temperature calorimeter; low temperature heat capacity of metastable superconductors; thermal relaxation effects and crystallization of amorphous alloys; fundamental studies of amorphous superconductors using superconductive tunneling; low temperature calorimetry of bulk amorphous metals; and mictomagnetism in amorphous alloys

  9. Corrosion of aluminum alloys as a function of alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1969-10-01

    A study was initiated which included nineteen aluminum alloys. Tests were conducted in high purity water at 360 0 C and flow tests (approx. 20 ft/sec) in reactor process water at 130 0 C (TF-18 loop tests). High-silicon alloys and AlSi failed completely in the 360 0 C tests. However, coupling of AlSi to 8001 aluminum suppressed the failure. The alloy compositions containing iron and nickel survived tht 360 0 C autoclave exposures. Corrosion rates varied widely as a function of alloy composition, but in directions which were predictable from previous high-temperature autoclave experience. In the TF-18 loop flow tests, corrosion penetrations were similar on all of the alloys and on high-purity aluminum after 105 days. However, certain alloys established relatively low linear corrosion rates: Al-0.9 Ni-0.5 Fe-0.1 Zr, Al-1.0 Ni-0.15 Fe-11.5 Si-0.8 Mg, Al-1.2 Ni-1.8 Fe, and Al-7.0 Ni-4.8 Fe. Electrical polarity measurements between AlSi and 8001 alloys in reactor process water at temperatures up to 150 0 C indicated that AlSi was anodic to 8001 in the static autoclave system above approx. 50 0 C

  10. Variation of equation of state parameters in the Mg2(Si 1-xSnx) alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Pulikkotil, Jiji Thomas Joseph; Alshareef, Husam N.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Thermoelectric performance peaks up for intermediate Mg2(Si 1-x:Snx) alloys, but not for isomorphic and isoelectronic Mg2(Si1-xGex) alloys. A comparative study of the equation of state parameters is performed using density functional theory, Green

  11. Grindability of dental magnetic alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Eisei; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu; Kimura, Kohei

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the grindability of cast magnetic alloys (Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and magnetic stainless steel) was evaluated and compared with that of conventional dental casting alloys (Ag-Pd-Au alloy, Type 4 gold alloy, and cobalt-chromium alloy). Grindability was evaluated in terms of grinding rate (i.e., volume of metal removed per minute) and grinding ratio (i.e., volume ratio of metal removed compared to wheel material lost). Solution treated Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy had a significantly higher grinding rate than the aged one at a grinding speed of 750-1500 m x min(-1). At 500 m x min(-1), there were no significant differences in grinding rate between solution treated and aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloys. At a lower speed of 500 m x min(-1) or 750 m x min(-1), it was found that the grinding rates of aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and stainless steel were higher than those of conventional casting alloys.

  12. Thermal decomposition of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ): A density functional theory and ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veals, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Donald L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Density functional theory and ab initio methods are employed to investigate decomposition pathways of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine initiated by unimolecular loss of NO{sub 2} or HONO. Geometry optimizations are performed using M06/cc-pVTZ and coupled-cluster (CC) theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, CCSD(T), is used to calculate accurate single-point energies for those geometries. The CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ energies for NO{sub 2} elimination by N–N and C–N bond fission are, including zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections, 43.21 kcal/mol and 50.46 kcal/mol, respectively. The decomposition initiated by trans-HONO elimination can occur by a concerted H-atom and nitramine NO{sub 2} group elimination or by a concerted H-atom and nitroalkyl NO{sub 2} group elimination via barriers (at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level with ZPE corrections) of 47.00 kcal/mol and 48.27 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level, the ordering of these four decomposition steps from energetically most favored to least favored is: NO{sub 2} elimination by N–N bond fission, HONO elimination involving the nitramine NO{sub 2} group, HONO elimination involving a nitroalkyl NO{sub 2} group, and finally NO{sub 2} elimination by C–N bond fission.

  13. Superplastic properties of an Al-2.4Mg-1.8Li-0.5Sc alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.L. III; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that there is a need in the aerospace industry for structural, superplastic aluminum alloys that are formable at strain-rates greater than 10 -3 s -1 in order for the economic benefits of superplastic forming to be realized. The standard, structural, superplastic aluminum alloy in the aerospace industry is 7475, which has an optimum forming strain-rate near 10 -4 s -1 . Thus, research has been focused on modifying the microstructures of wrought Al-Li alloys such as 2090 and 8090 into superplastically formable (SPF) microstructures with improved properties, but the results have not been completely successful. Superplastic alloys with high strengths have been produced from the Al-Mg-Sc system. These alloys are strengthened by thermomechanical processing which precipitates small, coherent Al 3 Sc particles and increases the dislocation density of the material. The Mg is in solid solution and improves the work hardening capability of these alloys. Because superplastic forming is carried out at relatively high temperatures, recovery processes eliminate the dislocation strengthening resulting from the rolling and overage the precipitates. Lithium provides the most promising choice since it forms the ordered coherent precipitate δ (Al 3 Li), lowers the density, and increases the stiffness of aluminum alloys

  14. An in-situ X-ray diffraction study on the electrochemical formation of PtZn alloys on Pt(1 1 1) single crystal electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drnec, J., E-mail: drnec@esrf.fr [ESRF, Grenoble (France); Bizzotto, D. [Department of Chemistry, AMPEL, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Carlà, F. [ESRF, Grenoble (France); Fiala, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Sode, A. [Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Balmes, O.; Detlefs, B.; Dufrane, T. [ESRF, Grenoble (France); Felici, R., E-mail: felici@esrf.fr [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • PtZn electrochemical alloying is observed on single crystal Pt electrodes. • In-situ X-ray characterization during alloy formation and dissolution is provided. • Structural model of the surface during alloying and dissolution is discussed. • X-ray based techniques can be used in in-operando studies of bimetallic fuel cell catalysts. - Abstract: The electrochemical formation and dissolution of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) PtZn catalyst on Pt(1 1 1) surface is followed by in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements. When the crystalline Pt surface is polarized to sufficiently negative potential values, with respect to an Ag/AgCl|KCl reference electrode, the electrodeposited zinc atoms diffuse into the bulk and characteristic features are observed in the X-ray patterns. The surface structure and composition during deposition and dissolution is determined from analysis of XRR curves and measurements of crystal truncation rods. Thin Zn-rich surface layer is present during the alloy formation while a Zn-depleted layer forms during dissolution.

  15. Microstructural evolution of direct chill cast Al-15.5Si-4Cu-1Mg-1Ni-0.5Cr alloy during solution treatment

    OpenAIRE

    He Kezhun; Yu Fuxiao; Zhao Dazhi

    2011-01-01

    Heat treatment has important influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys. The most common used heat treatment method for these alloys is solution treatment followed by age-hardening. This paper investigates the microstructural evolution of a direct chill (DC) cast Al-15.5Si-4Cu-1Mg-1Ni-0.5Cr alloy after solution treated at 500, 510, 520 and 530℃, respectively for different times. The major phases observed in the as-cast alloy are α-aluminum dendrite, primary Si p...

  16. Hydrogen calibration of GD-spectrometer using Zr-1Nb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Andrey A.; Priamushko, Tatiana S.; Babikhina, Maria N.; Kudiiarov, Victor N.; Heller, Rene; Laptev, Roman S.; Lider, Andrey M.

    2018-02-01

    To study the hydrogen distribution in Zr-1Nb alloy (Э110 alloy) GD-OES was applied in this work. Qualitative analysis needs the standard samples with hydrogen. However, the standard samples with high concentrations of hydrogen in the zirconium alloy which would meet the requirements of the shape, size are absent. In this work method of Zr + H calibration samples production was performed at the first time. Automated Complex Gas Reaction Controller was used for samples hydrogenation. To calculate the parameters of post-hydrogenation incubation of the samples in an inert gas atmosphere the diffusion equations were used. Absolute hydrogen concentrations in the samples were determined by melting in the inert gas atmosphere using RHEN602 analyzer (LECO Company). Hydrogen distribution was studied using nuclear reaction analysis (HZDR, Dresden, Germany). RF GD-OES was used for calibration. The depth of the craters was measured with the help of a Hommel-Etamic profilometer by Jenoptik, Germany.

  17. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  18. Tungsten wire--nickel base alloy composite development. Contractor report, 1 Jun 1974--29 Feb 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brentnall, W.D.; Moracz, D.J.

    1976-03-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed, and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W--Hf--C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/m 2 (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics

  19. Peculiarity of electron optical orientation in Hg1-xMnxTe and Hg1-xCdxTe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgitseh, E.I.; Ivanov-Omskij, V.I.; Pogorletskij, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    To clarify the effect of exchange interaction of electrons with manganese ions on electron spin relaxation, a study was made on optical orientation in Hg 1-x Mn x Te alloy and Hg 1-x Cd x Te alloys with similar parameters of energy spectrum at 4.2 K. It is shown that exchange interaction in semimagnetic Hg 1-x Mn x Te solutions, caused by the presence of manganese ions, reduced the time of spin relaxation. However, this reduction is not sufficient make optical orientation of electrons not observable

  20. Wear behavior of 2-1/4 Cr-1Mo tubing against alloy 718 tube-support material in sodium-cooled steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.L.

    1983-05-01

    A series of prototypic steam generator 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo tube/alloy 718 tube support plate wear tests were conducted in direct support of the Westinghouse Nuclear Components Division -- Breeder Reactor Components Project Large Scale steam Generator design. The initial objective was to verify the acceptable wear behavior of softer, ''over-aged'' alloy 718 support plate material. For all interfaces under all test conditions, resultant wear damage was adhesive in nature with varying amounts of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo tube material being adhesively transferred to the alloy 718 tube supports. Maximum tube wear depths exceeded the initially established design allowable limit of 127 μm (.005 in.) at 17 of the 18 interfaces tested. A decrease in contact stresses produced acceptable tube wear depths below a readjusted maximum design allowable value of 381 μm (.015 in.). Additional conservatisms associated with the simulation of a 40-year lifetime of rubbing in a one-week laboratory test provided further confidence that the 381 μm maximum tube wear allowance would not be exceeded in service. Softer, ''over-aged'' alloy 718 material was found to produce slightly less wear damage on 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo tubing than fully age hardened material. Also, air formed oxide films on the alloy 718 reduced initial tube wear and delayed the onset of adhesive surface damage. However, at high surface stress levels, these films were not sufficiently stable to provide adequate long term protection from adhesive wear. The results of the present work and those of previous test programs suggest that the successful in-sodium tribological performance of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo/alloy 718 rubbing couples is dependent upon the presence of lubricative surface films, such as oxides and/or surface reaction or deposition products. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Unusual morphology of the omega phase in a Zr-1.75 At. pct Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Ramadasan, E.; Banerjee, S.

    1993-01-01

    The observations reported in the present communication were made in the course of a microstructural investigation on dilute Zr-Ni alloys. The alloys were prepared from nuclear-grade sponge zirconium and high-purity nickel by nonconsumable arc melting. Repeated melting was carried out to enhance homogeneity. A master alloy was used in the preparation of very dilute alloys. The observations reported here clearly indicate that the formation of the ω phase on β quenching, can occur in the binary Zr-Ni system at very low solute concentrations, suggesting that nickel is a strong ω stabilizer. Such a situation is known to obtain in the binary Zr-Mo system also. However, the unusual ω morphology observed in the present work has not been reported in the context of dilute Zr-Mo alloys. The appearance of sharp ω reflections and the absence of streaking and diffuse distributions in the selected area electron diffraction (SAD) patterns suggest that the Zr-1.75 at. pct Ni composition lies toward the solute lean end of the composition range associated with the formation of the athermal ω phase in the binary Zr-Ni system. In a more dilute Zr-Ni alloy (Zr-1.30 at. pct Ni), no athermal ω could be observed in β quenched specimens. The absence of streaking is also consistent with the fact that the ω phase in the β quenched Zr-1.75 at. pct Ni alloy did not occur in the form of very fine precipitates. The unusual ω morphology encountered in this work merits further investigation

  2. Growth and characterization of NixCu1-x alloy films, NixCu1-x/NiyCu1-y multilayers, and nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazeminezhad, I.

    2001-12-01

    It was found that it is possible to grow Ni x Cu 1-x alloy systems of arbitrary composition by electrodepositing well-defined sub-monolayer quantities of Ni and Cu in alternation using a new method based on that used previously to prepare potentiostatically deposited magnetic multilayers from a single sulphamate-based electrolyte. Following growth, the chemical composition of Ni x Cu 1-x alloy films was obtained by ZAF-corrected energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis and less than a 4% difference between the nominal and actual composition was observed. The structure of the films was investigated by high-angle X-ray diffractometry (HAXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The films grown on polycrystalline Cu substrates had (100) texture, while those grown on Au-coated glass had (111) texture. Some evidence of Ni clustering was obtained by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Self-organisation of the deposited metal was suggested for Ni potentials more positive than ∼-1.4V. The transition from a Ni/Cu multilayer to a Ni x Cu 1-x alloy was also studied and an interesting aspect, namely a plateau region in a plot of magnetisation as a function of Ni layer thickness was observed, suggesting a preferred Ni cluster size in these alloy films. Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) of the films decreased with increasing Cu content at 300K and 77K. SQUID measurements for Ni 0.52 Cu 0.48 and Ni 0.62 CU 0.38 films showed that they become much more strongly ferromagnetic at low temperatures. Evidence for blocked -superparamagnetic behaviour above a blocking temperature (T B ) of the films was obtained from zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetic susceptibility measurements. Ni x Cu 1-x /Ni y Cu 1-y alloy/alloy multilayer films with short repeat distance were successfully fabricated using this method. Up to third order satellite peaks observed in HAXRD showed that the interface is sharp. Room temperature longitudinal magnetoresistance measurements showed

  3. High pressure stability analysis and chemical bonding of Ti1-xZrxN alloy: A first principle study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Mamta; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2016-01-01

    First-principles pseudo-potential calculations have been performed to analyze the stability of Ti 1-x Zr x N alloy under high pressures. The first order phase transition from B1 to B2 phase has been observed in this alloy at high pressure. The variation of lattice parameter with the change in concentration of Zr atom in Ti 1-x Zr x N is also reported in both the phases. The calculations for density of states have been performed to understand the alloying effects on chemical bonding of Ti-Zr-N alloy.

  4. The investigation of topological phase of Gd1-xYxAuPb (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) alloys under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Parviz; Nourbakhsh, Zahra

    2018-04-01

    Topological phase of Gd1-xYxAuPb (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) alloys have been studied utilizing density function theory by WIEN2k code. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA), generalized gradient approximation plus Hubbard parameter (GGA + U), Modified Becke and Johnson (MBJ) and GGA Engel-vosko in the presence of spin orbit coupling have been used to investigate the topological band structure of Gd1-xYxAuPb alloys at zero pressure. The topological phase and band order of these alloys within GGA and GGA + U approaches under hydrostatic pressure are also investigated. We find that under hydrostatic pressure in some percentages of Gd1-xYxAuPb (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) alloys in both GGA and GGA + U approaches, the trivial topological phase is converted into nontrivial topological phase. In addition, the band inversion strength versus lattice constant of these alloys is studied. Moreover, the schematic plan is represented in order to show the trivial and nontrivial topological phase of Gd1-xYxAuPb (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) alloys in both GGA and GGA + U approaches.

  5. Comparison of electrochemical performance of as-cast Pb-1 wt.% Sn and Pb-1 wt.% Sb alloys for lead-acid battery components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Wislei R.; Peixoto, Leandro C.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 612, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    A comparative experimental study of the electrochemical features of as-cast Pb-1 wt.% Sn and Pb-1 wt.% Sb alloys is carried out with a view to applications in the manufacture of lead-acid battery components. The as-cast samples are obtained using a water-cooled unidirectional solidification system. Pb-Sn and Pb-Sb alloy samples having similar coarse cell arrays are subjected to corrosion tests in order to assess the effect of Sn or Sb segregation in the cell boundary on the electrochemical performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) diagrams, potentiodynamic polarization curves and an equivalent circuit analysis are used to evaluate the electrochemical parameters in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25 C. Both the experimental and simulated EIS parameters evidence different kinetics of corrosion. The Pb-1 wt.% Sn alloy is found to have a current density which is of about three times lower than that of the Pb-1 wt.% Sb alloy which indicates that dilute Pb-Sn alloys have higher potential for application as positive grid material in maintenance-free Pb-acid batteries. (author)

  6. Grain Refinement of an Al-2 wt%Cu Alloy by Al3Ti1B Master Alloy and Ultrasonic Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E Q; Wang, G; Dargusch, M S; StJohn, D H; Qian, M; Eskin, D G

    2016-01-01

    Both inoculation by AlTiB master alloys and Ultrasonic Treatment (UT) are effective methods of refining the grain size of aluminium alloys. The present study investigates the influence of UT on the grain refinement of an Al-2 wt% Cu alloy with a range of Al3TilB master alloy additions. When the alloy contains the smallest amount of added master alloy, UT caused significant additional grain refinement compared with that provided by the master alloy only. However, the influence of UT on grain size reduces with increasing addition of the master alloy. Plotting the grain size data versus the inverse of the growth restriction factor (Q) reveals that the application of UT causes both an increase in the number of potentially active nuclei and a decrease in the size of the nucleation free zone due to a reduction in the temperature gradient throughout the melt. Both these factors promote the formation of a fine equiaxed grain structure. (paper)

  7. Structural and electronic properties of Si1−xGex alloy nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iori, Federico; Ossicini, Stefano; Rurali, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    We present first-principles density-functional calculations of Si 1−x Ge x alloy nanowires. We show that given the composition of the alloy, the structural properties of the nanowires can be predicted with great accuracy by means of Vegard's law, linearly interpolating the values of a pure Si and a pure Ge nanowire of the same diameter. The same holds, to some extent, also for electronic properties such as the band-gap. We also assess to what extend the band-gap varies as a function of disorder, i.e., how it changes for different random realization of a given concentration. These results make possible to tailor the desired properties of SiGe alloy nanowires starting directly from the data relative to the pristine wires.

  8. Anodic behavior of alloy 22 in bicarbonate containing media: Effect of alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N S; Giordano, C M; Rebak, R B; Ares, A E; Carranza, R M

    2012-01-01

    Alloy 22 is one of the candidates for the manufacture of high level nuclear waste containers. These containers provide services in natural environments characterized by multi-ionic solutions.It is estimated they could suffer three types of deterioration: general corrosion, localized corrosion (specifically crevice corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It has been confirmed that the presence of bicarbonate and chloride ions is necessary to produce cracking, . It has also been determined that the susceptibility to SCC could be related to the occurrence of an anodic peak in the polarization curves in these media at potentials below transpassivity. The aim of this work is to study the effect of alloying elements on the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in media containing bicarbonate and chloride ions at different concentrations and temperatures. Polarization curves were made on alloy 22 (Ni-22% Cr-13% Mo), Ni-Mo (Ni-28, 5% Mo) and Ni-Cr (Ni-20% Cr) in the following solutions: 1 mol/L NaCl at 90 o C, and 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 ; 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 1 mol/L NaCl; 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 0.1 mol/L NaCl, at 90 o C, 75 o C, 60 o C and 25 o C. It was found that alloy 22 has a anodic current density peak at potentials below transpassivity, only in the presence of bicarbonate ions. Curves performed in 1 mol/L NaCl did not show any anodic peak, in any of the tested alloys. The curves made on alloys Ni-Mo and Ni-Cr in the presence of bicarbonate ions, allowed to determine that Cr, is responsible for the appearance of the anodic peak in alloy 22. The curves of alloy Ni-Mo showed no anodic peak in the studied conditions. The potential at which the anodic peak appears in alloy 22 and Ni-Cr alloy, increases with decreasing temperature. The anodic peak was also affected by solution composition. When chloride ion is added to bicarbonate solutions, the anodic peak is shifted to higher potential and current densities, depending on the concentration of added chloride ions (author)

  9. Microstructure, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation and cytotoxicity evaluations of Mg-1.5Y-1.2Zn-0.44Zr alloys for biodegradable metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Qiu, Xin; Niu, Xiaodong; Tian, Zheng; Sun, Wei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Yangde; Li, Weirong; Meng, Jian

    2013-05-01

    Mg-1.5Y-1.2Zn-0.44Zr alloys were newly developed as degradable metallic biomaterials. A comprehensive investigation of the microstructure, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation assessments and in vitro cytotoxicity evaluations of the as-cast state, as-heat treated state and as-extruded state alloys was done. The microstructure observations show that the Mg-1.5Y-1.2Zn-0.44Zr alloys are mainly composed of the matrix α-Mg phases and the Mg12ZnY secondary phases (LPS structure). The hot extrusion method significantly refined the grains and eliminated the defects of both as-cast and heat treated alloys and thereby contributed to the better mechanical properties and biodegradation resistance. The values of tensile strength and tensile yield strength of the alloy in the as-extruded condition are about 236 and 178 MPa respectively, with an excellent elongation of 28%. Meanwhile, the value of compressive strength is about 471 MPa and the value of bending strength is about 501 MPa. The superior bending strength further demonstrates the excellent ductility of the hot extruded alloys. The results of immersion tests and electrochemical measurements in the SBF indicate that a protective film precipitated on the alloy's surface with the extension of degradation. The protective film contains Mg(OH)2 and hydroxyapatite (HA) which can reinforce osteoblast activity and promote good biocompatibility. No significant cytotoxicity towards L-929 cells was detected and the immersion extracts of alloy samples could enhance the cell proliferation with time in the cytotoxicity evaluations, implying that the Mg-1.5Y-1.2Zn-0.44Zr alloys have the potential to be used for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Weldability of molybdenum and its alloy sheet, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Fukuhisa; Ushio, Masao; Nakata, Kazuhiro; Edo, Yoshiaki

    1979-01-01

    Basic weldability of electron-beam melted pure molybdenum has been examined in electron-beam welding in high vacuum and GTA welding in pure and air mixed argon atmospheres by paying attention to weld defects such as hot cracking and porosity in weld metal and also mechanical properties of welded joint in comparison with conventional TZM alloys. The main conclusions obtained were as follows; (1) The weld metals of electron-beam melted pure molybdenum with electron-beam and GTA weldings in pure and air mixed argon atmosphere up to about 1% were almost porosity free. However, large amount of oxygen content of 200 ppm in powder-metallurgy TZM alloy made very porous weld bead in electron-beam welding in high vacuum. Therefore, oxygen content in base metal should be lowered to the minimum, that is, less than 10 ppm, especially in electron-beam welding in high vacuum. (2) Hot cracking occurred in the weld metal of GTA welding when air content in argon atmosphere exceeded about 0.6% for electron-beam melted pure molybdenum and powder metallurgy TZM alloy. In less than 0.26% air, no hot cracking were observed in this experiment. Moreover, in electron-beam welding, no hot cracking was observed in weld metals for both materials. In order to prevent the formation of hot cracking, the purity of welding atmosphere should be kept as high as possible. (3) Joint efficiency of the welded joint of electron-beam melted pure molybdenum with electron-beam welding was 50 to 60% to base metal at room temperature and 500 0 C and almost 100% at 1000 0 C. Those of GTA welds in pure and 0.13% air mixed argon atmospheres were fairly lower than those in electron-beam welding for each testing temperature. (author)

  11. Oxygen reduction of several gold alloys in 1-molar potassium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. O.

    1975-01-01

    With rotated disk-and-ring equipment, polarograms and other electrochemical measurements were made of oxygen reduction in 1-molar potassium hydroxide on an equiatomic gold-copper (Au-Cu) alloy and a Au-Cu alloy doped with either indium (In) or cobalt (Co) and on Au doped with either nickel (Ni) or platinum (Pt). The results were compared with those for pure Au and pure Pt. The two-electron reaction dominated on all Au alloys as it did on Au. The polarographic results at lower polarization potentials were compared, assuming exclusively a two-step reduction. A qualified ranking of cathodic electrocatalytic activity on the freshly polished reduced disks was indicated: anodized Au Au-Cu-In Au-Cu Au-Cu-Co is equivalent or equal to Au-Pt Au-Ni. Aging in distilled water improved the electrocatalytic efficiency of Au-Cu-Co, Au-Cu, and (to a lesser extent) Au-Cu-In.

  12. Synthesis and hydrogen storage of La23Nd7.8Ti1.1Ni33.9Co32.9Al0.65 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Meena

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates structural and hydrogen storage properties of first time synthesized La23Nd7.8Ti1.1Ni33.9Co32.9Al0.65 alloy by arc melting process and ball milled to get it in nano structure form. XRD analysis of as-prepared alloy showed single phased hexagonal LaNi5-type structure with 52 nm average particle size, which reduces to about 31 nm after hydrogenations. Morphological studies by SEM were undertaken to investigate the effect of hydrogenation of nanostructured alloy. EDX analysis confirmed elemental composition of the as-prepared alloy. Activation energy for hydrogen desorption was studied using TGA analysis and found to be −76.86 kJ/mol. Hydrogenation/dehydrogenation reactions and absorption kinetics were measured at temperature 100 °C. The equilibrium plateau pressure was determined to be 2 bar at 100 °C giving hydrogen storage capacity of about 2.1 wt%. Keywords: Hydrogen storage, La23Nd7.8Ti1.1Ni33.9Co32.9Al0.65 alloy, SEM, EDS, TGA, Hydrogenation/dehydrogenation

  13. Solution Treatment Effect on Tensile, Impact and Fracture Behaviour of Trace Zr Added Al-12Si-1Mg-1Cu Piston Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Md. Salim

    2018-04-01

    The effects of T6 solution treatment on tensile, impact and fracture properties of cast Al-12Si-1Mg-1Cu piston alloys with trace of zirconium were investigated. Cast alloys were given precipitation strengthening treatment having a sequence of homogenizing, solutionizing, quenching and ageing. Both cast and solutionized samples are isochronally aged for 90 min at different temperatures up to 300 °C. Tensile and impact properties of the differently processed alloys have been studied to understand the precipitation strengthening of the alloys. Fractograpy of the alloys were observed to understand the mode of fracture. It is observed that the improvement in tensile properties in the aged alloys through heat treatment is mainly attributed to the formation of the Al2Cu and Mg2Si precipitates within the Al matrix. Solution treatment improves the tensile strength for the reason that during solution treatment some alloying elements are re-dissolved to produce a solute-rich solid solution. Impact energy decreases with ageing temperature due to formation of GP zones, β' and β precipitates. The fractography shows large and small dimple structure and broken or cracked primary Si, particles. Microstructure study of alloys revealed that the solution treatment improved distribution of silicon grains. The addition of Zr produces an improvement in the tensile properties as a result of its grain refining action and grain coarsening resistance in the matrix at a higher temperature.

  14. Structure of Sn1−xGex random alloys as obtained from the coherent potential approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Pulikkotil, J. J.; Chroneos, A.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the Sn1−xGex random alloys is studied using density functional theory and the coherent potential approximation. We report on the deviation of the Sn1−xGex alloys from Vegard’s law, addressing their full compositional range

  15. Magnetic properties of Zn(P/sub x/As/sub 1-x/)2 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkina, T.Z.; Smolyarenko, E.M.; Trukhan, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors study the magnetic properties of Zn(P/sub x/As/sub 1-x/) 2 alloys. The concentration-dependent magnetic susceptibility of these alloys is shown, as is the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility in solid solutions of the alloys. The diamagnetic susceptibility associated with the valence electrons displays a marked change for a transition to the bound state inasmuch as the valence electrons constitute the chemical bonding in the crystal. The diamagnetic component of the susceptibility of the valence electrons is calculated according to the MO LCAO approximation on the assumption that there is sp 3 -hybridization of the atomic wave function

  16. Kinetics of the U-1% Mo alloy transformation during continual cooling; Kinetika transformacije legura U-1% Mo pri kontinuiranom hladjenju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihajlovic, A; Djuric, B; Tepavac, P [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-11-15

    Study of continuous cooling of the U-1% Mo alloy is significant if it could be used as fuel in the nuclear reactor. Previous studies were dealing with relatively low cooling rate up to 3 deg C/s{sup 1}, which produced alpha + gamma structure. This task was devoted to testing the U-1% Mo alloy properties at higher cooling rates in order to discover whether bainite reaction and favourable alpha grain could be achieved under certain conditions.

  17. Structure and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}(Cr{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x})Al, (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) Heusler alloys prepared by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Yogesh, E-mail: 123209001_yogesh@manit.ac.in [Department of Materials Science & Metallurgical Engineering, Ceramic & Powder Metallurgy Laboratory, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462003 (India); Vajpai, Sanjay Kumar, E-mail: vajpaisk@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science & Metallurgical Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462003 (India); Srivastava, Sanjay, E-mail: s.srivastava.msme@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science & Metallurgical Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462003 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • A series of nanocrystalline Co{sub 2}(Cr{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x})Al Heusler alloy by powder metallurgy. • Effect of substitution of Fe for Cr on the microstructure and magnetic properties. • Increasing amounts of B2 type disordered structure with increasing Fe content. • Enhanced Ms, Mr, Hc, and Tc with increasing Fe content. • Relative magnetic anisotropy decreased with increasing Fe content. - Abstract: In the present study, a series of nanocrystalline Co{sub 2}(Cr{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x})Al Heusler alloy powders were successfully prepared by high energy ball milling and the effect of substitution of Fe for Cr on the microstructure and magnetic properties was investigated in detail. The Co{sub 2}CrAl alloy powder consisted of only A2 type disordered structure whereas the substitution of Cr by Fe led to the appearance of increasing amounts of B2 type disordered structure along with A2 type structure. All the Co{sub 2}(Cr{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x})Al Heusler alloy powders demonstrated high spontaneous magnetization together with a very small hysteresis losses. The saturation magnetization, remanence, coercivity, and Curie temperature increased with increasing Fe content. The increasing magnetization with increasing Fe content was attributed to the replacement of antiferromagnetic Cr by strongly ferromagnetic Fe and an increasing amounts of relatively more ordered, atomically as well as ferromagnetically, B2 structure as compared to that of A2 phase. The increment in remanence and coercivity with increasing Fe content were associated with the variation in microstructural characteristics, such as grain size, lattice defects, and the presence of small amounts of magnetic/nonmagnetic secondary phases. The increment in Curie temperature with increasing Fe content was attributed to the enhancement of d-d exchange interaction due to the possible occupancy of vacant sites by Fe atoms. All the Heusler alloys indicated extremely low magnetic anisotropy and the

  18. Artifacts in MRI of the temporomandibular joint caused by dental alloys: a phantom study at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellner, C.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen; Behr, M.; Fellner, F.; Held, P.; Handel, G.; Feuerbach, S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of dental alloys on MRI of the temporomandibular joint was studied using a phantom model for this joint. Methods: At 1,5 T, 15 dental alloys and 14 of their most important components were investigated acquiring sagittal (FOV: 150 mm) and transverse (FOV: 250 mm) T 1 -weighted SE additionally. The artifacts were assessed qualitatively as well as quantitatively, and the samples were subdivided into four artifact categories. Results: Ag, Cu, Ga, In, Ti, Sn, Zn, amalgan, the precious alloys, the Au-Pd and Ag-Pd alloys showed no artifacts (category I). Minimal artifacts below 10 mm on transverse images (category II) were found for Cr, Pd, Pt and for the Ni-Cr alloy. Mn and the remaining non-precious alloys induced artifacts up to 30 mm (category III). Significant artifacts - more than 30 mm - (category IV) were to be more susceptible for artifacts than T 1 -weighted SE and FLASH techniques. Conclusions: In contrast to dental alloys for fixed prosthodontics, Ni-Cr- or 18/8 wires used for orthodontic bands can influence not only the image quality, but also the diagnostic reliability of MRI of the temporomandibular joint. (orig.) [de

  19. Studying VM-1 molybdenum alloy workability at high current density. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatarinova, O M; Amirkhanova, N A; Zaripov, R A

    1976-01-01

    Under galvanostatic conditions, voltampere characteristics have been taken off for VM-1 alloy; determined are also the selective effect of electrolytes and the influence of hydrodynamical conditions on the rate of anodic dissolution in the electrolytes containing 15% NaNO/sub 3/; 15% NaNO/sub 3/ + 5% NaOH, and 15 % NaOH. In a composite electrolyte, the quality of the surface is improved, and higher current densities have been attained as compared with those for pure 15% NaNO/sub 3/. The process of dissolution in the above electrolytes is effected with diffuse limitations. For the electrochemical treatment of the VM-1 alloy under production conditions, a composite electrolyte containing 15% NaNO/sub 3/ and 5% NaOH has been suggested and tested.

  20. Magnetic properties of (Mn1-xRux)3Ga alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, T.; Akimitsu, M.; Miki, H.; Ohoyoama, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2002-01-01

    We found that the pseudo binary alloys Mn 1-x Ru x 3 Ga, with 0.33≤x≤0.67, have an ordered b.c.c. structure. The lattice constant a is almost constant with respect to x: a=6.000 A for x=0.33 and a=5.992 A for x=0.67. For the alloy with x=0.33, i.e. Mn 2 RuGa, the magnetization is almost saturated in a field of 20 kOe. The saturation magnetization at 4.2 K is 23 emu/g, and the Curie temperature, T C , is 460 K. The T C of (Mn 1-x Ru x ) 3 Ga decreases almost linearly with increasing x, and it vanishes around x=0.67 (MnRu 2 Ga). We also determined atomic and magnetic structures from neutron diffraction experiments. The alloy Mn 2 RuGa (x=0.33) has an ordered structure of CuHg 2 Ti type; the magnetic Mn atoms mainly occupy the 4a (0,0,0) and 4d (3/4,3/4,3/4) sites. We also observed that the magnetic moments of Mn atoms on the 4a and 4d sites are antiparallel to each other; values of the magnetic moment are μ a =4.6 and μ d =3.3 μ B per Mn atom. (orig.)

  1. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...... thermoelastic coefficients and age hardenable low expansion alloys....

  2. Lattice vibrations study of Ga1-xInxAsySb1-y quaternary alloys with low (In, As) content grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera-Herandez, J; Olvera-Cervantes, J; Rojas-Lopez, M; Navarro-Contreras, H; Vidal, M A; Anda, F de

    2006-01-01

    Raman scattering spectroscopy was used to measure and analyze the lattice vibrations in some quaternary Ga 1-x In x As y Sb 1-y alloys with low (In, As) contents (0.03 0 C. High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction results showed profiles associated with a quaternary layer lattice matched to the GaSb substrate as obtained from the (004) reflection. The experimental diffractograms were simulated to estimate alloy composition, thickness and lattice mismatch of the layer. Raman scattering results show phonon frequencies associated to the TO and LO GaAs-like modes as well as GaSb + InAs-like mode, which are characteristic of this quaternary alloy. The As content dependence of the phonon frequency measured in this alloy for low (In, As) contents agree well with the modified Random-Element Isodisplacement (REI) model and also with other available experimental reports. This method can also be used to estimate alloy compositions for this kind of quaternary alloys

  3. Study of a portion of Al-Be-B system and boron effect on ABM-1 alloy properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, A.V.; Molchanova, L.V.; Yatsenko, K.P.; Fridlyander, I.N.

    1989-01-01

    The phase composition of Al-Be-B system alloys, phase transformations and boron effect on magnesium-containing ABM-1 alloy properties are investigated. Depending on the composition and crystallization conditions, the following phases in the investigated alloys are determined: a beryllium-base phase, an aluminium-base phase and a phase on the base of borides. It is found that boron content growth up to 1% increases ultimate strength, which sharply decreases with the boron content rise up to 2% as a result of crystallization of coarse needle-like inclusions of beryllium boride. With the aluminium content decrease the boron amount in the alloy can be increased

  4. Thermally stimulated current analysis of Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybek, A. Senol, E-mail: saybek@anadolu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey); Baysal, Nihal [Kilicoglu Anadolu High School, Eskisehir 26050 (Turkey); Zor, Muhsin; Turan, Evren; Kul, Metin [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > We have studied the structural and electrical properties of Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O alloy films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. > The trap energy, the capture cross-section, the attempt-to-escape frequency and the concentration of the traps in Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O films are reported. > The effect of the Cd incorporation into ZnO material on trapping levels was investigated by the TSC measurements. Two overlapped peaks were registered at levels of 0.033 and 0.197 eV in ZnO sample by the curve fitting technique. The observed trap energy levels for ZnO film is thought to originate from zinc interstitials and oxygen vacancies. However, the incorporation of Cd into Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O alloy films with x = 0.59 have resulted in two trapping centers with activation energies of 0.118 and 0.215 eV. The observed trap levels in Zn{sub 0.41}Cd{sub 0.59}O alloy film are related to oxygen adsorption in the sample. - Abstract: We have studied the structural and electrical properties of Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O alloy films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. XRD measurement indicated that pure ZnO and CdO samples had single phases with hexagonal wurtzite and cubic structures, respectively. However, Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O alloy films with x = 0.59 and 0.78 exhibited mixtures of a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO phase and a cubic CdO phase. Analysis of thermally stimulated current spectra of Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O alloy films revealed the existence of a number of overlapped peaks each characterized by different trap energy levels located in the range of 0.033-0.215 eV below the conduction band. We have used curve fitting method for the evaluation of the trap parameters of the alloy films. The values of attempt-to-escape frequency {nu}, capture cross-section S and concentration of the traps N{sub t} have been determined.

  5. The vibrational structure of (E,E’)-1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene. Linear dichroism FTIR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Møller, Søren; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    than 40 vibrational transitions. The observed IR wavenumbers, relative intensities, and polarization directions were generally well reproduced by the results of a harmonic analysis based on B3LYP/cc-pVTZ density functional theory (DFT). The combined experimental and theoretical results led to proposal...... of a nearly complete assignment of the IR active fundamentals of DPB, involving reassignment of a number of transitions. In addition, previously published Raman spectra of DPB were well predicted by the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ calculations....

  6. Microemulsion synthesis and magnetic properties of FexNi(1-x) alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beygi, H.; Babakhani, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates synthesis of FexNi(1-x) bimetallic nanoparticles by microemulsion method. Through studying the mechanism of nanoparticles formation, it is indicated that synthesis of nanoparticles took placed by simultaneous reduction of metal ions and so nanoparticles structure is homogeneous alloy. FexNi(1-x) nanoparticles with different sizes, morphologies and compositions were synthesized by changing the microemulsion parameters such as water/surfactant/oil ratio, presence of co-surfactant and NiCl2·6H2O to FeCl2·4H2O molar ratio. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption and thermogravimetric analyses. The results indicated that, presence of butanol as co-surfactant led to chain-like arrangement of nanoparticles. Also, finer nanoparticles were synthesized by decreasing the amount of oil and water and increasing the amount of CTAB. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer suggested that magnetic properties of FexNi(1-x) alloy nanoparticles were affected by composition, size and morphology of the particles. Spherical and chain-like FexNi(1-x) alloy nanoparticles were superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic, respectively. Furthermore, higher iron in the composition of nanoparticles increases the magnetic properties.

  7. Effect of solidification rate on the microstructure and microhardness of a melt-spun Al-8Si-1Sb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakoese, E.; Keskin, M.

    2009-01-01

    The properties of rapidly solidified hypoeutectic Al-8Si-1Sb alloy, produced by melt-spinning technique at a different solidification rates, were investigated using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the optical microscopy (OM), the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the microhardness technique. The properties of rapidly solidified ribbons were then compared with those of the chill-casting alloy. The results show that rapid solidification has influence on the phase constitution of the hypoeutectic Al-8Si-1Sb alloy. The phases present in the hypoeutectic Al-8Si-1Sb ingot alloy were determined to be α-Al, fcc Si and intermetallic AlSb phases whereas only α-Al and fcc Si phases were identified in the melt-spinning alloy. The rapid solidification has a significant effect on the microstructure of the hypoeutectic Al-8Si-1Sb alloy. Particle size in the microstructure of the ribbons is too small to compare with particle size in the microstructure of the ingot alloy. Moreover, the significant change in hardness occurs that is attributed to changes in the microstructure.

  8. Effect of solidification rate on the microstructure and microhardness of a melt-spun Al-8Si-1Sb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakoese, E. [Erciyes University, Institute of Science, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, M. [Erciyes University, Institute of Science, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Erciyes University, Physics Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr

    2009-06-24

    The properties of rapidly solidified hypoeutectic Al-8Si-1Sb alloy, produced by melt-spinning technique at a different solidification rates, were investigated using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the optical microscopy (OM), the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the microhardness technique. The properties of rapidly solidified ribbons were then compared with those of the chill-casting alloy. The results show that rapid solidification has influence on the phase constitution of the hypoeutectic Al-8Si-1Sb alloy. The phases present in the hypoeutectic Al-8Si-1Sb ingot alloy were determined to be {alpha}-Al, fcc Si and intermetallic AlSb phases whereas only {alpha}-Al and fcc Si phases were identified in the melt-spinning alloy. The rapid solidification has a significant effect on the microstructure of the hypoeutectic Al-8Si-1Sb alloy. Particle size in the microstructure of the ribbons is too small to compare with particle size in the microstructure of the ingot alloy. Moreover, the significant change in hardness occurs that is attributed to changes in the microstructure.

  9. Effect of compound field on horizontal continuous casting of Al-1wt.%Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-tao Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A travelling magnetic field, a power ultrasonic field, and a compound field were used separately during the horizontal continuous casting process of Al-1wt.%Si alloy. The samples obtained were characterized using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope, a tensile testing machine, and an electron probe microscopic analyzer to test the microstructures, properties, and element distribution of the samples. The results show that the application of a single field can enhance the mechanical properties and reduce the segregation of Si element in Al-1wt.%Si alloy to some extent. The application of a compound field can obtain the best refinement and homogeneity of the Si element in the alloy, leading to the highest increase of tensile strength and elongation among the three applied fields. The mechanism of the action of external fields on the refinement of microstructures and homogeneity of the Si element is discussed and the compound field is considered to be an effective method to achieve high quality Al alloys.

  10. Band structure of Mgsub(x)Znsub(1-x)Te alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laugier, A.; Montegu, B.; Barbier, D.; Chevallier, J.; Guillaume, J.C.; Somogyi, K.

    1980-01-01

    The band structure of Mgsub(x)Znsub(1-x)Te alloys is studied using a double beam wavelength modulated system in first derivative mode. Modulated reflectivity measurements are made from 82 to 300 K within spectral range 2500 to 5400 A. Structures corresponding to the E 0 , E 0 + Δ 0 , E 1 , E 1 + Δ 1 , e 1 and e 1 + Δ 1 critical points are indexed on the basis of existing band calculations for ZnTe. (author)

  11. Electronic band structure calculations for GaxIn1−xASyP1−y alloys lattice matched to InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechiri, A; Benmakhlouf, F; Allouache, H; Bacha, S; Bouarissa, N

    2012-01-01

    A pseudopotential formalism coupled with the virtual crystal approximation are applied to study the effect of compositional disorder upon electronic band structure of cubic Ga x In 1−x As y P 1−y quarternary alloys lattice matched to InP. The effects of compositional variations are properly included in the calculations. Very good agreement is obtained between the calculated values and the available experimental data for the lattice–matched alloy to InP. The absorption at the fundamental optical gaps is found to be direct within a whole range of the y composition whatever the lattice-matching to the substrate of interest. The alloy system Ga x In 1−x As y P 1−y lattice matched to InP is suggested to be suitable for an efficient light emitting device (ELED) material.

  12. Microstructure of MCMgAl12Zn1 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the structure of the cast magnesium alloys as cast state and after heat treatment cooled with different cooling rate, depending on the cooling medium (furnace, water, air. For investigations samples in shape of 250x150x25 mm plates were used. The structure have been study in the light microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron back scattering facility. The effects of the addition of Al on the microstructure were also studied. In the analysed alloys a structure of α solid solution and fragile phase β(Mg17Al12 occurred mainly on grain borders as well as eutectic and phase with Mn, Fe and Si. Investigation are carried out for the reason of chemical composition influence and precipitation processes influence to the structure and mechanical properties of the magnesium cast alloys with different chemical composition in as cast alloys and after heat treatment.

  13. Nickel alloys and high-alloyed special stainless steels. Properties, manufacturing, applications. 4. compl. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubner, Ulrich; Kloewer, Jutta; Alves, Helena; Behrens, Rainer; Schindler, Claudius; Wahl, Volker; Wolf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the following eight topics: 1. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels - Material overview and metallurgical principles (U. Heubner); 2. Corrosion resistance of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (U. Heubner); 3. Welding of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (T. Hoffmann, M. Wolf); 4. High-temperature materials for industrial plant construction (J. Kloewer); 5. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels as hot roll clad composites-a cost-effective alternative (C. Schindler); 6. Selected examples of the use of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels in chemical plants (H. Alves); 7. The use of nickel alloys and stainless steels in environmental engineering (V. Wahl); 8: Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels for the oil and gas industry (R. Behrens).

  14. Structure and Properties Investigation of MCMgAl12Zn1 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an influence of cooling rate on crystallization process, structure and mechanical properties of MCMgAl12Zn1 cast magnesium alloy. The experiments were performed using the novel Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyzer Platform. The apparatus enabled recording the temperature during refrigerate magnesium alloy with three different cooling rates, i.e. 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4°C/s and calculate a first derivative. Based on first derivative results, nucleation temperature, beginning of nucleation of eutectic and solidus temperature were described. It was fund that the formation temperatures of various thermal parameters, mechanical properties (hardness and ultimate compressive strength and grain size are shifting with an increasing cooling rate.

  15. Two phase titanium aluminide alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Liu, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    A two-phase titanic aluminide alloy having a lamellar microstructure with little intercolony structures. The alloy can include fine particles such as boride particles at colony boundaries and/or grain boundary equiaxed structures. The alloy can include alloying additions such as .ltoreq.10 at % W, Nb and/or Mo. The alloy can be free of Cr, V, Mn, Cu and/or Ni and can include, in atomic %, 45 to 55% Ti, 40 to 50% Al, 1 to 5% Nb, 0.3 to 2% W, up to 1% Mo and 0.1 to 0.3% B. In weight %, the alloy can include 57 to 60% Ti, 30 to 32% Al, 4 to 9% Nb, up to 2% Mo, 2 to 8% W and 0.02 to 0.08% B.

  16. Development of niobium alloy/stainless steel joint by friction welding, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Taiji; Kawamura, Hiroshi.

    1988-08-01

    The niobium alloy and stainless steel have been jointed by the nicrobrazing method generally. However the strength of the jointed part is weaker than that of the mother material. Therefore we developed the niobium alloy(Nb-1 % Zr)/stainless steel(SUS 304) transition joint by the friction welding method. As the tests for the development. We conducted the mechanical tests (tensile test at room temperature, 300 deg C, 500 deg C and 700 deg C, torsion fatigue test and burst test), metallographical observation and electron prove X-ray microanalysis observation. Those tests proved jointed part by the friction welding had enough properties for general uses. (author)

  17. Magnetocaloric effect of Gd4(BixSb1-x)3 alloy series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Xuejun

    1999-01-01

    Alloys from the Gd 4 (Bi x Sb 1-x ) 3 series were prepared by melting a stoichiometric amounts of pure metals in an induction furnace. The crystal structure is of the anti-Th 3 P 4 type (space group Ibar 43d) for all the compounds tested. The linear increase of the lattice parameters with Bi concentration is attributed to the larger atomic radius of Bi than that of Sb. Magnetic measurements show that the alloys order ferromagnetically from 266K to 330K, with the ordering temperature increasing with decreasing Bi concentration. The alloys are soft ferromagnets below their Curie temperatures, and follow the Curie-Weiss law above their ordering temperatures. The paramagnetic effective magnetic moments are low compared to the theoretical value for a free Gd 3+ , while the ordered magnetic moments are close to the theoretical value for Gd. The alloys exhibit a moderate magnetocaloric effect (MCE) whose maxima are located between 270K and 338K and have relatively wide peaks. The peak MCE temperature decreases with decreasing Bi concentration while the peak height increases with decreasing Bi concentration. The Curie temperatures determined from inflection points of heat capacity are in good agreement with those obtained from the magnetocaloric effect. The MCE results obtained from the two different methods (magnetization and heat capacity) agree quite well with each other for all of the alloys in the series

  18. Powder metallurgy Al–6Cr–2Fe–1Ti alloy prepared by melt atomisation and hot ultra-high pressure compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dám, Karel; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Průša, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Al--6Cr--2Fe--1Ti alloy was prepared by melt atomisation into rapidly solidified powder. The powder was compacted using uniaxial hot compression at an ultra-high pressure (6 GPa). The samples were pressed at 300, 400 and 500 °C. The structure, mechanical properties and thermal stability were examined and compared with those of the commercially available Al--12Si--1Cu--1Mg--1Ni casting alloy, which is considered thermally stable. It was shown that the hot compression at ultra-high pressure results in a compact and pore-free material with excellent mechanical properties. The elevated pressing temperatures were found to be effective at increasing the mechanical stability after applying the ultra-high pressure. The results of thermal stability testing revealed that the mechanical properties do not change significantly at high temperature, even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. In addition, the Al--6Cr--2Fe--1Ti alloy exhibited very good creep resistance. A comparison between the commercial Al--12Si--1Cu--1Mg--1Ni alloy and the powder metallurgy alloy shows that this alloy has significantly better mechanical properties and thermal stability.

  19. Powder metallurgy Al-6Cr-2Fe-1Ti alloy prepared by melt atomisation and hot ultra-high pressure compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, Karel, E-mail: Karel.Dam@vscht.cz [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vojtech, Dalibor; Prusa, Filip [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-01-10

    Al--6Cr--2Fe--1Ti alloy was prepared by melt atomisation into rapidly solidified powder. The powder was compacted using uniaxial hot compression at an ultra-high pressure (6 GPa). The samples were pressed at 300, 400 and 500 Degree-Sign C. The structure, mechanical properties and thermal stability were examined and compared with those of the commercially available Al--12Si--1Cu--1Mg--1Ni casting alloy, which is considered thermally stable. It was shown that the hot compression at ultra-high pressure results in a compact and pore-free material with excellent mechanical properties. The elevated pressing temperatures were found to be effective at increasing the mechanical stability after applying the ultra-high pressure. The results of thermal stability testing revealed that the mechanical properties do not change significantly at high temperature, even after 100 h of annealing at 400 Degree-Sign C. In addition, the Al--6Cr--2Fe--1Ti alloy exhibited very good creep resistance. A comparison between the commercial Al--12Si--1Cu--1Mg--1Ni alloy and the powder metallurgy alloy shows that this alloy has significantly better mechanical properties and thermal stability.

  20. Nondestructive detection of an undesirable metallic phase, T.sub.1, during processing of aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Otto; Bracci, David J.; Jiles, David C.; Brasche, Lisa J. H.; Shield, Jeffrey E.; Chumbley, Leonard S.

    1990-08-07

    A method is disclosed for detecting the T.sub.1 phase in aluminum-lithium alloys through simultaneous measurement of conductivity and hardness. In employing eddy current to measure conductivity, when the eddy current decreases with aging of the alloy, while the hardness of the material continues to increase, the presence of the T.sub.1 phase may be detected.

  1. Severe plastic deformation of α+β Ti-5Ta-1.8Nb alloy by cryo-rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Arup; Parida, Pradyumna Kumar; Saroja, S.; Vijayalakshmi, M.

    2010-01-01

    The α-β (β ∼ 8%) Ti5Ta1.8Nb alloy is under development at IGCAR for reprocessing applications owing to its superior corrosion resistance and weldability. A possible method to strengthen the alloy is to engineer the grain size to finer dimensions through severe plastic deformation (SPD). A detailed analysis of the study of evolution of microstructure and micro-texture in the SPD Ti-Ta-Nb alloy is presented

  2. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–1Mn and Al–10Si alloy circular clad ingot prepared by direct chill casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Ying; Jie, Jinchuan; Wu, Li; Park, Joonpyo; Sun, Jianbo; Kim, Jongho; Li, Tingju

    2013-01-01

    An innovative direct chill casting process to prepare Al–10 wt%Si and Al–1 wt%Mn alloy circular clad ingots has been developed in the present study. The experimental casting parameters were determined by theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental processes. The interface of clad ingots was investigated by methods of metallographic examination, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that excellent metallurgical bonding of two different aluminum alloys could be achieved by direct chill casting. The Al–1Mn alloy which was poured into the mold earlier served as the substrate for heterogeneous nucleation of Al–10Si alloy. Because of diffusion of Si and Mn elements, a diffusion layer with a thickness of about 40 μm on average between the Al–10Si and Al–1Mn alloys could be obtained. The tensile strength of the clad ingot was 106.8 MPa and the fractured position was located in the Al–1Mn alloy side, indicating the strength of the interfacial region is higher than that of Al–1Mn alloy.

  4. Indium doped Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}O alloys as wide window transparent conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wei [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, The Center for Physical Experiments, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yu, Kin Man, E-mail: kinmanyu@cityu.edu.hk [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Walukiewicz, W. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-12-31

    We have synthesized Indium doped Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}O alloys across the full composition range using magnetron sputtering method. The crystallographic structure of these alloys changes from rocksalt (RS) to wurtzite (WZ) when the Zn content is higher than 30%. The rocksalt phase alloys in the composition range 0 < x < 0.3 can be efficiently n-type doped, shifting the absorption edge to 3.25 eV and reducing resistivity to about 2.0 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm. We found that In doped CdO (ICO) transmits more solar photons than commercial fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) with comparable sheet conductivity. The infrared transmittance is further extended to longer than 1500 nm wavelengths by depositing the In doped Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}O in ~ 1% of O{sub 2}. This material has a potential for applications as a transparent conductor for silicon and multi-junction solar cells. - Highlights: • Indium doped Cd1-xZnxO alloys across the full composition range were synthesized. • Alloys change from rocksalt (RS) to wurtzite (WZ) when x is higher than 30%. • RS-Cd1-xZnxO phase can be doped with In as efficiently as CdO, achieving a low resistivity ~ 2.0 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm. • Wide transparency window from 380 to 1200 nm • In doped CdO transmits more solar photons than commercial fluorine doped tin oxide.

  5. High-temperature air oxidation of E110 and Zr-1%Nb alloys claddings with coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuprin, A.S.; Belous, V.A.; Voyevodin, V.N.; Bryk, V.V.; Vasilenko, R.L.; Ovcharenko, V.D.; Tolmachova, G.N.; V'yugov, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Results of experimental study of the influence of protective vacuum-arc claddings on the base of compounds zirconium-chromium and of its nitrides on air oxidation resistance at temperatures 660, 770, 900, 1020, 1100 deg C during 3600 s. of tubes produced of zirconium alloys E110 and Zr-1%Nb (calcium-thermal alloy of Ukrainian production) are presented. Change of hardness, the width of oxide layer and depth of oxygen penetration into alloys from the side of coating and without coating are investigated by the methods of nanoindentation and by scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the thickness of oxide layer in zirconium alloys at temperatures 1020 and 1100 deg C from the side of the coating doesn't exceed 5 μm, and from the unprotected side reaches the value of ≥ 120 μm with porous and rough structure. Tubes with coatings save their shape completely independently of the type of alloy; tubes without coatings deform with the production of through cracks

  6. Geometric Effects of La1+xMg2-xNi9 (x=0.0~1.0) Ternary Alloys on Their Hydrogen Storage Capacities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqing YUAN; Guanglie LU; Bin LIAO; Yongquan LEI

    2005-01-01

    Structural analysis was made using X-ray diffraction (XRD) Rietveld refinement on a series of La1+xMg2-xNi9(x=0.0~1.0) ternary alloys. Results showed that each of La1+xMg2-xNi9 alloys was a PuNi3-type structure stacked by LaNi5 and (La, Mg) Ni2 blocks. Electrochemical tests revealed that discharge abilities of these La-Mg-Ni ternary alloys mainly depended on their atomic distances between (La, Mg) and Ni, which could be modified by varying the atomic ratios of La/Mg.

  7. Thermal stability of Ni-Pt-Ta alloy silicides on epi-Si1-xCx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jung-Ho; Chang, Hyun-Jin; Min, Byoung-Gi; Ko, Dae-Hong; Cho, Mann-Ho; Sohn, Hyunchul; Lee, Tae-Wan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the silicide formation in Ni/epi-Si 1-x C x systems. Ni-Pt and Ni-Pt-Ta films were deposited on epi-Si 1-x C x /Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering and processed at various temperatures. The sheet resistance of the silicide from the Ni alloy/epi-Si 1-x C x systems was maintained at low values compared to that from Ni/Si systems. By TEM and EDS analyses, we confirmed the presence of a Pt alloy layer at the top of the Ni-silicide layer. The stability of the silicide layer in the Ni alloy/epi-Si 1-x C x system is explained by not only the Pt rich layer on the top of the Ni-silicide layer, but also by the presence of a small amount of Pt in the Ni-silicide layer or at the grain boundaries. And both the thermal stability and the morphology of silicide were greatly improved by the addition of Ta in Ni-Pt films

  8. Pressure dependence of Raman modes in the chalcopyrite quaternary alloy AgxCu1-xGaS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Hwan; Yu, Peter Y.

    2000-01-01

    Raman scattering in the chalcopyrite quaternary alloy Ag x Cu 1-x GaS 2 has been studied under high pressure (up to 7 GPa) and at low temperature (50 K) using a diamond anvil high pressure cell for alloy concentrations x=1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 and 0. This has allowed us to determine the dependence of their zone-center phonon modes on both pressure and alloy concentration. The resultant phonon pressure coefficients are helpful in understanding the nature of the phonon modes in these chalcopyrites

  9. Magnetoimpedance effect in Nanoperm alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando, B.; Alvarez, P.; Santos, J.D.; Gorria, P.; Sanchez, M.L.; Olivera, J.; Perez, M.J.; Prida, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of isothermal annealing (1 h at 600 deg. C in Ar atmosphere) on the soft magnetic properties and magnetoimpedance (MI) effect has been studied in ribbons of the following Nanoperm alloys: Fe 91 Zr 7 B 2 , Fe 88 Zr 8 B 4 , Fe 87 Zr 6 B 6 Cu 1 and Fe 8 Zr 1 B 1 . A maximum MI ratio of about 27% was measured for the nanocrystalline alloy Fe 87 Zr 6 B 6 Cu 1 at a driving frequency of 0.2 MHz. The thermal annealing led to magnetic softening for this alloy, while a hardening is observed for the Fe 8 Zr 1 B 1 alloy

  10. The effect of molybdenum on the corrosion behaviour of the high-entropy alloys Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5Mox in aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Y.L.; Yeh, J.W.; Shih, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the electrochemical properties of the Co 1.5 CrFeNi 1.5 Ti 0.5 Mo x high-entropy alloys in three aqueous environments which simulate acidic, marine, and basic environments at ambient temperature (∼25 o C). The potentiodynamic polarisation curves of the Co 1.5 CrFeNi 1.5 Ti 0.5 Mo x alloys, obtained in aqueous solutions of H 2 SO 4 and NaOH, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance of the Mo-free alloy was superior to that of the Mo-containing alloys. On the other hand, the lack of hysteresis in cyclic polarisation tests and SEM micrographs confirmed that the Mo-containing alloys are not susceptible to pitting corrosion in NaCl solution.

  11. The electronic structure of Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 alloyed with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erslev, Peter T.; Lee, JinWoo; Hanket, Gregory M.; Shafarman, William N.; Cohen, J. David

    2011-01-01

    We have examined the electronic properties of (Ag 1-x Cu x )(In 1-y Ga y )Se 2 (ACIGS) alloys over a wide range of compositions to assess whether such alloys might allow one to achieve larger values of V OC at larger band gaps compared to the Cu(In 1-y Ga y )Se 2 (CIGS) alloys. Our studies employed junction capacitance techniques such as drive level capacitance profiling (DLCP) and transient photocapacitance (TPC) spectroscopy, as well as temperature dependent J-V measurements. The TPC spectra revealed not only that the band gap did indeed increase as the Ag-fraction was increased, but also that the bandtailing (or Urbach energies) in all ACIGS samples were substantially smaller than for CIGS samples of corresponding band gaps. This indicates that the Ag alloying somehow reduces the degree of disorder present. The DLCP measurements indicated very low free carrier densities, on the order of 10 14 cm -3 , as well as evidence of defects located at the CdS/ACIGS junction. Temperature-dependent I-V measurements revealed a distinct 'kink' in the V OC vs T characteristics, suggesting a transition from an interface-trap limited regime to a bulk-limited regime. At temperatures below 250 K, the V OC increased by up to 0.1 V as the sample was light soaked. This suggests that the interface traps limiting the V OC can be passivated by exposure to light.

  12. Application of mechanical alloying to synthesis of intermetallic phases based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical alloying is the process of synthesis of powder materials during milling in high energetic mills, usually ball mills. The central event in mechanical alloying is the ball-powder-ball collision. Powder particles are trapped between the colliding balls during milling and undergo deformation and/or fracture. Fractured parts are cold welded. The continued fracture and cold welding results in a uniform size and chemical composition of powder particles. The main applications of mechanical alloying are: processing of ODS alloys, syntheses of intermetallic phases, synthesis of nonequilibrium structures (amorphous alloys, extended solid solutions, nanocrystalline, quasi crystals) and magnetic materials. The present paper deals with application of mechanical alloying to synthesis Ni A l base intermetallic phases as well as phases from the Nb-Al binary system. The alloy were processed from elemental powders. The course of milling was monitored by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. After milling, the collected powders were sieved by 45 μm grid and hot pressed (Nb alloys and NiAl) or hot extruded (NiAl). The resulting material was fully dense and exhibited fine grain (< 1 μm) and uniform distribution of oxide dispersoid. The consolidated material was compression and creep tested. The mechanical properties of mechanically alloys were superior to properties of their cast counterparts both in the room and elevated temperatures. Higher strength of mechanically alloyed materials results from their fine grains and from the presence of dispersoid. At elevated temperatures, the Nb-Al alloys have higher compression strength than NiAl-based alloys processed at the same conditions. The minimum creep rates of mechanically alloyed Nb alloys are an order of magnitude lower than analogously processed NiAl-base alloys. (author)

  13. Effect of ternary alloying elements on the shape memory behavior of Ti-Ta alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenconsejo, Pio John S.; Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of ternary alloying elements (X = V, Cr, Fe, Zr, Hf, Mo, Sn, Al) on the shape memory behavior of Ti-30Ta-X alloys was investigated. All the alloying elements decreased the martensitic transformation temperatures. The decrease in the martensitic transformation start (M s ) temperature due to alloying was affected by the atomic size and number of valence electrons of the alloying element. A larger number of valence electrons and a smaller atomic radius of an alloying element decreased the M s more strongly. The effect of the alloying elements on suppressing the aging effect on the shape memory behavior was also investigated. It was found that the additions of Sn and Al to Ti-Ta were effective in suppressing the effect of aging on the shape memory behavior, since they strongly suppress the formation of ω phase during aging treatment. For this reason the Ti-30Ta-1Al and Ti-30Ta-1Sn alloys exhibited a stable high-temperature shape memory effect during thermal cycling.

  14. The Suitability of Zn–1.3%Fe Alloy as a Biodegradable Implant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Kafri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop metallic zinc for biodegradable implants have significantly advanced following an earlier focus on magnesium (Mg and iron (Fe. Mg and Fe base alloys experience an accelerated corrosion rate and harmful corrosion products, respectively. The corrosion rate of pure Zn, however, may need to be modified from its reported ~20 µm/year penetration rate, depending upon the intended application. The present study aimed at evaluating the possibility of using Fe as a relatively cathodic biocompatible alloying element in zinc that can tune the implant degradation rate via microgalvanic effects. The selected Zn–1.3wt %Fe alloy composition produced by gravity casting was examined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro examination included immersion tests, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy, all in a simulated physiological environment (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS at 37 °C. For the in vivo study, two cylindrical disks (seven millimeters diameter and two millimeters height were implanted into the back midline of male Wister rats. The rats were examined post implantation in terms of weight gain and hematological characteristics, including red blood cell (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB and white blood cell (WBC levels. Following retrieval, specimens were examined for corrosion rate measurements and histological analysis of subcutaneous tissue in the implant vicinity. In vivo analysis demonstrated that the Zn–1.3%Fe implant avoided harmful systemic effects. The in vivo and in vitro results indicate that the Zn–1.3%Fe alloy corrosion rate is significantly increased compared to pure zinc. The relatively increased degradation of Zn–1.3%Fe was mainly related to microgalvanic effects produced by a secondary Zn11Fe phase.

  15. Cobalt-alloy implant debris induce HIF-1α hypoxia associated responses: a mechanism for metal-specific orthopedic implant failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauryn Samelko

    Full Text Available The historical success of orthopedic implants has been recently tempered by unexpected pathologies and early failures of some types of Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum alloy containing artificial hip implants. Hypoxia-associated responses to Cobalt-alloy metal debris were suspected as mediating this untoward reactivity at least in part. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α is a major transcription factor involved in hypoxia, and is a potent coping mechanism for cells to rapidly respond to changing metabolic demands. We measured signature hypoxia associated responses (i.e. HIF-1α, VEGF and TNF-α to Cobalt-alloy implant debris both in vitro (using a human THP-1 macrophage cell line and primary human monocytes/macrophages and in vivo. HIF-1α in peri-implant tissues of failed metal-on-metal implants were compared to similar tissues from people with metal-on-polymer hip arthroplasties, immunohistochemically. Increasing concentrations of cobalt ions significantly up-regulated HIF-1α with a maximal response at 0.3 mM. Cobalt-alloy particles (1 um-diameter, 10 particles/cell induced significantly elevated HIF-1α, VEGF, TNF-α and ROS expression in human primary macrophages whereas Titanium-alloy particles did not. Elevated expression of HIF-1α was found in peri-implant tissues and synovial fluid of people with failing Metal-on-Metal hips (n = 5 compared to failed Metal-on-Polymer articulating hip arthroplasties (n = 10. This evidence suggests that Cobalt-alloy, more than other metal implant debris (e.g. Titanium alloy, can elicit hypoxia-like responses that if unchecked can lead to unusual peri-implant pathologies, such as lymphocyte infiltration, necrosis and excessive fibrous tissue growths.

  16. The chemical phenol extraction of intermetallic particles from casting AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrówka-Nowotnik, G; Sieniawski, J; Nowotnik, A

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a chemical extraction technique for determination of intermetallic phases formed in the casting AlSi5Cu1Mg aluminium alloy. Commercial aluminium alloys contain a wide range of intermetallic particles that are formed during casting, homogenization and thermomechanical processing. During solidification, particles of intermetallics are dispersed in interdendritic spaces as fine primary phases. Coarse intermetallic compounds that are formed in this aluminium alloy are characterized by unique atomic arrangement (crystallographic structure), morphology, stability, physical and mechanical properties. The volume fraction, chemistry and morphology of the intermetallics significantly affect properties and material behaviour during thermomechanical processing. Therefore, accurate determination of intermetallics is essential to understand and control microstructural evolution in Al alloys. Thus, in this paper it is shown that chemical phenol extraction method can be applied for precise qualitative evaluation. The results of optical light microscopy LOM, scanning electron microscopy SEM and X-ray diffraction XRD analysis reveal that as-cast AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy contains a wide range of intermetallic phases such as Al(4)Fe, gamma- Al(3)FeSi, alpha-Al(8)Fe(2)Si, beta-Al(5)FeSi, Al(12)FeMnSi.

  17. Magnetic properties of ball-milled Fe0.6Mn0.1Al0.3 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebolledo, A.F.; Romero, J.J.; Cuadrado, R.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Pigazo, F.; Palomares, F.J.; Medina, M.H.; Perez Alcazar, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The FeMnAl-disordered alloy system exhibits, depending on the composition and the temperature, a rich variety of magnetic phases including the occurrence of ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, paramagnetism and spin-glass and reentrant spin glass behaviors. These latter phases result from the presence of atomic disorder and magnetic dilution and from the competing exchange interactions taking place between an Fe atom and its Mn and Fe first neighbors. The use of mechanical alloying in order to prepare these alloys is specially interesting since it allows to introduce in a progressive way large amounts of disorder. In this work, we describe the evolution with the milling time of the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed Fe 0.6 Mn 0.1 Al 0.3 samples. The materials were prepared in a planetary ball mill using a balls-to-powder mass ratio of 15:1 and pure (99.95 at%) Fe, Mn and Al powders for times up to 19 h. The X-rays diffraction (XRD) spectra show the coexistence of three phases at short milling times. For milling times over 6 h, only the FeMnAl ternary alloy BCC phase is observed. Moesbauer spectroscopy reveals the complete formation of the FeMnAl alloy after 9 h milling time. The magnetic characterization showed that all the samples were ferromagnetic at room temperature with coercivities decreasing from 105 Oe (3 h milled sample) down to 5 Oe in the case of the sample milled for 19 h

  18. Electronic structure studies of a clock-reconstructed Al/Pd(1 0 0) surface alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Janet E.; Tainter, Craig J.

    We have employed solid-state Fenske-Hall band structure calculations to examine the electronic structure of Al/Pd(1 0 0), a surface alloy that undergoes a reconstruction, or rearrangement, of the atoms in the top few surface layers. Surface alloys are materials that consist primarily of a single elemental metal, but which have a bimetallic surface composition that is only a few atomic layers in thickness. The results of this study indicate that reconstruction into a clock configuration simultaneously optimizes the intralayer bonding within the surface plane and the bonding between the first and second atomic layers. These results also allow us to examine the fundamental relationship between the electronic and physical structures of this reconstructed surface alloy.

  19. Dispersion strengthening of precipitation hardened Al-Cu-Mg alloys prepared by rapid solidification and mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P. S.; Sankaran, K. K.

    1988-01-01

    Several Al-4Cu-1Mg-1.5Fe-0.75Ce alloys have been processed from either rapidly solidified or mechanically alloyed powder using various vacuum degassing parameters and consolidation techniques. Strengthening by the fine subgrains, grains, and the dispersoids individually or in combination is more effective when the alloys contain shearable precipitates; consequently, the strength of the alloys is higher in the naturally aged rather than the artificially aged condition. The strengths of the mechanically alloyed variants are greater than those produced from prealloyed powder. Properties and microstructural features of these dispersion strengthened alloys are discussed in regards to their processing histories.

  20. Stabilization effect of Zr and Ti additions on the ageing characteristics of Al-1 wt% Si alloy through a creep study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaf, G.H.; Beshai, M.H.N.; Abd El Khalek, A.M.; Graiss, G. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Kenawy, M.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Womens Coll.

    1997-12-31

    Al-1 wt% Si and Al-1 wt% Si-0.1 wt% Zr-0.1 wt% Ti alloys were used to trace the effect of Zr and Ti additions on the behaviour of the steady state creep. After solid solution treatment specimens of both alloys were aged at 623, 673, 723 and 773 K and creep tests were performed at room temperature by applying stresses of 60.0, 62.4, 64.7 and 67.1 MPa. The results showed a sound stabilization effect of Zr and Ti on the ageing characteristics of binary Al-1 wt% Si alloy. Values of the applied stress sensitivity parameter, m, obtained were in the range of (20-34) for Al-Si alloy and (14-19) for Al-Si-Zr-Ti alloy. Time to rupture was found to be strongly increased by Zr and Ti additions. The activation energies of the precipitation process involved were found to be 81.9 kJ/mole and 33.7 kJ/mole of the Al-Si and Al-Si-Zr-Ti alloys respectively. (orig.) 17 refs.

  1. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X; Cheng, Y; Xi, T F; Zhang, Z X; Zhang, D Y

    2009-01-01

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10 5 for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  2. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, Y; Xi, T F [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Z X [Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zhang, D Y, E-mail: gxn139888@pku.edu.c, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.c, E-mail: 8lanqiuxiang@163.co, E-mail: chengyan@pku.edu.c, E-mail: top5460@163.co, E-mail: xitingfei@tom.co, E-mail: zhangdeyuan@lifetechmed.co [Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co. Ltd, Hi-Tech Park, Shenzhen 518000 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10{sup 5} for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  3. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X; Cheng, Y; Zhang, Z X; Xi, T F; Zhang, D Y

    2009-08-01

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10(5) for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  4. Microstructure evolution during high cycle fatigue in Mg–6Zn–1Mn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Daliang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhang, Dingfei, E-mail: zhangdingfei@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Yuanxin [College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Sun, Jing; Xu, Junyao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401123 (China)

    2016-03-21

    Microstructure evolution during high cycle fatigue in extruded Mg–6Zn–1Mn alloy was investigated by servo-hydraulic fatigue testing machine with pull–push sinusoidal loading. The results show that in high stress cycles (cyclic stress≥129 MPa) high cycle fatigue tests promote deformation; however, in low stress cycles (cyclic stress≤125 MPa) high cycle fatigue tests make a contribution to room temperature recrystallization in Mg–6Zn–1Mn alloy. The grain refinement increased with increasing cycles. Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) analyses showed that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) has occurred in post-fatigued alloys, accompanied by the presence of a high number density of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs). LAGBs generated in the vicinity of initiation grain boundaries and subdivided coarse grains. In the specimens that subjected to higher cycles, the fraction of LAGBs decreased and high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) gradually increased. With the cyclic number increasing the texture intensity was significantly weakened. The DRX in post-fatigued specimens was related to Continuous DRX (CDRX) mechanism.

  5. Pressure effect on thermopower of Y1-xGdxCo2 alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakama, T.; Takaesu, Y.; Uchima, K.; Yagasaki, K.; Hedo, M.; Uwatoko, Y.; Burkov, A.T.

    2007-01-01

    Thermopower of Y 1-x Gd x Co 2 pseudobinary compounds has been measured at temperatures from 1.5 to 300K under hydrostatic pressure up to 2GPa and in magnetic field 0-15T. In the inhomogeneous and paramagnetic regions of the phase diagram the main contribution to the electronic transport is related to the strong static magnetic fluctuations, which arise due to interplay of structural disorder within Gd-sublattice and Co-3d itinerant electron metamagnetism. This complex magnetic disorder brings about novel transport phenomena, such as anomalous positive magnetoresistance found in ferrimagnetic state of the alloys. The low-temperature thermopower is almost independent of alloy composition in the ferrimagnetic range of the phase diagram (x>0.3) indicating that the alloying does not change electronic structure of the compounds in a close vicinity of Fermi energy. However, the thermopower shows substantial variation with the composition in the inhomogeneous and in the paramagnetic regions of the phase diagram reflecting evolution of the magnetic structure with the composition

  6. Large roomtemperature magnetocaloric effect with negligible magnetic hysteresis losses in Mn1-xVxCoGe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, S.C.; Zheng, Y.X.; Xuan, H.C.; Shen, L.J.; Cao, Q.Q.; Wang, D.H.; Zhong, Z.C.; Du, Y.W.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties have been investigated in a series of Mn 1-x V x CoGe (x=0.01, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.05) alloys. The substitution of V for Mn reduces the structural transformation temperature of MnCoGe alloy effectively and results in a second-order magnetic transition in Mn 0.95 V 0.05 CoGe alloys. Large room temperature magnetocaloric effect and almost zero magnetic hysteresis losses are simultaneously achieved in the alloys with x=0.01, 0.02, and 0.03. The reasons for the negligible magnetic hysteresis losses and the potential application for the roomtemperature magnetic refrigeration are discussed. - Highlights: → V-substitution for Mn reduces the structural transformation temperature of MnCoGe. → FM-PM transition presents the second-order nature in Mn0.95V0.05CoGe. → The first-order FM-PM transitions are observed for alloys with x=0.01, 0.02, and 0.03. → Large room temperature MCEs are achieved in these alloys. → Negligible magnetic HL is achieved for these alloys simultaneously.

  7. Anodic oxidation of Ta/Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mato, S.; Alcala, G.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.; Shimizu, K.; Habazaki, H.; Quance, T.; Graham, M.J.; Masheder, D.

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of iron during anodizing of sputter-deposited Ta/Fe alloys in ammonium pentaborate electrolyte has been examined by transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anodic films on Ta/1.5 at.% Fe, Ta/3 at.% Fe and Ta/7 at.% Fe alloys are amorphous and featureless and develop at high current efficiency with respective formation ratios of 1.67, 1.60 and 1.55 nm V -1 . Anodic oxidation of the alloys proceeds without significant enrichment of iron in the alloy in the vicinity of the alloy/film interface and without oxygen generation during film growth, unlike the behaviour of Al/Fe alloys containing similar concentrations of iron. The higher migration rate of iron species relative to that of tantalum ions leads to the formation of an outer iron-rich layer at the film surface

  8. Fusion neutron irradiation of Ni-Si alloys at high temperature*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J. S.; Guinan, M. W.; Hahn, P. A.

    1988-07-01

    Two Ni-4% Si alloys, with different cold work levels, have been irradiated with 14-MeV fusion neutrons at 623 K, and their Curie temperatures have been monitored during irradiation. The results are compared to those of an identical alloy irradiated by 2-MeV electrons. The results show that increasing dislocation density increases the Curie temperature change rate. At the same damage rate, the Curie temperature change rate for the alloy irradiated by 14-MeV fusion neutrons is only 6-7% of that for an identical alloy irradiated by 2-MeV electrons. It is well known that the migration of radiation induced defects contributes to segregation of silicon atoms at sinks in this alloy, causing the Curie temperature changes. The current results imply that the relative free defect production efficiency decreases from one for the electron irradiated sample to 6-7% for the fusion neutron irradiated sample.

  9. Features of the Percolation Scheme of Vibrational Spectrum Reconstruction in the Ga1 - x Al x P Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, S. P.

    2018-04-01

    Specific features of the properties of Ga-P lattice vibrations have been investigated using the percolation model of a mixed Ga1 - x Al x P crystal (alloy) with zero lattice mismatch between binary components of the alloy. In contrast to other two-mode alloy systems, in Ga1 - x Al x P a percolation splitting of δ 13 cm-1 is observed for the low-frequency mode of GaP-like vibrations. An additional GaP mode (one of the percolation doublet components) split from the fundamental mode is observed for the GaP-rich alloy, which coincides in frequency with the gap corresponding to the zero density of one-phonon states of the GaP crystal. The vibrational spectrum of impurity Al in the GaP crystal has been calculated using the theory of crystal lattice dynamics. Upon substitution of lighter Al for the Ga atom, the calculated spectrum includes, along with the local mode, a singularity near the gap with the zero density of phonon states of the GaP crystal, which coincides with the mode observed experimentally at a frequency of 378 cm-1 in the Ga1 - x Al x P ( x < 0.4) alloy.

  10. Thermal Plasma Spheroidization of High-Nitrogen Stainless Steel Powder Alloys Synthesized by Mechanical Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, Nikolay G.; Popovich, Anatoly A.; Wang, QingSheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on the treatment of Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys, synthesized by the mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental powders in the flow of a thermal plasma. Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys were prepared by MA in the attritor under an argon atmosphere. For spheroidization of Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys, the TekSphero 15 plant manufactured by Tekna Plasma Systems Inc was used. The studies have shown the possibility of obtaining Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen spherical powders steel alloys from the powder obtained by MA. According to the results of a series of experiments, it was found that the results of plasma spheroidization of powders essentially depend on the size of the fraction due to some difference in the particle shape and flowability, and on the gas regime of the plasma torch. It is established that during the plasma spheroidization process, some of the nitrogen leaves the alloy. The loss rate of nitrogen depends on the size of the initial particles.

  11. Microstructure, mechanical property and in vitro biocorrosion behavior of single-phase biodegradable Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, mechanical property, and in vitro biocorrosion behavior of as-cast single-phase biodegradable Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy were investigated and compared with a commercial as-cast AZ91D alloy. The results show that the Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy had a single-phase solid solution structure, with an average grain size of 34.7 ± 13.1 μm. The alloy exhibited ultimate tensile strength of 168 ± 2.0 MPa, yield strength of 83 ± 0.6 MPa, and elongation of 9.1 ± 0.6%. Immersion tests and electrochemical measurements reveal that the alloy displayed lower biocorrosion rate and more uniform corrosion mode than AZ91D in Hank's solution. The elimination of intensive galvanic corrosion reactions and the formation of a much more compact and uniform corrosion film mainly account for the better biocorrosion properties of the Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy than AZ91D.

  12. Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.P.; Chen, Y.Y.; Hsu, C.Y.; Yeh, J.W.; Shih, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the Al x CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 Ωcm 2 as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 Ωcm 2 ). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H 2 SO 4 solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al 0.3 CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 and Al 0.3 CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the Al x CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion

  13. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  14. Effect of forging process on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of biodegradable Mg-1Ca alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harandi, Shervin Eslami; Hasbullah Idris, Mohd; Jafari, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Forging temperature demonstrates more pronounced effect compared to forging speed. → Precipitation of Mg 2 Ca phase at grain boundaries accelerates corrosion rate. → Forging process doesn't provide the corrosion resistance required for bone healing. -- Abstract: The performance of Mg-1Ca alloy, a biodegradable metallic material, may be improved by hot working in order that it may be of use in bone implant applications. In this study, Mg-1Ca cast alloy was preheated to different temperatures before undergoing forging process with various forging speeds. Macro- and microstructure of the samples were examined by stereo and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. To determine the mechanical properties of the alloy, hardness value and plastic deformation ability of the samples were measured. To investigate the corrosion behaviour of the alloy, immersion and electrochemical tests were performed on the samples in simulated body fluid and the corrosion products were characterized by SEM/EDS. The results showed that increasing forging temperature decreased grain size led to improved hardness value and plastic deformation ability of the alloy, whereas no significant effect was observed by changing forging speed. Moreover, forging at higher temperatures led to an increase in the amount of Mg 2 Ca phase at grain boundaries resulted in higher corrosion rates. It can be concluded that although forging process improved the mechanical properties of the alloy, it does not satisfy the corrosion resistance criteria required for bone healing.

  15. Corrosion-electrochemical and mechanical properties of aluminium-berylium alloys alloyed by rare-earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarov, A.M.; Odinaev, Kh.E.; Shukroev, M.Sh.; Saidov, R.Kh.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study influence of rare earth metals on corrosion-electrochemical and mechanical properties of aluminium-berylium alloys the alloys contain 1 mass % beryllium and different amount of rare earth metals were obtained.-electrochemical and mechanical properties of aluminium-berylium alloys. The electrochemical characteristics of obtained alloys, including stationary potential, potentials of passivation beginning and full passivation, potentials of pitting formation and re passivation were defined.

  16. High Temperature Creep of an Al-8,5Fe-1,3V-1,7Si Alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchařová, Květa; Zhu, S. J.; Čadek, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2002), s. 69-84 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2041001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : Al-8,5Fe 1,3V 1,7Si alloy * creep behavior , true threshold stress Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.493, year: 2002

  17. Analysis of Microstructure and Sliding Wear Behavior of Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 High-Entropy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentzaris, K.; Poulia, A.; Georgatis, E.; Lekatou, A. G.; Karantzalis, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    Α Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 high-entropy alloy (HEA) of the well-known family of CoCrFeNiTi has been designed using empirical parameters. The aim of this design was the production of a HEA with fcc structure that gives ductile behavior and also high strength because of the solid solution effect. The VEC calculations (8.1) supported the fcc structure while the δ factor calculations (4.97) not being out of the limit values, advised a significant lattice distortion. From the other hand, the ΔΗ mix calculations (- 9.64 kJ/mol) gave strong indications that no intermetallic would be formed. In order to investigate its potential application, the Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 HEA was prepared by vacuum arc melting and a primary assessment of its surface degradation response was conducted by means of sliding wear testing using different counterbody systems for a total sliding distance of 1000 m. An effort to correlate the alloy's wear response with the microstructural characteristics was attempted. Finally, the wear behavior of the Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 HEA was compared with that of two commercially used wear-resistant alloys. The results obtained provided some first signs of the high-entropy alloys' better wear performance when tested under sliding conditions against a steel ball.

  18. E centers in ternary Si1−x−yGexSny random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander; Bracht, H.; Grimes, R. W.; Jiang, C.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations are used to study the association of arsenic (As) atoms to lattice vacancies and the formation of As-vacancy pairs, known as E centers, in the random Si0.375Ge0.5Sn0.125 alloy. The local environments are described by 32-atom special quasirandom structures that represent random Si1−x−yGexSny alloys. It is predicted that the nearest-neighbor environment will exert a strong influence on the stability of E centers in ternary Si0.375Ge0.5Sn0.125.

  19. E centers in ternary Si1−x−yGexSny random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander

    2009-09-14

    Density functional theory calculations are used to study the association of arsenic (As) atoms to lattice vacancies and the formation of As-vacancy pairs, known as E centers, in the random Si0.375Ge0.5Sn0.125 alloy. The local environments are described by 32-atom special quasirandom structures that represent random Si1−x−yGexSny alloys. It is predicted that the nearest-neighbor environment will exert a strong influence on the stability of E centers in ternary Si0.375Ge0.5Sn0.125.

  20. Peculiarities of hydrogen permeation through Zr–1%Nb alloy and evaluation of terminal solid solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, E.A.; Kompaniets, M.V.; Kompaniets, T.N., E-mail: tkompaniets@spbu.ru; Bobkova, I.S.

    2016-04-15

    Hydrogen permeation through Zr–1%Nb alloy was studied at the temperature below the temperature of α-β transition. Analysis of the transient permeation curves from a closed volume in a surface limited regime allowed to determine total and mobile hydrogen concentrations. At the mobile hydrogen concentration of 4.3 at% a part of the absorbed hydrogen is cut out of permeation process. Increase of the mobile hydrogen concentration in α-phase of Zr–1%Nb alloy is ceasing at the concentration of (5.5 ± 0.3) at%, which is the maximum possible concentration of the mobile hydrogen in α-phase of the studied alloy. From this moment on all absorbed hydrogen is spent on hydride formation. The obtained results are compared with those obtained by means of traditional techniques for terminal solid solubility determination.

  1. Particle stabilization of plastic flow in nanostructured Al-1 %Si Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Tianlin; Li, Chao; Wu, Guilin

    2014-01-01

    A nanostructured Al-1 %Si alloy containing a dispersion of Si particles in ultrapure aluminum (99.9996 %) was produced by heavy cold rolling to study the effect of second-phase particles on the occurrence of plastic instability during tensile testing of a nanostructured metal. Tensile tests were...

  2. Large magnetoresistance in a directionally solidified Ni44.5Co5.1Mn37.1In13.3 magnetic shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongbin; Hu, Wei; Chen, Fenghua; Zhang, Mingang; Li, Zhenzhuang; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Polycrystalline Ni44.5Co5.1Mn37.1In13.3 alloy with coarse columnar-shaped grains and 〈0 0 1〉A preferred orientation was prepared by directional solidification. Due to the strong magnetostructural coupling, inverse martensitic transformation can be induced by the magnetic field, resulting in large negative magnetoresistance up to -58% under the field of 3 T. Such significant field controlled functional behaviors should be attributed to the coarse grains and strong preferred orientation in the directionally solidified alloy.

  3. Strong composition-dependent disorder in InAs1-xNx alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benaissa, H.; Zaoui, A.; Ferhat, M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the main causes of disorder in the InAs 1-x N x alloys (x = 0, 0.03125, 0.0625, 0.09375, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.875, 0.90625, 0.9375, 0.96875 and 1). The calculation is based on the density-functional theory in the local-density approximation. We use a plane wave-expansion non-norm conserving ab initio Vanderbilt pseudopotentials. To avoid the difficulty of considering the huge number of atomic configurations, we use an appropriate strategy in which we consider four configurations for a given composition where the N atoms are not randomly distributed. We mainly show that the band gap decreases (increases) rapidly with increasing (decreasing) compositions of N. As a consequence the optical band gap bowing is found to be strong and composition dependent. The obtained compounds, from these alloys, may change from semi-conducting to metal (passing to a negative bowing) and could be useful for device applications, especially at certain composition.

  4. Effect of Sr addition on microstructure and elevated temperature mechanical properties of Mg–3Zn–1Y alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Junwei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Peng, Xiaodong, E-mail: pxd@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing 400044 (China); Li, Mengluan; Wei, Guobing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xie, Weidong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Yan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-02-08

    The effects of Sr addition on the microstructure and elevated temperature mechanical behavior of Mg–3Zn–1Y alloys have been investigated in this research. The results show that α-Mg, W-phase and S-phase are found in the Sr-containing alloys. The S-phase has a higher thermal stability than W-phase, which significantly improves the elevated temperature mechanical properties of the alloy. To further confirm the crystal structure of the S-phase, high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed and the phase was confirmed to be Mg{sub 6}Zn{sub 2}Sr{sub 1}. With increasing content of Sr, the elevated temperature mechanical properties of the Mg–3Zn–1Y are improved. When the Sr content reached to 0.9 wt%, the alloy shows a much higher ultimate tensile strength of 204 MPa and yield strength of 171 MPa at 250 °C.

  5. Application of Al-2La-1B Grain Refiner to Al-10Si-0.3Mg Casting Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lijun; Pan, Ye; Lu, Tao; Li, Chenlin; Pi, Jinhong; Sheng, Ningyue

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the application and microstructure refining effect of an Al-2La-1B grain refiner in Al-10Si-0.3Mg casting alloy. Compared with the traditional Al-5Ti-1B refiner, Al-2La-1B refiner shows better performances on the grain refinement of Al-10Si-0.3Mg alloy. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggests that the crystallite structure features of LaB6 are beneficial to the heterogeneous nucleation of α-Al grains. Regarding the mechanical performances, tensile properties of Al-10Si-0.3Mg casting alloy are prominently improved, due to the refined microstructures.

  6. Amorphous magnetism in Mnx Sn1-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, V.; Saitovitch, E.M.B.; Abd-Elmeguid, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Systematic low temperature in situ 119 Sn Moessbauer effect (ME) studies in vapor quenched amorphous Mn x Sn 1-x (0.09≤ x ≤0,95) alloys between 150 and 4.2 K, are presented. Its is shown that the magnetic behavior of the system is correctly displayed by the transferred magnetic hyperfine (hf) interactions, at the 119 Sn site. A complete magnetic phase diagram is proposed, and the effect of an external magnetic field (up to about 3T) on the spin correlations in the spin-glass state is also discussed. (author) [pt

  7. Niobium alloys production with elements of high steam pressure and high ductilidate Nb46,5%Ti, Nb 1%Zr, Nb 1%Ti and Nb20% Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Baldan, C.A.; Dainesi, C.R.; Sandim, H.R.Z.

    1988-01-01

    The melting technology of niobium alloys with high ductilidade and high steam pressure, having the Ti, Zr and Ta as alloying elements is described. The electron beam technique for production of Nb 46,5%Ti, Nb 1%Zr and Nb 20%Ta alloys is analysed, aiming a product with high grade and low cost. (C.G.C.) [pt

  8. Hydrogen storage behavior of ZrCo1-xNix alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, Ram Avtar; Parida, S.C.; Agarwal, Renu; Kulkarni, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Intermetallic compound ZrCo is proposed as a candidate material for storage, supply and recovery of hydrogen isotopes in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Storage and Delivery System (SDS). However, it has been reported that upon repeated hydriding-dehydriding cycles, ZrCo undergoes disproportionation as per the reaction; 2ZrCo + H 2 ↔ ZrH 2 + ZrCO 2 . This results in reduction in hydrogen storage capacity of ZrCo, which is not a desirable property for SDS. Konishi et al. reported that the disproportionation reaction can be suppressed by decreasing the desorption temperature. It is anticipated that suitable ternary alloying of ZrCo can elevated the hydrogen equilibrium pressure and hence decrease the desorption temperature for supply of 100 kPa of hydrogen. In this study, we have investigated the effect of Ni content on the hydrogenation behavior of ZrCo 1-x Ni x alloys

  9. High pressure stability analysis and chemical bonding of Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}N alloy: A first principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Mamta; Gupta, Dinesh C., E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com, E-mail: mamta-physics@yahoo.co.in [Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior – 474 011 (India)

    2016-05-23

    First-principles pseudo-potential calculations have been performed to analyze the stability of Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}N alloy under high pressures. The first order phase transition from B1 to B2 phase has been observed in this alloy at high pressure. The variation of lattice parameter with the change in concentration of Zr atom in Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}N is also reported in both the phases. The calculations for density of states have been performed to understand the alloying effects on chemical bonding of Ti-Zr-N alloy.

  10. Neutron-absorbing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoi, K.I.; Arabei, L.B.; Gryaznov, G.M.; Levi, L.I.; Lunin, G.L.; Kozhukhov, V.M.; Markov, J.M.; Fedotov, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the production of an alloy consiting of 1 to 20% In, 0.5 to 15% Sm, and from 3 to 18% Hf, the balance being Ni. Such alloys show a good absorption capacity for thermal and intermediate neutrons, good neutron capture efficiency, and good corrosion resistance, and find application in nuclear reactor automatic control and safety systems. The Hf provides for the maintenance of a reasonably high order of neutron capture efficiency throughout the lifetime of a reactor. The alloys are formed in a vacuum furnace operating with an inert gas atmosphere at 280 to 300 mm.Hg. They have a corrosion resistance from 3 to 3.5 times that of the Ag-based alloys commonly employed, and a neutron capture efficiency about twice that of the Ag alloys. Castability and structural strength are good. (U.K.)

  11. Probing the random distribution of half-metallic Co2Mn1-xFexSi Heusler alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurmehl, S.; Kohlhepp, J.T.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Koopmans, B.; Wójcik, M.; Balke, B.; Blum, C.G.F.; Ksenofontov, V.; Fecher, G.H.; Felser, C.

    2007-01-01

    Co2Mn1-xFexSi Heusler alloys crystallize in the L21 structure. This structure type requires random distribution of Mn and Fe in case of the mixed alloys. The spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique probes the direct local environments of the active atoms and is thus able to resolve next

  12. Temperature dependence of the magnetostriction in polycrystalline PrFe1.9 and TbFe2 alloys: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y. M.; Chen, L. Y.; Huang, H. F.; Xia, W. B.; Zhang, S. Y.; Wei, J.; Tang, S. L.; Du, Y. W.; Zhang, L.

    2014-01-01

    A remarkable magnetostriction λ 111 as large as 6700 ppm was found at 70 K in PrFe 1.9 alloy. This value is even larger than the theoretical maximum of 5600 ppm estimated by the Steven's equivalent operator method. The temperature dependence of λ 111 for PrFe 1.9 and TbFe 2 alloys follows well with the single-ion theory rule, which yields giant estimated λ 111 values of about 8000 and 4200 ppm for PrFe 1.9 and TbFe 2 alloys, respectively, at 0 K. The easy magnetization direction of PrFe 1.9 changes from [111] to [100] as temperature decreases, which leads to the abnormal decrease of the magnetostriction λ. The rare earth sublattice moment increases sharply in PrFe 1.9 alloy with decreasing temperature, resulting in the remarkably largest estimated value of λ 111 at 0 K according to the single-ion theory

  13. Beta decomposition of (Hf/sub x/Zr/sub 1-x/)80Nb20 ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.B.; Taggart, R.; Polonis, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    The processes of beta decomposition have been examined in ternary alloys of the form (Hf/sub x/Zr/sub 1-x/) 80 Nb 20 to determine the influence of Hf additions to a basic Zr 80 Nb 20 composition. In the chill cast condition, Hf additions have been found to decrease the temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity from a value of -0.0015%/K for the binary Zr 80 Nb 20 alloy to a value of -0.011%/K for a (Hf 50 Zr 50 ) 80 Nb 20 ternary alloy. This change is explained in terms of the bcc lattice instability typical of Ti, Zr, and Hf alloys. The Hf additions enhance the kinetics of omega-phase precipitation during aging at 648 K. The aging of a (Hf 05 Zr 95 ) 80 Nb 20 alloy for 12 h results in the precipitation of a high volume fraction of cuboidal shaped omega-phase particles. A phase separation which results in the formation of solute lean discs (β/sub l/) occurs together with the precipitation of the omega-phase. These discs formed both randomly within the matrix and heterogeneously along dislocations and at grain boundaries

  14. Effect of metallurgical factors on the oxidation of Zr - 1% Nb Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of study of the oxidation behaviour of zirconium and its niobium alloys arises from their suitability as cladding and structural materials in nuclear reactors and their use in oxidizing conditions. This work includes the oxidation behaviour of Zr - 1%Nb in both air and steam, and to less extent, zirconium was investigated in air. The effect of 1%Nb, oxidizing medium, fluoride ions contamination and thermal cycling on the oxidation behaviour has been investigated using weight gain, plastic deformation generated during oxidation, electron microscopy , metallography and X- ray techniques. The kinetics of oxidation of Zr-1%Nb alloy have been studied in the temperature range 500 - 1200 degree C and 500 - 900 degree C in both air and steam, respectively. The oxidation rate increases with temperature, Initially, the reaction proceeds with a decreasing rate ( mainly parabolic) followed by transition to a linear or acceleration, indicating breakaway. As the oxidation temperature increases, the time to breakaway transition decreases

  15. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM) alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable high-strength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO 2 laser . This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloy, over the last years. (Author) 16 refs

  16. Surface treatment of new type aluminum lithium alloy and fatigue crack behaviors of this alloy plate bonded with Ti–6Al–4V alloy strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhen-Qi; Huang, Ming-Hui; Hu, Guo-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new generation aluminum lithium alloy which special made for Chinese commercial plane was investigated. ► Pattern of aluminum lithium alloy and Ti alloy were shown after anodization. ► Crack propagation of samples bonded with different wide Ti straps were studied in this paper. -- Abstract: Samples consisting of new aluminum lithium alloy (Al–Li alloy) plate developed by the Aluminum Company of America and Ti–6Al–4V alloy (Ti alloy) plate were investigated. Plate of 400 mm × 140 mm × 2 mm with single edge notch was anodized in phosphoric solution and Ti alloy plate of 200 mm × 20 (40) mm × 2 mm was anodized in alkali solution. Patterns of two alloys were studied at original/anodized condition. And then, aluminum alloy and Ti alloy plates were assembled into a sample with FM 94 film adhesive. Fatigue crack behaviors of the sample were investigated under condition of nominal stress σ = 36 MPa and 54 MPa, stress ratio of 0.1. Testing results show that anodization treatment modifies alloys surface topography. Ti alloy bonding to Al–Li alloy plate effectively retards crack growth than that of Al–Li alloy plate. Fatigue life of sample bonded with Ti alloy strap improves about 62.5% than that of non-strap plate.

  17. Raman scattering from Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} (x ≤ 0.14) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro C, H.; Rodriguez, A. G.; Vidal, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion para la Innovacion y la Aplicacion de la Ciencia y la Tecnologia, Alvaro Obregon No. 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S. L. P. (Mexico); Perez Ladron de G, H. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Av. Enrique Diaz de Leon No. 1144, Col. Paseos de la Montana, 47460 Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} alloys with x concentration up to 0.14 were grown on Ge(001) and GaAs(001) substrates in a conventional R. F. Magnetron Sputtering system at low substrate temperatures. The structural characteristics of these alloys were studied for different Sn concentrations between 1 to 14% by high resolution X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Contrasting characteristics of the grown layers are observed if the Sn concentration is larger or smaller than 6% as revealed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. (Author)

  18. Microstructure, mechanical property and in vitro biocorrosion behavior of single-phase biodegradable Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Li; Yong He; Hailong Zhang; Xitao Wang

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical property, and in vitro biocorrosion behavior of as-cast single-phase biodegradable Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy were investigated and compared with a commercial as-cast AZ91D alloy. The results show that the Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy had a single-phase solid solution structure, with an average grain size of 34.7 ± 13.1 μm. The alloy exhibited ultimate tensile strength of 168 ± 2.0 MPa, yield strength of 83 ± 0.6 MPa, and elongation of 9.1 ± 0.6%. Immersion tests and electroc...

  19. Effects of aging time on the mechanical properties of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi lead-free solder alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Yao; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Wang, Moo-Chin; Chen, Ying-Ru; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Li, Wang-Long

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure of these solder alloys are composed of Sn-rich phase and Ag 3 Sn. • The grain size of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi solder alloys increases with rose aging time. • The maximum yield strength is 112.7 ± 2.2 MPa for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–3Bi solder alloys. • TEM observed that Bi appears as oblong shape fine particles. -- Abstract: The effects of aging time on the mechanical properties of the Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi lead-free solder alloys are investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and a universal testing machine. The experimental results show that the microstructure of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi solder alloys is composed of Sn-rich phase and AgZn 3 . No other intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with Bi content was observed in the solder matrix for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag solder alloys with various Bi contents before and after aging at 150 °C for different durations. The lattice parameter increases significantly with increasing aging time or Bi addition. The size of Sn-rich grain increased gradually with aging time increased, but decreases with Bi content increases. The maximum yield strength is 112.7 ± 2.2 MPa for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–3Bi solder alloy before aging

  20. Effects of aging time on the mechanical properties of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi lead-free solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chih-Yao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hon, Min-Hsiung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80728, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ying-Ru; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Li, Wang-Long [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • The microstructure of these solder alloys are composed of Sn-rich phase and Ag{sub 3}Sn. • The grain size of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi solder alloys increases with rose aging time. • The maximum yield strength is 112.7 ± 2.2 MPa for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–3Bi solder alloys. • TEM observed that Bi appears as oblong shape fine particles. -- Abstract: The effects of aging time on the mechanical properties of the Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi lead-free solder alloys are investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and a universal testing machine. The experimental results show that the microstructure of Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–xBi solder alloys is composed of Sn-rich phase and AgZn{sub 3}. No other intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with Bi content was observed in the solder matrix for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag solder alloys with various Bi contents before and after aging at 150 °C for different durations. The lattice parameter increases significantly with increasing aging time or Bi addition. The size of Sn-rich grain increased gradually with aging time increased, but decreases with Bi content increases. The maximum yield strength is 112.7 ± 2.2 MPa for Sn–9Zn–1.5Ag–3Bi solder alloy before aging.

  1. Influence of Radiation Damage and Isochronal Annealing on the Magnetic Susceptibility of Pu1-xAmx Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, Scott K.; Fluss, Michael J.; Chung, Brandon W.; Haire, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Results of radiation damage in Pu and Pu 1-x Am x alloys studied with magnetic susceptibility, χ(T), and resistivity are presented. Damage accumulated at low temperatures increases χ(T) for all measured alloys, with the trend generally enhanced as the lattice expands. There is a trend towards saturation observable in the damage induced magnetic susceptibility data. that is not evident in similar damage induced resistivity data taken on the same specimen. A comparison of isochronal annealing curves measured by both resistivity and magnetic susceptibility on a 4.3 at% Ga stabilized δ-Pu specimen show that Stage I annealing, where interstitials begin to move, is largely transparent to the magnetic measurement. This indicates that interstitials have little impact on the damage induced increase in the magnetic susceptibility. The isochronal annealing curves of the Pu 1-x Am x alloys do not show distinct annealing stages as expected for alloys. However, samples near 20% Am concentration show an unexpected increase in magnetization beginning when specimens are annealed to 35 K. This behavior is also reflected in a time dependent increase in the magnetic susceptibility of damaged specimens indicative of first order kinetics. These results suggest there may be a metastable phase induced by radiation damage and annealing in Pu 1-x Am x alloys. (authors)

  2. Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatičanin Biljana V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values, as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE, dendrite arm spacing (DAS and length eutectic (Le and also distribution by size (histogram and volume participation of -hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5B1 for the same chemical composition of the aluminium-capper-magnesium alloy. It has been concluded that with the increase of titanium content, the mean value of grain size decreases. We have also examined hardness and pressure strength.

  3. Fatigue crack growth rates and fracture toughness of rapidly solidified Al-8.5 pct Fe-1.2 pct V-1.7 pct Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariprasad, S.; Sastry, S.M.L.; Jerina, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The room-temperature fatigue crack growth rates (FCGR) and fracture toughness were evaluated for different crack plane Orientations of an Al-8.5 pct Fe-1.2 pct V-1.7 pct Si alloy produced by planar flow casting (PFC) and atomized melt deposition (AMD) processes. For the alloy produced by the PFC process, properties were determined in six different orientations, including the short transverse directions S-T and S-L. Diffusion bonding and adhesive bonding methods were used to prepare specimens for determining FCGR and fracture toughness in the short transverse direction. Interparticle boundaries control fracture properties in the alloy produced by PFC. Fracture toughness of the PFC alloy varies from 13.4 MPa√ bar m to 30.8 MPa√ bar m, depending on the orientation of the crack plane relative to the interparticle boundaries. Fatigue crack growth resistance and fracture toughness are greater in the L-T, L-S, and T-S directions than in the T-L, S-T, and S-L orientations. The alloy produced by AMD does not exhibit anisotropy in fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth resistance in the as-deposited condition or in the extruded condition. The fracture toughness varies from 17.2 MPa√ bar m to 18.5 MPa√ bar m for the as-deposited condition and from 19.8 MPa√ bar m to 21.0 MPa√ bar m for the extruded condition. Fracture properties are controlled by intrinsic factors in the alloy produced by AMD. Fatigue crack growth rates of the AMD alloy are comparable to those of the PFC alloy in the L-T orientation. The crack propagation modes were studied by optical metallographic examination of crack-microstructure interactions and scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces

  4. The influence of alloying elements in aluminium on the grain refinement with ALTI5B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglič I.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the influence of alloying elements in aluminium on the grain refinement with various additions of AlTi5B1. Grain-refinement tests were made at a cooling rate of 15 °C/s. The results revealed that in both aluminium and an Al-Fe alloy the grain size decreases with increasing additions of the AlTi5B1 grain refiner. We found that for the same boron content the grain size was smaller in the case of the Al-Fe alloy. The difference in the grain sizes for the same content of boron was approximately 15 μm; this is considerably smaller than the difference between the grain sizes in samples with the same difference of growth-restricting factor made at slower cooling rates.

  5. Role of Ag-alloy in the thermal stability of Ag-based ohmic contact to GaN(0 0 0 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Zhihua; Qin, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Lanli

    2015-01-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to study Ag and Ag-alloy adsorption stability on GaN(0 0 0 1) surface. We find Ag only contact to GaN surface is unstable under high temperature. While Ag-alloy adsorption exhibits better adsorption stability and electronic properties than that of the Ag only contact,due to the enhanced interaction between Ag-alloy and GaN(0 0 0 1) surface. The Ag-alloy, particularly AgNi, is proposed to be used as very promising ohmic contact to GaN for practical applications

  6. ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

    1962-06-12

    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  7. Electronic structure calculations for BaSxSe1-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhenbao; Hu Haiquan; Cui Shouxin; Wang Wenjun

    2009-01-01

    A series of first principles calculations have been carried out to study structural, electronic properties of BaS x Se 1-x alloys. We have used the local density as well as the generalized gradient approximations for the exchange-correlation potential. The structural properties of these materials, in particular the composition dependence to the lattice constant and bulk modulus, are found to be linear. It is also found linear relationship between theoretical band gaps and 1/a 2 (where a is lattice constant).

  8. The quasicrystalline phase formation in Al-Cu-Cr alloys produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sviridova, T.A.; Shevchukov, A.P.; Shelekhov, E.V. [National University of Science and Technology ' MISIS' , Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Diakonov, D.L. [Bardin Central Research Institute for the Iron and Steel Industry, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Kaloshkin, S.D. [National University of Science and Technology ' MISIS' , Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: > Formation of decagonal quasicrystalline phase in Al-Cu-Cr alloys. > Obtained decagonal phase belongs to D{sub 3} family of decagonal quasicrystals. > Decagonal phase has 1.26 nm periodicity along 10-fold axis. > Alloys were produced by combination of mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing. > Phase composition of as-milled powders depending on annealing temperature. - Abstract: Almost single-phase decagonal quasicrystal with periodicity of 1.26 nm along 10-fold axis was produced in Al{sub 69}Cu{sub 21}Cr{sub 10} and Al{sub 72.5}Cu{sub 16.5}Cr{sub 11} alloys using combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and subsequent annealing. Phase transformations of as-milled powders depending on annealing temperature in the range of 200-800 deg. C are examined. Since the transformations can be explained based on kinetic and thermodynamic reasons it seems that applied technique (short preliminary MA followed by the annealing) permits to produce the equilibrium phases rather than metastable ones.

  9. Theoretical investigation of the structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of CdS1-xSex alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Debing; Li, Mingkai; Meng, Dongxue; Ahuja, Rajeev; He, Yunbin

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of wurtzite (WZ) and zincblende (ZB) CdS1-xSex alloys are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) and the cluster expansion method. A special quasirandom structure containing 16 atoms is constructed to calculate the band structures of random alloys. The band gaps of CdS1-xSex alloys are direct and decrease as the Se content increases. The delta self-consistent-field method is applied to correct band gaps that are underestimated by DFT. The band offsets clearly reflect the variation in valence band maxima and conduction band minima, thus providing information useful to the design of relevant quantum well structures. The positive formation enthalpies of both phases imply that CdS1-xSex is an immiscible system and tends to phase separate. The influence of lattice vibrations on the phase diagram is investigated by calculating the phonon density of states. Lattice vibration effects can reduce the critical temperature Tc and increase alloy solid solubilities. This influence is especially significant in the ZB structure. When only chemical interactions are present, the Tc values for WZ- and ZB-CdS1-xSex are 260 K and 249 K, respectively. The lattice vibration enthalpy and entropy lower the Tc to 255 K and 233 K, respectively.

  10. Adiabatic shear localization in a near beta Ti–5Al–5Mo–5 V–1Cr–1Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bingfeng, E-mail: biw009@ucsd.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Key Lab of Nonferrous Materials, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego (United States); Sun, Jieying; Wang, Xiaoyan; Fu, Ao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China)

    2015-07-15

    Adiabatic shear localization plays an important role in the deformation and failure of near beta Ti–5Al–5Mo–5 V–1Cr–1Fe alloy used in aircraft's gear at high rate deformation. Hat shaped specimens with different nominal shear strains are used to induce the formation of an adiabatic shear band under controlled shock-loading experiments. When the nominal shear strain is about 0.68, unstable shear deformation of the alloy emerges after the true flow stress reaches 1100 MPa, the first vibration peak during the split Hopkinson pressure bar testing, and the whole process lasts about 62 μs. The microstructures within the shear band in the Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–1Cr–1Fe alloy are investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Phase transformation occurs in the shear band when the nominal shear strain increases to 0.68. A number of equiaxed grains with sizes 50–200 nm and alpha″-phase are in the center of the shear band. Kinetic calculations indicate that during the deformation process, the recrystallized nanosized grains can be formed in the shear band by way of the subgrain boundaries rotation, and the alpha″ phase transformation start after the subgrain boundaries rotated to 30°.

  11. Nickel and cobalt base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Nickel base alloys have a good resistance to pitting, cavernous or cracks corrosion. Nevertheless, all the nickel base alloys are not equivalent. Some differences exit between all the families (Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Cr-Fe, Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo/W-Cu, Ni-Cr-Mo/W, Ni-Mo). Cobalt base alloys in corrosive conditions are generally used for its wear and cracks resistance, with a compromise to its localised corrosion resistance properties. The choice must be done from the perfect knowledge of the corrosive medium and of the alloys characteristics (chemical, metallurgical). A synthesis of the corrosion resistance in three medium (6% FeCl 3 , 4% NaCl + 1% HCl + 0.1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , 11.5% H 2 SO 4 + 1.2% HCl + 1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 1% CuCl 2 ) is presented. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs

  12. Development of casting investment preventing blackening of noble metal alloys part 1. Application of developed investment for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Kiyoshi; Nakai, Akira; Goto, Shin-ichi; Wakamatsu, Yasushi; Yara, Atushi; Miyagawa, Yukio; Ogura, Hideo

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a casting investment that prevents the blackening of the cast surface of noble metal alloys. The experimental investments were prepared using a gypsum-bonded investment in which the metallic powders such as boron (B), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al) and titanium (Ti) were added as oxidizing agents. An Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy was cast into the mold made of the prepared investment. The effect of the addition of each metal powder was evaluated from the color difference between the as-cast surface and the polished surface of the cast specimen. The color of the as-cast surface approached that of the polished surface with increasing B and Al content. A lower mean value in the color difference was obtained at 0.25-1.00 mass% B content. B and Al are useful as an additive in a gypsum-bonded investment to prevent the blackening of an Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. The effects of Si and Ti powder addition could not be found.

  13. Effects of minor Zr and Sr on as-cast microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-3Ce-1.2Mn-0.9Sc (wt.%) magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Fusheng; Yang Mingbo; Shen Jia; Wu Lu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Minor Zr and/or Sr additions can effectively refine the grains of the Mg-3Ce-1.2Mn-0.9Sc alloy. → Minor Zr and/or Sr additions can improve the tensile properties of the Mg-3Ce-1.2Mn-0.9Sc alloy. → Minor Zr and/or Sr additions can improve the creep properties of the Mg-3Ce-1.2Mn-0.9Sc alloy. - Abstract: The effects of minor Zr and Sr on the as-cast microstructure and mechanical properties of the Mg-3Ce-1.2Mn-0.9Sc (wt.%) alloy were investigated by using optical and electron microscopies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and tensile and creep tests. The results indicate that adding minor Zr and/or Sr to the Mg-3Ce-1.2Mn-0.9Sc alloy does not cause an obvious change in the morphology and distribution of the Mg 12 Ce phase. However, the grains of the Zr and/or Sr-containing alloys are effectively refined. Among the Zr and/or Sr-containing alloys, the grains of the alloy with the addition of 0.5 wt.%Zr + 0.1 wt.%Sr are the finest, followed by the alloys with the additions of 0.5 wt.%Zr and 0.1 wt.%Sr, respectively. In addition, small additions of Zr and/or Sr can improve the tensile and creep properties of the Mg-3Ce-1.2Mn-0.9Sc alloy. Among the Zr and/or Sr-containing alloys, the alloy with the addition of 0.5 wt.%Zr + 0.1 wt.%Sr obtains the optimum tensile and creep properties.

  14. First-principles investigations on structural, elastic and mechanical properties of BNxAs1‑x ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junqin; Ma, Huihui; Zhao, Bin; Wei, Qun; Yang, Yintang

    2018-05-01

    A systematic investigation of the structural optimization, elastic and mechanical properties of the BNxAs1‑x ternary alloys are reported in the present work using the density-functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of the exchange-correlation functional. Some of the constants which are used to analyze the properties including elastic constants and modulus, and some parameters describing the elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature are also calculated. Our calculations were performed to evaluate the equilibrium lattice constant and band structure compared with the available theoretical works. On the one hand, our results might be expected to provide a theoretical basis for future study of BNxAs1‑x alloys towards elastic or mechanical properties. On the other hand, we draw a conclusion that BNxAs1‑x alloys show direct bandgap when x equals 0.25, 0.5 or 0.75. We obtained the elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and universal anisotropic index which are used to demonstrate the elastic anisotropy of these alloys which is proved according to our calculations. Also, we calculated the Debye temperature to illustrate covalent interactions and obtained the lower limit of the thermal conductivity for further research.

  15. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  16. First-Principle Study of the Optical Properties of Dilute-P GaN1-xPx Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovac, Damir; Tan, Chee-Keong; Tansu, Nelson

    2018-04-16

    An investigation on the optical properties of dilute-P GaN 1-x P x alloys by First-Principle Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods is presented, for phosphorus (P) content varying from 0% up to 12.5%. Findings on the imaginary and real part of the dielectric function are analyzed and the results are compared with previously reported theoretical works on GaN. The complex refractive index, normal-incidence reflectivity and birefringence are presented and a difference in the refractive index in the visible regime between GaN and GaNP alloys of ~0.3 can be engineered by adding minute amounts of phosphorus, indicating strong potential for refractive index tunability. The optical properties of the GaN 1-x P x alloys indicate their strong potential for implementation in various III-nitride-based photonic waveguide applications and Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR).

  17. Engineering data bases for refractory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Harms, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    Refractory alloys based on niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten are required for the multi-100kW(e) space nuclear reactor power concepts that have been assessed in the SP-100 Program because of the extremely high temperatures involved. A review is presented of the technology efforts on the candidate refractory alloys in the areas of availability/fabricability, mechanical properties, irradiation effects, and compatibility. Of the niobium-base alloys, only Nb-1Zr has a data base that is sufficiently comprehensive for the high level of confidence required in the reference-alloy selection process for the reactor concept to be tested in the Ground Engineering System (GES) Phase of the SP-100 Program. Based on relatively short-term tests, the alloy PWC-11 (Nb-1Zr-0.1C) appears to have significantly greater creep strength than Nb-1Zr; however, concerns as to whether this precipitation-hardened alloy will remain thermally stable during seven years of full-power reactor operation need to be resolved. Additional information on the reference GES alloy will be needed for the detailed engineering design of a space power system and the fabrication of prototypical GES test components. Expedient development and demonstration of an adequate total manufacturing capability will be required if a high risk of significant schedule slippages and cost overruns is to be avoided. 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Precipitation kinetics of Al-1.12 Mg{sub 2}Si-0.35 Si and Al-1.07 Mg{sub 2}Si-0.33 Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaber, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Gaffar, M.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)]. E-mail: mgaafar@aucegypt.edu; Mostafa, M.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Zeid, E.F. Abo [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)

    2007-02-21

    The kinetics of hardening precipitates of Al-1.12 wt.% Mg{sub 2}Si-0.35 wt.% Si (excess Si) and Al-1.07 wt.% Mg{sub 2}Si-0.33 wt.% Cu (balanced + Cu) alloys have been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and hardness measurements. The excess Si enhances the precipitation kinetics and improves the strength of the material. On the other hand, however addition of Cu assist formation of the Q' phase which positively changed the alloy strength. The high binding energy between vacancies and solute atoms (Si and Mg) enhances the combination of Si, Mg and vacancies to form Si-Mg-vacancy clusters. These clusters act as nucleation sites for GP-zones. The coexistence of the {beta}'- and Q'-precipitates in the balanced + Cu alloy results in a higher peak age hardening compared to the alloy with Si in excess.

  19. Effect of Ce-rich rare earth on microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-10Zn-5Al-0.1Sb magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Zhiyong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the comprehensive mechanical properties of Mg-10Zn-5Al-0.1Sb magnesium alloy, different amount of Ce-rich rare earth (RE was added to the alloy, and the effect of RE addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-10Zn-5Al-0.1Sb alloy was investigated by means of Brinell hardness measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results show that an appropriate amount of Ce-rich rare earth addition can make the Al4Ce phase particles and CeSb phase disperse more evenly in the alloy. These phases refine the alloy抯 matrix and make the secondary phases [t-Mg32(Al,Zn49 phase and f-Al2Mg5Zn2 phase] finer and more dispersive, therefore significantly improve the mechanical properties of the Mg-10Zn-5Al-0.1Sb alloy. When the RE addition is 1.0 wt.%, the tensile strengths of the alloy both at room temperature and 150 篊 reach the maximum values while the impact toughness is slightly lower than that of the matrix alloy. The hardness increases with the increase of RE addition.

  20. Formation and characterization of Al–Ti–Nb alloys by electron-beam surface alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkov, S., E-mail: stsvalkov@gmail.com [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lazarova, R. [Institute of Metal Science, Equipment and Technologies with Hydro and Aerodynamics Center, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 67 Shipchenski Prohod blvd., 1574 Sofia (Bulgaria); Bezdushnyi, R. [Department of Solid State Physics and Microelectronics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridsky”, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dechev, D. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Al–Ti–Nb surface alloys have been successfully obtained by electron-beam surface alloying technology. • The alloys consist of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} fractions, distributed in the biphasic structure of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} particles dispersed in α-Al. • The alloying speed does not affect the lattice parameters of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} and, does not form additional stresses, strains etc. • It was found that lower velocity of the specimen motion during the alloying process develops more homogeneous structures. • The measured hardness of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} compound reaches 775 HV[kg/cm{sup 2}] which is much greater than the values of NbAl{sub 3}. - Abstract: The combination of attractive mechanical properties, light weight and resistance to corrosion makes Ti-Al based alloys applicable in many industrial branches, like aircraft and automotive industries etc. It is known that the incorporation of Nb improves the high temperature performance and mechanical properties. In the present study on Al substrate Ti and Nb layers were deposited by DC (Direct Current) magnetron sputtering, followed by electron-beam alloying with scanning electron beam. It was chosen two speeds of the specimen motion during the alloying process: V{sub 1} = 0.5 cm/s and V{sub 2} = 1 cm/s. The alloying process was realized in circular sweep mode in order to maintain the melt pool further. The obtained results demonstrate a formation of (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} fractions randomly distributed in biphasic structure of intermetallic (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} particles, dispersed in α-Al solid solution. The evaluated (Ti,Nb)Al{sub 3} lattice parameters are independent of the speed of the specimen motion and therefore the alloying speed does not affect the lattice parameters and thus, does not form additional residual stresses, strains etc. It was found that lower velocity of the specimen motion during the alloying process develops more homogeneous structures. The metallographic analyses demonstrate a

  1. Heat treatment effect on the properties of welded joint of niobium alloys of the Nb-1Zr-C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'ev, Yu.V; Chernyshova, T.A.; Pokosov, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal treatment of weld joints of the alloys Nb-1 Zr-(0.01-0.12)C at 800-900 deg C leads to decomposition of the solid solution of the weld metal which is accompanied with a decrease in plasticity and impact strength. The decomposition of the solid solution takes place even in a relatively pure alloy containing only 0.025% of intrusion impurities. Thermal treatment is reasonable only when carbon content in the alloys is no less than 0.1%. The decomposition of the solid solution in the weld metal of the alloy containing 0.12% of C takes place during thermal treatment at the expense of liberating niobium carbides Nb 3 C 2 and Nb 2 C. When rearrangement takes place, i it is Nb 2 C that liberates mainly

  2. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  3. L1{sub 0} phase formation in ternary FePdNi alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes-Arango, A.M. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Bordeaux, N.C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Liu, J.; Barmak, K. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lewis, L.H., E-mail: lhlewis@neu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Metallurgical routes to highly metastable phases are required to access new materials with new functionalities. To this end, the stability of the tetragonal chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase in the ternary Fe–Pd–Ni system is quantified to provide enabling information concerning synthesis of L1{sub 0}-type FeNi, a highly attractive yet highly elusive advanced permanent magnet candidate. Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0–7 at%) samples were arc-melted and annealed at 773 K (500 °C) for 100 h to induce formation of the chemically ordered L1{sub 0} phase. Coupled calorimetry, structural and magnetic investigations allow determination of an isothermal section of the ternary Fe–Pd–Ni phase diagram featuring a single phase L1{sub 0} region near the FePd boundary for x < 6 at%. It is demonstrated that increased Ni content in Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} alloys systematically decreases the order-disorder transition temperature, resulting in a lower thermodynamic driving force for the ordering phase transformation. The Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} L1{sub 0} → fcc disordering transformation is determined to occur via a two-step process, with compositionally-dependent enthalpies and transition temperatures. These results highlight the need to investigate ternary alloys with higher Ni content to determine the stability range of the L1{sub 0} phase near the FeNi boundary, thereby facilitating kinetic access to the important L1{sub 0} FeNi ferromagnetic phase. - Highlights: • Chemical ordering in FePdNi enhances intrinsic and extrinsic magnetic properties. • 773 K annealed FePdNi alloys studied show a stable L1{sub 0} phase for Ni ≤ 5.2 at%. • Chemical disordering in FePdNi occurs by a previously unreported two-step process. • Ni additions to FePd dramatically decrease the chemical order-disorder temperature. • The chemical-ordering transformation kinetics are greatly affected by Ni content.

  4. Corrosion cracking resistance of the VT3-1 titanium alloy with initial defects in the metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konradi, G.G.; Mozhaev, A.V.; Zmievskij, V.I.; Sokolov, V.S.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated is the corrosion cracking resistance of thick sheet half-finished product of the VT3-1 alloy in 3% NaCl solution during 800 hrs. It is shown that crack development occurs during the first 24 hours with stress intensities above the threshold coefficient of stress intensities. Ratios of crack sizes permissible for using the alloy in the air and NaCl solution media are obtained

  5. Magnetic behavior of the alloys (Ce{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}){sub 2}PdSi{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, R [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Res., Colaba, Mumbai (India); Sampathkumaran, E V [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Res., Colaba, Mumbai (India)

    1996-11-01

    The results of X-ray diffraction (Cu K{sub {alpha}}), electrical resistivity ({rho}), heat capacity (C) and magnetic susceptibility ({chi}) measurements are reported for a new pseudoternary solid solution, (Ce{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}){sub 2}PdSi{sub 3} (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0). The X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that single phase alloys can be formed in a derived version of the AlB{sub 2}-type hexagonal structure for x{>=}0.2, while for x=0.0, apparently there is an additional weak phase. In the case of the alloy Ce{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3}, the majority of Ce ions do not exhibit magnetic ordering down to 1.4 K, though magnetic ordering at 7 K from one of the two crystallographically inequivalent sites cannot be ruled out. For other compositions, no magnetic ordering is observed above 1.4 K. The Kondo effect is operative in all these alloys, with the strength of the Kondo effect increasing with the compression of the lattice by the gradual replacement of Ce by Y. The C/T exhibits a low temperature enhancement in all Ce containing alloys. (orig.).

  6. On The Utilization of (1-X)Cu-X Pb) Alloys for Gamma-Rays Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Latif, A.A.; Saeid, Kh.S.; Abd El-Latif, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present work deals with the study of the attenuation properties of gamma rays for [(1-X) Cu -X Pb] alloys where, x=10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% Pb waste by weight. Investigation has been performed by measuring the transmitted gamma ray spectra behind cylindrical samples of [(1-X) Cu - X Pb] alloys of different thicknesses. A collimated beam of gamma ray measured by using γ - ray spectrometer NaI(Tl) Scintillation detector with multichannel analyzer (MCA) cassy. Total mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of γ-ray have been evaluated and calculated using measured results and XCOM code respectively . Comparison between measured and calculated results shows a reasonable divergence at 0.511 MeV ,and 0.662 MeV γ-ray energies, in addition there is a convergence at 1.17 MeV, 1.274 MeV, and 1.3 MeV γ-ray energies

  7. Microstructural Evolution of Al-1Fe (Weight Percent) Alloy During Accumulative Continuous Extrusion Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Guan, Ren-Guo; Tie, Di; Shang, Ying-Qiu; Jin, Hong-Mei; Li, Hong-Chao

    2018-04-01

    As a new microstructure refining method, accumulative continuous extrusion forming (ACEF) cannot only refine metal matrix but also refine the phases that exist in it. In order to detect the refinements of grain and second phase during the process, Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy was processed by ACEF, and the microstructural evolution was analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that the average grain size of Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy decreased from 13 to 1.2 μm, and blocky Al3Fe phase with an average length of 300 nm was granulated to Al3Fe particle with an average diameter of 200 nm, after one pass of ACEF. Refinement of grain was attributed to continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX), and the granulation of Al3Fe phase included the spheroidization resulting from deformation heat and the fragmentation caused by the coupling effects of strain and thermal effect. The spheroidization worked in almost the entire deformation process, while the fragmentation required strain accumulation. However, fragmentation contributed more than spheroidization. Al3Fe particle stimulated the formation of substructure and retarded the migration of recrystallized grain boundary, but the effect of Al3Fe phase on refinement of grain could only be determined by the contrastive investigation of Al-1Fe (wt pct) alloy and pure Al.

  8. Ab initio/GIAO-CCSD(T) study of structures, energies, and 13C NMR chemical shifts of C4H7(+) and C5H9(+) ions: relative stability and dynamic aspects of the cyclopropylcarbinyl vs bicyclobutonium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Surya Prakash, G K; Rasul, Golam

    2008-07-16

    The structures and energies of the carbocations C 4H 7 (+) and C 5H 9 (+) were calculated using the ab initio method. The (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the carbocations were calculated using the GIAO-CCSD(T) method. The pisigma-delocalized bisected cyclopropylcarbinyl cation, 1 and nonclassical bicyclobutonium ion, 2 were found to be the minima for C 4H 7 (+) at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level. At the MP4(SDTQ)/cc-pVTZ//MP2/cc-pVTZ + ZPE level the structure 2 is 0.4 kcal/mol more stable than the structure 1. The (13)C NMR chemical shifts of 1 and 2 were calculated by the GIAO-CCSD(T) method. Based on relative energies and (13)C NMR chemical shift calculations, an equilibrium involving the 1 and 2 in superacid solutions is most likely responsible for the experimentally observed (13)C NMR chemical shifts, with the latter as the predominant equilibrating species. The alpha-methylcyclopropylcarbinyl cation, 4, and nonclassical bicyclobutonium ion, 5, were found to be the minima for C 5H 9 (+) at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level. At the MP4(SDTQ)/cc-pVTZ//MP2/cc-pVTZ + ZPE level ion 5 is 5.9 kcal/mol more stable than the structure 4. The calculated (13)C NMR chemical shifts of 5 agree rather well with the experimental values of C 5H 9 (+).

  9. Study of resistance to deformation dependence on temperature and strain degree during working with different rates for ABM-1 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharlamov, V.V.; Dvinskij, V.M.; Vashlyaev, Eh.V.; Dyblenko, Z.A.; Khamatov, R.I.; Zverev, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of approximation of the experimental curves partial differential equations relating ABM-1 alloy deformation resistance to the deformation parameters are obtained. Using statistical processing of the experimental data the regression equations of the dependence of the deformation resistance on temperature rate and relative reduction of the samples are found. In the 2.1-23.6 1/c deformation rate range hardening and weakening rates of the AMB-1 alloy increases with the increase of the latter. The data obtained permit to calculate the deformation parameters of the studied alloy for different processes of metal plastic working in the studied temperature range [ru

  10. Comparison of three Ni-Hard I alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Rice, J. (Texaloy Foundry Co., Inc., Floresville, Texas)

    2004-09-01

    This report documents the results of an investigation which was undertaken to reveal the similarities and differences in the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of three Ni-Hard I alloys. One alloy (B1) is ASTM A532 class IA Ni-Hard containing 4.2 wt. pct. Ni. The second alloy (B2) is similar to B1 but higher in Cr, Si, and Mo. The third alloy (T1) also falls in the same ASTM specification, but it contains 3.3 wt. pct. Ni. The alloys were evaluated in both as-cast and stress-relieved conditions except for B2, which was evaluated in the stress-relieved condition only. While the matrix of the high Ni alloys is composed of austenite and martensite in both conditions, the matrix of the low Ni alloy consists of a considerable amount of bainite, in addition to the martensite and the retained austenite in as cast condition, and primarily bainite, with some retained austenite, in the stress relieved condition. It was found that the stress relieving treatment does not change the tensile strength of the high Ni alloy. Both the as cast and stress relieved high Ni alloys had a tensile strength of about 350 MPa. On the other hand, the tensile strength of the low Ni alloy increased from 340 MPa to 452 MPa with the stress relieving treatment. There was no significant difference in the wear resistance of these alloys in both as-cast and stressrelieved conditions.

  11. Theoretical calculations of the surface tension of Ag(1-x)-Cu(x) liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A thermodynamic model for calculating the surface tension, and its temperature and composition dependences, of liquid binary alloys is described. → The model does not require the prior knowledge of the surface concentration and Gibbs energy. → The surface tension of the liquid Ag-Cu binary alloys has been calculated as a function of temperature and concentration. → The calculated values agree well with existing experimental data. - Abstract: The surface tension of silver-copper binary liquid alloys is calculated, in the frame work of Eyring theory. The calculations were made for different compositions (mole fraction, x Cu = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1), in the temperature range 1100-1800 K. The surface tension decreases with temperature increase, at a fixed copper fraction x Cu , and increases with increasing copper content. The calculated results are appropriately compared with existing literature data.

  12. Variation of equation of state parameters in the Mg2(Si 1-xSnx) alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Pulikkotil, Jiji Thomas Joseph

    2010-08-03

    Thermoelectric performance peaks up for intermediate Mg2(Si 1-x:Snx) alloys, but not for isomorphic and isoelectronic Mg2(Si1-xGex) alloys. A comparative study of the equation of state parameters is performed using density functional theory, Green\\'s function technique, and the coherent potential approximation. Anomalous variation of the bulk modulus is found in Mg2(Si1-xSn x) but not in the Mg2(Si1-xGex) analogs. Assuming a Debye model, linear variations of the unit cell volume and pressure derivative of the bulk modulus suggest that lattice effects are important for the thermoelectric response. From the electronic structure perspective, Mg2(Si1-xSnx) is distinguished by a strong renormalization of the anion-anion hybridization. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Effect of heat treatment on the precipitation in Al-1 at.% Mg-x at.% Si (x = 0.6, 1.0 and 1.6) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaber, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Afify, N. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)], E-mail: afify@aun.edu.eg; Mostafa, M.S.; Abbady, Gh. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)

    2009-05-27

    The fine-scale precipitates, that occurs during aging, the supersaturated Al-1.0 at.% Mg-x at.% Si (x = 0.6, 1.0 and 1.6) alloys have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The strength of the alloys increases as a high density of very fine {beta}'' coherent and {beta}' semicoherent precipitates nucleate. The precipitates compositions have been determined by analyzing the X-ray diffraction (XRD) charts, by using Scherrer equation. The obtained results showed that the {beta}'' and {beta}' precipitates size lies in the nanometer range (from {approx}5 nm to {approx}32 nm). In addition, increasing Si concentration has exhibited an increase in the density of the precipitates, which fortifies the physical properties.

  14. Electrochemical Properties of Hydrogen-Storage Alloys ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub x} and ZrMnNi{sub 1+x} for Ni-MH Secondary Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Ryoung [Faculty of Applied Chemistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea); Kwon, Ik Hyun [Automobile High-Technology Research Institute, Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In order to improve the performance of AB{sub 2}-type hydrogen-storage alloys for Ni-MH secondary battery, AB{sub 2}-type alloys, ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub x}(x=0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2) and ZrMnNi{sub 1+x}(x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) were prepared as the Zr-Mn-Ni three component alloys. The hydrogen-storage and the electrochemical properties were investigated. The C14 Laves phase formed in all alloys of ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub x}(x=0.0 {approx} 1.2). The equilibrium plateau pressure of the alloy, ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.6}-H{sub 2} system, was about 0.5 atm at 30 degree C. Among these alloys, ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub 0.6} was the easiest to activate, and it had the largest discharge capacity as well as the best cycling performance. The C14 Laves phase also formed in all alloys of ZrMnNi{sub 1+x}(x=0.0 {approx} 0.4). The equilibrium plateau pressure of the alloy, ZrMnNi{sub 1.0}-H{sub 2} system, was about 0.45 atm at 30 degree C. Among these alloys, ZrMnNi{sub 1.0} was the easiest to activate, taking only 3 charge-discharge cycles, and it had the largest discharge capacity of 42 mAh/g. Among these alloys, ZrMn{sub 2}Ni{sub x}(x=0.0 {approx} 1.2) and ZrMnNi{sub 1+x}(x=0.0 {approx} 0.4), ZrMnNi{sub 1.0} had the largest discharge capacity (maximum value of 42 mAh/g), and it showed the fastest activation and good cycling performance. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Noninjection Synthesis of CdS and Alloyed CdSxSe1−xNanocrystals Without Nucleation Initiators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CdS and alloyed CdSxSe1−x nanocrystals were prepared by a simple noninjection method without nucleation initiators. Oleic acid (OA was used to stabilize the growth of the CdS nanocrystals. The size of the CdS nanocrystals can be tuned by changing the OA/Cd molar ratios. On the basis of the successful synthesis of CdS nanocrystals, alloyed CdSxSe1−x nanocrystals can also be prepared by simply replacing certain amount of S precursor with equal amount of Se precursor, verified by TEM, XRD, EDX as well as UV–Vis absorption analysis. The optical properties of the alloyed CdSxSe1−x nanocrystals can be tuned by adjusting the S/Se feed molar ratios. This synthetic approach developed is highly reproducible and can be readily scaled up for potential industrial production.

  16. Structural and electronic properties of Si{sub 1–x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iori, Federico [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Centro Interdipartimentale Intermech and En and tech, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) and Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB–CSIC), Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ossicini, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Centro Interdipartimentale Intermech and En and tech, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); “Centro S3”, CNR-Istituto di Nanoscienze, Via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy); Rurali, Riccardo, E-mail: rrurali@icmab.es [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB–CSIC), Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-21

    We present first-principles density-functional calculations of Si{sub 1–x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires. We show that given the composition of the alloy, the structural properties of the nanowires can be predicted with great accuracy by means of Vegard's law, linearly interpolating the values of a pure Si and a pure Ge nanowire of the same diameter. The same holds, to some extent, also for electronic properties such as the band-gap. We also assess to what extend the band-gap varies as a function of disorder, i.e., how it changes for different random realization of a given concentration. These results make possible to tailor the desired properties of SiGe alloy nanowires starting directly from the data relative to the pristine wires.

  17. Magnesium secondary alloys: Alloy design for magnesium alloys with improved tolerance limits against impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blawert, C., E-mail: carsten.blawert@gkss.d [GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Fechner, D.; Hoeche, D.; Heitmann, V.; Dietzel, W.; Kainer, K.U. [GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Zivanovic, P.; Scharf, C.; Ditze, A.; Groebner, J.; Schmid-Fetzer, R. [TU Clausthal, Institut fuer Metallurgie, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The development of secondary magnesium alloys requires a completely different concept compared with standard alloys which obtain their corrosion resistance by reducing the levels of impurities below certain alloy and process depending limits. The present approach suitable for Mg-Al based cast and wrought alloys uses a new concept replacing the {beta}-phase by {tau}-phase, which is able to incorporate more impurities while being electro-chemically less detrimental to the matrix. The overall experimental effort correlating composition, microstructure and corrosion resistance was reduced by using thermodynamic calculations to optimise the alloy composition. The outcome is a new, more impurity tolerant alloy class with a composition between the standard AZ and ZC systems having sufficient ductility and corrosion properties comparable to the high purity standard alloys.

  18. Alloying principles for magnesium base heat resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Oreshkina, A.A.; Nikitina, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Some binary systems of magnesium-base alloys in which solid solutions are formed, are considered for prospecting heat resistant alloys. It is shown that elements having essential solubility in solid magnesium strongly decreasing with temperature should be used for alloying maqnesium base alloys with high strength properties at increased temperatures. The strengthening phases in these alloys should comprise essential quantity of magnesium and be rather refractory

  19. First-principles study of electronic properties of FeSe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sandeep, E-mail: sandeep@phy.iitb.ac.in; Singh, Prabhakar P. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have studied the electronic and superconducting properties of FeSe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} (x = 0.0, 0.04) alloys by first-principles calculations using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Atomic Sphere Approximation within the coherent potential approximation (KKR-ASA-CPA). The electronic structure calculations show the ground states of S-doped FeSe to be nonmagnetic. We present the results of our unpolarized calculations for these alloys in terms of density of states (DOS), band structures, Fermi surfaces and the superconducting transition temperature of FeSe and FeSe{sub 0.96}S{sub 0.04} alloys. We find that the substitution of S at Se site into FeSe exhibit the subtle changes in the electronic structure with respect to the parent FeSe. We have also estimated bare Sommerfeld constant (γ{sub b}), electron-phonon coupling constant (λ) and the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) for these alloys, which were found to be in good agreement with experiments.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of spray-deposited Mg-12.55Al-3.33Zn-0.58Ca-1Nd alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Pucun; Dong Taishang; Hou Xiaohu; Zhao Chunwang; Xing Yongming

    2010-01-01

    A Mg-Al-Zn-Ca-Nd magnesium alloy was prepared by spray forming technology, and the spray-deposited alloy was subsequently hot-extruded with a reduction rate of 16:1 at 623 K. The mechanical properties of the extruded alloy were investigated, and the result shows that the spray-formed Mg alloy offers superior tensile strength with poor ductility. The morphologies, fracture characteristic and chemical compositions of the extruded alloy were then explored by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer. Furthermore, microstructure of the extruded alloy was examined by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the microstructure of the spray-deposited magnesium alloy consists of α-Mg and Al 2 Ca phases, and the Al 2 Ca compound is distributed along the grain boundaries of the primary α-Mg. Moreover, twin substructure is found to exist in microstructure of the Al 2 Ca phase, rare earth Nd in the Al 2 Ca phase in the form of solid solution.

  1. Microemulsion synthesis and magnetic properties of Fe{sub x}Ni{sub (1−x)} alloy nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beygi, H., E-mail: hossein.beygi@stu-mail.um.ac.ir; Babakhani, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates synthesis of Fe{sub x}Ni{sub (1−x)} bimetallic nanoparticles by microemulsion method. Through studying the mechanism of nanoparticles formation, it is indicated that synthesis of nanoparticles took placed by simultaneous reduction of metal ions and so nanoparticles structure is homogeneous alloy. Fe{sub x}Ni{sub (1−x)} nanoparticles with different sizes, morphologies and compositions were synthesized by changing the microemulsion parameters such as water/surfactant/oil ratio, presence of co-surfactant and NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O to FeCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O molar ratio. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption and thermogravimetric analyses. The results indicated that, presence of butanol as co-surfactant led to chain-like arrangement of nanoparticles. Also, finer nanoparticles were synthesized by decreasing the amount of oil and water and increasing the amount of CTAB. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer suggested that magnetic properties of Fe{sub x}Ni{sub (1−x)} alloy nanoparticles were affected by composition, size and morphology of the particles. Spherical and chain-like Fe{sub x}Ni{sub (1−x)} alloy nanoparticles were superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic, respectively. Furthermore, higher iron in the composition of nanoparticles increases the magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Fe{sub x}Ni{sub (1−x)} alloy NPs synthesized by simultaneous metal ions reduction in microemulsion. • Finer NPs synthesized at lower amount of oil and water and higher amount of CTAB. • Chain-like Fe{sub x}Ni{sub (1−x)} NPs are ferromagnetic; higher aspect ratio, more magnetization. • Spherical Fe{sub x}Ni({sub 1−x)} NPs with smaller size (7 nm) are superparamagnetic. • Spherical Fe{sub x}Ni{sub (1−x)} nanoparticles with higher x had increased magnetic properties.

  2. Influence of chemical composition of zirconium alloy E110 on embrittlement under LOCA conditions - Part 1: Oxidation kinetics and macrocharacteristics of structure and fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, S. A.; Rozhnov, A. B.; Belov, V. A.; Li, E. V.; Glazkina, V. S.

    2011-11-01

    Exploratory investigations of the influence of alloying and impurity content in the E110 alloy cladding tubes on the behavior under conditions of Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) has been performed. Three alloys of E110 type have been tested: E110 alloy of nominal composition Zr-1%Nb (E110), E110 alloy of modified composition Zr-1%Nb-0.12%Fe-0.13%O (E110M), E110 alloy of nominal composition Zr-1%Nb with reduced impurity content (E110G). Alloys E110 and E110M were manufactured on the electrolytic basis and alloy E110G was manufactured on the basis of zirconium sponge. The high temperature oxidation tests in steam ( T = 1100 °C, 18% of equivalent cladding reacted (ECR)) have been conducted, kinetics of oxidation was investigated. Quantitative research of structure and fracture macrocharacteristics was performed by means of optical and electron microscopy. The results received were compared with the residual ductility of specimens. The results of the investigation showed the existence of "breakaway oxidation" kinetics and white spalling oxide in E110 and E110M alloys while the specimen oxidation kinetics in E110G alloy was characterized by a parabolic law and specimens had a dense black oxide. Oxygen and iron alloying in the E110 alloy positively changed the macrocharacteristics of structure and fracture. However, in general, it did not improve the resistance to embrittlement in LOCA conditions apparently because of a strong impurity influence caused by electrolytic process of zirconium production.

  3. Austenitic alloys Fe-Ni-Cr dominating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Austenitic alloy essentially comprising 42 to 48% nickel, 11 to 13% chromium, 2.6 to 3.4% niobium, 0.2 to 1.2% silicon, 0.5 to 1.5% vanadium, 2.6 to 3.4% molybdenum, 0.1 to 0.3% aluminium, 0.1 to 0.3% titanium, 0.02 to 0.05% carbon, 0.002 to 0.015% boron, up to 0.06% zirconium, the balance being iron. The characteristic of this alloy is a conventional elasticity limit to within 2% of at least 450 MPa, with a maximum tensile strength of at least 500 MPa at a test temperature of 650 0 C after immersion annealing at 1038 0 C and 30% hardening. To this effect the invention concerns Ni-Cr-Fe high temperature alloys possessing excellent mechanical strength characteristics, that can be obtained with lower levels of nickel and chromium than those used in alloys of this kind in the present state of the technique, a higher amount of niobium than in the previous alloys and with the addition of 0.5 to 1.5% vanadium [fr

  4. Study of fatigue crack propagation in magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, S.Ya.; Zinyuk, O.D.; Ostash, O.P.; Kudryashov, V.G.; Elkin, F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation in standard (MA2-1, MA8) and super light (MA21, MA18) alloys has been investigated in the whole range of load amplitude changes-from threshold to critical; the materials have been compared by cyclic crack resistance, fractographic analysis has been made. It is shown that MA2-1 alloy crack resistance is slightly lower than the resistance of the other three alloys. MA8 and MA21 alloys having similar mechanical properties almost do not differ in cyclic crack resistance as well. MA18 alloy has the highest resistance to fatigue crack propagation in the whole range of Ksub(max) changes. The presented results on cyclic crack resistance of MA21 and MA18 alloys agree with the data on statistic fracture toughness. The fractures have been also investigated using a scanning electron microscope. Fracture microrelieves of MA8 and MA21 alloys are very similar. At low crack propagation rates (v - 7 m/cycle) it develops through grains, in MA2-1 alloy fracture intergrain fracture areas can be observed. In MA8 and MA21 alloy fractures groove covered areas can be seen alonside with areas of slipping plane laminatron; their specific weight increases with #betta# decrease. Lower crack propagation rates and higher values of threshold stress intensity factors for MA8 and MA21 alloys than for MA2-1 alloy are caused by the absence of intergrain fracture

  5. Band gap characterization of ternary BBi1−xNx (0≤x≤1) alloys using modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, Battal G.

    2015-01-01

    The semi-local Becke–Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators (e.g., sp semiconductors, noble-gas solids, and transition-metal oxides). The structural and electronic properties of ternary alloys BBi 1−x N x (0≤x≤1) in zinc-blende phase have been reported in this study. The results of the studied binary compounds (BN and BBi) and ternary alloys BBi 1−x N x structures are presented by means of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional of Wu and Cohen (WC) which is an improved form of the most popular Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE). For electronic properties the modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) potential, which is more accurate than standard semi-local LDA and PBE calculations, has been chosen. Geometric optimization has been implemented before the volume optimization calculations for all the studied alloys structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of the studied binary compounds are in coincidence with experimental works. And, the variation of the lattice parameter of ternary alloys BBi 1−x N x almost perfectly matches with Vegard's law. The spin–orbit interaction (SOI) has been also considered for structural and electronic calculations and the results are compared to those of non-SOI calculations

  6. Effect of cobalt on microstructure and properties of AlCr1.5CuFeNi2Cox high-entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukshal, Vikas; Patnaik, Amar; Bhat, I. K.

    2018-04-01

    The present paper investigates the effect of Co addition on the alloying behaviour, microstructure and the resulting properties of cast AlCr1.5CuFeNi2Cox high-entropy alloys intended to be used for high temperature applications. The elements Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Co (Purity > 99) weighing approximately 800 g was melted in a high temperature vacuum induction furnace. The microstructure, phase transformation, density, microhardness and compressive strength of the samples were analysed using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopes (SEM), Vickers microhardness tester and universal Testing machine. The crystalline structure of the alloys exhibits simple FCC and BCC phases. The microstructures investigation of the alloys shows the segregation of copper in the interdendritic region resulting in Cu-rich FCC phase. The addition of Co further enhances the formation of FCC phase resulting in the decrease in micro hardness value of the alloys, which varies from 471 HV to 364 HV with increase in the cobalt content from x = 0 to x = 1 (molar ratio). The similar decreasing trend is also observed for the compressive strength of the alloys.

  7. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  8. Nickel aluminide alloy suitable for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.T.

    1998-03-10

    Alloys are disclosed for use in structural applications based upon NiAl to which are added selected elements to enhance room temperature ductility and high temperature strength. Specifically, small additions of molybdenum produce a beneficial alloy, while further additions of boron, carbon, iron, niobium, tantalum, zirconium and hafnium further improve performance of alloys at both room temperature and high temperatures. A preferred alloy system composition is Ni--(49.1{+-}0.8%)Al--(1.0{+-}0.8%)Mo--(0.7 + 0.5%)Nb/Ta/Zr/Hf--(nearly zero to 0.03%)B/C, where the % is at. % in each of the concentrations. All alloys demonstrated good oxidation resistance at the elevated temperatures. The alloys can be fabricated into components using conventional techniques. 4 figs.

  9. Ultrasmall PdmMn1-mOx binary alloyed nanoparticles on graphene catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Park, Dongchul; Jeon, Seungwon

    2016-03-01

    A rare combination of graphene (G)-supported palladium and manganese in mixed-oxides binary alloyed catalysts (BACs) have been synthesized with the addition of Pd and Mn metals in various ratios (G/PdmMn1-mOx) through a facile wet-chemical method and employed as an efficient anode catalyst for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline fuel cells. The as prepared G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been characterized by several instrumental techniques; the transmission electron microscopy images show that the ultrafine alloyed nanoparticles (NPs) are excellently monodispersed onto the G. The Pd and Mn in G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been alloyed homogeneously, and Mn presents in mixed-oxidized form that resulted by X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performances, kinetics and stability of these catalysts toward EOR have been evaluated using cyclic voltammetry in 1 M KOH electrolyte. Among all G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs, the G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox catalyst has shown much superior mass activity and incredible stability than that of pure Pd catalysts (G/Pd1Mn0Ox, Pd/C and Pt/C). The well dispersion, ultrafine size of NPs and higher degree of alloying are the key factor for enhanced and stable EOR electrocatalysis on G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox.

  10. The modification of some properties of Al-2%Mg alloy by Ti &Li alloying elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Abdulameer Jasim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium-Magnisium alloys are light, high strength with resistance to corrosion and good weldability. When the content of magnesium  exceeds 3% there is a tendency to stress corrosion . This work is an attempt is to prepare low density alloy with up to approximately 2.54 g / cm3 by adding different contents of Ti, and lithium to aluminum-2%Magnisium alloy. The lithium is added in two aspects, lithium chloride and pure metal. The casting performed using conventional casting method. Moreover, solution heat treatment (SHT at 520 ºC for 4 hrs, quenching in cold water, and aging at 50ºC for 4 days were done to get better mechanical properties of all samples. Microstructure was inspected by light optical microscope before and after SHT. Alloy3 which contains 1.5%Ti was tested by SEM and EDS spectrometer to exhibit the shape and micro chemical analysis of Al3Ti phase. Hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity were tested for all alloys. The results indicated that Al3Ti phase precipitates in alloys contain 0.5%T, 1%Ti, And 1.5%Ti.  The phases Al3Li as well as Al3Ti were precipitated in alloy4 which contains 2%Ti, and 2.24%Li. Mechanical properties test results also showed that the alloy4 has achieved good results, the modulus of elasticity chanced from 310.65GPa before SHT to 521.672GPa, after SHT and aging, the ultimate tensile strength was changed from 365MPa before SHT to 469MPa, after SHT and aging,  and hardness was increased from 128 to 220HV.

  11. In vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of binary magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuenan; Zheng, Yufeng; Cheng, Yan; Zhong, Shengping; Xi, Tingfei

    2009-02-01

    As bioabsorbable materials, magnesium alloys are expected to be totally degraded in the body and their biocorrosion products not deleterious to the surrounding tissues. It's critical that the alloying elements are carefully selected in consideration of their cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility. In the present study, nine alloying elements Al, Ag, In, Mn, Si, Sn, Y, Zn and Zr were added into magnesium individually to fabricate binary Mg-1X (wt.%) alloys. Pure magnesium was used as control. Their mechanical properties, corrosion properties and in vitro biocompatibilities (cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility) were evaluated by SEM, XRD, tensile test, immersion test, electrochemical corrosion test, cell culture and platelet adhesion test. The results showed that the addition of alloying elements could influence the strength and corrosion resistance of Mg. The cytotoxicity tests indicated that Mg-1Al, Mg-1Sn and Mg-1Zn alloy extracts showed no significant reduced cell viability to fibroblasts (L-929 and NIH3T3) and osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1); Mg-1Al and Mg-1Zn alloy extracts indicated no negative effect on viabilities of blood vessel related cells, ECV304 and VSMC. It was found that hemolysis and the amount of adhered platelets decreased after alloying for all Mg-1X alloys as compared to the pure magnesium control. The relationship between the corrosion products and the in vitro biocompatibility had been discussed and the suitable alloying elements for the biomedical applications associated with bone and blood vessel had been proposed.

  12. Analysis of the creep behaviour of die-cast Mg–3Al–1Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, S.M., E-mail: suming.zhu@monash.edu [CAST Cooperative Research Centre, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Easton, M.A. [CAST Cooperative Research Centre, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gibson, M.A. [CAST Cooperative Research Centre, CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Clayton, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Dargusch, M.S. [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacturing, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, Queensland 4075 (Australia); Defence Materials Technology Centre, The University of Queensland, Queensland 4075 (Australia); Nie, J.F. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-08-20

    The creep behaviour of die-cast Mg–3Al–1Si (AS31) alloy has been studied at 125 °C, 150 °C and 175 °C with stresses ranging 50–110 MPa. The alloy exhibits anomalously high stress exponents, i.e. 14.4 at 125 °C, 11.6 at 150 °C and 9.5 at 175 °C. Contrary to work reported previously, these high stress exponents cannot be rationalised using the threshold stress approach that is commonly adopted in analysing creep behaviour of dispersion strengthened alloys or metal matrix composites. It is shown that the observed high stress exponents are associated with the dominance of power-law breakdown creep in this study, and the stress dependence can be well described by the Garofalo sinh relationship with the natural exponent of 5. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations reveal that cross-slip of 〈a〉 type dislocations is probably the controlling creep mechanism.

  13. Analysis of the creep behaviour of die-cast Mg–3Al–1Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, S.M.; Easton, M.A.; Gibson, M.A.; Dargusch, M.S.; Nie, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The creep behaviour of die-cast Mg–3Al–1Si (AS31) alloy has been studied at 125 °C, 150 °C and 175 °C with stresses ranging 50–110 MPa. The alloy exhibits anomalously high stress exponents, i.e. 14.4 at 125 °C, 11.6 at 150 °C and 9.5 at 175 °C. Contrary to work reported previously, these high stress exponents cannot be rationalised using the threshold stress approach that is commonly adopted in analysing creep behaviour of dispersion strengthened alloys or metal matrix composites. It is shown that the observed high stress exponents are associated with the dominance of power-law breakdown creep in this study, and the stress dependence can be well described by the Garofalo sinh relationship with the natural exponent of 5. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations reveal that cross-slip of 〈a〉 type dislocations is probably the controlling creep mechanism

  14. Spectroscopic and mechanical studies on the Fe-based amorphous alloy 2605SA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral P, A.; Garcia S, I.; Contreras V, J. A.; Garcia S, F.; Nava, N.

    2010-01-01

    The Vickers micro-hardness of this alloy was unusually dependent on the heat treatment from 300 to 634 K, inferring important micro-structural changes and the presence of amorphous grains before its phase transition. Once the alloy is crystallized, the micro-hardness is characteristic of a brittle alloy, the main problem of these alloys. Within the amorphous state, other properties like free-volume, magnetic states and Fe-Fe distances were followed by Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy, respectively, to analyze those micro-structural changes, thermally induced, which are of paramount interest to understand their brittleness problem. (Author)

  15. Spectroscopic and mechanical studies on the Fe-based amorphous alloy 2605SA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral P, A.; Garcia S, I. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Contreras V, J. A.; Garcia S, F. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Ciencias, El Cerrillo Piedras Blancas, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Nava, N., E-mail: agustin.cabral@inin.gob.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The Vickers micro-hardness of this alloy was unusually dependent on the heat treatment from 300 to 634 K, inferring important micro-structural changes and the presence of amorphous grains before its phase transition. Once the alloy is crystallized, the micro-hardness is characteristic of a brittle alloy, the main problem of these alloys. Within the amorphous state, other properties like free-volume, magnetic states and Fe-Fe distances were followed by Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy, respectively, to analyze those micro-structural changes, thermally induced, which are of paramount interest to understand their brittleness problem. (Author)

  16. Thermo-mechanical processing of a Ti 49.5Al 1.25Ag alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, A.; Viana, F.; Vieira, M.F.; Santos, H.M.C. [GMM/IMAT, Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, FEUP, Porto (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    Gamma titanium aluminide is an important candidate to several applications in the aerospace and automotive industries. The great drawback of these alloys is its low ductility at room temperature. This work is part of a study that intends to increase the ductility of gamma titanium aluminide through the addition of alloying elements. In this paper the effects of the heat treatment and the deformation processing on the microstructure of a Ti 49.5Al 1.25Ag are described. The alloy was produced by arc melting, under an argon atmosphere, using a water-cooled copper crucible. The as-cast samples were heat treated at 1300 and 1400 C. Encapsulated samples were deformed by double forging and multiple step rolling. The as-cast {gamma}-TiAl alloy presented an extended degree of segregation, have been detected three microconstituents: lamellar dendrites, interdendritic Al enriched {gamma}-phase and a number of Ag rich particles located at the dendritic/interdendritic interface. The heat treatment at 1400 C for 6 hours allowed the elimination of the as-cast microstructure and its replacement by a fully lamellar one. The thermomechanical processing produced non-homogenous microstructures of deformed lamellar grains and recrystallized gamma grains. The microstructure changes occurring during the several stages of the processing were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The modification of the chemical composition of the phases was determined using SEM-EDS facilities. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic properties of the binary Nickel/Bismuth alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Şarlı, Numan, E-mail: numansarli82@gmail.com

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • We model and investigate the magnetic properties of the Ni/Bi alloy within the EFT. • Magnetizations of the Ni/Bi alloy are observed as Bi1 > Bi2 > Ni/Bi > Ni at T < Tc. • Magnetization of the Bi1 is dominant and Ni is at least dominant T < Tc. • Total magnetization of the Ni/Bi alloy is close to those of Ni at T < Tc. • Hysteresis curves are overlap at T < 0.1 and they behave separately at T > 0.1. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of the binary Nickel/Bismuth alloy (Ni/Bi) are investigated within the effective field theory. The Ni/Bi alloy has been modeled that the rhombohedral Bi lattice is surrounded by the hexagonal Ni lattice. According to lattice locations, Bi atoms have two different magnetic properties. Bi1 atoms are in the center of the hexagonal Ni atoms (Ni/Bi1 single layer) and Bi2 atoms are between two Ni/Bi1 bilayers. The Ni, Bi1, Bi2 and Ni/Bi undergo a second-order phase transition from the ferromagnetic phase to paramagnetic phase at Tc = 1.14. The magnetizations of the Ni/Bi alloy are observed as Bi1 > Bi2 > Ni/Bi > Ni at T < Tc; hence the magnetization of the Bi1 is dominant and Ni is at least dominant. However, the total magnetization of the Ni/Bi alloy is close to magnetization of the Ni at T < Tc. The corcivities of the Ni, Bi1, Bi2 and Ni/Bi alloy are the same with each others, but the remanence magnetizations are different. Our theoretical results of M(T) and M(H) of the Ni/Bi alloy are in quantitatively good agreement with the some experimental results of binary Nickel/Bismuth systems.

  18. Description of vibrational properties of random alloy ZnTe1-xSex within the percolation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souhabi, Jihane; Chafi, Allal; Kassem, Mohammed; Nassour, Ayoub; Gleize, Jerome; Postnikov, A.V.; Hugel, J.; Pages, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the classification of the phonon type behavior of semiconductor alloys as apparent in the Raman and infrared spectra, i.e. in terms of types (i) 1-bond→1-mode and (ii) 2-bond→1-mode (both covered by the Modified Random Element Isodisplacement model, operating at the macroscopic scale), and also (iii) the modified 2-mode type (exceptional), in the framework of the recent 1-bond→2-mode percolation model based on a description of the alloy disorder at the mesoscopic scale. The leading systems of types (i) and (iii), i.e., InGaAs and InGaP, respectively, were earlier shown to obey the percolation model. The aim of this work is to investigate whether the percolation model further extends to the leading system of the last type (ii), i.e. ZnTeSe. With this end in view, we perform a careful re-examination of the Raman and infrared spectra of this alloy, as available in the literature. Special attention is awarded to the discussion and modeling of the puzzling multi-mode infrared reflectivity spectra. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Corrosion behaviour of material no. 1. 4539 and nickel based alloys in gas waters. Korrosionsverhalten des Werkstoffs 1. 4539 und von Nickelbasis-Legierungen in Gaswaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolle, D [Didier Saeurebau GmbH, Koenigswinter (Germany); Buehler, H E [Didier-Werke AG, Anlagentechnik, Wiesbaden (Germany); Kalfa, H

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory tests with synthetic gas waters containing the gases ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and hydrogen cyanide were carried out in order to examine the influence of medium components on the corrosion of material No. 1.4539 and nickel based alloys Hastelloy C-4, C-22 and C-276. Hydrogen sulfide was identified as the decisive component for corrosion. For stainless steel corrosion rates of about 2 mm.a[sup -1] were already found at 50deg C in a critical pH-range with sulfide concentrations > 2%. As cyanide stimulates corrosion by dissolving sulfide surface layers by complexation of the iron ions, an increased material loss rate per unit area was found in the critical range with increasing cyanide concentration. The much more stable nickel based alloys only revealed considerable weight losses after being exposed in the autoclave at 100deg C. The graduation of the loss rates C-22 > C-4 > C-276 can be explained by the different contents of high grade alloy elements. The testing of nickel based alloys of the Hastelloy type and of material No. 1.4539 and 1.4571 by means of the dynamic tensile test (CERT-method) revealed no risks of stress corrosion cracking in the tested media. (orig.).

  20. High strain rate tensile behavior of Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh; Paman, Ashish; Madhu, V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to perform quasi static and high strain rate tensile tests on Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy under different strain rates ranging from 0.01–3500/s and also at temperatures of 25,100, 200 and 300 °C. The combined effect of strain rate, temperature and stress triaxiality on the material behavior is studied by testing both smooth and notched specimens. Johnson–Cook (J–C) constitutive and fracture models are established based on high strain rate tensile data obtained from Split hopkinson tension bar (SHTB) and quasi-static tests. By modifying the strain hardening and strain rate hardening terms in the Johnson–Cook (J–C) constitutive model, a new J–C constitutive model of Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy was obtained. The improved Johnson–Cook constitutive model matched the experiment results very well. With the Johnson–Cook constitutive and fracture models, numerical simulations of tensile tests at different conditions for Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy were conducted. Numerical simulations are performed using a non-linear explicit finite element code autodyn. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical simulation results and the experiment results. The fracture surfaces of specimens tested under various strain rates and temperatures were studied under scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  1. Processing and properties of Nb-Ti-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.

    1992-01-01

    The processing characteristics, tensile properties, and oxidation response of two Nb-Ti-Al-Cr alloys were investigated. One creep test at 650 C and 172 MPa was conducted on the base alloy which contained 40Nb-40Ti-10Al-10Cr. A second alloy was modified with 0.11 at. % carbon and 0.07 at. % yttrium. Alloys were arc melted in a chamber backfilled with argon, drop cast into a water-cooled copper mold, and cold rolled to obtain a 0.8-mm sheet. The sheet was annealed at 1,100 C for 0.5 h. Longitudinal tensile specimens and oxidation specimens were obtained for both the base alloy and the modified alloy. Tensile properties were obtained for the base alloy at room temperature, 400, 600, 700, 800, 900, and 1,000 C, and for the modified alloy at room temperature, 400, 600, 700, and 800 C. Oxidation tests on the base alloy and modified alloy, as measured by weight change, were carried out at 600, 700, 800, and 900 C. Both the base alloy and the modified alloy were extremely ductile and were cold rolled to the final sheet thickness of 0.8 mm without an intermediate anneal. The modified alloy exhibited some edge cracking during cold during cold rolling. Both alloys recrystallized at the end of a 0.5-h annealing treatment. The alloys exhibited moderate strength and oxidation resistance below 600 C, similar to the results of alloys reported in the literature

  2. Grain refinement of 7075Al alloy microstructures by inoculation with Al-Ti-B master alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotea, V.; Juhasz, J.; Cadar, F.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to bring some clarification on grain refinement and modification of high strength alloys used in aerospace technique. In this work it was taken into account 7075 Al alloy, and the melt treatment was carried out by placing in the form of master alloy wire ternary AlTiB the casting trough at 730°C. The morphology of the resulting microstructures was characterized by optical microscopy. Micrographs unfinished and finished with pre-alloy containing ternary Al5Ti1B evidence fine crystals, crystal containing no columnar structure and highlights the size of the dendrites, and intermetallic phases occurring at grain boundaries in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. It has been found that these intermetallic compounds are MgZn2 type. AlTiB master alloys finishing ensures a fine eutectic structure, which determines the properties of hardware and improving the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys used in aeronautical engineering.

  3. Electrical resistivity of amorphous Fesub(1-x) Bsub(x) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paja, A.; Stobiecki, T.

    1984-07-01

    The concentration dependence of the electrical resistivity of amorphous Fesub(1-x) Bsub(x) alloys has been studied over a broad composition range. The measurements for RF sputtered films made in the liquid helium temperature have been analyzed in the framework of the diffraction model. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data in the range of concentration 0.12< x <0.37 where samples are amorphous and have a metallic character. (author)

  4. Characterization of Dispersion Strengthened Copper Alloy Prepared by Internal Oxidation Combined with Mechanical Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziqian; Xiao, Zhu; Li, Zhou; Zhu, Mengnan; Yang, Ziqi

    2017-11-01

    Cu-3.6 vol.% Al2O3 dispersion strengthened alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) of internal oxidation Cu-Al powders. The lattice parameter of Cu matrix decreased with milling time for powders milled in argon, while the abnormal increase of lattice parameter occurred in the air resulting from mechanochemical reactions. With a quantitative analysis, the combined method makes residual aluminum oxidized completely within 10-20 h while mechanical alloying method alone needs longer than 40 h. Lamellar structure formed and the thickness of lamellar structure decreased with milling time. The size of Al2O3 particles decreased from 46 to 22 nm after 40 h milling. After reduction, core-shell structure was found in MAed powders milled in the air. The compacted alloy produced by MAed powders milled in the argon had an average hardness and electrical conductivity of 172.2 HV and 82.1% IACS while the unmilled alloy's were 119.8 HV and 74.1% IACS due to the Al2O3 particles refinement and residual aluminum in situ oxidization.

  5. Effect of hydrostatic pressure application at cryogenic temperatures on the properties of VT1-0 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajmovich, P.A; Shulgin, N.A.; Chernyaeva, E.V.

    2015-01-01

    Attempt was made to determine the influence of hydrostatic pressure on the properties of the alloy VT1-0 at cryogenic temperatures both under straining of the alloy and without it. Hardening of the material is observed only in that part of the specimen, which experienced a deformation, while the very exposure of the alloy under hydrostatic pressure does not lead to strengthening of the material. At the same time, measurements of acoustic emission (AE) show that in the near-surface layers the forces of hydrostatic compression alone, i.e. without a deformation, cause some changes in the structure, which stipulate an increase of the energy and (to a lesser extent) of the median frequency of AE signals. An explanation of this phenomenon is suggested

  6. Thermal stability of Ni-Pt-Ta alloy silicides on epi-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jung-Ho; Chang, Hyun-Jin [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byoung-Gi [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jusung Engineering Co., Ltd., 49, Neungpyeong-ri, Opo-eup, Gwangju-Si, Kyunggi-do 464-892 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Dae-Hong [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dhko@yonsei.ac.kr; Cho, Mann-Ho [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Hyunchul [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae-Wan [Jusung Engineering Co., Ltd., 49, Neungpyeong-ri, Opo-eup, Gwangju-Si, Kyunggi-do 464-892 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-05

    We investigated the silicide formation in Ni/epi-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x} systems. Ni-Pt and Ni-Pt-Ta films were deposited on epi-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}/Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering and processed at various temperatures. The sheet resistance of the silicide from the Ni alloy/epi-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x} systems was maintained at low values compared to that from Ni/Si systems. By TEM and EDS analyses, we confirmed the presence of a Pt alloy layer at the top of the Ni-silicide layer. The stability of the silicide layer in the Ni alloy/epi-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x} system is explained by not only the Pt rich layer on the top of the Ni-silicide layer, but also by the presence of a small amount of Pt in the Ni-silicide layer or at the grain boundaries. And both the thermal stability and the morphology of silicide were greatly improved by the addition of Ta in Ni-Pt films.

  7. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  8. Coupling between bulk ordering and surface segregation: from alloy surfaces to surface alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallis, Coralie

    1997-01-01

    -The knowledge of the alloy surfaces is of prime interest to understand their catalytic properties. On the one hand, the determination of the stability of the surface alloys depends very strongly on the behaviours of the A c B 1-c alloy surfaces. On the other hand, the knowledge of the kinetics of the formation-dissolution of surface alloys can allow to understand the equilibrium segregation isotherm. We have then studied the relation between the equilibrium surface segregation in an alloy A c B 1-c and the kinetics of dissolution of a few metallic layers of A/B and the inverse deposit. We have used an energetic model derived from the electronic structure (T.I.B.M.) allowing us to study the surface segregation both in the disordered state and in the ordered one. The kinetics of dissolution were studied using the kinetic version of this model (K.T.I.B.M.) consistent with the equilibrium model. To illustrate our study, we have chosen the Cu-Pd system, a model for the formation of surface alloys and for which a great number of studies, both experimental and theoretical, are in progress. We then have shown for the (111) surface of this system that the surface alloys obtained during the dissolution are related to the alloy surfaces observed for the equilibrium segregation. The Cu-Pd system is characteristic of systems which have a weak segregation energy. Then, we have performed an equivalent study for a system with a strong segregation energy. Our choice was directly put on the Pt-Sn system. The surface behaviour, both in equilibrium and during the kinetics of dissolution, is very different from the Cu-Pd case. In particular, we have found pure 2-D surface alloys. Finally, a quenched molecular dynamics study has allowed us to determine the relative stability of various possible surface superstructures. (author) [fr

  9. Adsorption behavior of glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxy-silane on titanium alloy Ti-6.5Al-1Mo-1V-2Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jianhua; Zhan Zhongwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yu Mei, E-mail: yumei@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li Songmei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption isotherm of glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxy-silane (GTMS) on a titanium alloy was found fitting Temkin isotherm by XPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer From an electrochemical point of view, the in situ adsorption process of GTMS molecules agreed with XPS results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 30 Degree-Sign C, the adsorption of GTMS molecules is spontaneous, and follows a chemisorption-based mechanism. - Abstract: The adsorption behavior of glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxy-silane (GTMS) on titanium alloy Ti-6.5Al-1Mo-1V-2Zr was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Tafel polarization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the XPS results, it was found that the silane coverage on the titanium surface generally increased with GTMS concentration, with a slight decrease at concentration of 0.1%. Based on the relationship between isoelectronic point (IEP) of titanium surface and the pH values of silane solutions, adsorption mechanisms at different concentrations were proposed. The surface coverage data of GTMS on titanium surface was also derived from electrochemical measurements. By linear fitting the coverage data, it revealed that the adsorption of GTMS on the titanium alloy surface at 30 Degree-Sign C was of a physisorption-based mechanism, and obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption equilibrium constant (K{sub ads}) and free energy of adsorption process ({Delta}G{sub ads}) were calculated to elaborate the mechanism of GTMS adsorption.

  10. New Quality Assessment Criterion of AlSi5Cu1 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wierzbińska

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the discussion of the results of mechanical testing for aluminium foundry alloy AlSi5Cu1Mg for high-loaded machine elements. Values of yield strength (Rp0.2, tensile strength (Rm, elongation(A5 and hardness (HB are usually considered as the primary quality assessment criterion for a manufacturing process. It was concluded, that this criterion, A5 index particularly, is unsatisfactory to estimate the plasticity of the alloy and its crack resistance in the presence of sharp-pointed stress concentrators or microcracks. More adequate parameter is plane strain fracture toughness KIc. However, size of the samples appeared to be twice as large as would be needed to fulfill requirements of test conditions, and the test itself is laborious and time-consuming that it becomes impractical as a acceptance test. Therefore, substitute test for quality assessment – determination of tensile strength in the presence of a sharp notch kmR was applied. The comparative analysis of kmR/Rp0.2 ratio, as a more enhanced fatigue resistance criterion than kmR and plane strain fracture toughness KIc of the alloy was performed. It was assumed that kmR/Rp0.2 parameter has good correlation with the critical stress intensity factor KIc Thus, under manufacturing process conditions, being unable to carry out KIc test, it may be successfully replaced by kmR test.

  11. Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking of HTH Alloy X-750 and Alloy 625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.; Lebo, M.R.; Bajaj, R.; Kearns, J.J.; Hoffman, R.C.; Korinko, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    In-reactor testing of bolt-loaded precracked compact tension specimens was performed in 360 degree C water to determine effect of irradiation on the SCC behavior of HTH Alloy X-750 and direct aged Alloy 625. Out-of-flux and autoclave control specimens provided baseline data. Primary test variables were stress intensity factor, fluence, chemistry, processing history, prestrain. Results for the first series of experiments were presented at a previous conference. Data from two more recent experiments are compared with previous results; they confirm that high irradiation levels significantly reduce SCC resistance in HTH Alloy X-750. Heat-to-heat differences in IASCC were related to differences in boron content, with low boron heats showing improved SCC resistance. The in-reactor SCC performance of Alloy 625 was superior to that for Alloy X-750, as no cracking was observed in any Alloy 625 specimens even though they were tested at very high K 1 and fluence levels. A preliminary SCC usage model developed for Alloy X-750 indicates that in-reactor creep processes, which relax stresses but also increase crack tip strain rates, and radiolysis effects accelerate SCC. Hence, in-reactor SCC damage under high flux conditions may be more severe than that associated with postirradiation tests. In addition, preliminary mechanism studies were performed to determine the cause of IASCC In Alloy X-750

  12. Improvement of magnetocaloric properties of Gd-Ge-Si alloys by alloying with iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erenc-Sędziak T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of annealing of Gd5Ge2Si2Fex alloys at 1200°C and of alloying with various amount of iron on structure as well as thermal and magnetocaloric properties is investigated. It was found that annealing for 1 to 10 hours improves the entropy change, but reduces the temperature of maximum magnetocaloric effect by up to 50 K. Prolonged annealing of the Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy results in the decrease of entropy change due to the reduction of Gd5Ge2Si2 phase content. Addition of iron to the ternary alloy enhances the magnetocaloric effect, if x = 0.4 – 0.6, especially if alloying is combined with annealing at 1200°C: the peak value of the isothermal entropy change from 0 to 2 T increases from 3.5 to 11 J/kgK. Simultaneously, the temperature of maximum magnetocaloric effect drops to 250 K. The changes in magnetocaloric properties are related to the change in phase transformation from the second order for arc molten ternary alloy to first order in the case of annealed and/or alloyed with iron. The results of this study indicate that the minor addition of iron and heat treatment to Gd-Ge-Si alloys may be useful in improving the materials’ magnetocaloric properties..

  13. Growth and characterization of ZnO{sub 1−x}S{sub x} highly mismatched alloys over the entire composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquez, M.; Ting, M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Yu, K. M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Hettick, M.; Javey, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Sánchez-Royo, J. F. [ICMUV, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universitat de València, P.O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Wełna, M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Experimental Physics, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Dubon, O. D. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Walukiewicz, W., E-mail: w-walukiewicz@lbl.gov [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    Alloys from ZnO and ZnS have been synthesized by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering over the entire alloying range. The ZnO{sub 1−x}S{sub x} films are crystalline for all compositions. The optical absorption edge of these alloys decreases rapidly with small amount of added sulfur (x ∼ 0.02) and continues to red shift to a minimum of 2.6 eV at x = 0.45. At higher sulfur concentrations (x > 0.45), the absorption edge shows a continuous blue shift. The strong reduction in the band gap for O-rich alloys is the result of the upward shift of the valence-band edge with x as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As a result, the room temperature bandgap of ZnO{sub 1−x}S{sub x} alloys can be tuned from 3.7 eV to 2.6 eV. The observed large bowing in the composition dependence of the energy bandgap arises from the anticrossing interactions between (1) the valence-band of ZnO and the localized sulfur level at 0.30 eV above the ZnO valence-band maximum for O-rich alloys and (2) the conduction-band of ZnS and the localized oxygen level at 0.20 eV below the ZnS conduction band minimum for the S-rich alloys. The ability to tune the bandgap and knowledge of the location of the valence and conduction-band can be advantageous in applications, such as heterojunction solar cells, where band alignment is crucial.

  14. The Synthesis and Characterization of W- 1wt.% TiC Alloy Using a Chemical Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehee; Ryu, Ho Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The tungsten and its alloys have been used in many applications due to their excellent mechanical and thermal properties such as high melting point, high thermal conductivity, high strength at elevated temperatures, low sputtering yield in radiation environment and low tritium inventory. Moreover, many researchers consider tungsten alloys as the most promising candidate for plasma facing components for future nuclear fusion reactors. Three samples of W – 1.0 wt.% TiC composites with the different fabrication methods were successfully developed. The combined method of the wet chemical method and 3D mixing showed small amount of agglomeration of TiC particles, however, the TiC particle sizes were smaller than 3DM1 sample. Since the WCM1 showed the better mechanical property, microhardness, the main future plan is to achieve the same or improved mechanical property of W3D1.

  15. WC-3015 alloy (high-temperature alloy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    WC-3015 Nb alloy containing 28 to 30 Hf, 1 to 2 Zr, 13 to 16 W, 0 to 4 Ta, 0 to 5 Ti, 0.07 to 0.33 C, less than or equal to 0.02 N, less than or equal to 0.03 O, less than or equal to 0.001 H was developed for use at high temperature in oxidizing environments. Its composition can be tailored to meet specific requirements. When WC-3015 is exposed to O at elevated temperature, Hf and Nb oxidized preferentially and HfO 2 dissolves in Nb 2 O 5 to form 6HfO-Nb 2 O 5 . This complex oxide has a tight cubic lattice which resists the diffusion of O into the substrate. During 24-h exposure to air at 2400 0 F, the alloy oxidizes to a depth of approximately 0.035 in. with a surface recession of 0 to 0.004 in. Oxidation resistance of WC-3015 welds and base material can be further enhanced greatly by applying silicide coatings. WC-3015 alloy can be machined by conventional and electrical-discharge methods. It can be hot worked readily by extrusion, forging or rolling. Cold working can be used at room or elevated temperature. It can be welded by the electron-beam or Tig processes. Physical constants, typical mechanical properties at 75 to 2400 0 F, and effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile and stress-rupture properties of the alloy are tabulated

  16. Stability of Cd_1_–_xZn_xO_yS_1_–_y Quaternary Alloys Assessed with First-Principles Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Joel B.; He, Xiaoqing; Rockett, Angus; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    One route to decreasing the absorption in CdS buffer layers in Cu(In,Ga)Se_2 and Cu_2ZnSn(S,Se)_4 thin-film photovoltaics is by alloying. Here we use first-principles calculations based on hybrid functionals to assess the energetics and stability of quaternary Cd, Zn, O, and S (Cd_1_–_xZn_xO_yS_1_–_y) alloys within a regular solution model. Our results identify that full miscibility of most Cd_1_–_xZn_xO_yS_1_–_y compositions and even binaries like Zn(O,S) is outside typical photovoltaic processing conditions. Finally, the results suggest that the tendency for phase separation of the oxysulfides may drive the nucleation of other phases such as sulfates that have been increasingly observed in oxygenated CdS and ZnS.

  17. Minor-alloyed Cu-Ni-Si alloys with high hardness and electric conductivity designed by a cluster formula approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cu-Ni-Si alloys are widely used due to their good electrical conductivities in combination with high strength and hardness. In the present work, minor-alloying with M = (Cr, Fe, Mo, Zr was conducted for the objective of further improving their hardness while maintaining their conductivity level. A cluster-plus-glue-atom model was introduced to design the compositions of M-alloyed Cu-Ni-Si alloys, in which an ideal composition formula [(Ni,Si,M-Cu12]Cu3 (molar proportion was proposed. To guarantee the complete precipitation of solute elements in fine δ-Ni2Si precipitates, the atomic ratio of (Ni,M/Si was set as 2/1. Thus the designed alloy series of Cu93.75(Ni/Zr3.75Si2.08(Cr/Fe/Mo0.42 (at% were arc-melted into ingots under argon atmosphere, and solid-solutioned at 950 °C for 1 h plus water quenching and then aged at 450 °C for different hours. The experimental results showed that these designed alloys exhibit high hardness (HV > 1.7 GPa and good electrical conductivities (≥ 35% IACS. Specifically, the quinary Cu93.75Ni3.54Si2.08(Cr/Fe0.42Zr0.21 alloys (Cu-3.32Ni-0.93Si-0.37(Cr/Fe−0.30Zr wt% possess both a high hardness with HV = 2.5–2.7 GPa, comparable to the high-strength KLFA85 alloy (Cu-3.2Ni-0.7Si-1.1Zn wt%, HV = 2.548 GPa, and a good electrical conductivity (35–36% IACS.

  18. Electrochemical hydrogen storage alloys and batteries fabricated from Mg containing base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrogen storage material comprising: (Base Alloy).sub.a M.sub.b where, Base Alloy is an alloy of Mg and Ni in a ratio of from about 1:2 to about 2:1, preferably 1:1; M represents at least one modifier element chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, Cu, Mo, W, Cr, V, Ti, Zr, Sn, Th, Si, Zn, Li, Cd, Na, Pb, La, Mm, and Ca; b is greater than 0.5, preferably 2.5, atomic percent and less than 30 atomic percent; and a+b=100 atomic percent. Preferably, the at least one modifier is chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, and Cu and the total mass of the at least one modifier element is less than 25 atomic percent of the final composition. Most preferably, the total mass of said at least one modifier element is less than 20 atomic percent of the final composition.

  19. Interaction between Nd-rich phase particles and liquid-solid interface in as-cast Ti-5Al-4Sn-2Zr-1Mo-0.25Si-1Nd titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.P.; Li, D.; Liu, Y.Y.; Hu, Z.Q.

    1995-01-01

    The composition (wt%) of ingot fir this investigation is 86.75%Ti, 5%Al, 4%Sn, 2%Zr, 1%Mo, 0.25%Si, 1%Nd. The alloy was prepared by vacuum arc melting in the form of buttons of mass 500 kg, which was remelted three times repeatedly to obtain homogeneous composition. The Nd-rich phase particles in the as-cast Ti-55 alloy are about 1.2∼11.07 microm and uniformly distribute in the matrix. The shapes of the particles are mainly ellipsoids together with short needle-like and blocky morphologies. The calculated diameter of the Nd-rich phase particles is ∼ 10 microm, which is within the 1.2∼11.07 microm range of the particle diameter experimentally measured in the as-cast Ti-55 alloy. The practical interface velocity is three orders of magnitude greater than V c, and the Nd-rich phase particles in the as-cast Ti-55 alloy are trapped by the liquid-solid interface

  20. Electrical resistivity at high temperatures of Heusler alloys of the Cu2MnAl sub(1-x) Sn sub (x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandi, T.A.

    1978-01-01

    The structural fase L2 1 of the Heusler alloys Cu 2 MnAl sub (1-x) Sn sub(x), with x varying between 0 and 1, was studied. X-ray diffraction, metallography and diferential termoanalysis techniques were employed. For the alloys with x = 0; 0,05; 0,10 and 0,15 the electrical resistivity measurements were performed in the temperature range 300 K [pt

  1. Topological phase transitions of (BixSb1-x)2Se3 alloys by density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, L B; Padilha José, E; Schmidt, T M; Miwa, R H; Fazzio, A

    2015-07-01

    We have performed an ab initio total energy investigation of the topological phase transition, and the electronic properties of topologically protected surface states of (BixSb1-x)2Se3 alloys. In order to provide an accurate alloy concentration for the phase transition, we have considered the special quasirandom structures to describe the alloy system. The trivial → topological transition concentration was obtained by (i) the calculation of the band gap closing as a function of Bi concentration (x), and (ii) the calculation of the Z2 topological invariant number. We show that there is a topological phase transition, for x around 0.4, verified for both procedures (i) and (ii). We also show that in the concentration range 0.4 x < 0.7, the alloy does not present any other band at the Fermi level besides the Dirac cone, where the Dirac point is far from the bulk states. This indicates that a possible suppression of the scattering process due to bulk states will occur.

  2. Effect of Gd–Ca combined additions on the microstructure and creep properties of Mg–7Al–1Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Wuxiao; Zhang, Sha; Zhang, Dongjie; Zhang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of compound addition of Ca and Gd on the microstructure and creep properties of Mg–7Al–1Si alloys was investigated. • After adding 1 wt.% of (Ca + Gd), the creep strain and steady-state creep rate were reduced by about 80% and 84%, respectively. • After adding 1 wt.% of (Ca + Gd), the creep properties of Mg–7Al–1Si alloys were superior to that containing single Gd additive. • The improvement of creep properties after compound addition of Gd and Ca is a result of multiple factors. - Abstract: The microstructure and creep properties of Mg–7Al–1Si alloys with combined additions of alkaline earth element Ca and rare earth element (RE) Gd were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and compressive creep tests. It was found that the combined additions of Ca and Gd contributed to grain refinement, modification of the morphology of coarse Chinese script Mg 2 Si phase, and reduction of β-Mg 17 Al 12 content. Mg–7Al–1Si alloys containing 1 wt.% compound modifier (0.5 wt.% Gd + 0.5 wt.% Ca) exhibited the minimal steady-state creep rate, and were even superior to Mg–7Al–1Si alloys containing single Gd addition. The great improvement of creep properties is mainly attributed to the reduction in the amount and continuity of eutectic β-Mg 17 Al 12 phase, morphology modification of Mg 2 Si phase, solution strengthening of Gd, as well as the formation of thermally stable intermetallic Al 2 Gd, which acted as an effective barrier against grain boundary sliding and dislocation movement

  3. Powder-metallurgy preparation of NiTi shape-memory alloy using mechanical alloying and spark-plasma sintering.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Moravec, H.; Vojtěch, V.; Knaislová, A.; Školáková, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2017), s. 141-144 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03044S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : mechanical alloying * spark plasma sintering * NiTi * shape memory alloy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Materials engineering ; Materials engineering (FZU-D) Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313900224_Powder-metallurgy_preparation_of_NiTi_shape-memory_alloy_using_mechanical_alloying_and_spark-plasma_sintering

  4. Fabrication of spherical high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys by mechanical alloying and thermal plasma spheroidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, Nikolay G.; Wang, Qing Sheng; Popovich, Anatoly A.; Shamshurin, Aleksey I.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes the results of experimental studies on the treatment of Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys, synthesized by the mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental powders in the flow of a radio frequency thermal plasma. The as-milled powder with irregular particles were successfully converted into spherical high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloy. Measurement of the residual nitrogen content in the obtained powder, shown that during the plasma spheroidization process, part of the nitrogen escapes from the alloy.

  5. RESEARCH OF FATIGUE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AlMg1SiCu ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Mihaliková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with an analysis of utility and fatigue properties of industrially produced aluminium alloy, specifically EN AW 6061 (AlMg1SiCu, reinforced with the particles of SiC. The following properties were subject to evaluation: microstructure and sub-structure, mechanical characteristics. All of these mechanical properties in pre- and post- equal channel angular pressed (ECAP state have been studied. The hardness was evaluated by Vickers hardness test at the load of HV10. The significant part the thesis was devoted to the fatigue properties at cyclic load in torsion. The presented results demonstrate well that the combination of fractography and microscopy can give a significant contribution to the knowledge of initiation and propagation crack in the aluminium alloy.

  6. Microstructure and creep behavior of an orthorhombic Ti-25Al-17Nb-1Mo alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.W.; Zou, D.X.; Li, S.Q.; Lee, C.S.; Lai, J.K.L.

    1998-01-01

    Microstructural evolution during three heat-treatment schedules and the terminal microstructures in an orthorhombic alloy of Ti-25Al-17Nb-1Mo were observed and analyzed with optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The creep behavior of the alloy with three different microstructures (a coarse-lath, fine-lath, and fine equiaxed microstructure) was studied over a temperature range of 600 C to 750 C and over a stress range of 150 to 400 MPa in air. The steady-state creep rates, apparent stress exponents, and apparent creep activation energies of the various samples have been determined. The results show that creep behaviors in the alloy are strongly influenced by microstructure. The effect on creep by some of the microstructural features, such as the multivariants within the coarse laths and the interfaces of the laths and the equiaxed grains, is also discussed

  7. Cellular Shape Memory Alloy Structures: Experiments & Modeling (Part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    High -­‐ temperature  SMAs 24 Braze  Joint  between  two  wrought  pieces  of  a  Ni24.5Pd25Ti50.5  HTSMA   (HTSMA  from...process  can  be  used   to  join  other  metal  alloys  and   high -­‐ temperature   SMAs 25 Cellular  Shape  Memory...20 30 40 50 60 910 3 4 8 5 2 T (°C) Shape memory & superelasticity 1 0 e (%) (GPa) 6 7 A NiTi wire

  8. Effects of Al-Mn-Ti-P-Cu master alloy on microstructure and properties of Al-25Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chunxiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a higher microstructural refining efficiency, and improve the properties and processing ability of hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy, a new environmentally friendly Al-20.6Mn-12Ti-0.9P-6.1Cu (by wt.% master alloy was fabricated; and its modification and strengthening mechanisms on the Al-25Si alloy were studied. The mechanical properties of the unmodified, modified and heat treated alloys were investigated. Results show that the optimal addition amount of the Al-20.6Mn-12Ti-0.9P-6.1Cu master alloy is 4wt.%. In this case, primary Si and eutectic Si as well as メ-Al phase were clearly refined, and this refining effect shows an excellent long residual action as it can be heat-retained for at least 5 h. After being T6 heat treated, the morphology of primary and eutectic Si in the Al-25Si alloys with the addition of 4wt.% Al-20.6Mn-12Ti-0.9P-6.1Cu alloy changes into particles and short rods. The average grain size of the primary and eutectic Si decreases from 250 レm (unmodified to 13.83 レm and 35 レm (unmodified to 7 レm; the メ-Al becomes obviously finer and the distribution of Si phases tends to be uniform and dispersed. Meanwhile, the tensile properties are improved obviously; the tensile strengths at room temperature and 300 ìC reach 241 MPa and 127 MPa, increased by 153.7% and 67.1%, respectively. In addition, the tensile fracture mechanism changes from brittle fracture for the alloy without modification to ductile fracture after modification. Modifying the morphology of Si phase and strengthening the matrix can effectively block the initiation and propagation of cracks, thus improving the strength of the hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy.

  9. Microstructural evolution in Mg-rich Mg-Zn-Y alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, T.; Ranganathan, S.; Nair, S.; Bajargan, G.

    2005-01-01

    Mg-rich Mg-Zn-Y alloys with nominal compositions Mg 97 Zn 1 Y 2 , Mg 97 Zn 2 Y 1 , Mg 92 Zn 6.5 Y 1.5 and Mg 97-x Zn 1 Y 2 Zr x have been chosen for the present study. These alloys are prepared by using sand casting mold. The sand cast alloys are remelted and subjected to copper mold casting and melt spinning techniques. The effect of cooling rate on microstructures was studied. It is observed that the size of the precipitates decreases with an increase of cooling rate. The formation of nano precipitates results in higher strength of the alloy as compared to the conventional alloys. The microstructures of melt spun ribbons are compared with RS/PM (rapidly solidified power metallurgy) Mg 97 Zn 1 Y 2 alloy, obtained from a different source. (author)

  10. Swelling in neutron-irradiated titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.T.

    1982-04-01

    Immersion density measurements have been performed on a series of titanium alloys irradiated in EBR-II to a fluence of 5 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at 450 and 550 0 C. The materials irradiated were the near-alpha alloys Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S, the alpha-beta alloy Ti-64, and the beta alloy Ti-38644. Swelling was observed in all alloys with the greater swelling being observed at 550 0 C. Microstructural examination revealed the presence of voids in all alloys. Ti-38644 was found to be the most radiation resistant. Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S also displayed good radiation resistance, whereas considerable swelling and precipitation were observed in Ti-64 at 550 0 C

  11. Inconel type resistive alloys based on ultrahigh purity nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsarin, K.A.; Matsarin, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    The new nickel high-ohm alloys (ρ = 1.2-1.4 μOhm · m), containing the W, Al, Mo alloying elements in the quantity, not exceeding their solubility in a solid solution, are developed on the basis of the Inconel-type standard alloy. The optical composition of the alloy was determined by the results of the alloy was determined by the results of the electric resistance measurement and technological effectiveness indices (relative to the pressure and workable metal yield). The following optimal component concentrations were established: 14-17 %Cr; 10-12 %Fe; 0.5-1.0 %Cu; 1.0-1.5 %Mn; 0.1-0.2 %C; 0.4-0.6 %Si; 0.5-3.0 %W; 5-16 %Mo; 0.5-2.0 %Al; the remainder - Ni. The new alloys are recommended as materials for resistive elements of direct-glow cathode nodes of low capacity electron tubes [ru

  12. Microstructure and properties of hot extruded Mg-3Zn-Y-xCu (x = 0, 1, 3, 5) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bao-sheng; Kuang, Ya-fei; Fang, Da-qing; Chai, Yue-sheng [Taiyuan Univ. of Science and Technology (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Taiyuan Univ. of Science and Technology (China). Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys of Shanxi Province; Zhang, Yue-zhong [Taiyuan Univ. of Science and Technology (China). Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys of Shanxi Province; Taiyuan Univ. of Science and Technology (China). College of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2017-04-15

    In petroleum drilling engineering, materials with high strength and rapid degradation are required for degradable fracturing ball applications. In this work, the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of extruded Mg-3Zn-Y-xCu (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 weight percent) alloys are investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electronic microscopy, compression tests, electrochemical measurements, and hydrogen evolution tests, to explore their potential as excellent candidate alloys for degradable fracturing ball applications. It is found that the Mg-3Zn-Y alloy is mainly composed of α-Mg, Mg{sub 3}Zn{sub 3}Y{sub 2}, and Mg{sub 3}Zn{sub 6}Y phases. After Cu addition, a new MgZnCu phase is formed, while the Mg{sub 3}Zn{sub 3}Y{sub 2} phase disappears. The Mg-3Zn-Y-3Cu alloy shows the highest compressive strength (473 MPa) and yield strength (402 MPa), mainly attributed to the combined effect of the fine-grain and dispersed precipitation of Mg{sub 3}Zn{sub 6}Y and MgZnCu. The corrosion rate of Mg-3Zn-Y-3Cu reaches 0.41 mm day{sup -1} in 3.5 wt.% KCl solution. Consequently, Mg-3Zn-Y-3Cu alloy is a suitable degradable fracturing ball-seat material.

  13. Structural and electronic properties of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x} As{sub 1-y}N{sub y} quaternary semiconductor alloy on GaAs substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Metin, E-mail: maslan@sakarya.edu.tr [Sakarya University, Art, Science Faculty, Department of Physics, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Yalc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I n, Battal G.; Uestuendag, Mehmet [Sakarya University, Art, Science Faculty, Department of Physics, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey)

    2012-04-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study we used DFT in the frame of LDA approach to determine electronic and structural properties of GaInAsN alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We calculated lattice parameter and band gap energy of binary (GaAs, InAs, and GaN), ternary (GaInAs, GaAsN) and quaternary (GaInAsN) semiconductor alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We formulated lattice parameter of GaInAsN respect to In and N composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated different In and N composition of GaInAsN/GaAs heterostructure for various device applications. - Abstract: We have presented structural and electronic properties of binary (GaAs, GaN and InAs), ternary (Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As and GaAs{sub 1-y}N{sub y}) and quaternary (Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub 1-y}N{sub y}) semiconductor alloys by using a first-principles pseudopotential technique. The structural and electronic properties of Zinc-Blende phase of these materials have been calculated by using the local density approximation (LDA) of the density-functional theory (DFT). To obtain the lattice parameter and band gap energy of the (GaInAsN) quaternary semiconductor alloy we separately calculated the lattice constant and band gap energies of ternary semiconductor alloys, namely GaAsN and GaInAs. The calculated lattice constant, bulk modulus and the direct band gaps for studied semiconductors showed great parallelism with the previous available theoretical and experimental studies.

  14. Investigation on mechanical alloying process for v-cr-ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciulescu, M.; Carlan, P.; Mihalache, M.; Bucsa, G.; Abrudeanu, M.; Galateanu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) is an efficient approach for fabricating oxide-dispersion alloys and structural materials including vanadium alloys for fusion and fission application. Dissolution behaviour of the alloying elements is a key issue for optimizing the mechanical alloying process in fabricating vanadium alloys. This paper studies the MA process of V-4wt.%Cr-4wt.%Ti alloy. The outcomes of the MA powders in a planetary ball mill are reported in terms of powder particle size and morphology evolution and elemental composition. The impact of spark-plasma sintering process on the mechanically alloyed powder is analysed. An optimal set of sintering parameters, including the maximum temperature, the dwell time and the heating rate are determined. (authors)

  15. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1997-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute {alpha} grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase ({alpha} and {beta}) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase {alpha} and near-{alpha} (Ti Gr 12) alloys.

  16. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable highstrength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO2 laser. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloys, over the last years.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la aleación superficial mediante láser de aluminio con metales de transición. El cromo y el molibdeno son particularmente interesantes porque producen aleaciones de alta resistencia y por el bajo coeficiente de difusión y solución sólida en aluminio. Para producir estas aleaciones se ha seguido un procedimiento desarrollado en dos partes. En primer lugar, el material se alea usando una baja velocidad de procesado y en segundo lugar la estructura se modifica mediante un refinamiento posterior. Este procedimiento se ha empleado en la producción de aleaciones Al-Cr, Al-Mo y Al-Nb mediante aleación con láser de CO2 de polvos de Cr, Mo o Nb en aluminio y la aleación 7175. Este trabajo es una revisión del desarrollado en el Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa en los últimos años.

  17. High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Mg-Zn-Ca Alloys with Excellent Biodegradation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, J.; Becker, M.; Martinelli, E.; Weinberg, A. M.; Mingler, B.; Kilian, H.; Pogatscher, S.; Uggowitzer, P. J.; Löffler, J. F.

    2014-04-01

    This article deals with the development of fine-grained high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) magnesium alloys intended for use as biodegradable implant material. The alloys contain solely low amounts of Zn and Ca as alloying elements. We illustrate the development path starting from the high-Zn-containing ZX50 (MgZn5Ca0.25) alloy with conventional purity, to an ultrahigh-purity ZX50 modification, and further to the ultrahigh-purity Zn-lean alloy ZX10 (MgZn1Ca0.3). It is shown that alloys with high Zn-content are prone to biocorrosion in various environments, most probably because of the presence of the intermetallic phase Mg6Zn3Ca2. A reduction of the Zn content results in (Mg,Zn)2Ca phase formation. This phase is less noble than the Mg-matrix and therefore, in contrast to Mg6Zn3Ca2, does not act as cathodic site. A fine-grained microstructure is achieved by the controlled formation of fine and homogeneously distributed (Mg,Zn)2Ca precipitates, which influence dynamic recrystallization and grain growth during hot forming. Such design scheme is comparable to that of HSLA steels, where low amounts of alloying elements are intended to produce a very fine dispersion of particles to increase the material's strength by refining the grain size. Consequently our new, ultrapure ZX10 alloy exhibits high strength (yield strength R p = 240 MPa, ultimate tensile strength R m = 255 MPa) and simultaneously high ductility (elongation to fracture A = 27%), as well as low mechanical anisotropy. Because of the anodic nature of the (Mg,Zn)2Ca particles used in the HSLA concept, the in vivo degradation in a rat femur implantation study is very slow and homogeneous without clinically observable hydrogen evolution, making the ZX10 alloy a promising material for biodegradable implants.

  18. Stress corrosion cracking of uranium--niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnani, N.J.

    1978-03-01

    The stress corrosion cracking behavior of U-2 1 / 4 , 4 1 / 2 , 6 and 8 wt % Nb alloys was evaluated in laboratory air and in aqueous Cl - solutions. Thresholds for crack propagation were obtained in these environments. The data showed that Cl - solutions are more deleterious than air environments. Tests were also conducted in pure gases to identify the species in the air responsible for cracking. These data showed the primary stress corrodent is water vapor for the most reactive alloy, U-2 1 / 4 % Nb, while O 2 is primarily responsible for cracking in the more corrosion resistant alloys, U-6 and 8% Nb. The 4 1 / 2 % alloy was found to be susceptible in both H 2 O and O 2 environments

  19. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  20. Quantitative description of the magnetization curves of amorphous alloys of the series a-DyxGd1-xNi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbara, B.; Filippi, J.; Amaral, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    The magnetization curves of the series of amorphous alloys Dy x Gd 1-x Ni measured between 1.5 and 4.2 K and up to 15 T, have been fitted to the zero kelvin analytical model of Chudnovsky. The results of these fits allow a detailed understanding of the magnetization curves of amorphous alloys with ferromagnetic interactions. In particular, the ratio D/J of the local anisotropy and exchange energies, and the magnetic and atomic correlation lengths, are accurately determined. (orig.)

  1. Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.P.; Chen, Y.Y.; Hsu, C.Y.; Yeh, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Shih, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hcshih@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-12-01

    High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 {omega}cm{sup 2} as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 {omega}cm{sup 2}). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al{sub 0.3}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} and Al{sub 0.3}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion.

  2. Study of Influence of an Annealing on Corrosion Stability of Pipes-shells for Fuel of Zr1Nb Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petel'guzov, I.A.; Rodak, A.G.; Pasenov, F.A.; Ishchenko, N.I.

    2006-01-01

    Explored influence an annealing to the kinetics of corrosion and mechanical characteristics of pipe material for shells fuel elements made from the experimental zirconium alloy Zr1Nb calcium-thermal way of production, in the comparison with the staff alloy E110 electrolytic way of production. Determined parameters of kinetics of corrosion depending on temperature and duration annealing before testing. Conducted also mechanical testing the alloys on the ring samples. Determined ranges of temperatures, within which corrosion characteristics save values, close to source, and connecting temperatures, under which is observed reduction research; investigating features

  3. Corrosion resistance improvement of titanium base alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy in comparison with ternary Ti-6Al-4V alloy in Ringer-Brown solution and artificial Carter-Brugirard saliva of different pH values was studied. In Ringer-Brown solution, the new alloy presented an improvement of all electrochemical parameters due to the alloying with Zr; also, impedance spectra revealed better protective properties of its passive layer. In Carter-Brugirard artificial saliva, an increase of the passive film thickness was proved. Fluoride ions had a slight negative influence on the corrosion and ion release rates, without to affect the very good stability of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy.

  4. Quantitative description of the magnetization curves of amorphous alloys of the series a-Dy xGd 1-xNi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, B.; Amaral, V. S.; Filippi, J.

    1992-10-01

    The magnetization curves of the series of amorphous alloys Dy xGd 1- xNi measured between 1.5 and 4.2 K and up to 15 T, have been fitted to the zero kelvin analytical model of Chudnovsky [1]. The results of these fits allow a detailed understanding of the magnetization curves of amorphous alloys with ferromagnetic interactions. In particular, the ratio D/ J of the local anisotropy and exchange energies, and the magnetic and atomic correlation lengths, are accurately determined.

  5. [Compressive and bend strength of experimental admixed high copper alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourai, P; Paximada, H; Lagouvardos, P; Douvitsas, G

    1988-01-01

    Mixed alloys for dental amalgams have been used mainly in the form of admixed alloys, where eutectic spheres are blend with conventional flakes. In the present study the compressive strength, bend strength and microstructure of two high-copper alloys (Tytin, Ana-2000) is compared with three experimental alloys prepared of the two high copper by mixing them in proportions of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 by weight. The results revealed that experimental alloys inherited high early and final strength values without any significant change in their microstructure.

  6. Microstructural characterization of laser and electron beam (EB) welds of Nb-1Zr-0.1C alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badgujar, B.P.; Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K.; Samajdar, I.

    2015-01-01

    Nb-1wt%Zr-0.1wt%C alloy is being considered for the structural applications in proposed Compact High Temperature Reactor (CHTR) on account of its excellent combination of high temperature properties. The applications of this alloy calls for welding, which is a difficult task due to its reactive nature, higher thermal conductivity and melting point. The high energy density techniques like laser and electron beam were employed to produce the welds on sheets of Nb-alloy at various processing parameters in bead-on-plate and square butt joint configurations. The weld joints produced were characterized by studying their optical, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) micro-graphs. The SEM micrograph of EB fusion zone along with the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the base region were studied and abrupt changes in the grain morphology were found in each zone. The fusion zone shows larger grains indicating the rapid grain growth after solidification, whereas the HAZ shows relatively smaller size of the grains but still much larger than the base zone. The SEM micrograph of central part of the same butt weld shows clear grain boundaries with a large variation in the grain size (45-82 micrometer) in the weld region. The heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal showed fine carbide precipitates along the grain boundaries, whereas carbides were found dissolved in the weld zone. The EBSD micrograph of electron beam fusion zone describing the grain orientation in the weld region are described. The micro-hardness profile across the width of welds was also studied. The detailed results of all these studies are described in this paper. (author)

  7. Characteristics of mechanical alloying of Zn-Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Perez Hernandez, A.; Lee, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three pure elemental powder mixtures of Zn-22%Al-18%Cu, Zn-5%Al-11%Cu, and Zn-27%Al-3%Cu (in wt.%) were mechanically alloyed by steel-ball milling processing. The mechanical alloying characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was explored that mechanical alloying started with the formation of phases from pure elemental powders, and this was followed by mechanical milling-induced phase transformation. During mechanical alloying, phases stable at the higher temperatures formed at the near room temperature of milling. Nano-structure Zn-Al-based alloys were produced by mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  8. ALLOY DESIGN AND PROPERTY EVALUATION OF TI ALLOY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1,2 DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA, NIGERIA. 2 DEPT ... a result of this structural change, titanium alloys fall ... the phase stability and mechanical behaviours of Ti-.

  9. MO-HF-C alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, E.P.; Kalns, E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes, as an article of manufacture, a cast ingot of a molybdenum-hafnium-carbon alloy consisting essentially by weight of about 0.6% to about 1% Hf, about 0.045% to about 0.08% C, and the balance essentially molybdenum. The amount of Hf and C present are substantially stoichiometric with respect to HfC and within about +-15% of stoichiometry. The ingot is characterized in that it has a substantially less tendency to crack compared to alloys containing Hf in excess of about 1% by weight and carbon in excess of 0.08% by weight, without substantial diminution in strength properties of the alloy

  10. Iron-titanium-mischmetal alloys for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, Gary Dale

    1978-01-01

    A method for the preparation of an iron-titanium-mischmetal alloy which is used for the storage of hydrogen. The alloy is prepared by air-melting an iron charge in a clay-graphite crucible, adding titanium and deoxidizing with mischmetal. The resultant alloy contains less than about 0.1% oxygen and exhibits a capability for hydrogen sorption in less than half the time required by vacuum-melted, iron-titanium alloys.

  11. Lattice vibrations study of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} quaternary alloys with low (In, As) content grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera-Herandez, J [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores (CIDS), BUAP, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Olvera-Cervantes, J [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores (CIDS), BUAP, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Rojas-Lopez, M [Centro de Investigacion en BiotecnologIa Aplicada (CIBA), IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. 72160 (Mexico); Navarro-Contreras, H [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO), UASLP, 78100, San Luis PotosI, S.L.P. (Mexico); Vidal, M A [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO), UASLP, 78100, San Luis PotosI, S.L.P. (Mexico); Anda, F de [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO), UASLP, 78100, San Luis PotosI, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2006-01-01

    Raman scattering spectroscopy was used to measure and analyze the lattice vibrations in some quaternary Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} alloys with low (In, As) contents (0.03 alloy composition, thickness and lattice mismatch of the layer. Raman scattering results show phonon frequencies associated to the TO and LO GaAs-like modes as well as GaSb + InAs-like mode, which are characteristic of this quaternary alloy. The As content dependence of the phonon frequency measured in this alloy for low (In, As) contents agree well with the modified Random-Element Isodisplacement (REI) model and also with other available experimental reports. This method can also be used to estimate alloy compositions for this kind of quaternary alloys.

  12. Study of the oxidation of Fe-Cr alloys at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, J.F.; Sabioni, A.C.S.

    2010-01-01

    The high temperature oxidation behavior of Fe-1.5%Cr, Fe-5.0%Cr, Fe-10%Cr and Fe- 15%Cr model alloys were investigated from 700 to 850 deg C, in air atmosphere. The oxidation treatments were performed in a thermobalance with a sensitivity of 1μg. The oxide films grown by oxidation of the alloys were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The oxide films are Fe-Cr spinels with variable composition depending on the alloy composition. For all conditions studied, the oxidation kinetics of these alloys follow a parabolic law. The comparison of the oxidation rates of the four alloys, at 700 deg C, shows that the parabolic oxidation constants decrease from 1.96x10 -9 g 2 .cm -4 .s -1 , for the alloy Fe-1.5% Cr, to 1.18 x 10-14g 2 .cm -4 .s -1 for the alloy Fe-15% Cr. Comparative analysis of the oxidation behavior of the Fe-10%Cr and Fe-15%Cr alloys, between 700 and 850 deg C, shows that the oxidation rates of these alloys are comparable to 800 deg C, above this temperature the Fe-10%Cr alloy shows lower resistance to oxidation. (author)

  13. Environment assisted degradation mechanisms in aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Section 1 of this report records the progress achieved on NASA-LaRC Grant NAG-1-745 (Environment Assisted Degradation Mechanisms in Al-Li Alloys), and is based on research conducted during the period April 1 to November 30, 1987. A discussion of work proposed for the project's second year is included. Section 2 provides an overview of the need for research on the mechanisms of environmental-mechanical degradation of advanced aerospace alloys based on aluminum and lithium. This research is to provide NASA with the basis necessary to permit metallurgical optimization of alloy performance and engineering design with respect to damage tolerance, long term durability and reliability. Section 3 reports on damage localization mechanisms in aqueous chloride corrosion fatigue of aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 4 reports on progress made on measurements and mechanisms of localized aqueous corrosion in aluminum-lithium alloys. Section 5 provides a detailed technical proposal for research on environmental degradation of Al-Li alloys, and the effect of hydrogen in this.

  14. Three-dimensional rigid multiphase networks providing high-temperature strength to cast AlSi10Cu5Ni1-2 piston alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, Z.; Requena, G.; Boller, E.

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) architecture of rigid multiphase networks present in AlSi10Cu5Ni1 and AlSi10Cu5Ni2 piston alloys in as-cast condition and after 4 h spheroidization treatment is characterized by synchrotron tomography in terms of the volume fraction of rigid phases, interconnectivity, contiguity and morphology. The architecture of both alloys consists of α-Al matrix and a rigid long-range 3-D network of Al 7 Cu 4 Ni, Al 4 Cu 2 Mg 8 Si 7 , Al 2 Cu, Al 15 Si 2 (FeMn) 3 and AlSiFeNiCu aluminides and Si. The investigated architectural parameters of both alloys studied are correlated with room-temperature and high-temperature (300 deg. C) strengths as a function of solution treatment time. The AlSi10Cu5Ni1 and AlSi10Cu5Ni2 alloys behave like metal matrix composites with 16 and 20 vol.% reinforcement, respectively. Both alloys have similar strengths in the as-cast condition, but the AlSi10Cu5Ni2 is able to retain ∼15% higher high temperature strength than the AlSi10Cu5Ni1 alloy after more than 4 h of spheroidization treatment. This is due to the preservation of the 3-D interconnectivity and the morphology of the rigid network, which is governed by the higher degree of contiguity between aluminides and Si.

  15. Phase diagrams of two dimensional Pd{sub x}Ag{sub 1-x}/Pd(111) and Pt{sub x}Ag{sub 1-x}/Pt(111) surface alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstfeld, Albert K.; Roetter, Ralf T.; Bergbreiter, Andreas; Hoster, Harry E.; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The distribution of Ag and Pd or Pt in Ag{sub x}Pd{sub 1-x}/Pd(111) and Ag{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x}/Pt(111) surface alloys was studied by high resolution UHV-STM. The alloys were prepared by evaporating Ag on the respective substrate and subsequent annealing to 800 K. From quantitative 2D atom distributions we can show that AgPt tends towards two dimensional clustering and AgPd towards a 'quasi' random distribution, with small deviations for low and high coverages. From effective pair interactions, we are able to calculate the surface mixing energy and determine 2D phase diagrams. Furthermore we will elucidate whether the size mismatch or the differences in the intermetallic bonding are the dominant factor for the respective distribution in the surface alloy.

  16. Valence Band Structure of InAs1-xBix and InSb1-xBix Alloy Semiconductors Calculated Using Valence Band Anticrossing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Samajdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The valence band anticrossing model has been used to calculate the heavy/light hole and spin-orbit split-off energies in InAs1-xBix and InSb1-xBix alloy systems. It is found that both the heavy/light hole, and spin-orbit split E+ levels move upwards in energy with an increase in Bi content in the alloy, whereas the split E− energy for the holes shows a reverse trend. The model is also used to calculate the reduction of band gap energy with an increase in Bi mole fraction. The calculated values of band gap variation agree well with the available experimental data.

  17. Thermoelectric properties of p-type pseudo-binary (Ag0.365Sb0.558Te) x -(Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3)1-x (x=0-1.0) alloys prepared by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, J.L.; Xue, H.F.; Xiu, W.J.; Jiang, L.; Ying, P.Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, pseudo-binary (Ag 0.365 Sb 0.558 Te) x -(Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 ) 1- x (x=0-1.0) alloys were prepared using spark plasma sintering technique, and the composition-dependent thermoelectric properties were evaluated. Electrical conductivities range from 7.9x10 4 to 15.6x10 4 Ω -1 m -1 at temperatures of 507 and 318 K, respectively, being about 3.0 and 8.5 times those of Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 alloy at the corresponding temperatures. The optimal dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of the sample with molar fraction x=0.025 reaches 1.1 at 478 K, whereas that of the ternary Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 alloy is 0.58 near room temperature. The results also reveal that a direct introduction of Ag 0.365 Sb 0.558 Te in the Bi-Sb-Te system is much more effective to the property improvement than naturally precipitated Ag 0.365 Sb 0.558 Te in the Ag-doped Ag-Bi-Sb-Te system. - Graphical abstract: The temperature dependence of the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT for different (Ag 0.365 Sb 0.558 Te) x -(Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 ) 1- x (x=0-1.0) alloys prepared by spark plasma sintering

  18. Dynamic Shear Deformation and Failure of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chun; Chen, Pengwan

    2018-01-05

    To study the dynamic shear deformation and failure properties of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) alloy and Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe (Ti-55511) alloy, a series of forced shear tests on flat hat shaped (FHS) specimens for the two investigated materials was performed using a split Hopkinson pressure bar setup. The evolution of shear deformation was monitored by an ultra-high-speed camera (Kirana-05M). Localized shear band is induced in the two investigated materials under forced shear tests. Our results indicate that severe strain localization (adiabatic shear) is accompanied by a loss in the load carrying capacity, i.e., by a sudden drop in loading. Three distinct stages can be identified using a digital image correlation technique for accurate shear strain measurement. The microstructural analysis reveals that the dynamic failure mechanisms for Ti-64 and Ti-55511 alloys within the shear band are of a cohesive and adhesive nature, respectively.

  19. In-situ electrochemical study of Zr1nb alloy corrosion in high temperature Li{sup +} containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausová, Aneta [University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Macák, Jan, E-mail: macakj@vscht.cz [University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sajdl, Petr [University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Novotný, Radek [JRC-IET, Westerduinveg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Renčiuková, Veronika [University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vrtílková, Věra [ÚJP a.s., Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 10 Prague 5 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    Long-term in-situ corrosion tests were performed in order to evaluate the influence of lithium ions on the corrosion of zirconium alloy. Experiments were carried out in a high-pressure high-temperature loop (280 °C, 8 MPa) in a high concentration water solution of LiOH (70 and 200 ppm Li{sup +}) and in a simulated WWER primary coolant environment. The kinetic parameters characterising the oxidation process have been explored using in-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and slow potentiodynamic polarization. Also, a suitable equivalent circuit was suggested, which would approximate the impedance characteristics of the corrosion of Zr–1Nb alloy. The Mott–Schottky approach was used to determine the semiconducting character of the passive film. - Highlights: • Zr1Nb alloy was tested in WWER coolant and in LiOH solutions at 280 °C. • Corrosion rates were estimated in-situ from electrochemical data. • Electrochemical data agreed well with weight gains and metallography data. • Increase of corrosion rate in LiOH appeared after short exposure (300–500 h). • Very high donor densities (1.11.2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}) of Zr oxide grown in LiOH were found.

  20. Corrosion behavior of electrodeposited Co-Fe alloys in aerated solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chansena, A. [Research Unit on Corrosion, College of Data Storage Innovation, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Sutthiruangwong, S., E-mail: sutha.su@kmitl.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Research Unit on Corrosion, College of Data Storage Innovation, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2017-05-01

    Co-Fe alloy is an important component for reader-writer in hard disk drive. The surface of the alloy is exposed to the environment both in gas phase and in liquid phase during manufacturing process. The study of corrosion behavior of Co-Fe alloys can provide useful fundamental data for reader-writer production planning especially when corrosion becomes a major problem. The corrosion study of electrodeposited Co-Fe alloys from cyclic galvanodynamic polarization was performed using potentiodynamic polarization technique. The composition of electrodeposited Co-Fe alloys was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The patterns from X-ray diffractometer showed that the crystal structure of electrodeposited Co-Fe alloys was body-centered cubic. A vibrating sample magnetometer was used for magnetic measurements. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) was increased and the intrinsic coercivity (H{sub ci}) was decreased with increasing Fe content. The corrosion rate study was performed in aerated deionized water and aerated acidic solutions at pH 3, 4 and 5. The corrosion rate diagram for Co-Fe alloys was constructed. It was found that the corrosion rate of Co-Fe alloys was increased with increasing Fe content in both aerated deionized water and aerated acidic solutions. In aerated pH 3 solution, the Co-Fe alloy containing 78.8% Fe showed the highest corrosion rate of 7.7 mm yr{sup −1} with the highest M{sub s} of 32.0 A m{sup 2} kg{sup −1}. The corrosion rate of the alloy with 23.8% Fe was at 1.1 mm yr{sup −1} with M{sub s} of 1.2 A m{sup 2} kg{sup −1}. In aerated deionized water, the alloy with the highest Fe content of 78.5% still showed the highest corrosion rate of 0.0059 mm yr{sup −1} while the alloy with the lowest Fe content of 20.4% gave the lowest corrosion rate of 0.0045 mm yr{sup −1}. - Highlights: • The aeration during corrosion measurement simulates reader-writer head production environment. • The corrosion rate diagram for Co-Fe alloys

  1. Microstructures and creep properties of Mg–4Al–(1–4) La alloys produced by different casting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jing; Sun Yangshan; Xue Feng; Qiang Jing

    2012-01-01

    The microstructures, mechanical properties and creep resistance of Mg–4Al–(1–4) La alloys produced by permanent mold casting and high pressure die casting (HPDC) were investigated. In addition to solute atoms in α-Mg matrix, Al element may exist in the form of three different intermetallic phases in the present alloys depending on the experimental conditions. In both casting states, the increase of La addition results in a rise in the volume fraction of Al 11 La 3 eutectic, and simultaneously Mg 17 Al 12 phase, including divorced eutectic in as-cast state and discontinuous precipitation after creep, is suppressed until completely disappears. This leads to a gradual increase in creep resistance. The formation of more Mg 17 Al 12 phase in HPDC alloys is considered a major factor in causing their worse creep properties by comparison with that of the permanent mold casting alloys when La content is in a lower level below 2 wt.%. By contrast, the HPDC alloys show better creep resistance with La content added above 2 wt.% owing to the formation of denser network distribution of Al 11 La 3 phase along grain/dendrite boundaries as a result of more rapid solidification rate and higher solidification pressure. For the alloys studied, grain/dendrite boundary sliding is suggested to be a possible controlling mechanism responsible for creep deformation at elevated temperatures.

  2. Fatigue Characteristics of Selected Light Metal Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśla M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses results of fatigue testing of light metal alloys used in the automotive as well as aerospace and aviation industries, among others. The material subject to testing comprised hot-worked rods made of the AZ31 alloy, the Ti-6Al-4V two-phase titanium alloy and the 2017A (T451 aluminium alloy. Both low- and high-cycle fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature on the cycle asymmetry ratio of R=-1. The low-cycle fatigue tests were performed using the MTS-810 machine on two levels of total strain, i.e.Δεc= 1.0% and 1.2%. The high-cycle fatigue tests, on the other hand, were performed using a machine from VEB Werkstoffprufmaschinen-Leipzig under conditions of rotary bending. Based on the results thus obtained, one could develop fatigue life characteristics of the materials examined (expressed as the number of cycles until failure of sample Nf as well as characteristics of cyclic material strain σa=f(N under the conditions of low-cycle fatigue testing. The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was found to be characterised by the highest value of fatigue life Nf, both in lowand high-cycle tests. The lowest fatigue life, on the other hand, was established for the aluminium alloys examined. Under the high-cycle fatigue tests, the life of the 2017A aluminium and the AZ31 magnesium alloy studied was determined by the value of stress amplitude σa. With the stress exceeding 150 MPa, it was the aluminium alloy which displayed higher fatigue life, whereas the magnesium alloy proved better on lower stress.

  3. Grindability of cast Ti-Cu alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo; Kiyosue, Seigo; Yoda, Masanobu; Woldu, Margaret; Cai, Zhuo; Okuno, Osamu; Okabe, Toru

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the grindability of a series of cast Ti-Cu alloys in order to develop a titanium alloy with better grindability than commercially pure titanium (CP Ti), which is considered to be one of the most difficult metals to machine. Experimental Ti-Cu alloys (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mass% Cu) were made in an argon-arc melting furnace. Each alloy was cast into a magnesia mold using a centrifugal casting machine. Cast alloy slabs (3.5 mm x 8.5 mm x 30.5 mm), from which the hardened surface layer (250 microm) was removed, were ground using a SiC abrasive wheel on an electric handpiece at four circumferential speeds (500, 750, 1000, or 1250 m/min) at 0.98 N (100 gf). Grindability was evaluated by measuring the amount of metal volume removed after grinding for 1min. Data were compared to those for CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. For all speeds, Ti-10% Cu alloy exhibited the highest grindability. For the Ti-Cu alloys with a Cu content of 2% or less, the highest grindability corresponded to an intermediate speed. It was observed that the grindability increased with an increase in the Cu concentration compared to CP Ti, particularly for the 5 or 10% Cu alloys at a circumferential speed of 1000 m/min or above. By alloying with copper, the cast titanium exhibited better grindability at high speed. The continuous precipitation of Ti(2)Cu among the alpha-matrix grains made this material less ductile and facilitated more effective grinding because small broken segments more readily formed.

  4. Microstructural characterization of a rapidly solidified ultrahigh strength Al94.5Cr3Co1.5Ce1 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, D.H.; Hono, K.; Inoue, A.

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure of a rapidly solidified Al 94.5 Cr 3 Co 1.5 Ce 1 alloy has been examined in detail by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM). In the as-quenched microstructure, nanoscale particles of a solute-enriched amorphous phase and an Al-Cr compound are dispersed in randomly oriented fine grains of α-Al ( 200nm ). The interface between the Al grains and the amorphous particles is not smooth but irregular with atomic protrusions and concavities, suggesting that interfacial instability occurs during the solidification process. Nanoscale amorphous particles are formed as a result of solute trapping within the rapidly grown Al grains. After annealing at 400 C for 15 minutes grain growth occurs, and the interface of the Al grains is smoothed. The amorphous region trapped within the grains if crystallized to an Al-Cr compound, but no icosahedral phase has been confirmed. The APFIM results have revealed that Cr and Ce atoms have a similar partitioning behavior, i.e., they are rejected from the α-Al phase and partitioned into the trapped amorphous regions. On the other hand, Co atoms are not partitioned between the two phases in the as-quenched state but are partitioned into the α-Al grains in the annealed alloys being rejected from the Al compounds and finally form Al-Co compounds. Based on these microstructural characterization results, the origins of high strength of this alloy are discussed

  5. Alloying effects on structural and thermal behavior of Ti1-xZrxC: A first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Mamta; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2016-01-01

    The formation energy, equilibrium lattice parameter, bulk modulus, Debye temperature and heat capacity at constant volume have been calculated for TiC, ZrC, and their intermediate alloys (Ti 1-x Zr x C, x = 0,0.25.0.5,0.75,1) using first principles approach. The calculated values of lattice parameter and bulk modulus agree well with the available experimental and earlier theoretical reports. The variation of lattice parameter and bulk modulus with the change in concentration of Zr atom in Ti 1-x Zr x C has also been reported. The heat capacities of TiC, ZrC, and their intermediate alloys have been calculated by considering both vibrational and electronic contributions.

  6. Features of argon-arc welding of aluminium alloy AD1 to stainless steel 12Kh18N10T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadov, I.I.

    1982-01-01

    Welding of pipes made of the 12Kh18N10T stainless steel and the AD1 aluminium alloy is proposed to perform using one-sided aluminizing. It is recommended to use shields in order to protect internal and external surfaces of pipes, aluminizing of which is impossible. It is shown that developed technological process for welded joints made of aluminium and stainless steel for cryogenic apparatus permits to create light-duty cryostat assembly using aluminium alloys instead of copper alloys, to increase reliability of apparatus (usage of welded joints instead of soldered ones), and to improve labour conditions

  7. Mechanical alloying in the Fe-Cu system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gente, C.; Bormann, R.

    1998-01-01

    The studies of mechanical alloying on the Fe-Cu system, as a model system for those with positive heats of mixing, are reviewed. Several problems involved in the mechanical alloying process are discussed. For example, (1) whether alloying occurs on an atomic level; (2) what the solid solubility...... in the Fe-Cu system is; (3) where the positive energy is stored in the alloys; (4) what the decomposition process of the supersaturated alloys is; and (5) what type of magnetic properties the new materials have. The elucidation of these problems will shed light on the understanding of the mechanisms...... for the preparation of materials under highly non-equilibrium conditions in systems with positive heats of mixing by mechanical alloying....

  8. An investigation on hydrogen storage kinetics of nanocrystalline and amorphous Mg2Ni1-xCox (x = 0-0.4) alloy prepared by melt spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanghuan; Li Baowei; Ren Huipin; Ding Xiaoxia; Liu Xiaogang; Chen Lele

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The investigation of the structures of the Mg 2 Ni 1-x Co x (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) alloys indicates that a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure can be obtained in the experiment alloys by melt spinning technology. The substitution of Co for Ni facilitates the glass formation in the Mg 2 Ni-type alloy. And the amorphization degree of the alloys visibly increases with increasing Co content. → Both the melt spinning and Co substitution significantly improve the hydrogen storage kinetics of the alloys. The hydrogen absorption saturation ratio (R t a ) and hydrogen desorption ratio (R t d ) as well as the high rate discharge ability (HRD) increase with rising spinning rate and Co content. The hydrogen diffusion coefficient (D), the Tafel polarization curves and the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements show that the electrochemical kinetics notably increases with rising spinning rate and Co content. → Furthermore, all the as-spun alloys, when the spinning rate reaches to 30 m/s, have nearly same hydrogen absorption kinetics, indicating that the hydrogen absorption kinetics of the as-spun alloy is predominately controlled by diffusion ability of hydrogen atoms. - Abstract: In order to improve the hydrogen storage kinetics of the Mg 2 Ni-type alloys, Ni in the alloy was partially substituted by element Co, and melt-spinning technology was used for the preparation of the Mg 2 Ni 1-x Co x (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) hydrogen storage alloys. The structures of the as-cast and spun alloys are characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. The hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics of the alloys were measured by an automatically controlled Sieverts apparatus. The electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetics of the as-spun alloys is tested by an automatic galvanostatic system. The hydrogen diffusion coefficients in the alloys are calculated by virtue of potential-step method. The electrochemical impedance spectrums (EIS) and the Tafel

  9. Corrosion behaviour of Al-Fe-Ti-V medium entropy alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodunrin, M. O.; Obadele, B. A.; Chown, L. H.; Olubambi, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Alloys containing up to four multi-principal elements in equiatomic ratios are referred to as medium entropy alloys (MEA). These alloys have attracted the interest of many researchers due to the superior mechanical properties it offers over the traditional alloys. The design approach of MEA often results to simple solid solution with either body centered cubic; face centered cubic structures or both. As the consideration for introducing the alloys into several engineering application increases, there have been efforts to study the corrosion behaviour of these alloys. Previous reports have shown that some of these alloys are more susceptible to corrosion when compared with traditional alloys due to lack of protective passive film. In this research, we have developed AlFeTiV medium entropy alloys containing two elements (Ti and Al) that readily passivate when exposed to corrosive solutions. The alloys were produced in vacuum arc furnace purged with high purity argon. Open circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarisation tests were used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of the as-cast AlFeTiV alloy in 3.5 wt% NaCl and 1 M H2SO4. The corrosion performance of the alloy was compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy tested under similar conditions. The results show that unlike in Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the open circuit potential of the AlFeTiV alloy move towards the negative values in both 3.5 wt% NaCl and 1 M H2SO4 solutions indicating that self-activation occurred rapidly on immersion. Anodic polarisation of the alloys showed that AlFeTiV alloy exhibited a narrow range of passivity in both solutions. In addition, the alloys exhibited lower Ecorr and higher Icorr when compared with traditional Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The traditional Ti-6Al-4V alloy showed superior corrosion resistant to the AlFeTiV alloy in both 3.5 wt.% NaCl and 1 M H2SO4 solutions.

  10. Effect of neutron irradiation on vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braski, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys were evaluated for their susceptibility to irradiation hardening, helium embrittlement, swelling, and residual radioactivity, and the results were compared with those for the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The VANSTAR-7 and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys showed the greatest hardening between 400 and 600 0 C while V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti had lower values that were comparable to those of ferritic steels. The V-15Cr-5Ti and VANSTAR-7 alloys were susceptible to helium embrittlement caused by the combination of weakened grain boundaries and irradiation-hardened grain matrices. Specimen fractures were entirely intergranular in the most severe instances of embrittlement. The V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti alloys were more resistant to helium embrittlement. Except for VANSTAR-7 irradiated to 40 dpa at 520 0 C, all of the vanadium alloys exhibited low swelling that was similar to the ferritic steels. Swelling was greater in specimens that were preimplanted with helium using the tritium trick. The vanadium alloys clearly exhibit lower residual radioactivity after irradiation than the ferrous alloys

  11. Effect of neutron irradiation on vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braski, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys were evaluated for their susceptibility to irradiation hardening, helium embrittlement, swelling, and residual radioactivity, and the results were compared with those for the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The VANSTAR-7 and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys showed the greatest hardening between 400 and 600/sup 0/C while V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti had lower values that were comparable to those of ferritic steels. The V-15Cr-5Ti and VANSTAR-7 alloys were susceptible to helium embrittlement caused by the combination of weakened grain boundaries and irradiation-hardened grain matrices. Specimen fractures were entirely intergranular in the most severe instances of embrittlement. The V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti alloys were more resistant to helium embrittlement. Except for VANSTAR-7 irradiated to 40 dpa at 520/sup 0/C, all of the vanadium alloys exhibited low swelling that was similar to the ferritic steels. Swelling was greater in specimens that were preimplanted with helium using the tritium trick. The vanadium alloys clearly exhibit lower residual radioactivity after irradiation than the ferrous alloys.

  12. Effect of substitution of 1 at% Ni for Zn on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg{sub 94}Y{sub 4}Zn{sub 2} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huan, E-mail: liuhuanseu@hotmail.com [Jiangsu Key Lab of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Material Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Xue, Feng, E-mail: xuefeng@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Lab of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Material Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Bai, Jing; Zhou, Jian [Jiangsu Key Lab of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Material Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Liu, Xiaodao [Nanjing Yunhai Special Metals Co., Ltd., Nanjing 211200 (China)

    2013-11-15

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg{sub 94}Y{sub 4}Zn{sub 2} and Mg{sub 94}Y{sub 4}Zn{sub 1}Ni{sub 1} alloys have been systematically investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and an electronic universal testing machine. The as-cast WZ42 alloy is composed of α-Mg matrix, 18R LPSO (long period stacking ordered) phase and a small fraction of Mg{sub 24}(Y,Zn){sub 5} phases. With the replacement of 1 at% Ni atoms, the phase structures in WZN411 alloy remain unchanged, but their chemical compositions vary obviously. A great number of stacking faults exist in α-Mg grains of WZ42 alloy, while they are barely observed in WZN411 alloy. After annealing at 500 °C for 12 h, there are plenty of 14H LPSO lamellas formed in WZ42 alloy and many nano-scale α-Mg slices generated between 18R phases. In contrast, the 18R in WZN411 alloy is thermally stable, and both the formation of α-Mg slices and 14H lamellas are restricted for annealed WZN411 alloy. Tensile tests indicate that the as-extruded WZ42 alloy exhibits ultimate tensile strength of 390 MPa, tensile yield strength of 246 MPa and elongation of 2.8% at room temperature. With the replacement of 1 at% Ni, the UTS and TYS of WZN411 alloy increase by 20 MPa and the ductility improves as well. The improvement of comprehensive mechanical properties could be ascribed to the substitution of 1 at% Ni element, which could enhance the degree of solid-solution strengthening and stimulate the thermal stability of 18R phase during annealing and extrusion processes.

  13. The mechanisms of dispersion strengthening and fracture in Al-based XD(tm) alloys, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, R. M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of reinforcement size, volume fraction, and matrix deformation behavior on room and elevated temperature strength; the fracture toughness; and the fatigue crack growth rate of metal matrix composites of Al-4(pct)Cu-1.5(pct)Mg with TiB2 were examined. The influence of reinforcement volume fraction was also examined for pure aluminum with TiB2. Higher TiB2 volume fractions increased the tensile yield strength at both room and elevated temperatures, and reduced the elongation to fracture. Tensile tests also indicate that small particles provided a greater increase in strength for a given volume fraction than larger particles, whereas elongation to fracture appeared to be insensitive to reinforcement size. Interparticle spacing appears to be the factor that controls the strength of these alloys, with the exact nature of the dependence relying on the nature of dislocation slip in the matrix (planar vs. diffuse). The isothermal aging response of the precipitation strengthened Al-4(pct)Cu-1.5(pct)Mg alloys was not accelerated by the presence of TiB2. Cold work prior to artificial aging created additional geometrically necessary dislocations which serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites leading to accelerated aging, a finer precipitate size, and an increase in the strength of the alloy.

  14. Atom distribution and interactions in Ag{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x} and Au{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x} surface alloys on Pt(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roetter, Ralf T.; Bergbreiter, Andreas; Hoster, Harry E.; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The atom distributions in Ag{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x}/Pt(111) and Au{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x}/Pt(111) surface alloys were studied by high resolution UHV-STM. These surfaces were prepared by submonolayer Ag (Au) metal deposition on Pt(111), followed by annealing at 900 K or 1000 K, respectively, which in both cases results in surface confined 2D alloys, with equilibrated distribution of the components. Both systems show a tendency towards two-dimensional clustering, which fits well to their known bulk immiscibility. Effective cluster interactions (ECIs) will be derived by a quantitative evaluation of the 2D atom distributions in the surface alloys. By comparing the ECIs for PtAg and PtAu on Pt(111), and considering that Ag and Au have almost similar lattice constants, the results allow conclusion on the physical origin of the tendency for clustering.

  15. Electrochemistry of vanadium(II and the electrodeposition of aluminum-vanadium alloys in the aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of vanadium(II was examined in the 66.7-33.3 mole percent aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing dissolved VCl2 at 353 K. Voltammetry experiments revealed that V(II could be electrochemically oxidized to V(III and V(IV. However at slow scan rates the V(II/V(III electrode reaction is complicated by the rapid precipitation of V(III as VCl3. The reduction of V(II occurs at potentials considerably negative of the Al(III/Al electrode reaction, and Al-V alloys cannot be electrodeposited from this melt. However electrodeposition experiments conducted in VCl2-saturated melt containing the additive, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, resulted in Al-V alloys. The vanadium content of these alloys increased with increasing cathodic current density or more negative applied potentials. X-ray analysis of Al-V alloys that were electrodeposited on a rotating copper wire substrate indicated that these alloys did not form or contain an intermetallic compound, but were non-equilibrium or metastable solid solutions. The chloride-pitting corrosion properties of these alloys were examined in aqueous NaCl by using potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Alloys containing ~10 a/o vanadium exhibited a pitting potential that was 0.3 V positive of that for pure aluminum.

  16. A new high-strength iron base austenitic alloy with good toughness and corrosion resistance (GE-EPRI alloy-TTL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, S.

    1989-01-01

    A new high strength, iron based, austenitic alloy has been successfully developed by GE-EPRI to satisfy the strength and corrosion resistance requirements of large retaining rings for high capacity generators (>840Mw). This new alloy is a modified version of the EPRI alloy-T developed by the University of California, Berkeley, in an earlier EPRI program. It is age hardenable and has the nominal composition (weight %): 34.5 Ni, 5Cr, 3Ti, 1Nb, 1Ta, 1Mo, .5Al, .3V, .01B. This composition was selected based on detailed metallurgical and processing studies on modified versions of alloy-T. These studies helped establish the optimum processing conditions for the new alloy and enabled the successful scale-up production of three large (50-52 inch dia) test rings from a 5,000 lb VIM-VAR billet. The rings were metallurgically sound and exhibited yield strength capabilities in the range 145 to 220 ksi depending on the extent of hot/cold work induced. The test rings met or exceeded all the property goals. The above alloy can provide a good combination of strength, toughness and corrosion resistance and, through an suitable modification of chemistry or processing conditions, could be a viable candidate for high strength LWR internal applications. 3 figs

  17. High strength cast aluminum alloy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druschitz, Edward A.

    The goal of this research was to understand how chemistry and processing affect the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength cast aluminum alloys. Two alloy systems were investigated including the Al-Cu-Ag and the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu systems. Processing variables included solidification under pressure (SUP) and heat treatment. This research determined the range in properties that can be achieved in BAC 100(TM) (Al-Cu micro-alloyed with Ag, Mn, Zr, and V) and generated sufficient property data for design purposes. Tensile, stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue testing were performed. CuAl2 and Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallics were identified as the ductility limiting flaws. A solution treatment of 75 hours or longer was needed to dissolve most of the intermetallic CuAl 2. The Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallic was unaffected by heat treatment. These results indicate that faster cooling rates, a reduction in copper concentration and a reduction in iron concentration might increase the ductility of the alloy by decreasing the size and amount of the intermetallics that form during solidification. Six experimental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu series alloys were produced. Zinc concentrations of 8 and 12wt% and Zn/Mg ratios of 1.5 to 5.5 were tested. Copper was held constant at 0.9%. Heat treating of the alloys was optimized for maximum hardness. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu samples were solution treated at 441°C (826°F) for 4 hours before ramping to 460°C (860°F) for 75 hours and then aged at 120°C (248°F) for 75 hours. X-ray diffraction showed that the age hardening precipitates in most of these alloys was the T phase (Mg32Zn 31.9Al17.1). Tensile testing of the alloys showed that the best mechanical properties were obtained in the lowest alloy condition. Chilled Al-8.2Zn-1.4Mg-0.9Cu solidified under pressure resulted in an alloy with a yield strength of 468MPa (68ksi), tensile strength of 525MPa (76ksi) and an elongation of 9%.

  18. Heat treatments and low temperature fracture toughness of a Ti-6A1-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, K.; Hiraga, K.; Ishikawa, K.; Ogata, T.

    1984-01-01

    Titanium alloy is one of the reliable structural materials for cryogenic use owing to its high strength, high specific strength and low thermal conductivity. Heat treatment is one method of controlling the normally poor fracture toughness of this alloy at ambient temperature. However, there have been few attempts to improve the low temperature fracture toughness by heat treatment. This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of heat treatments on the low temperature fracture toughness in a Ti-6A1-4V alloy. The effects of the heat treatments were as follows: the beta treatment was a very feasible method to improve the low temperature fracture properties; the alpha+beta treatment was favorable for the increment in the low temperature ductility but did not largely improve the fracture toughness; the double treatment yielded good ductility but was not useful for improving the fracture toughness

  19. SIMS and thermal evolution analysis of oxygen in Zr-1%Nb alloy after high-temperature transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorinčík, Jan; Klouček, V.; Negyesi, M.; Kabátová, J.; Novotný, L.; Vrtílková, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 43, 1-2 (2011), s. 618-620 ISSN 0142-2421 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : SIMS * Thermal evolution analysis * Zirconium alloy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.180, year: 2011

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of binary Fe{sub 85}B{sub 15} to quinary Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloys for primary crystallizations of α-Fe in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, A., E-mail: takeuchi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Zhang, Y.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    Fe-based Fe{sub 85}B{sub 15}, Fe{sub 84}B{sub 15}Cu{sub 1}, Fe{sub 82}Si{sub 2}B{sub 15}Cu{sub 1}, Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 12}Cu{sub 1}, and Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} (NANOMET{sup ®}) alloys were experimental and computational analyzed to clarify the features of NANOMET that exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density (B{sub s}) nearly 1.9 T and low core loss than conventional nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. The X-ray diffraction analysis for ribbon specimens produced experimentally by melt spinning from melts revealed that the samples were almost formed into an amorphous single phase. Then, the as-quenched samples were analyzed with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimentally for exothermic enthalpies of the primary and secondary crystallizations (ΔH{sub x1} and ΔH{sub x2}) and their crystallization temperatures (T{sub x1} and T{sub x2}), respectively. The ratio ΔH{sub x1}/ΔH{sub x2} measured by DSC experimentally tended to be extremely high for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloy, and this tendency was reproduced by the analysis with commercial software, Thermo-Calc, with database for Fe-based alloys, TCFE7 for Gibbs free energy (G) assessments. The calculations exhibit that a volume fraction (V{sub f}) of α-Fe tends to increase from 0.56 for the Fe{sub 85}B{sub 15} to 0.75 for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloy. The computational analysis of the alloys for G of α-Fe and amorphous phases (G{sub α-Fe} and G{sub amor}) shows that a relationship G{sub α-Fe} ∼ G{sub amor} holds for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 12}Cu{sub 1}, whereas G{sub α-Fe} < G{sub amor} for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloy at T{sub x1} and that an extremely high V{sub f} = 0.75 was achieved for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloy by including 2.8 at. % Si and 4.5 at. % P into α-Fe. These computational results indicate that the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B

  1. Surface of Ti-Ni alloys after their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldan, I.; Frenzel, J.; Shekhah, O.; Chelmowski, R.; Birkner, A.; Woell, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    The Ti 3.87 Ni 1.73 Fe 0.7 O 0.3, Ti 3.87 Ni 1.73 Fe 0.4 N 0.3 and Ti 3.87 Ni 1.73 Fe 0.4 C 0.3 alloys were investigated regarding their surface characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used for phase characterization. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of alloy surface. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe alloy surface topography after cutting and electrochemical polishing separately has been done. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with X-ray diffraction was carried out to get a high contrast images and the diffraction pattern from alloy surface. The results clearly shown, that all alloys were multiphase, and their surface was totally oxidized with no pure metals

  2. Direct gap Ge1-ySny alloys: Fabrication and design of mid-IR photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratne, C. L.; Wallace, P. M.; Gallagher, J. D.; Sims, P. E.; Kouvetakis, J.; Menéndez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Chemical vapor deposition methods were developed, using stoichiometric reactions of specialty Ge3H8 and SnD4 hydrides, to fabricate Ge1-ySny photodiodes with very high Sn concentrations in the 12%-16% range. A unique aspect of this approach is the compatible reactivity of the compounds at ultra-low temperatures, allowing efficient control and systematic tuning of the alloy composition beyond the direct gap threshold. This crucial property allows the formation of thick supersaturated layers with device-quality material properties. Diodes with composition up to 14% Sn were initially produced on Ge-buffered Si(100) featuring previously optimized n-Ge/i-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz type structures with a single defected interface. The devices exhibited sizable electroluminescence and good rectifying behavior as evidenced by the low dark currents in the I-V measurements. The formation of working diodes with higher Sn content up to 16% Sn was implemented by using more advanced n-Ge1-xSnx/i-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz architectures incorporating Ge1-xSnx intermediate layers (x ˜ 12% Sn) that served to mitigate the lattice mismatch with the Ge platform. This yielded fully coherent diode interfaces devoid of strain relaxation defects. The electrical measurements in this case revealed a sharp increase in reverse-bias dark currents by almost two orders of magnitude, in spite of the comparable crystallinity of the active layers. This observation is attributed to the enhancement of band-to-band tunneling when all the diode layers consist of direct gap materials and thus has implications for the design of light emitting diodes and lasers operating at desirable mid-IR wavelengths. Possible ways to engineer these diode characteristics and improve carrier confinement involve the incorporation of new barrier materials, in particular, ternary Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys. The possibility of achieving type-I structures using binary and ternary alloy combinations is discussed in detail, taking into account

  3. Collective effects of interface roughness and alloy disorder in InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, K.C.; Smith, M.; Lin, J.Y.; Jiang, H.X.

    1998-01-01

    The collective effects of alloy disorder and interface roughness on optical properties of In x Ga 1-x N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) have been studied. The results are compared with those of GaN/AlGaN MQWs and InGaN epilayers. In x Ga 1-x N/GaN MQWs emit a broad and asymmetrical photoluminescence (PL) band, while GaN/AlGaN MQWs and InGaN epilayers emit narrower and Gaussian-shaped PL bands. Furthermore, the decay of excitons at low temperatures in In x Ga 1-x N/GaN MQWs follows a nonexponential function even at the lower-energy side of the PL spectral peak, while those in GaN/AlGaN MQWs and in InGaN epilayers follow a single exponential function. Both alloy disorder and interface roughness have to be included in order to interpret the PL emission spectrum and the decay dynamics in In x Ga 1-x N/GaN MQWs. Important parameters of the In x Ga 1-x N/GaN MQWs, σ x ,σ L , and dτ/dL, denoting the alloy disorder, the interface roughness, and the rate of changing of the exciton decay lifetime with well width, respectively, have been deduced. The method developed here can be used to determine σ x ,σ L , and dτ/dL in any MQW systems with wells being alloy materials. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  4. A comparing study of alloy 600 and alloy 690 on resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking(IGSCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hun

    1993-02-01

    In order to compare the effect of senitization on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking(IGSCC) between Alloy 600 and Alloy 690, these alloys have been sensitized for 1 to 100 hours at 700 .deg. C. The degree of sensitization(DOS) has evaluated by the ratio of Ir(the maximum current density at anodic scan) to Ia(the maximum current density at reverse scan) in the modified double loop EPR(electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation) test in 0.01M H 2 SO 4 + 0.0001M KSCN at 25 .deg. C and at scan rate of 0.5mV/sec. The susceptibility to IGSCC has been measured in 0.01M Na 2 S 4 O 6 solution using CERT(constant extension rate tester) at strain rate of 1.0 x 10 -6 S -1 . With increasing sensitization time the DOS of Alloy 600 increases to the maximum value at 5 hours and decreases gradually due to the replenishment of Cr to the Cr-depleted grain boundaries. For Alloy 600 samples except those sensitized for less than 1 hour, the DOS measured by the modified EPR test parallel to susceptibility to IGSCC revealed by the ratio of strain to failure (εf, Na 2 S 4 O 6 /εf, Air). It appears that the susceptibility to IGSCC is closely associated with the depth in Cr-depleted concentration profile across grain boundary. For the sensitized Alloy 690 samples exhibited extremely low value of Ir/Ia less than 0.074% and also were immune to IGSCC. The good resistance of Alloy 690 to IGSCC is considered to be attributed to the higher Cr concentration to avoid serious Cr-depletion problems adjacent to grain boundary

  5. On the position of local levels of defects in proton-irradiated Pb1-xSnxTe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, N.B.; Gas'kov, A.M.; Ladygin, E.A.; Skipetrov, E.P.; Khorosh, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of fast proton irradiation (T≅300 K, E=200 keV, F≤2x10 14 cm -2 ) on electrophysical properties of thin layers p-Pb 1-x Sn x Te (0.17 ≤x≤ 0.26) is investigated. Saturation of radiation flux dependences of hole density due to occurrence of a resonance level under irradiation, which is near the ceiling of the valence band of alloys, and due to stabilization of the Fermi level with the resonance level is detected. Possibility of coordination of novadays data on the position of the levels of radiation defects in alloys Pb 1-x Sn x Te is discussed

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti6.0Al4.5Cr1.5Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Shu-sen; Gao, Peng-yue; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Xiong-gang; Li, Chong-he

    2016-01-01

    Based on previous Ti-Al-Cr-Mn quaternary system thermodynamic database, a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti-6.0Al-4.5Cr-1.5Mn alloy was designed and successfully prepared by the water-cooled copper crucible. Microscopic observation showed that both as-cast and annealing status consist of α phase, which coincides with the theoretical expectation. The mechanical properties at room temperature were measured and this alloy possesses good mechanical properties, its average yield-strength reaches 1051.5 MPa and tensile-strength is up to 1091.2 MPa while its average elongation is just 8.3%. Compared with the TA15, it has better mechanical strength and worse elongation. In the new alloy Laves phase Cr 2 Ti were detected by XRD pattern and TEM, which may cause the alloy's poor plasticity.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti6.0Al4.5Cr1.5Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-bin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Special Casting Engineering Technology Research Center, Shanghai 201605 (China); Wang, Shu-sen; Gao, Peng-yue; Jiang, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Xiong-gang; Li, Chong-he [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Special Casting Engineering Technology Research Center, Shanghai 201605 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Based on previous Ti-Al-Cr-Mn quaternary system thermodynamic database, a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti-6.0Al-4.5Cr-1.5Mn alloy was designed and successfully prepared by the water-cooled copper crucible. Microscopic observation showed that both as-cast and annealing status consist of α phase, which coincides with the theoretical expectation. The mechanical properties at room temperature were measured and this alloy possesses good mechanical properties, its average yield-strength reaches 1051.5 MPa and tensile-strength is up to 1091.2 MPa while its average elongation is just 8.3%. Compared with the TA15, it has better mechanical strength and worse elongation. In the new alloy Laves phase Cr{sub 2}Ti were detected by XRD pattern and TEM, which may cause the alloy's poor plasticity.

  8. Hyperfine interactions in dilute Se doped Fe{sub x}Sb{sub 1−x} bulk alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Mitesh, E-mail: miteshsarkar-msu@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Naveen [The M. S. University of Baroda, Department of Physics (India); Chawda, Mukesh [Polytechnic, The M. S. University of Baroda, Department of Applied Physics (India)

    2016-12-15

    Hyperfine Interaction technique like Moessbauer spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool to study the local probe interactions in Iron doped alloys and compounds. We report here the Moessbauer study of the effect of Fe concentration variations in dilute magnetic semiconducting Se{sub 0.004}Fe{sub x}Sb{sub 1−x} alloys for x = 0.002, 0.004 and 0.008. The materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), Neutron depolarization and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The FTIR result shows the semiconducting behavior of the alloys with band gap of 0.18 eV. From Moessbauer spectroscopy two magnetic sites (A and B) were observed. The value of hyperfine magnetic fields (HMF) of ∼ 308 kOe (site A) and 270 kOe (site B) was constant with increase in Fe concentration. A nonmagnetic interaction was also observed with quadrupole splitting (QS) of 1.26 mm/sec (site C) for x = 0.004 and x = 0.008. The Neutron depolarization studies indicate that the clusters of Fe or Fe based compounds having net magnetic moments with a size greater than 100 Å is absent.

  9. Hydrogen effects in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Dexter, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The permeability of six commercial aluminum alloys to deuterium and tritium was determined by several techniques. Surface films inhibited permeation under most conditions; however, contact with lithium deuteride during the tests minimized the surface effects. Under these conditions phi/sub D 2 / = 1.9 x 10 -2 exp (--22,400/RT) cc (NTP)atm/sup -- 1 / 2 / s -1 cm -1 . The six alloys were also tested before, during, and after exposure to high pressure hydrogen, and no hydrogen-induced effects on the tensile properties were observed

  10. XPS study on Mg0.9-xTi0.1PdxNi (x = 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1) hydrogen storage electrode alloys after charge-discharge cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Qifeng; Zhang Yao; Wu Yuanxin

    2009-01-01

    The passive film composition of Mg 0.9-x Ti 0.1 Pd x Ni (x = 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1) hydrogen storage alloys after 40 charge-discharge cycles has been investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in combination with Ar + sputtering technology. With the XPSPEAK software, high resolution spectra of alloy elements and oxygen were deconvolved into individual peaks. Composites formed by metal elements and their relative contents were also deduced. It was found that the composites originated from Mg and Ni were mainly in the form of their oxides and hydroxides, which existed at the top surface of alloys. With the increase of sputtering depth, the hydroxides of Mg and Ni gradually disappeared while corresponding oxides dominated their passive products. According to the analysis results of oxygen spectra, the elemental segregation of Mg and Ni was influenced by the substitution of Pd because the addition of Pd slightly enhanced the surface energy of the alloys and suppressed the formation of Mg hydroxide and oxide. Ti and Pd presented multiple-oxides from the surface to the inner alloys and metallic Pd appeared in the sub-layers of the alloys' surface. The possible mechanisms of the formation of passive products were suggested on the basis of the discussion in the paper.

  11. Phase transformations in ion-mixed metastable (GaSb)1/sub 1 -x/(Ge2)/sub x/ semiconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadien, K.C.; Muddle, B.C.; Greene, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Low energy (75--175 eV) Ar + ion bombardment during film deposition has been used to produce well-mixed amorphous GaSb/Ge mixtures which, when annealed, transform first to single phase polycrystalline metastable (GaSb)/sub 1-x/(Ge 2 )/sub x/ alloys before eventually transforming to the equilibrium two-phase state. At 500 0 C, for example, the annealing time t/sub a/ required for the amorphous to crystalline metastable (ACM) transformation was approx.10 min, while t/sub a/ for the crystalline metastable to equilibrium (CME) transformation was >6 h. The exothermic enthalpy of crystallization and the onset temperature of the ACM transition were determined as a function of alloy composition using differential thermal analysis. The thermodynamic data was then used to calculate the surface energy per unit area sigma of the amorphous/metastable-crystal interface. sigma was found to exhibit a minimum between x = 0.3 and 0.4. The driving energy for the transition from the crystalline metastable state to the equilibrium two-phase state was of the order of 0.12 kJ cm -3 while the activation barrier was approx.19 kJ cm -3 . Thus, the metastable alloys, which had average grain sizes of 100--200 nm and a lattice constant which varied linearly with x, exhibited good thermal and temporal stability

  12. Rapid Synthesis of Highly Monodisperse Au x Ag 1− x Alloy Nanoparticles via a Half-Seeding Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Chng, Ting Ting

    2011-05-03

    Gold-silver alloy AuxAg1-x is an important class of functional materials promising new applications across a wide array of technological fields. In this paper, we report a fast and facile synthetic protocol for preparation of highly monodisperse AuxAg1-x alloy nanoparticles in the size range of 3-6 nm. The precursors employed in this work are M(I)-alkanethiolates (M = Au and Ag), which can be easily prepared by mixing common chemicals such as HAuCl4 or AgNO3 with alkanethiols at room temperature. In this half-seeding approach, one of the M(I)-alkanethiolates is first heated and reduced in oleylamine solvent, and freshly formed metal clusters will then act as premature seeds on which both the first and second metals (from M(I)-alkanethiolates, M = Au and Ag) can grow accordingly without additional nucleation and thus achieve high monodispersity for product alloy nanoparticles. Unlike in other prevailing methods, both Au and Ag elements present in these solid precursors are in the same monovalent state and have identical supramolecular structures, which may lead to a more homogeneous reduction and complete interdiffusion at elevated reaction temperatures. When the M(I)-alkanethiolates are reduced to metallic forms, the detached alkanethiolate ligands will serve as capping agent to control the growth. More importantly, composition, particle size, and optical properties of AuxAg1-x alloy nanoparticles can be conveniently tuned with this approach. The optical limiting properties of the prepared particles have also been investigated at 532 and 1064 nm using 7 ns laser pulses, which reveals that the as-prepared alloy nanoparticles exhibit outstanding broadband optical limiting properties with low thresholds. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. First-principles calculations of structural, electronic and optical properties of CdxZn1-xS alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Noor, Naveed Ahmed; Ikram, Nazma; Ali, Sana Zulfiqar; Nazir, Safdar; Alay-E-Abbas, Syed Muhammad; Shaukat, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Structural, electronic and optical properties of ternary alloy system CdxZn1-xS have been studied using first-principles approach based on density functional theory. Electronic structure, density of states and energy band gap values for CdxZn1-xS

  14. On the causes of compositional order in the NicPt(1-c) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyorffy, B.L.; Staunton, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    We review, briefly, the arguments which gave rise to the current controversy concerning the origin of compositional order in Ni c Pt 1-c alloys. We note that strain fluctuations play an important role in determining the state of compositional order in this system and outline a theoretical framework that takes account of them. 29 refs., 4 figs

  15. Microstructure and electrochemical corrosion behavior of a Pb-1 wt%Sn alloy for lead-acid battery components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Leandro C.; Osorio, Wislei R.; Garcia, Amauri [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, PO Box 612, 13083-970, Campinas - SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of solidification cooling rates on the as-cast microstructural morphologies of a Pb-1 wt%Sn alloy, and to correlate the resulting microstructure with the corresponding electrochemical corrosion resistance in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 25 C. Cylindrical low-carbon steel and insulating molds were employed permitting the two extremes of a significant range of solidification cooling rates to be experimentally examined. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) diagrams, potentiodynamic polarization curves and an equivalent circuit analysis were used to evaluate the electrochemical corrosion response of Pb-1 wt%Sn alloy samples. It was found that lower cooling rates are associated with coarse cellular arrays which result in better corrosion resistance than fine cells which are related to high cooling rates. The experimental results have shown that that the pre-programming of microstructure cell size of Pb-Sn alloys can be used as an alternative way to produce as-cast components of lead-acid batteries with higher corrosion resistance. (author)

  16. Effect of electrical discharge machining on uranium-0.75 titanium and tungsten-3.5 nickel-1.5 iron alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-06-01

    It was found that U--0.75 Ti alloy cracked if the EDM parameters were out of control, and precipitation of carbides adjacent to the EDM surface took place during subsequent solution quenching. Cracks form in the ''recast'' layer when solution-quenched U--0.75 Ti alloy undergoes EDM, and the cracks propagated during subsequent nickel plating. If the recast layer was removed prior to nickel plating, only a slight loss in strength resulted, compared to conventional machining. W--3.5 Ni--1.5 Fe alloy also sustained some surface damage during EDM and also experienced a small loss in strength compared to conventionally machined material. 12 figures, 4 tables

  17. Ab initio studies of Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szwacki, N. Gonzalez, E-mail: gonz@fuw.edu.pl; Majewski, Jacek A., E-mail: jam@fuw.edu.pl

    2016-07-01

    We present results of extensive theoretical studies of Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} Heusler alloys, which have been performed in the framework of density functional theory employing the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave scheme. It is shown that the Si-rich alloys are more resistive to structural disorder and as a consequence Si stabilizes the L2{sub 1} structure. Si alloying changes position of the Fermi level, pushing it into the gap of the minority spin-band. It is also shown that the hyperfine field on Co nuclei increases with the Si concentration, and this increase originates mostly from the changes in the electronic density of the valence electrons. - Highlights: • GGA+U calculations: μ and E{sub g} dependence on the value of U for Co{sub 2}FeAl and Co{sub 2}FeSi. • Behavior of magnetic hyperfine fields on the Co site of Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} versus x. • DFT proof of suppression of formation of antisites defects with x in Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1−x}Si{sub x}.

  18. Study of corrosion kinetics of fuel element tubes from calcium-thermal zirconium alloy Zr1Nb in water at 350 degree C and in vapour at 400 and 500 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petel'guzov, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the report brought results of corrosion process studies in water medium of pipe samples for fuel element shells from Zr1Nb alloy (earlier KTZ-110),made from the calcium-thermal zirconium alloys developed in the Ukraine of technology and,for the comparison,samples of pipes from the staff alloy E110, applicable in fuel elements acting reactors of type WWER. Tests were conducted under the working temperature of fuel shells in the reactor (350 degree C) in during of 14000 hours and under increased temperatures (400 degree C) within a time acordinly 4000 hours. Samples from the alloy Zr1Nb had more high contents of oxygen (before 0,12%...0,16%), than staff alloy Eh110 (0,08%O). Studies have shown sufficiently high corrosion stability of experimental alloy Zr1Nb, close to stability of alloy E110.Discovered signs of corrosion 'breakway' or 'transition' on kinetic corrosion curves of Zr1Nb alloys and E110 alloy, characterisating zircaloy type of alloy. Considered mechanism of influence of oxygen on the corrosion process of zirconium alloys with the additive a niobium

  19. Characterization and corrosion behaviour of CoNi alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera, S.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Palomares, F.J.; Salas, E.; Arce, E.M.; Herrasti, P.

    2014-01-01

    CoNi alloys including Co 30 Ni 70 , Co 50 Ni 50 and Co 70 Ni 30 were prepared via mechanical alloying using Co and Ni powders. The crystallinity and short-range order were studied using X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the milling process increases the number of vacancies, especially around the Co atoms, while the milling time decreases the crystalline size and enhances the crystallinity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterise the chemical composition of the samples surface. The magnetic properties were analysed using zero-field cooling, field cooling and a magnetic hysteresis loops. The magnetic saturation moment is approximately 1.05 μ B /atom; this value decreases with the mechanical alloying time, and it is proportional to the cobalt concentration. The polarization and impedance curves in different media (NaCl, H 2 SO 4 and NaOH) showed similar corrosion resistance values. The corrosion resistance increased in the order NaCl, H 2 SO 4 and NaOH. A good passivation layer was formed in NaOH due to the cobalt and nickel oxides on the particle surfaces. - Highlights: • Ni x Co 100-x alloys were synthesized by mechanical alloying • Milling time decrease size and enhances crystallinity. • Oxygen is not present in a significant percentage in bulk but is detected on the surface. • Magnetic saturation moment is 1.05 mB/atom and decrease with mechanical allowing time • Corrosion resistance is higher in NaOH than in NaCl or HCl solutions

  20. The Method of Measured Electrical Resistivity in Studying Phase Transformations in Zr1Nb Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsina, V.M.; Klimenko, S.P.; Chernyaeva, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    The paper systematically arranges and analyzes the data on the methods of research into α ↔ β transformation process in zirconium alloys, as well as capabilities and information provided by each method. A special emphasis is put on the method of measured electrical resistivity. The authors also present the results of their own research into α ↔ β transformation process in Zr1Nb alloy (in the material of Zr+1% Nb tubing produced in Ukraine from calciothermal zirconium). The ρ →T curve was used to define the maximum and minimum values for transformation temperatures. Combined processing of the phase data on Zr+1% Nb found in literature and obtained from measured resistivity suggests that transformation process happens in several stages. The maximum value on the ρ → T curve corresponds to the beginning of stage 3, whereas the minimum - to its completion; as suggested by the pooled data, accounts for over 95% of the total volume of the material

  1. Overcoming Limitations in Semiconductor Alloy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Theresa Marie

    Inorganic semiconductors provide an astonishingly versatile, robust, and efficient platform for optoelectronic energy conversion devices. However, conventional alloys and growth regimes face materials challenges that restrict the full potential of these devices. Novel alloy designs based on isoelectronic co-doping, metamorphic growth and controllable atomic ordering offer new pathways to practical and ultra-high-efficiency optoelectronic devices including solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Abnormal isoelectronic alloys of GaP1-xBix, GaP 1-x-yBixNy, and GaAs1-xBix with unprecedented bismuth incorporation fractions and crystalline quality are explored in this thesis research. Comparative studies of several GaP1-xBix and GaP1-x-yBixNy alloys demonstrate that the site-specific incorporation of bismuth during epitaxial growth is sensitive to growth temperature and has dramatic effects on carrier transfer processes in these alloys. Additionally, distinctive bismuth-related localized states are spectrally identified for the first time in samples of GaAs1-xBix grown by laser-assisted epitaxial growth. These results address fundamental questions about the nature of bismuth-bismuth inter-impurity interactions. Finally, a metamorphic growth strategy for a novel light-emitting diode (LED) design is also discussed. This work utilized direct-bandgap AlxIn1-xP active layers with atomic ordering-based electron confinement to improve emission in the yellow and green spectral regions, where incumbent technologies are least effective, and demonstrated the feasibility of non-lattice-matched LED active materials for visible light emission.

  2. Low in reactor creep Zr-base alloy tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheadle, B.A.; Holt, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to zirconium alloy tubes especially for use in nuclear power reactors. More particularly it relates to quaternary 3.5 percent Sn, 1 percent Mo, 1 percent Nb, balance Zr alloy tubes which have been extruded, cold worked and heat treated to lower their dislocation density. In one embodiment the alloys are cold worked less than 5 percent and stress relieved to produce a low dislocation density and in another embodiment the alloys are cold worked up to about 50 percent and annealed to produce a very low dislocation density and also small equiaxed β grains

  3. Effect of Al content on structure and mechanical properties of the Al{sub x}CrNbTiVZr (x = 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1) high-entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurchenko, N.Yu. [Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Stepanov, N.D., E-mail: stepanov@bsu.edu.ru [Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Shaysultanov, D.G. [Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Tikhonovsky, M.A. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, NAS of Ukraine, Kharkov, 61108 (Ukraine); Salishchev, G.A. [Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    In present study, structure and mechanical properties of the Al{sub x}CrNbTiVZr (x = 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1) high-entropy alloys after arc melting and annealing at 1200 °C for 24 h are investigated. The CrNbTiVZr alloy is composed of body centered cubic (bcc) and C15 (face centered cubic) Laves phases while the Al{sub x}CrNbTiVZr (x = 0.25; 0.5; 1) alloys consist of bcc and two C14 (hexagonal close packed) Laves phases with different chemical compositions. Thermodynamic modeling predicts existence of two phases – bcc and C15 Laves phase and broadening of single bcc phase field due to Al addition. The density of the alloys decreases with the increase of Al content. The alloys are found to be extremely brittle at room temperature and 600 °C. The alloys have high strength at temperatures of 800–1000 °C. For example, yield strength at 800 °C increases from 440 MPa for the CrNbTiVZr alloy to 1250 MPa for the AlCrNbTiVZr alloy. The experimental phase composition of the Al{sub x}CrNbTiVZr alloys is compared with predicted equilibrium phases and the factors governing the transformation of C15 to C14 Laves phases due to Al addition to the CrNbTiVZr alloy analyzed. Specific properties of the alloys are compared with other high-entropy alloys and commercial Ni-based superalloys. - Highlights: •Al{sub x}CrNbTiVZr (x = 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1) alloys are arc melted and annealed at 1200 °C. •The CrNbTiVZr alloy has bcc and C15 Laves phases. •The Al-containing alloys are composed of bcc and two C14 Laves phases. •The alloys demonstrate high specific strength at temperatures of 800 °C and 1000 °C. •The strength of the alloys increases in proportion with increase of Al content.

  4. Prevention of pin tract infection with titanium-copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Toshiharu; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Tohru; Ohtani, Kaori; Zen, Yo; Tomita, Katsuro

    2009-10-01

    The most frequent complication in external fixation is pin tract infection. To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, many published reports have looked at preventing bacterial adhesion by treating the pin surface. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a Titanium-Copper (Ti-Cu) alloy on implant infection, and to determine the potential use of the Ti-Cu alloy as a biomaterial. Two forms of Ti-Cu alloys were synthesized: one with 1% Cu and the other with 5% Cu. For analyzing infectious behavior, the implants were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The reaction of pathogens to the Ti-Cu alloys was compared with their reaction to stainless steel and pure titanium as controls. Both Ti-Cu alloys evidently inhibited colonization by both bacteria. Conversely, cytocompatibility studies were performed using fibroblasts and colony formation on the metals was assessed by counting the number of colonies. Ti-1% Cu alloy showed no difference in the number of colonies compared with the control. External fixator pins made of Ti-Cu alloys were evaluated in a rabbit model. The tissue-implant interactions were analyzed for the presence of infection, inflammatory changes and osteoid-formation. Ti-1% Cu alloy significantly inhibited inflammation and infection, and had excellent osteoid-formation. Copper blood levels were measured before surgery and at 14 days postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative blood copper values were not statistically different. Overall, it was concluded that Ti-Cu alloys have antimicrobial activity and substantially reduce the incidence of pin tract infection. Ti-1% Cu alloy shows particular promise as a biomaterial. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Corrosion behaviour of sensitized and unsensitized Alloy 900 (UNS 1.4462) in concentrated aqueous lithium bromide solutions at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva-Garcia, R.; Munoz-Portero, M.J.; Garcia-Anton, J.

    2010-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels can undergo microstructural changes if they are heated improperly. When that happens, duplex stainless steels are sensitized and intermetallic phases appear. The high Chromium and Molybdenum content promotes the formation of secondary phases as a consequence of the heat treatment. These secondary phases, which are rich in alloying elements, such as Cr and Mo, deplete these elements from the neighbouring phases, leading to a reduction in corrosion resistance. In order to study the influence of the secondary phases on the corrosion parameters, samples of duplex stainless steel, Alloy 900 (UNS 1.4462), have been heated in argon atmosphere at 825 deg. C for 1 h. The corrosion behaviour of sensitized and unsensitized Alloy 900 has been analyzed in a concentrated aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr) solution of 992 g/L by means of cyclic potentiodynamic curves. Secondary phase presence reduces the pitting potential value of Alloy 900. Besides, the pitting potential decreases with temperature. On the other hand, the corrosion potential and open circuit potential values increase with temperature and sensitization.

  6. Surface modification of 5083 Al alloy by electrical discharge alloying processing with a 75 mass% Si-Fe alloy electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambekova, Kuralay [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Rd., Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hung-Mao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Far East University, No. 49, Zhonghua Rd., Xinshi Dist., Tainan City 74448, Taiwan (China); Uan, Jun-Yen, E-mail: jyuan@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Rd., Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-01

    This study experimentally investigates the surface modification of 5083 Al alloy by the electrical discharge alloying (EDA) process with a Si-Fe alloy as an electrode. Samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-hardness and corrosion resistance tests. The micro-hardness of EDA alloyed layer was evidently higher than that of the base metal (5083 Al alloy). The TEM results show that the matrix of the alloyed layer has an amorphous-like structure; the matrix contains fine needle-like Si particles, block-like Si particles and nano-size Al{sub 4.5}FeSi and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} particles. The TEM results support experimental results for the high hardness of the alloyed layer. Moreover, the EDA alloyed layer with composite microstructures has good corrosion resistance in NaCl aqueous solution.

  7. Characterization of Tubing from Advanced ODS alloy (FCRD-NFA1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew; Aydogan, Eda; Anderoglu, Osman; Lavender, Curt; Anderson, Iver; Rieken, Joel; Lewandowski, John; Hoelzer, Dave; Odette, George R.

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication methods are being developed and tested for producing fuel clad tubing of the advanced ODS 14YWT and FCRD-NFA1 ferritic alloys. Three fabrication methods were based on plastically deforming a machined thick-wall tube sample of the ODS alloys by pilgering, hydrostatic extrusion or drawing to decrease the outer diameter and wall thickness and increase the length of the final tube. The fourth fabrication method consisted of the additive manufacturing approach involving solid-state spray deposition (SSSD) of ball milled and annealed powder of 14YWT for producing thin-wall tubes. Of the four fabrication methods, two methods were successful at producing tubing for further characterization: production of tubing by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray forming and production of tubing using high-temperature hydrostatic extrusion. The characterization described shows through neutron diffraction the texture produced during extrusion while maintaining the beneficial oxide dispersion. In this research, the parameters for innovative thermal spray deposition and hot extrusion processing methods have been developed to produce the final nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) tubes having approximately 0.5 mm wall thickness. Effect of different processing routes on texture and grain boundary characteristics has been investigated. It was found that hydrostatic extrusion results in combination of plane strain and shear deformations which generate rolling textures of ?- and ?-fibers on and together with a shear texture of ?-fiber on and . On the other hand, multi-step plane strain deformation in cross directions leads to a strong rolling textures of ?- and ?-fiber on together with weak ?-fiber on . Even though the amount of the equivalent strain is similar, shear deformation leads to much lower texture indexes compared to the plane strain deformations. Moreover, while 50% of hot rolling brings about a large number of high-angle grain boundaries (HAB), 44% of shear deformation results

  8. Characterization of Tubing from Advanced ODS alloy (FCRD-NFA1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aydogan, Eda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderoglu, Osman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lavender, Curt [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Iver [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Rieken, Joel [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Lewandowski, John [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hoelzer, Dave [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Odette, George R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Fabrication methods are being developed and tested for producing fuel clad tubing of the advanced ODS 14YWT and FCRD-NFA1 ferritic alloys. Three fabrication methods were based on plastically deforming a machined thick-wall tube sample of the ODS alloys by pilgering, hydrostatic extrusion or drawing to decrease the outer diameter and wall thickness and increase the length of the final tube. The fourth fabrication method consisted of the additive manufacturing approach involving solid-state spray deposition (SSSD) of ball milled and annealed powder of 14YWT for producing thin-wall tubes. Of the four fabrication methods, two methods were successful at producing tubing for further characterization: production of tubing by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray forming and production of tubing using high-temperature hydrostatic extrusion. The characterization described shows through neutron diffraction the texture produced during extrusion while maintaining the beneficial oxide dispersion. In this research, the parameters for innovative thermal spray deposition and hot extrusion processing methods have been developed to produce the final nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) tubes having approximately 0.5 mm wall thickness. Effect of different processing routes on texture and grain boundary characteristics has been investigated. It was found that hydrostatic extrusion results in combination of plane strain and shear deformations which generate rolling textures of α- and γ-fibers on {001}<110> and {111}<110> together with a shear texture of ζ-fiber on {011}<211> and {011}<011>. On the other hand, multi-step plane strain deformation in cross directions leads to a strong rolling textures of θ- and ε-fiber on {001}<110> together with weak γ-fiber on {111}<112>. Even though the amount of the equivalent strain is similar, shear deformation leads to much lower texture indexes compared to the plane strain deformations. Moreover, while 50% of hot rolling brings about a large number of

  9. Synthesis Of NiCrAlC alloys by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.K.; Pereira, J.I.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is the synthesis of nickel alloys (NiCrAlC), which has been proposed like a economic alternative to the Stellite family Co alloys using mechanical alloying, followed by sintering heat treatment of milled material. The NiCrAlC alloys consist of a chromium carbides dispersion in a Ni 3 Al intermetallic matrix, that is easily synthesized by mechanical alloying. The use of mechanical alloying enables higher carbides sizes and distribution control in the matrix during sintering. We are also investigated the compaction of the processed materials by compressibility curves. The milling products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the end product was featured by conventional metallography and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), that enabled the identification of desired phases, beyond microhardness test, which has been shown comparable to alloys manufactured by fusion after heat treating. (author)

  10. Comparison of brazed joints made with BNi-1 and BNi-7 nickel-base brazing alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorc, Borut

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of the processes are different with different types of brazing alloys. Precipitation processes in the parent metal close to the brazing gap are of great importance. They control the mechanical properties of the joint area when the brittle eutectic has disappeared from the gap. A comparative study of brazed joints on austenitic stainless alloys made with BNi-7 (Ni-P type and BNi-1 (Ni-Si-B type brazing alloys was made. Brazing alloys containing phosphorus behave in a different manner to those containing boron.

    Las aleaciones de níquel se producen mediante tres sistemas de aleación: Ni-P, Ni-Si y Ni-B. Durante las reacciones metalúrgicas con el metal de base, la eutéctica frágil en la separación soldada puede transformarse en la solución dúctil-sólida con todas aleaciones. La cinética del proceso varía según el tipo de aleación. Los procesos de precipitación en el metal de base cerca de la separación soldada son de mucha importancia, ya que controlan las propiedades mecánicas de la área de unión después de desaparecer la eutéctica frágil de la separación. Se ha hecho un análisis comparativo de uniones soldadas en aleaciones austeníticas inoxidables realizadas con aleaciones BNi-7 (tipo Ni-P y BNi-1 (tipo Ni-Si-B. Las aleaciones que contienen fósforo se comportan de una manera diferente, tanto con el cambio de la eutéctica a la solución sólida, como con los procesos de precipitación en el metal de base cerca de la unión soldada.

  11. Shape-memory effect in Ti-Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peradze, T.; Berikashvili, T.; Chelidze, T.; Gorgadze, K.; Bochorishvili, M.; Taktakishvili, M.

    2009-01-01

    The work deals with the investigation of the binary alloy of titanium with niobium and is aimed at demonstrating the functional-mechanical possibilities of Ti-Nb alloys from the viewpoint of their potential application in practice. The shape-memory effect, super elasticity and reactive stress in alloys of Ti-Nb system were studied. It turned out that the work carried out expanded the interval of Nb content in the investigated alloys from 25.9 to 33.1 wt%. The shape recovery made up not less than 90% at the deformation of 6-8%. The reactive stress reached 350-450 MPa. In the alloys under study another (high-temperature) shape-memory effect was found, and the influence of hydrogen and oxygen on the inelastic properties of alloys was studied. (author)

  12. Systematic corrosion investigation of various Cu-Sn alloys electrodeposited on mild steel in acidic solution: Dependence of alloy composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suerme, Yavuz, E-mail: ysurme@nigde.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Nigde University, 51200 Nigde (Turkey); Guerten, A. Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, 80000 Osmaniye (Turkey); Bayol, Emel; Ersoy, Ersay [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Nigde University, 51200 Nigde (Turkey)

    2009-10-19

    Copper-tin alloy films were galvanostatically electrodeposited on the mild steel (MS) by combining the different amount of Cu and Sn electrolytes at a constant temperature (55 deg. C) and pH (3.5). Alloy films were characterized by using the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micrographing techniques. Corrosion behaviours were evaluated with electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS) and electrochemical polarization measurements. Time gradient of electrolysis process was adjusted to obtain same thickness of investigated alloys on MS. The systematic corrosion investigation of various Cu{sub x}-Sn{sub 100-x} (x = 0-100) alloy depositions on MS substrate were carried out in 0.1 M sulphuric acid medium. Results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the alloy coatings depended on the alloy composition, and the corrosion resistance increased at Cu-Sn alloy deposits in proportion to Sn ratio.

  13. Phase transformations on Zr-Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Sergio Norifumi

    1980-01-01

    This research intended the laboratory scale experimental development of Zr-Nb alloys with adequate characteristics for use as fuel element cladding or for the making of irradiation capsules. Zr-Nb alloys with different Nb contents were melted and the resulting material was characterised. The following metallurgical aspects were considered: preparation of Zr-Nb alloys with various Nb contents; heat and thermomechanical treatments; microstructural characterization; mechanical properties; oxidation properties. The influence of the heat treatment and thermomechanical treatment, on the out-of-pile mechanical and oxidation properties of the Zr-Nb alloys were studied. It was found that the alloy microhardness increases with the Nb content and/or with the thermomechanical treatment. Mechanical properties such as yield and ultimate tensile strength as well as elongation were determined by means of compression tests. The results showed that the alloy yield stress increases with the Nb content and with the thermomechanical treatment, while its elongation decreases. Thermogravimetric analysis determined the alloy oxidation kinetics, in the 400 - 800 deg C interval, at 1 atm. oxygen pressure. The results showed that the alloy oxidation rate increases with the temperature and Nb content. It was also observed that the oxidation rate increases considerably for temperatures higher than 600 deg C.(author)

  14. Electronic structure of Mo1-x Re x alloys studied through resonant photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Shyam; Banik, Soma; Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Ganguli, Tapas; Lodha, G. S.; Pandey, Sudhir K.; Phase, D. M.; Roy, S. B.

    2016-08-01

    We studied the electronic structure of Mo-rich Mo1-x Re x alloys (0≤slant x≤slant 0.4 ) using valence band photoemission spectroscopy in the photon energy range 23-70 eV and density of states calculations. Comparison of the photoemission spectra with the density of states calculations suggests that, with respect to the Fermi level E F, the d states lie mostly in the binding energy range 0 to  -6 eV, whereas s states lie in the binding energy range  -4 to  -10 eV. We observed two resonances in the photoemission spectra of each sample, one at about 35 eV photon energy and the other at about 45 eV photon energy. Our analysis suggests that the resonance at 35 eV photon energy is related to the Mo 4p-5s transition and the resonance at 45 eV photon energy is related to the contribution from both the Mo 4p-4d transition (threshold: 42 eV) and the Re 5p-5d transition (threshold: 46 eV). In the constant initial state plot, the resonance at 35 eV incident photon energy for binding energy features in the range E F (BE  =  0) to  -5 eV becomes progressively less prominent with increasing Re concentration x and vanishes for x  >  0.2. The difference plots obtained by subtracting the valence band photoemission spectrum of Mo from that of Mo1-x Re x alloys, measured at 47 eV photon energy, reveal that the Re d-like states appear near E F when Re is alloyed with Mo. These results indicate that interband s-d interaction, which is weak in Mo, increases with increasing x and influences the nature of the superconductivity in alloys with higher x.

  15. Microstructure and magnetic behavior of Cu–Co–Si ternary alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying and isothermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabri, Sumit, E-mail: sumitchabri2006@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgy & Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Bera, S. [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713209 (India); Mondal, B.N. [Department of Central Scientific Services, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Basumallick, A.; Chattopadhyay, P.P. [Department of Metallurgy & Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Microstructure and magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline 50Cu–40Co–10Si (at%) alloy prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequent isothermal annealing in the temperature range of 450–650 °C have been studied. Phase evolution during mechanical alloying and isothermal annealing is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analyzer (DTA), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and magnetic measurement. Addition of Si has been found to facilitate the metastable alloying of Co in Cu resulting into the formation of single phase solid solution having average grain size of 9 nm after ball milling for 50 h duration. Annealing of the ball milled alloy improves the magnetic properties significantly and best combination of magnetic properties has been obtained after annealing at 550 °C for 1 h duration.

  16. Recovery of electron irradiated V-Ga alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguey, T.; Monge, M.; Pareja, R.; Hodgson, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    The recovery characteristics of electron-irradiated V-Ga alloys with 1.2 and 4.6 at.% Ga have been investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). It is found that vacancies created by electron irradiation become mobile in these alloys at ∼293 K. This temperature is noticeably lower than that in pure V and V-Ti alloys. The vacancies aggregate into microvoids in V-4.6Ga, but do not in V-1.2Ga. The results indicate that vacancies are bound to Ga-interstitial impurity pairs

  17. Ion scattering studies of ordered alloy surfaces: CuAu(1 0 0) and NiAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beikler, R.; Taglauer, E.

    2000-01-01

    The composition and structure of alloy surfaces can differ from the corresponding bulk properties due to segregation and relaxation effects. We studied the (1 0 0) surface of the ordered alloy CuAu and amorphous Ni and Al by low-energy Ne + and Na + ion scattering. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by numerical simulations using the MARLOWE code. In the CuAu system a certain geometry was found to be very sensitive to Au presence in the 2nd layer. Comparison with MARLOWE results also allows to study variations in the ion yields arising from neutralization effects. By trajectory analysis ion survival probabilities are estimated for Ni and Al

  18. Narrow-gap physical vapour deposition synthesis of ultrathin SnS1-xSex (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) two-dimensional alloys with unique polarized Raman spectra and high (opto)electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Li, Yongtao; Guo, Jianhua; Ni, Muxun; Liao, Ming; Mo, Haojie; Li, Jingbo

    2018-05-10

    Here we report ultrathin SnS1-xSex alloyed nanosheets synthesized via a narrow-gap physical vapour deposition approach. The SnS1-xSex alloy presents a uniform quadrangle shape with a lateral size of 5-80 μm and a thickness of several nanometers. Clear orthorhombic symmetries and unique in-plane anisotropic properties of the 2D alloyed nanosheets were found with the help of X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and polarized Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, 2D alloyed field-effect transistors were fabricated, exhibiting a unipolar p-type semiconductor behavior. This study also provided a lesson that the thickness of the alloyed channels played the major role in the current on/off ratio, and the high ratio of 2.10 × 102 measured from a large ultrathin SnS1-xSex device was two orders of magnitude larger than that of previously reported SnS, SnSe nanosheet based transistors because of the capacitance shielding effect. Obviously enhanced Raman peaks were also found in the thinner nanosheets. Furthermore, the ultrathin SnS0.5Se0.5 based photodetector showed a highest responsivity of 1.69 A W-1 and a short response time of 40 ms under illumination of a 532 nm laser from 405 to 808 nm. Simultaneously, the corresponding highest external quantum efficiency of 392% and detectivity of 3.96 × 104 Jones were also achieved. Hopefully, the narrow-gap synthesis technique provides us with an improved strategy to obtain large ultrathin 2D nanosheets which may tend to grow into thicker ones for stronger interlayer van der Waals forces, and the enhanced physical and (opto)electrical performances in the obtained ultrathin SnS1-xSex alloyed nanosheets prove their great potential in the future applications for versatile devices.

  19. Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behaviors of Mg-5Y-1.5Nd Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumin Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of Mg-5Y-1.5Nd alloy was investigated after heat treatment. The microstructure and precipitation were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The weight loss rates of different samples were arranged as T6-24 h>T6-6 h>T6-14 h>as-cast>T4. The open circuit potential (OCP showed that T4 sample had a more positive potential than that of other samples. The potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the T6-24 h sample had the highest corrosion current density of 245.362 μA·cm−2, whereas the T4 sample had the lowest at 52.164 μA·cm−2. The EIS results confirmed that the heat treatment reduced the corrosion resistance for Mg-5Y-1.5Nd alloy, because the precipitations acted as the cathode of electrochemical reactions to accelerate the corrosion process. The corrosion rates of different samples were mainly determined by the amount and distribution of the precipitations. The precipitations played dual roles that depended on the amount and distribution. The presence of the phase in the alloys could deteriorate the corrosion performance as it could act as an effective galvanic cathode. Otherwise, a fine and homogeneous phase appeared to be a better anticorrosion barrier.

  20. Measurement and Analysis of Density of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; XIAO Feng; TAO Zainan; MuKai Kusuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The density of molten Ni-W alloys was measured with a modified pycnometric method. It is found that the density of the molten Ni- W alloys decreases with temperature rising, but increases with the increase of tungsten concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of molten Ni- W binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and tungsten concentration. The partial molar volume of tungsten in liquid Ni- W binary alloy has been calculated approximately as ( - 1.59+ 5.64 × 10-3 T) × 10-6m3 ·mol-1.

  1. Self-assembly of bimetallic AuxPd1-x alloy nanoparticles via dewetting of bilayers through the systematic control of temperature, thickness, composition and stacking sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Sundar; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Bastola, Sushil; Lee, Jihoon

    2018-03-01

    Bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) are attractive materials for various applications with their morphology and elemental composition dependent optical, electronic, magnetic and catalytic properties. This work demonstrates the evolution of AuxPd1-x alloy nanostructures by the solid-state dewetting of sequentially deposited bilayers of Au and Pd on sapphire (0001). Various shape, size and configuration of AuxPd1‑x alloy NPs are fabricated by the systematic control of annealing temperature, deposition thickness, composition as well as stacking sequence. The evolution of alloy nanostructures is attributed to the surface diffusion, interface diffusion between bilayers, surface and interface energy minimization, Volmer-Weber growth model and equilibrium configuration. Depending upon the temperature, the surface morphologies evolve with the formation of pits, grains and voids and gradually develop into isolated semi-spherical alloy NPs by the expansion of voids and agglomeration of Au and Pd adatoms. On the other hand, small isolated to enlarged elongated and over-grown layer-like alloy nanostructures are fabricated due to the coalescence, partial diffusion and inter-diffusion with the increased bilayer thickness. In addition, the composition and stacking sequence of bilayers remarkably affect the final geometry of AuxPd1‑x nanostructures due to the variation in the dewetting process. The optical analysis based on the UV–vis-NIR reflectance spectra reveals the surface morphology dependent plasmonic resonance, scattering, reflection and absorption properties of AuxPd1‑x alloy nanostructures.

  2. Tungsten wire-nickel base alloy composite development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Moracz, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W-Hf-C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/square meters (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics.

  3. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; Moore, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    In comparative corrosion tests, the corrosion resistance of an Australian tungsten alloy (95% W, 3.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe) was found to be superior to three other tungsten alloys and, under certain conditions, even more corrosion-resistant than pure tungsten. Corrosion resistance was evaluated after immersion in both distilled water and 5% sodium chloride solutions, and in cyclic humidity and salt mist environments. For all but the Australian alloy, the rate of corrosion in sodium chloride solution was markedly less than that in distilated water. In all cases, alloys containing copper had the greatest corrosion rates. Corrosion mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope, analysis of corrosion products and galvanic corrosion studies. For the alloys, corrosion was attributed primarily to a galvanic reaction. Whether the tungsten or binder phase of the alloy became anodic, and thus was attacked preferentially, depended upon alloy composition and corrosion environment. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  4. 1 Molar concentration hydrofluoric acid effect at 400 C in the corrosion resistance of alloys containing nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras P, H.

    1992-01-01

    Corrosion rate for pure nickel, Inconel 600 and Monel alloys in a 1 Molar hydrofluoric acid solution at a 40 0 C temperature were determined. For contrasting purposes both SAE 304 SS and SAE 316 SS were included. As expected these Stainless Steels do not show good corrosion performance in the solution used. Several expressions correlating the weight and thickness loss v/s time were obtained. In the particular case of Monel, up to 2.021 hours, two expressions for the weight loss and three expressions for the thickness loss were obtained with a close to 1,0 correlation coefficient value. The Monel showed the best overall corrosion performance among the tested alloys. (author)

  5. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-12-16

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors.

  6. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors

  7. Absence of intrinsic ferromagnetism in Zn1-xMnxO alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huawei; Shi Erwei; Chen Zhizhan; Liu Xuechao; Xiao Bing

    2006-01-01

    Zn 1-x Mn x O alloys, with different Mn concentrations, were prepared by the hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra demonstrate that Zn 2+ ions are homogeneously substituted by Mn 2+ ions without changing the ZnO wurtzite structure. The x = 0.02 and 0.04 samples are paramagnetic. When the Mn concentrations are increased to x = 0.08 and 0.10, the samples exhibit some ferromagnetism due to a secondary phase (Zn,Mn)Mn 2 O 4 . (letter to the editor)

  8. United modification of Al-24Si alloy by Al-P and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延峰; 刘相法; 王海梅; 王振卿; 边秀房; 张均艳

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of a new type of Al-P master alloy on Al-24Si alloys was investigated. It is foundthat excellent modification effect can be obtained by the addition of this new type of A1-P master alloy into Al-24Simelt and the average primary Si grain size is decreased below 47 μm from original 225 μm. It is also found that theTiC particles in the melt coming from Al8Ti2C can improve the modification effect of the Al-P master alloy. Whenthe content of TiC particles in the Al-24Si melt is 0.03 %, the improvement reaches the maximum and keeps steadywith increasing content of TiC particles. Modification effect occurs at 50 min after the addition of the Al-P master al-loy and TiC particles, and keeps stable with prolonging holding time.

  9. High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr, Mn) Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Průša, Filip; Bláhová, Markéta; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Kučera, Vojtěch; Bernatiková, Adriana; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Michalcová, Alena

    2016-11-30

    In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt %) alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined that the α-Al along with α-Al 15 (Fe,Cr)₃Si₂ or α-Al 15 (Fe,Mn)₃Si₂ phases were present, with dimensions below 130 nm. The highest hardness of 380 ± 7 HV5 was observed for the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloy, exceeding the hardness of the reference as-cast Al-12Si-1Cu-1 Mg-1Ni alloy (121 ± 2 HV5) by nearly a factor of three. Both of the prepared alloys showed exceptional thermal stability with the hardness remaining almost the same even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. Additionally, the compressive strengths of the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloys reached 869 MPa and 887 MPa, respectively, and had virtually the same values of 870 MPa and 865 MPa, respectively, even after 100 h of annealing. More importantly, the alloys showed an increase in ductility at 400 °C, reaching several tens of percent. Thus, both of the investigated alloys showed better mechanical properties, including superior hardness, compressive strength and thermal stability, as compared to the reference Al-10Si-1Cu-1Mg-1Ni alloy, which softened remarkably, reducing its hardness by almost 50% to 63 ± 8 HV5.

  10. High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr, Mn) Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Průša, Filip; Bláhová, Markéta; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Kučera, Vojtěch; Bernatiková, Adriana; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Michalcová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt %) alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined that the α-Al along with α-Al15(Fe,Cr)3Si2 or α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phases were present, with dimensions below 130 nm. The highest hardness of 380 ± 7 HV5 was observed for the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloy, exceeding the hardness of the reference as-cast Al-12Si-1Cu-1 Mg-1Ni alloy (121 ± 2 HV5) by nearly a factor of three. Both of the prepared alloys showed exceptional thermal stability with the hardness remaining almost the same even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. Additionally, the compressive strengths of the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloys reached 869 MPa and 887 MPa, respectively, and had virtually the same values of 870 MPa and 865 MPa, respectively, even after 100 h of annealing. More importantly, the alloys showed an increase in ductility at 400 °C, reaching several tens of percent. Thus, both of the investigated alloys showed better mechanical properties, including superior hardness, compressive strength and thermal stability, as compared to the reference Al-10Si-1Cu-1Mg-1Ni alloy, which softened remarkably, reducing its hardness by almost 50% to 63 ± 8 HV5. PMID:28774094

  11. Influence of alloy microstructure on the microshear bond strength of basic alloys to a resin luting cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, José; Costa, José Ferreira; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Souza, Douglas Nesadal de; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of microstructure and composition of basic alloys on their microshear bond strength (µSBS) to resin luting cement. The alloys used were: Supreme Cast-V (SC), Tilite Star (TS), Wiron 99 (W9), VeraBond II (VBII), VeraBond (VB), Remanium (RM) and IPS d.SIGN 30 (IPS). Five wax patterns (13 mm in diameter and 4mm height) were invested, and cast in a centrifugal casting machine for each basic alloy. The specimens were embedded in resin, polished with a SiC paper and sandblasted. After cleaning the metal surfaces, six tygon tubes (0.5 mm height and 0.75 mm in diameter) were placed on each alloy surface, the resin cement (Panavia F) was inserted, and the excess was removed before light-curing. After storage (24 h/37°C), the specimens were subjected to µSBS testing (0.5 mm/min). The data were subjected to a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Turkey's test (α=0.05). After polishing, their microstructures were revealed with specific conditioners. The highest µSBS (mean/standard deviation in MPa) were observed in the alloys with dendritic structure, eutectic formation or precipitation: VB (30.6/1.7), TS (29.8/0.9), SC (30.6/1.7), with the exception of IPS (31.1/0.9) which showed high µSBS but no eutectic formation. The W9 (28.1/1.5), VBII (25.9/2.0) and RM (25.9/0.9) showed the lowest µSBS and no eutectic formation. It seems that alloys with eutectic formation provide the highest µSBS values when bonded to a light-cured resin luting cement.

  12. Welding of the VNZh7-3 alloy with the VT1-0 titanium by laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, M.S.; Voshchinskij, M.L.; Fedorov, P.M.; Shilov, I.F.; Zytner, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    Found is the principle possibility of the laser welding of dissimilar metals and the optimum welding mode as well with the testing of quality and strength indices of welded joints and with mode test on structural elements. The possibility of laser welding of the sintered VNZh 7-3 alloy with the VT1-0 titanium in argon is shown. Studied is the technique of forming of welded edge joint of the above dissimilar metals. Established is the optimum method of laser beam setting at an angle of 20 deg to the butt surface and with the shift by 1/3 of diameter of welded point in the titanium direction. Shear tests of elementary and natural samples have shown that real strength of welded joint exceeds the VT1-0 titanium strength. Macro- and microstructure of welded joints has layer-vortex alloy structure on the base of the VT1-0 titanium inclusion of tungsten grains that indicates the intensive mixing of metals during the welding

  13. Correlation between diffusion barriers and alloying energy in binary alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells.......In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells....

  14. The Effect of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of Mg-7Y-1.5Nd Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quantong Jiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of quenching on the corrosion resistance of Mg-7Y-1.5Nd alloy was investigated. The as-cast alloy was homogenized at 535 °C for 24 h, followed by quenching in air, water, and liquid nitrogen. Then, all of the samples were peak-aged at 225 °C for 14 h. The microstructures were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion behavior was analyzed by using weight loss rate and gas collection. Electrochemical characterizations revealed that the T4-deep cryogenic sample displayed the strongest corrosion resistance among all of the samples. A new square phase was discovered in the microstructure of the T6-deep cryogenic sample; this phase was hugely responsible for the corrosion property. Cryogenic treatment significantly improved the corrosion resistance of Mg-7Y-1.5Nd alloy.

  15. Microstructural evolution of direct chill cast Al-15.5Si-4Cu-1Mg-1Ni-0.5Cr alloy during solution treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Kezhun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment has important influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys. The most common used heat treatment method for these alloys is solution treatment followed by age-hardening. This paper investigates the microstructural evolution of a direct chill (DC cast Al-15.5Si-4Cu-1Mg-1Ni-0.5Cr alloy after solution treated at 500, 510, 520 and 530℃, respectively for different times. The major phases observed in the as-cast alloy are α-aluminum dendrite, primary Si particle, eutectic Si, Al7Cu4Ni, Al5Cu2Mg8Si6, Al15(Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu4Si2 and Al2Cu. The Al2Cu phase dissolves completely after being solution treated for 2 h at 500℃, while the eutectic Si, Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 and Al15(Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu4Si2 phases are insoluble. In addition, the Al7Cu4Ni phase is substituted by the Al3CuNi phase. The α-aluminum dendrite network disappears when the solution temperature is increased to 530℃. Incipient melting of the Al2Cu-rich eutectic mixture occurrs at 520℃, and melting of the Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 and Al3CuNi phases is observed at a solution temperature of 530℃. The void formation of the structure and deterioration of the mechanical properties are found in samples solution treated at 530℃.

  16. Improvement of high-temperature thermomechanical treatment of the rolled section made of VT3-1 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavze, A.L.; Korostelev, Yu.P.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in mechanical properties and structure are investigated in alloy VT3-1 rods produced with the use of high temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTMT) on their heating and deformation during straightening as well as during preliminary hot deformation of the billets on a helical rolling mill (HRM). It is stated that the straightening at 550-700 deg C with elongation of ∼ 2% results in some decrease of ultimate strength and in essential enhancement of plasticity and impact strength. In a similar manner, preliminary rolling on HRM affects the properties of rods after final heat treatment. It is shown that rod production according to the experimental processing procedure increases the quality of the rods and can be realized when manufacturing rolled products of alloy VT3-1 with the use of HTMT [ru

  17. Titanium alloys. Advances in alloys, processes, products and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsop, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The last few years have been a period of consolidation of existing alloys and processes. While the aerospace industry remains the principal driving force for alloy development, the paper illustrates examples of new markets being established in 'older' alloys, by a combination of product/process development and a re-examination of engineering design parameters. Considerable attention is still being directed towards the titanium aluminide systems, but other more conventional alloy developments are underway aimed at specific engineering and process requirements, both in the aerospace and non-aerospace sectors. Both the advanced high temperature and conventional alloy developments are considered, before the paper goes on to assess the potential of new processes and products, like spray-forming, metal matrix composites and shaped-plate rolling. (orig.)

  18. Effect of heat treatment on Fe-B-Si-Nb alloy powder prepared by mechanical alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Estevam Coelho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment on crystallization behavior of Fe73.5B15Si10Nb1.5 alloy powder prepared by mechanical alloying was studied. The powder samples were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA and for different milling times (1, 5, 25, 70 and 100 hours. Crystalline powders of iron, boron, silicon and niobium were sealed with tungsten carbide balls in a cylindrical vial under nitrogen atmosphere. The ball-to-powder weight ratio was 20 to 1. A Fritsch Pulverizette 5 planetary ball mill was used for MA the powders at room temperature and at 250 rpm. To study the microstructural evolution, a small amount of powder was collected after different milling times and examined by X-ray diffraction, using CuKalpha radiation (lambda = 0.15418 nm. The crystallization behavior was studied by differential thermal analysis, from 25 up to 1000 °C at a heating rate of 25 °C min-1.

  19. Bandgap engineering of Cu2CdxZn1−xSnS4 alloy for photovoltaic applications: A complementary experimental and first-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Zhen-Yu

    2013-11-11

    We report on bandgap engineering of an emerging photovoltaic material of Cu2CdxZn1-xSnS4 (CCZTS) alloy. CCZTS alloy thin films with different Cd contents and single kesterite phase were fabricated using the sol-gel method. The optical absorption measurements indicate that the bandgap of the kesterite CCZTS alloy can be continuously tuned in a range of 1.55-1.09 eV as Cd content varied from x = 0 to 1. Hall effect measurements suggest that the hole concentration of CCZTS films decreases with increasing Cd content. The CCZTS-based solar cell with x = 0.47 demonstrates a power conversion efficiency of 1.2%. Our first-principles calculations based on the hybrid functional method demonstrate that the bandgap of the kesterite CCZTS alloy decreases monotonically with increasing Cd content, supporting the experimental results. Furthermore, Cu2ZnSnS4/Cu 2CdSnS4 interface has a type-I band-alignment with a small valence-band offset, explaining the narrowing of the bandgap of CCZTS as the Cd content increases. Our results suggest that CCZTS alloy is a potentially suitable material to fabricate high-efficiency multi-junction tandem solar cells with different bandgap-tailored absorption layers. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  20. High-temperature deformation of a mechanically alloyed niobium-yttria alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, I.; Koss, D.A.; Howell, P.R.; Ramani, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing have been used to process two Nb alloys containing yttria particles, Nb-2 vol.%Y 2 O 3 and Nb-10 vol.%Y 2 O 3 . Similar to some thermomechanically processed nickel-based alloys, both alloys exhibit partially recrystallized microstructures, consisting of a 'necklace' of small recrystallized grains surrounding much larger but isolated, unrecrystallized, cold-worked grains. Hot compression tests from 1049 to 1347 C (0.5-0.6T MP ) of the 10% Y 2 O 3 alloy show that MA material possesses a much higher yield and creep strength than its powder-blended, fully recrystallized counterpart. In fact, the density-compensated specific yield strength of the MA Nb-10Y 2 O 3 exceeds that of currently available commercial Nb alloys. (orig.)

  1. Bond-length strain in buried Ga1-xInxAs thin-alloy films grown coherently on InP(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woicik, J.C.; Gupta, J.A.; Watkins, S.P.; Crozier, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    The bond lengths in a series of strained, buried Ga 1-x In x As thin-alloy films grown coherently on InP(001) have been determined by high-resolution extended x-ray absorption fine-structure measurements. Comparison with a random-cluster calculation demonstrates that the external in-plane epitaxial strain imposed by pseudomorphic growth opposes the natural bond-length distortions due to alloying.copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  2. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of the nickel base alloy (Alloy 600) after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Stela Maria de Carvalho

    1993-01-01

    The characterization of microstructural and mechanical properties of cold rolled and heat treated alloys 600 made in Brazil were investigated. The recovery and recrystallization behavior as well as solubilization and aging have been studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness and tensile testing have been carried out. The recovery process of the cold rolled alloy 600 occurred until 600 deg C and the recrystallization stage was situated between 600 and 850 deg C. The primary recrystallization temperature was obtained at 850 deg C after 1 hour (isochronal heat treatments). The aged alloy 600 shows carbide precipitation on grains bu with ductility maintenance. (author)

  3. Characterization and corrosion behaviour of CoNi alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera, S. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, México, D. F. (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sánchez-Marcos, J. [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Palomares, F.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM-CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Salas, E. [Spline Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, ESRF, BP 220-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Arce, E.M. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, México, D. F. (Mexico); Herrasti, P., E-mail: pilar.herrasti@uam.es [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    CoNi alloys including Co{sub 30}Ni{sub 70}, Co{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Co{sub 70}Ni{sub 30} were prepared via mechanical alloying using Co and Ni powders. The crystallinity and short-range order were studied using X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the milling process increases the number of vacancies, especially around the Co atoms, while the milling time decreases the crystalline size and enhances the crystallinity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterise the chemical composition of the samples surface. The magnetic properties were analysed using zero-field cooling, field cooling and a magnetic hysteresis loops. The magnetic saturation moment is approximately 1.05 μ{sub B}/atom; this value decreases with the mechanical alloying time, and it is proportional to the cobalt concentration. The polarization and impedance curves in different media (NaCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH) showed similar corrosion resistance values. The corrosion resistance increased in the order NaCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH. A good passivation layer was formed in NaOH due to the cobalt and nickel oxides on the particle surfaces. - Highlights: • Ni{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} alloys were synthesized by mechanical alloying • Milling time decrease size and enhances crystallinity. • Oxygen is not present in a significant percentage in bulk but is detected on the surface. • Magnetic saturation moment is 1.05 mB/atom and decrease with mechanical allowing time • Corrosion resistance is higher in NaOH than in NaCl or HCl solutions.

  4. Iron titanium manganase alloy hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, James J.; Wiswall, Jr., Richard H.

    1979-01-01

    A three component alloy capable of reversible sorption of hydrogen having the chemical formula TiFe.sub.1-x Mn.sub.x where x is in the range of about 0.02 to 0.5 and the method of storing hydrogen using said alloy.

  5. Electrocatalysis on bimetallic and alloy surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, M.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Bimetallic surfaces and alloys are well known to have unique catalytic properties for many important chemical transformations [1]. In electrocatalysis, bimetallic and alloy catalysts have been a particularly active area of research in relation to low-temperature fuel cells [2]. On the anode side,

  6. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  7. Structural, electronic, mechanical, thermal and optical properties of B(P,As)1-xNx; (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) alloys and hardness of B(P,As) under compression using DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, E.; Sundareswari, M.; Jayalakshmi, D. S.; Manjula, M.; Krishnaveni, S.

    2017-09-01

    First principles calculations are carried out in order to analyze the structural, electronic, mechanical, thermal and optical properties of BP and BAs compounds by ternary alloying with nitrogen namely B(P,As)1-xNx (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) alloys at ambient condition. Thereby we report the mechanical and thermal properties of B(P,As)1-xNx (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) alloys namely bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, hardness, ductile-brittle nature, elastic wave velocity, Debye temperature, melting point, etc.; optical properties of B(P)1-xNx (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) and B(As)1-xNx (x = 0.25, 0.75) alloys namely the dielectric function of real and imaginary part, refractive index, extinction coefficient and reflectivity and the hardness profile of the parent compounds BP and BAs under compression. The charge density plot, density of states histograms and band structures are plotted and discussed for all the ternary alloys of the present study. The calculated results agree very well with the available literature. Analysis of the present study reveals that the ternary alloy combinations namely BP.25N.75 and BAs.25N.75 could be superhard materials; hardness of BP and BAs increases with compression.

  8. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4 and aging (T6 heat treatment.The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH2 and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7, revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269, and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  9. Computational study of GaAs1-xNx and GaN1-yAsy alloys and arsenic impurities in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, K; Komsa, H-P; Arola, E; Rantala, T T; Nieminen, R M

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the structural and electronic properties of As-rich GaAs 1-x N x and N-rich GaN 1-y As y alloys in a large composition range using first-principles methods. We have systematically investigated the effect of the impurity atom configuration near both GaAs and GaN sides of the concentration range on the total energies, lattice constants and bandgaps. The N (As) atoms, replacing substitutionally As (N) atoms in GaAs (GaN), cause the surrounding Ga atoms to relax inwards (outwards), making the Ga-N (Ga-As) bond length about 15% shorter (longer) than the corresponding Ga-As (Ga-N) bond length in GaAs (GaN). The total energies of the relaxed alloy supercells and the bandgaps experience large fluctuations within different configurations and these fluctuations grow stronger if the impurity concentration is increased. Substituting As atoms with N in GaAs induces modifications near the conduction band minimum, while substituting N atoms with As in GaN modifies the states near the valence band maximum. Both lead to bandgap reduction, which is at first rapid but later slows down. The relative size of the fluctuations is much larger in the case of GaAs 1-x N x alloys. We have also looked into the question of which substitutional site (Ga or N) As occupies in GaN. We find that under Ga-rich conditions arsenic prefers the substitutional N site over the Ga site within a large range of Fermi level values

  10. Effect of Zn on the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg–7Gd–3Y–1Nd–0.5Zr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zhang, K., E-mail: zhkui@grinm.com; Li, X.G.; Yuan, J.W.; Li, Y.J.; Ma, M.L.; Shi, G.L.; Li, T.; Liu, J.B.

    2015-06-25

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg–7Gd–3Y–1Nd–xZn–0.5Zr (x=0, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) alloys have been investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectrum, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and tensile tests at room temperature (RT). Experimental results reveal that the microstructure of the alloy without Zn contains α-Mg and Mg{sub 5}RE phase, the microstructure of the alloy with 0.5% Zn consists of α-Mg, (Mg, Zn){sub 3}RE phase, Mg{sub 5}(RE, Zn) phase and stacking fault. The addition of 1% and 2% Zn results in the disappearance of the Mg{sub 5}(RE, Zn) phase, but the stacking fault can be seen more clearly. Moreover, a new block-like long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase is observed in grain boundaries with increasing Zn content up to 2%. TEM analyses indicate that the Mg{sub 5}RE, (Mg, Zn){sub 3}RE and Mg{sub 5}(RE, Zn) phases have a face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) structure with lattice constants of 2.22 nm, 0.73 nm and 2.23 nm, respectively. The new block-like LPSO phase belongs to 10H-type. The tensile tests at RT exhibit that the alloy containing 1% Zn shows the optimal mechanical properties and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS) and elongation are 187 MPa, 145 MPa and 3.1%, respectively. As indicated by fracture analyses, the fracture modes of the alloys with 0% and 0.5% Zn are typically intercrystalline fracture, whereas both intercrystalline and transcrystalline fractures are observed in the alloys with 1% and 2% Zn.

  11. Effect of structure and alloying elements on void formation in austenitic steels and nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, V.; Azam, N.; Le Naour, L.; Didout, G.; Delaplace, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the development of the fast breeder reactors the phenomenon of metal swelling due to the formation of radiation induced voids is a large problem. In the complex alloys small fluctuations in composition can have a considerable effect on swelling and a great deal of investigation on the effect of both major and minor alloying elements is needed to be able to predict swelling. To provide more insight a research program involving irradiation of both commercial or specially cast alloys by 500 keV Ni + ions or 1 MeV electrons has been developed. The major results are presented

  12. Viscosity of Ga-Li liquid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyaev, Dmitriy; Boretsky, Evgeny; Verkhorubov, Dmitriy

    2018-03-01

    The measurement of dynamic viscosity of Ga-Li liquid alloys has been performed using low-frequency vibrational viscometer at five temperatures in the range 313-353 K and four gallium-based dilute alloy compositions containing 0-1.15 at.% Li. It was found that the viscosity of the considered alloys increases with decreasing temperature and increasing lithium concentration in the above ranges. It was shown that dependence of the viscosity of Ga-Li alloys in the investigated temperature range has been described by Arrhenius equation. For this equation the activation energy of viscous flow and pre-exponential factor were calculated. This study helped to determine the conditions of the alkali metals separating process in gallam-exchange systems.

  13. Valence band structure of InAs(1-x)Bi(x) and InSb(1-x)Bi(x) alloy semiconductors calculated using valence band anticrossing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samajdar, D P; Dhar, S

    2014-01-01

    The valence band anticrossing model has been used to calculate the heavy/light hole and spin-orbit split-off energies in InAs(1-x)Bi(x) and InSb(1-x)Bi(x) alloy systems. It is found that both the heavy/light hole, and spin-orbit split E + levels move upwards in energy with an increase in Bi content in the alloy, whereas the split E - energy for the holes shows a reverse trend. The model is also used to calculate the reduction of band gap energy with an increase in Bi mole fraction. The calculated values of band gap variation agree well with the available experimental data.

  14. Microhardness of the YbxY1-xInCu4 alloy system: the of electronic structure on hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocko, M; Sarrao, J L; Stubicar, N; Aviani, I; Simek, Z; Stubicar, M

    2003-01-01

    We show that the Vickers microhardness, measured on flux grown single crystals of the Yb x Y 1-x InCu 4 alloy system, although sample dependent, exhibits clear concentration dependence; it increases with decreasing x. Such a dependence is not expected because the cubic lattice parameter increases with decreasing x and one expects then a decrease of hardness with decreasing x. Also, such a concentration dependence is in accordance with neither the Mott-Nabarro theory nor other known experimental results. We ascribe the observed dependence to the change of the electronic structure of the Yb x Y 1-x InCu 4 alloy system with x

  15. First principles examination of electronic structure and optical features of 4H-GaN1-xPx polytype alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laref, A.; Hussain, Z.; Laref, S.; Yang, J. T.; Xiong, Y. C.; Luo, S. J.

    2018-04-01

    By using first-principles calculations, we compute the electronic band structures and typical aspects of the optical spectra of hexagonally structured GaN1-xPx alloys. Although a type III-V semiconductor, GaP commonly possesses a zinc-blende structure with an indirect band gap; as such, it may additionally form hexagonal polytypes under specific growth conditions. The electronic structures and optical properties are calculated by combining a non-nitride III-V semiconductor and a nitride III-V semiconductor, as GaP and GaN crystallizing in a 4H polytype, with the N composition ranging between x = 0-1. For all studied materials, the energy gap is found to be direct. The optical properties of the hexagonal materials may illustrate the strong polarization dependence owing to the crystalline anisotropy. This investigation for GaN1-xPx alloys is anticipated to supply paramount information for applications in the visible/ultraviolet spectral regions. At a specific concentration, x, these alloys would be exclusively appealing candidates for solar-cell applications.

  16. Oxidation performance of V-Cr-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Uz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Vanadium-base alloys are being considered as candidates for the first wall in advanced V-Li blanket concepts in fusion reactor systems. However, a primary deterrent to the use of these alloys at elevated temperatures is their relatively high affinity for interstitial impurities, i.e., O, N, H, and C. The authors conducted a systematic study to determine the effects of time, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) in the exposure environment on O uptake, scaling kinetics, and scale microstructure in V-(4--5) wt.% Cr-(4--5) wt.% Ti alloys. Oxidation experiments were conducted on the alloys at pO 2 in the range of 5 x 10 -6 -760 torr (6.6 x 10 -4 -1 x 10 5 Pa) at several temperatures in the range of 350--700 C. Models that describe the oxidation kinetics, oxide type and thickness, alloy grain size, and depth of O diffusion in the substrate of the two alloys were determined and compared. Weight change data were correlated with time by a parabolic relationship. The parabolic rate constant was calculated for various exposure conditions and the temperature dependence of the constant was described by an Arrhenius relationship. The results showed that the activation energy for the oxidation process is fairly constant at pO 2 levels in the range of 5 x 10 -6 -0.1 torr. The activation energy calculated from data obtained in the air tests was significantly lower, whereas that obtained in pure-O tests (at 760 torr) was substantially higher than the energy obtained under low-pO 2 conditions. The oxide VO 2 was the predominant phase that formed in both alloys when exposed to pO 2 levels of 6.6 x 10 -4 to 0.1 torr. V 2 O 5 was the primary phase in specimens exposed to air and to pure O 2 at 760 torr. The implications of the increased O concentration are increased strength and decreased ductility of the alloy. However, the strength of the alloy was not a strong function of the O concentration of the alloy, but an increase in O concentration did cause a substantial decrease

  17. Relaxation resistance of heat resisting alloys with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdyka, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Relaxation resistance of refractory nickel-chromium alloys containing 5 to 14 % cobalt is under study. The tests involve the use of circular samples at 800 deg to 850 deg C. It is shown that an alloy containing 14% cobalt possesses the best relaxation resistance exceeding that of nickel-chromium alloys without any cobalt by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The relaxation resistance of an alloy with 5% cobalt can be increased by hardening at repeated loading

  18. Microstructure and Aging of Powder-Metallurgy Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experimental study of thermal responses and aging behaviors of three new aluminum alloys. Alloys produced from rapidly solidified powders and contain 3.20 to 5.15 percent copper, 0.24 to 1.73 percent magnesium, 0.08 to 0.92 percent iron, and smaller amounts of manganese, nickel, titanium, silicon, and zinc. Peak hardness achieved at lower aging temperatures than with standard ingot-metallurgy alloys. Alloys of interest for automobile, aircraft, and aerospace applications.

  19. Crystallographic orientation-spray formed hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium-silicon alloys have been wide accepted in the automotive, electric and aerospace industries. Preferred orientation is a very common condition for metals and alloys. Particularly, aluminium induces texture during the forming process. The preparation of an aggregate with completely random crystal orientation is a difficult task. The present work was undertaken to analyse the texture by X-ray diffraction techniques, of three spray formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Samples were taken from a billet of an experimental alloy (alloy 1 and were subsequently hot-rolled and cold-rolled (height reduction, 72% and 70%, respectively. The other used samples, alloys 2 and 3, were taken from cylinders liners. The results from the Laue camera showed texture just in the axial direction of alloy 3. The pole figures also indicated the presence of a typical low intensity deformation texture, especially for alloy 3. The spray formed microstructure, which is very fine, hinders the Al-Si texture formation during mechanical work.

  20. Steady state creep during metastable phase transition in Al-16 wt% Ag and Al-16 wt% Ag-0.1 wt% Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaf, G.H.; Youssef, S.B.; Mahmoud, M.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Physics

    1998-08-16

    The early stages of decomposition of Guinier-Preston zones (G.P. zones) in Al-16 wt% Ag and Al-16 wt% Ag-0.1 wt% Zr alloys were investigated through creep measurements and electron microscopy observations. It was found that the strengthening and softening of the alloys has been achieved during the formation of metastable phases (G.P. zones and {gamma}`-phase) in the ageing temperature range (428 to 498 K). TEM investigations confirmed that the addition of zirconium to the Al-Ag alloy accelerates the formation and coarsening of the metastable phases. The mean values of activation energy of both alloys were found to be equal to that quoted for precipitate-dislocation interactions. (orig.) 23 refs.

  1. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  2. Corrosion resistance of tantalum base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gypen, L.A.; Brabers, M.; Deruyttre, A.

    1984-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of substitutional Ta-Mo, Ta-W, Ta-Nb, Ta-Hf, Ta-Zr, Ta-Re, Ta-Ni, Ta-V, Ta-W-Mo, Ta-W-Nb, Ta-W-Hf and Ta-W-Re alloys has been investigated in various corrosive media, i.e. (1) concentrated sulfuric acid at 250 0 C and 200 0 C, (2) boiling hydrochloric acid of azeotropic composition, (3) concentrated hydrochloric acid at 150 0 C under pressure, (4) HF-Containing solutions and (5) 0.5% H 2 SO 4 at room temperature (anodisation). In highly corrosive media such as concentrated H 2 SO 4 at 250 0 C and concentrated HCl at 150 0 C tantalum is hydrogen embrittled, probably by stress induced precipitation of β-hydride. Both corrosion rate and hydrogen embrittlement in concentrated H 2 SO 4 at 250 0 C are strongly influenced by alloying elements. Small alloying additions of either Mo or Re decrease the corrosion rate and the hydrogen embrittlement, while Hf has the opposite effect. Hydrogen embrittlement in concentrated H 2 SO 4 at 250 0 C is completely eliminated by alloying Ta with 1 to 3 at % Mo (0.5 to 1.5 wt % Mo). These results can be explained in terms of oxygen deficiency of the Ta 2 O 5 film and the electronic structure of these alloys. (orig.) [de

  3. Development and evaluation of a magnesium-zinc-strontium alloy for biomedical applications--alloy processing, microstructure, mechanical properties, and biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ren-guo; Cipriano, Aaron F; Zhao, Zhan-yong; Lock, Jaclyn; Tie, Di; Zhao, Tong; Cui, Tong; Liu, Huinan

    2013-10-01

    A new biodegradable magnesium-zinc-strontium (Mg-Zn-Sr) alloy was developed and studied for medical implant applications. This first study investigated the alloy processing (casting, rolling, and heat treatment), microstructures, mechanical properties, and degradation properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). Aging treatment of the ZSr41 alloy at 175 °C for 8h improved the mechanical properties when compared to those of the as-cast alloy. Specifically, the aged ZSr41 alloy had an ultimate tensile strength of 270 MPa, Vickers hardness of 71.5 HV, and elongation at failure of 12.8%. The mechanical properties of the ZSr41 alloy were superior as compared with those of pure magnesium and met the requirements for load-bearing medical implants. Furthermore, the immersion of the ZSr41 alloy in SBF showed a degradation mode that progressed cyclically, alternating between pitting and localized corrosion. The steady-state average degradation rate of the aged ZSr41 alloy in SBF was 0.96 g/(m(2)·hr), while the pH of SBF immersion solution increased. The corrosion current density of the ZSr41 alloy in SBF solution was 0.41 mA/mm(2), which was much lower than 1.67 mA/mm(2) for pure Mg under the same conditions. In summary, compared to pure Mg, the mechanical properties of the new ZSr41 alloy improved while the degradation rate decreased due to the addition of Zn and Sr alloying elements and specific processing conditions. The superior mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the new ZSr41 alloy make it a promising alloy for next-generation implant applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Irradiation of copper alloys in FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, H.R.; Garner, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Nine copper-base alloys in thirteen material conditions have been inserted into the MOTA-18 experiment for irradiation in FFTF at approx.450 0 C. The alloy Ni-1.9Be is also included in this experiment, which includes both TEM disks and miniature tensile specimens

  5. Search for fully compensated ferrimagnet in Co substituted Mn2VGa alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deka, Bhargab; Singh, R.K.; Srinivasan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Crystallographic and magnetic properties of bulk (Mn 1−x Co x ) 2 VGa alloys with 0≤x≤0.50 are reported in this work. All the alloys exhibit stable L2 1 structure. Unit cell volume of this series of alloys decreased from 207.5 Å 3 to 195.1 Å 3 as x was increased from 0 to 0.50. All the alloys shows ferrimagnetic behavior with Curie temperature decreasing from 763 K to 367 K with increase in x. Saturation magnetization (M s ) measured for the alloys with x=0, 0.25 and 0.50 are 1.84 μ B /f.u., 0.85 μ B /f.u. and 0.30 μ B /f.u., respectively, as compared to the values of 2.00 μ B /f.u., 1.00 μ B /f.u. and 0 μ B /f.u., predicted by the Slater–Pauling (S–P) rule. While explaining the deviations in the M s from the values predicted by the S–P rule, a fully compensated ferrimagnet is expected in an alloy with total number of valance electrons of 24.1. - Highlights: • (Mn 1−x Co x ) 2 VGa alloys with highly ordered L2 1 structure has been obtained • With Co substitution, magnetization of (Mn 1-x Co x ) 2 VGa alloys reduces to 0.3= B /f.u. • Fully compensated ferrimagnet is expected in the alloy with 24.1 valance electrons

  6. TEM of nanostructured metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnthaler, H.P.; Waitz, T.; Rentenberger, C.; Mingler, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructuring has been used to improve the mechanical properties of bulk metals and alloys. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including atomic resolution is therefore appropriate to study these nanostructures; four examples are given as follows. (1) The early stages of precipitation at RT were investigated in an Al-Mg-Si alloy. By high resolution TEM it is shown that the precipitates lie on (0 0 1) planes having an ordered structure. (2) In Co alloys the fronts of martensitic phase transformations were analysed showing that the transformation strains are very small thus causing no surface relief. (3) Re-ordering and recrystallization were studied by in situ TEM of an Ni 3 Al alloy being nanocrystalline after severe plastic deformation. (4) In NiTi severe plastic deformation is leading to the formation of amorphous shear bands. From the TEM analysis it is concluded that the amorphization is caused by plastic shear instability starting in the shear bands

  7. Aluminum fin-stock alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.M.; Mutasher, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have long been used in the production of heat exchanger fins. The comparative properties of the different alloys used for this purpose has not been an issue in the past, because of the significant thickness of the finstock material. However, in order to make fins lighter in weight, there is a growing demand for thinner finstock materials, which has emphasized the need for improved mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The objective of this project is to determine the effect of iron, silicon and manganese percentage increment on the required mechanical properties for this application by analyzing four different aluminum alloys. The four selected aluminum alloys are 1100, 8011, 8079 and 8150, which are wrought non-heat treatable alloys with different amount of the above elements. Aluminum alloy 1100 serve as a control specimen, as it is commercially pure aluminum. The study also reports the effect of different annealing cycles on the mechanical properties of the selected alloys. Metallographic examination was also preformed to study the effect of annealing on the precipitate phases and the distribution of these phases for each alloy. The microstructure analysis of the aluminum alloys studied indicates that the precipitated phase in the case of aluminum alloys 1100 and 8079 is beta-FeAI3, while in 8011 it is a-alfa AIFeSi, and the aluminum alloy 8150 contains AI6(Mn,Fe) phase. The comparison of aluminum alloys 8011 and 8079 with aluminum alloy 1100 show that the addition of iron and silicon improves the percent elongation and reduces strength. The manganese addition increases the stability of mechanical properties along the annealing range as shown by the comparison of aluminum alloy 8150 with aluminum alloy 1100. Alloy 8150 show superior properties over the other alloys due to the reaction of iron and manganese, resulting in a preferable response to thermal treatment and improved mechanical properties. (author)

  8. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.F.; Zhou, F.Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are alloys and Ti-based alloys, the magnetic susceptibilities of the zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10−6 cm3·g−11.29 × 10−6 cm3·g−1 for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti–6Al–4V, ~3.5 × 10−6 cm3·g−1, CP Ti and Ti–6Al–7Nb, ~3.0 × 10−6 cm3·g−1), and one-sixth that of Co–Cr alloys (Co–Cr–Mo, ~7.7 × 10−6 cm3·g−1). Among the Zr–Ru alloy series, Zr–1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr–Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. PMID:27090955

  9. Energy gaps, effective masses and ionicity of AlxGa1-xSb ternary semiconductor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarissa, N.; Boucenna, M.; Saib, S.; Siddiqui, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    A pseudopotential calculation of the electronic structure of AlxGa1-xSb ternary alloys in the zinc-blende structure has been performed. The compositional dependence of energy gaps, electron and heavy hole effective masses and ionicity of the material system of interest have been examined and discussed. Special attention has been given to the effect of the alloy disorder on the direct (Γ-Γ) bandgap energy. It is found that all features of interest vary monotonically with increasing the Al concentration x. Besides, bandgap bowing parameters and extent of the direct-to-indirect bandgap transition have been determined. Our findings agree generally well with the data reported in the literature. Trends in ionicity are found to be consistent with the Phillips ionicity scale.

  10. Description of vibrational properties of random alloy ZnTe{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} within the percolation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souhabi, Jihane; Chafi, Allal; Kassem, Mohammed; Nassour, Ayoub; Gleize, Jerome; Postnikov, A.V.; Hugel, J.; Pages, Olivier [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1 Bd Arago, 57070 Metz (France)

    2009-05-15

    We discuss the classification of the phonon type behavior of semiconductor alloys as apparent in the Raman and infrared spectra, i.e. in terms of types (i) 1-bond{yields}1-mode and (ii) 2-bond{yields}1-mode (both covered by the Modified Random Element Isodisplacement model, operating at the macroscopic scale), and also (iii) the modified 2-mode type (exceptional), in the framework of the recent 1-bond{yields}2-mode percolation model based on a description of the alloy disorder at the mesoscopic scale. The leading systems of types (i) and (iii), i.e., InGaAs and InGaP, respectively, were earlier shown to obey the percolation model. The aim of this work is to investigate whether the percolation model further extends to the leading system of the last type (ii), i.e. ZnTeSe. With this end in view, we perform a careful re-examination of the Raman and infrared spectra of this alloy, as available in the literature. Special attention is awarded to the discussion and modeling of the puzzling multi-mode infrared reflectivity spectra. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Growth and properties of Al-rich InxAl1-xN ternary alloy grown on GaN template by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tae Su; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jong Ock; Jeong, Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Nagarajan, S; Lim, Kee Young; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2008-01-01

    An Al-rich In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy was grown on a GaN template by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The GaN template was fabricated on a c-plane sapphire with a low temperature GaN nucleation layer. The growth of the 300 nm thick In x Al 1-x N layer was carried out under various growth temperatures and pressures. The surface morphology and the InN molar fraction of the In x Al 1-x N layer were assessed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution x-ray diffraction, respectively. The AFM surface images of the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy exhibited quantum dot-like grains caused by the 3D island growth mode. The grains, however, disappeared rapidly by increasing diffusion length and mobility of the Al adatoms with increasing growth temperature and the full width at half maximum value of ternary peaks in HR-XRD decreased with decreasing growth pressure. The MOCVD growth condition with the increased growth temperature and decreased growth pressure would be effective to grow the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy with a smooth surface and improved quality. The optical band edge of In x Al 1-x N ternary alloys was estimated by optical absorbance and, based on the results of HR-XRD and optical absorbance measurements, we obtained the bowing parameter of the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy at b = 5.3 eV, which was slightly larger than that of previous reports

  12. Electroluminescence and phototrigger effect in single crystals of GaSxSe1-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyazym-Zade, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M.; Mokhtari, A. G.; Dadashova, V. V.; Agaeva, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of switching and electroluminescence as well as the interrelation between these effects in single crystals of GaS x Se 1-x alloys are detected and studied. It is established that the threshold voltage for switching depends on temperature, resistivity, and composition of alloys, and also on the intensity and spectrum of photoactive light. As a result, a phototrigger effect is observed; this effect arises under irradiation with light from the fundamental-absorption region. Electroluminescence is observed in the subthreshold region of the current-voltage characteristic; the electroluminescence intensity decreases drastically to zero as the sample is switched from a high-resistivity state to a low-resistivity state. Experimental data indicating that the electroluminescence and the switching effect are based on the injection mechanism (as it takes place in other layered crystals of the III-V type) are reported

  13. Mechanical and irradiation properties of zirconium alloys irradiated in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Oh Hyun; Eom, Kyong Bo; Kim, Jae Ik; Suh, Jung Min; Jeon, Kyeong Lak

    2011-01-01

    These experimental studies are carried out to build a database for analyzing fuel performance in nuclear power plants. In particular, this study focuses on the mechanical and irradiation properties of three kinds of zirconium alloy (Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) irradiated in the HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor), one of the leading multipurpose research reactors in the world. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were measured to determine the mechanical properties before and after irradiation, while irradiation growth was measured for the irradiation properties. The samples for irradiation testing are classified by texture. For the irradiation condition, all samples were wrapped into the capsule (07M-13N) and irradiated in the HANARO for about 100 days (E > 1.0 MeV, 1.1 10 21 n/cm 2 ). These tests and results indicate that the mechanical properties of zirconium alloys are similar whether unirradiated or irradiated. Alloy B has shown the highest yield strength and tensile strength properties compared to other alloys in irradiated condition. Even though each of the zirconium alloys has a different alloying content, this content does not seem to affect the mechanical properties under an unirradiated condition and low fluence. And all the alloys have shown the tendency to increase in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Transverse specimens of each of the zirconium alloys have a slightly lower irradiation growth tendency than longitudinal specimens. However, for clear analysis of texture effects, further testing under higher irradiation conditions is needed

  14. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  15. Visualization of direct contact heat transfer between water and molten alloy by neutron radiography. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Izumi; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Matsubayashi, Masahito.

    1997-01-01

    Design of an innovative Steam Generator (SG) for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) using liquid-liquid direct contact heat transfer has been developing. In this concept, the SG shell is filled with a molten alloy, which is heated by primary sodium. Water is fed into the high-temperature, molten alloy, and evaporates by direct contact heating. In order to obtain the fundamental information needed to discuss the heat transfer mechanisms of direct contact between the water and molten alloy, this phenomenon was observed by neutron radiography. JRR-3M thermal neutron radiography at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was used. This paper deals with the results of visualization of direct contact heat exchange in the molten alloy. (author)

  16. Quantitative analysis of Si1-xGex alloy films by SIMS and XPS depth profiling using a reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won Jin; Jang, Jong Shik; Lee, Youn Seoung; Kim, Ansoon; Kim, Kyung Joong

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative analysis methods of multi-element alloy films were compared. The atomic fractions of Si1-xGex alloy films were measured by depth profiling analysis with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Intensity-to-composition conversion factor (ICF) was used as a mean to convert the intensities to compositions instead of the relative sensitivity factors. The ICFs were determined from a reference Si1-xGex alloy film by the conventional method, average intensity (AI) method and total number counting (TNC) method. In the case of SIMS, although the atomic fractions measured by oxygen ion beams were not quantitative due to severe matrix effect, the results by cesium ion beam were very quantitative. The quantitative analysis results by SIMS using MCs2+ ions are comparable to the results by XPS. In the case of XPS, the measurement uncertainty was highly improved by the AI method and TNC method.

  17. Effect of 1.0% Ni on high-temperature impression creep and hardness of recycled aluminium alloy with high Fe content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, M.; Mazni, Noor; Prasada Rao, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Reported work focusses on the effect of 1.0% Ni addition on the microstructure, high- temperature impression creep and thereby the hardness of recycled Al-alloy containing >2wt% Fe, obtained from automotive scrap. Present studies have shown that the addition of 1.0% Ni have supress the formation of α-phase (Al5FeSi) by supressing the peritectic transformation of β-phase (Al8Fe2Si). Such suppression is found to improve the hardness and high-temperature impression creep of the recycled aluminium alloy.

  18. Preparation of nanocrystalline Ce1-xSmx(Fe,Co)11Ti by melt spinning and mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, H.; Bommer, L.; Huber, A. M.; Goll, D.; Weissgaerber, T.; Kieback, B.

    2017-04-01

    Permanent magnetic materials based on Ce(Fe, Co)12-xTix with the ThMn12 structure are promising candidates for replacing NdFeB magnets. Its intrinsic magnetic properties are not far below the values of Nd2Fe14B, and the high amount of Fe and the fact that Ce is much more abundant and less expensive than Nd encourages the reasonable interest in these compounds. Nanocrystalline magnetic material of the composition Ce1-xSmxFe11-yCoyTi (x=0-1 and y=0; 1.95) has been produced by both melt spinning and mechanical alloying. Alloys containing only Ce as rare earth element (x=0) show coercivities below 77 kA/m, while for x=1 Hc,J values up to 392 kA/m are reached. Coercivity shows rather an exponential than a linear dependence on the gradual substitution of Ce by Sm.

  19. Magnetic moment distribution in Co-V alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Magnetization and neutron scattering measurements were made on Co-V alloys containing 10, 15, and 20 at.% V to determine the local environment effects on the magnetic moment distribution in this system. The magnetization data agree with earlier results and suggest the presence of some hcp phase in the 10% sample. This was confirmed by the neutron data which showed both fcc and hcp phases in an approximate 4:1 volume ratio for this alloy. The other two samples were single phase fcc but the 15% alloy was disordered while the 20% alloy was ordered in the Cu 3 Au-type structure with the maximum order consistent with the concentration. In this ordered alloy, the excess Co occupies the V sites. These ''wrong sited'' Co atoms have 12 Co nearest neighbors and larger magnetic moments than the ''properly sited'' Co atoms which have an average of 8.8 Co nearest neighbors. The average moments associated with these two types of sites were determined from flipping-ratio measurements on the superlattice and fundamental reflections. The values obtained are 0.28 μ/sub B//Co for the proper-site atoms and 1.3 μ/sub B//Co for the wrong-site atoms. Average moments at the Co and V sites were determined from the diffuse scattering for the 10% and 15% alloys. The results are 1.38 μ/sub B//Co and -0.26 μ/sub B//V for the 10% sample and 1.05 μ/sub B//Co and -0.11 μ/sub B//V for the 15% sample

  20. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.

    1987-01-01

    Marko's rapid solidification technology was applied to processing high strength aluminum alloys. Four classes of alloys, namely, Al-Li based (class 1), 2124 type (class 2), high temperature Al-Fe-Mo (class 3), and PM X7091 type (class 4) alloy, were produced as melt-spun ribbons. The ribbons were pulverized, cold compacted, hot-degassed, and consolidated through single or double stage extrusion. The mechanical properties of all four classes of alloys were measured at room and elevated temperatures and their microstructures were investigated optically and through electron microscopy. The microstructure of class 1 Al-Li-Mg alloy was predominantly unrecrystallized due to Zr addition. Yield strengths to the order of 50 Ksi were obtained, but tensile elongation in most cases remained below 2 percent. The class 2 alloys were modified composition of 2124 aluminum alloy, through addition of 0.6 weight percent Zr and 1 weight percent Ni. Nickel addition gave rise to a fine dispersion of intermetallic particles resisting coarsening during elevated temperature exposure. The class 2 alloy showed good combination of tensile strength and ductility and retained high strength after 1000 hour exposure at 177 C. The class 3 Al-Fe-Mo alloy showed high strength and good ductility both at room and high temperatures. The yield and tensile strength of class 4 alloy exceeded those of the commercial 7075 aluminum alloy.

  1. Effect of heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an extruded Mg{sub 95.5}Y{sub 3}Zn{sub 1.5} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huan; Xue, Feng, E-mail: xuefeng@seu.edu.cn; Bai, Jing; Sun, Yangshan

    2013-11-15

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of the extruded Mg{sub 95.5}Y{sub 3}Zn{sub 1.5} alloy under different heat treatment were systematically investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and an electronic universal testing machine. The results show that the as-extruded alloy is composed of 18R LPSO stripes and α-Mg matrix with stacking faults (SFs) in it. The fine 14H LPSO lamellas are formed in α-Mg matrix near the areas of SFs during solution treatment at 500 °C for 8 h. A great number of fine β′ phases are precipitated in the α-Mg matrix of T6-treated (aging of the T4-treated alloy at 225 °C for 24 h) and T5-treated (aging of the as-extruded alloy at 225 °C for 32 h) alloys. Moreover, the SFs which were first observed in extruded alloy are retained in T5-staged specimen, and exhibit a cross arrangement with β′ precipitates. The absence of 14H LPSO phase in T5-treated alloy indicates that the 14H structure cannot be formed during aging at 225 °C. Tensile tests reveal that the presence of 14H lamellas improves the ductility of the alloy, but decreases the strength, suggesting that the 18R LPSO stripes are more effective in strengthening the alloy than 14H LPSO lamellas. The T6-staged alloy exhibits superior comprehensive mechanical properties with ultimate tensile strength of 358 MPa, tensile yield strength of 226 MPa and elongation of 6.1% at room temperature.

  2. Electrodeposition of engineering alloy coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lasse

    Nickel based electrodeposited alloys were investigated with respect to their deposition process, heat treatment, hardness, corrosion resistance and combined wear-corrosion resistance. The investigated alloys were Ni-B, Ni-P and Ni-W, which are not fully developed for industrial utilisation...... are written in brackets). Temperature and especially pH influenced the cathodic efficiency of the electrodeposition processes for Ni-W and Ni-P. Mass balance problems of the development alloy processes are identified.Heat treatment for one hour at approx. 350°C, 400°C and 600°C of electrodeposited Ni-B, Ni......-P and Ni-W, respectively, resulted in hardness values of approx. 1000 HV0.1 in the case of Ni-P(6), approx. 1100 HV0.1 in the case of Ni-W(40-53) and approx. 1300 HV0.1 in the case of Ni-B(5). Cracks, which emerged during electrodeposition and heat treatment, were observed on Ni-W and Ni-B.The corrosion...

  3. Interphase thermodynamic bond in heterogeneous alloys: effects on alloy properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.M.; Konovalov, Yu.V.; Yuferov, O.I.

    2005-01-01

    Inconsistency between a conventional thermodynamic description of alloys as a mechanical mixture of phases and a real alloys state as a common thermodynamic system in which there is a complicated physical-chemical phases interaction has been considered. It is supposed that in heterogeneous alloys (eutectic ones, for instance), so called interphase thermodynamic bond can become apparent due to a partial electron levels splitting under phase interaction. Thermodynamic description of phase equilibrium in alloys is proposed taking into account a thermodynamic bond for the system with phase diagram of eutectic type, and methods of the value of this bond estimation are presented. Experimental evidence (Al-Cu-Si, Al-Si-Mg-Cu, U-Mo + Al) of the effect of interphase thermodynamic bond on temperature and enthalpy of melting of alloys are produced as well as possibility of its effects on alloys electrical conduction, strength, heat and corrosion resistance is substantiated theoretically [ru

  4. Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu Solder Alloy Bearing Al for Electronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnawah, Dhafer Abdul-Ameer; Said, Suhana Binti Mohd; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Hoe, Teh Guan; Che, Fa Xing; Abood, Adnan Naama

    2012-08-01

    This work investigates the effects of 0.1 wt.% and 0.5 wt.% Al additions on bulk alloy microstructure and tensile properties as well as on the thermal behavior of Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) lead-free solder alloy. The addition of 0.1 wt.% Al reduces the amount of Ag3Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) particles and leads to the formation of larger ternary Sn-Ag-Al IMC particles. However, the addition of 0.5 wt.% Al suppresses the formation of Ag3Sn IMC particles and leads to a large amount of fine Al-Ag IMC particles. Moreover, both 0.1 wt.% and 0.5 wt.% Al additions suppress the formation of Cu6Sn5 IMC particles and lead to the formation of larger Al-Cu IMC particles. The 0.1 wt.% Al-added solder shows a microstructure with coarse β-Sn dendrites. However, the addition of 0.5 wt.% Al has a great effect on suppressing the undercooling and refinement of the β-Sn dendrites. In addition to coarse β-Sn dendrites, the formation of large Sn-Ag-Al and Al-Cu IMC particles significantly reduces the elastic modulus and yield strength for the SAC105 alloy containing 0.1 wt.% Al. On the other hand, the fine β-Sn dendrite and the second-phase dispersion strengthening mechanism through the formation of fine Al-Ag IMC particles significantly increases the elastic modulus and yield strength of the SAC105 alloy containing 0.5 wt.% Al. Moreover, both 0.1 wt.% and 0.5 wt.% Al additions worsen the elongation. However, the reduction in elongation is much stronger, and brittle fracture occurs instead of ductile fracture, with 0.5 wt.% Al addition. The two additions of Al increase both solidus and liquidus temperatures. With 0.5 wt.% Al addition the pasty range is significantly reduced and the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) endotherm curve gradually shifts from a dual to a single endothermic peak.

  5. Grindability of dental cast Ti-Ag and Ti-Cu alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Okabe, Toru; Okuno, Osamu

    2003-06-01

    Experimental Ti-Ag alloys (5, 10, and 20 mass% Ag) and Ti-Cu alloys (2, 5, and 10 mass% Cu) were cast into magnesia molds using a dental casting machine, and their grindability was investigated. At the lowest grinding speed (500 m min(-1)), there were no statistical differences among the grindability values of the titanium and titanium alloys. The grindability of the alloys increased as the grinding speed increased. At the highest grinding speed (1500 m x min(-1)), the grindability of the 20% Ag, 5% Cu, and 10% Cu alloys was significantly higher than that of titanium. It was found that alloying with silver or copper improved the grindability of titanium, particularly at a high speed. It appeared that the decrease in elongation caused by the precipitation of small amounts of intermetallic compounds primarily contributed to the favorable grindability of the experimental alloys.

  6. Abridgment of nano and micro length scale mechanical properties of novel Mg–9Li–7Al–1Sn and Mg–9Li–5Al–3Sn–1Zn alloys using object oriented finite element modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ankur [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Nair, Jitin [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Ranchi 834003 (India); Bansal, Ankit [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur, Jharkhand 831001 (India); Balani, Kantesh, E-mail: kbalani@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Dual phase (α + β) Mg–9Li–7Al–1Sn (LAT971) and Mg–9Li–5Al–3Sn–1Zn (LATZ9531) alloys. • Effective elastic modulus estimated from finite element method (FEM). • Correlation of nanoscale mechanical data with microstress distribution. • Precipitates of Mg–Al–Li act as stress relaxer and Mg–Li–Sn as stress concentrator. • Higher local heterogeneous stress distribution (∼0.6–5.7 GPa) in LATZ9531 alloys. - Abstract: In the recent years, magnesium–lithium (Mg–Li) alloys have attracted considerable attention/interest due to their high strength-to-density ratio and damping characteristic; and have found potential use in structural and biomedical applications. Here the mechanical behavior of novel Mg–9 wt.% Li–7 wt.% Al–1 wt.% Sn (LAT971) and Mg–9 wt.% Li–5 wt.% Al–3 wt.% Sn–1 wt.% Zn (LATZ9531) alloys is reported. Both, as cast and thermomechanically processed alloys have been studied which possess dual phase microstructure. Nanoindentation data have been utilized to envisage the elastic modulus of alloy via various micromechanics models (such as rule of mixtures, Voigt–Reuss, Cox model, Halpin–Tsai and Guth model) in order to estimate the elastic modulus. Object oriented finite element modeling (FEM) has been performed to predict stress distribution under tensile and compressive strain state. Close match between Halpin–Tsai model and FEM results show the abridgment of nano length scale property to evolution of microscopic stress distribution in novel LAT971 and LATZ9531 Mg–Li–Al based alloys.

  7. Structure of nanocomposites of Al–Fe alloys prepared by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    This difference in the product structure can be attributed to the difference in alloying mechanisms in MA and RSP. Keywords. Nanocomposites; Al–Fe; mechanical alloying; rapid solidification; quasicrystalline. 1. Introduction. Al–Fe alloys are attractive for applications at temperatures beyond those normally associated with ...

  8. Evaluation of ferritic alloy Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo after neutron irradiation: Microstructural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1986-10-01

    As part of a program to provide a data base on the bainitic alloy Fe-2-1/4-1Mo for fusion energy applications, microstructural examinations are reported for nine specimen conditions for 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel which had been irradiated by fast neutrons over the temperature range 390 to 510 0 C. Void swelling is found following irradiation at 400 0 C to 480 0 C. Concurrently dislocation structure and precipitation developed. Peak void swelling, void density, dislocation density and precipitate number density formed at the lowest temperature, approximately 400 0 C, whereas mean void size, and mean precipitate size increased with increasing irradiation temperature. The examination results are used to provide interpretation of in-reactor creep, density change and post irradiation tensile behavior

  9. Effect of Alloy Elements on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties in Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshikazu; Hisayuki, Koji; Sakaguchi, Masashi; Higashi, Kenji

    Microstructures and mechanical properties in the modified Al-Mg-Si alloys with variation in the alloy elements and their contents were investigated to enhance higher strength and ductility. Optimizing both the alloy element design and the industrial processes including heat-treatments and extrusion technology was carried out along the recent suggestion from the first principles calculation. The investigation concluded that the addition of Fe and/or Cu could recovery their lost ductility, furthermore increase their tensile strength up to 420 MPa at high elongation of 24 % after T6 condition for Al-0.8mass%Mg-1.0mass%Si-0.8mass%Cu-0.5mass%Fe alloy with excess Si content. The excellent combination between strength and ductility could be obtained by improvement to the grain boundary embitterment caused by grain boundary segregation of Si as a result from the interaction of Si with Cu or Fe with optimizing the amount of Cu and Fe contents.

  10. Swelling in several commercial alloys irradiated to very high neutron fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.; Pintler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Swelling values have been obtained from a set of commercial alloys irradiated in EBR-II to a peak fluence of 2.5 x 10 23 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) or approx. 125 dpa covering the range 400 to 650 0 C. The alloys can be ranked for swelling resistance from highest to lowest as follows: the martensitic and ferritic alloys, the niobium based alloys, the precipitation strengthened iron and nickel based alloys, the molybdenum alloys and the austenitic alloys

  11. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, V.A.; Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F.; Chukin, A.V.; Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V.; Osipenko, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkovich, V.A., E-mail: v.a.volkovich@urfu.ru [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F. [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Chukin, A.V. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V. [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry UD RAS, Ekaterinburg, 620137 (Russian Federation); Osipenko, A.G. [JSC “State Scientific Centre - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors”, Dimitrovgrad, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  13. Texture in low-alloyed uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sariel, J.

    1982-08-01

    The dependence of the preferred orientation of cast and heat-treated polycrystalline adjusted uranium and uranium -0.1 w/o chromium alloys on the production process was studied. The importance of obtaining material free of preferred orientation is explained, and a survey of the regular methods to determine preferred orientation is given. Dilatometry, tensile testing and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the extent of the directionality of these alloys. Data processing showed that these methods are insufficient in a case of a material without any plastic forming, because of unreproducibility of results. Two parameters are defined from the results of Schlz's method diffraction test. These parameters are shown theoretically and experimentally (by extreme-case samples) to give the deviation from isotropy. Application of these parameters to the examined samples showes that cast material has preferred orientation, though it is not systematic. This preferred orientation was reduced by adequate heat treatments

  14. Development and evaluation of a magnesium–zinc–strontium alloy for biomedical applications — Alloy processing, microstructure, mechanical properties, and biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Ren-guo; Cipriano, Aaron F.; Zhao, Zhan-yong; Lock, Jaclyn; Tie, Di; Zhao, Tong; Cui, Tong; Liu, Huinan

    2013-01-01

    A new biodegradable magnesium–zinc–strontium (Mg–Zn–Sr) alloy was developed and studied for medical implant applications. This first study investigated the alloy processing (casting, rolling, and heat treatment), microstructures, mechanical properties, and degradation properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). Aging treatment of the ZSr41 alloy at 175 °C for 8 h improved the mechanical properties when compared to those of the as-cast alloy. Specifically, the aged ZSr41 alloy had an ultimate tensile strength of 270 MPa, Vickers hardness of 71.5 HV, and elongation at failure of 12.8%. The mechanical properties of the ZSr41 alloy were superior as compared with those of pure magnesium and met the requirements for load-bearing medical implants. Furthermore, the immersion of the ZSr41 alloy in SBF showed a degradation mode that progressed cyclically, alternating between pitting and localized corrosion. The steady-state average degradation rate of the aged ZSr41 alloy in SBF was 0.96 g/(m 2 ·hr), while the pH of SBF immersion solution increased. The corrosion current density of the ZSr41 alloy in SBF solution was 0.41 mA/mm 2 , which was much lower than 1.67 mA/mm 2 for pure Mg under the same conditions. In summary, compared to pure Mg, the mechanical properties of the new ZSr41 alloy improved while the degradation rate decreased due to the addition of Zn and Sr alloying elements and specific processing conditions. The superior mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the new ZSr41 alloy make it a promising alloy for next-generation implant applications. - Highlights: • Developed a new biodegradable magnesium–zinc–strontium (Mg–Zn–Sr) alloy for medical implant applications • Reported Mg–Zn–Sr alloy processing and microstructure characterization • Improved mechanical properties of Mg alloy after aging treatment • Improved degradation properties of Mg alloy in simulated body fluid

  15. Hot workability of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeon Chul; Oh, Kyung Jin

    1986-01-01

    Hot Workability of aluminium alloys, 2024, 6061 and 7075, has been studied by hot torsion tests at temperatures from 320 to 515 deg C and at strain rates from 1.26 x 10 -3 to 5.71 x 10 -3 sec -1 . Hot working condition of these aluminium alloys was determined quantitatively from the constitutive equations obtained from flow stress curves in torsion. Experimental data of the logarith of the Zener-Hollomonn parameter showed good linear relationships to the logarith of sinh(ασ-bar)

  16. Solubility of tritium in Pd1-YAgY alloys (Y = 0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasser, R.; Powell, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Solubility measurements of tritium (T) in Pd 1-Y Ag Y alloys (Y = 0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30) are reported in the temperature range of 250 K to 733 K, the pressure range below 3 bar, and the concentration range of 0.001 to 0.64 hydrogen to metal atom ratio. To study isotopic effects, the pressure-concentration-temperature relationships of the hydrogen isotopes protium (H) and deuterium (D) have been measured using the same samples and experimental setup and to temperatures as high as 1500 K using a different set up and samples. The experimental data are compared with values for H and D determined by other groups. In the case of T, most of the data presented have not been determined before. From these data the Sieverts' constants were calculated which show a strong temperature and isotope dependence. Analytical expressions, based on models that assume various degrees to which the hydrogen can perceive the alloy composition of individual sites in an alloy, are given for the Sieverts' constants that allow the calculation of the standard Gibbs free energies, enthalpies and entropies of H, D and T in these alloys

  17. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking in HTH Alloy X-750 and Alloy 625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, R.; Mills, W.J.; Lebo, M.R.; Hyatt, B.Z.; Burke, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    In-reactor testing of bolt-loaded compact tension specimens was performed in 360 C water to determine the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) behavior of HTH Alloy X-750 and direct-aged Alloy 625. New data confirm previous results showing that high irradiation levels reduce SCC resistance in Alloy X-750. Heat-to-heat variability correlates with boron content, with low boron heats showing improved IASCC properties. Alloy 625 is resistant to IASCC, as no cracking was observed in any Alloy 625 specimens. Microstructural, microchemical and deformation studies were performed to characterize the mechanisms responsible for IASCC in Alloy X-750 and the lack of an effect in Alloy 625. The mechanisms under investigation are: boron transmutation effects, radiation-induced changes in microstructure and deformation characteristics, and radiation-induced segregation. Irradiation of Alloy X-750 caused significant strengthening and ductility loss that was associated with the formation of cavities and dislocation loops. High irradiation levels did not cause significant segregation of alloying or trace elements in Alloy X-750. Irradiation of Alloy 625 resulted in the formation of small dislocation loops and a fine body-centered-orthorhombic phase. The strengthening due to the loops and precipitates was apparently offset by a partial dissolution of γ double-prime precipitates, as Alloy 625 showed no irradiation-induced strengthening or ductility loss. In the nonirradiated condition, an IASCC susceptible HTH heat containing 28 ppm B showed grain boundary segregation of boron, whereas a nonsusceptible HTH heat containing 2 ppm B and Alloy 625 with 20 ppm B did not show significant boron segregation. Transmutation of boron to helium at grain boundaries, coupled with matrix strengthening, is believed to be responsible for IASCC in Alloy X-750, and the absence of these two effects results in the superior IASCC resistance displayed by Alloy 625

  18. High-strength shape memory steels alloyed with nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullakko, K.; Jakovenko, P.T.; Gavriljuk, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    Since shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si systems was observed, increasing attention has been paid to iron based shape memory alloys due to their great technological potential. Properties of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys have been improved by alloying with Cr, Ni, Co and C. A significant improvement on shape memory, mechanical and corrosion properties is attained by introducing nitrogen in Fe-Mn-Si based systems. By increasing the nitrogen content, strength of the matrix increases and the stacking fault energy decreases, which promote the formation of stress induced martensite and decrease permanent slip. The present authors have shown that nitrogen alloyed shape memory steels exhibit recoverable strains of 2.5--4.2% and recovery stresses of 330 MPa. In some cases, stresses over 700 MPa were attained at room temperature after cooling a constrained sample. Yield strengths of these steels can be as high as 1,100 MPa and tensile strengths over 1,500 MPa with elongations of 30%. In the present study, effect of nitrogen alloying on shape memory and mechanical properties of Fe-Mn-Si, Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni and Fe-Mn-Cr-Ni-V alloys is studied. Nitrogen alloying is shown to exhibit a beneficial effect on shape memory properties and strength of these steels

  19. The characteristics of aluminum-scandium alloys processed by ECAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Rajinikanth, V.; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Xu Cheng; Langdon, Terence G.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum-scandium alloys were prepared having different scandium additions of 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 wt.% and these alloys were processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 473 K. The results show the grain refinement of the aluminum matrix and the morphology of the Al 3 Sc precipitates depends strongly on the scandium concentration. The tensile properties were evaluated after ECAP by pulling to failure at initial strain rates from 1.0 x 10 -3 to 1.0 x 10 -1 s -1 . The Al-1% Sc alloy exhibited the highest tensile strength of ∼250 MPa at a strain rate of 1.0 x 10 -1 s -1 . This alloy also exhibited a superior grain refinement of ∼0.4 μm after ECAP where this is attributed to a smaller initial grain size and an optimum volume fraction of dispersed Al 3 Sc precipitates having both micrometer and nanometer sizes.

  20. Zr-Sn-Nb alloys. Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danon, C.A.; Arias, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the Zr-Sn-Nb diagram have been started, focussing on the Zr-rich corner, near the composition of Zirlo commercial alloy, Zr-1Sn-1Nb, and with Fe and O contents usual in nuclear grade materials. Three alloys were melted, namely Zr-4Sn-2.4Nb (A), Zr-1Sn-3Nb (B) and Zr-2.1Sn-1Nb (C). α/β transformation temperatures were measured through the variation of electrical resistivity(p) vs temperature (T). Values of 560 deg C, 670 deg C and 750 deg C were measured for the α→α+β reaction and 980 deg C, 910 deg C and 1000 deg C for the α+β→β reaction, for the A, B and C alloys, respectively in that order. Some samples were submitted to heat treatments (62 and 216 hours at 825 deg C, 120 hours at 875 deg C). Optical and scanning electronic microscopy of those samples confirmed our resistivity results. (Author)

  1. An experimental study of deformation mechanism and microstructure evolution during hot deformation of Ti–6Al–2Zr–1Mo–1V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, D.; Zhu, J.C.; Lai, Z.H.; Liu, Y.; Yang, X.W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isothermal tensile deformations were carried on Ti–6Al–2Zr–1Mo–1V titanium alloy. ► Deformation activations were calculated based on kinetics rate equations. ► Deformation mechanisms are dislocation creep and self-diffusion at 800 and 850 °C. ► Microstructure globularization mechanisms varied with deformation temperature. ► Recrystallization mechanism changed from CDRX to DDRX as temperature increasing. - Abstract: Isothermal tensile tests have been performed to study the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution of Ti–6Al–2Zr–1Mo–1V titanium alloy in the temperature range 750–850 °C and strain rate range 0.001–0.1 s −1 . The deformation activations have been calculated based on kinetics rate equation to investigate the hot deformation mechanism. Microstructures of deformed samples have been analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to evaluate the influences of hot deformation parameters on the microstructure evolution and recrystallization mechanism. The results indicate that deformation mechanisms vary with deformation conditions: at medium (800 °C) and high (850 °C) temperature, the deformation is mainly controlled by the mechanisms of dislocation creep and self-diffusion, respectively. The microstructure globularization mechanisms also depend on deformation temperature: in the temperature range from 750 to 800 °C, the high angle grain boundaries are mainly formed via dislocation accumulation or subgrain boundaries sliding and subgrains rotation; while at high temperature of 850 °C, recrystallization is the dominant mechanism. Especially, the evolution of the recrystallization mechanism with the deformation temperature is first observed and investigated in TA15 titanium alloy

  2. Hydrofluoric Acid Corrosion Study of High-Alloy Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion study involving high-alloy materials and concentrated hydrofluoric acid (HF) was conducted in support of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Conversion Project (CP). The purpose of the test was to obtain a greater understanding of the corrosion rates of materials of construction currently used in the CP vs those of proposed replacement parts. Results of the study will help formulate a change-out schedule for CP parts. The CP will convert slightly less than 40 kg of 233 U from a gas (UF 6 ) sorbed on sodium fluoride pellets to a more stable oxide (U 3 O 8 ). One by-product of the conversion is the formation of concentrated HF. Six moles of highly corrosive HF are produced for each mole of UF 6 converted. This acid is particularly corrosive to most metals, elastomers, and silica-containing materials. A common impurity found in 233 U is 232 U. This impurity isotope has several daughters that make the handling of the 233 U difficult. Traps of 233 U may have radiation fields of up to 400 R at contact, a situation that makes the process of changing valves or working on the CP more challenging. It is also for this reason that a comprehensive part change-out schedule must be established. Laboratory experiments involving the repeated transfer of HF through 1/2-in. metal tubing and valves have proven difficult due to the corrosivity of the HF upon contact with all wetted parts. Each batch of HF is approximately 1.5 L of 33 wt% HF and is transferred most often as a vapor under vacuum and at temperatures of up to 250 C. Materials used in the HF side of the CP include Hastelloy C-276 and Monel 400 tubing, Haynes 230 and alloy C-276 vessels, and alloy 400 valve bodies with Inconel (alloy 600) bellows. The chemical compositions of the metals discussed in this report are displayed in Table 1. Of particular concern are the almost 30 vendor-supplied UG valves that have the potential for exposure to HF. These valves have been proven to have a finite life due to failure

  3. Nature of low dimensional structural modulations and relative phase stability in RexMo(W)1-xS2 transition metal dichalcogenide alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Sahu, R.

    2017-03-08

    We report on the various types of Peierls like two dimensional structural modulations and relative phase stability of 2H and 1T poly-types in the RexMo1-xS2 and RexW1-xS2 alloy system. Theoretical calculation predicts a polytype phase transition cross over at ∼50 at. % of Mo and W in ReS2 in both monolayer and bulk form, respectively. Experimentally, two different types of structural modulations at 50% and a modulation corresponding to trimerization at 75% alloy composition are observed for RexMo1-xS2 and only one type of modulation is observed at the 50% RexW1-xS2 alloy system. The 50% alloy system is found to be a suitable monolithic candidate for metal semiconductor transition with minute external perturbation. ReS2 is known to be in the 2D Peierls distorted 1Td structure and forms a chain like superstructure. Incorporation of Mo and W atoms into the ReS2 lattice modifies the metal-metal hybridization between the cations and influences the structural modulation and electronic properties of the system. The results offer yet another effective way to tune the electronic structure and poly-type phases of this class of materials other than intercalation, strain, and vertical stacking arrangement.

  4. Effect of Rare Earth Metals, Sr, and Ti Addition on the Microstructural Characterization of A413.1 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was performed on A413.1 alloy containing 0.2–1.5 wt% rare earth metals (lanthanum or cerium, 0.05–0.15% Ti, and 0–0.02 wt% Sr. These elements were either added individually or combined. Thermal analysis, image analysis, and electron probe microanalysis were the main techniques employed in the present study. The results show that the use of the depression in the eutectic temperature as a function of alloy modification cannot be applied in the case when the alloy is treated with rare earth metals. Increasing the concentration of RE increases the solidification zone especially in Sr-modified alloys leading to poor feeding ability. This observation is more prominent in the case of Ce addition. Depending upon the amount of added Ti, two RE based intermetallics can be formed: (i a white phase, mainly platelet-like (approximately 2.5 μm thick, that is rich in RE, Si, Cu, and Al and (ii a second phase made up of mainly grey sludge particles (star-like branching in different directions. The grey phase is rich in Ti with some RE (almost 20% of that in the white phase with traces of Si and Cu. There is a strong interaction between RE and Sr leading to a reduction in the efficiency of Sr as a eutectic Si modifier causing particle demodification.

  5. The electronic and optical properties of quaternary GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyang; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Guiqiu; Yang, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been performed for the quaternary GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs. Using the state-of-the-art computational method with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional, electronic, and optical properties were obtained, including band structures, density of states (DOSs), dielectric function, absorption coefficient, refractive index, energy loss function, and reflectivity. It is found that the lattice constant of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy with y/x =1.718 can match to GaAs. With the incorporation of N and Bi into GaAs, the band gap of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y becomes small and remains direct. The calculated optical properties indicate that GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y has higher optical efficiency as it has less energy loss than GaAs. In addition, it is also found that the electronic and optical properties of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy can be further controlled by tuning the N and Bi compositions in this alloy. These results suggest promising applications of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y quaternary alloys in optoelectronic devices.

  6. First-principles study of the structural and elastic properties of AuxV1-x and AuxNb1-x alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoubi, N.

    2018-04-01

    Ab initio total energy calculations, based on the Exact Muffin-Tin Orbitals (EMTO) method in combination with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), are used to calculate the total energy of AuxV1-x and AuxNb1-x random alloys along the Bain path that connects the body-centred cubic (bcc) and face-centred cubic (fcc) structures as a function of composition x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1). The equilibrium Wigner-Seitz radius and the elastic properties of both systems are determined as a function of composition. Our theoretical prediction in case of pure elements (x = 0 or x = 1) are in good agreement with the available experimental data. For the Au-V system, the equilibrium Wigner-Seitz radius increase as x increases, while for the Au-Nb system, the equilibrium Wigner-Seitz radius is almost constant. The bulk modulus B and C44 for both alloys exhibit nearly parabolic trend. On the other hand, the tetragonal shear elastic constant C‧ decreases as x increases and correlates reasonably well with the structural energy difference between fcc and bcc structures. Our results offer a consistent starting point for further theoretical and experimental studies of the elastic and micromechanical properties of Au-V and Au-Nb systems.

  7. Superplasticity-like deformation of a coarse-grained Al5052 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, K.K.; Chan, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper, hot forming properties of a commercially available coarse-grained Al5052 alloy under uniaxial and biaxial stress states were examined. In hot tensile tests, the alloy exhibits a superplastic-like behaviour with a maximum tensile elongation of 194% at a temperature of 873 K and at an initial strain rate of 2.08 x 10 -1 s -1 . Dislocation slip and grain boundary sliding were considered to be the deformation mechanisms. The alloy was also bulged at a constant polar strain-rate of 2.0 x 10 -1 s -1 and at an optimum temperature of 873 K using elliptical dies with aspect ratios of 1:1, 4:3, 2:1, 8:3 and 4:1. The strain distributions revealed that the strain gradient obtained in the minor axis was much greater than that in major axis. Moreover, it was shown that the deformation behavior of the alloy was basically isotropic and the volume strain of the alloy sheet did not equal to zero which was considered to relate to its cavitation behaviour. (orig.)

  8. Ternary alloying study of MoSi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, D.; Li, C.; Akselsen, O.M.; Ulvensoen, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ternary alloying of MoSi 2 with adding a series of transition elements was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Iron, Co, Ni, Cr, V, Ti, and Nb were chosen as alloying elements according to the AB 2 structure map or the atomic size factor. The studied MoSi 2 base alloys were prepared by the arc melting process from high-purity metals. The EDS analysis showed that Fe, Co, and Ni have no solid solubility in as-cast MoSi 2 , while Cr, V, Ti, and Nb exhibit limited solid solubilities, which were determined to be 1.4 ± 0.7, 1.4 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.1, and 0.8 ± 0.1. Microstructural characterization indicated that Mo-Si-M VIII (M VIII = Fe, Co, Ni) and Mo-Si-Cr alloys have a two-phase as-cast microstructure, i.e., MoSi 2 matrix and the second-phase FeSi 2 , CoSi, NiSi 2 , and CrSi 2 , respectively. In as-cast Mo-Si-V, Mo-Si-Ti, and Mo-Si-Nb alloys, besides MoSi 2 and C40 phases, the third phases were observed, which have been identified to be (Mo, V) 5 Si 3 , TiSi 2 , and (Mo, Nb) 5 Si 3

  9. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H F; Zhou, F Y; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2016-04-19

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)-1.29 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1) for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti-6Al-4V, ~3.5 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1), CP Ti and Ti-6Al-7Nb, ~3.0 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)), and one-sixth that of Co-Cr alloys (Co-Cr-Mo, ~7.7 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)). Among the Zr-Ru alloy series, Zr-1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr-Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments.

  10. Nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks in magnesium alloys of different structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, N.M.; Serdyuk, V.A.; Malinkina, T.I.; Kamyshkov, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Duration of the fatigue crack nucleation and growth rate have been in a wide range of stress intensity factor variations for MA2-1, MA2-1 hp (higher purity), MA12, (T2, T6 and T8), MA15, IMB6, MA21 magnesium alloys of different composition and structural state. The threshold and criti- cal values of stress intensity factors, Ksub(th) and Ksub(fc) are determined for those alloys, and morphology of fracture is studied at different stages of crack growth. Duration of the nucleation stage of a fatigue crack, the rate and micromechanisms of its growth are found to depedend on alloying and structural state of magnesium alloys. The best crack resistance characteristics has the MA2-1 alloy, the poorest - MA12 (T2) alloy. It is stated that thermal treatment by hardening and ageing increases the resistance of the MA12 alloy to fatigue fracture and the MA2-1 alloy of higher purity gives poorer parameters of crack resistance [ru

  11. Effect of alloying elements on martensitic transformation in the binary NiAl(β) phase alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, R.; Ohtani, H.; Ishida, K.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the B2(β) to L1 0 (β') martensitic transformation in NiAl base alloys containing a small amount of third elements have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that in addition to the normal L1 0 (3R) martensite, the 7R martensite is also present in the ternary alloys containing Ti, Mo, Ag, Ta, or Zr. While the addition of third elements X (X: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, and Si) to the binary Ni 64 Al 36 alloy stabilizes the parent β phase, thereby lowering the M s temperature, addition of third elements such as Co, Cu, or Ag destabilizes the β phase, increasing the M s temperature. The occurrence of the 7R martensite structure is attributed to solid solution hardening arising from the difference in atomic size between Ni and Al and the third elements added. The variation in M s temperature with third element additions is primarily ascribed to the difference in lattice stabilities of the bcc and fcc phases of the alloying elements

  12. Gamma rays shielding parameters for white metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Taranjot; Sharma, Jeewan; Singh, Tejbir

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to check the feasibility of white metal alloys as gamma rays shielding materials. Different combinations of cadmium, lead, tin and zinc were used to prepare quaternary alloys Pb60Sn20ZnxCd20-x (where x = 5, 10, 15) using melt quench technique. These alloys were also known as white metal alloys because of its shining appearance. The density of prepared alloys has been measured using Archimedes Principle. Gamma rays shielding parameters viz. mass attenuation coefficient (µm), effective atomic number (Zeff), electron density (Nel), Mean free path (mfp), Half value layer (HVL) and Tenth value layer (TVL) has been evaluated for these alloys in the wide energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV. The WinXCom software has been used for obtaining mass attenuation coefficient values for the prepared alloys in the given energy range. The effective atomic number (Zeff) has been assigned to prepared alloys using atomic to electronic cross section ratio method. Further, the variation of various shielding parameters with photon energy has been investigated for the prepared white metal alloys.

  13. [Studies on high temperature oxidation of noble metal alloys for dental use. (III) On high temperature oxidation resistance of noble metal alloys by adding small amounts of alloying elements. (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, H

    1976-11-01

    The previous report pointed out the undesirable effects of high temperature oxidation on the casting. The influence of small separate additions of Zn, Mg, Si, Be and Al on the high temperature oxidation of the noble metal alloys was examined. These alloying elements were chosen because their oxide have a high electrical resistivity and they have much higher affinity for oxygen than Cu. The casting were oxidized at 700 degrees C for 1 hour in air. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The Cu oxides are not observed on the as-cast surface of noble metal alloys containing small amounts of Zn, Mg, Si, Be, and Al. The castings have gold- or silver-colored surface. 2. After heating of the unpolished and polished castings, the additions of Si, Be and Al are effective in preventing oxidation of Cu in the 18 carats gold alloys. Especially the golden surface is obtained by adding Be and Al. But there is no oxidation-resistance on the polished castings in the alloys containing Zn and Mg. 3. The zinc oxide film formed on the as-cast specimen is effective in preventing of oxidation Cu in 18 carats gold alloys. 4. It seems that the addition of Al is most available in dental application.

  14. Valence Band Structure of InAs1−xBix and InSb1−xBix Alloy Semiconductors Calculated Using Valence Band Anticrossing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samajdar, D. P.; Dhar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The valence band anticrossing model has been used to calculate the heavy/light hole and spin-orbit split-off energies in InAs1−xBix and InSb1−xBix alloy systems. It is found that both the heavy/light hole, and spin-orbit split E + levels move upwards in energy with an increase in Bi content in the alloy, whereas the split E − energy for the holes shows a reverse trend. The model is also used to calculate the reduction of band gap energy with an increase in Bi mole fraction. The calculated values of band gap variation agree well with the available experimental data. PMID:24592181

  15. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  16. In vitro corrosion of dental Au-based casting alloys in polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasusuki, Norio; Ida, Yusuke; Hirose, Yukito; Ochi, Morio; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion and tarnish behaviors of two Au-based casting alloys (ISO type 1 and type 4 Au alloys) and their constituent pure metals, Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, and Pd in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution were examined. The two Au alloys actively corroded, and the main anodic reaction for both was dissolution of Au as AuI₂(-). The amount of Au released from the ISO type 1 Au alloy was significantly larger than that from the ISO type 4 Au alloy (Palloy exhibited higher susceptibility to tarnishing than the type 4 alloy. The corrosion forms of the two Au alloys were found to be completely different, i.e., the type 1 alloy exhibited the corrosion attack over the entire exposed surface with a little irregularity whereas the type 4 alloy exhibited typical intergranular corrosion, which was caused by local cells produced by segregation of Pd and Pt.

  17. The Evaluation of the Corrosion Resistance of the Al-Si Alloys Antimony Alloyed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodova J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloys alloyed with the different amount of antimony. Specifically it goes about the alloy AlSi7Mg0,3 which is antimony alloyed in the concentrations 0; 0,001; 0,005; 0,01 a 0,05 wt. % of antimony. The introduction of the paper is dedicated to the theory of the aluminium alloys corrosion resistance, testing and evaluation of the corrosion resistance. The influence of the antimony to the Al-Si alloys properties is described further in the introduction. The experimental part describes the experimental samples which were prepared for the experiment and further they were exposed to the loading in the atmospheric conditions for a period of the 3 months. The experimental samples were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The results of the experiment were documented and the conclusions in terms of the antimony impact to the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloy were concluded. There was compared the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloy antimony alloyed (with the different antimony content with the results of the Al-Si alloy without the alloying after the corrosion load in the atmospheric conditions in the experiment.

  18. Effects of Alloying Elements on Room and High Temperature Tensile Properties of Al-Si Cu-Mg Base Alloys =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyaldin, Loay

    In recent years, aluminum and aluminum alloys have been widely used in automotive and aerospace industries. Among the most commonly used cast aluminum alloys are those belonging to the Al-Si system. Due to their mechanical properties, light weight, excellent castability and corrosion resistance, these alloys are primarily used in engineering and in automotive applications. The more aluminum is used in the production of a vehicle, the less the weight of the vehicle, and the less fuel it consumes, thereby reducing the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. The principal alloying elements in Al-Si alloys, in addition to silicon, are magnesium and copper which, through the formation of Al2Cu and Mg2Si precipitates, improve the alloy strength via precipitation hardening following heat treatment. However, most Al-Si alloys are not suitable for high temperature applications because their tensile and fatigue strengths are not as high as desired in the temperature range 230-350°C, which are the temperatures that are often attained in automotive engine components under actual service conditions. The main challenge lies in the fact that the strength of heat-treatable cast aluminum alloys decreases at temperatures above 200°C. The strength of alloys under high temperature conditions is improved by obtaining a microstructure containing thermally stable and coarsening-resistant intermetallics, which may be achieved with the addition of Ni. Zr and Sc. Nickel leads to the formation of nickel aluminide Al3Ni and Al 9FeNi in the presence of iron, while zirconium forms Al3Zr. These intermetallics improve the high temperature strength of Al-Si alloys. Some interesting improvements have been achieved by modifying the composition of the base alloy with additions of Mn, resulting in an increase in strength and ductility at both room and high temperatures. Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys such as the 354 (Al-9wt%Si-1.8wt%Cu-0.5wt%Mg) alloys show a greater response to heat treatment as a

  19. Comparison on Mechanical Properties of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1, Cl.2, and Gr.4N Low Alloy Steels for Pressure Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Chul; Park, Sang-Gyu; Lee, Bong-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Hyoung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, microstructure and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.3 Cl. 1, Cl.2, and Gr.4N low alloy steels are characterized to compare their properties. To evaluate the fracture toughness in the transition region, the master curve method according to ASTM E1921 was adopted in the cleavage transition region. Tensile tests and Charpy impact tests were also performed to evaluate the mechanical properties, and a microstructural investigation was carried out. The microstructure and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1, Cl2 and Gr.4N low alloy steels were characterized.. The predominant microstructure of SA508 Gr.4N model alloy is tempered martensite, while SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1 and Cl.2 steels show a typical tempered upper bainitic structure. SA508 Gr. 4N model alloy shows the best strength and transition behavior among the three SA508 steels. SA508 Gr.3 Cl.2 steel also has quite good strength, but there is a loss of toughness.

  20. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  1. Influence of microstructure on the accelerated corrosion in Zr-Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, S; Lanzani, L

    2012-01-01

    The influence of microstructure on the accelerated corrosion of Zr-1%Nb and Zr-2.5%Nb (CANDU's pressure tube material) has been studied. The behavior of Zircaloy-4 was also studied in order to compare the Zr-Nb alloys with an alloy that does not have niobium as an alloying element. The corrosion tests were carried out in LiOH 0.1M at 340 o C, in LiOH 1M at the same temperature and in steam at 400 o C. The results showed that the behavior of Zr-Nb alloys in steam at 400 o C is similar to that of Zircaloy-4 in this medium. However, Zr-Nb alloys are more sensitive than Zircaloy-4 to the presence of LiOH. The results suggest that the niobium concentration in the matrix is the parameter that defines the oxidation rate in Zr-Nb alloys, while the presence of second phases in these alloys (β--Zr/β-Nb/Zr-Nb-Fe) could be related with the growth of non-protective oxides in LiOH solutions. In LiOH 1M, the corrosion resistance of Zr-Nb alloys is similar to that of Zircaloy-4, except for the Zr-1Nb martensitic material which showed a sharp increase in the oxidation rate in this medium (author)

  2. Ternary ceramic alloys of Zr-Ce-Hf oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, P.F.; Funkenbusch, E.F.

    1990-11-20

    A ternary ceramic alloy is described which produces toughening of zirconia and zirconia composites through the stress transformation from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase. This alloy, having the general formula Ce[sub x]Hf[sub y]Zr[sub 1[minus]x[minus]y]O[sub 2], is produced through the addition of appropriate amounts of ceria and hafnia to the zirconia. Typically, improved toughness is achieved with about 5 to about 15 mol % ceria and up to about 40 mol % hafnia. The preparation of alloys of these compositions are given together with data as to the densities, tetragonal phase content, hardness and fracture toughness. The alloys are useful in preparing zirconia bodies as well as reinforcing ceramic composites. 1 fig.

  3. Characterisation and corrosion resistance of the electrodeposited hydroxyapatite and bovine serum albumin/hydroxyapatite films on Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilescu, C.; Drob, P.; Vasilescu, E.; Demetrescu, I.; Ionita, D.; Prodana, M.; Drob, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → EIS spectra for Ti6Al4V1Zr alloy were fitted with one time constant electric equivalent circuit. → For covered alloy the equivalent circuit contains two time constants. → Resistances of films increased in time revealing the improvement of the alloy protection capacity. → Surface roughness significantly increased by apatite formation, being favourably to cell adhesion. - Abstract: A new titanium base Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy covered with hydroxyapatite or bovine serum albumin/hydroxyapatite was characterized in this paper in order to be used as implant material. Following techniques were used: linear polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. For HA or BSA/HA covered alloy, the electric equivalent circuit contains two time constants (for the passive film and for coatings). The resistance of the protective films increased in time and BSA/HA coating was slightly rougher than HA coating, this situation being favourably to the cell adhesion.

  4. Characterisation and corrosion resistance of the electrodeposited hydroxyapatite and bovine serum albumin/hydroxyapatite films on Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilescu, C.; Drob, P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' Ilie Murgulescu' of Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, P.O. Box 12-194, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Vasilescu, E., E-mail: ec_vasilescu@yahoo.co [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' Ilie Murgulescu' of Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, P.O. Box 12-194, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Demetrescu, I.; Ionita, D.; Prodana, M. [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, Str. Polizu 1-7, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Drob, S.I. [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' Ilie Murgulescu' of Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, P.O. Box 12-194, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} EIS spectra for Ti6Al4V1Zr alloy were fitted with one time constant electric equivalent circuit. {yields} For covered alloy the equivalent circuit contains two time constants. {yields} Resistances of films increased in time revealing the improvement of the alloy protection capacity. {yields} Surface roughness significantly increased by apatite formation, being favourably to cell adhesion. - Abstract: A new titanium base Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy covered with hydroxyapatite or bovine serum albumin/hydroxyapatite was characterized in this paper in order to be used as implant material. Following techniques were used: linear polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. For HA or BSA/HA covered alloy, the electric equivalent circuit contains two time constants (for the passive film and for coatings). The resistance of the protective films increased in time and BSA/HA coating was slightly rougher than HA coating, this situation being favourably to the cell adhesion.

  5. Constitution, structure and magnetic properties of some rare-earth - cobalt-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.; Harris, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    The constitution and structure of the alloys represented by the formulae Cesub(1-x)Alsub(x)Co 5 and Prsub(1-x)Alsub(x)Co 5 (where 0 = 5 produces a mixture of the 1:5 and 2:17 phases based on CeCo 5 and Ce 2 Co 17 ; there are two variations of the 2:17 phase which are isostructural with the hexagonal Th 2 Ni 17 -type and rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 -type phases. At the composition Cesub(0.76)Alsub(0.24)Co 5 (4 at % Al) the alloy consists only of the 2:17-type phases and metallographically the alloy is one phase in appearance. Further substitution of Al results in the precipitation of an fcc phase, based on the Co-Al solid solution, in the 2:17 matrix. The crystal structures of the Prsub(1-x)Alsub(x)Co 5 alloys are very similar to those of the equivalent cerium alloys. The metallographic structures of the Pr alloys in the composition range 1 to 3 at % Al show significant differences from the corresponding Ce alloys. Determination of the Curie temperatures of the Rsub(1-x)Alsub(x)Co 5 alloys (R = Ce and Pr) in the composition range 0 = 5 and PrCo 5 phases. (author)

  6. High-strength wrought magnesium alloy with dense nano-scale spherical precipitate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU WenBin; CHEN ZhiQian; CHENG NanPu; GAN BingTai; HE Hong; LI XueLian; HU JinZhu

    2007-01-01

    This paper reported the influences of Yb addition on the precipitate and mechanical properties of wrought magnesium alloy ZK60. The ingots of ZK60-1.78Yb (wt%,0.26 at%) alloys were cast using permanent mould and extruded at 370℃. By means of TEM and HRTEM,it was observed that Yb affected the precipitate and precipitation of ZK60-1.78Yb alloys significantly. Dynamic precipitation occurred in the as-extruded alloy and spherical nano-scale precipitate with high density and homogeneity exhibited in the aged alloys. The precipitate particles were about 5-20 nm in diameter,10-30 nm in average space length. The tensile test results showed that the ZK60-1.78Yb alloy had excellent precipitation strengthening response with the maximum tensile strength 417.5 MPa at ambient temperature.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical studies of 5-(benzylthio)-1-cylopentyl-1H-tetrazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, S.; Disli, A.; Erdogdu, Y.; Marchewka, M. K.; Kanagathara, N.; Bay, B.; Güllüoğlu, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 5-(benzylthio)-1-cylopentyl-1H-tetrazole (5B1C1HT) have been synthesized. Boiling points of the obtained compound have been determined and it has been characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C-APT and LC-MS spectroscopy techniques. The FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C-APT spectral measurements of the 5B1C1HT compound and complete assignment of the vibrational bands observed in spectra has been discussed. The spectra were interpreted with the aid of normal coordinate analysis following full structure optimization and force field calculations based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) at 6-311++G**, cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The optimized geometry with 6-311++G** basis sets were used to determine the total energy distribution, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities.

  8. Age hardening in mechanically alloyed Al-Mg-Li-C-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papazian, J.M. (Corporate Research Center, Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY (USA)); Gilman, P. (Allied-Signal Inc., Morristown, NJ (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The age-hardening behavior of a series of mechanically alloyed Al-Mg-Li-C-O alloys containing 3.0-4.0 wt.% Mg and 1.3-1.75 wt.% Li was studied using hardness tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness tests showed an increased hardness after 100degC aging in all the alloys containing at least 1.5 at.% Li. Likewise, the calorimetry results showed the presence of pronounced precipitate dissolution peaks in these same alloys after 100degC aging. The volume fraction of precipitates formed (as measured by the dissolution enthalpies of the DSC peaks) increased systematically with increasing solute content. Transmission electron microscopy after 100 and 190degC aging showed images and diffraction spots similar to those of {delta}' (Al{sub 3}Li). Comparison of the DSC results with results from binary Al-Li and Al-Mg alloys indicated that the precipitates formed in the Al-Mg-Li-C-O alloys were similar to those formed in binary Al-Li alloys, and that the primary role of the magnesium was to lower the solid solubility of lithium. (orig.).

  9. Crevice corrosion propagation on alloy 625 and alloy C276 in natural seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCafferty, E.; Bogar, F.D.; Thomas, E.D. II; Creegan, C.A.; Lucas, K.E.; Kaznoff, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical composition of the aqueous solution within crevices on two different Ni-Cr-Mo-Fe alloys immersed in natural seawater was determined using a semiquantitative thin-layer chromatographic method. Active crevices were found to contain concentrated amounts of dissolved Ni 2+ , Cr 3+ , Mo 3+ , and Fe 2+ ions. Propagation of crevice corrosion for the two alloys was determined from anodic polarization curves in model crevice solutions based upon stoichiometric dissolution or selective dissolution of alloy components. Both alloys 625 (UNS N06625) and C276 (UNS N10276) underwent crevice corrosion in the model crevice electrolytes. For the model crevice solution based upon selective dissolution of alloy constituents, the anodic dissolution rate for alloy 625 was higher than that for alloy C276. This trend was reversed for the model crevice solution based upon uniform dissolution of alloy constituents

  10. An environment-friendly phosphate chemical conversion coating on novel Mg-9Li-7Al-1Sn and Mg-9Li-5Al-3Sn-1Zn alloys with remarkable corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rita; Siddiqui, Abdul Rahim; Balani, Kantesh

    2018-06-01

    An environment-friendly phosphate chemical conversion (PCC) coating has been deposited on novel LAT971 (Mg-9 wt%Li-7 wt%Al-1 wt%Sn) and LATZ9531 (Mg-9 wt%Li-5 wt%Al-3 wt%Sn-1 wt%Zn) alloys for improving their corrosion resistance. A dense and homogeneous flower like morphology (∼30 μm thick) was observed on the PCC coated Mg-Li based alloys. The presence of calcium hydrogen phosphate hydrate, tricalcium phosphate and trimagnesium phosphate were confirmed from the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. A lower corrosion current density of 6.74 × 10-7 mA/cm2 and 5.39 × 10-7 mA/cm2 was obtained for PCC coated alloys in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution than that of uncoated LAT971 (0.82 mA/cm2) and LATZ9531 (0.34 mA/cm2) alloys, respectively, which offers corrosion protection efficiency of >99%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has revealed that the inner PCC coating (at coating/substrate interface) delay the direct contact between electrolyte and substrate, which offered higher charge transfer resistance (>4 orders of magnitude) than that of uncoated alloys. Thus, the PCC coating provides an effective corrosion protection to the ultra-lightweight LAT971 and LATZ9531 alloys surface and may be helpful in proving good anchoring with the top organic coatings or paints.

  11. High strain rate deformation and fracture of the magnesium alloy Ma2-1 under shock wave loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkushin, G. V.; Kanel', G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of the dynamic elastic limit and spall strength under shock wave loading of specimens of the magnesium alloy Ma2-1 with a thickness ranging from 0.25 to 10 mm at normal and elevated (to 550°C) temperatures. From the results of measurements of the decay of the elastic precursor of a shock compression wave, it has been found that the plastic strain rate behind the front of the elastic precursor decreases from 2 × 105 s-1 at a distance of 0.25 mm to 103 s-1 at a distance of 10 mm. The plastic strain rate in a shock wave is one order of magnitude higher than that in the elastic precursor at the same value of the shear stress. The spall strength of the alloy decreases as the solidus temperature is approached.

  12. Properties of vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H. M.; Loomis, B. A.; Smith, D. L.

    1996-10-01

    One property of vanadium-base alloys that is not well understood in terms of their potential use a fusion reactor structural materials, is the effect of simultaneous generation of helium and neutron damage. In the present Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE), helium was produced uniformly in the specimen at linear rates of ≈ 0.4 to 4.2 appm helium/dpa by the decay of tritium during irradiation to 18-31 dpa at 425-600°C in Li-filled capsules in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. This paper presents results of postirradiation examination and tests of microstructure and mechanical properties of V5Ti, V3Ti1Si, V8Cr6Ti, and V4Cr4Ti (the latter alloy has been identified as the most promising candidate vanadium alloy). Effects of helium on tensile strength and ductility were insignificant after irradiation and testing at > 420°C. However, postirradiation ductilities at irradiation. Ductile—brittle transition behavior of the DHCE specimens was also determined from bend tests and fracture appearance of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks and broken tensile specimens. No brittle behavior was observed at temperatures > - 150°C in DHCE specimens. Predominantly brittle-cleavage fracture morphologies were observed only at - 196°C in some specimens that were irradiated to 31 dpa at 425°C during the DHCE. For the helium generation rates in this experiment (≈ 0.4-4.2 appm He/dpa), grain-boundary coalescence of helium microcavities was negligible and intergranular fracture was not observed.

  13. The Properties of 7xxx Series Alloys Formed by Alloying Additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak Z.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a constant development in the field of aluminium alloys engineering. This results from, i.a., better understanding of the mechanisms that direct strengthening of these alloys and the role of microalloying. Now it is microalloying in aluminum alloys that is receiving a lot of attention. It affects substantially the macro- and microstructure and kinetics of phase transformation influencing the properties during production and its exploitation. 7xxx series aluminum alloys, based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system, are high-strength alloys, moreover, the presence of Zr and Sr further increases their strength and improves resistance to cracking.

  14. Electronic tuning of the transport properties of off-stoichiometric PbxSn1−xTe thermoelectric alloys by Bi2Te3 doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttmann, Gilad M.; Dadon, David; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2015-01-01

    The recent energy demands affected by the dilution of conventional energy resources and the growing awareness of environmental considerations had motivated many researchers to seek for novel renewable energy conversion methods. Thermoelectric direct conversion of thermal into electrical energies is such a method, in which common compositions include IV-VI semiconducting compounds (e.g., PbTe and SnTe) and their alloys. For approaching practical thermoelectric devices, the current research is focused on electronic optimization of off-stoichiometric p-type Pb x Sn 1−x Te alloys by tuning of Bi 2 Te 3 doping and/or SnTe alloying levels, while avoiding the less mechanically favorable Na dopant. It was shown that upon such doping/alloying, higher ZTs, compared to those of previously reported undoped Pb 0.5 Sn 0.5 Te alloy, were obtained at temperatures lower than 210–340 °C, depending of the exact doping/alloying level. It was demonstrated that upon optimal grading of the carrier concentration, a maximal thermoelectric efficiency enhancement of ∼38%, compared to that of an undoped material, is expected

  15. Introduction to hydrogen in alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlake, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Substitutional alloys, both those that form hydrides and those that do not, are discussed, but with more emphasis on the former than the latter. This overview includes the following closely related subjects: (1) the significant effects of substitutional solutes on the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) equilibria of metal-hydrogen systems, (2) the changes in thermodynamic properties resulting from differences in atom size and from modifications of electronic structure, (3) attractive and repulsive interactions between H and solute atoms and the effects of such interactions on the pressure dependent solubility for H, (4) H trapping in alloys of Group V metals and its effect on the terminal solubility for H (TSH), (5) some other mechanisms invoked to explain the enhancement (due to alloying) of the (TSH) in Group V metals, and (6) H-impurity complexes in alloys of the metals Ni, Co, and Fe. Some results showing that an enhanced TSH may ameliorate the resistance of a metal to hydrogen embrittlement are presented

  16. Effects of silicon on mechanical properties of AM60 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon was added to improve the tensile, wear and creep behaviors of AM60 magnesium alloy in this study. The investigation has been undertaken by means of universal testing machine, HBE-3000A Brinell hardness tester, M-2000 friction-wear machine, DMA-Q800 creep machine, optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicate that the Chinese script type Mg2Si particles are formed by adding Si into the AM60 magnesium alloy. The ultimate tensile strength and hardness of the AM60 magnesium alloy increases with the Si addition, and the ultimate tensile strength and hardness of the AM60+1.0wt.%Si alloy are increased by 12% and 19.8%, respectively in comparison with that of the AM60 magnesium alloy. The wear property and the high temperature creep property of the AM60 magnesium alloy are also improved with Si addition. The wear mechanisms of the AM60 and AM60+1.0wt.%Si alloys are adhesive wear and abrasion wear, respectively. While, the elongation of the AM60 magnesium alloy decreases with the addition of Si. The optimum Si addition content is 1.0wt.%.

  17. Study of U - Pu - Fe alloys (Masurca critical experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelemy, P.; Boucher, R.

    1965-01-01

    Three compositions have been studied: 73.5 U - 25 Pu - 1.5 Fe (weight %) 74 U - 25 Pu - 1 Fe 74.5 U - 25 Pu - 0.5 Fe Elaboration and Casting are easy. After two weeks in air 74.5 U - 25 Pu - 0.5 Fe alloys are reduced in powder. As-cast alloys containing 1 and 1,5% Fe are kept undamaged during several months. A rapid oxidisation of the alloys is however observed when the samples undergo the phase transformation (at 595 deg. C and 590 deg. C respectively). Ignition tests in the presence of air show that the oxidisation starts at about 250 deg. C and that the reaction does not spread. Ignition is not observed during heating from 20 to 660 deg. C. The transformation temperature, the melting temperature and the thermal expansion coefficients have been determined by dilatometry. Below the transformation temperature, the principal phases are U-Pu zeta and (U, Pu) 6 Fe. Thermal conductibility, Young modulus, density and heat of fusion have been measured. Compatibility tests show that between U-Pu-Fe and stainless steel a phase of (U, Pu) 6 Fe type is formed. The 74 U - 25 Pu - 1% Fe alloy seems to behave better than 73.5 U - 25 Pu - 1.5% Fe alloy because the (U, Pu) 6 Fe layer is two or three times smaller. Finally, the thermal stability has been studied with the 74 U - 25 Pu - 1% Fe alloy. A dilatometric anomaly (very weak expansion) occurs when the sample is heated above transformation temperature and cooled. But there is no anomaly by thermal cycling from 50 deg. C to 400 deg. C and there is no deterioration of alloys by heat treatments at 100 deg. C, 200 deg. C, 300 deg. C during 5 months under vacuum. (authors) [fr

  18. Irradiation of aluminium alloy materials with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Osamu; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi

    1982-01-01

    It is a theme with a room for discussion to employ the stainless steel composed of longer half-life materials for the vacuum system of accelerators, from the viewpoint of radiation exposure. Therefore, it is desirable to use aluminium of shorter half-life in place of stainless steel. As a result of investigation on the above theme in the 1.2 GeV electron linac project in Tohoku University, it has been concluded that aluminium alloy vacuum chambers can reduce exposure dose by about one or two figures as compared with stainless steel ones. Of course, aluminium alloy contains trace amounts of Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and others. Therefore, four kinds of aluminium alloy considered to be usable have been examined for induced radioactivity by electron beam irradiation. Stainless steel SUS 304 has been also irradiated for comparison. Radiation energy has been 30 MeV and 200 MeV. When stainless steel and aluminium alloy were compared, aluminium alloy was very effective for reducing surface dose in low energy irradiation. In 200 MeV irradiation, the dose ratio of aluminium alloy to stainless steel became 1/30 to 1/100 after one week, though the dose difference between these two materials became smaller in 100 days or more after irradiation. If practical inspection and repair are implemented during the period from a few days to one week after shutdown, the aluminium alloy is preferable for exposure dose reduction even in high energy irradiation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. The Age-Precipitations Structure Of Al-Mg-Ge Alloy Aged At 473K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Mg-Ge alloy is one of the age-hardening aluminum alloy after solution heat treatment. It has been proposed that the age-precipitation behavior of Al-Mg-Ge alloy is different from that of Al-Mg-Si alloy according to our previous works about the microstructure on Al-Mg-Ge alloy over-aged at 523K. For example, The hardness of peak aged Al-1.0mass%Mg2Ge alloy is higher than that of Al-1.0mass%Mg2Si alloy. The precipitates in the over-aged samples have been classified as some metastable phases, such as the β’-phase and Type-A precipitates and equilibrium phase of β-Mg2Ge by TEM observation. There a few reports about microstructure on Al-Mg-Ge alloys observed by TEM for different aging times. The age-precipitations structure of Al-Mg-Ge alloy has not been became clear. In this work, TEM observation was investigated the microstructure on Al-1.0mass%Mg2Ge alloy for difference aging times aged at 473K.

  20. Zirconium alloy barrier having improved corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, R.B.; Rosenbaum, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor has a composite cladding container having a substrate and a dilute zirconium alloy liner bonded to the inside surface of the substrate. The dilute zirconium alloy liner forms about 1 to about 20 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of zirconium and a metal selected from the group consisting of iron, chromium, iron plus chromium, and copper. The dilute zirconium alloy liner shields the substrate from impurities or fission products from the nuclear fuel material and protects the substrate from stress corrosion and stress cracking. The dilute zirconium alloy liner displays greater corrosion resistance, especially to oxidation by hot water or steam than unalloyed zirconium. The substrate material is selected from conventional cladding materials, and preferably is a zirconium alloy. (author)

  1. Synthesis and thermoelectric performance of a p-type Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 material developed via mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Sandra; Perez, Jose G.; Tritt, Terry M.; Zhu, Song; Sosa-Sanchez, Jose L.; Martinez-Juarez, Javier; López, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper shows a Bi 1.6 Sb 0.4 Te 3 alloy prepared by MA-SPS process. • A ZT value of about 1.2–1.3 around 360 K was achieved for this compound. • The lower sintering process was carried out in a short time. • The resulting material has a very fine microstructure and high density. - Abstract: A p-type Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 thermoelectric compound was fabricated via mechanical alloying of bismuth, antimony and tellurium elemental powders as starting materials. The mechanically alloyed compositions were sintered through a spark-plasma sintering (SPS) process. The effect of the milling time was investigated. In order to characterize the powders obtained via mechanical alloying, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were used. The morphological evolution was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the p-type Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 compound was formed after 2 h of milling. Further, the variation of milling time showed that the synthesized phase was stable. All the powders exhibit the same morphology albeit with slight differences. Measurements of the electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity were performed in the temperature range 300–520 K for the SPS samples. The resulting thermoelectric figure of merit ZT reaches a maximum of 1.2 at 360 K for the p-type bulk material with a 5 h milling time. This study demonstrates the possibility of preparing thermoelectric materials of high performance and short processing time

  2. First-principles study on half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of Zn1- x V x Se ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatta, Swati; Tripathi, S. K.; Prakash, Satya

    2017-09-01

    The spin-polarised density functional theory along with self-consistent plane-wave pseudopotential is used to investigate the half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of ternary alloys Zn1- x V x Se. The generalized gradient approximation is used for exchange-correlation potential. The equilibrium lattice constants, bulk modulus, and its derivatives are calculated. The calculated spin-polarised energy-band structures reveal that these alloys are half-metallic for x = 0.375 and 0.50 and nearly half-metallic for other values of x. The estimated direct and indirect bandgaps may be useful for the magneto-optical absorption experiments. It is found that there is strong Zn 4s, Se 4p, and V 3d orbital hybridization in the conduction bands of both the spins, while Se 4p and V 3d orbital hybridization predominates in the valence bands of both the spins. The s, p-d, and p-d orbital hybridization reduces the local magnetic moment of V atoms and small local magnetic moments are produced on Zn and Se atoms which get coupled with V atoms in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases, respectively. The conduction and valence-band-edge splittings and exchange constants predict the ferromagnetism in these alloys. The conduction band-impurity (s and p-d) exchange interaction is more significant for ferromagnetism in these alloys than the valence band-impurity (p-d) exchange interaction.

  3. Reducing thermal conductivity of binary alloys below the alloy limit via chemical ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, John C; English, Timothy S; Jordan, Donald A; Norris, Pamela M; Soffa, William A

    2011-01-01

    Substitutional solid solutions that exist in both ordered and disordered states will exhibit markedly different physical properties depending on their exact crystallographic configuration. Many random substitutional solid solutions (alloys) will display a tendency to order given the appropriate kinetic and thermodynamic conditions. Such order-disorder transitions will result in major crystallographic reconfigurations, where the atomic basis, symmetry, and periodicity of the alloy change dramatically. Consequently, the dominant scattering mechanism in ordered alloys will be different than that in disordered alloys. In this study, we present a hypothesis that ordered alloys can exhibit lower thermal conductivities than their disordered counterparts at elevated temperatures. To validate this hypothesis, we investigate the phononic transport properties of disordered and ordered AB Lennard-Jones alloys via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and harmonic lattice dynamics calculations. It is shown that the thermal conductivity of an ordered alloy is the same as the thermal conductivity of the disordered alloy at ∼0.6T melt and lower than that of the disordered alloy above 0.8T melt .

  4. A Study on Microstructural Change and Properties of Mg-1.4 wt%Ca-xwt%Zn Alloys by Two-Step Solid Solution and Aging Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Seong Mo; Kim, Hye Sung; Jeong, Ha-Guk; Kim, Teak-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Optimum heat treatment conditions to improve the hardness and corrosion resistance of ternary Mg-Ca-Zn alloys have been studied, based on the theoretical models and DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) experimental data. Two-step heating process at 420 ℃ and 480 ℃ has been applied and we have found that the low melting point phase, Ca_2Mg_6Zn_3 can effectively be dissolved into α-Mg matrix without premature melting. Due to preceding treatment at lower temperature followed by the second stage solid solution heat treatment at 480 ℃, Mg-1.4 wt%Ca-xwt%Zn alloys (x=0, 1.5 and 4.0) exhibit improved corrosion resistance than that from the single step solid solution treated alloy at 480 ℃. However, aging treatment of the alloy at 200 ℃ has led to the homogeneous precipitation of Ca_2Mg_6Zn_3 and Mg_2Ca phases in the matrix as well as at the grain boundary. This microstructural change results in the deterioration of corrosion resistance mainly originated from galvanic corrosion between the matrix and the precipitates. The hardness of Mg-1.4%Cax%Zn alloy, on the other hand, significantly increases with Zn addition by applying two-step solid solution and aging heat treatment.

  5. Undoped p-type GaN1-xSbx alloys: Effects of annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segercrantz, N.; Baumgartner, Y.; Ting, M.; Yu, K. M.; Mao, S. S.; Sarney, W. L.; Svensson, S. P.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2016-12-01

    We report p-type behavior for undoped GaN1-xSbx alloys with x ≥ 0.06 grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures (≤400 °C). Rapid thermal annealing of the GaN1-xSbx films at temperatures >400 °C is shown to generate hole concentrations greater than 1019 cm-3, an order of magnitude higher than typical p-type GaN achieved by Mg doping. The p-type conductivity is attributed to a large upward shift of the valence band edge resulting from the band anticrossing interaction between localized Sb levels and extended states of the host matrix.

  6. Order/disorder in electrodeposited aluminum-titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford G.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition, morphology, and crystallographic microstructure of Al-Ti alloys electrodeposited from two different chloroaluminate molten salt electrolytes were examined. Alloys containing up to 28 % atomic fraction Ti were electrodeposited at 150 °C from 2:1 AlCl3-NaCl with controlled additions of Ti2+. The apparent limit on alloy composition is proposed to be due to a mechanism by which Al3Ti forms through the reductive decomposition of [Ti(AlCl43]-. The composition of Al-Ti alloys electrodeposited from the AlCl3-EtMeImCl melt at 80 °C is limited by the diffusion of Ti2+ to the electrode surface. Alloys containing up to 18.4 % atomic fraction Ti are only obtainable at high Ti2+ concentrations in the melt and low current densities. Alloys electrodeposited from the higher temperature melt have an ordered L12 crystal structure while alloys of similar composition but deposited at lower temperature are disordered fcc. The appearance of antiphase boundaries in the ordered alloys suggests that the deposit may be disordered initially and then orders in the solid state, subsequent to the charge transfer step and adatom incorporation into the lattice. This is very similar to the disorder-trapping observed in rapidly solidified alloys. The measured domain size is consistent with a mechanism of diffusion-controlled doman growth at the examined deposition temperatures and times.

  7. Magnetoconductance of amorphous Yx-Si1-x alloys near the metal-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanquer, M.; Tourbot, R.; Boucher, B.

    1989-01-01

    We have performed magnetoresistance experiments across the Metal-Insulator transition in amorphous Y x -Si 1-x alloys using very high fields (H = 40T) and very low temperatures (T = 0.05K). Different and unusual behaviours are observed and can be explained assuming that the electron-electron interaction contribution dominates at low fields and localization corrections appears at very high fields. This is the opposite situation compared to usual weak localization regime

  8. Wetting of molybdenum with molten Cu-O alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yupko, V.L.; Garbuz, V.V.; Kryuchkova, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    The Cu-O alloys were prepared from type MOb copper (GOST 859-78) with an oxygen content of 0.001 wt.% and type ChDA cuprous oxide (MRTU 6-09-1451-64), the powder of which was first pressed into briquettes. The weighted portions of Cu 2 O were weighed on an Elektrobalans scale having an absolute error of ±5 · 10 -7 g. The relative error in weighing an approximately 1 · 10 -4 g weighed portion of Cu 2 O for preparation of the alloy with the minimum oxygen content of 0.002% was, therefore, ± 0.5% and consequently for the alloys with a higher oxygen content the accuracy was higher. The alloys were prepared on a ZrO 2 + 5% Y 2 O 3 ceramic at 1,420 K in a vacuum of 6.7 · 10 -3 Pa,d their weight was 1.0-1.5 g, and the melting time 30 sec. The pure type MOb copper was remelted in the same manner. The time relationships of the angle of wetting of molybdenum by molten Cu-O alloys under conditions of combined heating are given. With an increase in oxygen content from 0.004 to 0.005%, wetting drops sharply

  9. Nonequilibrium synthesis of Nb-Al alloys by laser processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, S.K.; Mazumder, J.

    1993-01-01

    The technique of laser surface modification provides a unique means of synthesizing novel nonequilibrium materials in near net shape. Claddings of several NbAl 3 alloys with Ti, B and Hf as a ternary alloy addition were prepared using a CW CO 2 laser. Isothermal oxidation behavior of the clads were examined in air. Oxidation tests at 800, 1,200 and 1,400 C. Alternating layers of alumina and NbAlO 4 were not observed in any of the samples as reported in literature for conventionally processed NbAl 3 oxidized under similar conditions. The parabolic rate constants for all the alloys, except 0 B, were comparable to that for isothermal oxidation of β-NiAl, at 1,200 and 1,400 C in 0.1 atm oxygen, which is a known alumina former. Ternary alloying additions for improved oxidation resistance at