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Sample records for alloy-ni73cr15fe7ti3

  1. Analysis of Microstructure and Sliding Wear Behavior of Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 High-Entropy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentzaris, K.; Poulia, A.; Georgatis, E.; Lekatou, A. G.; Karantzalis, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    Α Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 high-entropy alloy (HEA) of the well-known family of CoCrFeNiTi has been designed using empirical parameters. The aim of this design was the production of a HEA with fcc structure that gives ductile behavior and also high strength because of the solid solution effect. The VEC calculations (8.1) supported the fcc structure while the δ factor calculations (4.97) not being out of the limit values, advised a significant lattice distortion. From the other hand, the ΔΗ mix calculations (- 9.64 kJ/mol) gave strong indications that no intermetallic would be formed. In order to investigate its potential application, the Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 HEA was prepared by vacuum arc melting and a primary assessment of its surface degradation response was conducted by means of sliding wear testing using different counterbody systems for a total sliding distance of 1000 m. An effort to correlate the alloy's wear response with the microstructural characteristics was attempted. Finally, the wear behavior of the Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 HEA was compared with that of two commercially used wear-resistant alloys. The results obtained provided some first signs of the high-entropy alloys' better wear performance when tested under sliding conditions against a steel ball.

  2. Low-cost, high-strength Fe--Ni--Cr alloys for high temperature exhaust valve application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan

    2017-09-05

    An Fe--Ni--Cr alloy is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. %: 2.4 to 3.7 Al, up to 1.05 Co, 14.8 to 15.9 Cr, 25 to 36 Fe, up to 1.2 Hf, up to 4 Mn, up to 0.6 Mo, up to 2.2 Nb, up to 1.05 Ta, 1.9 to 3.6 Ti, up to 0.08 W, up to 0.03 Zr, 0.18 to 0.27 C, up to 0.0015 N, balance Ni, wherein, in terms of atomic percent: 8.5.ltoreq.Al+Ti+Zr+Hf+Ta.ltoreq.11.5, 0.53.ltoreq.Al/(Al+Ti+Zr+Hf+Ta).ltoreq.0.65, and 0.16.ltoreq.Cr/(Fe+Ni+Cr+Mn).ltoreq.0.21, the alloy being essentially free of Cu, Si, and V.

  3. Alloying behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties in a FeNiCrCo0.3Al0.7 high entropy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weiping; Fu, Zhiqiang; Fang, Sicong; Xiao, Huaqiang; Zhu, Dezhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • FeNiCrCo 0.3 Al 0.7 high entropy alloy is prepared via MA and SPS. • Two BCC phases and one FCC phase were obtained after SPS. • The two BCC phases are enriched in Fe–Cr (A2 structure) and enriched in Ni–Al (B2 structure). • Bulk FeNiCrCo 0.3 Al 0.7 HEA exhibits excellent mechanical properties. - Abstract: The present paper reports the synthesis of FeNiCrCo 0.3 Al 0.7 high entropy alloy (HEA) by mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Alloying behavior, microstructure, mechanical properties and detailed phases of the alloy were investigated systematically. During MA, the formation of a supersaturated solid solution with body-centered cubic (BCC) structure occurred. However, partial BCC structure phase transformed into a face-center cubic (FCC) structure phase during SPS. Two BCC phases with nearly the same lattice parameter of 3.01 Å and one FCC phase with the lattice parameter of 3.72 Å were characterized in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) images. The two BCC phases which are evidently deviated from the definition of high entropy alloys (HEAs) are enriched in Fe–Cr and enriched in Ni–Al, respectively. Moreover, the FCC phase agrees well with the definition of HEAs. Bulk FeNiCrCo 0.3 Al 0.7 alloy with little porosity exhibits much better mechanical properties except compression ratio compared with other typical HEAs of FeNiCrCoAl HEA system. The yield strength, compressive strength, compression ratio and Vickers hardness of FeNiCrCo 0.3 Al 0.7 alloy are 2033 ± 41 MPa, 2635 ± 55 MPa, 8.12 ± 0.51% and 624 ± 26H v , respectively. The fracture mechanism of bulk FeNiCrCo 0.3 Al 0.7 alloy is dominated by intercrystalline fracture and quasi-cleavage fracture

  4. On the Path to Optimizing the Al-Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Ni-Ti High Entropy Alloy Family for High Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Manzoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly investigated high entropy alloy, AlCoCrCuFeNi, has been chosen for optimization of its microstructural and mechanical properties by means of compositional changes and heat treatments. Among the different available optimization paths, the decrease of segregating element Cu, the increase of oxidation protective elements Al and Cr and the approach towards a γ-γ′ microstructure like in Ni-based superalloys have been probed and compared. Microscopical observations have been made for every optimization step. Vickers microhardness measurements and/or tensile/compression test have been carried out when the alloy was appropriate. Five derived alloys AlCoCrFeNi, Al23Co15Cr23Cu8Fe15Ni16, Al8Co17Cr17Cu8Fe17Ni33, Al8Co17Cr14Cu8Fe17Ni34.8Mo0.1Ti1W0.1 and Al10Co25Cr8Fe15Ni36Ti6 (all at.% have been compared to the original AlCoCrCuFeNi and the most promising one has been selected for further investigation.

  5. The effect of molybdenum on the corrosion behaviour of the high-entropy alloys Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5Mox in aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Y.L.; Yeh, J.W.; Shih, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the electrochemical properties of the Co 1.5 CrFeNi 1.5 Ti 0.5 Mo x high-entropy alloys in three aqueous environments which simulate acidic, marine, and basic environments at ambient temperature (∼25 o C). The potentiodynamic polarisation curves of the Co 1.5 CrFeNi 1.5 Ti 0.5 Mo x alloys, obtained in aqueous solutions of H 2 SO 4 and NaOH, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance of the Mo-free alloy was superior to that of the Mo-containing alloys. On the other hand, the lack of hysteresis in cyclic polarisation tests and SEM micrographs confirmed that the Mo-containing alloys are not susceptible to pitting corrosion in NaCl solution.

  6. Effect of Ti content on structure and properties of Al2CrFeNiCoCuTix high-entropy alloy coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, X.W.; Zhang, Y.P.; Liu, C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x high-entropy alloy coatings were prepared by laser cladding. • Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x coatings show excellent corrosion resistance and wear resistance. • Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x coatings play a good protective effect on Q235 steel. • Ti element promotes the formation of a BCC structure in a certain extent. -- Abstract: The Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x high-entropy alloy coatings were prepared by laser cladding. The structure, hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and magnetic property were studied by metallurgical microscope, scanning electron microscopy with spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction, micro/Vickers hardness tester, electrochemical workstation tribometer and multi-physical tester. The result shows that, Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x high-entropy alloy samples consist of the cladding zone, bounding zone, heat affected zone and substrate zone. The bonding between the cladding layer and the substrate of a good combination; the cladding zone is composed mainly of equiaxed grains and columnar crystal; the phase structure of Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x high-entropy alloy coatings simple for FCC, BCC and Laves phase due to high-entropy affect. Ti element promotes the formation of a BCC structure in a certain extent. Compared with Q235 steel, the free-corrosion current density of Al 2 CrFeNiCoCuTi x high-entropy alloy coatings is reduced by 1–2 orders of magnitude, the free-corrosion potential is more “positive”. With the increasing of Ti content, the corrosion resistance of Al 2 CrFeCoCuNiTi x high-entropy alloy coatings enhanced in 0.5 mol/L HNO 3 solution. Compared with Q235 steel, the relative wear resistance of Al 2 CrFeCoCuNiTi x high-entropy alloy coatings has improved greatly; both the hardness and plasticity are affecting wear resistance. Magnetization loop shows that, Ti 0.0 high-entropy alloy is a kind of soft magnetic materials

  7. Slurry Erosion Behavior of AlxCoCrFeNiTi0.5 High-Entropy Alloy Coatings Fabricated by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-entropy alloys (HEAs have gained extensive attention due to their excellent properties and the related scientific value in the last decade. In this work, AlxCoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coatings (x: molar ratio, x = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 were fabricated on Q345 steel substrate by laser-cladding process to develop a practical protection technology for fluid machines. The effect of Al content on their phase evolution, microstructure, and slurry erosion performance of the HEA coatings was studied. The AlxCoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coatings are composed of simple face-centered cubic (FCC, body-centered cubic (BCC and their mixture phase. Slurry erosion tests were conducted on the HEA coatings with a constant velocity of 10.08 m/s and 16–40 meshs and particles at impingement angles of 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 degrees. The effect of three parameters, namely impingement angle, sand concentration and erosion time, on the slurry erosion behavior of AlxCoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coatings was investigated. Experimental results show AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coating follows a ductile erosion mode and a mixed mode (neither ductile nor brittle for Al1.5CoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coating, while Al2.0CoCrFeNiTi0.5 and Al2.5CoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coatings mainly exhibit brittle erosion mode. AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 HEA coating has good erosion resistance at all investigated impingement angles due to its high hardness, good plasticity, and low stacking fault energy (SFE.

  8. Surface of Ti-Ni alloys after their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldan, I.; Frenzel, J.; Shekhah, O.; Chelmowski, R.; Birkner, A.; Woell, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    The Ti 3.87 Ni 1.73 Fe 0.7 O 0.3, Ti 3.87 Ni 1.73 Fe 0.4 N 0.3 and Ti 3.87 Ni 1.73 Fe 0.4 C 0.3 alloys were investigated regarding their surface characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used for phase characterization. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of alloy surface. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe alloy surface topography after cutting and electrochemical polishing separately has been done. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with X-ray diffraction was carried out to get a high contrast images and the diffraction pattern from alloy surface. The results clearly shown, that all alloys were multiphase, and their surface was totally oxidized with no pure metals

  9. Annealing effects on structure and mechanical properties of CoCrFeNiTiAlx high-entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K B; Fu, Z Y; Zhang, J Y; Wang, W M; Lee, S W; Niihara, K

    2011-01-01

    Novel CoCrFeNiTiAl x (x:molar ratio, other elements are equimolar) high-entropy alloys were prepared by vacuum arc melting and these alloys were subsequently annealed at 1000 deg. C for 2 h. The annealing effects on structure and mechanical properties were investigated. Compared with the as-cast alloys, there are many complex intermetallic phases precipitated from the solid solution matrix in the as-annealed alloys with Al content lower than Al 1.0 . Only simple BCC solid solution structure appears in the as-annealed Al 1.5 and Al 2.0 alloys. This kind of alloys exhibit high resistance to anneal softening. Most as-annealed alloys possess even higher Visker hardness than the as-cast ones. The as-annealed Al 0.5 alloys shows the highest compressive strength while the Al 0 alloy exhibits the best ductility, which is about 2.6 GPa and 13%, respectively. The CoCrFeNiTiAl x high-entropy alloys possess integrated high temperature mechanical property as well.

  10. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 High-Entropy Alloy in Hydrogen Peroxide Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Liu, W. M.; Zhang, T. B.; Li, J. S.; Wang, J.; Kou, H. C.; Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructure and tribological properties of an AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 high-entropy alloy in high-concentration hydrogen peroxide solution were investigated in this work. The results show that the sigma phase precipitates and the content of bcc2 decrease during the annealing process. Meanwhile, the complex construction of the interdendrite region changes into simple isolated-island shape, and much more spherical precipitates are formed. Those changes of microstructure during the annealing process lead to the increase of hardness of this alloy. In the testing conditions, the AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 alloy shows smoother worn surfaces and steadier coefficient of friction curves than does the 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel, and SiC ceramic preserves better wear resistance than ZrO2 ceramic. After annealing, the wear resistance of the AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 alloy increases coupled with SiC counterface but decreases with ZrO2 counterface.

  11. Thermodynamics of oxygen solutions in Fe-40% Ni-15% Cr melts containing Mn, Si, Ti, Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashevskij, V.Ya.; Makarova, N.N.; Grigorovich, K.V.; Kashin, V.I.; Polikarpova, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis and experimental studied are performed for oxygen solutions in Fe-40% Ni-15% Cr melts where Mn, Si, Ti, Al are used as reducing agents. It is revealed that in the alloys studied the affinity of reducing agents to oxygen essentially lower than in liquid iron, nickel and Fe-40% Ni alloy. This is explained by the fact that the oxygen activity in melts noticeably decreases due to a high chromium content whereas the activity of reducing elements increases in a rather less degree. The agreement between analytical and experimental results confirms the validity of the calculation technique [ru

  12. Fe-Cr-Ni system alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Phase diagram of Fe-Cr-Ni system, which is the basic one for production of corrosion resistant alloys, is considered. Data on corrosion resistance of such alloys are correlated depending on a number of factors: quality and composition of modifying elements, corrosion medium, temperature, alloy structure, mechanical and thermal treatment. Grades of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys are presented, and fields of their application are pointed out

  13. The Microstructures and Electrical Resistivity of (Al, Cr, TiFeCoNiOx High-Entropy Alloy Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Huei Tsau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The (Al, Cr, TiFeCoNi alloy thin films were deposited by PVD and using the equimolar targets with same compositions from the concept of high-entropy alloys. The thin films became metal oxide films after annealing at vacuum furnace for a period; and the resistivity of these thin films decreased sharply. After optimum annealing treatment, the lowest resistivity of the FeCoNiOx, CrFeCoNiOx, AlFeCoNiOx, and TiFeCoNiOx films was 22, 42, 18, and 35 μΩ-cm, respectively. This value is close to that of most of the metallic alloys. This phenomenon was caused by delaminating of the alloy oxide thin films because the oxidation was from the surfaces of the thin films. The low resistivity of these oxide films was contributed to the nonfully oxidized elements in the bottom layers and also vanishing of the defects during annealing.

  14. Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

    CERN Document Server

    SAE Aerospace Standards. London

    2012-01-01

    Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

  15. Structure and grindability of cast Ti-5Cr-xFe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.-C.; Pan, C.-H.; Wu, S.-C.; Ho, W.-F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure, microhardness and grindability of Ti-5Cr and a series of ternary Ti-5Cr-xFe alloys with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt.% Fe, respectively. This study evaluated the phase and structure of Ti-5Cr and Ti-5Cr-xFe alloys, using an X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase analysis and optical microscope for microstructure of the etched alloys. In addition, grindability was evaluated by measuring the amount of metal volume removed after grinding for 1 min at each of the four rotational speeds of the wheel (500, 750, 1000 or 1200 m/min), with the goal of developing a titanium alloy with better machinability than commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti). The results showed that the structure of Ti-5Cr-xFe alloys is sensitive to the Fe content. With Fe contents higher than 0.5 wt.%, the equi-axed β phase is entirely retained, while ω phase was found in the Ti-5Cr, Ti-5Cr-0.1Fe, Ti-5Cr-0.5Fe and Ti-5Cr-1Fe alloys. The largest quantity of ω phase and highest microhardness were found in Ti-5Cr-0.5Fe and Ti-5Cr-1Fe alloys. The grinding rates of the Ti-5Cr and Ti-5Cr-xFe alloys showed a similar tendency to the microhardness. The Ti-5Cr, Ti-5Cr-0.1Fe, Ti-5Cr-0.5Fe and Ti-5Cr-1Fe alloys exhibited the best grindability, especially at 500, 750 and 1000 m/min. Furthermore, the grindability of the tested metals increased in proportion to grinding speed up to 1000 m/min, with a decrease after 1200 m/min. This study concluded that Fe may be used to harden titanium and improve the grindability

  16. Preliminary Microstructural and Microscratch Results of Ni-Cr-Fe and Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings on Magnesium Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Lupescu, S.; Benchea, M.; Vizureanu, P.

    2017-06-01

    Thermal coatings have a large scale application in aerospace and automotive field, as barriers improving wear mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance. In present research, there have been used two types of coatings, Ni-Cr-Fe, respectively Cr3C2-NiCr which were deposited on magnesium based alloys (pure magnesium and Mg-30Y master alloy). There have been investigated the microstructural aspects through scanning electronic microscopy and XRD analysis and also a series of mechanical characteristics through microscratch and indentation determinations. The results revealed the formation of some adherent layers resistant to the penetration of the metallic indenter, the coatings did not suffer major damages. Microstructural analysis highlighted the formation of Cr3C2, Cr7C3, Cr3Ni2, Cr7Ni3, FeNi3, Cr-Ni phases. Also, the apparent coefficient of friction for Ni-Cr-Fe coatings presents superior values than Cr3C2-NiCr coatings.

  17. Effects of environment on the release of Ni, Cr, Fe, and Co from new and recast Ni-Cr alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyar, Perihan; Can, Gülşen; Atakol, Orhan

    2014-07-01

    The addition of previously cast alloy to new alloy for economic reasons may increase the release of elements. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the immersion period, immersion media, and addition of previously cast alloy to new alloy on the release of elements. Disk-shaped specimens were prepared from a Ni-Cr alloy (Ni: 61 wt%, Cr: 26 wt%, Mo: 11 wt%, Si: 1.5 wt%, Fe, Ce, Al, and Co alloy (group N) and 50% new/50% recast alloy (group R). After the immersion of the specimens in both NaCl (pH 4) and artificial saliva (pH 6.7) for 3, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days, the release of ions was determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Data were analyzed with a 3-way ANOVA (α=.001). The release of Ni was significantly affected by the immersion period, of Ni and Cr by the alloy and media (Palloy (Palloy in artificial saliva was 109.71 for Ni, 6.49 for Cr, 223.22 for Fe, and 29.90 μg/L for Co. The release of Co in NaCl was below the detection limit in both groups. The release of Ni in NaCl and artificial saliva increased with the length of the immersion period in both groups. The release of Cr and Fe was higher in artificial saliva than in NaCl in group R, regardless of the immersion period. The release of Co in NaCl was below the detection limit in both groups. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Point defect properties of ternary fcc Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wróbel, J.S., E-mail: jan.wrobel@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Nguyen-Manh, D.; Dudarev, S.L. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Kurzydłowski, K.J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Properties of point defects depend on the local atomic environment. • As the degree of chemical order increases, the formation energies increase, too. • Relaxation volumes are larger for the more ordered structures. - Abstract: The properties of point defects in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys are investigated, using density functional theory (DFT), for two alloy compositions, Fe{sub 50}Cr{sub 25}Ni{sub 25} and Fe{sub 55}Cr{sub 15}Ni{sub 30}, assuming various degrees of short-range order. DFT-based Monte Carlo simulations are applied to explore short-range order parameters and generate representative structures of alloys. Chemical potentials for the relevant structures are estimated from the minimum of the substitutional energy at representative atoms sites. Vacancies and 〈1 0 0〉 dumbbells are introduced in the Fe{sub 2}CrNi intermetallic phase as well as in two Fe{sub 55}Cr{sub 15}Ni{sub 30} alloy structures: the disordered and short range-ordered structures, generated using Monte Carlo simulations at 2000 K and 300 K, respectively. Formation energies and relaxation volumes of defects as well as changes of magnetic moments caused by the presence of defects are investigated as functions of the local environment of a defect.

  19. Precision casting of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy setting

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Hai; Liu Changkui; Huang Dong

    2008-01-01

    In this research, Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy ingots were prepared using ceramic mold and centrifugal casting. The Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn setting casting, for aeronautic engine, with 1.5 mm in thickness was manufactured. The alloy melting process, precision casting process, and problems in casting application were discussed. Effects of Hot Isostatic Pressing and heat treatment on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy were studied.

  20. Phase equilibria among α-Fe(Al, Cr, Ti), liquid and TiC and the formation of TiC in Fe3Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Schneider, Andre; Zaefferer, Stefan; Frommeyer, Georg; Raabe, Dierk

    2005-01-01

    In the context of the development of high-strength Fe 3 Al-based alloys, phase equilibria among α-Fe(Al, Cr, Ti), liquid and TiC phases in the Fe-Al-Cr-Ti-C quinary system and the formation of TiC were determined. A pseudo-eutectic trough (L α + L + TiC) exists at 1470 deg C at around Fe-26Al-5Cr-2Ti-1.7C on the vertical section between Fe-26Al-5Cr (α) and Ti-46C (TiC) in at.%. Large faceted TiC precipitates form from the melt after the formation of primary α phase even in hypoeutectic alloys. The TiC formation is thought to be due to the composition change of the liquid towards the hypereutectic compositions by solidification of the primary α. In order to remove the faceted TiC, which are unfavourable for strengthening the material, two different processing routes have been successfully tested: (i) solidification with an increased rate to reduce the composition variation of the liquid during solidification, and (ii) unidirectional solidification to separate the light TiC precipitates from the melt

  1. Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.P.; Chen, Y.Y.; Hsu, C.Y.; Yeh, J.W.; Shih, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the Al x CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 Ωcm 2 as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 Ωcm 2 ). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H 2 SO 4 solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al 0.3 CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 and Al 0.3 CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the Al x CrFe 1.5 MnNi 0.5 alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion

  2. Alloying behavior and deformation twinning in a CoNiFeCrAl0.6Ti0.4 high entropy alloy processed by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Weiping; Fang, Sicong; Zhang, Dayue; Xiao, Huaqiang; Zhu, Dezhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► CoNiFeCrAl 0.6 Ti 0.4 high entropy alloy has been synthesized via MA and SPS. ► Deformation twinning possibly occurred during MA or SPS. ► This alloy exhibits excellent mechanical properties. ► The fracture mechanism of this alloy is intergranular fracture and plastic fracture. -- Abstract: Inequi-atomic CoNiFeCrAl 0.6 Ti 0.4 high entropy alloy has been designed and fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). Alloying behavior, microstructure, phase evolution and mechanical properties of CoNiFeCrAl 0.6 Ti 0.4 alloy were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), as well as by an Instron testing system. During MA, a supersaturated solid solution consisting of a FCC phase and a metastable BCC phase was formed. Two FCC phases (named FCC1 and FCC2) and a new BCC phase were observed after SPS. During SPS, the metastable BCC phase transformed into the FCC2 phase and the new BCC phase. Meanwhile, the FCC1 phase was the initial FCC phase which was formed during MA. Moreover, nanoscale twins obviously presented only in partial FCC1 phase after SPS. Deformation twinning may be occurred during MA or SPS. The sintered alloy with a high relative density of 98.83% exhibits excellent comprehensive mechanical properties. The yield stress, compressive strength, compression ratio and Vickers hardness of the alloy are 2.08, 2.52 GPa, 11.5% and 573 H V , respectively. The fracture mechanism of CoNiFeCrAl 0.6 Ti 0.4 high entropy alloy is mainly performed at intergranular fracture and plastic fracture mode

  3. Alloying effect on hardening of martensite stainless steels of the Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Co systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel'dgandler, Eh.G.; Savkina, L.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of alloying elements is considered on the γ → a-transformation and hardening of certain compositions of the ternary Fe-Cr-Ni- and Fe-Cr-Co alloy systems with the martensite structure. In martensite Fe-(10 to 14)% Cr base steels the elements Co, Cu, W, Ni, Mo, Si, Cr decrease, Mn, Si, Mo, Cu increase, and Cr, Ni, Co decrease the temperature of α → γ-transition. The tempering of martensite steels of the Fe-Cr-Ni- and Fe-Cr-Co-systems containing 10 to 14% Cr, 4 to 9% Ni, and 7 to 12% Co does not lead to hardening. Alloyage of the martensite Fe-Cr-Ni-, Fe-Cr-Co- and Fe-Cr-Ni-Co base separately with Mo, W, Si or Cu leads to a hardening during tempering, the hardening being the higher, the higher is the content of Ni and, especially, of Co. The increase in the content of Mo or Si produces the same effect as the increase in the Co content. In on Fe-Cr-Co or Fe-Cr-Ni-Co based steels alloyed with Mo or Si, two temperature ranges of ageing have been revealed which, evidently, have different hardening natures. The compositions studied could serve as the base material for producing maraging stainless steels having a complex variety of properties

  4. Mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B bulk glassy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Ahn; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Jung Han; Lee, Chong Soo; Namkung, Jung; Kim, Moon Chul

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of new Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based bulk glassy alloys were investigated. The suitability of the continuous roll casting method for the production of bulk metallic glass (BMG) sheets in such alloy systems was also examined. BMG samples (Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-W-Si-B) in amorphous strip, cylindrical, and sheet forms were prepared through melt spinning, copper mold casting, and twin roll strip casting, respectively. Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B alloy exhibited compressive strength of up to 2.93 GPa and plastic strain of about 1.51%. On the other hand, the Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, composite-type bulk sample with diameter of 2.0 mm showed remarkable compressive plastic strain of about 4.03%. The addition of zirconium was found to enhance the homogeneous precipitation of nanocrystalline less than 7 nm and to develop a hybrid-composite microstructure with increasing sample thickness. Twin roll strip casting was successfully applied to the fabrication of sheets in Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based BMGs. The combined characteristics of high mechanical properties and ease of microstructure control proved to be promising in terms of the future progress of structural bulk amorphous alloys

  5. Mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B bulk glassy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Ahn [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: keeahn@andong.ac.kr; Kim, Yong Chan [New Metals Research Team, RIST, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Han [Center for Advanced Aerospace materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chong Soo [Center for Advanced Aerospace materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, Jung [New Metals Research Team, RIST, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon Chul [New Metals Research Team, RIST, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-25

    The mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of new Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based bulk glassy alloys were investigated. The suitability of the continuous roll casting method for the production of bulk metallic glass (BMG) sheets in such alloy systems was also examined. BMG samples (Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-W-Si-B) in amorphous strip, cylindrical, and sheet forms were prepared through melt spinning, copper mold casting, and twin roll strip casting, respectively. Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B alloy exhibited compressive strength of up to 2.93 GPa and plastic strain of about 1.51%. On the other hand, the Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, composite-type bulk sample with diameter of 2.0 mm showed remarkable compressive plastic strain of about 4.03%. The addition of zirconium was found to enhance the homogeneous precipitation of nanocrystalline less than 7 nm and to develop a hybrid-composite microstructure with increasing sample thickness. Twin roll strip casting was successfully applied to the fabrication of sheets in Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based BMGs. The combined characteristics of high mechanical properties and ease of microstructure control proved to be promising in terms of the future progress of structural bulk amorphous alloys.

  6. First-Principles Study on the Structural Stability and Segregation Behavior of γ-Fe/Cr2N Interface with Alloying Additives M (M = Mn, V, Ti, Mo, and Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the structural stability and electrochemical properties of alloying additives M (M = Mn, V, Ti, Mo, or Ni at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface by the first-principles method. Results indicated that V and Ti were easily segregated at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface and enhanced interfacial adhesive strength. By contrast, Ni and Mo were difficult to segregate at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface. Moreover, the results of the work function demonstrated that alloying additives Mn reduced local electrochemical corrosion behavior of the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface by cutting down Volta potential difference (VPD between clean γ-Fe(111 and Cr2N(0001, while alloying additives V, Ti, Mo, and Ni at the γ-Fe(111/Cr2N(0001 interface magnified VPD between clean γ-Fe(111 and Cr2N(0001, which were low-potential sites that usually serve as local attack initiation points.

  7. High-Temperature Tensile Strength of Al10Co25Cr8Fe15Ni36Ti6 Compositionally Complex Alloy (High-Entropy Alloy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, H. M.; Manzoni, A. M.; Wanderka, N.; Glatzel, U.

    2015-06-01

    Homogenizing at 1220°C for 20 h and subsequent aging at 900°C for 5 h and 50 h of a novel Al10Co25Cr8Fe15Ni36Ti6 compositionally complex alloy (high-entropy alloy) produces a microstructure consisting of an L12 ordered γ' phase embedded in a face-centered cubic solid-solution γ matrix together with needle-like B2 precipitates (NiAl). The volume fraction of γ' phase is ~46% and of needle-like B2 precipitates database; Thermo-Calc Software, Stockholm, Sweden). The high-temperature tensile tests were carried out at room temperature, 600°C, 700°C, 800°C, and 1000°C. The tensile strength as well as the elongation to failure of both heat-treated specimens is very high at all tested temperatures. The values of tensile strength has been compared with literature data of well-known Alloy 800H and Inconel 617, and is discussed in terms of the observed microstructure.

  8. Comparison of the irradiation effects on swelling and microstructure in commercial alloy A-286 and a simple Fe--25 Ni--15Cr gamma prime hardened alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickering, R.W.; Bajaj, R.; Lally, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The irradiation behaviors of alloy A-286 as well as experimental gamma prime hardened alloys are being studied in the National Alloy Development Program for application of gamma prime hardened alloys in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The principal direction of the studies concerns the high temperature strength and swelling resistance of the alloys. Minor element compositions may affect the phase stability and void swelling. A high Ti to Al ratio indicates a tendency for the gamma prime Ni 3 (Ti,Al) to transform into eta phase (Ni 3 Ti) after long term thermal aging and irradiation enhances the tendency for transformation. Another minor element, Si, as a constituent of G-phase, and irradiation may enhance G-phase formation. The Ti, Al, and Si contents affect the swelling of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. The swelling resistance generally increases with increasing amounts of these three elements in the matrix. In the study the effects of Ti to Al ratio, Ti content, Al content, and Si content on swelling and phase stability were analyzed after Ni-ion irradiation

  9. Effect of alloying elements on σ phase formation in Fe-Cr-Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Yoshimitsu; Miyahara, Kazuya; Hosoi, Yuzo; Tanino, Mitsuru; Komatsu, Hazime.

    1989-01-01

    Alloys of Fe-(8∼12%) Cr-(5∼30%) Mn were solution-treated at 1373 K for 3.6 ks, followed by cold-working of 50% reduction. Both solution-treated and 50% cold-worked materials were aged in the temperature range from 773 to 973 K for 3.6 x 10 3 ks. The identification of σ phase formation was made by using X-ray diffraction from the electrolytically extracted residues of the aged specimens. The region of σ phase formation determined by the present work is wider than that on the phase diagram already reported. It is to be noted that Mn promotes markedly the σ phase formation, and that three different types of σ phase formation are observed depending on Mn content: α→γ + α→γ + α + σ in 10% Mn, α→γ + σ in 15 to 20% Mn alloys, α→χ(Chi) →χ + σ + γ in 25 to 30% Mn alloys. An average electron concentration (e/a) in the σ phase was estimated by quantitative analysis of alloying elements using EPMA. The e/a value in the σ phase formed in Fe-(12∼16%) Cr-Mn alloys aged at 873 K for 3.6 x 10 3 ks is about 7.3, which is independent of Mn content. In order to prevent σ phase formation in Fe-12% Cr-15% Mn alloy, the value of Ni * eq of 11 (Ni * eq = Ni + 30(C) + 25(N)) is required. (author)

  10. Hydrogen solubility in austenite of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhirnova, V.V.; Mogutnov, B.M.; Tomilin, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen solubility in Fe-Ni-Cr alloys at 600-1000 deg C is determined. Hydrogen solubility in ternary alloys can not be predicted on the basis of the data on its solubility in binary Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr alloys. Chromium and nickel effect on hydrogen solubility in iron is insignificant in comparison with the effect of these elements on carbon or nitrogen solubility [ru

  11. Austenitic alloys Fe-Ni-Cr dominating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Austenitic alloy essentially comprising 42 to 48% nickel, 11 to 13% chromium, 2.6 to 3.4% niobium, 0.2 to 1.2% silicon, 0.5 to 1.5% vanadium, 2.6 to 3.4% molybdenum, 0.1 to 0.3% aluminium, 0.1 to 0.3% titanium, 0.02 to 0.05% carbon, 0.002 to 0.015% boron, up to 0.06% zirconium, the balance being iron. The characteristic of this alloy is a conventional elasticity limit to within 2% of at least 450 MPa, with a maximum tensile strength of at least 500 MPa at a test temperature of 650 0 C after immersion annealing at 1038 0 C and 30% hardening. To this effect the invention concerns Ni-Cr-Fe high temperature alloys possessing excellent mechanical strength characteristics, that can be obtained with lower levels of nickel and chromium than those used in alloys of this kind in the present state of the technique, a higher amount of niobium than in the previous alloys and with the addition of 0.5 to 1.5% vanadium [fr

  12. Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.P.; Chen, Y.Y.; Hsu, C.Y.; Yeh, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Shih, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hcshih@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-12-01

    High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 {omega}cm{sup 2} as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 {omega}cm{sup 2}). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al{sub 0.3}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} and Al{sub 0.3}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion.

  13. Hydrogen absorption/desorption properties in the TiCrV based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three different Ti-based alloys with bcc structure and Laves phase were studied. The TiCr1.1V0.9, TiCr1.1V0.45Nb0.45 and TiCr1.1V0.9 + 4%Zr7Ni10 alloys were melted in arc furnace under argon atmosphere. The hydrogen absorption capacity was measured by using aparatus type Sievert's. Crystal structures, and the lattice parameters were determined by using X-ray diffraction, XRD. Microestructural analysis was performed by scanning electron microscope, SEM and electron dispersive X-ray, EDS. The hydrogen storage capacity attained a value of 3.6 wt. (% for TiCr1.1V0.9 alloy in a time of 9 minutes, 3.3 wt. (% for TiCr1.1V0.45Nb0.45 alloy in a time of 7 minutes and 3.6 wt. (% TiCr1.1V0.9 + 4%Zr7Ni10 with an increase of the hydrogen absorption kinetics attained in 2 minutes. This indicates that the addition of Nb and 4%Zr7Ni10 to the TiCrV alloy acts as catalysts to accelerate the hydrogen absorption kinetics.

  14. Diffusion of 51Cr along high-diffusivity paths in Ni-Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, J.

    1990-01-01

    Penetration profiles of 51 Cr in polycrystalline alloys Ni-xFe (x = 0, 20, 40, and 60 wt.% Fe) after diffusion anneals at temperatures between 693 and 1473 K are studied. Sectioning of diffusion zones of samples annealed above 858 K is carried out by grinding, at lower temperatures by DC glow discharge sputtering. The concentration of 51 Cr in depth x is assumed to be proportional to relative radioactivity of individual sections. With help of volume and pipe self-diffusion data taken from literature, the temperature dependence of product P = δD g (δ and D g are grain boundary width and grain boundary diffusion coefficient, respectively) is obtained: P = (2.68 - 0.88 +1.3 ) x 10 -11 exp [-(221.3 ± 3.0) kJ/mol/RT]m 3 /s. This result agrees well with the previous measurements of 51 Cr diffusivity in Fe-18 Cr-12 Ni and Fe-21 Cr-31 Ni. It indicates that the mean chemical composition of Fe-Cr-Ni ternary alloys is not a dominant factor affecting the grain boundary diffusivity of Cr in these alloys. (author)

  15. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed AlCoCrFeNiTi High-Entropy Alloy Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-Hui; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Chuan; Lu, Sheng; Fu, Ming

    2016-12-01

    Due to the advantages such as high strength, high hardness and good wear resistance, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) attracted more and more attentions in recent decades. However, most reports on HEAs were limited to bulk materials. Although a few of studies on atmospheric plasma-sprayed (APS) HEA coatings were carried out, the wear behavior, especially the high-temperature wear behavior of those coatings has not been investigated till now. Therefore, in this study, APS was employed to deposit AlCoCrFeNiTi high-entropy alloy coating using mechanically alloyed AlCoCrFeNiTi powder as the feedstock. The phase structure of the initial powder, the feedstock powder and the as-sprayed coating was examined by an x-ray diffractometer. The surface morphology of the feedstock powder and the microstructure of the as-sprayed coating were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The bonding strength and the microhardness of the as-sprayed coating were tested. The wear behavior of the coating at 25, 500, 700 and 900 °C was investigated by analysis of the wear surface morphology and measurements of the volume wear rate and the coefficient of friction.

  16. Ostwald Ripening Process of Coherent β′ Precipitates during Aging in Fe0.75Ni0.10Al0.15 and Fe0.74Ni0.10Al0.15Cr0.01 Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cayetano-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ostwald ripening process was studied in Fe0.75Ni0.10Al0.15 and Fe0.74Ni0.10Al0.15Cr0.01 alloys after aging at 750, 850, and 950°C for different times. The microstructural evolution shows a rounded cube morphology (Fe, NiAl β′ precipitates aligned in the ferrite matrix, which changes to elongated plates after prolonged aging. The variation of the equivalent radii of precipitates with time follows the modified Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory for diffusion-controlled coarsening. Thermo-Calc analysis shows that the chromium content is richer in the matrix than in the precipitates which causes higher hardness and coarsening resistance in the aged Fe0.74Ni0.10Al0.15Cr0.01 alloy.

  17. Microstructure of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys with additions of Nb, Ti and, B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, H.; Fischer, A.

    1987-01-01

    The abrasive wear of machine parts and tools used in the mining, earth moving, and transporting of mineral materials can be lowered by filler wire welding of hardfacing alloys. In this paper, the microstructures of Fe-Cr-C and Fe-Cr-C-Nb/Ti hardfacing alloys and deposits and those of newly developed Fe-Cr-C-B and Fe-Ti-Cr-C-B ones are described. They show up to 85 vol.% of primarily solidified coarse hard phases; i.e., Carbides of MC-, M/sub 7/C/sub 3/-, M/sub 3/C-type and Borides of MB/sub 2/-, M/sub 3/B/sub 2/-, M/sub 2/B-, M/sub 3/B-, M/sub 23/B/sub 6/-type, which are embedded in a hard eutectic. This itself consists of eutectic hard phases and a martensitic or austenitic metal matrix. The newly developed Fe-Cr-C-B alloys reach hardness values of up to 1200 HV and are harder than all purchased ones. The primary solidification of the MB/sub 2/-type phase of titanium requires such high amounts of titanium and boron that these alloys are not practical for manufacture as commercial filler wires

  18. Atomic scale study of grain boundary segregation before carbide nucleation in Ni-Cr-Fe Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Xia, Shuang; Liu, Wenqing; Liu, Tingguang; Zhou, Bangxin

    2013-08-01

    Three dimensional chemical information concerning grain boundary segregation before carbide nucleation was characterized by atom probe tomography in two Ni-Cr-Fe alloys which were aged at 500 °C for 0.5 h after homogenizing treatment. B, C and Si atoms segregation at grain boundary in Alloy 690 was observed. B, C, N and P atoms segregation at grain boundary in 304 austenitic stainless steel was observed. C atoms co-segregation with Cr atoms at the grain boundaries both in Alloy 690 and 304 austenitic stainless steel was found, and its effect on the carbide nucleation was discussed. The amount of each segregated element at grain boundaries in the two Ni-Cr-Fe alloys were analyzed quantitatively. Comparison of the grain boundary segregation features of the two Ni-Cr-Fe alloys were carried out based on the experimental results. The impurity and solute atoms segregate inhomogeneously in the same grain boundary both in 304 SS and Alloy 690. The grain boundary segregation tendencies (Sav) are B (11.8 ± 1.4) > P (5.4 ± 1.4) > N (4.7 ± 0.3) > C (3.7 ± 0.4) in 304 SS, and B (6.9 ± 0.9) > C (6.7 ± 0.4) > Si (1.5 ± 0.2) in Alloy 690. Cr atoms may co-segregate with C atoms at grain boundaries before carbide nucleation at the grain boundaries both in 304 SS and Alloy 690. Ni atoms generally deplete at grain boundary both in 304 SS and Alloy 690. The literature shows that the Ni atoms may co-segregate with P atoms at grain boundaries [28], but the P atoms segregation do not leads to Ni segregation in the current study. In the current study, Fe atoms may segregate or deplete at grain boundary in Alloy 690. But Fe atoms generally deplete at grain boundary in 304 SS. B atoms have the strongest grain boundary segregation tendency both in 304 SS and Alloy 690. The grain boundary segregation tendency and Gibbs free energy of B in 304 SS is higher than in Alloy 690. C atoms are easy to segregate at grain boundaries both in 304 SS and Alloy 690. The grain boundary segregation

  19. Phase separation in equiatomic AlCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoni, A., E-mail: anna.manzoni@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute of Applied Materials, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Daoud, H.; Völkl, R.; Glatzel, U. [Metals and Alloys, University Bayreuth, Ludwig-Thoma-Strasse 36b, D-95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Wanderka, N. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute of Applied Materials, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    The microstructure of the as-cast AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The alloy shows a very pronounced microstructure with clearly distinguishable dendrites and interdendrites. In both regions a separation into an Al–Ni rich matrix and Cr–Fe-rich precipitates can be observed. Moreover, fluctuations of single elements within the Cr–Fe rich phase have been singled out by three dimensional atom probe measurements. The results of investigations are discussed in terms of spinodal decomposition of the alloying elements inside the Cr–Fe-rich precipitates. - Highlights: ► The Alloy separates into an Al–Ni rich matrix and Cr–Fe-rich precipitates. ► Concentration depth profiles in the Cr–Fe rich regions show opposite fluctuations. ► They have been attributed to the spinodal decomposition of Fe- and Cr-rich phases. ► The Al–Ni rich region corresponds well to the Al–Ni rich phases observed in the 6 component AlCoCrCuFeNi alloy.

  20. Microstructures of neutron-irradiated Fe-12Cr-XMn (X=15-30) ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, K.; Hosoi, Y.; Garner, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to determine the factors which control the stability of irradiated alloys proposed for reduced activation applications. The Fe-Cr-Mn alloy system is being studied as an alternative to the Fe-Cr-Ni system because of the need to reduce long-term radioactivation in fusion-power devices. In this study, four Fe-12Cr-XMn (X =15, 20, 25, 30 wt%) alloys were irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility to 20 dpa at 643K and 40 dpa at 679, 793, and 873K to investigate the influence of manganese content on void swelling and phase stability. The results confirm and expand the results of earlier studies that indicate that the Fe-Cr-Mn system is relatively unstable compared to that of the Fe-Cr-Ni system, with alpha and sigma phases forming as a consequence of thermal aging or high temperature irradiation

  1. Solubility of sulfur in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubskij, S.D.; Petrova, E.F.; Rogov, A.I.; Shvartsman, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The solubility of 35 S was determined in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in the range of temperatures between 910 and 1050 deg C by the method of radiometric analysis. It was found that the solubility of sulfur increases with the concentration of chromium in alloys with 20% Ni

  2. Effect of iron content on the structure and mechanical properties of Al{sub 25}Ti{sub 25}Ni{sub 25}Cu{sub 25} and (AlTi){sub 60-x}Ni{sub 20}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub x} (x=15, 20) high-entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazakas, É., E-mail: eva.fazakas@bayzoltan.hu [WPI-Advaced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Wigner Research Center for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary); Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd., For Applied Research H-1116 Budapest, Fehérvári út 130 (Hungary); Zadorozhnyy, V. [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», Leninsky prosp., 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V. [WPI-Advaced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Three new refractory alloys namely: Al{sub 25}Ti{sub 25}Ni{sub 25}Cu{sub 25}, Al{sub 22.5}Ti{sub 22.5}Ni{sub 20}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 15} and Al{sub 20}Ti{sub 20}Ni{sub 20}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 20}, were produced by induction-melting and casting. • This kind of alloys exhibits high resistance to annealing softening. • Most the alloys in the annealed state possess even higher Vickers microhardness than the as-cast alloys. • The Al{sub 22.5}Ti{sub 22.5}Ni{sub 20}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 15} and Al{sub 20}Ti{sub 20}Ni{sub 20}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 20} alloys annealed at 973 K show the highest compressive stress and ductility values. - Abstract: In this work, we investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al{sub 25}Ti{sub 25}Ni{sub 25}C{sub u25} Al{sub 22.5}Ti{sub 22.5}Ni{sub 20}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 15} and Al{sub 20}Ti{sub 20}Ni{sub 20}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 20} high entropy alloys, produced by arc melting and casting in an inert atmosphere. The structure of these alloys was studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The as-cast alloys were heat treated at 773, 973 and 1173 K for 1800 s to investigate the effects of aging on the plasticity, hardness and elastic properties. Compared to the conventional high-entropy alloys the Al{sub 25}Ti{sub 25}Ni{sub 25}Cu{sub 25}, Al{sub 22.5}Ti{sub 22.5}Ni{sub 20}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 15} and Al{sub 20}Ti{sub 20}Ni{sub 20}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 20} alloys are relatively hard and ductile. Being heat treated at 973 K the Al{sub 22.5}Ti{sub 22.5}Ni{sub 20}Cu{sub 20}Fe{sub 15} alloy shows considerably high strength and relatively homogeneous deformation under compression. The plasticity, hardness and elastic properties of the studied alloys depend on the fraction and intrinsic properties of the constituent phases. Significant hardening effect by the annealing is found.

  3. On the Correlation between Morphology of alpha and Its Crystallographic Orientation Relationship with TiB and Beta in Boron Containing Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-0.5Fe Alloy (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    orientation microscopy studies on a boron containing version of the commercial Ti- 5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-0.5Fe ( Ti5553 ) alloy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ti5553 ...of the commercial Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-0.5Fe ( Ti5553 ) alloy. Keywords: Ti5553 , TiB, EBSD, crystallography, orientation relationship. Paper There has...absence of orientation relationships between the α, β and TiB phases, on the morphology of α nucleating from TiB in the Ti5553 alloy.. The base

  4. Effect of Cr, Ti, V, and Zr Micro-additions on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Al-Si-Cu-Mg Cast Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaha, S. K.; Czerwinski, F.; Kasprzak, W.; Friedman, J.; Chen, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    Uniaxial static and cyclic tests were used to assess the role of Cr, Ti, V, and Zr additions on properties of the Al-7Si-1Cu-0.5Mg (wt pct) alloy in as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions. The microstructure of the as-cast alloy consisted of α-Al, eutectic Si, and Cu-, Mg-, and Fe-rich phases Al2.1Cu, Al8.5Si2.4Cu, Al5.2CuMg4Si5.1, and Al14Si7.1FeMg3.3. In addition, the micro-sized Cr/Zr/Ti/V-rich phases Al10.7SiTi3.6, Al6.7Si1.2TiZr1.8, Al21.4Si3.4Ti4.7VZr1.8, Al18.5Si7.3Cr2.6V, Al7.9Si8.5Cr6.8V4.1Ti, Al6.3Si23.2FeCr9.2V1.6Ti1.3, Al92.2Si16.7Fe7.6Cr8.3V1.8, and Al8.2Si30.1Fe1.6Cr18.8V3.3Ti2.9Zr were present. During solution treatment, Cu-rich phases were completely dissolved, while the eutectic silicon, Fe-, and Cr/Zr/Ti/V-rich intermetallics experienced only partial dissolution. Micro-additions of Cr, Zr, Ti, and V positively affected the alloy strength. The modified alloy in the T6 temper during uniaxial tensile tests exhibited yield strength of 289 MPa and ultimate tensile strength of 342 MPa, being significantly higher than that for the Al-Si-Cu-Mg base. Besides, the cyclic yield stress of the modified alloy in the T6 state increased by 23 pct over that of the base alloy. The fatigue life of the modified alloy was substantially longer than that of the base alloy tested using the same parameters. The role of Cr, Ti, V, and Zr containing phases in controlling the alloy fracture during static and cyclic loading is discussed.

  5. Influence of the chemical composition of rapidly quenched amorphous alloys (Ni, Fe, Cr)-B-Si on its crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmanov, G.; Dzhumaev, P.; Ivanitskaya, E.; Skrytnyi, V.; Ruslanov, A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of research of the structure and phase transformations during the multistage crystallization of the metallic glasses with the compositions Ni71,5Cr6,8Fe2,7B11,9Si7,1 and Ni63,4Cr7,4Fe4,3Mn0,8B15,6Si8,5 labeled as AWS BNi-2 according to American Welding Society. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) were used as experimental research methods. The influence of the alloys chemical composition (boron, manganese and iron) on the temperatures and the exothermic heat effects of phase transformations, as well as on the phase composition of alloys at three stages of crystallization was analyzed. We present a thermodynamic explanation of the observed heat effects. It has been shown that manganese has the main influence on the phase transformations temperatures and heat effects in these two alloys. It is also assumed that at the final crystallization stage simultaneously with the formation of phases Ni3B and β1-Ni3Si should occur the nucleation of borides of CrB type with high Cr and low Si content.

  6. The effect of small 4th element alloying additions on the calculated phase stability in the Fe-Cr-Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkin, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies into the void swelling of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys have revealed that the magnitude of swelling depends upon alloy constitution and this together with the fact that minor element additions also play a major role in swelling necessitate a detailed knowledge of the influence of small 4th element additions on phase stability. In this paper the effects of additions of Nb, Ti, Al, Mo, Co and C to the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary are assessed by calculation. They confirm the ferritising tendencies of Nb, Ti and Al and the strong austenitising effect of C. Confirmation is also found for the scaling factors in the equivalent Ni and Cr equations in common usage and the paper presents Fe-Cr-Ni ternary sections at 400, 550 and 700 0 C modified for 1 at.% addition of each of the above elements. (orig.) [de

  7. Effect of iron content on the structure and mechanical properties of Al25Ti25Ni25Cu25 and (AlTi)60-xNi20Cu20Fex (x=15, 20) high-entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazakas, É.; Zadorozhnyy, V.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three new refractory alloys namely: Al 25 Ti 25 Ni 25 Cu 25 , Al 22.5 Ti 22.5 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 15 and Al 20 Ti 20 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 20 , were produced by induction-melting and casting. • This kind of alloys exhibits high resistance to annealing softening. • Most the alloys in the annealed state possess even higher Vickers microhardness than the as-cast alloys. • The Al 22.5 Ti 22.5 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 15 and Al 20 Ti 20 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 20 alloys annealed at 973 K show the highest compressive stress and ductility values. - Abstract: In this work, we investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al 25 Ti 25 Ni 25 C u25 Al 22.5 Ti 22.5 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 15 and Al 20 Ti 20 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 20 high entropy alloys, produced by arc melting and casting in an inert atmosphere. The structure of these alloys was studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The as-cast alloys were heat treated at 773, 973 and 1173 K for 1800 s to investigate the effects of aging on the plasticity, hardness and elastic properties. Compared to the conventional high-entropy alloys the Al 25 Ti 25 Ni 25 Cu 25 , Al 22.5 Ti 22.5 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 15 and Al 20 Ti 20 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 20 alloys are relatively hard and ductile. Being heat treated at 973 K the Al 22.5 Ti 22.5 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy shows considerably high strength and relatively homogeneous deformation under compression. The plasticity, hardness and elastic properties of the studied alloys depend on the fraction and intrinsic properties of the constituent phases. Significant hardening effect by the annealing is found.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-Zr-Cr biomedical alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Feng, Yan; Liu, Fengchao; Wu, Lihong; Guan, Shaokang

    2015-06-01

    The Ti-15Zr-xCr (0≤x≤10, wt.%) alloys were investigated to develop new biomedical materials. It was found that the phase constitutions and mechanical properties strongly depended on the Cr content. The Ti-15Zr alloy was comprised of α' phase and a small fraction of β phase was detected with adding 1wt.% Cr. With addition of 5wt.% or more, the β phase was completely retained. In addition, the ω phase was detected in the Ti-15Zr-5Cr alloy and Ti-15Zr-7Cr alloy which exhibited the highest compressive Young's modulus and the lowest ductility. On the other hand, all the Ti-15Zr-xCr alloys without ω phase exhibited high microhardness, high yield strength and superior ductility. Furthermore, the elastic energy of Ti-15Zr-10Cr alloy (5.89MJ/m(3)) with only β phase and that of Ti-15Zr-3Cr alloy (4.04MJ/m(3)) with α' phase and small fraction of β phase was higher than the elastic energy of c.p. Ti (1.25MJ/m(3)). This study demonstrated that Ti-15Zr-3Cr alloy and Ti-15Zr-10Cr alloy with superior mechanical properties are potential materials for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The electrochemical properties of Zr-Ti-V-Ni-Mn hydrogen storage alloys with various compositions for an electrode of Ni-MH secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Jun; Jung, So Yi; Park, Choong Nyeon [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Effects of alloy modification for the Zr{sub 0.7}Ti{sub 0.3}V{sub 0.4}Ni{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 0.4} alloy as an electrode materials have been investigated. When Ti in the alloy was partially substituted by Zr, the hydrogen storage capacity and subsequently the discharge capacity increased significantly, however, the activation characteristic and rate capability decreased. By substituting Mn with other elements (Cr, Co and Fe) in the alloy, discharge capacity decreased but the cycle life and rate capability were improved. Considering both the discharge capacity, the high rate discharge property and cycle life, the Zaire.{sub 7}Ti{sub 0.3}V{sub 0.4}Ni{sub 1.2}Mn{sub 0.3}Cr{sub 0.1} alloy among the alloys subjected to the test was found to be a prominent alloy for a practical usage. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of FeNiCr Matrix-TiC Composite for Polishing CVD Diamond Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuji Jin; Zewei Yuan; Renke Kang; Boxian Dong

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic friction polishing (DFP) is one of the most promising methods appropriate for polishing CVD diamond film with high efficiency and low cost.By this method CVD diamond film is polished through being simply pressed against a metal disc rotating at a high speed utilizing the thermochemical reaction occurring as a result of dynamic friction between them in the atmosphere.However, the relatively soft materials such as stainless steel, cast iron and nickel alloy widely used for polishing CVD diamond film are easy to wear and adhere to diamond film surface, which may further lead to low efficiency and poor polishing quality.In this paper, FeNiCr matrix-TiC composite used as grinding wheel for polishing CVD diamond film was obtained by combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS).The process of ball milling,composition, density, hardness, high-temperature oxidation resistance and wear resistance of the sintered piece were analyzed.The results show that TiC was introduced in MA-SPS process and had good combination with FeNiCr matrix and even distribution in the matrix.The density of composite can be improved by mechanical alloying.The FeNiCr matrix-TiC composite obtained at 1273 K was found to be superior to at 1173 K sintering in hardness, high-temperature oxidation resistance and wearability.These properties are more favorable than SUS304 for the preparation of high-performance grinding wheel for polishing CVD diamond film.

  11. Gaseous Phase and Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage Properties of Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu for Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural, gaseous phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of a series of the Ti50Zr1Ni44X5 (X = Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Cu metal hydride alloys were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the multi-phase nature of all alloys, which were composed of a stoichiometric TiNi matrix, a hyperstoichiometric TiNi minor phase, and a Ti2Ni secondary phase. Improvement in synergetic effects between the main TiNi and secondary Ti2Ni phases, determined by the amount of distorted lattice region in TiNi near Ti2Ni, was accomplished by the substitution of an element with a higher work function, which consequently causes a dramatic increase in gaseous phase hydrogen storage capacity compared to the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy. Capacity performance is further enhanced in the electrochemical environment, especially in the cases of the Ti50Zr1Ni49 base alloy and Ti50Zr1Ni44Co5 alloy. Although the TiNi-based alloys in the current study show poorer high-rate performances compared to the commonly used AB5, AB2, and A2B7 alloys, they have adequate capacity performances and also excel in terms of cost and cycle stability. Among the alloys investigated, the Ti50Zr1Ni44Fe5 alloy demonstrated the best balance among capacity (394 mAh·g−1, high-rate performance, activation, and cycle stability and is recommended for follow-up full-cell testing and as the base composition for future formula optimization. A review of previous research works regarding the TiNi metal hydride alloys is also included.

  12. Mechanism of swelling suppression in phosphorous-modified Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.

    1986-01-01

    Five simple alloys were ion irradiated at 948 0 K in an experiment designed to investigate the mechanism of swelling suppression associated with phosphorous additions. One of the alloys was the simple ternary Fe-15Ni-13Cr, another had 0.05% P added and the other three had further additions of the phosphide precipitate-forming elements Ti and/or Si. Ion irradiations were carried out with heavy ions only (Ni or Fe) or with heavy ions followed by dual heavy ions and helium. The ternary with and without P swelled readily early in dose with or without helium. The other three alloys only showed swelling in the presence of helium and exhibited a long delay in dose prior to the onset of swelling. These displayed fine distributions of Fe 2 P type phosphide precipitates enhanced by irradiation. The phosphide particles gave rise to very high concentrations of stable helium filled cavities at the precipitate matrix interfaces. The results were analyzed in terms of the theory of cavity swelling. The accumulation of the critical number of gas atoms in an individual cavity is required in the theory for point defect driven swelling to begin. It is concluded that the primary mechanism leading to swelling suppression is therefore the dilution of injected helium over a very large number of cavities. It is suggested that this mechanism may offer a key for alloy design for swelling resistance in high helium environments

  13. Acoustic emission during R-phase and martensitic transformations in a Ti50.2Ni48.3Fe1.5 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, K.; Nishida, M.

    1995-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) signals generated during phase transformations in a Ti 50.2 Ni 48.3 Fe 1.5 shape memory alloy have been measured, and the AE parameters have been correlated with the phase transformation events. The AE count rate curve during cooling of the specimen was found to have two distinct peaks at temperatures of approximately 8 and -30 C. These peaks were confirmed by both optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry to correspond to the B2 to R phase transformation (at 8 C) and the R to B19' transformation (at -30 C) respectively. This is the first detection of the AE events associated with the R-phase transformation in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys. Although the amplitude distributions during both transformations were almost identical, both the duration and the rise time of AE events during the B2 to R phase transformation were larger than those during the R to B19' transformation. These observations suggest that the transformation velocity of the R-phase transformation is slower than that of the martensitic transformation, and are consistent with the nature of both these transformations. It is concluded that the AE technique can be applied to the determination of transformation temperatures of Ti-Ni alloys on cooling as well as DSC and electrical resistivity measurement. (orig.)

  14. Pitting Corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti+2Cr Intermetallic Compound at Various Chloride Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr containing two regions of a Ni3(Si,Ti single-phase of L12 structure and a mixture phase of of (L12 +Niss was investigated as function of chloride concentrations by using a polarization method, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy in neutral sodium chloride solutions at 293 K.  The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti with and without the addition of aluminium and type C276 alloy were also studied under the same experimental condition for the comparison.  The pitting potential obtained for the Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr decreased with increasing chloride concentration.  The specific pitting potentials and the pitting potentials were decreased in the order of C276 alloy > Ni3(Si,Ti > Ni3(Si,Ti + 2Cr > Ni3(Si,Ti + 4Al, which means that the pitting corrosion resistance of Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr was higher than Ni3(Si,Ti with 4 at% Al, but lower than that of Ni3(Si,Ti.  A critical chloride concentration of Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr was found to be higher than that of Ni3(Si,Ti with at% Al. In addition, the presence of high concentration for oxygen indicates the occurrence of pit formation.

  15. Improvement of antiscuff properties and thermal stability of alloys of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Si system used for building-up of fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzhanskij, I.B.; Runov, A.E.; Gel'man, A.S.; Stepin, V.S.

    1978-01-01

    Studied was the influence of the system and the degree of alloying of alloys of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Si system on their operational characteristics in the operation mode of the energy armature of superhigh parameters. The TsN18 alloy has been developed (containing 0.1 to 0.2% C; 3.5 to 6.0% Si; 0.5 to 3.0% Mn; 16 to 17% Cr; 10.5 to 12% Ni; 1.5 to 3% Mo; the balance being Fe), bombining a high resistance to scuffing with a fairly high heat resistance; the alloy lending itself to building up and to machining. The dependence of the wear resistance of the alloys of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Si system on two factors has been established; namely, - the antifriction characteristics of the film of secondary structures, and physico-mechanical properties of the alloy

  16. Synthesis, crystallization behavior and surface modification of Ni-Cr-Si-Fe amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Akhter, J.I.; Rajput, M.U.; Mahmood, K.; Hussain, Z.; Hussain, S.; Rafiq, M.

    2011-01-01

    A quaternary Ni/sub 86/Cr/sub 7/Si/sub 4/Fe/sub 3/ amorphous alloy was synthesized by melt spinning technique. Surface modification was done by electron beam melting (EBM), neutron irradiation and gamma-rays. Microstructure of as cast, annealed and modified samples was examined by scanning electron microscope. Crystallization behavior was studied by annealing the samples in vacuum at different temperatures in the range 773-1073 K. Techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used for characterization. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was conducted at various heating rates in the range 10-40 K/min. Thermal parameters like glass transition temperature T/sub g/, crystallization temperature T/sub x/, supercooled liquid region delta T/sub x/ and reduced glass transition temperature T/sub rg/ were measured. The Ni/sub 86/Cr/sub 7/Si/sub 4/Fe/sub 3/ alloy exhibits wide supercooled liquid region of 60 K indicating good thermal stability. The activation energy was calculated to be 160 +- 4 kJ/mol using Kissinger and Ozawa equations respectively which indicates high resistance against crystallization. The XRD results of the samples annealed at 773 K, 923 K, 973 K and 1073 K/20 min show nucleation of Ni/sub 2/Cr/sub 3/ and NiCrFe crystalline phases. Vickers microhardness of the as cast ribbon was measured to be 680. About 30-50 % increase in hardness was achieved by applying EBM technique. (author)

  17. Quasicrystalline and crystalline phases in Al65Cu20(Fe, Cr)15 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Koester, U.; Mueller, F.; Rosenberg, M.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of icosahedral quasicrystals are observed in Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15-x Cr x (0 ≤ x ≤ 15) alloys, the face-centred AlCuFe-type icosahedral phase with dissoluted Cr and the primitive AlCuCr-type icosahedral phase with dissoluted Fe. In the vicinity of Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 8 Cr 7 a stable decagonal phase (a=0.45 nm and c=1.23 nm) forms competitively with the icosahedral quasicrystals. All these three quasicrystalline phases can be regarded as Hume-Rothery phases stabilized by the energy band factor. The density is measured to be 4.57, 4.44, and 4.11 g/cm 3 for the icosahedral Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 , the decagonal Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 8 Cr 7 , and the icosahedral Al 65 Cu 20 Cr 15 alloys, respectively. Depending on the composition in the range between Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 8 Cr 7 and Al 65 Cu 20 Cr 15 , several crystalline phases are observed during the transormation of the AlCuCr-type icosahedral phase: the 1/1-3/2-type orthorhombic (o) and the 1/0-3/2-type tetragonal (t) approximants of the decagonal phase, a hexagonal (h) phase, as well as a long-range vacancy ordered τ 3 -phase derived from a CsCl-type structure with a=0.2923 nm. The structures of all the crystalline phases are closely related to those of the icosahedral (i) and decagonal (d) quasicrystals, which leads to a definite orientation relationship as follows: i5 parallel d10 parallel o[100] parallel t[100] parallel h[001] parallel τ 3 [110]. (orig.)

  18. Design and characterization of FeCrNiCoAlCu and FeCrNiCo(AlCu){sub 0,5} multicomponent alloys; Previsao e caracterizacao de ligas multicomponentes FeCrNiCoAlCu e FeCrNiCo(AlCu){sub 0,5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triveno Rios, Carlos; Artacho, Victor Falcao [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    High entropy alloys using multi-element main quasi-equivalent atomic proportions and generally forms single-phase solid solution and has the ability to enhance levels of strain hardening combined with high levels of plastic deformation at room temperature. In this work two high-entropy alloys with almost similar composition were studied and the factors influencing the formation of solid solution phases (δ atomic radius difference, ΔH{sub mix} mixing enthalpy, ΔS{sub mix} mixing entropy) were evaluated. The microstructure as-cast and the compositions of phases in the two alloys were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The mechanical characterization was realized by measurements of microhardness and cold compression test. The results showed that FeCrNiCo(AlCu){sub 0,5} and FeCrNiCoAlCu alloys with δ equal to 5,7 and 4,9, respectively, form alloys with solid solutions of high entropy. However, the presence of FC and BCCC structures greatly influence the mechanical properties. (author)

  19. Fe-15Ni-13Cr austenitic stainless steels for fission and fusion reactor applications. I. Effects of minor alloying elements on precipitate phases in melt products and implication in alloy fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to develop alloys for fission and fusion reactor applications, 28Fe-15Ni-13Cr base alloys were fabricated by adding various combinations of the minor alloying elements, Mo, Ti, C, Si, P, Nb, and B. The results showed that a significant fraction of undesirable residual oxygen was removed as oxides when Ti, C, and Si were added. Accordingly, the concentrations of the latter three essential alloying elements were reduced also. Among these elements, Ti was the strongest oxide former, but the largest oxygen removal (over 80%) was observed when carbon was added alone without Ti, since gaseous CO boiled off during melting. This paper recommends an alloy melting procedure to mitigate solute losses while reducing the undesirable residual oxygen. In this work, 14 different types of precipitate phases were identified. Compositions of precipitate phases and their crystallographic data are documented. Finally, stability of precipitate phases was examined in view of Gibbs free energy of formation

  20. Flexural strength of pure Ti, Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys submitted to Nd:YAG laser or TIG welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rick; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin

    2006-01-01

    Welding of metals and alloys is important to Dentistry for fabrication of dental prostheses. Several methods of soldering metals and alloys are currently used. The purpose of this study was to assess, using the flexural strength testing, the efficacy of two processes Nd:YAG laser and TIG (tungsten inert gas) for welding of pure Ti, Co-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys. Sixty cylindrical specimens were prepared (20 of each material), bisected and welded using different techniques. Four groups were formed (n=15). I: Nd:YAG laser welding; II- Nd:YAG laser welding using a filling material; III- TIG welding and IV (control): no welding (intact specimens). The specimens were tested in flexural strength and the results were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA. There was significant differences (pTIG and laser welding and also between laser alone and laser plus filling material. In conclusion, TIG welding yielded higher flexural strength means than Nd:YAG laser welding for the tested Ti, Co-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys.

  1. Internal carbonitriding behavior of Ni-V, Ni-Cr, and Ni-3Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.T.; Douglass, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Ni-2V, Ni-5V, Ni-12V, Ni-10Cr, Ni-20Cr, and Ni-3Nb alloys were carbonitrided in C 3 H 6 and NH 3 gas mixtures (bal H 2 ) over the range 700--1,000 C. Carbonitridation of Ni-12V and Ni-20Cr in C 3 H 6 /NH 3 /H 2 (1.5/1.5/97 v/o) and (1.5/10/88.5 v/o) produced duplex subscales consisting of near-surface nitrides with underlying carbides. Growth of each zone obeyed the parabolic rate law under most conditions. The presence of carbon generally did not effect the depth of the nitride zones compared to nitriding the alloys in NH 3 /H 2 (10/90 v/o). However, at 700 C, the nitride zones were deeper in the carbonitrided Ni-V alloys and Ni-20Cr. The presence of nitrogen generally increased the depth of the carbide zones in Ni-12V and Ni-20Cr compared to carburizing these alloys in C 3 H 6 /H 2 (1.5/98.5 v/o). VN, CrN, and NbN formed in Ni-V, Ni-Cr, and Ni-Nb alloys, respectively, whereas the underlying carbide layers contained V 4 C 3 in Ni-12V, Cr 3 C 2 above a zone of Cr 7 C 3 in Ni-20Cr, and NbC in Ni-3Nb. The solubilities and diffusivities of nitrogen and carbon in nickel were determined. Nitrogen and carbon each exhibited retrograde solubility with temperature in pure Ni in both carbonitriding environments. Nitrogen diffusion in nickel was generally lower in each carbonitriding mixture compared to nitrogen diffusion in a nitriding environment, except at 700 C when nitrogen diffusion was higher. Carbon diffusion in nickel was generally higher in the carbonitriding environments compared to carbon diffusion in a carburizing environment

  2. Permeability and giant magnetoimpedance in Co69Fe4.5X1.5Si10B15 (X=Cr, Mn, Ni) amorphous ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byon, Kwang Seok; Yu, Seong-Cho; Kim, Cheol Gi

    2001-01-01

    The magnetoimpedance (MI) has been measured in the amorphous ribbons of the soft ferromagnetic alloy Co 69 Fe 4.5 X 1.5 Si 10 B 15 (X=Cr, Mn, Ni) as functions of frequency (f). For all of the three samples, at low frequency, f≤5MHz, the MI ratio increases with increasing frequency, but the MI ratio decreases at high frequency, f≥5MHz. The MI profiles are not changed at low frequency regions of f≤1MHz in the amorphous ribbons. The MI ratio at high frequency of f=5MHz becomes 57% in Co 69 Fe 4.5 Cr 1.5 Si 10 B 15 , but the MI ratio becomes 30% in Co 69 Fe 4.5 Mn 1.5 Si 10 B 15 and Co 69 Fe 4.5 Ni 1.5 Si 10 B 15 . The MI ratio at f=10MHz becomes 45% in Co 69 Fe 4.5 Cr 1.5 Si 10 B 15 and the MI ratio becomes 23% in Co 69 Fe 4.5 Mn 1.5 Si 10 B 15 and Co 69 Fe 4.5 Ni 1.5 Si 10 B 15 , respectively. The maximum values of field sensitivity are 2.7(X=Cr), 2.5(X=Mn), 2.2(X=Ni)%/Oe for f=5MHz. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  3. Effect of Molybdenum on the Corrosion Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys CoCrFeNi2 and CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 under Sodium Chloride Aqueous Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro A. Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of high-entropy alloys (HEAs CoCrFeNi2 and CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 was investigated in 3.5 wt. percent sodium chloride (NaCl at 25°C by electrochemical methods. Their corrosion parameters were compared to those of HASTELLOY® C-276 (UNS N10276 and stainless steel 316L (UNS 31600 to assess the suitability of HEAs for potential industrial applications in NaCl simulating seawater type environments. The corrosion rates were calculated using corrosion current determined from electrochemical experiments for each of the alloys. In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements can indicate active, passive, and transpassive behavior of the metal as well as potential susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Cyclic voltammetry (CV can confirm the alloy susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS elucidates the corrosion mechanism under studied conditions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses of the corroded surfaces revealed general corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi2Mo0.25 and HASTELLOY C-276 and pitting corrosion on alloy CoCrFeNi2 and stainless steel 316L.

  4. Effect of Ti additive on (Cr, Fe)7C3 carbide in arc surfacing layer and its refined mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yefei; Yang Yulin; Yang Jian; Hao Feifei; Li Da; Ren Xuejun; Yang Qingxiang

    2012-01-01

    Arc surfacing layer of hypoeutectic high chromium cast iron (HCCI) expects refiner carbides in the microstructure to improve its mechanical properties. In this paper, Ti additive as a strong carbide forming element was added in the hypoeutectic HCCI arc surfacing layer. Microstructure of titaniferous hypoeutectic HCCI was studied by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electronic microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer. Furthermore, the M(M = Cr, Fe) 7 C 3 carbide refinement mechanism was explained by the phase diagram calculation and lattice misfit theory. The results show that, the M 7 C 3 carbide in arc surfacing microstructure of hypoeutectic HCCI has been refined with 2 wt.% Ti additive, and TiC carbide can be observed in/around the M 7 C 3 carbide. With Ti addictive increasing, the micro-hardness along the depth in profile section of layer becomes more uniform, and the wear resistance has been improved. According to the phase diagram calculation, MC carbide precipitates prior to M 7 C 3 carbide in Fe-Cr-C-Ti alloy. In addition, the lattice misfit between (1 1 0) TiC and (010) Cr 7 C 3 is 9.257%, which indicates that the TiC as heterogeneous nuclei of the M 7 C 3 is medium effective. Therefore, the M 7 C 3 carbide can be refined.

  5. Inhibited Aluminization of an ODS FeCr Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vande Put Ep Rouaix, Aurelie; Pint, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminide coatings are of interest for fusion energy applications both for compatibility with liquid Pb-Li and to form an alumina layer that acts as a tritium permeation barrier. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are a structural material candidate for commercial reactor concepts expected to operate above 600 C. Aluminizing was conducted in a laboratory scale chemical vapor deposition reactor using accepted conditions for coating Fe- and Ni-base alloys. However, the measured mass gains on the current batch of ODS Fe-14Cr were extremely low compared to other conventional and ODS alloys. After aluminizing at two different Al activities at 900 C and at 1100 C, characterization showed that the ODS Fe-14Cr specimens formed a dense, primarily AlN layer that prevented Al uptake. This alloy batch contained a higher (> 5000 ppma) N content than the other alloys coated and this is the most likely reason for the inhibited aluminization. Other factors such as the high O content, small (∼ 140 nm) grain size and Y-Ti oxide nano-clusters in ODS Fe-14Cr also could have contributed to the observed behavior. Examples of typical aluminide coatings formed on conventional and ODS Fe- and Ni-base alloys are shown for comparison.

  6. Phase transformation in rapidly quenched Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti-Si-B alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, D. G.; Shubakov, V. S.; Zhukova, E. Kh; Gorshenkov, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    The research results of phase transformations in Fe-24Cr-16Co-3Mo-0.2Ti-1Si-B alloys (with a boron content of 1 to 3% by mass) obtained by rapid quenching are presented. The structure formation regularities during the melt spinning and during the subsequent crystallization annealing in rapidly quenched bands of the Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti-Si-B system alloys were studied. The changes in the phase composition of the rapidly quenched Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti- Si-B system alloys after quenching at various quench rates and at different boron concentrations in the alloys are studied. It is shown that during crystallization from an amorphous state, at temperatures above 570 °C, in addition to the α-phase, the σ-phase appears first, followed by the γ-phase. Heat treatment of rapidly quenched bands to high-coercive state was carried out. A qualitative assessment of magnetic properties in a high-coercivity state was carried out. An evaluation of the level of magnetic properties in a high-coercivity state allows us to conclude that the application of a magnetic field during crystallization from an amorphous state leads to anisotropy of the magnetic properties, that is, an anisotropic effect of thermo-magnetic treatment is detected.

  7. Microstructural evolution of direct chill cast Al-15.5Si-4Cu-1Mg-1Ni-0.5Cr alloy during solution treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Kezhun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment has important influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys. The most common used heat treatment method for these alloys is solution treatment followed by age-hardening. This paper investigates the microstructural evolution of a direct chill (DC cast Al-15.5Si-4Cu-1Mg-1Ni-0.5Cr alloy after solution treated at 500, 510, 520 and 530℃, respectively for different times. The major phases observed in the as-cast alloy are α-aluminum dendrite, primary Si particle, eutectic Si, Al7Cu4Ni, Al5Cu2Mg8Si6, Al15(Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu4Si2 and Al2Cu. The Al2Cu phase dissolves completely after being solution treated for 2 h at 500℃, while the eutectic Si, Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 and Al15(Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu4Si2 phases are insoluble. In addition, the Al7Cu4Ni phase is substituted by the Al3CuNi phase. The α-aluminum dendrite network disappears when the solution temperature is increased to 530℃. Incipient melting of the Al2Cu-rich eutectic mixture occurrs at 520℃, and melting of the Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 and Al3CuNi phases is observed at a solution temperature of 530℃. The void formation of the structure and deterioration of the mechanical properties are found in samples solution treated at 530℃.

  8. Microstructure and corrosion properties of CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Qingfeng [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Li, Ruifeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212003 (China); Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Equimolar CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy coating are prepared by laser cladding. • The cladding layer forms a simple FCC phase solid solution with identical dendritic structure. • The cladding layer exhibits a noble corrosion resistance in both 3.5 wt.% NaCl and 0.5 M sulfuric acid. • Element segregation makes Cr-depleted interdendrites the starting point of corrosion reaction. - Abstract: Equimolar CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy (HEA) is one of the most notable single phase multi-component alloys up-to-date with promising mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. However, the study on the corrosion behavior of CrMnFeCoNi HEA coating has still been lacking. In this paper, HEA coating with a nominal composition of CrMnFeCoNi is fabricated by laser surface alloying and studied in detail. Microstructure and chemical composition are determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to investigate the corrosion behavior. The coating forms a simple FCC phase with an identical dendritic structure composed of Fe/Co/Ni-rich dendrites and Mn/Ni-rich interdendrites. Both in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution and 0.5 M sulfuric acid the coating exhibits nobler corrosion resistance than A36 steel substrate and even lower i{sub corr} than 304 stainless steel (304SS). EIS plots coupled with fitted parameters reveal that a spontaneous protective film is formed and developed during immersion in 0.5 M sulfuric acid. The fitted R{sub t} value reaches its maximum at 24 h during a 48 h’ immersion test, indicating the passive film starts to break down after that. EDS analysis conducted on a corroded surface immersed in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} reveals that corrosion starts from Cr-depleted interdendrites.

  9. Production and characterization of stainless steel based Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si(-Co) shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otubo, J.

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that the Fe based alloys can exhibit shape memory effect due to the γ to ε martensitic transformation. The effect may not be as striking as observed in the NiTi alloy but it might become attractive from the practical point of view. In this work, two compositions of Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si(-Co) stainless steel based shape memory alloy, prepared by the VIM technique, will be presented. The results are good with shape recovery of 95% for a pre-strain of 4% after some training cycles. In terms of workability the alloys produced are worse than the usual AISI304. However, adjusting the thermo-mechanical processing, it is perfectly possible to produce wire as thin as 1,20mm in dia. or down. (orig.)

  10. Anti-Invar properties and magnetic order in fcc Fe-Ni-C alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadutov, V.M.; Kosintsev, S.G.; Svystunov, Ye.O.; Garamus, V.M.; Willumeit, R.; Eckerlebe, H.; Ericsson, T.; Annersten, H.

    2011-01-01

    Anti-Invar effect was revealed in the fcc Fe-25.3%Ni-0.73%C (wt%) alloy, which demonstrates high values of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) (15-21)x10 -6 K -1 accompanied by almost temperature-insensitive behavior in temperature range of 122-525 K. Alloying with carbon considerably expanded the low temperature range of anti-Invar behavior in fcc Fe-Ni-based alloy. The Curie temperature of the alloy T C =195 K was determined on measurements of temperature dependences of magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization. The Moessbauer and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on the fcc Fe-25.3%Ni-(0.73-0.78)%C alloys with the varying temperatures below and above the Curie point and in external magnetic field of 1.5-5 T were conducted. Low value of the Debye temperature Θ D =180 K was estimated using the temperature dependence of the integral intensity of Moessbauer spectra for specified temperature range. The inequality B eff =(0.7-0.9)B ext was obtained in external field Moessbauer measurement that points to antiferromagnetically coupled Fe atoms, which have a tendency to align their spins perpendicular to B ext . Nano length scale magnetic inhomogeneities nearby and far above T C were revealed, which assumed that it is caused by mixed antiferromagnetically and ferromagnetically coupled Fe atom spins. The anti-Invar behavior of Fe-Ni-C alloy is explained in terms of evolution of magnetic order with changing temperature resulting from thermally varied interspin interaction and decreasing stiffness of interatomic bond. - Highlights: → Anti-Invar effect was revealed in the fcc Fe-25.3%Ni-0.73%C (wt%) alloy. → Carbon expanded the temperature range of anti-Invar behavior in Fe-Ni-based alloy. → Moessbauer data point to mixed interspin interaction and low the Dedye temperature. → The SANS experiments reveal nano length scale magnetic inhomogeneities ≤6 nm. → Anti-Invar behavior of Fe-Ni-C alloy explained by thermally varied magnetic order.

  11. Acoustic properties of TiNiMoFe base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunter, V.Eh.; Chernyshev, V.I.; Chekalkin, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    The regularity of changing the acoustic properties of the TiNi base alloys in dependence on the alloy composition and impact temperature is studied. It is shown that the oscillations of the TiNiMoFe base alloys within the temperature range of the B2 phase existence and possible appearance of the martensite under the load differ from the traditional materials oscillations. After excitation of spontaneous oscillations within the range of M f ≤ T ≤ M d there exists the area of long-term and low-amplitude low-frequency acoustic oscillations. It is established that free low-frequency oscillations of the TH-10 alloy sample are characterized by the low damping level in the given temperature range [ru

  12. Explosive device of conduit using Ti Ni alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Kolobov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, materials have been developed which are capable at changing temperate to return significant inelastic deformations, exhibit rubber-like elasticity, convert heat into mechanical work, etc. The aggregate of these effects is usually called the shape memory effect.At present a great number of compounds and alloys with a shape memory effect has been known.These are alloys based on titanium nickelide (TiNi, copper-based alloys (Cu-Al, Cu-Sn, Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Zn-Si, etc., gold and silver (Ag-Cd, Au-Ag-Cd, Au-Cd-Cu, Au-Zn-Cu, etc., manganese (Mn-Cr, Fe-Cu, Mn-Cu-Ni, Mn-Cu-Zr, Mn-Ni, etc., iron (Fe-Mn, Fe-Ni, Fe-Al, etc., and other compounds.The alloys based on titanium nickelide (nitinol are the most widely used.Alloys with shape memory effect find various applications in engineering and medicine, namely connecting devices, actuators, transformable design, multipurpose medical implants, etc.There is a task of breaking fuel conduit during separating the spacecraft from the rocket in space technology.The paper examines the procedure for design calculation of the separating device of conduit with the use of Ti-Ni alloy. This device can be used instead of the pyro-knives.The device contains two semi-rings from Ti-Ni alloy. In the place of break on the conduit an annular radius groove is made.At a temperature of martensite passage the semi-rings undergo deformation and in the strained state are set in the device. With heating to the temperature of the austenitic passage of bushing macro-deformation the energy stored by the nitinol bushing is great enough to break the conduit on the neck.The procedures of design calculation and response time of device are given.

  13. Effect of cobalt on microstructure and properties of AlCr1.5CuFeNi2Cox high-entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukshal, Vikas; Patnaik, Amar; Bhat, I. K.

    2018-04-01

    The present paper investigates the effect of Co addition on the alloying behaviour, microstructure and the resulting properties of cast AlCr1.5CuFeNi2Cox high-entropy alloys intended to be used for high temperature applications. The elements Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Co (Purity > 99) weighing approximately 800 g was melted in a high temperature vacuum induction furnace. The microstructure, phase transformation, density, microhardness and compressive strength of the samples were analysed using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopes (SEM), Vickers microhardness tester and universal Testing machine. The crystalline structure of the alloys exhibits simple FCC and BCC phases. The microstructures investigation of the alloys shows the segregation of copper in the interdendritic region resulting in Cu-rich FCC phase. The addition of Co further enhances the formation of FCC phase resulting in the decrease in micro hardness value of the alloys, which varies from 471 HV to 364 HV with increase in the cobalt content from x = 0 to x = 1 (molar ratio). The similar decreasing trend is also observed for the compressive strength of the alloys.

  14. Effect of Ni Addition on the Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Fe-20Cr-1.7C-1Si Hardfacing Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Seon Jin

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance of Fe-20Cr-1.7C-1Si hardfacing alloy without a loss of wear resistance, the effect of Ni addition was investigated. As expected, the corrosion resistance of the alloy increased with increasing Ni concentration. The wear resistance of the alloy did not decrease, even though the hardness decreased, up to Ni concentration of 5 wt.%. This was attributed to the fact that the decrease in hardness was counterbalanced by the strain-induced martensitic transformation. The wear resistance of the alloy, however, decreased abruptly with increases of the Ni concentration over 5 wt.%.

  15. Microstructural control of Ti-46Al-7Nb-0.7Cr-0.2Ni-0.1Si alloy by heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Nomura, Takuya; Haga, Hideki; Fukutomi, Hiroshi; Dlouhy, Ivo; Brno University of Technology

    2014-01-01

    The effects of holding temperature, time and cooling rate on the microstructure of Ti-46Al-7Nb-0.7Cr-0.2Ni-0.1Si (at.%) alloys are studied. Three kinds of segregations are found in the as-cast material. In back scattered electron images these segregations are observed as dark regions formed by the solidification process, bright regions with irregular shaped blocks and imaged regions of lighter contrast formed by the cooling process from β phase to α phase and from α phase to (β + γ) two phase or (α + β + γ) three phase, respectively. Addition of small amounts of Cr, Ni and Si to the Ti-45Al-7Nb alloy shifts the (β + γ) two phase state and (α + γ + β) three phase state to a lower Nb concentration range. While cooling from the α single phase state to the (β + γ) two phase or (α + β + γ) three phase states, sequential type phase transformation occurs. The amounts of Cr, Ni and Si are too small to induce the pearlitic mode of transformation. Therefore, the sequential mode of the ternary alloy containing Nb occurs. The microstructures change depending on the cooling rate from α? single phase region. Massive transformation occurs in the range of 300 K s -1 to 50 K s -1 . However, the α phase is partially retained at the cooling rate of 300 K s -1 . A fully lamellar structure appears at cooling rates lower than 10 K s -1 .

  16. Microstructural control of Ti-46Al-7Nb-0.7Cr-0.2Ni-0.1Si alloy by heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Nomura, Takuya; Haga, Hideki; Fukutomi, Hiroshi [Yokohama National University (Japan). Div. of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering; Dlouhy, Ivo [Institute of Physics of Materials, Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic). Inst. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2014-11-15

    The effects of holding temperature, time and cooling rate on the microstructure of Ti-46Al-7Nb-0.7Cr-0.2Ni-0.1Si (at.%) alloys are studied. Three kinds of segregations are found in the as-cast material. In back scattered electron images these segregations are observed as dark regions formed by the solidification process, bright regions with irregular shaped blocks and imaged regions of lighter contrast formed by the cooling process from β phase to α phase and from α phase to (β + γ) two phase or (α + β + γ) three phase, respectively. Addition of small amounts of Cr, Ni and Si to the Ti-45Al-7Nb alloy shifts the (β + γ) two phase state and (α + γ + β) three phase state to a lower Nb concentration range. While cooling from the α single phase state to the (β + γ) two phase or (α + β + γ) three phase states, sequential type phase transformation occurs. The amounts of Cr, Ni and Si are too small to induce the pearlitic mode of transformation. Therefore, the sequential mode of the ternary alloy containing Nb occurs. The microstructures change depending on the cooling rate from α? single phase region. Massive transformation occurs in the range of 300 K s{sup -1} to 50 K s{sup -1}. However, the α phase is partially retained at the cooling rate of 300 K s{sup -1}. A fully lamellar structure appears at cooling rates lower than 10 K s{sup -1}.

  17. Heat treatment of NiCrFe alloy 600 to optimize resistance to intergranular stress corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, A.F.; Bibb, A.E.

    A process of producing a NiCrFe alloy having a high resistance to stress corrosion cracking comprises heating a NiCrFe alloy to a temperature sufficient to enable the carbon present in the alloy body in the form of carbide deposits to enter into solution, rapidly cooling the alloy body, and heating the cooled body to a temperature between 1100 to 1500/sup 0/F for about 1 to 30 hours.

  18. Development of low-Cr ODS FeCrAl alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.; Massey, Caleb P.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2018-04-01

    Low-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys were developed as accident tolerant fuel cladding because of their excellent oxidation resistance at very high temperature, high strength and improved radiation tolerance. Fe-12Cr-5Al wt.% gas atomized powder was ball milled with Y2O3+FeO, Y2O3+ZrO2 or Y2O3+TiO2, and the resulting powders were extruded at 950 °C. The resulting fine grain structure, particularly for the Ti and Zr containing alloys, led to very high strength but limited ductility. Comparison with variants of commercial PM2000 (Fe-20Cr-5Al) highlighted the significant impact of the powder consolidation step on the alloy grain size and, therefore, on the alloy mechanical properties at T < 500 °C. These low-Cr compositions exhibited good oxidation resistance at 1400 °C in air and steam for 4 h but could not form a protective alumina scale at 1450 °C, similar to observations for fine grained PM2000 alloys. The effect of alloy grain size, Zr and Ti additions, and impurities on the alloy mechanical and oxidation behaviors are discussed.

  19. Effect of Manganese on Microstructures and Solidification Modes of Cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huabei; Wen, Yuhua; Du, Yangyang; Yu, Qinxu; Yang, Qin

    2013-10-01

    We investigated microstructures and solidification modes of cast Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni shape memory alloys to clarify whether Mn was an austenite former during solidification. Furthermore, we examined whether the Creq/Nieq equations (Delong, Hull, Hammer and WRC-1992 equations) and Thermo-Calc software® together with database TCFE6 were valid to predict the solidification modes of cast Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni shape memory alloys. The results have shown that the solidification modes of Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni alloys changed from the F mode to the FA mode with increasing the Mn concentration. Mn is an austenite former during the solidification for the cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloys. The Delong, Hull, Hammer, and WRC-1992 equations as well as Thermo-Calc software® together with database TCFE6 are invalid to predict the solidification modes of cast Fe-(13-27)Mn-5.5Si-8.5Cr-5Ni SMAs. To predict the solidification modes of cast Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys, a new Creq/Nieq equation should be developed or the thermodynamic database of Thermo-Calc software® should be corrected.

  20. Resistivity and Passivity Characterization of Ni-Base Glassy Alloys in NaOH Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah M. Emran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistivity and passivation behavior of two Ni-base bulk metallic glasses, with the nominal composition of Ni70Cr21Si0.5B0.5P8C ≤ 0.1Co ≤ 1Fe ≤ 1 (VZ1 and Ni72.65Cr7.3-Si6.7B2.15C ≤ 0.06Fe8.2Mo3 (VZ2, in various concentrations of NaOH solutions were studied. The investigations involved cyclic polarization (CP, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM methods. Cyclic polarization measurements showed spontaneous passivation for both Ni-base glassy alloys at all alkaline concentrations, due to the presence of chromium as an alloying element that formed an oxide film on the alloy surface. The EIS analysis showed that the passive layers grown on the two Ni-base glassy alloy surfaces are formed by a double oxide layer structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM examinations of the electrode surface showed Cr, Ni, Fe, and O rich corrosion products that reduced the extent of corrosion damage. Atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging technique was used to evaluate the topographic and morphologic features of surface layers formed on the surface of the alloys.

  1. High-temperature oxidation of advanced FeCrNi alloy in steam environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S.; Gill, Simerjeet K.; Rumaiz, Abdul K.; Bai, Jianming; Ghose, Sanjit; Rebak, Raul B.; Ecker, Lynne E.

    2017-12-01

    Alloys of iron-chromium-nickel are being explored as alternative cladding materials to improve safety margins under severe accident conditions. Our research focuses on non-destructively investigating the oxidation behavior of the FeCrNi alloy "Alloy 33" using synchrotron-based methods. The evolution and structure of oxide layer formed in steam environments were characterized using X-ray diffraction, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence methods and scanning electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate that a compact and continuous oxide scale was formed consisting of two layers, chromium oxide and spinel phase (FeCr2O4) oxides, wherein the concentration of the FeCr2O4 phase decreased from the surface to the bulk-oxide interface.

  2. The Phase Evolution and Property of FeCoCrNiAlTix High-Entropy Alloying Coatings on Q253 via Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High-entropy alloys (HEAs are emerging as a hot research frontier in the metallic materials field. The study on the effect of alloying elements on the structure and properties of HEAs may contribute to the progress of the research and accelerate the application in actual production. FeCoCrNiAlTix (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 in at.%, respectively HEA coatings with different Ti concentrations were produced on Q235 steel via laser cladding. The constituent phases, microstructure, hardness, and wear resistance of the coatings were investigated by XRD, SEM, microhardness tester and friction-wear tester, respectively. The results show that the structure of the coating is a eutectic microstructure of FCC and BCC1 at x = 0. The structure of coatings consists of both proeutectic FCC phase and the eutectic structure of BCC1 and BCC2. With the continuous addition of Ti, the amount of eutectic structure decreases. The average hardness of the FeCoCrNiAlTix HEA coatings at x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 are 432.73 HV, 548.81 HV, 651.03 HV, 769.20 HV, and 966.29 HV, respectively. The hardness of coatings increases with the addition of Ti, where the maximum hardness is achieved for the HEA at x = 1. The wear resistance of the HEA coatings is enhanced with the addition of Ti, and the main worn mechanism is abrasive wear.

  3. Irradiation-induced softening of Ni3P and (Ni, Fe, Cr)3P alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, G.; Miekeley, W.; Wahi, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    Production of amorphous alloys by solid state reactions (SSR) has attracted much interest during the last few years. One of the methods to induce such a reaction is the irradiation of suitable crystalline alloys by fast particles. Examination of this kind of SSR in M 3 P type of brazing alloys (M: Metal) is attractive because of the following reason: In brazed joints of candidate structural materials like 316L stainless steel for applications in fusion reactors, crystalline intermetallic phases have been detected which are unstable relative to the amorphous state when irradiated at moderate temperatures with fast particles. It is expected that the transition to the amorphous state is accompanied by changes of the mechanical properties, which are of fundamental interest in this context. Until now, only a few studies on the evolution of mechanical properties during amorphization have been performed. Measurements of microhardness of the crystalline and the corresponding amorphous phase do not exist to the authors knowledge. In this communication, the authors present results on changes of microhardness, due to amorphization by fast ions. The measurements have been performed on a model alloy Ni 3 P and on the brazed joint of stainless steel 316L, containing M 3 P (M: Ni, Fe, Cr) as one of the phases. Though microhardness is not a fundamental property of materials, it is a manifestation of several related properties, such as yield stress, ductility, work-hardening, elastic modulus and residual stress states. It represents a resistance for indentation and is, therefore, appropriate for comparative purposes

  4. Powder metallurgy Al-6Cr-2Fe-1Ti alloy prepared by melt atomisation and hot ultra-high pressure compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, Karel, E-mail: Karel.Dam@vscht.cz [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vojtech, Dalibor; Prusa, Filip [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-01-10

    Al--6Cr--2Fe--1Ti alloy was prepared by melt atomisation into rapidly solidified powder. The powder was compacted using uniaxial hot compression at an ultra-high pressure (6 GPa). The samples were pressed at 300, 400 and 500 Degree-Sign C. The structure, mechanical properties and thermal stability were examined and compared with those of the commercially available Al--12Si--1Cu--1Mg--1Ni casting alloy, which is considered thermally stable. It was shown that the hot compression at ultra-high pressure results in a compact and pore-free material with excellent mechanical properties. The elevated pressing temperatures were found to be effective at increasing the mechanical stability after applying the ultra-high pressure. The results of thermal stability testing revealed that the mechanical properties do not change significantly at high temperature, even after 100 h of annealing at 400 Degree-Sign C. In addition, the Al--6Cr--2Fe--1Ti alloy exhibited very good creep resistance. A comparison between the commercial Al--12Si--1Cu--1Mg--1Ni alloy and the powder metallurgy alloy shows that this alloy has significantly better mechanical properties and thermal stability.

  5. Ni4Ti3 precipitate structures in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holec, David; Bojda, Ondřej; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 481, Sp. Iss. (2008), s. 462-465 ISSN 0921-5093. [ESOMAT 2006. Bochum, 10.09.2006-15.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi shape memory alloys * Ni4Ti3 precipitates * Multi-step martensitic transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  6. Effects of composition and heat treatments on the strength and ductility of Fe-Cr-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubarych, K.G.

    1980-06-01

    The relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties of spinodally decomposed Fe-Cr-Co ductile permanent magnet alloys was investigated using transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, tensile testing, and Charpy impact testing. Isothermal aging and step aging of four alloys (Fe-28 wt % Cr-15 wt % Co, Fe-23 wt % Cr-15-wt % Co-5 wt % V, Fe-23 wt % Cr-15 wt % Co-3 wt % V-2 wt % Ti, and Fe-31 wt % Cr-23 % Co) resulted in decomposition into two phases, an Fe-Co rich (α 1 ) phase and a Cr rich (α 2 ) phase. The microstructural features of the decomposition products were consistent with those expected from a spinodal reaction and agree with the reported work on the Fe-Cr-Co system. An Fe-23 wt % Cr-15 wt % Co-5 wt % V alloy was found to have, among the four alloys, the best combinations of strength and ductility

  7. Room-temperature ferromagnetic transitions and the temperature dependence of magnetic behaviors in FeCoNiCr-based high-entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Suok-Min; Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Lambert, Paul K.; Jones, Nicholas J.

    2018-05-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) containing multiple principle alloying elements exhibit unique properties so they are currently receiving great attention for developing innovative alloy designs. In FeCoNi-based HEAs, magnetic behaviors strongly depend on the addition of alloying elements, usually accompanied by structural changes. In this work, the effect of non-magnetic components on the ferromagnetic transition and magnetic behaviors in equiatomic FeCoNiCrX (X=Al, Ga, Mn and Sn) HEAs was investigated. Alloy ingots of nominal compositions of HEAs were prepared by arc melting and the button ingots were cut into discs for magnetic measurements as functions of magnetic field and temperature. The HEAs of FeCoNiCrMn and FeCoNiCrSn show typical paramagnetic behaviors, composed of solid solution FCC matrix, while the additions of Ga and Al in FeCoNiCr exhibit ferromagnetic behaviors, along with the coexistence of FCC and BCC phases due to spinodal decomposition. The partial phase transition in both HEAs with the additions of Ga and Al would enhance ferromagnetic properties due to the addition of the BCC phase. The saturation magnetization for the base alloy FeCoNiCr is 0.5 emu/g at the applied field of 20 kOe (TC = 104 K). For the HEAs of FeCoNiCrGa and FeCoNiCrAl, the saturation magnetization significantly increased to 38 emu/g (TC = 703 K) and 25 emu/g (TC = 277 K), respectively. To evaluate the possibility of solid solution FCC and BCC phases in FeCoNiCr-type HEAs, we introduced a parameter of valence electron concentration (VEC). The proposed rule for solid solution formation by the VEC was matched with FeCoNiCr-type HEAs.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of High-Entropy Alloy AlFeCoNiCuCr by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Ye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-entropy alloys have been recently found to have novel microstructures and unique properties. In this study, a novel AlFeCoNiCuCr high-entropy alloy was prepared by laser cladding. The microstructure, chemical composition, and constituent phases of the synthesized alloy were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, and TEM, respectively. High-temperature hardness was also evaluated. Experimental results demonstrate that the AlFeCoNiCuCr clad layer is composed of only BCC and FCC phases. The clad layers exhibit higher hardness at higher Al atomic content. The AlFeCoNiCuCr clad layer exhibits increased hardness at temperature between 400–700°C.

  9. Cavitation erosion of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy deposited coatings and Fe base shape memory alloy solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shuji; Fujisawa, Seiji; Owa, Tomonobu

    2007-01-01

    In this study, cavitation erosion tests were carried out by using thermal spraying and deposition of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy for the surface coating. The results show the test speciment of Ti-Ni thermal spraying has many initial defects, so that the erosion resistance is very low. The erosion resistance of Ti-Ni deposit is about 5-10 times higher than that of SUS 304, thus erosion resistance of Ti-Ni deposit is better than that of Ti-Ni thermal spraying. The cavitation erosion tests were carried out by using Fe-Mn-Si with shape memory and gunmetal with low elastic modulus. The erosion resistance of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy solid is about 9 times higher than that of SUS 304. The erosion resistance of gunmetal is almost the same as SUS 304, because the test specimen of gunmetal has many small defects on the original surface. (author)

  10. Creation of submicrocrystalline structure and enhancing of functional properties of Ti-Ni-Fe alloys with the shape-memory effect using equichannel-angular pressing (ECAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokoshkin, S.D.; Belousov, M.N.; Abramov, V.Ya.

    2007-01-01

    Methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, mechanical and thermomechanical tests are used to study structure, mechanical and service properties of Ti-Ni-Fe system shape memory alloys (Ti-47.6 % Ni-2.4 % Fe; Ti-47 % Ni-3 % Fe; Ti-46.6 % Ni-3.4 % Fe). The alloys are subjected to hardening, high temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTMT) and equal-channel angular pressing (EChAP). Thermomechanical connecting pieces of given alloys are tested for carrying capacity and low temperature stability. It is established that the use of EChAP and post-deformation annealing at pressing temperature provides more high properties of the alloys in comparison with hardening and HTMT [ru

  11. Magnetic properties of the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Friák, Martin; Masaryk University, Brno; Dudová, Marie; Holec, David

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present experimental data showing that the equiatomic CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy undergoes two magnetic transformations at temperatures below 100 K while maintaining its fcc structure down to 3 K. The first transition, paramagnetic to spin glass, was detected at 93 K and the second transition of the ferromagnetic type occurred at 38 K. Field-assisted cooling below 38 K resulted in a systematic vertical shift of the hysteresis curves. Strength and direction of the associated magnetization bias was proportional to the strength and direction of the cooling field and shows a linear dependence with a slope of 0.006 ± 0.001 emu T. The local magnetic moments of individual atoms in the CrMnFeCoNi quinary fcc random solid solution were investigated by ab initio (electronic density functional theory) calculations. Results of the numerical analysis suggest that, irrespective of the initial configuration of local magnetic moments, the magnetic moments associated with Cr atoms align antiferromagnetically with respect to a cumulative magnetic moment of their first coordination shell. The ab initio calculations further showed that the magnetic moments of Fe and Mn atoms remain strong (between 1.5 and 2 μ B ), while the local moments of Ni atoms effectively vanish. Finally, these results indicate that interactions of Mn- and/or Fe-located moments with the surrounding magnetic structure account for the observed macroscopic magnetization bias.

  12. Site preference and elastic properties of ternary alloying additions in B2 YAg alloys by first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yurong, E-mail: winwyr@126.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiantang 411201 (China); Hu Wangyu [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xu Longshan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China)

    2012-09-15

    First-principles calculations were preformed to study the site preference behavior and elastic properties of 3d (Ti-Cu) transition-metal elements in B2 ductility YAg alloy. In YAg, Ti is found to occupy the Y sublattice whereas V, Cr, Co, Fe, Ni and Cu tend to substitute for Ag sublattice. Due to the addition of 3d transition metals, the lattice parameters of YAg is decreased in the order: VCr. The calculated elastic constants show that Cr, Fe, Co and Cu can improve the ductility of YAg alloy, and Fe is the most effective element to improve the ductility of YAg, while Ti, Ni and V alloying elements can reduce the ductility of YAg alloy, especially, V transforms ductile into brittle for YAg alloy. In addition, both V and Ni alloying elements can increase the hardness of YAg alloy, and Y{sub 8}Ag{sub 7}V is harder than Y{sub 8}Ag{sub 7}Ni.

  13. High-temperature plastic flow of a precipitation-hardened FeCoNiCr high entropy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J.Y.; Wang, H.; Wu, Y.; Liu, X.J. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Nieh, T.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Lu, Z.P., E-mail: luzhaoping@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-02-16

    In this work, we systematically investigated flow behavior of a high entropy alloy (HEA) strengthened by coherent γ′ precipitates in the temperature range of 1023–1173 K. In contrast to the single-phase FeCoNiCrMn HEA, this precipitate-hardened alloy, i.e., (FeCoNiCr){sub 94}Ti{sub 2}Al{sub 4}, exhibited large reduction of the steady-state strain rate (by ~2 orders of magnitude) or drastic enhancement in flow stress, indicating significant improvement in high-temperature properties. Our results showed that the deformation could be divided into two regimes. At temperatures below 1123 K, coherent γ′ precipitates effectively blocked the dislocation motion, thus resulted in a threshold stress effect. Above 1123 K, however, γ′ particles dissolved and the deformation was controlled by the ordinary dislocation climb mechanism. In addition, we conducted transmission electron microscopy to characterize dislocation-precipitate interaction to provide microstructural evidences to support our conclusion of the specific deformation mechanisms in the two temperature regimes.

  14. Amorphization of C-implanted Fe(Cr) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Sorensen, N.R.; Pope, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    The amorphous phase formed by implanting C into Fe alloyed with Cr, which is a prototype for the amorphous phase formed by implanting C into stainless steels, is compared to that formed by implanting C and Ti into Fe and steels. The composition range of the phase has been examined; higher Cr and C concentrations are required than needed with Ti and C. The friction and wear benefits obtained by implanting stainless steels with C only do not persist for the long durations and high wear loads found with Ti and C. However, the amorphous Fe-Cr-C alloys exhibit good aqueous corrosion resistance. (orig.)

  15. Influence of Ti addition and sintering method on microstructure and mechanical behavior of a medium-entropy Al0.6CoNiFe alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Weiping; Chen, Zhen; Wen, Haiming; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of Ti addition and sintering method on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of a medium-entropy alloy, Al 0.6 CoNiFe alloy, was studied in detail. Alloying behavior, microstructure, phase evolution and mechanical properties of Al 0.6 CoNiFe and Ti 0.4 Al 0.6 CoNiFe alloys were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as by mechanical testing. During the mechanical alloying (MA) process, a supersaturated solid solution consisting of both BCC and FCC phases was formed in the Al 0.6 CoNiFe alloy. With Ti addition, the Ti 0.4 Al 0.6 CoNiFe alloy exhibited a supersaturated solid solution with a single FCC phase. Following hot pressing (HP), the HP sintered (HP’ed) Al 0.6 CoNiFe bulk alloy was composed of a major BCC phase and a minor FCC phase. The HP’ed Ti 0.4 Al 0.6 CoNiFe alloy exhibited a FCC phase, two BCC phases and a trace unidentified phase. Nanoscale twins were present in the HP’ed Ti 0.4 Al 0.6 CoNiFe alloy, where deformation twins were observed in the FCC phase. Our results suggest that the addition of Ti facilitated the formation of nanoscale twins. The compressive strength and Vickers hardness of HP’ed Ti 0.4 Al 0.6 CoNiFe alloy were slightly lower than the corresponding values of the HP’ed Al 0.6 CoNiFe alloy. In contrast with HP’ed Al 0.6 CoNiFe alloy, spark plasma sintered (SPS’ed) Al 0.6 CoNiFe alloy exhibited a major FCC phase and a minor BCC phase. Moreover, the SPS’ed Al 0.6 CoNiFe alloy exhibited a lower compressive strength and Vickers hardness, but singificantly higher plasticity, as compared to those of the HP’ed counterpart material

  16. Fabrication and thermal characterization of amorphous and nanocrystalline Al{sub 9}FeNi/Al{sub 3}Ti compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavoosi, Majid, E-mail: ma.tavoosi@gmail.com

    2017-01-15

    In this study, the fabrication and structural characterization of amorphous/nanocrystalline Al{sub 9}FeNi/Al{sub 3}Ti phase has been performed. In this regards, milling and annealing processes were applied on Al{sub 80}Fe{sub 10}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 5} (at. %) powder mixture for different periods of time. The prepared samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). According to the results, supersaturated solid solution, nanocrystalline Al{sub 9}FeNi/Al{sub 3}Ti (with average crystallite size of about 7 nm) and amorphous phases indicated three different microstructures which can be formed in Al{sub 80}Fe{sub 10}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 5} system during milling process. The formed supersaturated solid solution and amorphous phases were unstable and transformed to Al{sub 9}FeNi/Al{sub 3}Ti intermetallic compound during annealing process. It is shown that, Al{sub 9}FeNi phase in Al{sub 9}FeNi/Al{sub 3}Ti intermetallic compound can decompose into Al{sub 3}Ni, Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} and liquid phases during a reversible peritectic reaction at 809 °C. - Highlights: • We study the effect of milling process on Al{sub 80}Fe{sub 10}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 5} alloy. • We study the effect of annealing on Al{sub 80}Fe{sub 10}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 5} supersaturated solid solution phase. • We study the effect of annealing on Al{sub 80}Fe{sub 10}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 5} amorphous phase. • We study the thermal behaviour of Al{sub 9}FeNi/Al{sub 3}Ti compound.

  17. Preparation and Oxidation Performance of Y and Ce-Modified Cr Coating on open-cell Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy Foam by the Pack Cementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Q.; Hu, Z. L.; Wu, G. H.

    2016-12-01

    Metallic foams with a high fraction of porosity, low density and high-energy absorption capacity are a rapidly emerging class of novel ultralight weight materials for various engineering applications. In this study, Y-Cr and Ce-Cr-coated Ni-Cr-Fe alloy foams were prepared via the pack cementation method, and the effects of Y and Ce addition on the coating microstructure and oxidation performance were analyzed in order to improve the oxidation resistance of open-cell nickel-based alloy foams. The results show that the Ce-Cr coating is relatively more uniform and has a denser distribution on the surface of the nickel-based alloy foam. The surface grains of the Ce-Cr-coated alloy foam are finer compared to those of the Y-Cr-coated alloy foam. An obvious Ce peak appears on the interface between the coating and the alloy foam strut, which gives rise to a "site-blocking" effect for the short-circuit transport of the cation in the substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Y-Cr-coated alloy foam mainly consists of Cr, (Fe, Ni) and (Ni, Cr) phases in the surface layer. The Ce-Cr-coated alloy foam is mainly composed of Cr and (Ni, Cr) phases. Furthermore, the addition of Y and Ce clearly lead to an improvement in the oxidation resistance of the coated alloy foams in the temperature range of 900-1000 °C. The addition of Ce is especially effective in enhancing the diffusion of chromium to the oxidation front, thus, accelerating the formation of a Cr2O3 layer.

  18. Low Temperature Diffusion Transformations in Fe-Ni-Ti Alloys During Deformation and Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaradze, Victor; Shabashov, Valery; Kataeva, Natalya; Kozlov, Kirill; Arbuzov, Vadim; Danilov, Sergey; Ustyugov, Yury

    2018-03-01

    The deformation-induced dissolution of Ni3Ti intermetallics in the matrix of austenitic alloys of Fe-36Ni-3Ti type was revealed in the course of their cascade-forming neutron irradiation and cold deformation at low temperatures via employment of Mössbauer method. The anomalous deformation-related dissolution of the intermetallics has been explained by the migration of deformation-induced interstitial atoms from the particles into a matrix in the stress field of moving dislocations. When rising the deformation temperature, this process is substituted for by the intermetallics precipitation accelerated by point defects. A calculation of diffusion processes has shown the possibility of the realization of the low-temperature diffusion of interstitial atoms in configurations of the crowdions and dumbbell pairs at 77-173 K. The existence of interstitial atoms in the Fe-36Ni alloy irradiated by electrons or deformed at 77 K was substantiated in the experiments of the electrical resistivity measurements.

  19. Microstructure and Room-Temperature Mechanical Properties of FeCrMoVTi x High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Huang, Xuefei; Huang, Weigang

    2017-07-01

    FeCrMoVTi x ( x values represent the molar ratio, where x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) high-entropy alloys were prepared by a vacuum arc melting method. The effects of Ti element on the microstructure and room-temperature mechanical properties of the as-cast FeCrMoVTi x alloys were investigated. The results show that the prepared alloys exhibited typical dendritic microstructure and the size of the microstructure became fine with increasing Ti content. The FeCrMoV alloy exhibited a single body-centered cubic structure (BCC1) and the alloys prepared with Ti element exhibited BCC1 + BCC2 mixed structure. The new BCC2 phase is considered as (Fe, Ti)-rich phase and was distributed in the dendrite region. With the increase of Ti content, the volume fraction of the BCC2 phase increased and its shape changed from a long strip to a network. For the FeCrMoV alloy, the fracture strength, plastic strain, and hardness reached as high as 2231 MPa, 28.2%, and 720 HV, respectively. The maximum hardness of 887 HV was obtained in the FeCrMoVTi alloy. However, the fracture strength, yield stress, and plastic strain of the alloys decreased continuously as Ti content increased. In the room-temperature compressive test, the alloys showed typical brittle fracture characteristics.

  20. Microplasticity and fracture in a Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabeeh, B.M.; Rokhlin, S.I.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    1996-01-01

    Linear Elasticity is generally considered to occur in most standard textbooks by the strengthening of chemical bonds in the regime below the proportional limit in most materials. In some cases, however, a number of researchers have recognized the possible role of localized microplasticity (microplasticity in this paper refers to localized plasticity on a microstructural level at stresses below the so-called bulk yield stress) in the so-called elastic deformation regime. There is, therefore, a need for careful studies of the micromechanisms of microplasticity in the so-called elastic regime. Micromechanisms of microplasticity will be presented in this paper for a metastable β Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (Ti-15-3) alloy deformed in incremental stages to failure under monotonic loading. Micromechanisms of tensile deformation and fracture will be elucidated for a Ti-15-3 plate with single phase β and Widmanstaetten α+β microstructures

  1. STUDY OF COATINGS OBTAINED FROM ALLOY Fe-Mn-C-B-Si-Ni-Cr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mychajło Paszeczko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tribological behaviour of coatings obtained from eutectic alloy Fe-Mn-C-B-Si-Ni-Cr was studied. The coatings were obtained by the method of gas metal arc welding (GMA with use of powder wire. GMA welding method is widely used for the regeneration of machine parts. Eutectic Fe-Mn-C-B-Si-Ni-Cr alloys can be used to obtain high quality coatings resistant to wear and corrosion. Pin-on-disk dry sliding wear tests at sliding speeds 0.4 m/s and under load 10 MPa were conducted for pin specimens. During friction a typical tribological behavior was observed. The mechanism of wear was mechanical-chemical.

  2. Electroless siliconizing Fe-3% Cr-3% Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurlina, Enung; Darmono, Budy; Purwadaria, Sunara

    2000-01-01

    In this research Fe-3%Cr-3%Mo-3%Si and Fe-3%Cr-3%Cu-3%Si alloys had been coated by silicon metal without electricity current which knows as electroless siliconizing. Coating was conducted by immersed sampler into melt fluoride-chloride salt bath at temperature of 750 o C for certain period. The layer consisted of Fe3Si phase. Observation by microscope optic and EDAX showed that the silicide layer were thick enough, adherent, free for crack and had silicon content on the surface more than 15%. The growth rate of silicide layer followed parabolic rate law, where the process predominantly controlled by interdiffusion rate in the solid phase. Key words : electroless siliconizing, the melt fluoride- chloride salt mix, silicide layer

  3. Nano-twin mediated plasticity in carbon-containing FeNiCoCrMn high entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Parish, C.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bei, H., E-mail: beih@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-10-25

    Equiatomic FeNiCoCrMn alloy has been reported to exhibit promising strength and ductility at cryogenic temperature and deformation mediated by nano-twining appeared to be one of the main reasons. We use the FeNiCoCrMn alloy as a base alloy to seek further improvement of its mechanical properties by alloying additional elements, i.e., interstitial carbon. The effects of carbon on microstructures, mechanical properties and twinning activities were investigated in two different temperatures (77 and 293 K). With addition of 0.5 at% C, the high entropy alloy still remains entirely single phase face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure. The materials can be cold rolled and recrystallized to produce a microstructure with equiaxed grains. Both strain hardening rate and strength are enhanced while high uniform elongations to fracture (∼70% at 77 K and ∼40% at 293 K) are still maintained. The increased strain hardening and strength could be caused by the promptness of deformation twinning in C-containing high entropy alloys. - Highlights: • Interstitial atom C was successfully added into FeNiCoCrMn high entropy alloys. • The strain hardening rate and strength are enhanced in the C-containing alloy. • The increased strain-hardening and strength are caused by the nano-twinning.

  4. Microstructure and electrochemical characterization of laser melt-deposited Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lixin; Wang Huaming

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion and wear resistant Ti 2 Ni 3 Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys with Ti 2 Ni 3 Si as the reinforcing phase and the ductile NiTi as the toughening phase were designed and fabricated by the laser melt-deposition manufacturing process. Electrochemical behavior of the alloys was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an NaOH solution. The results showed that the alloys have outstanding corrosion resistance due to the formation of a protective passive surface film of Ni(OH) 2 as well as the high chemical stability and strong inter-atomic bonds inherent to Ti 2 Ni 3 Si and NiTi intermetallics. The Ti 2 Ni 3 Si content has a significant influence on the microstructure of the alloys but only a slight effect on electrochemical corrosion properties

  5. On the corrosion testing of weldments of high alloyed CrNiMo-stainless steels and NiCrMo-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, G.; Voigt, C.; Werner, H.

    1997-01-01

    Weldments of high-alloyed CrNiMo stainless steels and NiCrMo alloys can be more susceptible to localized corrosion than the solution annealed basic material owing to segregations and precipitations in the heat affected zone, the high temperature zone and/or in the weld. To investigate these differences the FeCl 3 -test (10% FeCl 3 . 6aq), the test ''green death'' (11.5% H 2 SO 4 , 1.2% HCl, 1% CuCl 2 , 1% FeCl 3 ) as well as chronopotentiostatic tests in artificial sea water or in 3% NaCl-solution are used. In particular for testing the highest alloyed materials a CaCl 2 -test was developed (4.5 M CaCl 2 , chronopotentiostatic test in duration of 8 to 10 hours at + 200 mV (SCE)), which can be carried out to a temperature of 115 C at atmospheric pressure. The aggressivity increases in the range FeCl 3 -test, ''green death''-test, CaCl 2 -test. Matching and graduated over-alloyed weldments (TIG, heat input of 7 and 15.5 kJ/cm) of materials 1.4529, 1.4562, 2.4856, 2.4819 (german materials No.) are comparingly examined in various tests, of materials 1.4406, 1.4539, 1.4439 and 1.4563 (german materials No.) only matching weldments in the FeCl 3 -test. In strongly oxidizing media only a highly over-alloyed performed weldment (filler material 2.4607, german material No.) produces the best corrosion behaviour, measured as the critical temperatures of localized corrosion. Measurements of critical current densities of passivation can be used for investigations of corrosion behaviour of weldments, too. Critical current densities of passivation are showing a tendency to inverse proportion to the critical temperatures of localized corrosion. Suitable electrolytes are among others 0.2 M H 2 SO 4 + 1 M NaCl + 10 -3 % KSCN, N 2 -bubbled, 25 to 60 C and xM H 2 SO 4 + 4 M NaCl + 10 -3 % KSCN (x = 0.05 to 1), 25 C, in contact with air. An influence of heat input at the welding is indicated in the test of localized corrosion, but it is only small. It is sometimes more clearly shown at

  6. The role of Zr and Nb in oxidation/sulfidation behavior of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Baxter, D.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) INCO Alloy Ltd., Hereford, England (UK))

    1990-11-01

    05Structural Fe-Cr-Ni alloys may undergo rapid degradation at elevated temperatures unless protective surface oxide scales are formed and maintained. The ability of alloys to resist rapid degradation strongly depends on their Cr content and the chemistry of the exposure environment. Normally, 20 wt % Cr is required for service at temperatures up to 1000{degree}C; the presence of sulfur, however, inhibits formation of a protective surface oxide scale. The oxidation and sulfidation behavior of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys is examined over a wide temperature range (650 to 1000{degree}C), with particular emphasis on the effects of alloy Cr content and the radiation of reactive elements such as Nb and Zr. Both Nb and Zr are shown to promote protective oxidation behavior on the 12 wt % Cr alloy in oxidizing environments and to suppress sulfidation in mixed oxygen/sulfur environments. Additions of Nb and Zr at 3 wt % level resulted in stabilization of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale and led to a barrier layer of Nb- or Zr-rich oxide at the scale/metal interface, which acted to minimize the transport of base metal cations across the scale. Oxide scales were preformed in sulfur-free environments and subsequently exposed to oxygen/sulfur mixed-gas atmospheres. Preformed scales were found to delay the onset of breakaway corrosion. Corrosions test results obtained under isothermal and thermal cycling conditions are presented. 58 refs., 55 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Tensile ductility of an AlCoCrFeNi multi-phase high-entropy alloy through hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhi, E-mail: Zhi.Tang@alcoa.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Senkov, Oleg N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Parish, Chad M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Fan [CompuTherm LLC, 437 S. Yellowstone Dr., Suite 217, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Santodonato, Louis J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wang, Gongyao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zhao, Guangfeng; Yang, Fuqian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Liaw, Peter K., E-mail: pliaw@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    The microstructure and phase composition of an AlCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) were studied in as-cast (AlCoCrFeNi-AC, AC represents as-cast) and homogenized (AlCoCrFeNi-HP, HP signifies hot isostatic pressed and homogenized) conditions. The AlCoCrFeNi-AC ally has a dendritric structure in the consisting primarily of a nano-lamellar mixture of A2 (disordered body-centered-cubic (BCC)) and B2 (ordered BCC) phases, formed by an eutectic reaction. The homogenization heat treatment, consisting of hot isostatic pressed for 1 h at 1100 °C, 207 MPa and annealing at 1150 °C for 50 h, resulted in an increase in the volume fraction of the A1 phase and formation of a Sigma (σ) phase. Tensile properties in as-cast and homogenized conditions are reported at 700 °C. The ultimate tensile strength was virtually unaffected by heat treatment, and was 396±4 MPa at 700 °C. However, homogenization produced a noticeable increase in ductility. The AlCoCrFeNi-AC alloy showed a tensile elongation of only 1.0%, while after the heat-treatment, the elongation of AlCoCrFeNi-HP was 11.7%. Thermodynamic modeling of non-equilibrium and equilibrium phase diagrams for the AlCoCrFeNi HEA gave good agreement with the experimental observations of the phase contents in the AlCoCrFeNi-AC and AlCoCrFeNi-HP. The reasons for the improvement of ductility after the heat treatment and the crack initiation subjected to tensile loading were discussed.

  8. Characterization of rust layer formed on Fe, Fe-Ni and Fe-Cr alloys exposed to Cl-rich environment by Cl and Fe K-edge XANES measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Yamashita, Masato; Uchida, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    Chloride in atmosphere considerably reduces the corrosion resistance of conventional weathering steel containing a small amount of Cr. Ni is an effective anticorrosive element for improving the corrosion resistance of steel in a Cl-rich environment. In order to clarify the structure of the protective rust layer of weathering steel, Cl and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of atmospheric corrosion products (rust) formed on Fe, Fe-Ni and Fe-Cr alloys exposed to Cl-rich atmosphere were measured. The Fe K-XANES measurements enable the characterization of mixture of iron oxides such as rust. The chemical composition of the rust was determined by performing pattern fitting of the measured spectra. All the rust is composed mainly of goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite and magnetite. Among these iron oxides, akaganeite in particular is the major component in the rust. Additionally, the amount of akaganeite in the rust of Fe-Ni alloy is much greater than that in rust of Fe-Cr alloy. Akaganeite is generally considered to facilitate the corrosion of steel, but our results indicate that akaganeite in the rust of Fe-Ni alloy is quantitatively different from that in rust of Fe-Cr alloy and does not facilitate the corrosion of steel. The shoulder peak observed in Cl K-XANES spectra reveals that the rust contains a chloride other than akaganeite. The energy of the shoulder peak does not correspond to that of any well-known chlorides. In the measured spectra, there is no proof that Cl, by combining with the alloying element, inhibits the alloying element from acting in corrosion resistance. The shoulder peak appears only when the content of the alloying element is lower than a certain value. This suggests that the generation of the unidentified chloride is related to the corrosion rate of steel. (author)

  9. Effects of La2O3 on microstructure and wear properties of laser clad γ/Cr7C3/TiC composite coatings on TiAl intermatallic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiubo; Yu Rongli

    2007-01-01

    The effects of La 2 O 3 addition on the microstructure and wear properties of laser clad γ/Cr 7 C 3 /TiC composite coatings on γ-TiAl intermetallic alloy substrates with NiCr-Cr 3 C 2 precursor mixed powders have been investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and block-on-ring wear tests. The responding wear mechanisms are discussed in detail. The results are compared with that for composite coating without La 2 O 3 . The comparison indicates that no evident new crystallographic phases are formed except a rapidly solidified microstructure consisting of the primary hard Cr 7 C 3 and TiC carbides and the γ/Cr 7 C 3 eutectics distributed in the tough γ nickel solid solution matrix. Good finishing coatings can be achieved under a proper amount of La 2 O 3 -addition and a suitable laser processing parameters. The additions of rare-earth oxide La 2 O 3 can refine and purify the microstructure of coatings, relatively decrease the volume fraction of primary blocky Cr 7 C 3 to Cr 7 C 3 /γ eutectics, reduce the dilution of clad material from base alloy and increase the microhardness of the coatings. When the addition of La 2 O 3 is approximately 4 wt.%, the laser clad composite coating possesses the highest hardness and toughness. The composite coating with 4 wt.%La 2 O 3 addition can result the best enhancement of wear resistance of about 30%. However, too less or excessive addition amount of La 2 O 3 have no better influence on wear resistance of the composite coating

  10. Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Properties of Ti-Ni-Si-O Nanostructures on Ti-Ni-Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were successfully prepared on Ti-1Ni-5Si alloy foils via electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol/glycerol solutions containing a small amount of water. The Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and diffuse reflectance absorption spectra. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical water splitting properties of the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure films were investigated. It was found that, after anodization, three different kinds of Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures formed in the α-Ti phase region, Ti2Ni phase region, and Ti5Si3 phase region of the alloy surface. Both the anatase and rutile phases of Ti-Ni-Si-O oxide appeared after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h. The photocurrent density obtained from the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure photoanodes was 0.45 mA/cm2 at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl in 1 M KOH solution. The above findings make it feasible to further explore excellent photoelectrochemical properties of the nanostructure-modified surface of Ti-Ni-Si ternary alloys.

  11. Effects of Microalloying on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified Ni-33(at.%)Al-31Cr-3Mo Eutectic Alloys Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, Sai V.; Locci, Ivan E.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2002-01-01

    Despite nickel aluminide (NiAl) alloys' attractive combination of oxidation and thermophysical properties, their development as replacements for superalloy airfoils in gas turbine engines has been largely limited by difficulties in developing alloys with an optimum combination of elevated-temperature creep resistance and room-temperature fracture toughness. Alternatively, research has focused on developing directionally solidified NiAl-based in situ eutectic composites composed of NiAl and (Cr,Mo) phases in order to obtain a desirable combination of properties a systematic investigation was undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Center to examine the effects of small additions of 11 alloying elements (Co, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Nb, Re, Si, Ta, Ti, and Zr) in amounts varying from 0.25 to 1.0 at.% on the elevated-temperature strength and room-temperature fracture toughness of directionally solidified Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo eutectic alloy. The alloys were grown at 12.7 mm/hr, where the unalloyed eutectic base alloy exhibited a planar eutectic microstructure. The different microstructures that formed because of these fifth-element additions are included in the table. The additions of these elements even in small amounts resulted in the formation of cellular microstructures, and in some cases, dendrites and third phases were observed. Most of these elemental additions did not improve either the elevated-temperature strength or the room-temperature fracture toughness over that of the base alloy. However, small improvements in the compression strength were observed between 1200 and 1400 K when 0.5 at.% Hf and 0.25 at.% Ti were added to the base alloy. The results of this study suggest that the microalloying of Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo will not significantly improve either its elevatedtemperature strength or its room-temperature fracture toughness. Thus, any improvements in these properties must be acquired by changing the processing conditions.

  12. Helium accumulation and bubble formation in FeCoNiCr alloy under high fluence He+ implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Tong, Y.; Li, H.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Y. L.; Hu, Alice; Kai, J. J.

    2018-04-01

    Face-centered cubic (FCC) high-entropy alloys (HEA), as emerging alloys with equal-molar or near equal-molar constituents, show a promising radiation damage resistance under heavy ion bombardment, making them potential for structural material application in next-generation nuclear reactors, but the accumulation of light helium ions, a product of nuclear fission reaction, has not been studied. The present work experimentally studied the helium accumulation and bubble formation at implantation temperatures of 523 K, 573 K and 673 K in a homogenized FCC FeCoNiCr HEA, a HEA showing excellent radiation damage resistance under heavy ion irradiation. The size and population density of helium bubbles in FeCoNiCr samples were quantitatively analyzed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the helium content existing in bubbles were estimated from a high-pressure Equation of State (EOS). We found that the helium diffusion in such condition was dominated by the self-interstitial/He replacement mechanism, and the corresponding activation energy in FeCoNiCr is comparable with the vacancy migration energy in Ni and austenitic stainless steel but only 14.3%, 31.4% and 51.4% of the accumulated helium precipitated into helium bubbles at 523 K, 573 K and 673 K, respectively, smaller than the pure Ni case. Importantly, the small bubble size suggested that FeCoNiCr HEA has a high resistance of helium bubble formation compared with Ni and steels.

  13. Pulse electrodeposition of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelkhani, H.

    2000-01-01

    Pulse Electroplating is a relativity new technique in electrodeposition of pure metals and alloys which has resulted in a number of improvement over the traditional direct current method. Among these are a better composition control, lower porosity, reduction of internal stresses and hydrogen content as well as other impurities. In this work Pulse plating of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys has been investigated by using a series of planned experiments. A domain of Pulse parameters, such a pulse frequency, pulse duration, current density and batch condition such as Ph, temperature and has been defined where the coating quality is optimal. The result obtained were Compared with those of D C electroplating and finally a number of recommendations are made for future works towards a semi-industrial process

  14. Microstructural characterisation of high-entropy alloy AlCoCrFeNi fabricated by laser engineered net shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunce, I., E-mail: ikunce@wat.edu.pl [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 01-908 Warsaw (Poland); Polanski, M.; Karczewski, K. [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 01-908 Warsaw (Poland); Plocinski, T.; Kurzydlowski, K.J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 141 Wołoska Str., 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-11-05

    Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) was used to produce thin-walled samples of the high-entropy alloy AlCoCrFeNi from a prealloyed powder. To determine the effect of the cooling rate during solidification on the microstructure of the alloy, different laser scanning rates were used. A microstructural study of the surfaces of the sample walls was performed using X-ray diffraction analysis and optical and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. The crystal structure of the alloy was determined to be a body-centred cubic (bcc)-derivative B2-ordered type. The microstructure of the alloy produced by LENS was dendritic. Further, it was found that with an increase in the laser scanning rate from 2.5 to 40 mm s{sup −1}, the average grain size decreased from 108.3 ± 32.4 μm to 30.6 ± 9.2 μm. The maximum cooling rate achieved during the laser cladding of the alloy was 44 × 10{sup 3} K s{sup −1}. The electron microscopy study of the alloy showed the presence of precipitates. The morphology of the disordered bcc (Fe, Cr)-rich precipitates in the ordered B2 (Al, Ni)-rich matrix changed in the dendritic and interdendritic regions from fine and spherical (with a diameter of less 100 nm) to spinodal (with the thickness being less than 100 nm). The LENS- produced AlCoCrFeNi alloy exhibited an average microhardness of approximately 543 HV0.5; this was approximately 13% higher than the hardness in the as-cast state and can be attributed to the grain refinemet in the LENS- produced alloy. Moreover, it was found that increasing the cooling rate during laser cladding increasess the microhardness of the alloy. - Highlights: • Laser-engineered net shaping is used to produce samples of AlCoCrFeNi alloy. • The alloy has a body-centred cubic (bcc)-derivative B2-ordered crystal structure. • Electron microscopy images of the alloy show the presence of precipitates. • The microhardness of the laser-clad alloy is higher than that of the as-cast alloy. • The cooling rate

  15. Si effects on radiation induced segregation in high purity Fe-18Cr-14Ni alloys irradiated by Ni ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Joji; Kako, Kenji; Mayuzumi, Masami; Kusanagi, Hideo; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    1999-01-01

    To illustrate the effects of the element Si on radiation induced segregation, which causes irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), we investigated grain boundary chemistry of high purity Fe-18Cr-14Ni-Si alloys irradiated by Ni ions using FE-TEM. The addition of Si up to 1% does not affect the Cr depletion at grain boundaries, while it slightly enhances the depletion of Fe and the segregation of Ni and Si. The addition of 2% Si causes the depletion of Cr and Fe and the segregation of Ni and Si at grain boundaries. Thus, the Si content should be as low as possible. In order to reduce the depletion of Cr at grain boundaries, which is one of the major causes of IASCC, Si content should be less than 1%. (author)

  16. Investigation of decomposition of solid solution of Ni-Cr-Fe 77/16/7 over-saturated in carbon during tempering at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffaut, Francois

    1966-01-01

    In its first part, this research thesis reports the investigation of the structure of the tempered Ni-Cr-Fe 77/16/7 alloy by using optical and electronic microscopy. The second part addresses the relationship between the structural status of the alloy and its electrochemical behaviour. The third part reports the investigation of the Portevin - Le Chatelier phenomenon in relationship with the decomposition of the solid solution. A last part addresses the investigation of a possible microstructure ordering of the Ni-Cr-Fe 77/16/7 alloy

  17. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Ni-Fe-Cr Alloys Relevant to Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Suraj

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Ni-Fe-Cr alloys and weld metals was investigated in simulated environments representative of high temperature water used in the primary and secondary circuits of nuclear power plants. The mechanism of primary water SCC (PWSCC) was studied in Alloys 600, 690, 800 and Alloy 82 dissimilar metal welds using the internal oxidation model as a guide. Initial experiments were carried out in a 480°C hydrogenated steam environment considered to simulate high temperature reducing primary water. Ni alloys underwent classical internal oxidation intragranularly resulting in the expulsion of the solvent metal, Ni, to the surface. Selective intergranular oxidation of Cr in Alloy 600 resulted in embrittlement, while other alloys were resistant owing to their increased Cr contents. Atom probe tomography was used to determine the short-circuit diffusion path used for Ni expulsion at a sub-nanometer scale, which was concluded to be oxide-metal interfaces. Further exposures of Alloys 600 and 800 were done in 315°C simulated primary water and intergranular oxidation tendency was comparable to 480°C hydrogenated steam. Secondary side work involved SCC experiments and electrochemical measurements, which were done at 315°C in acid sulfate solutions. Alloy 800 C-rings were found to undergo acid sulfate SCC (AcSCC) to a depth of up to 300 microm in 0.55 M sulfate solution at pH 4.3. A focused-ion beam was used to extract a crack tip from a C-ring and high resolution analytical electron microscopy revealed a duplex oxide structure and the presence of sulfur. Electrochemical measurements were taken on Ni alloys to complement crack tip analysis; sulfate was concluded to be the aggressive anion in mixed sulfate and chloride systems. Results from electrochemical measurements and crack tip analysis suggested a slip dissolution-type mechanism to explain AcSCC in Ni alloys.

  18. H-Phase Precipitation and Martensitic Transformation in Ni-rich Ni-Ti-Hf and Ni-Ti-Zr High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evirgen, A.; Pons, J.; Karaman, I.; Santamarta, R.; Noebe, R. D.

    2018-03-01

    The distributions of H-phase precipitates in Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 and Ni50.3Ti29.7Zr20 alloys formed by aging treatments at 500 and 550 °C or slow furnace cooling and their effects on the thermal martensitic transformation have been investigated by TEM and calorimetry. The comparative study clearly reveals faster precipitate-coarsening kinetics in the NiTiZr alloy than in NiTiHf. For precipitates of a similar size of 10-20 nm in both alloys, the martensite plates in Ni50.3Ti29.7Zr20 have larger widths and span a higher number of precipitates compared with the Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 alloy. However, for large H-phase particles with hundreds of nm in length, no significant differences in the martensitic microstructures of both alloy systems have been observed. The martensitic transformation temperatures of Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 are 80-90 °C higher than those of Ni50.3Ti29.7Zr20 in the precipitate-free state and in the presence of large particles of hundreds on nm in length, but this difference is reduced to only 10-20 °C in samples with small H-phase precipitates. The changes in the transformation temperatures are consistent with the differences in the precipitate distributions between the two alloy systems observed by TEM.

  19. Effects of air melting on Fe/0.3/3Cr/0.5Mo/2Mn and Fe/0.3C/3Cr/0.5Mo/2Ni structural alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, B.

    1979-06-01

    Changing production methods of a steel from vacuum melting to air melting can cause an increase in secondary particles, such as oxides and nitrides, which may have detrimental effects on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the alloy. In the present study a base alloy of Fe/0.3C/3Cr/0.5Mo with either 2Mn or 2Ni added was produced by air melting and its mechanical properties and microstructure were compared to an identical vacuum melted steel. Significant differences in mechanical behavior, morphology, and volume fraction of undissolved inclusions have been observed as a function of composition following air melting. For the alloy containing manganese, all properties remained very close to vacuum melted values but the 2Ni alloy displayed a marked loss in Charpy impact toughness and plane strain fracture toughness. This loss is attributed to an increase in volume fraction of secondary particles in the nickel alloy, as opposed to both the Mn alloy and vacuum melted alloys, as well as to substaintially increased incidence of linear coalescence of voids. Microstructural features are discussed

  20. Corrosion behavior of high purity Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in trans-passive condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayuzumi, Masami; Ohta, Jyoji; Kako, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of high-purity (99.99%) Fe-Cr-Ni alloys was investigated in 13 N nitric acid with/without Ce 4+ ions to clarify the effect of impurities on the trans-passive corrosion of stainless steel. The following results were obtained. (1) Almost no intergranular corrosion was observed in the high-purity alloys, although the corrosion rate of the matrix region was nearly the same as that of a commercial stainless steel with the same Cr and Ni content. (2) Due to the improved intergranular corrosion resistance, the effect of the purification became significant in the corrosion condition with the grain-separation being predominant. (3) The high-purity alloys showed higher susceptivility to intergranular corrosion with aging treatment between 873 K and 1073 K. Although the sulfuric acid/copper sulfate test suggested the formation of Cr-depleted zones, a grain boundary micro-analysis using a FETEM with an EDX did not reveal any change in Cr content or impurity segregain along the grain boundaries. The mechanism of corrosion enhancement resulting from the aging treatment remains nuclear. (author)

  1. Coercivity and nanostructure of melt-spun Ti-Fe-Co-B-based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Ti-Fe-Co-B-based alloys, prepared by melt spinning and subsequent annealing, have been characterized structurally and magnetically. X-ray diffraction and thermomagnetic measurements show that the ribbons consist of tetragonal Ti3(Fe,Co5B2, FeCo-rich bcc, and NiAl-rich L21 phases; Ti3(Fe,Co5B2, is a new substitutional alloy series whose end members Ti3Co5B2 and Ti3Fe5B2 have never been investigated magnetically and may not even exist, respectively. Two compositions are considered, namely Ti11+xFe37.5-0.5xCo37.5−0.5xB14 (x = 0, 4 and alnico-like Ti11Fe26Co26Ni10Al11Cu2B14, the latter also containing an L21-type alloy. The volume fraction of the Ti3(Fe,Co5B2 phase increases with x, which leads to a coercivity increase from 221 Oe for x = 0 to 452 Oe for x = 4. Since the grains are nearly equiaxed, there is little or no shape anisotropy, and the coercivity is largely due to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the tetragonal Ti3(Fe,Co5B2 phase. The alloy containing Ni, Al, and Cu exhibits a magnetization of 10.6 kG and a remanence ratio of 0.59. Our results indicate that magnetocrystalline anisotropy can be introduced in alnico-like magnets, adding to shape anisotropy that may be induced by field annealing.

  2. High-temperature mechanical properties of high-purity 70 mass% Cr-Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahina, M.; Harima, N.; Takaki, S.; Abiko, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    2002-01-16

    An ingot of high-purity 70 mass% Cr-Fe alloy was prepared by high-frequency induction melting in a high-purity argon atmosphere using a cold copper crucible. Its tensile properties such as hot-ductility and tensile strength were measured, and compared with the results for a high-purity 50 mass% Cr-Fe alloy, a high-purity 60 mass% Cr-Fe alloy and a Ni-based super-alloy. The formation of {sigma}-phase was also examined. The purity of a 70Cr-Fe alloy (70 mass% Cr-Fe alloy) ingot is more than 99.98 mass% and the total amount of gaseous impurities (C, N, O, S, H) in the 70Cr-Fe alloy is 69.9 mass ppm. The strength of the 70Cr-Fe alloy is higher than those of the 60Cr-Fe alloy and the 50Cr-Fe alloy at the temperatures between 293 and 1573 K, without decrease in ductility with increasing Cr content. The 70Cr-Fe alloy also possesses excellent high-temperature ductility. The {sigma}-phase was not observed after aging of 3.6 Ms at 873 K. Consequently, the 70Cr-Fe alloy is an excellent alloy as the base of super heat-resistant alloys. (orig.)

  3. Potentiodynamic polarization studies of bulk amorphous alloy Zr57Cu15.4Ni12.6Al10Nb5 and Zr59Cu20Ni8Al10Ti3 in aqueous HNO3 media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Poonam; Dhawan, Anil; Jayraj, J.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2013-01-01

    The potentiodynamic polarization studies were carried out on Zr based bulk amorphous alloy Zr 57 Cu 15.4 Ni 12.6 Al 10 Nb 5 and Zr 59 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 Ti 3 in solutions of 1 M, 6 M and 11.5 M HNO 3 aqueous media at room temperature. As received specimens of Zr 57 Cu 15.4 Ni 12.6 Al 10 Nb 5 (5 mm diameter rod) and Zr 59 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 Ti 3 (3 mm diameter rod) were polished with SiC paper before testing them for potentiodynamic polarization studies. The amorphous nature of the specimens was checked by X-ray diffraction. The bulk amorphous alloy Zr 59 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 Ti 3 shows the better corrosion resistance than Zr 57 Cu 15.4 Ni 12.6 Al 10 Nb 5 alloy in the aqueous HNO 3 media as the value of the corrosion current density (I corr ) for Zr 57 Cu 15.4 Ni 12.6 Al 10 Nb 5 alloy were found to be more than Zr 59 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 Ti 3 alloy in aqueous HNO 3 media. The improved corrosion resistance of Zr 59 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 Ti 3 alloy is possibly due to the presence of Ti and formation of TiO 2 during anodic oxidation. Both Zr based bulk amorphous alloys shows wider passive range at lower concentration of nitric acid and the passive region gets narrowed down with the increase in concentration. A comparison of data obtained from both the Zr-based bulk amorphous alloys is made and results are discussed in the paper. (author)

  4. Erosion-oxidation behavior of thermal sprayed Ni20Cr alloy and WC and Cr3C2 cermet coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Terui Kunioshi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus to conduct high temperature erosion-oxidation studies up to 850 °C and with particle impact velocities up to 15 m.s-1 was designed and constructed in the Corrosion Laboratories of IPEN. The erosion-oxidation behavior of high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF sprayed alloy and cermet coatings of Ni20Cr, WC 20Cr7Ni and Cr3C2 Ni20Cr on a steel substrate has been studied. Details of this apparatus and the erosion-oxidation behavior of these coatings are presented and discussed. The erosion-oxidation behavior of HVOF coated Cr3C2 25(Ni20Cr was better than that of WC 20Cr7Ni, and the erosion-oxidation regimes have been identified for these coatings at particle impact velocity of 3.5 m.s-1, impact angle of 90° and temperatures in the range 500 to 850 °C.

  5. Comparative studies on ultrasonic, friction, laser and resistance pressure welding of NiTi shape memory alloys with high-alloy steels. Final report; Vergleichende Untersuchungen zum Ultraschall-, Reib-, Laserstrahl- und Widerstandspressschweissen von NiTi-Shape-Memory-Metall mit hochlegierten Staehlen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuckschwerdt, K.

    2000-04-01

    The suitability of different welding techniques for welding of NiTi shape memory alloys with high-alloy steel (C12CrNi17-7, X5CrNiNb19-9, X20Cr13) was investigated. The quality of the welds was analyzed using mechanical-technological, fractographic, metallographic and electron microscopy analysis. [German] Ziel dieses Forschungsvorhabens ist es, die Eignung der einzelnen Schweissverfahren fuer das Fuegen von NiTi-Formgedaechtnislegierungen mit hochlegiertem Stahl (X12CrNi17-7, X5CrNiNb19-9, X20Cr13) darzustellen und zu beurteilen. Die Qualitaet der Fuegeverbindungen wird mit Hilfe mechanisch-technologischer, fraktographischer, metallographischer und elektronenmikroskopischer Untersuchungen bewertet.

  6. Role of nano-precipitation on the microstructure and shape memory characteristics of a new Ni_5_0_._3Ti_3_4_._7Zr_1_5 shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evirgen, A.; Karaman, I.; Pons, J.; Santamarta, R.; Noebe, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure and shape memory characteristics of the Ni_5_0_._3Ti_3_4_._7Zr_1_5 shape memory alloy were investigated as a function of aging heat treatments that result in nanometer to submicron size precipitates. Microstructure–property relationships were developed by characterizing samples using transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and load-biased thermal cycling experiments. The precipitate size was found to strongly influence the martensitic transformation–precipitate interactions and ultimately the shape memory characteristics of the alloy. Aging treatments resulting in relatively fine precipitates, which are not an obstacle to twin boundaries and easily bypassed by martensite variants, exhibited higher transformation strain, lower transformation thermal hysteresis, and better thermal and dimensional stability compared to samples with relatively large precipitates. When precipitate dimensions approached several hundred nanometers in size they acted as obstacles to martensite growth, limiting martensite variant and twin size resulting in reduced functional and structural properties. Aging heat treatments were also shown to result in a wide range of transformation temperatures, increasing them above 100 °C in some cases, and affected the stress dependence of the transformation hysteresis and the stress versus transformation temperature relationships for the Ni_5_0_._3Ti_3_4_._7Zr_1_5 alloy.

  7. Volatility of V15Cr5Ti fusion reactor alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    One potential hazard from the presence of activation products in fusion facilities is accidental oxidation-driven volatility of those activation products. Scoping experiments were conducted to investigate the oxidation and elemental volatility of candidate fusion reactor alloy V15Cr5Ti as a function of time, temperature, and test atmosphere. Experiments in air and in argon carrier gases containing 10 4 to 10 1 Pa (10 -1 to 10 -4 atm) oxygen were conducted to investigate the lower oxygen partial pressure limit for the formation of a low melting point (approximately 650 0 C), high volatility, oxide layer and its formation rate. Experiments to determine the elemental volatility of alloy constituents in air at temperatures of 700 0 C to greater than 1600 0 C. Some of these volatility experiments used V15Cr5Ti that was arc-remelted to incorporate small quantities (<0.1 wt. %) of Sc and Ca. Incorporation of Sc and Ca in test specimens permitted volatility measurement of radioactive constituents present only after activation of V15Cr5Ti

  8. Solid-state reactions during mechanical alloying of ternary Fe-Al-X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadef, Fatma

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research in the field of nanocrystalline materials due to their enhanced properties. A lot of processing techniques were developed in order to synthesis these novel materials, among them mechanical alloying or high-energy ball milling. In fact, mechanical alloying is one of the most common operations in the processing of solids. It can be used to quickly and easily synthesize a variety of technologically useful materials which are very difficult to manufacture by other techniques. One advantage of MA over many other techniques is that is a solid state technique and consequently problems associated with melting and solidification are bypassed. Special attention is being paid to the synthesis of alloys through reactions mainly occurring in solid state in many metallic ternary Fe-Al-X systems, in order to improve mainly Fe-Al structural and mechanical properties. The results show that nanocrystallization is the common result occurring in all systems during MA process. The aim of this work is to illustrate the uniqueness of MA process to induce phase transformation in metallic Fe-Al-X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems.

  9. Effect of d electrons on defect properties in equiatomic NiCoCr and NiCoFeCr concentrated solid solution alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijun; Egami, Takeshi; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Zhang, Yanwen

    2018-01-01

    The role of d electrons in determining distributions of formation and migration energies for point defects in equiatomic NiCoCr and NiCoFeCr concentrated solid solution alloys (CSAs) are studied regarding electron density deformation flexibility based on first-principles calculations. The disordered state is taken into account by constructing special quasirandom structures. The migration barriers are determined by directly optimizing the saddle point. It is found that the formation energies of interstitials in CSAs are lower than those in pure Ni, whereas the formation energies of vacancies are higher. In both NiCoCr and NiCoFeCr, Co-related dumbbell interstitials exhibit lower formation energies. Notably, the distributions of migration energies for Cr interstitials and vacancies exhibit a remarkable overlap region. A detailed analysis of electronic properties reveals that the electronic charge deformation flexibility regarding eg to t2g transition has a dominant effect on defect energetics for different elements in CSAs. Thus the electron deformation ability is suggested as a key factor in understanding the peculiar defect behavior in CSAs.

  10. High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr, Mn) Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Průša, Filip; Bláhová, Markéta; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Kučera, Vojtěch; Bernatiková, Adriana; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Michalcová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt %) alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined that the α-Al along with α-Al15(Fe,Cr)3Si2 or α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phases were present, with dimensions below 130 nm. The highest hardness of 380 ± 7 HV5 was observed for the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloy, exceeding the hardness of the reference as-cast Al-12Si-1Cu-1 Mg-1Ni alloy (121 ± 2 HV5) by nearly a factor of three. Both of the prepared alloys showed exceptional thermal stability with the hardness remaining almost the same even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. Additionally, the compressive strengths of the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloys reached 869 MPa and 887 MPa, respectively, and had virtually the same values of 870 MPa and 865 MPa, respectively, even after 100 h of annealing. More importantly, the alloys showed an increase in ductility at 400 °C, reaching several tens of percent. Thus, both of the investigated alloys showed better mechanical properties, including superior hardness, compressive strength and thermal stability, as compared to the reference Al-10Si-1Cu-1Mg-1Ni alloy, which softened remarkably, reducing its hardness by almost 50% to 63 ± 8 HV5. PMID:28774094

  11. Stacking fault energy measurements in solid solution strengthened Ni-Cr-Fe alloys using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unfried-Silgado, Jimy [Metals Characterization and Processing Laboratory, Brazilian Nanothecnology National Laboratory - CNPEM/ABTLuS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP, Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica FEM, Campinas (Brazil); Universidad Autonoma del Caribe, Grupo IMTEF, Ingenieria Mecanica, Barranquilla (Colombia); Wu, Leonardo [Metals Characterization and Processing Laboratory, Brazilian Nanothecnology National Laboratory - CNPEM/ABTLuS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Furlan Ferreira, Fabio [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas (CCNH), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mario Garzon, Carlos [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota (Colombia); Ramirez, Antonio J, E-mail: antonio.ramirez@lnnano.org.br [Metals Characterization and Processing Laboratory, Brazilian Nanothecnology National Laboratory - CNPEM/ABTLuS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    The stacking fault energy (SFE) in a set of experimental Ni-Cr-Fe alloys was determined using line profile analysis on synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. The methodology used here is supported by the Warren-Averbach calculations and the relationships among the stacking fault probability ({alpha}) and the mean-square microstrain (<{epsilon}{sup 2}{sub L}>). These parameters were obtained experimentally from cold-worked and annealed specimens extracted from the set of studied Ni-alloys. The obtained results show that the SFE in these alloys is strongly influenced by the kind and quantity of addition elements. Different effects due to the action of carbide-forming elements and the solid solution hardening elements on the SFE are discussed here. The simultaneous addition of Nb, Hf, and, Mo, in the studied Ni-Cr-Fe alloys have generated the stronger decreasing of the SFE. The relationships between SFE and the contributions on electronic structure from each element of additions were established.

  12. Cl K-edge XANES spectra of atmospheric rust on Fe, Fe-Cr and Fe-Ni alloys exposed to saline environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Yamashita, Masato; Uchida, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Cl K-edge XANES measurements of atmospheric corrosion products (rust) formed on Fe, Fe-Ni and Fe-Cr alloys in chloride pollution have been performed using synchrotron radiation in order to clarify roles of anticorrosive alloying elements and of Cl in the corrosion resistance of weathering steel. The spectra of binary alloys show a shoulder structure near the absorption edge. The intensity of the shoulder peak depends on the kind and amount of the alloying element, whereas the energy position is invariant. This indicates that Cl is not combined directly with alloying elements in the rust. (author)

  13. Development of ODS FeCrAl alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoelzer, David T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Unocic, Kinga A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-18

    FeCrAl alloys are prime candidates for accident-tolerant fuel cladding due to their excellent oxidation resistance up to 1400 C and good mechanical properties at intermediate temperature. Former commercial oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys such as PM2000 exhibit significantly better tensile strength than wrought FeCrAl alloys, which would alloy for the fabrication of a very thin (~250 m) ODS FeCrAl cladding and limit the neutronic penalty from the replacement of Zr-based alloys by Fe-based alloys. Several Fe-12-Cr-5Al ODS alloys where therefore fabricated by ball milling FeCrAl powders with Y2O3 and additional oxides such as TiO2 or ZrO2. The new Fe-12Cr-5Al ODS alloys showed excellent tensile strength up to 800 C but limited ductility. Good oxidation resistance in steam at 1200 and 1400 C was observed except for one ODS FeCrAl alloy containing Ti. Rolling trials were conducted at 300, 600 C and 800 C to simulate the fabrication of thin tube cladding and a plate thickness of ~0.6mm was reached before the formation of multiple edge cracks. Hardness measurements at different stages of the rolling process, before and after annealing for 1h at 1000 C, showed that a thinner plate thickness could likely be achieved by using a multi-step approach combining warm rolling and high temperature annealing. Finally, new Fe-10-12Cr-5.5-6Al-Z gas atomized powders have been purchased to fabricate the second generation of low-Cr ODS FeCrAl alloys. The main goals are to assess the effect of O, C, N and Zr contents on the ODS FeCrAl microstructure and mechanical properties, and to optimize the fabrication process to improve the ductility of the 2nd gen ODS FeCrAl while maintaining good mechanical strength and oxidation resistance.

  14. Precipitation sensitivity to alloy composition in Fe-Cr-Mn austenitic steels developed for reduced activation for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Special austenitic steels are being designed in which alloying elements like Mo, Nb, and Ni are replaced with Mn, W, V, Ti, and/or Ta to reduce the long-term radioactivity induced by fusion reactor irradiation. However, the new steels still need to have properties otherwise similar to commercial steels like type 316. Precipitation strongly affects strength and radiation-resistance in austenitic steels during irradiation at 400--600/degree/C, and precipitation is also usually quite sensitive to alloy composition. The initial stage of development was to define a base Fe-Cr-Mn-C composition that formed stable austenite after annealing and cold-working, and resisted recovery or excessive formation of coarse carbide and intermetallic phases during elevated temperature annealing. These studies produced a Fe-12Cr-20Mn-0.25C base alloy. The next stage was to add the minor alloying elements W, Ti, V, P, and B for more strength and radiation-resistance. One of the goals was to produce fine MC precipitation behavior similar to the Ti-modified Fe-Cr-Ni prime candidate alloy (PCA). Additions of Ti+V+P+B produced fine MC precipitation along network dislocations and recovery/recrystallization resistance in 20% cold worked material aged at 800/degree/C for 166h, whereas W, Ti, W+Ti, or Ti+P+B additions did not. Addition of W+Ti+V+P+B also produced fine MC, but caused some σ phase formation and more recrystallization as well. 29 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Interfacial microstructure and performance of brazed diamond grits with Ni-Cr-P alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.Y. [Faculty of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)], E-mail: cywang@gdut.edu.cn; Zhou, Y.M.; Zhang, F.L.; Xu, Z.C. [Faculty of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-05-12

    The reaction mechanism of the interface among diamond, commercial Ni-Cr-P alloy and steel substrate has been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The reaction layers formed among diamond, brazing alloy and steel substrate produced good wettability of diamond grits for achieving better quality tools. The reaction layer between diamond and brazing alloy comprised a reaction layer of brazing alloy and a reaction layer of diamond. Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} formed in the reaction layer of brazing alloy was the main reason for improving the bonding strength of Ni-Cr alloy to the diamond grits. A reaction layer of diamond may be a graphitization layer formed on the surface of diamond under high temperature brazing. The reaction layer of brazing alloy and steel substrate was the co-diffusion of Ni, Cr and Fe between the brazing alloy and the steel substrate. The life and sharpness of brazed diamond boring drill bits fabricated in this study were superior to the electroplated one in the market owing to its high protrusion and bonding strength.

  16. Characterization of the shape memory properties of a Ni45.3Ti39.7Hf10Pd5 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, E.; Karaca, H.E.; Tobe, H.; Noebe, R.D.; Chumlyakov, Y.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Ni 45.3 Ti 39.7 Hf 10 Pd 5 alloys have transformation strain of up to 4.6% and work output of up to 29 J cm −3 . •The alloy showed good superelastic behavior at 90 °C with recoverable strain of 4.3%. •The alloy exhibited 1.6% two-way shape memory strain after a simple training procedure. •The formation of 〈0 1 1〉 type II twins in martensite plates results in large transformation strain. -- Abstract: The load-biased shape memory and superelastic responses of a Ni 45.3 Ti 39.7 Hf 10 Pd 5 polycrystalline alloy were investigated in compression. Transformation strain of up to 4.6% and work output of up to 29 J cm −3 were determined from load-biased thermal cycling experiments. The alloy showed good superelastic behavior at 90 o C with recoverable strain of over 4%. It was also determined that the Ni 45.3 Ti 39.7 Hf 10 Pd 5 alloy could develop two-way shape memory strain of 1.6% without an intense training process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the internal twins formed in the martensite variants were 〈0 1 1〉 type II twins

  17. Effect of mechanical alloying on FeCrC reinforced Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, S. Osman [Univ. of Namik Kemal, Tekirdag (Turkey); Teker, Tanju [Adiyaman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Demir, Fatih [Batman Univ. (Turkey)

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) is a powder metallurgy processing technique involving cold welding, fracturing and rewelding of powder particles in a high-energy ball mill. In the present study, the intermetallic matrix composites (IMCs) of Ni-Al reinforced by M{sub 7}C{sub 3} were produced by powder metallurgical routes via solid state reaction of Ni, Al and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} particulates by mechanical alloying processes. Ni, Al and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} powders having 100 μm were mixed, mechanical alloyed and the compacts were combusted in a furnace. The mechanically alloyed (MAed) powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness measurement, optic microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The presence of the carbides depressed the formation of unwanted NiAl intermetallic phases. The mechanical alloyed M{sub 7}C{sub 3} particles were unstable and decomposed partially within the matrix during alloying and sintering, and the morphology of the composites changed with the dissolution ratio of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and sintering temperature.

  18. Spin-polarized electron gas in Co2MSi/SrTiO3(M= Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Spin-polarized density functional theory is used to study the TiO2 terminated interfaces between the magnetic Heusler alloys Co2Si (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) and the non-polar band insulator SrTiO3. The structural relaxation at the interface turns

  19. Study of the microstructure and of microhardness variation of a Ni-Fe-Cr austenitic alloy by niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho e Camargo, M.U. de; Lucki, G.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanisms of hardening and corrosion resistance increase in Ni-Fe-Cr austenitic stainless steels by Nb additions are of interest to nuclear technology Niobium additions to a 321 type stainless steel were made in order to study the microhardness, electrical resistivity and metallography. Experimental measurements results are shown. The effect of Nb additions as a micro-alloying element and the thermal and mechanical processes (cold working in particular) in the microstructure and microhardness properties of the 11% Ni - 70%Fe - 17% Cr austenitic alloys were studied. (Author) [pt

  20. Effects of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} on microstructure and wear properties of laser clad {gamma}/Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}/TiC composite coatings on TiAl intermatallic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiubo [Laboratory for Laser Intelligent Manufacturing, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Beisihuanxi Road, Beijing 100080 (China) and School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Zhongyuan Institute of Technology, 41 Zhongyuan Western Road, Zhengzhou 450007, Henan Province (China)]. E-mail: liubobo0828@yahoo.com.cn; Yu Rongli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2007-02-15

    The effects of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on the microstructure and wear properties of laser clad {gamma}/Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}/TiC composite coatings on {gamma}-TiAl intermetallic alloy substrates with NiCr-Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} precursor mixed powders have been investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and block-on-ring wear tests. The responding wear mechanisms are discussed in detail. The results are compared with that for composite coating without La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The comparison indicates that no evident new crystallographic phases are formed except a rapidly solidified microstructure consisting of the primary hard Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} and TiC carbides and the {gamma}/Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} eutectics distributed in the tough {gamma} nickel solid solution matrix. Good finishing coatings can be achieved under a proper amount of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-addition and a suitable laser processing parameters. The additions of rare-earth oxide La{sub 2}O{sub 3} can refine and purify the microstructure of coatings, relatively decrease the volume fraction of primary blocky Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} to Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}/{gamma} eutectics, reduce the dilution of clad material from base alloy and increase the microhardness of the coatings. When the addition of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} is approximately 4 wt.%, the laser clad composite coating possesses the highest hardness and toughness. The composite coating with 4 wt.%La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition can result the best enhancement of wear resistance of about 30%. However, too less or excessive addition amount of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} have no better influence on wear resistance of the composite coating.

  1. Effect of Ti/Cr content on the microstructures and hydrogen storage properties of Laves phase-related body-centered-cubic solid solution alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K., E-mail: kwo.young@basf.com [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Wong, D.F. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Wayne State University, MI 48202 (United States); Wang, L. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Influences of Ti/Cr to BCC to hydrogen storage properties were reported. • A new activation using hydrogen pressure at 5 MPa was developed. • A discharge capacity of 463 mA h g{sup −1} was reported on a C14(36%)/BCC(64%) alloy. • Increase in Ti/Cr increases storage capacity and decreases high-rate performance. • The high-rate performance was dominated by the surface reaction. - Abstract: A series of BCC/C14 mixed phase alloys with the chemical composition of Ti{sub 13.6+x}Zr{sub 2.1}V{sub 44}Cr{sub 13.2−x}Mn{sub 6.9}Fe{sub 2.7}Co{sub 1.4}Ni{sub 15.7}Al{sub 0.3}, x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12, was fabricated, and their structural, gaseous phase and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties were studied. Raising the maximum pressure for measuring the gaseous hydrogen storage capacity allowed these alloys to reach full activation, and the maximum discharge capacities ranged from 375 to 463 mA h g{sup −1}. As the Ti/Cr ratio in the alloy composition increased, the maximum gaseous hydrogen storage capacity improved due to the expansion in both BCC and C14 unit cells. However, reversibility decreased due to the higher stability of the hydride phase, as indicated by the lower equilibrium pressures measured for these alloys. As with most other metal hydride alloys, the electrochemical capacities measured at 50 and 4 mA g{sup −1} fell between the boundaries set by the maximum and reversible gaseous hydrogen storage capacities. The poorer high-rate dischargeability observed with higher Ti/Cr ratios was attributed to the lower surface exchange current (less catalytic). Two other negative impacts observed with higher Ti/Cr ratios in the alloy composition are poorer cycle stability and lower open-circuit voltage.

  2. Evolution of the electronic structure and physical properties of Fe2MeAl (Me = Ti, V, Cr) Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreder, E; Streltsov, S V; Svyazhin, A; Makhnev, A; Marchenkov, V V; Lukoyanov, A; Weber, H W

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of experiments on the optical, electrical and magnetic properties and electronic structure and optical spectrum calculations of the Heusler alloys Fe 2 TiAl, Fe 2 VAl and Fe 2 CrAl. We find that the drastic transformation of the band spectrum, especially near the Fermi level, when replacing the Me element (Me = Ti, V, Cr), is accompanied by a significant change in the electrical and optical properties. The electrical and optical properties of Fe 2 TiAl are typical for metals. The abnormal behavior of the electrical resistivity and the optical properties in the infrared range for Fe 2 VAl and Fe 2 CrAl are determined by electronic states at the Fermi level. Both the optical spectroscopic measurements and the theoretical calculations demonstrate the presence of low-energy gaps in the band spectrum of the Heusler alloys. In addition, we demonstrate that the formation of Fe clusters may be responsible for the large enhancement of the total magnetic moment in Fe 2 CrAl

  3. Investigation of Ti-Fe-Co bulk alloys with high strength and enhanced ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Louzguina-Luzgina, Larissa V.; Kato, Hidemi; Inoue, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    High-strength Ti-Fe-Co alloys were produced in the shape of arc-melted ingots with the dimensions of about 20-25mm in diameter and 7-10mm in height. The structure of the Ti-Fe-Co alloys (at Fe/Co ratio >1) studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy consisted of an ordered Pm3-bar m Ti(FeCo) compound and a disordered body-centered cubic Im3-bar m β-Ti solid solution. The optimization of the Ti-Fe-Co alloy composition is performed from the viewpoint of both high strength and ductility. The strongest Ti-Fe-Co alloys have a hypereutectic structure and exhibit a high strength of about 2000MPa and a plastic deformation of 15%. The high strength and ductility values can be achieved without using the injection mould casting or rapid solidification procedure. The deformation behavior and the fractography of Ti-Fe-Co alloys are studied in detail

  4. The studies of the martensite transformations in a Ti36.5Ni48.5Hf15 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.; Jin, S.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zou, W.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, D.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, high temperature shape memory alloy (SMA) has attracted much interest by many groups of researchers. Many kinds of alloys, such as TiNiPd and NiAL alloys were reported to have shape memory effect in high temperatures. But for different kinds of reasons, these alloys were not put to practical use. TiNi alloys have been considered the best shape memory materials until now. Adding a third element whose characteristics are similar to Ti or Ni in TiNi binary alloys can produce a new style SMA, which has been done in many cases. In most circumstances, Ni was substituted and only a few investigations on the TiNi alloys was Ti replaced. But in recent years, many investigators have given more attention to this subject. In 1976, Eckelmeyer showed that Zr was one of the element that can raise the phase transformation temperatures of TiNi alloys. In 1990, Krupp obtained a patent on TiNiZr SMA with high transformation temperatures for TiNi alloys. J.H. Mulder also published his work on TiNiZr alloys in 1992. In their previous work, a new type of high temperature SMA Ti 36.5 Ni 48.5 Hf 15 alloy were investigated in more detail by DSC measurement, TEM and high-resolution observations

  5. Spin-polarized electron gas in Co2MSi/SrTiO3(M= Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, S.

    2016-06-08

    Spin-polarized density functional theory is used to study the TiO2 terminated interfaces between the magnetic Heusler alloys Co2Si (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) and the non-polar band insulator SrTiO3. The structural relaxation at the interface turns out to depend systematically on the lattice mis- match. Charge transfer from the Heusler alloys (mainly the M 3d orbitals) to the Ti dxy orbitals of the TiO2 interface layer is found to gradually grow from M = Ti to Fe, resulting in an electron gas with increasing density of spin-polarized charge carriers. (© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  6. Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Properties of Ti-Ni-Si-O Nanostructures on Ti-Ni-Si Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Ding, Dongyan; Dong, Zhenbiao; Ning, Congqin

    2017-10-31

    Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were successfully prepared on Ti-1Ni-5Si alloy foils via electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol/glycerol solutions containing a small amount of water. The Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflectance absorption spectra. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical water splitting properties of the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure films were investigated. It was found that, after anodization, three different kinds of Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures formed in the α-Ti phase region, Ti₂Ni phase region, and Ti₅Si₃ phase region of the alloy surface. Both the anatase and rutile phases of Ti-Ni-Si-O oxide appeared after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h. The photocurrent density obtained from the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure photoanodes was 0.45 mA/cm² at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 1 M KOH solution. The above findings make it feasible to further explore excellent photoelectrochemical properties of the nanostructure-modified surface of Ti-Ni-Si ternary alloys.

  7. Difference between Cr and Ni K-edge XANES spectra of rust layers formed on Fe-based binary alloys exposed to Cl-rich environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Yamashita, Masato; Uchida, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The rust layer formed on weathering steel possesses a strong protective ability against corrosives in an atmospheres. This ability is related to the structure of the rust layer. The difference in the protective ability of a rust layer. The difference in the protective ability of a rust layer in a Cl-rich environment between conventional weathering steel containing Cr and advanced weathering steel containing Ni is believed to be caused by the differences in local structural and chemical properties between alloying elements. Cr and Ni, in the rust layer. In order to examine the effect of these alloying elements on the structure of the rust layer formed on steel in a Cl-rich environment, we have performed Cr and Ni K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements for the rust layer of Fe-Cr and Fe-Ni binary alloys exposed to a Cl-rich atmosphere using synchrotron radiation. The results of the Cr K-edge XANES measurements for the rust layer of Fe-Cr binary alloys show that the atomic geometry around Cr depends on the concentration of Cr. Therefore, it is expected that the local structure around Cr in the rust layer is unstable. On the other hand, from the results of the Ni K-edge XANES measurements for the rust layer of Fe-Ni binary alloys. Ni is considered to be positioned at a specific site in the crystal structure of a constituent of the rust layer, such as akaganeite or magnetite. As a consequence, Ni negligibly interacts with Cl - ions in the rust layer. (author)

  8. [Differential study of the bonding characterization of dental porcelain to Ni-Cr alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Zhan, De-song; Wang, Yan-yan

    2008-10-01

    To study the bonding capability when Ni-Cr porcelain alloy was added with Ti, compound rare earth metals and removed the element of Be. Ni-Cr-Ti porcelain alloys manufactured by Institute of Metal Research of Chinese Academy of Sciences were tested. The test alloys were divided into three groups according to whether containing Be and compound rare earth metals or not. And HI BOND Ni-Cr base-metal alloy was chosen as control. The metal-ceramic specimens were prepared for shear test, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy spectrum analysis. The shear bond strength of the four groups were analyzed. No significant difference were observed among them (P > 0.05). No crackle was found and they were contacted tightly between the porcelain and metal. The composition and contents of the four groups' interfaces were closed. The shear bond strength of the self-made Ni-Cr-Ti porcelain alloys all can satisfy the clinical requirements. Experimental groups containing Ti, compound rare earth metals and removing the element of Be can be used as better recommendation for clinical practice.

  9. Estimation of the Temperature-Dependent Nitrogen Solubility in Stainless Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni-Si-C Steel Melts During Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Marco; Hauser, Michael; Sandig, Eckhard Frank; Volkova, Olena

    2018-04-01

    The influence of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure on the nitrogen solubility of various high alloy stainless steel grades, namely Fe-14Cr-(0.17-7.77)Mn-6Ni-0.5Si-0.03C [wt pct], Fe-15Cr-3Mn-4Ni-0.5Si-0.1C [wt pct], and Fe-19Cr-3Mn-4Ni-0.5Si-0.15C [wt pct], was studied in the melt. The temperature-dependent N-solubility was determined using an empirical approach proposed by Wada and Pehlke. The thus calculated N-concentrations overestimate the actual N-solubility of all the studied Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni-Si-C steel melts at a given temperature and pressure. Consequently, the calculation model has to be modified by Si and C because both elements are not recognized in the original equation. The addition of the 1st and 2nd order interaction parameters for Si and C to the model by Wada and Pehlke allows a precise estimation of the temperature-dependent nitrogen solubility in the liquid steel bath, and fits very well with the measured nitrogen concentrations during processing of the steels. Moreover, the N-solubility enhancing effect of Cr- and Mn-additions has been demonstrated.

  10. 钛合金表面激光熔覆NiCrBSi(Ti)-TiC涂层%Study on laser cladding of NiCrBSi (Ti)-TiC metal-ceramiccomposite coatings on titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荣禄; 郭立新; 董尚利; 杨德庄

    2001-01-01

    在TC4合金表面进行了激光熔覆NiCrBSi-TiC,Ti-TiC金属陶瓷复合涂层的试验,对涂层的组织和显微硬度进行了分析和测试.结果表明,NiCrBSi-TiC涂层的组织是在初晶γ-Ni和γ-Ni,Ni3B,M23(CB)6,CrB多元共晶的基底上均匀地分布着TiC颗粒,在激光熔覆过程中TiC颗粒只是边缘发生了溶解或熔化;在Ti-TiC涂层中,TiC颗粒全部溶解或熔化,冷却时以枝晶形式重新析出.NiCrBSi-TiC涂层的显微硬度(HV900~1100)明显高于Ti-TiC的涂层的显微硬度(HV500~700).

  11. Effect of Fe Content on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-Al-Mo-V-Cr-Fe Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae K.C.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of Fe content on the correlation between the microstructure and mechanical properties in near-b titanium alloys, the Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-xFe alloy system has been characterized in this study. As the Fe content increased, the number of nucleation sites and the volume fraction of the α phase decreased. We observed a significant difference in the shape and size of the α phase in the matrix before and after Fe addition. In addition, these morphological deformations were accompanied by a change in the shape of the α phase, which became increasingly discontinuous, and changed into globular-type α phase in the matrix. These phenomena affected the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti alloys. Specimen #2 exhibited a high ultimate tensile strength (1071 MPa, which decreased with further addition of Fe.

  12. The effect of aluminum content on phase constitution and heat treatment behavior of Ti-Cr-Al alloys for healthcare application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Daisuke; Ikeda, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    As life expectancy steadily increases, developing reliable functional materials for healthcare applications gains importance. Titanium and its alloys, while attractive for such applications, are expensive. The present investigation suggests that it may be possible to reduce costs by using new, low-cost beta Ti alloys. To assess their reliability, the heat treatment behavior of beta Ti alloys, Ti-7 mass% Cr with varying Al content (0%, 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5%), was investigated through electrical resistivity and Vickers hardness measurements. In the Ti-7Cr-0Al alloy quenched from 1173 K, only the beta phase was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In Ti-7Cr-1.5 to 4.5 Al alloys, XRD detected both beta and orthorhombic martensite. On isochronal heat treatment behavior of Ti-7Cr-3.0, 4.5 Al alloys, resistivity at liquid nitrogen temperature and resistivity ratio increased between 423 and 523 K.These increases are due to reverse transformation of orthorhombic martensite to the metastable beta phase

  13. Study of the oxidation of Fe-Cr alloys at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, J.F.; Sabioni, A.C.S.

    2010-01-01

    The high temperature oxidation behavior of Fe-1.5%Cr, Fe-5.0%Cr, Fe-10%Cr and Fe- 15%Cr model alloys were investigated from 700 to 850 deg C, in air atmosphere. The oxidation treatments were performed in a thermobalance with a sensitivity of 1μg. The oxide films grown by oxidation of the alloys were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The oxide films are Fe-Cr spinels with variable composition depending on the alloy composition. For all conditions studied, the oxidation kinetics of these alloys follow a parabolic law. The comparison of the oxidation rates of the four alloys, at 700 deg C, shows that the parabolic oxidation constants decrease from 1.96x10 -9 g 2 .cm -4 .s -1 , for the alloy Fe-1.5% Cr, to 1.18 x 10-14g 2 .cm -4 .s -1 for the alloy Fe-15% Cr. Comparative analysis of the oxidation behavior of the Fe-10%Cr and Fe-15%Cr alloys, between 700 and 850 deg C, shows that the oxidation rates of these alloys are comparable to 800 deg C, above this temperature the Fe-10%Cr alloy shows lower resistance to oxidation. (author)

  14. Characterization of crystallization kinetics of a Ni- (Cr, Fe, Si, B, C, P) based amorphous brazing alloy by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, S.; Kumar, N.S. Arun; Jeyaganesh, B.; Mohandas, E.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2007-01-01

    The thermal stability and crystallization kinetics of a Ni- (Cr, Si, Fe, B, C, P) based amorphous brazing foil have been investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry. The glass transition temperature T g , is found to be 720 ± 2 K. The amorphous alloy showed three distinct, yet considerably overlapping crystallization transformations with peak crystallization temperatures centered around 739, 778 and 853 ± 2 K, respectively. The solidus and liquidus temperatures are estimated to be 1250 and 1300 ± 2 K, respectively. The apparent activation energies for the three crystallization reactions have been determined using model free isoconversional methods. The typical values for the three crystallization reactions are: 334, 433 and 468 kJ mol -1 , respectively. The X-ray diffraction of the crystallized foil revealed the presence of following compounds Ni 3 B (Ni 4 B 3 ), CrB, B 2 Fe 15 Si 3 , CrSi 2 , and Ni 4.5 Si 2 B

  15. Surface morphology of scale on FeCrAl (Pd, Pt, Y) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, T.; Takezawa, Y.; Shiino, A.; Shishido, T.

    2008-01-01

    The high temperature oxidation behavior of Fe-20Cr-4Al, floating zone refined (FZ) Fe-20Cr-4Al, Fe-20Cr-4Al-0.5Pd, Fe-20Cr-4Al-0.5Pt and Fe-20Cr-4Al-(0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5)Y alloys was studied in oxygen for 0.6-18 ks at 1273-1673 K by mass gain measurements, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The mass gains of FeCrAl, FZ FeCrAl, FeCrAlPd and FeCrAlPt alloys showed almost the same values. Those of FeCrAl-(0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5)Y alloys decreased with increasing yttrium of up to 0.1% followed by an increase with the yttrium content after oxidation for 18 ks at 1473 K. Needle-like oxide particles were partially observed on FeCrAl alloy after oxidation for 7.2 ks at 1273 K. These oxide particles decreased in size with increasing oxidation time of more than 7.2 ks at 1473 K, and then disappeared after oxidation for 7.2 ks at 1573 K. It is suggested that a new oxide develops at the oxygen/scale interface. The scale surface of FeCrAl alloy showed a wavy morphology after oxidation for 7.2 ks at 1273 K which then changed to planar morphology after an oxidation time of more than 7.2 ks at 1573 K. On the other hand, the scale surfaces of other alloys were planar after all oxidation conditions in this study. The scale surfaces of FeCrAl, FZ FeCrAl, FeCrAlPd and FeCrAlPt alloys were rough, however, those of FeCrAl-(0.1, 0.2, 0.5)Y alloys were smooth. The oxide scales formed on FeCrAl-(0.1, 0.2, 0.5)Y alloys were found to be α-Al 2 O 3 with small amounts of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 , and those of the other alloys were only α-Al 2 O 3

  16. Microstructure and martensitic transformation of Ni-Ti-Pr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chunwang [Inner Mongolia University of Technology, College of Science, Hohhot (China); Shanghai Maritime University, College of Arts and Sciences, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Shilei; Jin, Yongjun; Hou, Qingyu [Inner Mongolia University of Technology, College of Science, Hohhot (China); Guo, Shaoqiang [Beihang University, Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement, Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-09-15

    The effect of Pr addition on the microstructure and martensitic transformation behavior of Ni{sub 50}Ti{sub 50-x}Pr{sub x} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) alloys were investigated experimentally. Results show that the microstructures of Ni-Ti-Pr alloys consist of the NiTi matrix and the NiPr precipitate with the Ti solute. The martensitic transformation start temperature decreases gradually with the increase in Pr fraction. The stress around NiPr precipitates is responsible for the decrease in martensitic transformation temperature with the increase in Pr fraction in Ni-Ti-Pr alloys. (orig.)

  17. 2nd Gen FeCrAl ODS Alloy Development For Accident-Tolerant Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Massey, Caleb P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Edmondson, Philip D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Extensive research at ORNL aims at developing advanced low-Cr high strength FeCrAl alloys for accident tolerant fuel cladding. One task focuses on the fabrication of new low Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys. The first Fe-12Cr-5Al+Y2O3 (+ ZrO2 or TiO2) ODS alloys exhibited excellent tensile strength up to 800 C and good oxidation resistance in steam up to 1400 C, but very limited plastic deformation at temperature ranging from room to 800 C. To improve alloy ductility, several fabrication parameters were considered. New Fe-10-12Cr-6Al gas-atomized powders containing 0.15 to 0.5wt% Zr were procured and ball milled for 10h, 20h or 40h with Y2O3. The resulting powder was then extruded at temperature ranging from 900 to 1050 C. Decreasing the ball milling time or increasing the extrusion temperature changed the alloy grain size leading to lower strength but enhanced ductility. Small variations of the Cr, Zr, O and N content did not seem to significantly impact the alloy tensile properties, and, overall, the 2nd gen ODS FeCrAl alloys showed significantly better ductility than the 1st gen alloys. Tube fabrication needed for fuel cladding will require cold or warm working associated with softening heat treatments, work was therefore initiated to assess the effect of these fabrications steps on the alloy microstructure and properties. This report has been submitted as fulfillment of milestone M3FT 16OR020202091 titled, Report on 2nd Gen FeCrAl ODS Alloy Development for the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Advanced Fuel Campaign of the Fuel Cycle R&D program.

  18. Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mg, Al, Ti, and S contents in plants and soil of heaps of nickel smelting works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasova, V; Hajduk, J

    1977-01-01

    The writers established the Fe, Ce, Cr, Ni, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti and S contents in the neopedon of heaps piling up from processing of nickel ore as well as in the plants: Cardaria draba, Salsola cali, Agropyrum repens, Bromus erectus, Calamagrostis epigeios, Cynodon dactylon and Matricaria inodora, growing on such heaps. Ca, Mg and S contents were found to be higher in dicotyledons and Fe, Al, Ti, Ni and Cr contents higher in monocotyledons. The analyzed dicotyledons appeared to be concentrators of Ca and S. Highest Fe, Al, Ti, Ni and Cr contents were found in individuals of the species Agropyrum repens. The neopedon as well as the plants had extraordinarily high Cr concentrations. The species Salsola cali has been found to possess an unusually higher affinity to the dump substrate after processing of nickel ore and to be a concentrator of Mg. 16 references, 1 table.

  19. Martensite shear phase reversion-induced nanograined/ultrafine-grained Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy: The effect of interstitial alloying elements and degree of austenite stability on phase reversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Madison Hall Room 217, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504-1430 (United States); Zhang, Z.; Venkatasurya, P.K.C. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Madison Hall Room 217, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70504-1430 (United States); Somani, M.C.; Karjalainen, L.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, Oulu 90014 (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Development of a novel process involving phase-reversion annealing process. {yields} Austensite stability strongly influences development of nanograined structure. {yields} Interstitial elements influence microstructural evolution during annealing. - Abstract: We describe here an electron microscopy study of microstructural evolution associated with martensitic shear phase reversion-induced nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) structure in an experimental Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy with very low interstitial content. The primary objective is to understand and obtain fundamental insights on the influence of degree of austenite stability (Fe-16Cr-10Ni, 301LN, and 301 have different austenite stability index) and interstitial elements (carbon and nitrogen) in terms of phase reversion process, microstructural evolution during reversion annealing, and temperature-time annealing sequence. A relative comparison of Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy with 301LN and 301 austenitic stainless steels indicated that phase reversion in Fe-16Cr-10Ni occurred by shear mechanism, which is similar to that observed for 301, but is different from the diffusional mechanism in 301LN steel. While the phase reversion in the experimental Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy and 301 austenitic stainless steel occurred by shear mechanism, there were fundamental differences between these two alloys. The reversed strain-free austenite grains in Fe-16Cr-10Ni alloy were characterized by nearly same crystallographic orientation, where as in 301 steel there was evidence of break-up of martensite laths during reversion annealing resulting in several regions of misoriented austenite grains in 301 steel. Furthermore, a higher phase reversion annealing temperature range (800-900 deg. C) was required to obtain a fully NG/UFG structure of grain size 200-600 nm. The difference in the phase reversion and the temperature-time sequence in the three stages is explained in terms of Gibbs free energy change that

  20. Effects of composition on the order-disorder transformation in Ni-Cr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marucco, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Ni-Cr based alloys undergo an ordering transformation, due to the formation of an ordered Ni 2 Cr phase, which causes a lattice contraction and it is responsisble for ''negative creep'' or excessive stresses in constrained components. A short-range ordered (SRO) structure develops in the matrix phase after solution treatment and at early stages of ageing, which can transform to a long-range ordered (LRO) structure, depending on the alloy composition and on time and temperature of ageing, upon prolonged annealing below the critical temperature. In stoichiometric Ni 2 Cr alloy LRO forms in a few hours, but in off-stoichiometric alloys the transformation kinetics are very sluggish and LRO takes several tens of thousands of hours to form, when it forms. The ordering behaviours of stoichiometric Ni 2 Cr and Ni 3 Cr were studied by means of isothermal treatments in the temperature range 450-600degC for different ageing times up to 30 000 h, followed by lattice parameter measurements by X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. Similar studies performed on a series of ternary Ni-Cr-Fe alloys revealed the dependence of the degree of order on Cr concentration and a markedly delaying influence of Fe on the ordering kinetics. Finally, long-term microstructural stability of some commercial Ni-Cr based alloys, widely used for high temperature applications, have been studied: the ordering behaviour and associated microstructural changes are discussed in this paper

  1. Effect of manganese and chromium on microstructure and toughness of Fe-Cr-Mn alloys resulting from solid-solution treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Yoshimitsu; Miyahara, Kazuya; Wade, Noboru; Hosoi, Yuzo

    1989-01-01

    This study is aimed at making clear the effect of Mn and Cr on the microstructure and toughness of an Fe-Cr-Mn alloy which is considered as one of the candidate alloys for reduced activation materials for the first wall application of the fusion reactor. The microstructures of Fe-12% Cr-(5∼30)% Mn(mass%) alloys after solution treatment at 1373 K for 3.6 ks are markedly varied with Mn contents; α'(martensite) + δ(ferrite) in 5% Mn alloy, α' + δ + ε(martensite) + γ(austenite) in the 10% Mn alloy, α' + ε + γ in 15% Mn alloy, ε + γ in the 20% Mn alloy, and ε + γ +δ in the 25% Mn alloy, and γ + δ in the 30% Mn alloy. It is to be noted that the δ phase increases with increasing Mn content when the Fe-12% Cr alloy contains more than 25% Mn, which suggests that Mn plays the role of a ferrite former. In Fe-15% Mn-Cr alloy, the δ phase is not observed in the range of Cr contents up to 12%, whereas it is markedly increased with the addition of 16% Cr. C, N and Ni are very helpful in forming the γ phase in these alloys as generally known in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. The toughness evaluated by the Charpy impact test at 273 K and room temperature is very low in the 5% Mn alloy which consists of the α' and δ phases. It is, however, significantly improved by a small amount of the γ phase and increases with increase of γ phase stability. (author)

  2. Effect of Fe substitution at the Ni and Mn sites on the magnetic properties of Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halder, Madhumita; Suresh, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Ni 48 Fe 2 Mn 35 In 15 and Ni 50 Mn 34 FeIn 15 Heusler alloys have been investigated. At room temperature, Ni 48 Fe 2 Mn 35 In 15 has L2 1 cubic structure, whereas Ni 50 Mn 34 FeIn 15 shows a two-phase structure due to the martensitic transition. In the case of Ni 48 Fe 2 Mn 35 In 15 , there is only one magnetic transition at 316 K with no martensitic transition. However, in Ni 50 Mn 34 FeIn 15 , we observe the martensitic transition at about 280 K. The Curie temperatures for austenite and martensite phases are 314 and 200 K, respectively. The maximum magnetic entropy changes are found to be 5.5 and 4.5 J kg −1 K −1 for Ni 48 Fe 2 Mn 35 In 15 and Ni 50 Mn 34 FeIn 15 , respectively, for 50 kOe. Ni 50 Mn 34 FeIn 15 exhibits exchange bias behavior, with a bias field of 130 Oe at 5 K. Both the alloys satisfy the empirical relation between the martensitic transition and the valence electron concentration (e/a) ratio. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of Ni 48 Fe 2 Mn 35 In 15 and Ni 50 Mn 34 FeIn 15 Heusler alloys have been investigated. • Ni 48 Fe 2 Mn 35 In 15 does not undergo a martensitic transition, whereas Ni 50 Mn 34 FeIn 15 shows martensitic transition. • Ni 50 Mn 34 FeIn 15 alloy exhibits exchange bias behavior. • Both alloys satisfy the empirical relation between martensitic transition and valence electron concentration (e/a)

  3. Effect of Si and Mn additions on ferrite and austenite phase fractions in 25Cr-7Ni-1.5Mo-3W base super duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, S.W.; Lee, Z.-H.; Lee, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment and Si and Mn additions on the ferrite and austenite phase fractions of the super duplex stainless steel (SDSS), Fe-25Cr-7Ni-1.5Mo-3W-Si-Mn-0.25N (numbers are all in wt.% unless specified otherwise), was investigated. The thermodynamic calculations of phase equilibria and phase fractions were performed using the Thermo-Calc program. Based on the calculated results, specific compositions of Si and Mn were selected and alloys with these compositions were analysed by Feritscope, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The calculated phase fractions and experimentally analysed ones were compared and there was a good agreement between calculations and measurements. The optimum heat treatment condition for Fe-25Cr-7Ni-1.5Mo-3W-0.5Si-0.5Mn-0.25N is to hold at 1050 to 1100 C for 2 h in considering the ferrite to austenite ratio of 50:50 and to avoid second phase precipitation such as the σ phase. It was suggested that an excessive addition of more than 0.8Si and 1.0Mn may induce the σ phase precipitation. (orig.)

  4. Effects of filler metal composition on the microstructure and mechanical properties for ER NiCrFe-7 multi-pass weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Wenlin; Lu, Shanping, E-mail: shplu@imr.ac.cn; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi

    2013-10-10

    The effects of the minor elements Ti and Nb on the microstructure and mechanical properties for multi-pass weldments from the alloy ER NiCrFe-7 were studied using an optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA), as well as tensile and bend tests. The results show that grain size does not change significantly by increasing the Ti content from 0.28 wt% to 0.87 wt% in the weld metal (WM), whereas the grain boundaries become tortuous. The intragranular precipitate in the WM with Ti are AlO and Ti(C, N), whereas the intragranular precipitate in the WM with Nb are AlO and MX (M=Nb, Ti, X=C, N). As the Ti and Nb content increased in the WM, more MX was produced. Furthermore, the majority of C was fixed in the grain, not segregated to the grain boundaries; and less M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M=Cr, Fe) formed at the grain boundaries. Fewer ductility-dip-cracking (DDC) was observed for WM with higher levels of Ti and Nb. The tensile strength and elongation simultaneously increased with an increase in Ti and Nb in WM. The number and length of the cracks in the bend specimens decreased upon adding Ti and Nb.

  5. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  6. Sulfidation behavior of Fe20Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, Marina Fuser

    2001-01-01

    Alloys for use in high temperature environments rely on the formation of an oxide layer for their protection. Normally, these protective oxides are Cr 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 and, some times, SiO 2 . Many industrial gaseous environments contain sulfur. Sulfides, formed in the presence of sulfur are thermodynamically less stable, have lower melting points and deviate much more stoichiometrically, compared to the corresponding oxides. The mechanism of sulfidation of various metals is as yet not clear, in spite of the concerted efforts during the last decade. To help address this situation, the sulfidation behavior of Fe20Cr has been studied as a function of compositional modifications and surface state of the alloy. The alloys Fe20Cr, Fe20Cr0.7Y, Fe20Cr5Al and Fe20Cr5Al0.6Y were prepared and three sets of sulfidation tests were carried out. In the first set, the alloys were sulfidized at 700 deg C and 800 deg C for 10h. In the second set, the alloys were pre-oxidized at 1000 deg C and then sulfidized at 800 deg C for up to 45h. In the third set of tests, the initial stages of sulfidation of the alloys was studied. All the tests were carried out in a thermobalance, in flowing H 2 /2%H 2 S, and the sulfidation behavior determined as mass change per unit area. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to characterize the reaction products. The addition of Y and Al increased sulfidation resistance of Fe20Cr. The addition of Y altered the species that diffused predominantly during sulfide growth. It changed from predominant cationic diffusion to predominant anionic diffusion. The addition of Al caused an even greater increase in sulfidation resistance of Fe20Cr, with the parabolic rate constant decreasing by three orders of magnitude. Y addition to the FeCrAl alloy did not cause any appreciable alteration in sulfidation resistance. Pre-oxidation of the FeCrAl and FeCrAlY alloys resulted in an extended

  7. Synthesis and microstructure characterization of Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V-Al high entropy alloy coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by laser surface alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Zhaobing; Jin, Guo; Cui, Xiufang; Liu, Zhe; Zheng, Wei; Li, Yang; Wang, Liquan

    2016-01-01

    Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V-Al high-entropy alloy coating on Ti-6Al-4V was synthesized by laser surface alloying. The coating is composed of a B2 matrix and (Co, Ni)Ti 2 compounds with few β-Ti phases. Focused ion beam technique was utilized to prepare TEM sample and TEM observations agree well with XRD and SEM results. The formation of HEA phases is due to high temperature and rapid cooling rate during laser surface alloying. The thermodynamic parameters, ΔH mix , ΔS mix and δ as well as Δχ, should be used to predict the formation of the BCC solid solution, but they are not the strict criteria. Especially when Δχ reaches a high value (≥ 10%), BCC HEA will be partially decomposed, leading to the formation of (Co, Ni)Ti 2 compound phases. - Highlights: •Preparing HEA coating on Ti-6Al-4V by laser surface alloying is successful. •The synthesized HEA coating mainly consists of BCC HEA and (Co, Ni)Ti 2 compounds. •FIB technology was used to prepare the sample for TEM analysis. • ΔH mix , ΔS mix and δ as well as Δχ, should be all used to predict the formation of solid solution.

  8. Correlation between stresses and adhesion of oxide scales on Si and Ti containing NiCrAlY alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosberg, V.; Quadakkers, W.J.; Schubert, F.; Nickel, H.

    1998-09-01

    The relation between mechanical stresses and the adhesion of alumina scales on Si- and Ti-containing NiCrAlY alloys has been investigated. Therefore the Si and Ti contents in model alloys with the base composition Ni-20Cr-10Al-Y, which were cast to achieve high purity, were varied from 0 to 2 m/0 . These solid samples were subjected to cyclic oxidation in the temperature range from 950 to 1100 C. Growth and spallation of the oxide scale were observed by gravimetry. The stresses, present at ambient temperature, were periodically determined by X-ray stress evaluation. Using these results a reasoning of the mechanisms for stress relief and damage of the scale was carried out. The addition of Silicon as well as of titanium has an evident influence on phase composition of Ni-20Cr-10Al-Y type alloys. Due to the variation of phase stability regions the thermal expansion is affected by these additions in the range from 950 to 1100 C. The expansion is enlarged by the addition of Si and lowered with increasing Ti content. (orig.)

  9. Study of the oxidation of Fe-Cr alloys at high temperatures; Estudo da oxidacao de ligas Fe-Cr a altas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, J.F.; Sabioni, A.C.S. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (LDM/DF/UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Difusao em Materiais; Trindade, V.B. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (DEMM/UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Ji, V. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Materiaux Hors-Equilibre (LEMHE), Orsay (France)

    2010-07-01

    The high temperature oxidation behavior of Fe-1.5%Cr, Fe-5.0%Cr, Fe-10%Cr and Fe- 15%Cr model alloys were investigated from 700 to 850 deg C, in air atmosphere. The oxidation treatments were performed in a thermobalance with a sensitivity of 1{mu}g. The oxide films grown by oxidation of the alloys were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The oxide films are Fe-Cr spinels with variable composition depending on the alloy composition. For all conditions studied, the oxidation kinetics of these alloys follow a parabolic law. The comparison of the oxidation rates of the four alloys, at 700 deg C, shows that the parabolic oxidation constants decrease from 1.96x10{sup -9}g{sup 2}.cm{sup -4}.s{sup -1}, for the alloy Fe-1.5% Cr, to 1.18 x 10-14g{sup 2}.cm{sup -4}.s{sup -1} for the alloy Fe-15% Cr. Comparative analysis of the oxidation behavior of the Fe-10%Cr and Fe-15%Cr alloys, between 700 and 850 deg C, shows that the oxidation rates of these alloys are comparable to 800 deg C, above this temperature the Fe-10%Cr alloy shows lower resistance to oxidation. (author)

  10. Phase Evolution and Mechanical Properties of AlCoCrFeNiSi x High-Entropy Alloys Synthesized by Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Swarnakar, Akhilesh Kumar; Chopkar, Manoj

    2018-05-01

    In the current investigation, AlCoCrFeNiSi x (x = 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 in atomic ratio) high-entropy alloy systems are prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering. The microstructural and mechanical properties were analyzed to understand the effect of Si addition in AlCoCrFeNi alloy. The x-ray diffraction analysis reveals the supersaturated solid solution of the body-centered cubic structure after 20 h of ball milling. However, the consolidation promotes the transformation of body-centered phases partially into the face-centered cubic structure and sigma phases. A recently proposed geometric model based on the atomic stress theory has been extended for the first time to classify single phase and multi-phases on the high-entropy alloys prepared by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering process. Improved microhardness and better wear resistance were achieved as the Si content increased from 0 to 0.9 in the present high-entropy alloy.

  11. L-shell photoabsorption spectroscopy for solid metals: Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Grande, N.K.

    1989-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation measurements of near-threshold and broad-range (400--1500 eV) absolute photoabsorption cross sections were made for five transition metals with ±10% overall uncertainties. Fine structure details of 2p-3d autoionizing resonances are shown with better than 1.0 eV resolution for solid metals: Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu. Fine structure similar to what we measured can be produced using a multi-configuration Dirac Fock (MCDF) model if a statistical distribution is assumed for the initial atomic states. Calculations were performed in intermediate coupling with configuration interactions by Mau H. Chen. The results are compared with other experimental work and theoretical methodologies. 18 refs., 7 figs

  12. Modification of tribology and high-temperature behavior of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb intermetallic alloy by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiubo; Wang Huaming

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the tribology and high-temperature oxidation properties of the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb intermetallic alloy simultaneously, mixed NiCr-Cr 3 C 2 precursor powders had been investigated for laser cladding treatment to modify wear and high-temperature oxidation resistance of the material. The alloy samples were pre-placed with NiCr-80, 50 and 20%Cr 3 C 2 (wt.%), respectively, and laser treated at the same parameters, i.e., laser output power 2.8 kW, beam scanning speed 2.0 mm/s, beam dimension 1 mm x 18 mm. The treated samples underwent tests of microhardness, wear and high-temperature oxidation. The results showed that laser cladding with different constitution of mixed precursor NiCr-Cr 3 C 2 powders improved surface hardness in all cases. Laser cladding with NiCr-50%Cr 3 C 2 resulted in the best modification of tribology and high-temperature oxidation behavior. X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analyses indicated that the formation of reinforced Cr 7 C 3 , TiC and both continuous and dense Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 oxide scales were supposed to be responsible for the modification of the relevant properties. As a result, the present work had laid beneficial surface engineering foundation for TiAl alloy applied as future light weight and high-temperature structural candidate materials

  13. Synthesis and characterization of the Fe-18%Ni-12%Co-4,9%Mo-1,5%Ti alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, G.C.S.; Biondo, V.; Nunes, M.V.S.; Paesano Junior, A.; Sarvezuk, P.W.C.; Blanco, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The Fe-18%Ni-12%Co-4,9%Mo-1,5%Ti was made by arc-melting and submitted to different heat treatments, for solubilization in the γ - phase (austenite), followed by cooling to the room temperature, and also for further aging. The prepared alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction (Rietveld method) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that the cooling induced the system to a martensitic transformation, crystallizing it into a cubic structure (martensite). The crystallographic parameters and the hyperfine parameters obtained by Mössbauer Spectroscopy are consistent with those found in literature for Maraging-350 steels. The aging treatments generates the formation of reversed austenite in relative amounts that vary with the temperature and time of treatment. (author)

  14. Valence-electron configuration of Fe, Cr, and Ni in binary and ternary alloys from Kβ -to- Kα x-ray intensity ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, I.; Demir, L.

    2009-11-01

    Kβ -to- Kα x-ray intensity ratios of Fe, Cr, and Ni have been measured in pure metals and in alloys of FexNi1-x ( x=0.8 , 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, and 0.2), NixCr1-x ( x=0.8 , 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, and 0.2), FexCr1-x ( x=0.9 , 0.7, and 0.5), and FexCryNi1-(x+y) ( x=0.7-y=0.1 , x=0.5-y=0.2 , x=0.4-y=0.3 , x=0.3-y=0.3 , x=0.2-y=0.2 , and x=0.1-y=0.2 ) following excitation by 22.69 keV x rays from a 10 mCi C109d radioactive point source. The valence-electron configurations of these metals were determined by corporation of measured Kβ -to- Kα x-ray intensity ratios with the results of multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculation for various valence-electron configurations. Valence-electron configurations of 3d transition metals in alloys indicate significant differences with respect to the pure metals. Our analysis indicates that these differences arise from delocalization and/or charge transfer phenomena in alloys. Namely, the observed change of the valence-electron configurations of metals in alloys can be explained with the transfer of 3d electrons from one element to the other element and/or the rearrangement of electrons between 3d and 4s,4p states of individual metal atoms.

  15. Ni4Ti3 precipitate structures in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holec, D.; Bojda, O.; Dlouhy, A.

    2008-01-01

    Non-uniform distributions of Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitate crystallographic variants are investigated in a Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy after aging, assisted by external stress. A finite-element method model is presented that considers the elastic anisotropy of the B2 parent phase and also mutual misorientations of grains in a polycrystalline sample. On loading by the external stress, the stress is redistributed in the microstructure and the precipitation of some Ni 4 Ti 3 crystallographic variants becomes distinctly favorable in grain boundary regions since these variant configurations minimize the elastic interaction energy. The volume fraction of the affected grain boundary regions is calculated and the numerical results are compared with the data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy

  16. Development of Computational Tools for Modeling Thermal and Radiation Effects on Grain Boundary Segregation and Precipitation in Fe-Cr-Ni-based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    role in the measured values. However, The GB segregation due to pre-existing GB segregation may affect the chemical potential of element at GB, and subsequently the corrosion resistance. 3) Based on the newly developed thermodynamic database of Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo, we predicted the Ni2(Cr,Mo) as a thermodynamically stable phase in all investigated low Fe-content Ni-based alloys. The calculated phase amount decreases with the increasing Fe content, being consistent with that observed in the irradiated materials. 4) The formation of the Ni2(Cr,Mo) phase in irradiated materials is due to irradiation enhanced diffusion. The calculated equilibrium Ni2(Cr,Mo) amount is more than that observed in the irradiated materials, suggesting that the amount of Ni2(Cr,Mo) is likely to increase more with further irradiation.

  17. First observation of the nuclei {sup 45}Fe and {sup 49}Ni (T{sub Z} = - 7/2) and {sup 42}Cr (T{sub Z} = - 3); Premiere observation des noyaux {sup 45}Fe et {sup 49}Ni (T{sub Z} = - 7/2) et {sup 42}Cr (T{sub Z} = - 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, B.; Czajkowski, S.; Davi, F.; Del Moral, R.; Fleury, A.; Marchand, C.; Pravikoff, M.S. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 Gradignan (France); Dufour, J.P. [URA 451, Gradignan (France); Benlliure, J.; Boue, F.; Collatz, R.; Heinz, A.; Hellstroem, M.; Hu, Z.; Roeckl, E.; Shibata, M.; Suemmerer, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; Pfuetzner, M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, PL-00 681 Warszawa (Poland); Lewitowicz, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1997-06-01

    The two-proton radioactivity from the ground states was predicted by V.I. Goldanskii; it can take place either by {sup 2}He emission or by the simultaneous emission of two spatially non-correlated protons. For the nuclei liable to this type of radioactivity the single proton emission is energetically forbidden. The two-proton decay was observed for {sup 6}Be{sup 2} and {sup 12}O{sup 3} but the Q-value of the reaction is high above the Coulomb barrier and as such does not permit a decay process of a sufficient long lifetime. Theoretical calculations by B.A. Brawn predict {sup 39}Ti, {sup 45}Fe and {sup 48}Ni as the best candidates with the 2p emission lifetime within 1{mu}s to 150 ms. Only {sup 39}Ti decay has been observed so far. As candidate for 2p radioactivity nuclei we studied {sup 38}Ti, {sup 42}Cr, {sup 45}Fe and {sup 48`49}Ni. A primary beam of {sup 58}Ni at 600 MeV/nucleon from the SIS synchrotron at GSI was used to produce proton-rich isotopes in the titanium-to-nickel region by projectile fragmentation on a beryllium target. The fragment were separated by the projectile-fragment separator FRS and unambiguously identified by means of its standard detection set-up using a ToF-{Delta}E-B{rho} analysis. We report here the first observation of the T{sub Z} = - 7/2 nuclei {sup 45}Fe and {sup 49}Ni, the most proton-rich nuclei ever synthesized with an excess and seven protons. In addition, the new isotope {sup 42}Cr (T{sub Z} -3) was also identified. These isotopes are, according to commonly used mass predictions, all unbound with respect to two-proton emission from their ground states. However, we did not observe any count corresponding to {sup 38}Ti (T{sub Z} -3) although we expected about 5 counts in a setting optimized for this isotope 6 refs.

  18. Understanding self ion damage in FCC Ni-Cr-Fe based alloy using X-ray diffraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder Banerjee, R.; Sengupta, P.; Chatterjee, A.; Mishra, S. C.; Bhukta, A.; Satyam, P. V.; Samajdar, I.; Dey, G. K.

    2018-04-01

    Using X-ray diffraction line profile analysis (XRDLPA) approach the radiation response of FCC Ni-Cr-Fe based alloy 690 to 1.5 and 3 MeV Ni2+ ion damage was quantified in terms of its microstructural parameters. These microstructural parameters viz. average domain size, microstrain and dislocation density were found to vary anisotropically with fluence. The anisotropic behaviour is mainly attributable to presence of twins in pre-irradiated microstructure. After irradiation, surface roughness increases as a function of fluence attributable to change in surface and sub-surface morphology caused by displacement cascade, defects and sputtered atoms created by incident energetic ion. The radiation hardening in case of 1.5 MeV Ni2+ irradiated specimens too is a consequence of the increase in dislocation density formed by interaction of radiation induced defects with pre-existing dislocations. At highest fluence there is an initiation of saturation.

  19. Surface Properties of the IN SITU Formed Ceramics Reinforced Composite Coatings on TI-3AL-2V Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Guo, Wei; Hu, Dakui; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Yuanbin

    2012-04-01

    The synthesis of hard composite coating on titanium alloy by laser cladding of Al/Fe/Ni+C/Si3N4 pre-placed powders has been investigated in detail. SEM result indicated that a composite coating with metallurgical joint to the substrate was formed. XRD result indicated that the composite coating mainly consisted of γ-(Fe, Ni), FeAl, Ti3Al, TiC, TiNi, TiC0.3N0.7, Ti2N, SiC, Ti5Si3 and TiNi. Compared with Ti-3Al-2V substrate, an improvement of the micro-hardness and the wear resistance was observed for this composite coating.

  20. SURFACE PROPERTIES OF THE IN SITU FORMED CERAMICS REINFORCED COMPOSITE COATINGS ON TI-3AL-2V ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    PENG LIU; WEI GUO; DAKUI HU; HUI LUO; YUANBIN ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of hard composite coating on titanium alloy by laser cladding of Al/Fe/Ni+C/Si3N4 pre-placed powders has been investigated in detail. SEM result indicated that a composite coating with metallurgical joint to the substrate was formed. XRD result indicated that the composite coating mainly consisted of γ-(Fe, Ni), FeAl, Ti3Al, TiC, TiNi, TiC0.3N0.7, Ti2N, SiC, Ti5Si3 and TiNi. Compared with Ti-3Al-2V substrate, an improvement of the micro-hardness and the wear resistance was obser...

  1. Probing exotic magnetic phases and electrical transport in Cr-rich γ-NiFeCr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Pampa [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Majumdar, A.K., E-mail: akm@bose.res.in [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, PO Belur Math, Howrah 711202 (India); Nigam, A.K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2015-05-01

    We have identified ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and re-entrant spin-glass-like phases in Cr-rich γ-NiFeCr alloys and studied their critical magnetic behavior. Their electrical resistivity exhibits distinct minima between 10 and 24 K with ρ∞−√T due to electron–electron interaction effects. Electron–phonon and electron–magnon contributions to ρ are isolated. The magnetoresistance shows hysteresis effects, a signature of spin-glass-like phases and a sign reversal with change of magnetic states. We have also observed that the nature of magnetic states strongly depends on the concentration of Fe and Cr. In this system, even a small amount of Fe enhances ferromagnetism a lot while addition of a little bit of Cr suppresses ferromagnetism and takes the system to the antiferromagnetic regime. The correlation between the magnetic and the electrical properties are more meaningful here since both studies were done on the same set of samples which have rather high melting points. - Highlights: • Identified ferro, antiferro, and re-entrant spin-glass phases in Ni–Fe–Cr alloys. • Resistivity ρ~−√T shows minima from 10–24 K due to electron–electron interaction. • Electron–phonon and electron–magnon contributions to ρ are isolated. • Magneto-transport measurements strengthened the magnetic phases identified. • Correlation in magnetic/electrical properties more meaningful if same samples used.

  2. X-ray study of rapidly cooled ribbons of Al-Cr-Zr and Al-Ni-Y-Cr-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsofen, S.Ya.; Osintsev, O.E.; Lutsenko, A.N.; Konkevich, V.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    One investigated into phase composition, lattice spacing and structure of rapidly cooled 25-200 μm gauge strips made of Al-4,1Cr-3,2Zr and Al-1,5Cr-1,5Zr-4Ni-3Y alloys, wt. %, produced by melt spinning to a water-cooled copper disk. In Al-4,1Cr-3,2Zr alloy one detected intermetallic phases: Al 3 Zr and two Al 86 Cr 14 composition icosahedral phases apart from aluminium solid solution with 4.040-4.043 A lattice spacing. In Al-1,5Cr-1,5Zr-4Ni-3Y alloy one identified two Al 86 Cr 14 icosahedral phases and two AlNiY and Al 3 Y yttrium-containing ones, lattice spacing of aluminium solid solution was equal to 4.052-4.053 A [ru

  3. Structural Transformation in Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si15.5B7 Amorphous Alloy Induced by Laser Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykyruy, Yu. S.; Mudry, S. I.; Kulyk, Yu. O.; Zhovneruk, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of continuous laser irradiation (λ = 1.06 μm) with laser power of 45 W on the structure of Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si15.5B7 amorphous alloy has been studied using X-ray diffraction and SEM methods. The sample of the ribbon has been placed at a distance from the focal plane of the lens, so a laser beam has been defocused and the diameter of laser spot on the ribbon surface has been about 10 mm. An exposure time τ varied within interval 0.25-0.70 s. Under such conditions structural transformation processes, which depend on the exposure time, have occurred in an irradiated zone. Crystallization process has started at τ = 0.35 s with the formation of α-Fe(Si) nanocrystalline phase, while complete crystallization has occurred at τ = 0.55 s with formation of two nanocrystalline phases: α-Fe(Si) and a hexagonal H-phase.

  4. Corrosion resistance of Fe-based amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, W.J.; Berger, J.E.; Kiminami, C.S.; Roche, V.; Nogueira, R.P.; Bolfarini, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report corrosion properties of Fe-based amorphous alloys in different media. ► The Cr-containing alloys had corrosion resistance close to that of Pt in all media. ► The wide range of electrochemical stability is relevant in many industrial domains. -- Abstract: Fe-based amorphous alloys can be designed to present an attractive combination of properties with high corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength. Such properties are clearly adequate for their technological use as coatings, for example, in steel pipes. In this work, we studied the corrosion properties of amorphous ribbons of the following Fe-based compositions: Fe 66 B 30 Nb 4 , [(Fe 0.6 Co 0.4 ) 0.75 B 0.2 Si 0.05 ] 96 Nb 4 , [(Fe 0.7 Co 0.3 ) 0.75 B 0.2 Si 0.05 ] 96 Nb 4 , Fe 56 Cr 23 Ni 5.7 B 16 , Fe 53 Cr 22 Ni 5.6 B 19 and Fe 50 Cr 22 Ni 5.4 B 23 . The ribbons were obtained by rapid solidification using the melt-spinning process, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion properties were evaluated by corrosion potential survey and potentiodynamic polarization. The Cr containing alloys, that is the FeCrNiB type of alloys, showed the best corrosion resistance properties with the formation of a stable passive film that ensured a very large passivation plateau

  5. On the widths of the hysteresis of mechanically and thermally induced martensitic transformations in Ni-Ti-based shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Stefanie; Maass, Burkhard; Frenzel, Jan; Schmidt, Marvin; Ullrich, Johannes; Seelecke, Stefan; Schuetze, Andreas; Kastner, Oliver; Eggeler, Gunther [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe

    2015-10-15

    It is well known that a good crystallographic compatibility between austenite and martensite in Ni-Ti-based shape memory alloys results in narrow thermal hystereses (e.g. Ball and James, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 1987). The present work suggests that a good crystallographic fit is moreover associated with a small mechanical hysteresis width, observed during a forward and reverse stress-induced transformation. Furthermore, shape memory alloys with a good crystallographic fit show smaller transformation strains. The results obtained in the present study suggest that these correlations are generic and apply to binary Ni-Ti (with varying Ni contents) and quaternary Ni-Ti-Cu-X (X = Cr, Fe, V) alloys. For binary Ni-Ti, it was observed that Ni-rich compositions (good lattice fit) show a lower accumulation of irreversible strains during pseudoelastic cycling.

  6. Hydrogen storage in Ti-Mn-(FeV) BCC alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, S.F.; Huot, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the replacement of vanadium by the less expensive (FeV) commercial alloy has been investigated in Ti-Cr-V BCC solid solutions and promising results were reported. In the present work, this approach of using (FeV) alloys is adopted to synthesize alloys of the Ti-Mn-V system. Compared to the V-containing alloys, the alloys containing (FeV) have a smaller hydrogen storage capacity but a larger reversible hydrogen storage capacity, which is caused by the increase of the plateau pressure of desorption. Correlations between the structure and the hydrogen storage properties of the alloys are also discussed.

  7. Role of nano-precipitation on the microstructure and shape memory characteristics of a new Ni{sub 50.3}Ti{sub 34.7}Zr{sub 15} shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evirgen, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Karaman, I., E-mail: ikaraman@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Pons, J.; Santamarta, R. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Noebe, R.D. [Materials and Structures Division, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    The microstructure and shape memory characteristics of the Ni{sub 50.3}Ti{sub 34.7}Zr{sub 15} shape memory alloy were investigated as a function of aging heat treatments that result in nanometer to submicron size precipitates. Microstructure–property relationships were developed by characterizing samples using transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and load-biased thermal cycling experiments. The precipitate size was found to strongly influence the martensitic transformation–precipitate interactions and ultimately the shape memory characteristics of the alloy. Aging treatments resulting in relatively fine precipitates, which are not an obstacle to twin boundaries and easily bypassed by martensite variants, exhibited higher transformation strain, lower transformation thermal hysteresis, and better thermal and dimensional stability compared to samples with relatively large precipitates. When precipitate dimensions approached several hundred nanometers in size they acted as obstacles to martensite growth, limiting martensite variant and twin size resulting in reduced functional and structural properties. Aging heat treatments were also shown to result in a wide range of transformation temperatures, increasing them above 100 °C in some cases, and affected the stress dependence of the transformation hysteresis and the stress versus transformation temperature relationships for the Ni{sub 50.3}Ti{sub 34.7}Zr{sub 15} alloy.

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evolution of the Al, C-Containing CoCrFeNiMn-Type High-Entropy Alloy during Cold Rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Margarita; Stepanov, Nikita; Shaysultanov, Dmitry; Chernichenko, Ruslan; Yurchenko, Nikita; Sanin, Vladimir; Zherebtsov, Sergey

    2017-12-29

    The effect of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an Al- and C-containing CoCrFeNiMn-type high-entropy alloy was reported. The alloy with a chemical composition (at %) of (20-23) Co, Cr, Fe, and Ni; 8.82 Mn; 3.37 Al; and 0.69 C was produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis with subsequent induction. In the initial as-cast condition the alloy had an face centered cubic single-phase coarse-grained structure. Microstructure evolution was mostly associated with either planar dislocation glide at relatively low deformation during rolling (up to 20%) or deformation twinning and shear banding at higher strain. After 80% reduction, a heavily deformed twinned/subgrained structure was observed. A comparison with the equiatomic CoCrFeNiMn alloy revealed higher dislocation density at all stages of cold rolling and later onset of deformation twinning that was attributed to a stacking fault energy increase in the program alloy; this assumption was confirmed by calculations. In the initial as-cast condition the alloy had low yield strength of 210 MPa with yet very high uniform elongation of 74%. After 80% rolling, yield strength approached 1310 MPa while uniform elongation decreased to 1.3%. Substructure strengthening was found to be dominated at low rolling reductions (<40%), while grain (twin) boundary strengthening prevailed at higher strains.

  9. The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy under Xe26+ ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaican; Hai, Yang; Liu, Renduo; Jiang, Li; Ye, Xiang-xi; Li, Jianjian; Xue, Wandong; Wang, Wanxia; Tang, Ming; Yan, Long; Yin, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2018-04-01

    The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy was investigated. 7 MeV Xe26+ ion irradiation was performed at room temperature and 650 °C with peak damage dose from 0.05 to 10 dpa. With the increase of damage dose, the hardness of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy increases, and reaches saturation at damage dose ≥1 dpa. Moreover, the damage dose dependence of hardness in both alloys can be described by the Makin and Minter's equation, where the effective critical volume of obstacles can be used to represent irradiation hardening resistance of the alloys. Our results also show that Ni-W-Cr alloy has better irradiation hardening resistance than Ni-Mo-Cr alloy. This is ascribed to the fact that the W, instead of Mo in the alloy, can suppress the formation of defects under ion irradiation.

  10. Ab initio and Atomic kinetic Monte Carlo modelling of segregation in concentrated FeCrNi alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piochaud, J. B.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.

    2014-06-01

    Internal structure of pressurised water reactors are made of austenitic materials. Under irradiation, the microstructure of these concentrated alloys evolves and solute segregation on grain boundaries or irradiation defects such as dislocation loops are observed to take place. In order to model and predict the microstructure evolution, a multiscale modelling approach needs to be developed, which starts at the atomic scale. Atomic Kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) modelling is the method we chose to provide an insight on defect mediated diffusion under irradiation. In that approach, we model the concentrated commercial steel as a FeCrNi alloy (γ-Fe70Cr20Ni10). As no reliable empirical potential exists at the moment to reproduce faithfully the phase diagram and the interactions of the elements and point defects, we have adjusted a pair interaction model on large amount of DFT calculations. The point defect properties in the Fe70Cr20Ni10, and more precisely, how their formation energy depends on the local environment will be presented and some AKMC results on thermal non equilibrium segregation and radiation induce segregation will be presented. The effect of Si on the segregation will also be discussed.

  11. Effects of Different Levels of Boron on Microstructure and Hardness of CoCrFeNiAlxCu0.7Si0.1By High-Entropy Alloy Coatings by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhu He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-entropy alloys (HEAs are novel solid solution strengthening metallic materials, some of which show attractive mechanical properties. This paper aims to reveal the effect of adding small atomic boron on the interstitial solid solution strengthening ability in the laser cladded CoCrFeNiAlxCu0.7Si0.1By (x = 0.3, x = 2.3, and 0.3 ≤ y ≤ 0.6 HEA coatings. The results show that laser rapid solidification effectively prevents brittle boride precipitation in the designed coatings. The main phase is a simple face-centered cubic (FCC matrix when the Al content is equal to 0.3. On the other hand, the matrix transforms to single bcc solid solution when x increases to 2.3. Increasing boron content improves the microhardness of the coatings, but leads to a high degree of segregation of Cr and Fe in the interdendritic microstructure. Furthermore, it is worth noting that CoCrFeNiAl0.3Cu0.7Si0.1B0.6 coatings with an FCC matrix and a modulated structure on the nanometer scale exhibit an ultrahigh hardness of 502 HV0.5.

  12. Hydrogen storage performance of Ti-V-based BCC phase alloys with various Fe content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, X.B.; Feng, S.L.; Wu, Z.; Xia, B.J.; Xu, N.X.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Fe content on hydrogen storage characteristics of Ti-10Cr-18Mn-(32-x)V-xFe (x = 0, 2, 3, 4, 5) alloys has been investigated at 353 K. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the alloys present BCC and C14 two-phase structures for all of the Fe-containing alloys. With the increasing Fe content, the lattice parameters of the BCC phase decrease, which results in an increase of the hydrogen desorption plateau pressure of the alloys. Among the studied alloys, Ti-10Cr-18Mn-27V-5Fe alloy exhibits the smallest PCT plateau slope and a more suitable plateau pressure (0.1 MPa equ <1 MPa). The maximum and effective capacities of the alloy are 3.32 wt.% and 2.26 wt.%, respectively, which are higher than other reported Fe-containing BCC phase alloys. In addition, the V/Fe ratio in this alloy is close to that of (VFe) alloy, whose cost is much lower than that of pure V

  13. Development of the dentistry alloy Ni-Cr-Nb; Desenvolvimento de ligas odontologicas Ni-Cr-Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.A.; Ramos, A.S.; Hashimoto, T.M., E-mail: mari_sou@hotmail.co [UNESP/FEG, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2010-07-01

    This work reports on the structural characterization of Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys produced by arc melting. Samples were characterized by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and EDS analysis. Results indicated that the arc melting process was efficient to produce homogeneous structures in Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys. The nickel dissolved large amounts of Cr, Mo and Nb, which was detected by EDS analysis and X-ray diffraction. The alloy containing molybdenum indicated the presence of structure based on Ni{sub SS}, while that the alloys containing niobium presented primary grains of Ni{sub SS} and precipitates formed by the simultaneous transformation of the Ni and Ni{sub 3}Nb phases. (author)

  14. Density of liquid NiCoAlCr quarternary alloys measured by modified sessile drop method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; ZHANG Shu-fang; XIAO Feng; YANG Ling-chuan; DONG Jian-xin; CAO Chun-lan; TAO Zai-nan; K. MUKAI

    2006-01-01

    The densities of liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys with a fixed molar ratio of Ni to Co to Al (x(Ni)-x(Co)-x(Al)≈73-12-15) which is close to the average value of the commercial Ni-based superalloys TMS75, INCO713, CM247LC and CMSX-4, and the mass fraction of chromium changes from 0 to 9% were measured by a modified sessile drop method. It is found that with increasing temperature and chromium concentration in the alloys, the densities of the liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys decrease, whereas the molar volume of the liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys increases. And the liquid densities of NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys calculated from the partial molar volumes of nickel, cobalt, aluminum and chromium in the corresponding Ni-bases binary alloys are in good agreement with the experimental ones, i.e. within the error tolerance range the densities of the liquid Ni-based multi-component alloys can be predicted from the partial volumes of elements in Ni-based binary alloys in liquid state. The molar volume of liquid NiCoAlCr binary alloy shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear mixing and the deviation changes small with the increase of chromium concentration at the same temperature.

  15. Phase Constituents and Microstructure of Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiN/TiB2 Composite Coating on Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianing; Chen, Chuanzhong; Zhang, Cuifang

    Laser cladding of the Fe3Al + B4C/TiN + Al2O3 pre-placed powders on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy can form the Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiN/TiB2 composite coating, which improved the wear resistance of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface. In this study, the Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiN/TiB2 composite coating has been researched by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. It was found that during the laser cladding process, Al2O3 can react with TiB2, leading to the formations of Ti3Al and B. This principle can be used to improve the Fe3Al + B4C/TiN laser-cladded coating on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Furthermore, during the cladding process, C consumed the oxygen in Fe3Al + B4C /TiN + Al2O3 molten pool, which retarded the productions of the redundant metal oxides.

  16. High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr, Mn) Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Průša, Filip; Bláhová, Markéta; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Kučera, Vojtěch; Bernatiková, Adriana; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Michalcová, Alena

    2016-11-30

    In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt %) alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined that the α-Al along with α-Al 15 (Fe,Cr)₃Si₂ or α-Al 15 (Fe,Mn)₃Si₂ phases were present, with dimensions below 130 nm. The highest hardness of 380 ± 7 HV5 was observed for the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloy, exceeding the hardness of the reference as-cast Al-12Si-1Cu-1 Mg-1Ni alloy (121 ± 2 HV5) by nearly a factor of three. Both of the prepared alloys showed exceptional thermal stability with the hardness remaining almost the same even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. Additionally, the compressive strengths of the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloys reached 869 MPa and 887 MPa, respectively, and had virtually the same values of 870 MPa and 865 MPa, respectively, even after 100 h of annealing. More importantly, the alloys showed an increase in ductility at 400 °C, reaching several tens of percent. Thus, both of the investigated alloys showed better mechanical properties, including superior hardness, compressive strength and thermal stability, as compared to the reference Al-10Si-1Cu-1Mg-1Ni alloy, which softened remarkably, reducing its hardness by almost 50% to 63 ± 8 HV5.

  17. Electrical resistivity of V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Gubbi, A.N.; Eatherly, W.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Room temperature electrical resistivity measurements have been performed on vanadium alloys containing 3-6%Cr and 3-6%Ti in order to evaluate the microstructural stability of these alloys. A nonlinear dependence on Cr and Ti concentration was observed, which suggests that either short range ordering or solute precipitation (perhaps in concert with interstitial solute clustering) has occurred in V-6Cr-6Ti.

  18. The effect of addition of various elements on properties of NiTi-based shape memory alloys for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kök, Mediha; Ateş, Gonca

    2017-04-01

    In biomedical applications, NiTi and NiTi-based alloys that show their shape memory effects at body temperature are preferred. In this study, the purpose is to produce NiTi and NiTi-based alloys with various chemical rates and electron concentrations and to examine their various physical properties. N45Ti55, Ni45Ti50Cr2.5Cu2.5, Ni48Ti51X (X=Mn, Sn, Co) alloys were produced in an arc melter furnace in this study. After the homogenization of these alloys, the martensitic phase transformation temperatures were determined with differential-scanner calorimeter. The transformation temperature was found to be below the 37 ° C (body temperature) in Ni45Ti50Cr2.5Cu2.5, Ni48Ti51X (X=Mn, Co) alloys; and the transformation temperature of the N45Ti55, Ni48Ti51Sn alloys was found to be over 37 ° C . Then, the micro and crystal structure analyses of the alloys were made, and it was determined that Ni45Ti50Cr2.5Cu2.5, Ni48Ti51X (X=Mn, Co) alloys, which were in austenite phase at room temperature, included B2 (NiTi) phase and Ti2Ni precipitation phase, and the alloys that were in the martensite phase at room temperature included B19ı (NiTi) phase and Ti2Ni phase. The common phase in both alloy groups is the Ti2Ni phase, and this type of phase is generally seen in NiTi alloys that are rich in titanium (Ti-rich).

  19. Magnetocaloric Properties of Fe-Ni-Cr Nanoparticles for Active Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, V.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2016-10-01

    Low cost, earth abundant, rare earth free magnetocaloric nanoparticles have attracted an enormous amount of attention for green, energy efficient, active near room temperature thermal management. Hence, we investigated the magnetocaloric properties of transition metal based (Fe70Ni30)100-xCrx (x = 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7) nanoparticles. The influence of Cr additions on the Curie temperature (TC) was studied. Only 5% of Cr can reduce the TC from ~438 K to 258 K. These alloys exhibit broad entropy v/s temperature curves, which is useful to enhance relative cooling power (RCP). For a field change of 5 T, the RCP for (Fe70Ni30)99Cr1 nanoparticles was found to be 548 J-kg-1. Tunable TCin broad range, good RCP, low cost, high corrosion resistance and earth abundance make these nanoparticles suitable for low-grade waste heat recovery as well as near room temperature active cooling applications.

  20. Changes in mechanical properties and structure of electrolytic plasma treated X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurbanbekov, Sherzod; Baklanov, Viktor; Karakozov, Batyrzhan [Republican State Enterprise National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan). Inst. of Atomic Energy Branch; Skakov, Mazhyn [Republican State Enterprise National Nuclear Center of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)

    2017-05-01

    The paper addresses findings regarding the influence of electrolytic plasma treatment on the mechanical properties as well as structural and phase states of X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti steel. Electrolytic plasma treatment is based on carburizing of stainless steel heated in electrolytes. Treatment of steel samples has been performed as follows: the samples were heated up to a temperature between 850 and 950 C and then they were cured for 7 minutes in an electrolyte of an aqueous solution containing 10 % glycerol (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}O{sub 3}) and 15 % sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). It is found that, after plasma electrolytic treatment, the surface of X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti steel had a modified structure and high hardness. Increasing wear resistance of X 12 CrNi 18 10 Ti steel has been observed after carburizing and the coefficient of friction has been reduced. X-ray analysis showed that retained austenite γ-Fe is a main phase, and there are some diffraction lines of orthorhombic Fe{sub 3}C phase as well as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cubic phase. It has been determined, that, after plasma electrolytic treatment, a carbide phase in the modified surface layer, irrespective of the location in the steel structure has the chemical composition Fe{sub 3}C. High concentration of carbon atoms in a solid solution based on γ- and α-iron, a large dislocation density, presence of particles of carbide phase and retained austenite layers have been found.

  1. Ni{sub 5}TiO{sub 7}” is Ni{sub 5}TiO{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, V.B.

    2017-05-15

    It is shown that the compound known as Ni{sub 5}TiO{sub 7} and considered as a promising catalyst and oxidation product of alloys does not exist and its XRD pattern actually corresponds to Ni{sub 5}TiO{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} - Graphical abstract: XRD pattern of “Ni{sub 5}TiO{sub 7}” (top) is identical to that for Ni{sub 5}TiO{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (bottom) based on single-crystal structural data. - Highlights: • Popular catalyst known as Ni{sub 5}TiO{sub 7} is actually Ni{sub 5}TiO{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}. • B{sub 2}O{sub 3} came from the flux used for crystal growth. • Some authors reporting this phase did not use any boron compounds.

  2. Solidification Rate Dependence of Microstructures and Transformation Behavior of Ti-Ni-Hf Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Jo; Kim, Yeon-Wook; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2018-09-01

    The microstructures and transformation behavior of Ti-49Ni-20Hf, Ti-49.5Ni-20Hf and Ti-50.3Ni- 20Hf alloys, when prepared by conventional casting, were investigated and compared with the properties of the alloys prepared by melt spinning. The area fraction of (Ti,Hf)2Ni in Ti-Ni-Hf alloys decreased to 3.9% from 9.4% as Ni content rose to 50.3 at% from 49 at%. Several cracks were observed in the hot-rolled Ti-49Ni-20Hf alloy sheet but none were found in the Ti-50.3Ni-20Hf alloy sheet. The B2-B19' transformation start temperature (Ms) decreased to 476 K from 580 K as Ni content increased to 50.3 at% from 49 at%. All the as-spun ribbons were amorphous, and the activation energy for crystallization ranged from 167.8 kJ/mol to 182.7 kJ/mol based on Ni content. When annealing temperature ranged from 810 K to 873 K, crystalline Ti-Ni-Hf alloys without (Ti,Hf)2Ni particles were obtained. At annealing temperatures higher than 873 K, very fine (Ti,Hf)2Ni particles, less than 20 nm in size, were found embedded in a crystalline matrix.

  3. Comparison of the two relaxation peaks in the Ti50Ni48Fe2 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Genlian; Zhou Yumei; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Ren Xiaobing; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Yin Fuxing

    2009-01-01

    The internal friction (tan δ) and storage modulus of Ti 50 Ni 48 Fe 2 alloy were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). On cooling, a broad relaxation peak with tan δ value as high as 0.2 was detected in R-phase. On heating, another relaxation peak with tan δ value of 0.06 was found in B19' martensite. Both relaxation peaks disappeared when the alloy was dehydrogenated in a dynamic vacuum furnace. Thus, the origin of both relaxation peaks was attributed to the interaction between twin boundaries and hydrogen atoms, as recently proved in Ti-Ni-Cu alloy. The direct comparison of these two relaxation peaks in the same sample indicates that the height of relaxation peaks increases with the decreasing of twinning shear.

  4. Moessbauer and transport studies of amorphous and icosahedral Zr-Ni-Cu-Ag-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadnik, Z.M.; Rapp, O.; Srinivas, V.; Saida, J.; Inoue, A.

    2002-01-01

    The alloy Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.3 Fe 0.2 Ag 10 in the amorphous and icosahedral states, and the bulk amorphous alloy Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.5 Ag 10 , have been studied with 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, electrical resistance and magnetoresistance techniques. The average quadrupole splitting in both alloys decreases with temperature as T 3/2 . The average quadrupole splitting in the icosahedral alloy is the largest ever reported for a metallic system. The lattice vibrations of the Fe atoms in the amorphous and icosahedral alloys are well described by a simple Debye model, with the characteristic Moessbauer temperatures of 379(29) and 439(28) K, respectively. Amorphous alloys Zr 65 Al 7. )5Ni 10 Cu 7.5 Ag 10 and Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.3 Fe 0.2 Ag 10 have been found to be superconducting with the transition temperature, T c , of about 1.7 K. The magnitude of Tc and the critical field slope at Tc are in agreement with previous work on Zr-based amorphous superconductors, while the low-temperature normal state resistivity is larger than typical results for binary and ternary Zr-based alloys. The resistivity of icosahedral Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.3 Fe 0.2 Ag 10 is larger than that for the amorphous ribbon of the same composition, as inferred both from direct measurements on the ribbons and from the observed magnetoresistance. However the icosahedral sample is non-superconducting in the measurement range down to 1.5 K. The results for the resistivity and the superconducting T c both suggest a stronger electronic disorder in the icosahedral phase than in the amorphous phase. (author)

  5. Effect of ion plating TiN on the oxidation of sputtered NiCrAlY-coated Ti3Al-Nb in air at 850-950 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, F.C.; Zeng, C.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang; Wu, W.

    1998-01-01

    A single sputtered NiCrAlY coating and a complex coating of inner ion-plated TiN and outer sputtered NiCrAlY were prepared on the intermetallic compound Ti 3 Al-Nb. Their oxidation behavior was examined at 850, 900, and 950 C in air by thermal gravimetry combined with XRD, SEM, and EDAX. The results showed that Ti 3 Al-Nb followed approximately parabolic oxidation, forming an outer thin Al 2 O 3 -rich scale and an inner TiO 2 -rich layer doped with Nb at the three temperatures. The TiO 2 -rich layer doped with Nb dominated the oxidation reaction. The single NiCrAlY coating did not follow parabolic oxidation exactly at 850 and 950 C, but oxidized approximately in a parabolic manner, because the instantaneous parabolic constants changed slightly with time. Besides the Al 2 O 3 scale, TiO 2 formed from the coating surface at the coating-substrate interface. The deterioration of the coating accelerated with increasing temperature. The NiCrAlY-TiN coating showed two-stage parabolic oxidation at 850 and 900 C, and an approximate parabolic oxidation at 950 C. The TiN layer was effective as a barrier to inhibit coating-alloy interdiffusion

  6. Ab initio and atomic kinetic Monte Carlo modelling of segregation in concentrated FeCrNi alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piochaud, J.B.; Becquart, C.S.; Domain, C.

    2013-01-01

    Internal structure of pressurised water reactors are made of austenitic materials. Under irradiation, the microstructure of these concentrated alloys evolves and solute segregation on grain boundaries or irradiation defects such as dislocation loops are observed to take place. In order to model and predict the microstructure evolution, a multi-scale modelling approach needs to be developed, which starts at the atomic scale. Atomic Kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) modelling is the method we chose to provide an insight on defect mediated diffusion under irradiation. In that approach, we model the concentrated commercial steel as a FeCrNi alloy (γ-Fe 70 Cr 20 Ni 10 ). As no reliable empirical potential exists at the moment to reproduce faithfully the phase diagram and the interactions of the elements and point defects, we have adjusted a pair interaction model on large amount of DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations. The point defect properties in the Fe 70 Cr 20 Ni 10 , and more precisely, how their formation energy depends on the local environment will be presented and some AKMC results on thermal non equilibrium segregation (TNES) and radiation induce segregation will be presented. The effect of Si on the segregation will also be discussed. Preliminary results show that it is the solute- grain boundaries interactions which drive TNES

  7. Effects of torsional deformation on the microstructures and mechanical properties of a CoCrFeNiMo0.15 high-entropy alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenqian; Guo, Lin; Liu, Bin; Ni, Song; Liu, Yong; Song, Min

    2017-12-01

    The effects of torsional deformation on the microstructures and mechanical properties of a CoCrFeNiMo0.15 high-entropy alloy have been investigated. The torsional deformation generates a gradient microstructure distribution due to the gradient torsional strain. Both dislocation activity and deformation twinning dominated the torsional deformation process. With increasing the torsional equivalent strain, the microstructural evolution can be described as follows: (1) formation of pile-up dislocations parallel to the trace of {1 1 1}-type slip planes; (2) formation of Taylor lattices; (3) formation of highly dense dislocation walls; (3) formation of microbands and deformation twins. The extremely high deformation strain (strained to fracture) results in the activation of wavy slip. The tensile strength is very sensitive to the torsional deformation, and increases significantly with increasing the torsional angle.

  8. Long-term creep rupture strength of weldment of Fe-Ni based alloy as candidate tube and pipe for advanced USC boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Gang; Sato, Takashi [Babcok-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Research Laboratory; Marumoto, Yoshihide [Babcok-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Div.

    2010-07-01

    A lot of works have been going to develop 700C USC power plant in Europe and Japan. High strength Ni based alloys such as Alloy 617, Alloy 740 and Alloy 263 were the candidates for boiler tube and pipe in Europe, and Fe-Ni based alloy HR6W (45Ni-24Fe-23Cr-7W-Ti) is also a candidate for tube and pipe in Japan. One of the Key issues to achieve 700 C boilers is the welding process of these alloys. Authors investigated the weldability and the long-term creep rupture strength of HR6W tube. The weldments were investigated metallurgically to find proper welding procedure and creep rupture tests are ongoing exceed 38,000 hours. The long-term creep rupture strengths of the HST weld joints are similar to those of parent metals and integrity of the weldments was confirmed based on with other mechanical testing results. (orig.)

  9. Crystal structures of lazulite-type oxidephosphates TiIIITiIV3O3(PO4)3 and MIII4TiIV27O24(PO4)24 (MIII=Ti, Cr, Fe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneborn, M.; Glaum, R.; Reinauer, F.

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of the oxidephosphates Ti III Ti IV 3 O 3 (PO 4 ) 3 (black), Cr III 4 Ti IV 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 (red-brown, transparent), and Fe III 4 Ti IV 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 (brown) with edge-lengths up to 0.3 mm were grown by chemical vapour transport. The crystal structures of these orthorhombic members (space group F2dd ) of the lazulite/lipscombite structure family were refined from single-crystal data [Ti III Ti IV 3 O 3 (PO 4 ) 3 : Z=24, a=7.3261(9) A, b=22.166(5) A, c=39.239(8) A, R 1 =0.029, wR 2 =0.084, 6055 independent reflections, 301 variables; Cr III 4 Ti IV 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 : Z=1, a=7.419(3) A, b=21.640(5) A, c=13.057(4) A, R 1 =0.037, wR 2 =0.097, 1524 independent reflections, 111 variables; Fe III 4 Ti IV 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 : Z=1, a=7.4001(9) A, b=21.7503(2) A, c=12.775(3) A, R 1 =0.049, wR 2 =0.140, 1240 independent reflections, 112 variables). For Ti III Ti IV O 3 (PO 4 ) 3 a well-ordered structure built from dimers [Ti III,IV 2 O 9 ] and [Ti IV,IV 2 O 9 ] and phosphate tetrahedra is found. The metal sites in the crystal structures of Cr 4 Ti 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 and Fe 4 Ti 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 , consisting of dimers [M III Ti IV O 9 ] and [Ti IV,IV 2 O 9 ], monomeric [Ti IV O 6 ] octahedra, and phosphate tetrahedra, are heavily disordered. Site disorder, leading to partial occupancy of all octahedral voids of the parent lipscombite/lazulite structure, as well as splitting of the metal positions is observed. According to Guinier photographs Ti III 4 Ti IV 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 (a=7.418(2) A, b=21.933(6) A, c=12.948(7) A) is isotypic to the oxidephosphates M III 4 Ti IV 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 (M III : Cr, Fe). The UV/vis spectrum of Cr 4 Ti 27 O 24 (PO 4 ) 24 reveals a rather small ligand-field splitting Δ o =14,370 cm -1 and a very low nephelauxetic ratio β=0.72 for the chromophores [Cr III O 6 ] within the dimers [Cr III Ti IV O 9 ]. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of the oxidephosphates Ti III Ti IV 3 O 3 (PO 4 ) 3 (black), Cr III 4 Ti IV 27 O

  10. Resistencia a la corrosión a alta temperatura de recubrimientos NiCrAlY y NiCrFeNbMoTiAl depositados por APS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Tristancho-Reyes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La corrosión a alta temperatura de las tuberías utilizadas en equipos generadores de vapor (calderas ha sido reconocida como un grave problema que trae consigo el adelgazamiento de éstas y, por consiguiente, la falla de los equipos. En la última década se han incrementado las investigaciones que involucran recubrimientos protectores que ayudan de alguna manera a prolongar la vida útil de estos equipos. Esta investigación determinó el comportamiento de los recubrimientos NiCrAlY y NiCrFeNbMoTiAl depositados por proyección térmica asistida por plasma (APS sobre la aleación SA213 – T22 (2¼Cr – 1Mo, en un ambiente corrosivo de 80%V2O5–20%K2SO4 a 800°C. Los valores de la cinética de corrosión fueron determinados mediante resistencia a la polarización lineal (RPL y espectroscopia de impedancia electroquímica (EIE. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una menor cinética de corrosión en el recubrimiento NiCrFeNbMoTiAl que la presentada por el recubrimiento NiCrAlY, corroborado por Microscopia Electrónica de Barrido (MEB.

  11. The effects of Ni, Mo, Ti and Si on the mechanical properties of Cr free Mn steel (Fe-25Mn-5Al-2C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuon, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    The FeMnAlC alloys may hold potential as Cr-free replacements for high strategic material iron base superalloys, but little is known about their intermediate temperature (650 C to 870 C) mechanical properties. The effects of alloying elements on the mechanical properties of model FeMnAlC alloys were studied. Results showed that modified FeMnAlC alloys had promising short term, intermediate temperature properties but had relatively poor stress rupture lives at 172 MPa and 788 C. Room temperature and 788 C tensile strength of FeMnAlC alloys were better than common cast stainless steels. Changes in room temperature tensile and 788 C tensile strength and ductility, and 788 C stress rupture life were correlated with changes in Ni, Mo, Ti, and Si levels due to alloying effects on interstitial carbon levels and carbide morphology. Fe-25Mn-5Al-2C had a very poor stress rupture life at 172 MPa and 788 C. Addition of carbide-forming elements improved the stress rupture life

  12. Precipitation of Ni4Ti3-variants in a polycrystalline Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bojda, Ondřej; Eggeler, G.; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2005), s. 99-104 ISSN 1359-6462 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi shape memory alloys * Ni4Ti3 precipitation * Transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2005

  13. Martensitic transformation and shape memory effect in polycomponent TiNi-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachin, V.N.; Voronin, V.P.; Sivokha, V.P.; Pushin, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The results of martesitic transformation (MT) and shape memory effect (SME) in quaternary Ti 50 (NiCoCu) 50 , Ti 50 (NiFeCu) 50 and (TiAl) 50 (NiCu) 50 alloys studies are generalized in this paper. On alloying TiNi simultaneously by two elements, their individual effect on MT and SME is conserved. Martensitic transformations B2→R and B2→B19' are almost simultaneously realizing in a binary TiNi. One can selectively control each of two MT channels by selecting property of alloying elements. As a result, the alloys having any sequences of MT and their realizations temperatures, including simultaneous realization of two MTs at low temperatures, which was not observed earlier, can be produced. (orig.)

  14. In-situ electrochemical-AFM study of localized corrosion of AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys in chloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhu; Collins, Liam; Balke, Nina; Liaw, Peter K.; Yang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    In-situ electrochemical (EC)-AFM is employed to investigate the localized corrosion of the AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Surface topography changes on the micro/sub-micro scale are monitored at different applied anodizing potentials in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The microstructural evolutions with the increased Al content in the alloys are characterized by SEM, TEM, EDS and EBSD. The results show that by increasing the Al content, the microstructure changes from single solid-solution to multi-phases, leading to the segregations of elements. Due to the microstructural variations in the AlxCoCrFeNi HEAs, localized corrosion processes in different ways after the breakdown of the passive film, which changes from pitting to phase boundary corrosion. The XPS results indicate that an increased Al content in the alloys/phases corresponds to a decreased corrosion resistance of the surface passive film.

  15. Influence of manganese, carbon and nitrogen on high-temperature strength of Fe-Cr-Mn austenitic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoi, Y.; Okazaki, Y.; Wade, N.; Miyahara, K.

    1990-01-01

    High Mn-Cr-Fe base alloys are candidates for the first wall material of fusion reactors because of rapid decay of radioactivity of the alloys after neutron irradiation compared with that of Ni-Cr-Fe base alloys. Their high temperature properties, however, are not clearly understood at present. In this paper, a study has been made of the effects of Mn, C and N content on the high-temperature tensile strength and creep properties of a 12% CR-Fe base alloy. Mn tends to decrease tensile strength and proof stress at intermediate temperatures. At higher temperatures in the austenite range, however, tensile properties scarcely depend on Mn content. C and N additions improve the tensile properties markedly. The combined addition of 0.2%C and 0.2%N to a 12%Cr-15%Mn-Fe base alloy makes the strength at 873K as high as that of a modified type 316 stainless steel. Combined alloying with C and N also improves the creep strength. Cold working is very useful in increasing the creep strength because of the finely dispersed precipitates in the matrix during creep. From these results, Fe-12%Cr-15%Mn-15%Mn-0.2%c-0.2%N is recommended as one of the most suitable alloys in this system for high temperature usage. (author)

  16. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Bare, Cr3C2-(NiCr) and Cr3C2-(NiCr) + 0.2wt.%Zr Coated SuperNi 718 at 900 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, Deepa; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion in incinerators, power plants, and chemical industries are frequently encountered due to the presence of salts containing sodium, sulphur, and chlorine. To obviate this problem, bare and coated alloys were tested under environments simulating the conditions present inside incinerators and power plants. 0.2 wt.% zirconium powder was incorporated in the Cr3C2-(NiCr) coating powder. The original powder and Zr containing powder was sprayed on Superni 718 alloy by D-gun technique. The bare and coated alloys were tested under Na2SO4 + K2SO4 + NaCl + KCl and Na2SO4 + NaCl environment. The corrosion rate of specimens was monitored using weight change measurements. Characterization of the corrosion products has been done using FE-SEM/EDS and XRD techniques. Bare and coated alloys showed very good corrosion resistance under given molten salt environments. Addition of 0.2wt.%Zr in Cr3C2-25%(NiCr) coating further greatly reduced the oxidation rate as well as improved the adherence of oxide scale to the coating surface during the time of corrosion.

  17. Preparation and mechanical properties of in situ TiC{sub x}–Ni (Si, Ti) alloy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenjuan [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhai, Hongxiang, E-mail: hxzhai@sina.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Chen, Lin; Huang, Zhenying [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Bei, Guoping; Baumgärtner, Christoph; Greil, Peter [Department of Materials Science (Glass and Ceramics), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Martensstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    Novel in situ TiC{sub x} reinforced Ni (Si, Ti) alloy composites with superior mechanical properties were prepared at 1250 °C for 30 min by pressureless sintering Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} (10 and 20 vol%) and Ni as precursors. The Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} particles decomposed into substoichiometric TiC{sub x} phase, while the additional Si and partial Ti atoms derived from Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} diffused into Ni matrix to form Ni (Si, Ti) alloy. The in situ formed TiC{sub x} phases are mainly dispersed on the grain boundaries of the Ni (Si, Ti) alloying, forming a strong skeleton and refining the microstructures of the metal matrix. The hardness, the yield stress σ{sub 0.2%} and ultimate compressive strength of 20.6 vol%TiC{sub x}–Ni(Si, Ti) composite can reach 2.15±0.04 GPa, 466.8±55.8 MPa and 733.3±78.4 MPa, respectively. The enhanced mechanical properties of TiC{sub x}–Ni(Si, Ti) composites are due to the in situ formation of TiC{sub x} skeleton, the refined microstructures of Ni (Si, Ti) alloys and solid solution effects as well as good wettability between TiC{sub x} and Ni (Si, Ti) matrix.

  18. PHASE CONSTITUENTS AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiN/TiB2 COMPOSITE COATING ON TITANIUM ALLOY

    OpenAIRE

    JIANING LI; CHUANZHONG CHEN; CUIFANG ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    Laser cladding of the Fe3Al + B4C/TiN + Al2O3 pre-placed powders on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy can form the Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiN/TiB2 composite coating, which improved the wear resistance of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface. In this study, the Ti3Al/Fe3Al + TiN/TiB2 composite coating has been researched by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. It was found that during the laser cladding process, Al2O3 can react with TiB2, leading to the formations of Ti3Al and B. This principle can be...

  19. Corrosion study of the passive film of amorphous Fe-Cr-Ni-(Si, P, B alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, M. F.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous Fe62Cr10Ni8X20 (X = P, B, Si alloys in 0.01M HCl solution have been investigated by means of standard electrochemical measurements in order to evaluate their corrosion resistance. The study reveals that the best corrosion behaviour is given by the Si containing amorphous alloy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Auger electron spectroscopy (AJES have been employed to study the composition of the passive layers, formed on the surface of the different amorphous alloys. The results on Fe62Cr10Ni8X20 show that a protective passive film, mainly consisting of oxidized chromium, greatly enhances its corrosion resistance.

    La resistencia a la corrosión de las aleaciones amorfas Fe62Cr10Ni8X20 (X = P, B, Si inmersas en HCl 0,01M se evaluó usando técnicas electroquímicas. Las técnicas de espectroscopia de fotoemisión de rayos X y espectroscopia Auger se emplearon para estudiar la composición de las capas pasivas, formadas en aire sobre la superficie de las aleaciones amorfas. Del estudio realizado se concluye que el mejor comportamiento frente a la corrosión viene dado por la aleación amorfa que contiene como metaloide Si. Esto es debido a que la capa pasiva de dicha aleación está formada principalmente de óxido de cromo, lo cual confiere una alta resistencia a la corrosión.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti6.0Al4.5Cr1.5Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Shu-sen; Gao, Peng-yue; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Xiong-gang; Li, Chong-he

    2016-01-01

    Based on previous Ti-Al-Cr-Mn quaternary system thermodynamic database, a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti-6.0Al-4.5Cr-1.5Mn alloy was designed and successfully prepared by the water-cooled copper crucible. Microscopic observation showed that both as-cast and annealing status consist of α phase, which coincides with the theoretical expectation. The mechanical properties at room temperature were measured and this alloy possesses good mechanical properties, its average yield-strength reaches 1051.5 MPa and tensile-strength is up to 1091.2 MPa while its average elongation is just 8.3%. Compared with the TA15, it has better mechanical strength and worse elongation. In the new alloy Laves phase Cr 2 Ti were detected by XRD pattern and TEM, which may cause the alloy's poor plasticity.

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti6.0Al4.5Cr1.5Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-bin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Special Casting Engineering Technology Research Center, Shanghai 201605 (China); Wang, Shu-sen; Gao, Peng-yue; Jiang, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Xiong-gang; Li, Chong-he [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Special Casting Engineering Technology Research Center, Shanghai 201605 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Based on previous Ti-Al-Cr-Mn quaternary system thermodynamic database, a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti-6.0Al-4.5Cr-1.5Mn alloy was designed and successfully prepared by the water-cooled copper crucible. Microscopic observation showed that both as-cast and annealing status consist of α phase, which coincides with the theoretical expectation. The mechanical properties at room temperature were measured and this alloy possesses good mechanical properties, its average yield-strength reaches 1051.5 MPa and tensile-strength is up to 1091.2 MPa while its average elongation is just 8.3%. Compared with the TA15, it has better mechanical strength and worse elongation. In the new alloy Laves phase Cr{sub 2}Ti were detected by XRD pattern and TEM, which may cause the alloy's poor plasticity.

  2. Effects of lipopolysaccharides on the corrosion behavior of Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiqiang; Qian, Chao; Weng, Weimin; Zhang, Songmei

    2016-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are constituents of gingival crevicular fluid and may affect the base metal alloys used in metal ceramic crowns. The role of LPS in base metal alloys is currently unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of gram-negative bacterial LPS on the electrochemical behavior of Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys. Alloy specimens were divided into 4 groups according to Escherichia coli LPS concentration (0, 0.15, 15, and 150 μg/mL) in acidic saliva (pH 5). Open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization behavior were examined using a computer-controlled potentiostat. Metal ions released from the 2 alloys were measured by immersion in LPS-free solution and 150 μg/mL LPS solution and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Data were evaluated using 1-way ANOVA (α=.05). Compared with control groups, medium LPS concentration (15 μg/mL) accelerated Ni-Cr alloy corrosion (Palloy corrosion (Pcorrosion current density, and polarization resistance parameters. After immersion in high LPS concentrations (150 μg/mL), a slight increase in Ni ion release (P >.05) was observed for the Ni-Cr alloy, while a more significant Co ion release (Palloy. LPS negatively affected the electrochemical behavior of both the Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of second-phase dispersion on environmental embrittlement of Ni3(Si,Ti) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, T.; Hanada, S.

    1999-01-01

    Some quaternary Ni 3 (Si,Ti) alloyed with transition elements V, Nb, Zr and Hf was prepared beyond their maximum solubility limits to investigate the effect of second-phase dispersion on moisture-induced embrittlement. V-added Ni 3 (Si,Ti) alloy contained ductile fcc-type Ni solid solution as the second-phase, while Nb-, Zr- and Hf-added Ni 3 (Si,Ti) alloys contained hard dispersion compounds as the second-phase. V- and Nb-added Ni 3 (Si,Ti) alloys did not display reduced tensile elongation in air, indicating that their second phases have the effect of suppressing the moisture-induced embrittlement. Possible mechanisms for the beneficial effect by the second phase on the moisture-induced embrittlement of V- and Nb-added Ni 3 (Si,Ti) alloys are discussed in association with hydrogen behavior and deformation property in the constituent phases or at matrix/second-phase interface

  4. Alloyed Ni-Fe nanoparticles as catalysts for NH3 decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chakraborty, Debasish; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2012-01-01

    A rational design approach was used to develop an alloyed Ni-Fe/Al2O3 catalyst for decomposition of ammonia. The dependence of the catalytic activity is tested as a function of the Ni-to-Fe ratio, the type of Ni-Fe alloy phase, the metal loading and the type of oxide support. In the tests with high...... temperatures and a low NH3-to-H2 ratio, the catalytic activity of the best Ni-Fe/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be comparable or even better to that of a more expensive Ru-based catalyst. Small Ni-Fe nanoparticle sizes are crucial for an optimal overall NH3 conversion because of a structural effect favoring...

  5. Minor-alloyed Cu-Ni-Si alloys with high hardness and electric conductivity designed by a cluster formula approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cu-Ni-Si alloys are widely used due to their good electrical conductivities in combination with high strength and hardness. In the present work, minor-alloying with M = (Cr, Fe, Mo, Zr was conducted for the objective of further improving their hardness while maintaining their conductivity level. A cluster-plus-glue-atom model was introduced to design the compositions of M-alloyed Cu-Ni-Si alloys, in which an ideal composition formula [(Ni,Si,M-Cu12]Cu3 (molar proportion was proposed. To guarantee the complete precipitation of solute elements in fine δ-Ni2Si precipitates, the atomic ratio of (Ni,M/Si was set as 2/1. Thus the designed alloy series of Cu93.75(Ni/Zr3.75Si2.08(Cr/Fe/Mo0.42 (at% were arc-melted into ingots under argon atmosphere, and solid-solutioned at 950 °C for 1 h plus water quenching and then aged at 450 °C for different hours. The experimental results showed that these designed alloys exhibit high hardness (HV > 1.7 GPa and good electrical conductivities (≥ 35% IACS. Specifically, the quinary Cu93.75Ni3.54Si2.08(Cr/Fe0.42Zr0.21 alloys (Cu-3.32Ni-0.93Si-0.37(Cr/Fe−0.30Zr wt% possess both a high hardness with HV = 2.5–2.7 GPa, comparable to the high-strength KLFA85 alloy (Cu-3.2Ni-0.7Si-1.1Zn wt%, HV = 2.548 GPa, and a good electrical conductivity (35–36% IACS.

  6. Development of an efficient grain refiner for Al-7Si alloy and its modification with strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kori, S.A.; Murty, B.S.; Chakraborty, M. [Indian Inst. of Technol., Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Metall. and Mater. Eng.

    2000-05-15

    The grain refining response of Al and Al-7Si alloy has been studied with various Al-Ti, Al-B and Al-Ti-B master alloys at different addition levels. The results show that Al-B and B rich Al-Ti-B master alloys cannot grain refine Al, while they are efficient grain refiners to Al-7Si alloy. The level of grain refinement saturates after 0.03% of Ti or B for most of the master alloys studied both at short and long holding times. The grain refining efficiency of some elements other than Ti and B on Al-7Si alloy has also been studied. Interestingly, all the elements studied (B, Cr, Fe, Mg, Ni, Ti and Zr) have resulted in some grain refinement of Al-7Si alloy at short holding time and have shown fading/poisoning on long holding, which increased in the order of B (no poisoning), Ti, Cr, Ni, Fe, Mg, Zr. Sr (0.02%) has been found to provide complete modification of the eutectic in Al-7Si alloy within 2 min, which is not lost even after long holding up to 120 min. Significant improvements in the mechanical properties have been obtained by a combination of grain refinement and modification to an extent that was not possible by either of them alone. (orig.)

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of (Ni, Fe)3Al formation by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adabavazeh, Z.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► (Ni, Fe) 3 Al intermetallic compound was synthesized by mechanical alloying. ► We use a thermodynamic analysis to predict the more stable phase. ► We calculate the Gibbs free-energy changes by using extended Miedema model. ► The results of MA compared with thermodynamic analysis and showed a good agreement with it. - Abstract: (Ni, Fe) 3 Al intermetallic compound was synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ni, Fe and Al elemental powder mixtures of composition Ni 50 Fe 25 Al 25 . Phase transformation and microstructure characteristics of the alloy powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that mechanical alloying resulted in a Ni (Al, Fe) solid solution. By continued milling, this structure transformed to the disordered (Ni, Fe) 3 Al intermetallic compound. A thermodynamic model developed on the basis of extended theory of Miedema is used to calculate the Gibbs free-energy changes. Final product of MA is a phase having minimal Gibbs free energy compared with other competing phases in Ni–Fe–Al system. However in Ni–Fe–Al system, the most stable phase at all compositions is intermetallic compound (not amorphous phase or solid solution). The results of MA were compared with thermodynamic analysis and revealed the leading role of thermodynamic on the formation of MA product prediction.

  8. Chemical diffusion of Cr, Ni and Si in welded joints. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Ciha, K.

    1987-01-01

    The results are given of a study in chemical diffusion in welded joints P2/A and P3/A. P2 stands for the steel (Fe-17.48 Cr-8.15 Ni-0.14 Si), P3 for (Fe-18.52 Cr-8.20 Ni-1.78 Si) and A for the Fe-Arema. Triadic sandwiche-like samples were diffusion heated at temperatures from 920 to 1170 degC. The concentration distributions N(x,t) of the given elements were measured with microprobe JXA-3A. The evaluation of the experimental data was carried out either by Grube's method, or in some cases by the spline-polynomial method. The evaluated diffusivities D-bar satisfy the Arrhenius relation and yield the standard diffusion characteristics D 0 and H. The diffusivities D-bar of Cr, Ni and Si in P1/A, in P2/A and P3/A welded joints vary with Si content in P1, P2 and P3 alloys, similar to the Cr-51 and Ni-63 self-diffusivities in Fe-18 Cr-12 Ni-X Si steels, and tend to increase with increasing Si content. The values D-bar measured in the vicinity of grain boundaries are higher than the bulk diffusion coefficients. The most rapid diffusant is Si and the slowest one Ni. Thus, the relations D-bar Si :D-bar Cr :D-bar Ni ≅ 6:3:1 (P3/A) and D-bar Si :D-bar Cr :D-bar Ni ≅ 1.7:1.4:1 (P3/A) are valid at 1050 degC. Comparing the results with those published if can be noted that the Cr-51 and Ni-63 self-diffusion in Fe-18 Cr-12 Ni-X Si steels is faster than chemical diffusion of these elements in the said steel welded joints P2/A and P3/A; X varies from 0.14 to 1.98. (author). 7 tabs., 7 figs., 20 refs

  9. Ternary alloying study of MoSi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, D.; Li, C.; Akselsen, O.M.; Ulvensoen, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ternary alloying of MoSi 2 with adding a series of transition elements was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Iron, Co, Ni, Cr, V, Ti, and Nb were chosen as alloying elements according to the AB 2 structure map or the atomic size factor. The studied MoSi 2 base alloys were prepared by the arc melting process from high-purity metals. The EDS analysis showed that Fe, Co, and Ni have no solid solubility in as-cast MoSi 2 , while Cr, V, Ti, and Nb exhibit limited solid solubilities, which were determined to be 1.4 ± 0.7, 1.4 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.1, and 0.8 ± 0.1. Microstructural characterization indicated that Mo-Si-M VIII (M VIII = Fe, Co, Ni) and Mo-Si-Cr alloys have a two-phase as-cast microstructure, i.e., MoSi 2 matrix and the second-phase FeSi 2 , CoSi, NiSi 2 , and CrSi 2 , respectively. In as-cast Mo-Si-V, Mo-Si-Ti, and Mo-Si-Nb alloys, besides MoSi 2 and C40 phases, the third phases were observed, which have been identified to be (Mo, V) 5 Si 3 , TiSi 2 , and (Mo, Nb) 5 Si 3

  10. The use of nitrogen to improve the corrosion resistance of FeCrNiMo alloys for the chemical process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearns, J.R.; Deverell, H.E.

    1987-06-01

    The addition of 0.1 to 0.25 wt% nitrogen to austenitic alloys has been shown to enhance resistance to localized corrosion in oxidizing chloride and reducing acid solutions. Further tests of FeCrNiMo alloys assess the effects of nitrogen additions on: mechanical properties, chloride and caustic stress corrosion cracking resistance, passivation characteristics, and general corrosion rates in various acid, alkali, and salt solutions pertinent to the chemical process industries. The precipitation of chromium-rich secondary phases was retarded by solid solution additions of 0.1 to 0.25 wt% nitrogen. The corrosion resistance of FeCrNiMoN alloys in the welded condition was improved by using shield-gas mixtures of argon and 2.5 to 5.0 wt% nitrogen.

  11. Stress corrosion cracking of Ni-Fe-Cr alloys in acid sulfate environments relevant to CANDU steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, S.Y.; Carcea, A.G., E-mail: suraj.persaud@mail.utoronto.ca [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Huang, J.; Korinek, A.; Botton, G.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Newman, R.C. [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Ni-Fe-Cr alloys used in nuclear plants have been found susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in acid sulfate environments. Electrochemical measurements and SCC tests were done using Ni, Alloy 600, and Alloy 800 in acid sulfate solutions at 315 {sup o}C. Electrochemical measurements suggested that sulfate is a particularly aggressive anion in mixed chloride systems. Cracks with lengths in excess of 300 μm were present on stressed Alloy 800 samples after 60 hours. High resolution analytical electron microscopy was used to extract a crack tip from an Alloy 800 sample and draw final conclusions with respect to the mechanism of SCC. (author)

  12. Grain boundary segregation in FeCrNi model alloys; Korngrenzensegregation in FeCrNi-Modellegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, B.; Schneider, F.; Mummert, K. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany); Muraleedharan, P. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Div. of Metallurgy

    1998-12-31

    P and S segregate at the grain boundaries and thus increase susceptibility to intergranular corrosion at those sites. This could be proven by means of nitric acid-chromate tests and potentiostatic etching tests. There is a direct connection between loss in mass, mean depth of intergranular corrosion attacks, dissolution current density, and level of segregation-induced concentration of P and S at the grain boundaries. The segregation effect at these sites was found to be most evident in specimens of the examined Fe-Cr-Ni steel which had been heat-treated for 1000 hours at 550 C. However, segregation occurs also in materials that received a heat treatment of 400 C/5000 hours, while intergranular corrosion is observed only after heat treatment of 500 C/1000 hours. Apart from segregation of P, formation of Cr-rich phosphides is observed, which leads to depletion of Cr at the precipitates. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] P und S segregieren an die KG und erhoehen dort die IK-Anfaelligkeit. Dies konnte mit Hilfe von Salpetersaeure-Chromat- und Potentiostatischem Aetztest nachgewiesen werden. Es besteht ein direkter Zusammenhang zwischen Masseverlust, mittlerer IK-Angriffstiefe, Aufloesungsstromdichte und Hoehe der segregationsbedingten Anreicherungen von P und S an den KG. Der KG-Segregationseffekt am untersuchten Fe-Cr-Ni-Stahl ist im Waermebehandlungszustand 550 C/1000 h am deutlichsten ausgepraegt. Aber auch bereits bei 400 C/5000 h findet Segregation statt. IKSpRK tritt nur im Waermebehandlungszustand 550 C/1000 h auf. Neben der P-Segregation wird die Bildung Cr-reicher Phosphide beobachtet, die zur Abreicherung von Cr an den Ausscheidungen fuehrt. (orig.)

  13. The Role of Carbon in Grain Refinement of Cast CrFeCoNi High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. W.; Liu, L.; Liu, G.; Wu, X. X.; Lu, D. H.; Yao, J. Q.; Jiang, W. M.; Fan, Z. T.; Zhang, W. B.

    2018-06-01

    As a promising engineering material, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) CrFeCoNi system has attracted extensive attention worldwide. Their cast alloys are of great importance because of their great formability of complex components, which can be further improved through the transition of the columnar to equiaxed grains and grain refinement. In the current work, the influence of C contents on the grain structures and mechanical properties of the as-cast high-entropy alloy CrFeCoNi was chosen as the target and systematically studied via a hybrid approach of the experiments and thermodynamic calculations. The alloys with various C additions were prepared by arc melting and drop cast. The as-cast macrostructure and microstructure were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The cast HEAs transform from coarse columnar grains into equiaxed grains with the C level increased to ≥ 2 at. pct and the size of equiaxed grains is further decreased with the increasing C addition. It is revealed that the interdendritic segregation of Cr and C results in grain boundary precipitation of M23C6 carbides. The grain refinement is attributed to the additional constitutional supercoiling from the C addition. The yield stress and tensile strength at room temperature are improved due to the transition of columnar to equiaxed grains and grain refinement.

  14. Simultaneous effect of mechanical alloying and arc-melting processes in the microstructure and hardness of an AlCoFeMoNiTi high-entropy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldenebro-Lopez, F.J.; Herrera-Ramírez, J.M.; Arredondo-Rea, S.P.; Gómez-Esparza, C.D.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-component systems of AlCoFeMoNiTi were produced by mechanical alloying. • Consolidated samples were fabricated by two different processing routes, sintering and arc melting. • Effect of routes of consolidation on microstructural evolution and microhardness is reported. • High hardness values are found in consolidated samples. • Alloying elements, grain size, and precipitates have a high effect on microhardness. - Abstract: A nanostructured AlCoFeMoNiTi high entropy alloy was synthesized through the mechanical alloying process. Bulk samples were obtained by two different routes to compare the microstructural evolution and hardness behavior: sintering and arc melting. Through electron microscopy analyses the formation of Mo-rich and Ti-rich phases were identified in the melted sample, while Ti-rich nano-precipitates were observed in the sintered sample. A higher microhardness value was achieved on the sintered sample than for the melted sample. The disadvantage of porosity in the sintered sample in comparison to the melted one was overcome by the hardening effect produced by the mechanical alloying

  15. Simultaneous effect of mechanical alloying and arc-melting processes in the microstructure and hardness of an AlCoFeMoNiTi high-entropy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldenebro-Lopez, F.J. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Facultad de Ingeniería Mochis, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Prol. Ángel Flores y Fuente de Poseidón, S.N., 81223 Los Mochis, Sinaloa (Mexico); Herrera-Ramírez, J.M. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Arredondo-Rea, S.P. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mochis, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Prol. Ángel Flores y Fuente de Poseidón, S.N., 81223 Los Mochis, Sinaloa (Mexico); Gómez-Esparza, C.D. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Martínez-Sánchez, R., E-mail: roberto.martinez@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Multi-component systems of AlCoFeMoNiTi were produced by mechanical alloying. • Consolidated samples were fabricated by two different processing routes, sintering and arc melting. • Effect of routes of consolidation on microstructural evolution and microhardness is reported. • High hardness values are found in consolidated samples. • Alloying elements, grain size, and precipitates have a high effect on microhardness. - Abstract: A nanostructured AlCoFeMoNiTi high entropy alloy was synthesized through the mechanical alloying process. Bulk samples were obtained by two different routes to compare the microstructural evolution and hardness behavior: sintering and arc melting. Through electron microscopy analyses the formation of Mo-rich and Ti-rich phases were identified in the melted sample, while Ti-rich nano-precipitates were observed in the sintered sample. A higher microhardness value was achieved on the sintered sample than for the melted sample. The disadvantage of porosity in the sintered sample in comparison to the melted one was overcome by the hardening effect produced by the mechanical alloying.

  16. CoCr double-layered media with NiFe and CoZrNb soft-magnetic layers (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernards, J.P.C.; Schrauwen, C.P.G.; Zieren, V.; Luitjens, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic, structural, and recording properties of CoCr double-layered media are investigated. The underlayer materials NiFe (crystalline) and CoZrNb (amorphous) were combined with two different kinds of intermediate layers: Ti (crystalline) and Ge (amorphous). Applying a bias voltage during sputtering of NiFe results in a low coercivity of the NiFe layer and in a high coercivity of the CoCr layer. The structure of the NiFe layer influences the structure of the CoCr layer. A Ti layer between the NiFe and CoCr layers decreases the in-plane remanence of the CoCr layer. The coercivity of all CoZrNb layers is low, independent of the application of a bias voltage. The orientation and structure of CoCr on CoZrNb can be improved by using a Ge intermediate layer, which results in a low coercivity of the CoCr. A Ti intermediate layer increases the coercivity. Ring heads show a dependence of spike noise on the underlayer coercivity and on the applied normal force. A probe-type head shows a dependence of its output on the CoCr coercivity, which may be understood in terms of demagnetization and writing depth

  17. Shape memory and pseudoelastic properties of Fe-Mn-Si and Ti-Ni based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenin, G.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to analyse and discuss some recent advances in shape memory and pseudoelastic properties of different alloys. Experimental work in connection with theoretical ones will be reviewed. The first part is devoted to the microstructural origin of shape memory properties of Fe-Mn-Si based alloys (γ-ε transformation); the second part is a synthetic analysis of the effects of thermomechanical treatments on shape memory and pseudoelastic effects in Ti-Ni alloys, with some focus on the behaviour of the R phase introduced. (orig.)

  18. Resonant Ni and Fe KLL Auger spectra photoexcited from NiFe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koever, L.; Cserny, I.; Berenyi, Z.; Egri, S.; Novak, M.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. KLL Auger spectra of 3d transition metal atoms in solid environment, measured using high energy resolution, give an insight into the details of the local electronic structure surrounding the particular atoms emitting the signal Auger electrons. Fine tuning the energy of the exciting monochromatic photons across the K-absorption edge, features characteristic to resonant phenomena can be identified in the spectra. The shapes of the resonantly photoexcited KLL Auger spectra induced from 3d transition metals and alloys are well interpreted by the single step model of the Auger process, based on the resonant scattering theory. The peak shapes are strongly influenced by the 4p partial density of unoccupied electronic states around the excited atom. High energy resolution studies of KLL Auger spectra of 3d transition metals using laboratory X-ray sources, however, request very demanding experiments and yield spectra of limited statistical quality making the evaluation of the fine details in the spectra difficult. The Tunable High Energy XPS (THE- XPS) instrument at BW2 offers optimum photon x and energy resolution for spectroscopy of deep core Auger transitions. For the present measurements high purity polycrystalline Ni and Fe sheets as well as NiFe alloy samples of different compositions (Ni 80 Fe 20 , Ni 50 Fe 50 , Ni 20 Fe 80 ) were used. The surfaces of the samples were cleaned by in-situ argon ion sputtering. The measurements of the Ni and Fe KL 23 L 23 Auger spectra of the metal and alloy samples were performed with the THE-XPS instrument using high electron energy resolution (0.2 eV). In Fig.1, the measured Fe KL 23 L 23 spectrum, photoexcited at the Fe K absorption edge from Fe metal, is compared with the respective spectrum excited from a Ni 50 Fe 50 alloy. A significant broadening of the 1 D 2 peak and an enhancement of the spectral intensity at the low energy loss part of this peak observed in the alloy sample, while the

  19. The influence of nickel content on microstructures of Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys irradiated with nickel ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroga, T.; Yoshida, N.; Garner, F.A.

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of this effort is to identify the mechanisms involved in the radiation-induced evolution of microstructure in materials intended for fusion applications. The results of this study are useful in interpreting the results of several other ongoing experiments involving either spectral or isotopic tailoring to study the effects of helium on microstructure evolution. Ion-irradiated Fe-15Cr-XNi (X = 20, 35, 45, 60, 75) ternary alloys and a 15Cr-85Ni binary alloy were examined after bombardment at 675 degree C and compared to earlier observations made on these same alloys after irradiation in EBR-II at 510 or 538 degree C. The response of the ion-irradiated microstructures to nickel content appears to be very consistent with that of neutron irradiation even though there are four orders of magnitude difference in displacement rate and over 200 degree C difference in temperature. It appears that the transition to higher rates of swelling during both types of irradiation is related to the operation of some mechanisms that is not directly associated with void nucleation. 6 refs., 8 figs

  20. Structure and grindability of dental Ti-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.-C.; Wu, S.-C.; Chiang, T.-Y.; Ho, W.-F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure and microhardness of a series of binary Ti-Cr alloys with Cr contents up to 30 wt%. In addition, the grindability was also evaluated using an electric dental handpiece with SiC wheels, with the goal of developing a titanium alloy with better mechanical properties and machinability than commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti), a metal generally considered to be difficult to machine. This study evaluated the phase and structure of Ti-Cr alloys, using an X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase analysis and optical microscope for microstructure of the etched alloys. Grindability was evaluated by measuring the amount of metal volume removed after grinding for 1 min. Results indicated that the structure of Ti-Cr alloys is sensitive to the Cr content. The cast c.p. Ti has a hexagonal α phase. With 5 wt% Cr, metastable β phase starts to be retained. With Cr contents higher than 10 wt%, the equi-axed β phase is almost entirely retained. In addition, athermal ω phase was found in the Ti-5Cr and Ti-10Cr alloys. The largest quantity of ω phase and highest microhardness were found in Ti-10Cr alloy. The grinding rate of the Ti-Cr alloys showed a similar tendency to the microhardness. The Ti-10Cr alloy exhibited the best grindability, especially at 1000 m/min, which presumably due to the brittle nature of the alloy containing the ω phase in the β matrix.

  1. Thermokinetic Simulation of Precipitation in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirstea, C. D.; Karadeniz-Povoden, E.; Kozeschnik, E.; Lungu, M.; Lang, P.; Balagurov, A.; Cirstea, V.

    2017-06-01

    Considering classical nucleation theory and evolution equations for the growth and composition change of precipitates, we simulate the evolution of the precipitates structure in the classical stages of nucleation, growth and coarsening using the solid-state transformation Matcalc software. The formation of Ni3Ti, Ni4Ti3 or Ni3Ti2 precipitate is the key to hardening phenomenon of the alloys, which depends on the nickel solubility in the bulk alloys. The microstructural evolution of metastable Ni4Ti3 and Ni3Ti2 precipitates in Ni-rich TiNi alloys is simulated by computational thermokinetics, based on thermodynamic and diffusion databases. The simulated precipitate phase fractions are compared with experimental data.

  2. Microstructure of two phases alloy Al3Ti/Al3Ti0.75Fe0.25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles, C.; Rosas, G.; Perez, R.

    1998-01-01

    The titanium-aluminium system presents three intermetallic compounds from those Al 3 Ti is what less attention has received. The objective of this work is to generate and characterize the microstructure of multiphase alloys nearby to Al 3 Ti compound through Fe addition as alloying. This is because it has been seen that little precipitates of Al 2 Ti phase over Al 3 Ti intermetallic compound increases its ductility. (Author)

  3. Effect of the Addition of 3% Co in NiTi Alloy on Loading/Unloading Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukaoluan, A.; Dechkunakorn, S.; Anuwongnukroh, N.; Khantachawana, A.; Kaewtathip, P.; Kajornchaiyakul, J.; Wichai, W.

    2017-11-01

    The study evaluated the loading-unloading force in the load-deflection curve of the fabricated NiTiCo and NiTi wires. Wire alloys with Nickel, Titanium, and Cobalt (purity-99.95%) with atomic weight ratio 47Ni:50Ti:3Co and 50.6Ni:49.4Ti were prepared, sliced, and cold-rolled at 30% reduction, followed by heat treatment in a furnace at 400oC for 1 hour. The specimens of wire size of 0.016 x 0.022 inch2 were cut and subjected to three-point bending test to investigate the load-deflection curve at deflection point 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 mm. Descriptive statistic was used to evaluate each variables and independent t-test was used to compare between the groups. The results presented a load-deflection curve that resembled a typical superelastic wire. However, significant differences were seen in the loading-unloading forces between the two with an average loading force of 412.53g and 304.98g and unloading force of 292.40g and 208.08g for NiTiCo and NiTi wire, respectively. The force at each deflection point of NiTiCo in loading-unloading force was higher than NiTi wire. This study concluded that the addition of 3%Co in NiTi alloy can increase the loading-unloading force of NiTi wire but were within the range for orthodontic tooth movement.

  4. Performance of NiFe2O4-SiO2-TiO2 Magnetic Photocatalyst for the Effective Photocatalytic Reduction of Cr(VI in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike O. Ojemaye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation into the reduction of Cr(VI in aqueous solution was carried out through some batch photocatalytic studies. The photocatalysts used were silica coated nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NiFe2O4-SiO2, nickel ferrite titanium dioxide (NiFe2O4-TiO2, nickel ferrite silica titanium dioxide (NiFe2O4-SiO2-TiO2, and titanium dioxide (TiO2. The characterization of the materials prepared via stepwise synthesis using coprecipitation and sol-gel methods were carried out with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. The reduction efficiency was studied as a function of pH, photocatalyst dose, and contact time. The effects of silica interlayer between the magnetic photocatalyst materials reveal that reduction efficiency of NiFe2O4-SiO2-TiO2 towards Cr(VI was higher than that of NiFe2O4-TiO2. However, TiO2 was observed to have the highest reduction efficiency at all batch photocatalytic experiments. Kinetics study shows that photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI obeyed Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and first-order rate kinetics. Regenerability study also suggested that the photocatalyst materials can be reused.

  5. Deep Drawing Behavior of CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Wung; Moon, Jongun; Jang, Min Ji; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Joo, Soo-Hyun; Jung, Jaimyun; Yim, Dami; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2017-09-01

    Herein, the deep drawability and deep drawing behavior of an equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi HEA and its microstructure and texture evolution are first studied for future applications. The CoCrFeMnNi HEA is successfully drawn to a limit drawing ratio (LDR) of 2.14, while the planar anisotropy of the drawn cup specimen is negligible. The moderate combination of strain hardening exponent and strain rate sensitivity and the formation of deformation twins in the edge region play important roles in successful deep drawing. In the meanwhile, the texture evolution of CoCrFeMnNi HEA has similarities with conventional fcc metals.

  6. Surface Hardening of Ti-15V-3Al-3Cr-3Sn Alloy after Cyclic Hydrogenation and Subsequent Solution Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Po Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The as-received and preheated (1000°C-30 min. and 500°C-30 min. sheets of Ti-15V-3Al-3Cr-3Sn alloy (Ti-153 were treated according to the predetermined process including a cyclic electrolytic hydrogenation (at 50 mA/cm2 for 1 hr and at 5 mA/cm2 for 10 hrs combining a subsequent solution treatment to see the effects of various operating parameters on the evolution of microstructure and the variations of hardness. The hardening effect deriving from solid-solution strengthening of hydrogen eventually overrode that from precipitation hardening. The maximum hardness elevation was from 236.9 to 491.1 VHN.

  7. Microstructure and wear resistance of laser cladded Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V high-entropy alloy coating after laser remelting processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhaobing; Cui, Xiufang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yang; Dong, Meiling; Jin, Guo

    2018-02-01

    An attempt, combined with the technologies of laser cladding and laser remelting, has been made to develop a Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V high entropy alloy coating. The phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness and wear resistance (rolling friction) were studied in detail. The results show that after laser remelting, the phase composition remains unchanged, that is, as-cladded coating and as-remelted coatings are all composed of (Ni, Co)Ti2 intermetallic compound, Ti-rich phase and BCC solid solution phase. However, after laser remelting, the volume fraction of Ti-rich phase increases significantly. Moreover, the micro-hardness is increased, up to ∼900 HV at the laser remelting parameters: laser power of 1 kW, laser spot diameter of 3 mm, and laser speed of 10 mm/s. Compared to the as-cladded high-entropy alloy coating, the as-remelted high-entropy alloy coatings have high friction coefficient and low wear mass loss, indicating that the wear resistance of as-remelted coatings is improved and suggesting practical applications, like coatings on brake pads for wear protection. The worn surface morphologies show that the worn mechanism of as-cladded and as-remelted high-entropy alloy coatings are adhesive wear.

  8. Effect of alloying elements on martensitic transformation in the binary NiAl(β) phase alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, R.; Ohtani, H.; Ishida, K.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the B2(β) to L1 0 (β') martensitic transformation in NiAl base alloys containing a small amount of third elements have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that in addition to the normal L1 0 (3R) martensite, the 7R martensite is also present in the ternary alloys containing Ti, Mo, Ag, Ta, or Zr. While the addition of third elements X (X: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, and Si) to the binary Ni 64 Al 36 alloy stabilizes the parent β phase, thereby lowering the M s temperature, addition of third elements such as Co, Cu, or Ag destabilizes the β phase, increasing the M s temperature. The occurrence of the 7R martensite structure is attributed to solid solution hardening arising from the difference in atomic size between Ni and Al and the third elements added. The variation in M s temperature with third element additions is primarily ascribed to the difference in lattice stabilities of the bcc and fcc phases of the alloying elements

  9. Structure and mechanical properties of as-cast Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Wu, Shih-Ching; Lee, Chih-Jhan; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, as-cast Ti-5Nb and a series of Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys were investigated and compared with commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti) in order to determine their structure and mechanical properties. The series of Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys contained an iron content ranging from 1 to 5 mass% and were prepared by using a commercial arc-melting vacuum-pressure casting system. Additionally, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase analysis was conducted with a diffractometer, and three-point bending tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of all specimens. The fractured surfaces were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results indicated that these alloys possessed a range of different structures and mechanical properties dependent upon the various additions of Fe. With an addition of 1 mass% Fe, retention of the metastable β phase began. However, when 4 mass% Fe or greater was added, the β phase was entirely retained with a bcc crystal structure. Moreover, the ω phase was only detected in the Ti-5Nb-2Fe, Ti-5Nb-3Fe and Ti-5Nb-4Fe alloys. The largest quantity of ω phase and the highest bending modulus were found in the Ti-5Nb-3Fe alloy. The Ti-5Nb-2Fe alloy had the lowest bending modulus, which was lower than that of c.p. Ti by 20%. This alloy exhibited the highest bending strength/modulus ratio of 26.7, which was higher than that of c.p. Ti by 214%, and of the Ti-5Nb alloy (14.4 ) by 85%. Additionally, the elastically recoverable angles of the ductile Ti-5Nb-1Fe (19.9 o ) and Ti-5Nb-5Fe (29.5 o ) alloys were greater than that of c.p. Ti (2.7 o ) by as much as 637% and 993%, respectively. Furthermore, the preliminary cell culturing results revealed that the Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys were not only biocompatible, but also supported cell attachment.

  10. Structure and mechanical properties of as-cast Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Wu, Shih-Ching [Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40605, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Material Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chih-Jhan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China); Ho, Wen-Fu, E-mail: fujii@mail.dyu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15

    In this study, as-cast Ti-5Nb and a series of Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys were investigated and compared with commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti) in order to determine their structure and mechanical properties. The series of Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys contained an iron content ranging from 1 to 5 mass% and were prepared by using a commercial arc-melting vacuum-pressure casting system. Additionally, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase analysis was conducted with a diffractometer, and three-point bending tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of all specimens. The fractured surfaces were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results indicated that these alloys possessed a range of different structures and mechanical properties dependent upon the various additions of Fe. With an addition of 1 mass% Fe, retention of the metastable {beta} phase began. However, when 4 mass% Fe or greater was added, the {beta} phase was entirely retained with a bcc crystal structure. Moreover, the {omega} phase was only detected in the Ti-5Nb-2Fe, Ti-5Nb-3Fe and Ti-5Nb-4Fe alloys. The largest quantity of {omega} phase and the highest bending modulus were found in the Ti-5Nb-3Fe alloy. The Ti-5Nb-2Fe alloy had the lowest bending modulus, which was lower than that of c.p. Ti by 20%. This alloy exhibited the highest bending strength/modulus ratio of 26.7, which was higher than that of c.p. Ti by 214%, and of the Ti-5Nb alloy (14.4 ) by 85%. Additionally, the elastically recoverable angles of the ductile Ti-5Nb-1Fe (19.9{sup o}) and Ti-5Nb-5Fe (29.5{sup o}) alloys were greater than that of c.p. Ti (2.7{sup o}) by as much as 637% and 993%, respectively. Furthermore, the preliminary cell culturing results revealed that the Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys were not only biocompatible, but also supported cell attachment.

  11. Grain boundary migration induced segregation in V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H. [Univ. of Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Analytical electron microscopy results are reported for a series of vanadium alloys irradiated in the HFIR JP23 experiment at 500{degrees}C. Alloys were V-5Cr-5Ti and pure vanadium which are expected to have transmuted to V-15Cr-5Ti and V-10Cr following irradiation. Analytical microscopy confirmed the expected transmutation occurred and showed redistribution of Cr and Ti resulting from grain boundary migration in V-5Cr-5Ti, but in pure V, segregation was reduced and no clear trends as a function of position near a boundary were identified.

  12. Effect of chemical composition of Ni-Cr dental casting alloys on the bonding characterization between porcelain and metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H-H; Lin, M-C; Lee, T-H; Yang, H-W; Chen, F-L; Wu, S-C; Hsu, C-C

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chemical composition of Ni-Cr dental casting alloys on the bonding behaviour between porcelain and metal. A three-point bending test was used to measure the fracture load of alloy after porcelain firing. A scanning electron microscope, accompanied by an energy dispersion spectrometer, was used to analyse the morphology and chemical composition of the fracture surface. An X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and glow discharge spectrometer were used to identify the structure and cross-sectional chemical composition, respectively, of oxide layers on Ni-Cr alloys after heat treatment at 990 degrees C for 5 min. Results showed that the oxide layers formed on all Ni-Cr alloys contained mainly Cr2O3, NiO, and trace MoO3. The Ni-Cr alloy with a higher Cr content had a thicker oxide layer, as well as a weaker bonding behaviour of porcelain/metal interface. The presence of Al (as Al2O3) and Be (as BeO) on the oxide layer suppressed the growth of the oxide layer, leading to a better porcelain/metal bonding behaviour. However, the presence of a small amount of Ti (as TiO2) on the oxide layer did not have any influence on the bonding behaviour. The fracture propagated along the interface between the opaque porcelain and metal, and exhibited an adhesive type of fracture morphology.

  13. Effect of TiC Additions on the Formation and Microstructural Evolution of Zr66.7Ni33.3Amorphous Alloys%TiC掺杂对Zr66.7Ni33.3非晶形成及结构演化影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿浩然; 王艳; 王英姿; 夏琳燕

    2012-01-01

    We used Zr66.7 Ni33.3 binary alloys as base alloys and selected the intermetallic compound TiC as additional particles. The influence of TiC addition on the microstructural evolution induced by mechanical alloying has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimental results show that the proper addition of TiC (5wt%) not only shortens the starting time of the amarphization reaction, but also improves the glass forming ability (GFA) of Zr-Ni alloy powders and greatly enhances the mechanical stability of the amorphous composites. Based upon the EDX analysis, we have found that the diffusion of TiC among the atoms of Zr and Ni is inhomogeneous, leading to the increase of the disorder degree of atoms in local regions. Therefore, the TiC addition improves the GFA and stability of the Zr-Ni alloys. The DSC results demonstrate that the effect of the addition of 3 wt% TiC is better than that of the addition of 5 wt% TiC on the improvement of thermal stability of the amorphous phase, suggesting that there is no correlation between thermal stability and mechanical stability of MA induced Zr-Ni-based amorphous alloys.%利用机械合金化法,以Zr66.7Ni33.3合金粉末作为基体,选择TiC作为掺杂物,研究其对机械合金化诱导合金粉末显微结构演化行为的影响.研究发现,掺杂适量的TiC粉末可使Ti和C原子在Zr-Ni间发生不均匀扩散,导致局域范围内原子排列的无序度增大,从而提高非晶形成能力和机械稳定性,其中5wt% TiC的掺杂效果最佳.此外,3wt%TiC掺杂导致非晶相的热稳定性优于5wt%TiC的掺杂效果,说明机械合金化合成Zr-Ni基非晶合金粉末的机械稳定性和其热稳定性之间无相关性.

  14. Microsegregation observed in Fe-35.5Ni-7.5Cr irradiated in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, H.R.; Garner, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    At 593 0 C one alloy, Fe-35.5Ni-7.5Cr, which was particularly resistant to swelling in EBR-II, increased in density 0.9% at 7.6 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Examination by energy dispersive x-ray analysis revealed that substantial oscillations occur in the nickel content of the alloy, varying from 25 to 53% about the nominal level of 35.5%. These oscillations exhibit a period of approx.200 nm. Regions enriched in nickel are depleted in chromium and iron, and the reverse is true in regions of low nickel content. This spinodal-like process produces a net densification and also appears to eventually destroy the swelling resistance of the alloy. Once voids form in the nickel-poor chromium-rich regions, further segregation of nickel to void surfaces is expected to accelerate the loss of swelling resistance

  15. Effect of alloying elements on the stability of Ni2M in Alloy690 based upon thermodynamic calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Toshiaki; Kuwano, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Naohiro

    2012-01-01

    Some researchers recently point out that Ni based alloys used in nuclear power plants have the ordering tendency, which is a potential to decrease mechanical properties within the expected lifetime of the plants. In the present study, authors evaluated the effect of 8 alloying elements on the ordering tendency in Alloy690 based upon thermodynamic calculation by Thermo-Calc. It is clarified that the additive amount of Fe, Cr, Ti and Si, particularly Fe and Cr, was influential for the stability of Ni 2 M, while that of Mn, Cu, B and C had almost no effect for that. Authors therefore designed the Ni 2 M stabilized alloy by no addition of Fe in Alloy690. Ni 2 M is estimated to be stable even at 773 K in the Ni 2 M stabilized alloy. The influence by long range ordering or precipitating of Ni 2 M in Alloy690 for mechanical properties or SCC susceptibility is expected to be clarified by the sample obtained in the present study. (author)

  16. The martensitic transformation in Ti-rich TiNi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.C.; Wu, S.K.; Lin, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The martensitic (Ms) transformation temperatures and their ΔH values of Ti 51 Ni 49 and Ti 50.5 Ni 49.5 alloys are higher than those of equiatomic or Ni-rich TiNi alloys. The Ti-rich TiNi alloys exhibit good shape recovery in spite of a great deal of second phase Ti 2 Ni or Ti 4 Ni 2 O existing around B2 grain boundaries. The nearly identical transformation temperatures indicate that the absorbed oxygen in Ti-rich TiNi alloys may react with Ti 2 Ni particles, instead of the TiNi matrix, to form Ti 4 Ni 2 O. Martensite stabilization can be induced by cold rolling at room temperature. Thermal cycling can depress the transformation temperatures significantly, especially in the initial 20 cycles. The R-phase transformation can be promoted by both cold rolling and thermal cycling in Ti-rich TiNi alloys due to introduced dislocations depressing the Ms temperature. The strengthening effects of cold rolling and thermal cycling on the Ms temperature of Ti-rich TiNi alloys are found to follow the expression Ms = To - KΔσ y . The K values are affected by different strengthening processes and related to the as-annealed transformation temperatures. The higher the as-annealed Ms (or As), the larger the K value. (orig.)

  17. Equilibrium phase of high-entropy FeCoNiCrCu0.5 alloy at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-M.; Tsai, H.-L.

    2010-01-01

    The phase transformations of FeCoNiCrCu 0.5 alloy with the as-cast structure and heat-treated structures were studied. The as-cast alloy specimens were first heated at 1050 o C with a holding time of 1 h. Serial heat-treatment processes at 350 o C, 500 o C, 650 o C, 800 o C, 950 o C, 1100 o C, 1250 o C and 1350 o C with a holding time of 24 h were then carried out to understand the phase evolution and the relationship between the microstructure and the hardness of the specimens. The microstructures were investigated and chemical analyses performed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning elector microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and transmission elector microscopy (TEM). The results show that FCC peaks were observed from the X-ray diffraction of the as-cast specimens and a precipitate phase was present in the specimens that had been heated to 950 o C. The hardness of the FeCoNiCrCu 0.5 alloy remained unchanged in the specimens that underwent various heat treatments that were applied in this study.

  18. Effect of alloying elements on the shape memory properties of ductile Cu-Al-Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutou, Y.; Kainuma, R.; Ishida, K.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of alloying elements on the M s temperature, ductility and the shape memory properties of Cu-Al-Mn ductile shape memory (SM) alloys was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, cold-rolling and tensile test techniques. It was found that the addition of Au, Si and Zn to the Cu 73 -Al 17 -Mn 10 alloy stabilized the martensite (6M) phase increasing the M s temperature, while the addition of Ag, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Sn and Ti decreased the stability of the martensite phase, decreasing the M s temperature. The SM properties were improved by the addition of Co, Ni, Cr and Ti. (orig.)

  19. Optimizing Heat Treatment Process of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni Martensitic Stainless of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. S.; Prifiharni, S.; Mabruri, E.

    2017-05-01

    The Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels are modified into martensitic stainless steels for steam turbine blades application. The working temperature of steam turbine was around 600 - 700 °C. The improvement properties of turbine blade material is necessary to maintain steam turbine work. The previous research revealed that it has corrosion resistance of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni which is better than 13Cr stainless steels in the chloride environment. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels has been studied. The steel was prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging. The steels were austenitized at 1000, 1050, and 1100 °C for 1 hour and were tempered at 600, 650, and 700 °C for 1 hour. The steels were then subjected to metallographic observation and hardness test of Rockwell C. The optimal heat treatment of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni was carried out austenitized in 1050 °C and tempered in 600 - 700 °C.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded and laser welded high entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Min-Gu; Kim, Han-Jin; Kang, Minjung; Madakashira, Phaniraj P.; Park, Eun Soo; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Kim, Dong-Ik; Hong, Sung-Tae; Han, Heung Nam

    2018-01-01

    The high entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi has been shown to have promising structural properties. For a new alloy to be used in a structural application it should be weldable. In the present study, friction stir welding (FSW) and laser welding (LW) techniques were used to butt weld thin plates of CrMnFeCoNi. The microstructure, chemical homogeneity and mechanical behavior of the welds were characterized and compared with the base metal. The tensile stress-strain behavior of the welded specimens were reasonable when compared with that of the base metal. FSW refined the grain size in the weld region by a factor of ˜14 when compared with the base metal. High-angle annular dark field transmission electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed chemical inhomogeneity between dendritic and interdendritic regions in the fusion zone of LW. Large fluctuations in composition (up to 15 at%) did not change the crystal structure in the fusion zone. Hardness measurements were carried out in the weld cross section and discussed in view of the grain size, low angle grain boundaries and twin boundaries in FSW specimens and the dendritic microstructure in LW specimens.

  1. Magnetic features of Fe-Cr-Co alloys with tailoring chromium content fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastabi, Reza Amini; Ghasemi, Ali; Tavoosi, Majid; Ramazani, Mazaher

    2017-01-01

    Structural and magnetic characterization of Fe-Cr-Co alloys during milling, annealing and consolidation processes was the goal of this study. In this regards, different powder mixtures of Fe 80−x Cr x Co 20 (15≤x≤35) were mechanically milled in a planetary ball mill and then were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The produced samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). According to achieved results, the structure of as-milled samples in different compositions consists of single α phase solid solution with coercivity and saturation of magnetization in the range of 110–200 Oe and 150–220 emu/g, respectively. The magnetic properties of consolidated samples depend on the kinds of formed precipitates in microstructure and the maximum values of coercive force and saturation of magnetization obtained in Fe 55 Cr 25 Co 20 magnetic (with single α phase) alloy were 107 Oe and Ms 172 emu/g, respectively. In fact, the formation of non-magnetic σ and γ phases has a destructive effect on magnetic properties of consolidated samples with higher Cr content. Since such magnet requires less cobalt, and contains similar magnetic feature with superior ductility compare to the AlNiCo 5, it could be considered as a promising candidate for employing instead of AlNiCo 5. - Highlights: • Milled samples consist of single phase α-solid solution. • Saturation of magnetization of Fe 65 Cr 15 Co 20 reached to 172 emu/g. • Fe 65 Cr 15 Co 20 alloy is the suitable composition fabricated by SPS.

  2. Thermomechanical behavior of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloys modified with samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoor, R.A.; Khalid, F. Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    The deformation and training behavior of Fe-14Mn-3Si-10Cr-5Ni (wt.%) shape memory alloys containing samarium addition has been studied in the iron-based shape memory alloys. It is noticed that thermomechanical treatment (training) has significant influence on proof stress, critical stress and shape memory behavior of the alloys. The improvement in shape memory behavior can be attributed to the decrease in the proof stress and critical stress which facilitates the formation of ε (hcp martensite). It is also observed that alloy 2 containing samarium undergoes less softening as compared to alloy 1 with training which inhibits the formation of α (bcc martensite) and thus enhances the shape memory behavior. The excessive thermomechanical treatment with increase in the training cycle has led to the formation of α (bcc martensite) along with ε (hcp martensite) in the alloy 1 which appeared to have decline in the shape memory effect. This has been demonstrated by the examination of microstructure and identification of α (bcc martensite) martensite in the alloy 1 as compared to alloy 2

  3. High pressure synthesis of a hexagonal close-packed phase of the high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Park, Sulgiye; Rittman, Dylan R.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Bei, Hongbin; Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney C.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2017-05-25

    High-entropy alloys, near-equiatomic solid solutions of five or more elements, represent a new strategy for the design of materials with properties superior to those of conventional alloys. However, their phase space remains constrained, with transition metal high-entropy alloys exhibiting only face- or body-centered cubic structures. Here, we report the high-pressure synthesis of a hexagonal close-packed phase of the prototypical high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi. This martensitic transformation begins at 14 GPa and is attributed to suppression of the local magnetic moments, destabilizing the initial fcc structure. Similar to fcc-to-hcp transformations in Al and the noble gases, the transformation is sluggish, occurring over a range of >40 GPa. However, the behaviour of CrMnFeCoNi is unique in that the hcp phase is retained following decompression to ambient pressure, yielding metastable fcc-hcp mixtures. This demonstrates a means of tuning the structures and properties of high-entropy alloys in a manner not achievable by conventional processing techniques.

  4. Effect of thermal cycling on the microstructure of a directionally solidified Fe, Cr, Al-TaC eutectic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.; Tewari, S. N.

    1977-01-01

    Cylindrical bars (1.2 cm diameter) of Fe-13.6Cr-3.7Al-9TaC (wt %) eutectic alloy were directionally solidified in a modified Bridgman type furnace at 1 cm/h. The alloy microstructure consisted of aligned TaC fibers imbedded in a bcc Fe-Cr-Al matrix. Specimens of the alloy were thermally cycled from 1100 to 425 C in a burner rig. The effects of 1800 thermal cycles on the microstructure was examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a zig-zag shape of TaC fibers aligned parallel to the growth direction. The mechanism of carbide solution and reprecipitation on the (111) easy growth planes, suggested previously to account for the development of irregular serrations in Co-Cr-Ni matrix alloys, is believed to be responsible for these zig-zag surfaces.

  5. Microstructure, mechanical properties and superelasticity of biomedical porous NiTi alloy prepared by microwave sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J L; Bao, L Z; Liu, A H; Jin, X J; Tong, Y X; Luo, J M; Zhong, Z C; Zheng, Y F

    2015-01-01

    Porous NiTi alloys were prepared by microwave sintering using ammonium hydrogen carbonate (NH4HCO3) as the space holder agent to adjust the porosity in the range of 22-62%. The effects of porosities on the microstructure, hardness, compressive strength, bending strength, elastic modulus, phase transformation temperature and superelasticity of the porous NiTi alloys were investigated. The results showed that the porosities and average pore sizes of the porous NiTi alloys increased with increasing the contents of NH4HCO3. The porous NiTi alloys consisted of nearly single NiTi phase, with a very small amount of two secondary phases (Ni3Ti, NiTi2) when the porosities are lower than 50%. The amount of Ni3Ti and NiTi2 phases increased with further increasing of the porosity proportion. The porosities had few effects on the phase transformation temperatures of the porous NiTi alloys. By increasing the porosities, all of the hardness, compressive strength, elastic modulus, bending strength and superelasticity of the porous NiTi alloys decreased. However, the compressive strength and bending strength were higher or close to those of natural bone and the elastic modulus was close to the natural bone. The superelastic recovery strain of the trained porous NiTi alloys could reach between 3.1 and 4.7% at the pre-strain of 5%, even if the porosity was up to 62%. Moreover, partial shape memory effect was observed for all porosity levels under the experiment conditions. Therefore, the microwave sintered porous NiTi alloys could be a promising candidate for bone implant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W and Ni-Fe-W alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriraman, K.R.; Ganesh Sundara Raman, S.; Seshadri, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    The present work deals with evaluation of corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W and Ni-Fe-W alloys. Corrosion behaviour of the coatings deposited on steel substrates was studied using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques in 3.5% NaCl solution while their passivation behaviour was studied in 1N sulphuric acid solution. The corrosion resistance of Ni-W alloys increased with tungsten content up to 7.54 at.% and then decreased. In case of Ni-Fe-W alloys it increased with tungsten content up to 9.20 at.% and then decreased. The ternary alloy coatings exhibited poor corrosion resistance compared to binary alloy coatings due to preferential dissolution of iron from the matrix. Regardless of composition all the alloys exhibited passivation behaviour over a wide range of potentials due to the formation of tungsten rich film on the surface

  7. Effect of Ta substitution method on the mechanical properties of Ni3(Si,Ti) intermetallic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imajo, Daiki; Kaneno, Yasuyuki; Takasugi, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Ta was added to an L1 2 -type Ni 3 (Si,Ti) alloy at different levels and into different substitution sites, substituting for either Ni, Ti or Si. The solubility limits of Ta in the L1 2 phase were 1.9 at%, 5.7 at% and 1.0 at% when Ta substituted for Ni, Ti and Si, respectively. The lattice parameters in the L1 2 phase region increased in the order of the Ta(Ni)>Ta(Si)>Ta(Ti) quaternary alloys, in which Ta substituted for Ni, Si and Ti, respectively. The room-temperature hardness in the L1 2 phase region increased linearly with increasing Ta content, and the increment rate increased in the order of the Ta(Ni)>Ta(Si)>Ta(Ti) quaternary alloys. Similarly, the room-temperature 0.2% proof stress as well as the tensile strength in the L1 2 phase region increased linearly with increasing Ta content, and the increment rate increased in the order of the Ta(Ni)>Ta(Si)>Ta(Ti) quaternary alloys. High tensile elongation was observed at room temperature when the microstructures remain in the L1 2 single phase. At high temperatures, a positive temperature dependence of the hardness as well as the flow strength was observed in the quaternary alloys. It was also shown that the wear resistance of the quaternary Ta(Ti) alloys was improved and attributed to plastically induced hardening of the worn surfaces combined with the positive temperature dependence of the flow strength. The strengthening and hardening resulting from Ta addition was suggested to be due to the hardening of the solid solution arising from the misfits in the atomic radius between Ta and the constituent atoms Ni, Ti or Si

  8. Ion backscattering, channeling and nuclear reaction analysis study of passive films formed on FeCrNi and FeCrNiMo (100) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, C; Schmaus, D [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Groupe de Physique des Solides de l' ENS; Elbiache, A; Marcus, P [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1990-01-01

    The compositions of passive films formed on Fe-17Fr-13Ni (at. %) and Fe-18.5Cr-14Ni-1.5Mo (100) single crystals have been determined and the structure of the alloy under the film has been investigated. The alloys were passivated in 0.05M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 250 mV/SHE for 30 min. The oxygen content was measured by nuclear microanalysis using the {sup 16}O(d,p) {sup 17}O* reaction. The oxygen content in the passive film is similar for the two alloys and equal to (12{plus minus}2) 10{sup 15} O/cm{sup 2}. The cationic compositions of the passive films have been determined by {sup 4}He channeling at two incident beam energies: 0.8 and 2.0 MeV. For the two alloys studied, a total cation content of (5{plus minus}2)10{sup 15} at/cm{sup 2} is found in the passive films. The corresponding thickness is about 12 A. There is an excess of oxygen, which can be attributed to the presence of hydroxyls and sulfate. A strong chromium enrichment is found in the passive film formed on both alloys: chromium represents about 50% of the cations. There is no evidence of molybdenum enrichment in the passive film formed on the Mo-alloyed stainless steel. The comparison of the results obtained at the two different incident beam energies (0.8MeV and 2MeV) reveals the existence of defects at the alloy/passive film interface. (author).

  9. Density of liquid NiCrAlMo quarternary alloys measured by a modified sessile drop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, L.; Wang, Y.F.; Xiao, F.; Tao, Z.N.; MuKai, K.

    2006-01-01

    The densities of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys with a fixed molar ratio of Ni:Cr:Al (approximately as 73:14:13) and molybdenum concentration from 0 to 10 mass% were measured by a modified sessile drop method (MSDM). It was found that the density of the liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys decreases with increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of molybdenum concentration. The molar volume of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and molybdenum concentration. The density of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys calculated from the partial molar volumes of nickel, chromium, aluminum and molybdenum in the corresponding Ni-based binary alloys are in good agreement with the experimental results, means, within the error tolerance range the density of liquid Ni-based multi-component alloys can be predicted from the partial volumes of elements in Ni-based binary alloys in liquid state

  10. Thermomechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of a Ni(Pd)-rich Ni{sub 24.3}Ti{sub 49.7}Pd{sub 26} high temperature shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benafan, O., E-mail: othmane.benafan@nasa.gov [NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Garg, A. [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Noebe, R.D.; Bigelow, G.S.; Padula, S.A. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Gaydosh, D.J. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland, OH 44142 (United States); NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Vaidyanathan, R. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Clausen, B.; Vogel, S.C. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A Ni(Pd)-rich Ni{sub 24.3}Ti{sub 49.7}Pd{sub 26} high temperature shape memory alloy was characterized. • Aging resulted in fine dispersion of nano-sized precipitates. • Thermomechanical cycling resulted in dimensional instabilities due to lattice defects. • A two-way shape memory effect strain of 2% strain was obtained after cycling. - Abstract: The effect of thermomechanical cycling on a slightly Ni(Pd)-rich Ni{sub 24.3}Ti{sub 49.7}Pd{sub 26} (near stochiometric Ni–Ti basis with Pd replacing Ni) high temperature shape memory alloy was investigated. Aged tensile specimens (400 °C/24 h/furnace cooled) were subjected to constant-stress thermal cycling in conjunction with microstructural assessment via in situ neutron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), before and after testing. It was shown that in spite of the slightly Ni(Pd)-rich composition and heat treatment used to precipitation harden the alloy, the material exhibited dimensional instabilities with residual strain accumulation reaching 1.5% over 10 thermomechanical cycles. This was attributed to insufficient strengthening of the material (insufficient volume fraction of precipitate phase) to prevent plasticity from occurring concomitant with the martensitic transformation. In situ neutron diffraction revealed the presence of retained martensite while cycling under 300 MPa stress, which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of post-cycled samples. Neutron diffraction analysis of the post-thermally-cycled samples under no-load revealed residual lattice strains in the martensite and austenite phases, remnant texture in the martensite phase, and peak broadening of the austenite phase. Texture developed in the martensite phase was composed mainly of those martensitic tensile variants observed during thermomechanical cycling. Presence of a high density of dislocations, deformation twins, and retained martensite was revealed in the austenite state via in

  11. Fabrication of metallic alloy powder (Ni{sub 3}Fe) from Fe–77Ni scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Inseok [ES Materials Research Center, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Shun-Myung [Extractive Metallurgy Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Deajeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang-An [Department of Environmental Engineering, Silla University, Busan 46958 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Jei-Pil, E-mail: jpwang@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The oxidation behavior of Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was investigated at an oxygen partial pressure of 0.2 atm and temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 900 °C. The corresponding oxidation rate increased with increasing temperature and obeyed the parabolic rate law, as evidenced by its linear proportionality to the temperature. In addition, surface morphologies, cross-sectional views, compositions, structural properties were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Diffusion through either the spinel structure or the NiO layer, which were both present in the alloy during oxidation at elevated temperatures, was deemed the rate-limiting step of the reaction. The oxide powder less than 10 μm was obtained from Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was obtained using ball-milling and sieving processes. In fact, 15 h of milling yielded a recovery ratio of 97%. Using hydrogen gas, the oxide powder was successfully reduced to an alloy powder of Ni{sub 3}Fe and reduction rates of ∼97% were achieved after 3 h at 1000 °C. - Highlights: • The oxidation behavior of Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was investigated. • The oxide powder less than 10 μm was obtained from Fe–77Ni alloy scrap. • Using hydrogen gas, the oxide powder was successfully reclaimed. • Reduction rates of ∼97% were achieved after 3 h at 1000 °C.

  12. Structure change in 25 Cr - 20 Ni steels as a function of their Cr, Ni, Si and W content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribaudo, L.M.; Durand, F.; Durand-Charre, M.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of varying the Cr, Ni, Si and W concentrations on the type and composition of the carbides of solidification and on the phase shift temperature is studied with 18 alloys of composition close to stainless steel-25-20 (AISI 310) composition. Experimental techniques used are differential thermal analysis, microprobe and scanning electron microscope. Crystallization is interpreted with the equilibrium diagram Ni-Cr-C. The formation of the interdendritic σ phase for a chromium rich alloys is interpreted with the phase equilibrium diagram of Fe-Ni-Cr-C. Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance are dependent on the morphology of the carbides M 7 C 3 and M 23 C 6 [fr

  13. Solidification characteristics and segregation behavior of a P-containing Ni-Fe-Cr-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changshuai; Su, Haijun; Guo, YongAn; Guo, Jianting; Zhou, Lanzhang

    2017-09-01

    Solidification characteristics and segregation behavior of a P-containing Ni-Fe-Cr-based alloy, considered as boiler and turbine materials in 700 °C advanced ultra-supercritical coal-fired power plants, have been investigated by differential thermal analysis and directional solidification quenching technique. Results reveal that P decreases the solidus temperature, but only has negligible influence on liquidus temperature. After P was added, the solidification sequence has no apparent change, but the width of the mushy zone increases and dendritic structures become coarser. Moreover, P increases the amount and changes the morphology of MC carbide. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis reveals that P has obvious influence on the segregation behavior of the constitute elements with equilibrium partition coefficients (ki) far away from unity, whereas has negligible effect on the constituent elements with ki close to unity and has more influence on the final stage of solidification than at early stage. The distribution profiles reveal that P atoms pile up ahead of the solid/liquid (S/L) interface and strongly segregate to the interdendritic liquid region. The influence of P on solidification characteristics and segregation behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr-based alloy could be attributed to the accumulation of P ahead of the S/L interface during solidification.

  14. Effect of Fe, Ni, and Cr on the corrosion behaviour of hyper-eutectic Al-Si automotive alloy under different pH conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salim Kaiser

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Fe, Ni and Cr on the corrosion behaviour of hyper-eutectic Al-Si automotive alloy was studied. The test of corrosion behaviour at different environmental pH 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 was performed using conventional gravimetric measurements and complemented by resistivity, optical micrograph, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray analyser (EDX investigations. The highest corrosion rate was observed at pH 13 followed by pH 1, while in the pH range of 3.0 to 11, there is a high protection of surface due to formation of stable surface oxide film. The highest corrosion rate at pH 13 is due to presence of sodium hydroxide in the solution in which the surface oxide film is soluble. At pH 1, however, high corrosion rate can be attributed to dissolution of Al due to the surface attack by aggressive chloride ions. Presence of Fe, Ni and Cr in hyper-eutectic Al-Si automotive alloy has significant effect on the corrosion rate at both environmental pH values. Resistivity of alloy surfaces initially decreases at pH 1 and pH 13 due to formation of thin films. The SEM images of corroded samples immersed in pH 1 solution clearly show pores due to uniform degradation of the alloy. In pH 13 solution, however, the corrosion layer looks more packed and impermeable.

  15. Modified section method for laser-welding of ill-fitting cp Ti and Ni-Cr alloy one-piece cast implant-supported frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiossi, R; Falcão-Filho, H; Aguiar Júnior, F A; Rodrigues, R C; Mattos, M da G; Ribeiro, R F

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to verify the effect of modified section method and laser-welding on the accuracy of fit of ill-fitting commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) and Ni-Cr alloy one-piece cast frameworks. Two sets of similar implant-supported frameworks were constructed. Both groups of six 3-unit implant-supported fixed partial dentures were cast as one-piece [I: Ni-Cr (control) and II: cp Ti] and evaluated for passive fitting in an optical microscope with both screws tightened and with only one screw tightened. All frameworks were then sectioned in the diagonal axis at the pontic region (III: Ni-Cr and IV: cp Ti). Sectioned frameworks were positioned in the matrix (10-Ncm torque) and laser-welded. Passive fitting was evaluated for the second time. Data were submitted to anova and Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference tests (P screws tightened, one-piece cp Ti group II showed significantly higher misfit values (27.57 +/- 5.06 microm) than other groups (I: 11.19 +/- 2.54 microm, III: 12.88 +/- 2.93 microm, IV: 13.77 +/- 1.51 microm) (P screw-tightened test, with readings on the opposite side to the tightened side, Ni-Cr cast as one-piece (I: 58.66 +/- 14.30 microm) was significantly different from cp Ti group after diagonal section (IV: 27.51 +/- 8.28 microm) (P 0.05). Results showed that diagonally sectioning ill-fitting cp Ti frameworks lowers misfit levels of prosthetic implant-supported frameworks and also improves passivity levels of the same frameworks when compared to one-piece cast structures.

  16. Relationship of microstructure and mechanical properties for V-Cr-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Gazda, J.; Nowicki, L.J.; Smith, D.L.; Danyluk, S.

    1993-08-01

    Relation of composition, number density, and diameter of precipitates in microstructures of unalloyed V and V-Cr-Ti alloys to the yield strength, hardness, creep stress, and ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) for these materials was determined from analytical electron microscopy analyses of precipitates in these materials and from mechanical properties data. Unalloyed V and V-Cr-Ti alloys with ≤3 wt. % Ti contained VC and TI(CNO) precipitates that were coherent with the matrix. The most common precipitates in the alloys were Ti(C 1-x-y N x O y ) that were non-coherent with the matrix. The number density of non-coherent precipitates was maximum in V-3Ti and V-5Cr-3Ti alloys, and the average diameter of non-coherent precipitates was minimum in V-(1--3)Ti and V-5Cr-3Ti alloys. The increase of yield strength and hardness of V on alloying with Ti and Cr was shown to be primarily due to coherent precipitate, solute-atom misfit, and shear-modulus difference effects. The creep stress for rupture in 1000 hours was related to the number density of precipitates, whereas the DBTT was related to the volume fraction of precipitates

  17. Sintering behavior, microstructure and properties of TiC-FeCr hard alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farid Akhtar; Shiju Guo; Jawid Askari; Jianjun Tian

    2007-01-01

    TiC based cermets were produced with FeCr,as a binder,by conventional P/M (powder metallurgy) to near >97% of the theoretical density.Sintering temperature significantly affects the mechanical properties of the composite.The sintering temperature of>1360 ℃ caused severe chemical reaction between TiC particles and the binder phase.In the TiC-FeCr cermets,the mechanical properties did not vary linearly with the carbide content.Optimum mechanical properties were found in the composite containing 57wt%TiC reinforcement,when sintered at 1360 ℃ for 1 h.Use of carbon as an additive enhanced the mechanical properties of the composites.Cermets containing carbon as an additive with 49wt% TiC exhibited attractive mechanical properties.The microstructure of the developed composite contained less or no debonding,representing good wettability of the binder with TiC particles.Homogeneous distribution of the TiC particles ensured the presence of isotropic mechanical properties and homogeneous distribution of stresses in the composite.Preliminary experiments for evaluation of the oxidation resistance of FeCr bonded TiC cermets indicate that they are more resistant than WC-Co hardmetals.

  18. Irradiation effects in Fe-30%Ni alloy during Ar ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukieh, Mohamad; Al-Mohamad, Ali

    1993-12-01

    The use of metallic thin films for studying the processes which take place during ion irradiation has recently increased. For example, ion implantation is widely used to study the structural defects in transition metallic thin films such as (Fe, Ni, Co), because it can simulate the effects occurring in nuclear reactors during neutron irradiation especially the swelling of reactor materials. The swelling of metals and alloys is strongly related to the material structure and to the irradiation conditions. The general feature of formation of structural defects as a function of irradiation dosage and annealing temperature is well known. However, the detailed mechanisms are still not well understood. For example, the swelling of iron alloy with 30-35% nickel is very small in comparison with other Ni concentrations, and there is no clear information on the possibility of phase transitions in fe-Ni alloys during irradiation. The aim of this work is to study the phase-structural changes in Fe-30% Ni implanted by high dose of argon ions. The effect of irradiation with low energy argon ions (40 KeV, and fluences of 10.E15 to 10.E17 ions/cm) on the deposited thin films of Fe-30% Ni alloy was investigated using RBS and TEM techniques. The thicknesses of these films were about 65+-10 nm deposited on ceramic, KBr, and Be fiols substrates. Gas bubble formation and profile distribution of the implanted argon ions were investigated. Formation of an ordered phase Fe 3 Ni during irradiation appears to inhibit gas bubble formations in the film structure. (author). 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Cu-Cr-Zr-Ti Alloy Using Ni and Mn Coatings: Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, T.; Ravi, K. R.; Sivakumar, D.; Pant, Bhanu; Janaki Ram, G. D.

    2017-08-01

    High-strength copper alloys are used extensively in the regenerative cooling parts of aerospace structures. Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of a Cu-Cr-Zr-Ti alloy was attempted in the present study using thin layers of elemental Ni and Mn coatings applied by electroplating. One of the base metals was given a Ni coating of 4 µm followed by a Mn coating of 15 µm, while the other base metal was given only the Ni coating (4 µm). The bonding cycle consisted of the following: TLP stage—heating to 1030 °C and holding for 15 min; homogenization stage—furnace cooling to 880 °C and holding for 2 h followed by argon quenching to room temperature. Detailed microscopy and electron probe microanalysis analysis of the brazed joints were carried out. The braze metal was found to undergo isothermal solidification within the 15 min of holding time at 1030 °C. At the end of TLP stage, the braze metal showed a composition of Cu-17Ni-9Mn (wt.%) at the center of the joint with a steep gradient in Ni and Mn concentrations from the center of the braze metal to the base metal interfaces. After holding for 2 h at 880 °C (homogenization stage), the compositional gradients were found to flatten significantly and the braze metal was found to develop a homogeneous composition of Cu-11Ni-7Mn (wt.%) at the center of the joint. In lap-shear tests, failures were always found to occur in the base metal away from the brazed region. The copper alloy base metal was found to undergo significant grain coarsening due to high-temperature exposure during brazing and, consequently, suffer considerable reduction in yield strength.

  20. Cr-Ni ALLOY ELECTRODEPOSITION AND COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL PURE Cr COATING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moniruzzaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cr coating is widely used as the outer surface of precision parts due to its attractive appearance and superior corrosion resistance properties. It is obtained by electrodeposition via a conventional bath with hexavalent Cr ions. This manufacturing technique has many drawbacks, such as very low efficiency and high operating temperature and it is hazardous to health. In this work, we studied a Cr-Ni alloy deposition technique and compared the alloy coating properties to those with conventional Cr coating. Sequential two-step alloy electrodeposition was also compared. We took varying concentrations of Cr, Ni and complexing agents for the electrodeposition of Cr-Ni alloy and sequential Cr-Ni alloy coating on mild steel. Operating parameters, i.e. current density and temperature, were varied to examine their effects on the coating properties. The coatings thus obtained were characterized by visual observation, corrosion test, microhardness measurement, morphology and chemical analysis. The Cr-Ni alloy coating was found to be more corrosion resistant in 5% NaCl solution and harder than the pure Cr coating obtained by conventional electrodeposition. Toxic gas was produced in a much lower extent in the alloy coating than the conventional Cr coating technique. Again, the two-step Cr-Ni alloy coating was found better in terms of corrosion resistance as well as hardness compared to the Cr-Ni alloy coating. The process was also found to be much more environmentally friendly.

  1. Sliding friction and wear behavior of high entropy alloys at room and elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Dheyaa

    Structure-tribological property relations have been studied for five high entropy alloys (HEAs). Microhardness, room and elevated (100°C and 300°C) temperature sliding friction coefficients and wear rates were determined for five HEAs: Co0.5 Cr Cu0.5 Fe Ni1.5 Al Ti0.4; Co Cr Fe Ni Al0.25 Ti0.75; Ti V Nb Cr Al; Al0.3CoCrFeNi; and Al0.3CuCrFeNi2. Wear surfaces were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy to determine the wear mechanisms and tribochemical phases, respectively. It was determined that the two HEAs Co0.5 Cr Cu0.5 Fe Ni1.5 Al Ti0.4 and Ti V Nb Cr Al exhibit an excellent balance of high hardness, low friction coefficients and wear rates compared to 440C stainless steel, a currently used bearing steel. This was attributed to their more ductile body centered cubic (BCC) solid solution phase along with the formation of tribochemical Cr oxide and Nb oxide phases, respectively, in the wear surfaces. This study provides guidelines for fabricating novel, low-friction, and wear-resistant HEAs for potential use at room and elevated temperatures, which will help reduce energy and material losses in friction and wear applications.

  2. Soft Magnetic Properties of High-Entropy Fe-Co-Ni-Cr-Al-Si Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chung Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si thin films were studied. As-deposited Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si nano-grained thin films showing no magnetic anisotropy were subjected to field-annealing at different temperatures to induce magnetic anisotropy. Optimized magnetic and electrical properties of Fe-Co-Ni-Al-Cr-Si films annealed at 200 °C are saturation magnetization 9.13 × 105 A/m, coercivity 79.6 A/m, out-of-plane uniaxial anisotropy field 1.59 × 103 A/m, and electrical resistivity 3.75 μΩ·m. Based on these excellent properties, we employed such films to fabricate magnetic thin film inductor. The performance of the high entropy alloy thin film inductors is superior to that of air core inductor.

  3. Effects of Fe and Cr on corrosion behavior of ZrFeCr alloys in 500 oC steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Fan Hongyuan; Xiong Ji; Liu Hong; Miao Zhi; Ying Shihao; Yang Gang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: Amount and size of SPP will effect the corrosion resistance of Zr alloy at 500 o C/10.3 MPa. - Abstract: A study of the corrosion behaviors of ZrFeCr alloy and the influence of microstructure on corrosion resistance are described by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope in this paper. The results show that several ZrFeCr alloys exhibit protective behavior throughout the test and oxide growth is stable and protective. The best alloy has the composition Zr1.0Fe0.6Cr. Fitting of the weight gain curves for the protective oxide alloys in the region of protective behavior, it showed nearly cubic behavior for the most protective alloys. The Zr1.0Fe0.6Cr has the more laves Zr(Fe,Cr) 2 precipitate in matrix and it has the better corrosion resistance. The Zr0.2Fe0.1Cr has little precipitate, the biggest hydrogen absorption and the worst corrosion resistance. The number of precipitates and the amount of hydrogen absorption in Zr alloy plays an important role on corrosion resistance behaviors in 500 o C/10.3 MPa steam.

  4. Oxygen reduction reaction on a highly-alloyed Pt-Ni supported carbon electrocatalyst in acid solution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zheng, H

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available Alloyed electrocatalysts such as PtNi/C[1-2], PtCo/C[3], PtCr/C[4], PtFe/C [5-6], and non-alloyed Pt-TiO2/C were reportedly investigated for methanol tolerance during Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The high methanol tolerance...

  5. Corrosion of high purity Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in 13 N boiling nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Joji; Mayuzumi, Masami; Kusanagi, Hideo; Takaku, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion in boiling nitric acid was investigated for high purity Fe-18%Cr-12%Ni alloys and type 304L stainless steels (SS). Owing to very low impurity concentration, the solution treated high purity alloys show almost no intergranular corrosion while the type 304L SS show severe intergranular corrosion. Both in the high purity alloys and type 304L SS, aging treatments ranging from 873 K to 1073 K for 1 h enhance intergranular corrosion. During the aging treatments, impurities should be segregated to the grain boundaries. The corrosion behaviors were discussed from a standpoint of impurity segregation to grain boundaries. This study is of importance for purex reprocessing of spent fuels

  6. Magnetic features of Fe-Cr-Co alloys with tailoring chromium content fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastabi, Reza Amini; Ghasemi, Ali, E-mail: ali13912001@yahoo.com; Tavoosi, Majid; Ramazani, Mazaher

    2017-03-15

    Structural and magnetic characterization of Fe-Cr-Co alloys during milling, annealing and consolidation processes was the goal of this study. In this regards, different powder mixtures of Fe{sub 80−x}Cr{sub x}Co{sub 20} (15≤x≤35) were mechanically milled in a planetary ball mill and then were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The produced samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). According to achieved results, the structure of as-milled samples in different compositions consists of single α phase solid solution with coercivity and saturation of magnetization in the range of 110–200 Oe and 150–220 emu/g, respectively. The magnetic properties of consolidated samples depend on the kinds of formed precipitates in microstructure and the maximum values of coercive force and saturation of magnetization obtained in Fe{sub 55}Cr{sub 25}Co{sub 20} magnetic (with single α phase) alloy were 107 Oe and Ms 172 emu/g, respectively. In fact, the formation of non-magnetic σ and γ phases has a destructive effect on magnetic properties of consolidated samples with higher Cr content. Since such magnet requires less cobalt, and contains similar magnetic feature with superior ductility compare to the AlNiCo 5, it could be considered as a promising candidate for employing instead of AlNiCo 5. - Highlights: • Milled samples consist of single phase α-solid solution. • Saturation of magnetization of Fe{sub 65}Cr{sub 15}Co{sub 20} reached to 172 emu/g. • Fe{sub 65}Cr{sub 15}Co{sub 20} alloy is the suitable composition fabricated by SPS.

  7. Mechanical alloying of the FeNi-Ag system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Ibarra, D.; Ochoa, J.; Villalba, R.; Sagarzazu, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Fe-Ni-Ag system is of particular interest for its potential applications as soft magnetic granular material with small magnetic grains embedded in a non-magnetic metal matrix. Under equilibrium conditions: Fe-Ag and Ni-Ag are immiscible and Fe-Ni shows complete solubility. These materials are particularly important for magnetoresistivity properties. The properties of these alloys are closely related to their microstructure; therefore, a detailed study of the transformations occurring during milling was undertaken using pre-alloyed Fe x Ni 100-x (x = 30, 50 and 70) further milled with different Ag content to give the following alloys compositions (Fe x -Ni 100-x ) 100-y Ag y (y = 5, 20, 60). Consolidation of the mechanically alloyed powders by sintering at 950 o C was performed. Morphological and structural characterization of the sintered powders was carried out by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Fe 30 Ni 70 and Fe 50 Ni 50 formed ordered FeNi 3 compound. Fe 70 Ni 30 showed the formation of a mixture of γ-(Fe,Ni) and α-Fe(Ni) solid solutions. The mixture of these systems with Ag showed the metal solid solutions surrounded by Ag islands of Fe x Ni y -Ag, There was also evidence of Ag diffusing into the γ-(Fe,Ni). High Ag content (60%) shows formation of islands of FeNi surrounded by Ag. Sintering is always improved with the Ag content

  8. Applicability of the θ projection method to creep curves of Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Utsumi, Hirokazu

    1998-01-01

    Applicability of the θ projection method has been examined for constant-load creep test results at 800 and 1000degC on Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo alloy in the solution-treated and aged conditions. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Normal type creep curves obtained at 1000degC for aged Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo alloy are fitted using the θ projection method with four θ parameters. Stress dependence of θ parameters can be expressed in terms of simple equations. (2) The θ projection method with four θ parameters cannot be applied to the remaining creep curves where most of the life is occupied by a tertiary creep stage. Therefore, the θ projection method consisting of only the tertiary creep component with two θ parameters was applied. The creep curves can be fitted using this method. (3) If the θ projection method with four θ or two θ parameters is applied to creep curves in accordance with creep curve shapes, creep rupture time can be predicted in terms of formulation of stress and/or temperature dependence of θ parameters. (author)

  9. Composition design of Ti–Cr–Mn–Fe alloys for hybrid high-pressure metal hydride tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Zhijie; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Wang, Hui; Liu, Jiangwen; Sun, Lixian; Zhu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New non-stoichiometric Ti–Cr–Mn–Fe alloys are prepared for the hybrid tank. • (Ti 0.85 Zr 0.15 ) 1.1 Cr 0.925 MnFe 0.075 has the best overall properties. • The desorption pressure at 0 °C is 10.6 atm. • The reversible gravimetric density remains as a high value of 1.49 wt%. - Abstract: (Ti 0.85 Zr 0.15 ) 1.1 Cr 1−x MnFe x (x = 0, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.15) alloys with a C14-type Laves structure have been investigated for potential application in hybrid high-pressure metal hydride tanks used for fuel cell vehicles. The effects of the partial substitution of Cr with Fe on the hydrogen storage properties of (Ti 0.85 Zr 0.15 ) 1.1 CrMn have been systematically investigated. Results show that the desorption plateau pressure increases with increasing the Fe content in (Ti 0.85 Zr 0.15 ) 1.1 Cr 1−x MnFe x alloys, whereas the hydrogen capacity decreases. Among these alloys, (Ti 0.85 Zr 0.15 ) 1.1 Cr 0.925 MnFe 0.075 has the best overall properties, with a hydrogen desorption pressure of 10.6 atm and a reversible capacity of 1.54 wt% at 0 °C under the pressure range between 0.1 atm and 120 atm

  10. Microstructure, thermophysical and electrical properties in AlxCoCrFeNi (0 ≤ x ≤2) high-entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, H.-P.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chen, S.-K.; Yeh, J.-W.

    2009-01-01

    Al x CoCrFeNi (0 ≤ x ≤2) alloys were prepared by an arc remelter and investigated. With increasing x, the Al x CoCrFeNi alloys change from single FCC phase to single BCC phase with a transition duplex FCC/BCC region. The weak X-ray diffraction intensities indicate severe X-ray scattering effect of lattice in these high-entropy alloys. Electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity much smaller than those of pure component metals is ascribed as due to this lattice effect. The behavior of electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity can be divided into three parts according to microstructure. Both values of electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity decrease with increasing x in single-phase regions. Values of electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity are even higher than those in the duplex phase region because of the additional scattering effect of FCC/BCC phase boundaries in the alloys. Relative contribution of electron and phonon to electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity is evaluated in this study. It is shown that both electron and phonon components are comparable in these high-entropy alloys, and their transport properties are similar to that of semi-metal.

  11. Transient oxidation of Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, A.

    1997-01-01

    The oxide phases formed on an Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil and an Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil of the same levels of Al and (La+Ce) contents, and their oxidation kinetics have been studied in air at 1173 and 1373 K using TGA, XRD and SEM. Al deposition promotes the growth of metastable aluminas (θ-Al 2 O 3 , γ-Al 2 O 3 ). Scales consisting of θ-Al 2 O 3 and a small amount of α-Al 2 O 3 develop on the Al-deposited foil at 1173 K and exhibit the whisker-type morphology. In the early stage of oxidation at 1373 K, thick scales consisting of θ-Al 2 O 3 and α-Al 2 O 3 grow rapidly on the Al-deposited foil. The transformation from θ-Al 2 O 3 to α-Al 2 O 3 is very fast, and the scales result in only α-Al 2 O 3 . In contrast, α-Al 2 O 3 scales containing a minor amount of FeAl 2 O 4 develop on the alloy foil. The growth rate of α-Al 2 O 3 scales on the Al-deposited foil is smaller than that on the alloy foil and very close to that on NiAl at 1373 K. (orig.)

  12. Effect of Ta substitution method on the mechanical properties of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) intermetallic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imajo, Daiki; Kaneno, Yasuyuki; Takasugi, Takayuki, E-mail: takasugi@mtr.osakafu-u.ac.jp

    2013-12-20

    In this study, Ta was added to an L1{sub 2}-type Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) alloy at different levels and into different substitution sites, substituting for either Ni, Ti or Si. The solubility limits of Ta in the L1{sub 2} phase were 1.9 at%, 5.7 at% and 1.0 at% when Ta substituted for Ni, Ti and Si, respectively. The lattice parameters in the L1{sub 2} phase region increased in the order of the Ta(Ni)>Ta(Si)>Ta(Ti) quaternary alloys, in which Ta substituted for Ni, Si and Ti, respectively. The room-temperature hardness in the L1{sub 2} phase region increased linearly with increasing Ta content, and the increment rate increased in the order of the Ta(Ni)>Ta(Si)>Ta(Ti) quaternary alloys. Similarly, the room-temperature 0.2% proof stress as well as the tensile strength in the L1{sub 2} phase region increased linearly with increasing Ta content, and the increment rate increased in the order of the Ta(Ni)>Ta(Si)>Ta(Ti) quaternary alloys. High tensile elongation was observed at room temperature when the microstructures remain in the L1{sub 2} single phase. At high temperatures, a positive temperature dependence of the hardness as well as the flow strength was observed in the quaternary alloys. It was also shown that the wear resistance of the quaternary Ta(Ti) alloys was improved and attributed to plastically induced hardening of the worn surfaces combined with the positive temperature dependence of the flow strength. The strengthening and hardening resulting from Ta addition was suggested to be due to the hardening of the solid solution arising from the misfits in the atomic radius between Ta and the constituent atoms Ni, Ti or Si.

  13. Interface Resistance between FeCr Interconnects and La0.85Sr0.15Mn1.1O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars; Neufeld, Kai; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2009-01-01

    The long term oxidation behaviour and the electrical interface resistance between FeCr interconnects and La0,85Sr0,15Mn1,1O3 plates was studied by a DC four-point method in air at 750{degree sign}C for 10000 h. The tested FeCr alloys were: Crofer 22 APU, Sanergy HT, Plansee IT10, Plansee IT11, an....... Low degradation rates of less than 1 mcm2/1000 h were measured on all interfaces. The microstructure analysis showed that a duplex Cr2O3-(Mn,Co,Cr)3O4 oxide scale with a thickness of 3-5 µm had evolved on the alloys....

  14. Growth rate of dislocation loop in Fe-Ni-Cr alloy under Kr+ ion and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, T.; Allen, C.W.; Rehn, L.E.

    1991-10-01

    In order to examine the effect of irradiating particle species on the growth rate of radiation-induced dislocation loops, a solution-annealed Fe-25Ni-15Cr-0.02C alloy was irradiated at 723 K first by 1.5 MeV Kr + ions for 2520 sec, then by 1.5 MeV Kr + ions and 1.0 MeV electrons simultaneously for 780 sec, and finally by 1.0 MeV electrons for 780 sec with the HVEM-Tandem Facility in Argonne National Laboratory. The calculated damage rate by 1.5 MeV Kr + ions was 5.8 x 10 -4 dpa/s, and that by 1.0 MeV electrons was 1 x 10 -4 dpa/s. The growth rate of a dislocation loop located at the center of the specimen was 7 x 10 -3 nm/s for the Kr + ion irradiation, 4 x 10 -2 nm/s for the simultaneous Kr + and electron irradiation, and (2--3) x 10 -2 nm/s for the electron irradiation. This implies that the electron irradiation is about 19 times more effective in the growth of radiation-induced dislocation loops than the Kr + ion irradiation. The dislocation loop growth rate under the simultaneous Kr + and electron irradiation is higher than the sum of the growth rates under the individual Kr + and electron irradiations. 5 refs., 4 figs

  15. Interdiffusion between Co3O4 coating and the oxide scale of Fe-22Cr alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Anette Nørgaard; Friehling, Peter B.; Linderoth, Søren

    2002-01-01

    on Fe-Cr alloys. Coatings of Co3O4 were deposited on a Fe-22Cr alloy by plasma spraying and spray-painting. As-deposited samples were oxidised in air containing 1% H2O at 900C for various exposure time. During exposure the Fe-22Cr alloy forms an oxide scale, which reacts with the coating. The effects...

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained Fe-14Cr and ODS Fe-14Cr model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M.A.; Leguey, T.; Munoz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Castro, V. de; Fernandez, P.; Garces, G.; Pareja, R.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic Fe-14 wt%Cr and Fe-14 wt%Cr-0.3 wt%Y 2 O 3 alloys were produced by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing followed by forging and heat treating. The alloy containing Y 2 O 3 developed a submicron-grained structure with homogeneous dispersion of oxide nanoparticles that enhanced the tensile properties in comparison to the Y 2 O 3 free alloy. Strengthening induced by the Y 2 O 3 dispersion appears to be effective up to 873 K, at least. A uniform distribution of Cr-rich precipitates, stable upon a heat treatment at 1123 K for 2 h, was also found in both alloys.

  17. Transformation lines in an Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si polycrystalline shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kikuaki; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Fischer, F.D.; Buchmayr, B.

    1994-01-01

    Transformation lines, the martensite/austenite start and finish conditions in the stress-temperature plane, are determined in an Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si polycrystalline shape memory alloy with two different experimental procedures. The transformation lines are shown to be almost linear with nearly the same slope. The martensitic transformation zone and the reverse transformation zone do not coincide, and the reverse transformation zone is very wide; T Af -T As ∼ 180 K. The strong dependence on the preloading of the transformation lines, especially of the reverse transformation lines, is examined. (orig.)

  18. Effect of carbon content on solidification behaviors and morphological characteristics of the constituent phases in Cr-Fe-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chi-Ming; Lai, Hsuan-Han; Kuo, Jui-Chao; Wu, Weite

    2011-01-01

    A combination of transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and wavelength dispersive spectrum has been used to identify crystal structure, grain boundary characteristic and chemical composition of the constituent phases in Cr-Fe-C alloys with three different carbon concentrations. Depending on the three different carbon concentrations, the solidification structures are found to consist of primary α-phase and [α + (Cr,Fe) 23 C 6 ] eutectic in Cr-18.4Fe-2.3 C alloy; primary (Cr,Fe) 23 C 6 and [α + (Cr,Fe) 23 C 6 ] eutectic in Cr-24.5Fe-3.8 C alloy and primary (Cr,Fe) 7 C 3 and [α + (Cr,Fe) 7 C 3 ] eutectic in Cr-21.1Fe-5.9 C alloy, respectively. The grain boundary analysis is useful to understand growth mechanism of the primary phase. The morphologies of primary (Cr,Fe) 23 C 6 and (Cr,Fe) 7 C 3 carbides are faceted structures with polygonal shapes, different from primary α-phase with dendritic shape. The primary (Cr,Fe) 23 C 6 and (Cr,Fe) 7 C 3 carbides with strong texture exist a single crystal structure and contain a slight low angle boundary, resulting in the polygonal growth mechanism. Nevertheless, the primary α-phase with relative random orientation exhibits a polycrystalline structure and comprises a massive high-angle boundary, caused by the dendritic growth mechanism. - Highlights: ► Microstructures of the as-clad Cr-based alloys are characterized by TEM. ► EBSD technique has been use to characterize the grain boundary of primary phases. ► We examine transitions in morphology about the primary phases. ► Morphologies of primary carbides are polygonal different from primary α-phase. ► Solidification structures rely on C concentrations in Cr-Fe-C alloy.

  19. Fe-15Ni-13Cr austenitic stainless steels for fission and fusion reactor applications. II. Effects of minor elements on precipitate phase stability during thermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    The precipitate phase stability in Fe-15Ni-13Cr base austenitic alloys was investigated as a function of minor alloying additions after thermally aging at 600 deg. C and 675 deg. C for times ranging from 24 h to one year. Seven major precipitate phases were found in aged specimens, including M 23 C 6 , Laves, Eta (η), TiO, NbC, MC, and M 2 P. The types and amounts of precipitate phases varied with alloying element additions, aging temperature, and aging time. By analyzing the composition of each individual particle, it was possible to determine the essential constituent elements for each phase. From this information, a strategy to promote or suppress certain precipitate phases was developed. Among the seven phases, the most desirable precipitate phases were considered to be MC and M 2 P, because these particles form on a fine scale with a high number density and, therefore, can serve as effective gas atom trap sites under irradiation

  20. The characteristics of precipitates in 18% Cr/30% Ni cast steel with additions of Nb and Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarski, B.

    1995-01-01

    The microstructure of austenitic cast steel with approx. 0.3%C, 4.37%Si, 0.69%Mn, 17.8%Cr, 29.3%Ni, 1.47%Nb and 1.07%Ti have been examined after ageing at 900 C for 300 h. There was found five precipitates: M 23 C 6 , MnS, Ni 3 Fe, (Ti,Nb)C and an intermetallic Ni-Nb-S phase. Ni, Nb, Si-rich precipitate could have been formed in as cast condition. (author)

  1. Microstructural response of an Al-modified Ni-Cr-Fe ternary alloy during thermal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinlade, D.A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)], E-mail: dotun172@yahoo.co.uk; Caley, W.F. [Department of Process Engineering and Applied Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Richards, N.L.; Chaturvedi, M.C. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    A thermodynamic package was used to predict the phase transformations that occurred during thermal processing of a superalloy based on the composition of a ternary Ni-Cr-Fe alloy. The effect of the addition of 6 w/o Al on phase transformation in the material sintered were estimated and compared with results obtained experimentally by X-ray diffraction and metallography, while the transformation temperature of the modified alloy was corroborated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Mechanical property of the alloy was estimated in terms of Vickers hardness. These results suggest that despite potential problems encountered in high-temperature powder processing of superalloys that often tend to influence the feasibility of using thermodynamic predictions to model such alloy systems, the software and predictions used in this study offer a way to simulate both design and characterisation of the experimental alloy.

  2. NEUTRON-INDUCED SWELLING OF Fe-Cr BINARY ALLOYS IN FFTF AT ∼400 DEGREES C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, Francis A.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Okita, Taira; Sekimura, Naoto; Wolfer, W. G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to determine the influence of dpa rate, He/dpa ratio and composition on the void swelling of simple binary Fe-Cr alloys. Contrary to the behavior of swelling of model fcc Fe-Cr-Ni alloys irradiated in the same FFTF-MOTA experiment, model bcc Fe-Cr alloys do not exhibit a dependence of swelling on dpa rate at approximately 400 degrees C. This is surprising in that an apparent flux-sensitivity was observed in an earlier comparative irradiation of Fe-Cr binaries conducted in EBR-II and FFTF. The difference in behavior is ascribed to the higher helium generation rates of Fe-Cr alloys in EBR-II compared to that of FFTF, and also the fact that lower dpa rates in FFTF are accompanied by progressively lower helium generation rates.

  3. Effect of self-absorption correction on surface hardness estimation of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys via LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanian, Zahra; Darbani, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Majd, Abdollah Eslami

    2017-08-20

    The effect of self-absorption was investigated on the estimation of surface hardness of Fe-Cr-Ni metallic alloys by the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. For this purpose, the linear relationship between the ratio of chromium ionic to atomic line intensities (CrII/CrI) and surface hardness was studied, both before and after correcting the self-absorption effect. The correlation coefficient significantly increased from 47% to 90% after self-absorption correction. The results showed the measurements of surface hardness using LIBS can be more accurate and valid by correcting the self-absorption effect.

  4. Synthesis Of NiCrAlC alloys by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.K.; Pereira, J.I.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is the synthesis of nickel alloys (NiCrAlC), which has been proposed like a economic alternative to the Stellite family Co alloys using mechanical alloying, followed by sintering heat treatment of milled material. The NiCrAlC alloys consist of a chromium carbides dispersion in a Ni 3 Al intermetallic matrix, that is easily synthesized by mechanical alloying. The use of mechanical alloying enables higher carbides sizes and distribution control in the matrix during sintering. We are also investigated the compaction of the processed materials by compressibility curves. The milling products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the end product was featured by conventional metallography and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), that enabled the identification of desired phases, beyond microhardness test, which has been shown comparable to alloys manufactured by fusion after heat treating. (author)

  5. Phase martensitic transformation study in mechanically alloyed Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 25}Fe{sub 25} alloy via high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Joao Cardoso de; Ferreira, Ailton da Silva, E-mail: joao.cardoso.lima@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil); Rovani, Pablo Roberto; Pereira, Altair Soria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Alloys based on titanium and nickel with shape memory effect (SME) have been widely investigated due to potential use in different areas of science and technology, such as electronics, medicine, and space.1 Among them, the superalloys Ti-Ni-Fe show high corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties even at high temperatures that make them suitable for use in applications such as power plant components that work under aggressive conditions. At room temperature, the TiNi alloy has a monoclinic (B19'), known as the martensitic phase. With increasing temperature, the B19' phase transforms into a trigonal/hexagonal (B19) phase, known as the R- or pre martensitic phase, which, in its turn, transforms into a cubic (B2) structure, known as the austenitic phase. On cooling to room temperature, the reverse B2→B19→B19' phase transformations are observed. Since the B19↔B19' transformation occurs at a temperature low enough to inhibit diffusion-controlled processes, it belongs to a class of diffusionless phase transformations known as martensitic transformations. For this study, a Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 25}Fe{sub 25} (B2) alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying, and the effects of high pressures up to 18 GPa will be presented. The structural changes with increasing pressure were followed by recording in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD) diffractograms, in transmission geometry, using a long fine focus Mo X-ray tube and an imaging plate detector. The obtained results were already reported in Ref [1]. (1) A. S. Ferreira, P. R. Rovani, J. C. de Lima, A. S. Pereira, J. Appl. Phys. 117 (2015). (author)

  6. Physical properties of molten core materials: Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr alloys measured by electrostatic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Yuji, E-mail: ohishi@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Kondo, Toshiki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Ishikawa, Takehiko [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); SOKEN-DAI (Graduate University for Advanced Studies) (Japan); Okada, Junpei T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University (Japan); Watanabe, Yuki [Advanced Engineering Services Co. Ltd. (Japan); Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Yamanaka, Shinsuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    It is important to understand the behaviors of molten core materials to investigate the progression of a core meltdown accident. In the early stages of bundle degradation, low-melting-temperature liquid phases are expected to form via the eutectic reaction between Zircaloy and stainless steel. The main component of Zircaloy is Zr and those of stainless steel are Fe, Ni, and Cr. Our group has previously reported physical property data such as viscosity, density, and surface tension for Zr-Fe liquid alloys using an electrostatic levitation technique. In this study, we report the viscosity, density, and surface tension of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys (Zr{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr{sub 0.77}Cr{sub 0.23}) using the electrostatic levitation technique. - Highlights: • The physical properties of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys have been measured Zr{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr{sub 77}Cr{sub 23}. • The measurement was conducted using the electrostatic levitation technique. • The density, viscosity, and surface tension of each liquid alloy were measured.

  7. Physical properties of molten core materials: Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr alloys measured by electrostatic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yuji; Kondo, Toshiki; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei T.; Watanabe, Yuki; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    It is important to understand the behaviors of molten core materials to investigate the progression of a core meltdown accident. In the early stages of bundle degradation, low-melting-temperature liquid phases are expected to form via the eutectic reaction between Zircaloy and stainless steel. The main component of Zircaloy is Zr and those of stainless steel are Fe, Ni, and Cr. Our group has previously reported physical property data such as viscosity, density, and surface tension for Zr-Fe liquid alloys using an electrostatic levitation technique. In this study, we report the viscosity, density, and surface tension of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys (Zr 1-x Ni x (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr 0.77 Cr 0.23 ) using the electrostatic levitation technique. - Highlights: • The physical properties of Zr-Ni and Zr-Cr liquid alloys have been measured Zr 1-x Ni x (x = 0.12 and 0.24) and Zr 77 Cr 23 . • The measurement was conducted using the electrostatic levitation technique. • The density, viscosity, and surface tension of each liquid alloy were measured.

  8. Sulfide phase in the Fe-Ti-S and Fe-C-Ti-S alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinochka, Ya.N.; Balakina, N.A.; Shmelev, Yu.S.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of the sulfide phases in Fe-Ti-S and Fe-C-Ti-S alloys was studied. The carbide and the sulfide phase were identified the aid of X-ray spectral microanalysis. It was established that for a small content of titanium and sulfur in ternary Fe-Ti-S alloys the solidification of the γ-solution on the boundaries of dendritic branches is accompanied, along with the precipitation of a sulfide rich in iron of the (Fe, Ti) S type where a small quantity of titanium is dissolved, by the formation of a titanium-bearing sulfide eutectic γ + TiS. The amount of the sulfide eutectic increases with the contents of titanium and sulfur until a purely eutectic alloy is formed. Both carbides and sulfides may be formed in the solidification of quaternary alloys Fe-C-Ti-S

  9. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism of ultrathin Fe-Ni alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, F.O.; Willis, R.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors have studied the magnetic structure of ultrathin Fe-Ni alloy films as a function of Fe concentration by measuring the linear dichroism of the 3p-core levels in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The alloy films, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on Cu(001) surfaces, were fcc and approximately four monolayers thick. The intensity of the Fe dichroism varied with Fe concentration, with larger dichroisms at lower Fe concentrations. The implication of these results to an ultrathin film analogue of the bulk Invar effect in Fe-Ni alloys will be discussed. These measurements were performed at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (Beamline 7.0.1) of the Advanced Light Source.

  10. Microstructural origins of high strength and high ductility in an AlCoCrFeNi2.1 eutectic high-entropy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xuzhou; Lu, Yiping; Zhang, Bo; Liang, Ningning; Wu, Guanzhong; Sha, Gang; Liu, Jizi; Zhao, Yonghao

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that eutectic high-entropy alloys can simultaneously possess high strength and high ductility, which have potential applications in industrial fields. Nevertheless, microstructural origins of the excellent strength–ductility combination remain unclear. In this study, an AlCoCrFeNi 2.1 eutectic high-entropy alloy was prepared with face-centered cubic (FCC)(L1 2 )/body-centered-cubic (BCC)(B2) modulated lamellar structures and a remarkable combination of ultimate tensile strength (1351 MPa) and ductility (15.4%) using the classical casting technique. Post-deformation transmission electron microscopy revealed that the FCC(L1 2 ) phase was deformed in a matter of planar dislocation slip, with a slip system of {111} <110>, and stacking faults due to low stacking fault energy. Due to extreme solute drag, high densities of dislocations are distributed homogeneously at {111} slip plane. In the BCC(B2) phase, some dislocations exist on two {110} slip bands. The atom probe tomography analysis revealed a high density of Cr-enriched nano-precipitates, which strengthened the BCC(B2) phase by Orowan mechanisms. Fracture surface observation revealed a ductile fracture in the FCC(L1 2 ) phase and a brittle-like fracture in the BCC(B2) lamella. The underlying mechanism for the high strength and high ductility of AlCoCrFeNi 2.1 eutectic high-entropy alloy was finally analyzed based on the coupling between the ductile FCC(L1 2 ) and brittle BCC(B2) phases.

  11. Composition design of Ti–Cr–Mn–Fe alloys for hybrid high-pressure metal hydride tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhijie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ouyang, Liuzhang, E-mail: meouyang@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory for Fuel Cell Technology in Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Wang, Hui; Liu, Jiangwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Sun, Lixian [Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center of Structure and Property for New Energy and Materials, Guilin 541004 (China); Zhu, Min, E-mail: memzhu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • New non-stoichiometric Ti–Cr–Mn–Fe alloys are prepared for the hybrid tank. • (Ti{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}){sub 1.1}Cr{sub 0.925}MnFe{sub 0.075} has the best overall properties. • The desorption pressure at 0 °C is 10.6 atm. • The reversible gravimetric density remains as a high value of 1.49 wt%. - Abstract: (Ti{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}){sub 1.1}Cr{sub 1−x}MnFe{sub x} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.15) alloys with a C14-type Laves structure have been investigated for potential application in hybrid high-pressure metal hydride tanks used for fuel cell vehicles. The effects of the partial substitution of Cr with Fe on the hydrogen storage properties of (Ti{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}){sub 1.1}CrMn have been systematically investigated. Results show that the desorption plateau pressure increases with increasing the Fe content in (Ti{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}){sub 1.1}Cr{sub 1−x}MnFe{sub x} alloys, whereas the hydrogen capacity decreases. Among these alloys, (Ti{sub 0.85}Zr{sub 0.15}){sub 1.1}Cr{sub 0.925}MnFe{sub 0.075} has the best overall properties, with a hydrogen desorption pressure of 10.6 atm and a reversible capacity of 1.54 wt% at 0 °C under the pressure range between 0.1 atm and 120 atm.

  12. Processing and characterization of AlCoFeNiXTi0,5 (X = Mn, V) high entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triveno Rios, C.; Kiminami, C.S.

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of high entropy alloys consists of solid solution phases with FC and BCC simple structures, contrary to classical metallurgy where they form complex structures of intermetallic compounds. Because of this they have several attractive properties for engineering applications. In this work the AlCoFeNiMnTi 0,5 and AlCoFeNiVTi 0,5 alloys were processed by melting arc. Since the main objective was the microstructural and mechanical characterization of ingots as-cast. The alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microhardness and cold compression test. The results showed that the microstructure consists mainly of dendrites and interdendritic regions consisting of metastable crystalline phases. It was also observed that the AlCoFeNiVTi 0,5 alloy showed better mechanical properties than the AlCoFeNiMnTi 0,5 alloy. This may be associated with differences in the parameters of formation of simple solid solution phases between the two alloys. (author)

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained Fe-14Cr and ODS Fe-14Cr model alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.A., E-mail: mauger@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica-IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911-Leganes (Spain); Leguey, T., E-mail: leguey@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica-IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911-Leganes (Spain); Munoz, A., E-mail: amunoz@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica-IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911-Leganes (Spain); Monge, M.A., E-mail: mmonge@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica-IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911-Leganes (Spain); Castro, V. de, E-mail: vanessa.decastro@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Fernandez, P., E-mail: pilar.fernandez@ciemat.es [National Fusion Laboratory-CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garces, G., E-mail: ggarces@cenim.csic.es [Departamento de Metalurgia Fisica, CENIM (CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pareja, R., E-mail: rpp@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica-IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911-Leganes (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    Reduced activation ferritic Fe-14 wt%Cr and Fe-14 wt%Cr-0.3 wt%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys were produced by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing followed by forging and heat treating. The alloy containing Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} developed a submicron-grained structure with homogeneous dispersion of oxide nanoparticles that enhanced the tensile properties in comparison to the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} free alloy. Strengthening induced by the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion appears to be effective up to 873 K, at least. A uniform distribution of Cr-rich precipitates, stable upon a heat treatment at 1123 K for 2 h, was also found in both alloys.

  14. Density of Ni-Cr Alloy in the Mushy State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of Ni-Cr alloy in the mushy state has been measured using the modified sessile drop method. The density of Ni-Cr alloy in the mushy state was found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in alloy.The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy in the mushy state therefore increases with increasing the Cr concentration in alloy.The ratio of the difference of density divided by the temperature difference between liquidus and solidus temperatures decreases with increasing Cr concentration. The density of the alloy increased with the precipitation of a solid phase in alloy during the solidification process. The temperature dependence of the density of alloy in the mushy state was not linear but biquadratic.

  15. Hydrogen storage in TiCr1.2(FeV)x BCC solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Sydney F.; Huot, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    The Ti-V-based BCC solid solutions have been considered attractive candidates for hydrogen storage due to their relatively large hydrogen absorbing capacities near room temperature. In spite of this, improvements of some issues should be achieved to allow the technological applications of these alloys. Higher reversible hydrogen storage capacity, decreasing the hysteresis of PCI curves, and decrease in the cost of the raw materials are needed. In the case of vanadium-rich BCC solid solutions, which usually have large hydrogen storage capacities, the search for raw materials with lower cost is mandatory since pure vanadium is quite expensive. Recently, the substitutions of vanadium in these alloys have been tried and some interesting results were achieved by replacing vanadium by commercial ferrovanadium (FeV) alloy. In the present work, this approach was also adopted and TiCr 1.2 (FeV) x alloy series was investigated. The XRD patterns showed the co-existence of a BCC solid solution and a C14 Laves phase in these alloys. SEM analysis showed the alloys consisted of dendritic microstructure and C14 colonies. The amount of C14 phase increases when the amount of (FeV) decreases in these alloys. Concerning the hydrogen storage, the best results were obtained for the TiCr 1.2 (FeV) 0.4 alloy, which achieved 2.79 mass% of hydrogen storage capacity and 1.36 mass% of reversible hydrogen storage capacity

  16. An assessment of the lattice strain in the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, L.R.; Pickering, E.J.; Playford, H.Y.; Stone, H.J.; Tucker, M.G.; Jones, N.G.

    2017-01-01

    The formation of single phase solid solutions from combinations of multiple principal elements, with differing atomic radii, has led to the suggestion that the lattices of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) must be severely distorted. To assess this hypothesis, total scattering measurements using neutron radiation have been performed on the CrMnFeCoNi alloy and compared with similar data from five compositionally simpler materials within the same system. The Bragg diffraction patterns from all of the studied materials were similar, consistent with a face-centered cubic structure, and none showed the pronounced dampening that would be expected from a highly distorted lattice. A more detailed evaluation of the local lattice strain was made by considering the first six coordination shells in the pair distribution functions (PDF), obtained from the total scattering data. Across this range, the HEA exhibited the broadest PDF peaks but these widths were not disproportionately larger than those of the simpler alloys. In addition, of all the materials considered, the HEA was at the highest homologous temperature, and hence the thermal vibrations of the atoms would be greatest. Consequently, the level of local lattice strain required to rationalise a given PDF peak width would be reduced. As a result, the data presented in this study do not indicate that the local lattice strain in the equiatomic CrMnFeCoNi HEA is anomalously large.

  17. Precipitation kinetics of the phase. gamma. ' in Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.A.; Pozarnik, F.

    1984-04-01

    The authors investigated the precipitation and coalescence kinetics of the ..gamma..'phase in alloy 800, an austenitic steel with 33% Ni, 20% Cr and small amounts of Ti and Al. The results led to a law concerning the variation with temperature, ageing, and chemical composition of the particle size in the ..gamma..'phase. This law was used to calculate the variation of the elasticity limit of the alloy due to the formation of the ..gamma..'phase. The calculations were based on the theories of interaction of (weakly and strongly coupled) dislocation pairs with coherent particles ordered without constraint; the anisotropy of tension along the dislocation line was taken into account as well as the influence of the deformation induced by the misfit. A comparison with experimental results shows that averaging does not occur until 2x10/sup 5/ h at operating temperatures below 800 K.

  18. Phase transformation and precipitation in aged Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X.L.; Cai, W.; Zheng, Y.F.; Zhao, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    More attention has been paid to ternary Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys (SMAs) due to their high phase transformation temperatures, good thermal stability and low cost. However, the Ti-Ni-Hf alloys have been found to have low ductility and only about 3% shape memory effect and these have hampered their applications. It is well known that there are three methods to improve the shape memory properties of high-temperature SMAs: (a) cold rolling + annealing; (b) adding another element to the alloy; (c) aging. These methods are not suitable to improve the properties of Ti-Ni-Hf alloys. In this paper, a method of conditioning Ni-rich Ti-Ni-Hf alloys as high-temperature SMAs by aging is presented. For Ni-rich Ti 80-x Ni x Hf 20 alloys (numbers indicate at.%) the phase transformation temperatures are on average increased by more than 100 K by aging at 823 K for 2 h. Especially for those alloys with Ni contents less than 50.6 at.%, the martensitic transformation start temperatures (M s ) are higher than 473 K after aging. Transmission electron microscopy shows the presence of (Ti + Hf) 3 Ni 4 precipitates after aging. Compared with the precipitation of Ti 3 Ni 4 particles in Ni-rich Ti-Ni alloys, the precipitation of (Ti + Hf) 3 Ni 4 particles in Ni-rich Ti-Ni-Hf alloys needs higher temperatures and longer times

  19. Secondary phases in Al_xCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys: An in-situ TEM heating study and thermodynamic appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary phases, either introduced by alloying or heat treatment, are commonly present in most high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Understanding the formation of secondary phases at high temperatures, and their effect on mechanical properties, is a critical issue that is undertaken in the present paper, using the Al_xCoCrFeNi (x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7) as a model alloy. The in-situ transmission-electron-microscopy (TEM) heating observation, an atom-probe-tomography (APT) study for the reference starting materials (Al_0_._3 and Al_0_._5 alloys), and thermodynamic calculations for all three alloys, are performed to investigate (1) the aluminum effect on the secondary-phase fractions, (2) the annealing-twinning formation in the face-centered-cubic (FCC) matrix, (3) the strengthening effect of the secondary ordered body-centered-cubic (B2) phase, and (4) the nucleation path of the σ secondary phase thoroughly. Finally, the present work will substantially optimize the alloy design of HEAs and facilitate applications of HEAs to a wide temperature range.

  20. Performance Improvement of V-Fe-Cr-Ti Solid State Hydrogen Storage Materials in Impure Hydrogen Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Ulrich; Oertel, Daria; Diemant, Thomas; Bonatto Minella, Christian; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Dittmeyer, Roland; Behm, R Jürgen; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2018-01-17

    Two approaches of engineering surface structures of V-Ti-based solid solution hydrogen storage alloys are presented, which enable improved tolerance toward gaseous oxygen (O 2 ) impurities in hydrogen (H 2 ) gas. Surface modification is achieved through engineering lanthanum (La)- or nickel (Ni)-rich surface layers with enhanced cyclic stability in an H 2 /O 2 mixture. The formation of a Ni-rich surface layer does not improve the cycling stability in H 2 /O 2 mixtures. Mischmetal (Mm, a mixture of La and Ce) agglomerates are observed within the bulk and surface of the alloy when small amounts of this material are added during arc melting synthesis. These agglomerates provide hydrogen-transparent diffusion pathways into the bulk of the V-Ti-Cr-Fe hydrogen storage alloy when the remaining oxidized surface is already nontransparent for hydrogen. Thus, the cycling stability of the alloy is improved in an O 2 -containing hydrogen environment as compared to the same alloy without addition of Mm. The obtained surface-engineered storage material still absorbs hydrogen after 20 cycles in a hydrogen-oxygen mixture, while the original material is already deactivated after 4 cycles.

  1. Creation of Y2Ti2O7 nanoprecipitates to strengthen the Fe-14Cr-3Al-2W steels by adding Ti hydride and Y2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Linbo; Bai, Zhonglian; Shen, Hailong; Wang, Chenxi; Liu, Tong

    2017-01-01

    In order to prohibit the formation of large Y-Al-O precipitates, Ti hydride nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and used to replace Ti as raw particles to fabricate the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-14Cr-3Al-2W-0.35Y 2 O 3 steels by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). As the content of Ti hydride increases from 0.1 to 0.5 and 1.0 wt%, the oxide nanoprecipitates in the ODS steels changes from Y 3 Al 5 O 12 phase to Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 phase (semicoherent with the matrix), and the particle size is successfully reduced. The tensile strength of the ODS steel increases remarkably with increasing Ti hydride content. The sample with 1.0 wt% Ti hydride exhibits a high strength of 1049 MPa at 25 °C and 278 MPa at 700 °C. The creation of Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoprecipitates by adding Ti hydride NPs opens a new way to control the structure and size of the oxide precipitates in the ODS steels. - Graphical abstract: The creation of Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoprecipitates by adding Ti hydride nanoparticles remarkably increases the mechanical properties of the Al-containing ODS steels. - Highlights: •TiH 1.971 reacts with Y 2 O 3 to form Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 in the Al-containing ODS steel. •Addition of TiH 1.971 nanoparticles can prevent the formation of Y-Al-O phases. •Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoparticles share semicoherent interface with the ferrite matrix. •The mean size of oxide dispersion is reduced to 11.2 ± 7.1 nm with 1.0 wt% TiH 1.971 . •The tensile strength of the ODS steel enlarges with increasing TiH 1.971 content.

  2. Corrosion resistance of amorphous NiCrZr and NiCrMoZr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, M.; Miyake, M.; Okamoto, I.

    1987-01-01

    One of the authors has reported that the corrosion resistance of chromium containing amorphous alloys is extremely improved by alloying phosphorus among metalloids. Two factors operate for the improvement of corrosion resistance of the amorphous alloys. First, phosphorus serves for the rapid formation of protective passive film. Second, the compositional and structural homogeneity in amorphous state also account for the formation of protective film. The latter factor has been clearly seen in the high corrosion resistance of CoCrMoZr and CoCrWZr alloys without metalloids. In order to clarify the separately two factors in the corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys, the corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys without metalloids has to be further investigated. This paper also deals with the corrosion resistance and electrochemical behavior of NiCrZr and NiCrMoZr alloys in 1N HCl, and compare them with the corrosion behavior of the crystalline alloys containing the same composition as that of the amorphous alloys

  3. Hardness and Wear Resistance of TiC-Fe-Cr Locally Reinforcement Produced in Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase wear resistance cast steel casting the TiC-Fe-Cr type composite zones were fabricated. These zones were obtained by means of in situ synthesis of substrates of the reaction TiC with a moderator of a chemical composition of white cast iron with nickel of the Ni-Hard type 4. The synthesis was carried out directly in the mould cavity. The moderator was applied to control the reactive infiltration occurring during the TiC synthesis. The microstructure of composite zones was investigated by electron scanning microscopy, using the backscattered electron mode. The structure of composite zones was verified by the X-ray diffraction method. The hardness of composite zones, cast steel base alloy and the reference samples such as white chromium cast iron with 14 % Cr and 20 % Cr, manganese cast steel 18 % Mn was measured by Vickers test. The wear resistance of the composite zone and the reference samples examined by ball-on-disc wear test. Dimensionally stable composite zones were obtained containing submicron sizes TiC particles uniformly distributed in the matrix. The macro and microstructure of the composite zone ensured three times hardness increase in comparison to the cast steel base alloy and one and a half times increase in comparison to the white chromium cast iron 20 % Cr. Finally ball-on-disc wear rate of the composite zone was five times lower than chromium white cast iron containing 20 % Cr.

  4. Hysteresis properties of the amorphous high permeability Co66Fe3Cr3Si15B13 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Tsepelev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The scaling law of minor loops was studied on an amorphous alloy Co66Fe3Cr3Si15B13 with a very high initial permeability (more than 150000 and low coercivity (about 0.1 A/m. An analytical expression for the coercive force in the Rayleigh region was derived. The coercive force is connected with the maximal magnetic field Hmax via the reversibility coefficient μi/ηHmax. Reversibility coefficient shows the relationship between reversible and irreversible magnetization processes. A universal dependence of magnetic losses for hysteresis Wh on the remanence Br with a power factor of 1.35 is confirmed for a wide range of magnetic fields strengths.

  5. Work production using the two-way shape memory effect in NiTi and a Ni-rich NiTiHf high-temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atli, K C; Karaman, I; Noebe, R D; Bigelow, G; Gaydosh, D

    2015-01-01

    The work output capacity of the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) in a Ni 50.3 Ti 29.7 Hf 20 (at%) high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) was investigated and compared to that of binary Ni 49.9 Ti 50.1 (at%). TWSME was induced through a training procedure of 100 thermomechanical cycles under different tensile stresses. It was observed that TWSME in as-extruded and trained Ni 50.3 Ti 29.7 Hf 20 could produce 0.7% strain against a compressive stress of 100 MPa, corresponding to a maximum work output of 0.08 J g −1 , compared to a maximum value of 0.06 J g −1 for binary NiTi. A peak aging heat treatment of 3 h at 550 °C, which previously has been shown to result in near-perfect functional stability in Ni 50.3 Ti 29.7 Hf 20 during isobaric thermal cycling, did not improve the TWSME and actually resulted in a decrease in the magnitude and stability of the TWSME and its work output capacity. Nevertheless, the magnitude of TWSM behavior of Ni 50.3 Ti 29.7 Hf 20 , in the absence of an aging heat treatment, renders it an attractive candidate for high-temperature TWSM actuation. (paper)

  6. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Fe-28Al-5Cr/TiC composites produced by hot-pressing sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinghua; Yang Jun; Ma Jiqiang; Bi Qinling; Cheng Jun; Liang Yongmin; Liu Weimin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The near fully dense Fe-28Al-5Cr/TiC composites are produced by hot-pressing sintering. → All the materials exhibit high compressive and bending strength. → Compressive strength increases but bending strength and ductility diminish with rising TiC amount in the composites. → Wear resistance significantly increases with rising TiC amount. - Abstract: The mechanical properties and microstructures of Fe-28Al-5Cr based composites reinforced with 15, 25, 35, 50 wt.% TiC ceramic particle, produced by hot-pressing sintering method, were investigated. The relative density of all the composites was up to 99%. The distribution of TiC was uniform in the composites. Results of XRD analysis showed that the composites were composed of TiC and disorder Fe 3 Al phases. All the materials exhibited very high strength of 1200-2000 MPa. The hardness and compressive strength of the composites increased obviously but compressive strain decreased gradually except 50% composite with increasing TiC content. The bending strength and deflection of the composites decreased significantly with increasing TiC content. The bending fracture surfaces of all the materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fracture mode transformed gradually from tough dimple fracture mode to brittle cleavage facets crack mode with the increase of TiC content. Wear resistance of the Fe-28Al-5Cr alloy was also significantly improved by addition of TiC.

  7. Diffusion of Cr, Fe, and Ti ions from Ni-base alloy Inconel-718 into a transition alumina coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, M., E-mail: martin.dressler@bam.de; Nofz, M.; Doerfel, I.; Saliwan-Neumann, R.

    2012-04-30

    Heat treating metals at high temperatures trigger diffusion processes which may lead to the formation of oxide layers. In this work the diffusion of Cr, Fe and Ti into an alumina coating applied to Inconel-718 is being investigated. Mass gain measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied in order to study the evolution of the diffusion process. It was found that mainly Cr as well as minor amounts of Fe and Ti are being incorporated into the alumina coating upon prolonged heat treatment at 700 Degree-Sign C. It could be shown that alumina coatings being void of Cr have the same oxidation related mass gain as uncoated samples. However, incorporation of Cr into the alumina coating decreased their mass gain below that of uncoated substrates forming a Cr oxide scale only. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the diffusion of Cr into alumina coatings applied on IN-718. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ingress of Cr led to the formation of mixed alumina/chromium coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mass gain of mixed alumina/chromium coatings was compared to uncoated IN-718. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mixed alumina/chromium coatings improved the oxidation resistance of IN-718.

  8. Capture cross sections for Cr, Fe and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvi, F.

    1990-01-01

    Since stainless steel represents about 25% of the volume of a fast power reactor, its constituent elements strongly influence its two main neutronic parameters: critical enrichment and breeding gain. Also, capture in the narrow p and d-wave resonances of Cr, Fe and Ni contributes as much as 10 to 15% of the Doppler coefficient of reactivity. Following sensitivity calculations, typical accuracy requirements in the energy range 0.1-100 keV are 5-10% for capture in Fe and 10-20% for capture in Ni and Cr. 11 refs, 2 tabs

  9. Influence of chemical composition in crystallographic texture Fe-Cr-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, L.B.; Guimaraes, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    The use of steels with higher contents of Mo in the oil industry has been an alternative to reduce the effect of naphthenic corrosion in refining units. The addition of Mo in Fe-Cr alloys in the same manner that increases resistance to corrosion naphthenic causes some difficulties such as difficulty of forming, welding and embrittlement. In this work, experimental ingots of Fe-Cr-Mo alloys (Cr - 9, 15 and 17%, Mo - 5, 7 and 9%) were melted in vacuum induction furnace and hot and cold rolled in a laboratory rolling mill. The influence of chemical composition on crystallographic texture of samples subjected to the same thermo-mechanical treatment was analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The results indicate that fiber (111) becomes more intense with increasing Mo and/or Cr contents. (author)

  10. Crystallization and Martensitic Transformation Behavior of Ti-Ni-Si Alloy Ribbons Prepared via Melt Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju-Wan; Kim, Yeon-Wook; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2018-09-01

    Ti-(50-x)Ni-xSi (at%) (x = 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0) alloy ribbons were prepared via melt spinning and their crystallization procedure and transformation behavior were investigated using differential scanning calorimtry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Ti-Ni-Si alloy ribbons with Si content less than 1.0 at% were crystalline, whereas those with Si content more than 3.0 at% were amorphous. Crystallization occurred in the sequence of amorphous →B2 → B2 → Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 → B2 + Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 + TiSi in the Ti-47.0Ni-3.0Si alloy and amorphous →R → R + Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 → R + Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 + TiSi in the Ti-45.0Ni-5.0Si alloy. The activation energy for crystallization was 189 ±8.6 kJ/mol for the Ti-47Ni-3Si alloy and 212±8.6 kJ/mol for the Ti-45Ni-5Si alloy. One-stage B2-R transformation behavior was observed in Ti-49.5Ni-0.5Si, Ti-49.0Ni-1.0Si, and Ti-47.0Ni- 3.0Si alloy ribbons after heating to various temperatures in the range of 873 K to 1073 K. In the Ti-45.0Ni-5.0Si alloy, one-stage B2-R transformation occurred after heating to 893 K, two-stage B2-R-B19' occurred after heating to 973 K, and two-stage B2-R-B19' occurred on cooling and one-stage B19'-B2 occurred on heating, after heating to 1073 K.

  11. Aleaciones cuasicristalinas Al93Fe3Cr2Ti2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Escorial, Asunción

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium alloy powder having a nominal composition of Al93Fe3Cr2Ti2 (at% has been prepared using gas atomisation. The atomised powder present a microstructure of an aluminium matrix reinforced with a spherical quasicrystalline icosahedral phase, in the range of nanometre in size. The powder was consolidated into bars using warm extrusion. The microstructure of the extruded bars retains the quasicrystalline microstructure and the bars present outstanding mechanical properties, i.e. proof stress of 280 MPa at 300 °C. Upon heating the microstructure evolves towards the equilibrium. The thermal evolution was investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. According to these observations a transformation in two steps is proposed. A first step consists in the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution of the matrix and the quasicrystals, and a second step in the transformation of the quasicrystals into the equilibrium phases.Se ha obtenido por atomización por gas polvo de la aleación Al93Fe3Cr2Ti2 (at%. Este polvo presenta una microestructura de una matriz de aluminio reforzada por precipitados icosaédricos de tamaño nanométrico. El polvo fue consolidado por extrusión en forma de barras cilíndricas. La microestructura de las barras retiene la microestructura cuasicristalina de las partículas de polvo. El material consolidado presenta propiedades mecánicas prometedoras, como un límite elástico de 280 MPA a 300 °C. Con los tratamientos térmicos, la microestructura evoluciona hacia el equilibrio. Esta evolución se estudia por difracción de rayos x, calorimetría diferencial de barrido, microscopías electrónicas de barrido y de transmisión. A la luz de los resultados obtenidos se propone que la transformación de las fases con el tiempo de tratamiento térmico ocurre en dos pasos. Primeramente, tiene lugar la descomposición de la

  12. Properties of mechanically alloyed Mg-Ni-Ti ternary hydrogen storage alloys for Ni-MH batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Stéphane; Roué, Lionel; Huot, Jacques; Schulz, Robert; Aymard, Luc; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    MgNiTi x, Mg 1- xTi xNi and MgNi 1- xTi x (with x varying from 0 to 0.5) alloys have been prepared by high energy ball milling and tested as hydrogen storage electrodes. The initial discharge capacities of the Mg-Ni-Ti ternary alloys are inferior to the MgNi electrode capacity. However, an exception is observed with MgNi 0.95Ti 0.05, which has an initial discharge capacity of 575 mAh/g compared to 522 mAh/g for the MgNi electrode. The Mg-Ni-Ti ternary alloys show improved cycle life compared to Mg-Ni binary alloys with the same Mg/Ni atomic ratio. The best cycle life is observed with Mg 0.5Ti 0.5Ni electrode which retains 75% of initial capacity after 10 cycles in comparison to 39% for MgNi electrodes, in addition to improved high-rate dischargeability (HRD). According to the XPS analysis, the cycle life improvement of the Mg 0.5Ti 0.5Ni electrode can be related to the formation of TiO 2 which limits Mg(OH) 2 formation. The anodic polarization curve of Mg 0.5Ti 0.5Ni electrode shows that the current related to the active/passive transition is much less important and that the passive region is more extended than for the MgNi electrode but the corrosion of the electrode is still significant. This suggests that the cycle life improvement would be also associated with a decrease of the particle pulverization upon cycling.

  13. Effect of Al content on structure and mechanical properties of the Al{sub x}CrNbTiVZr (x = 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1) high-entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurchenko, N.Yu. [Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Stepanov, N.D., E-mail: stepanov@bsu.edu.ru [Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Shaysultanov, D.G. [Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation); Tikhonovsky, M.A. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, NAS of Ukraine, Kharkov, 61108 (Ukraine); Salishchev, G.A. [Laboratory of Bulk Nanostructured Materials, Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    In present study, structure and mechanical properties of the Al{sub x}CrNbTiVZr (x = 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1) high-entropy alloys after arc melting and annealing at 1200 °C for 24 h are investigated. The CrNbTiVZr alloy is composed of body centered cubic (bcc) and C15 (face centered cubic) Laves phases while the Al{sub x}CrNbTiVZr (x = 0.25; 0.5; 1) alloys consist of bcc and two C14 (hexagonal close packed) Laves phases with different chemical compositions. Thermodynamic modeling predicts existence of two phases – bcc and C15 Laves phase and broadening of single bcc phase field due to Al addition. The density of the alloys decreases with the increase of Al content. The alloys are found to be extremely brittle at room temperature and 600 °C. The alloys have high strength at temperatures of 800–1000 °C. For example, yield strength at 800 °C increases from 440 MPa for the CrNbTiVZr alloy to 1250 MPa for the AlCrNbTiVZr alloy. The experimental phase composition of the Al{sub x}CrNbTiVZr alloys is compared with predicted equilibrium phases and the factors governing the transformation of C15 to C14 Laves phases due to Al addition to the CrNbTiVZr alloy analyzed. Specific properties of the alloys are compared with other high-entropy alloys and commercial Ni-based superalloys. - Highlights: •Al{sub x}CrNbTiVZr (x = 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1) alloys are arc melted and annealed at 1200 °C. •The CrNbTiVZr alloy has bcc and C15 Laves phases. •The Al-containing alloys are composed of bcc and two C14 Laves phases. •The alloys demonstrate high specific strength at temperatures of 800 °C and 1000 °C. •The strength of the alloys increases in proportion with increase of Al content.

  14. Corrosion behaviour of Al-Fe-Ti-V medium entropy alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodunrin, M. O.; Obadele, B. A.; Chown, L. H.; Olubambi, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Alloys containing up to four multi-principal elements in equiatomic ratios are referred to as medium entropy alloys (MEA). These alloys have attracted the interest of many researchers due to the superior mechanical properties it offers over the traditional alloys. The design approach of MEA often results to simple solid solution with either body centered cubic; face centered cubic structures or both. As the consideration for introducing the alloys into several engineering application increases, there have been efforts to study the corrosion behaviour of these alloys. Previous reports have shown that some of these alloys are more susceptible to corrosion when compared with traditional alloys due to lack of protective passive film. In this research, we have developed AlFeTiV medium entropy alloys containing two elements (Ti and Al) that readily passivate when exposed to corrosive solutions. The alloys were produced in vacuum arc furnace purged with high purity argon. Open circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarisation tests were used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of the as-cast AlFeTiV alloy in 3.5 wt% NaCl and 1 M H2SO4. The corrosion performance of the alloy was compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy tested under similar conditions. The results show that unlike in Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the open circuit potential of the AlFeTiV alloy move towards the negative values in both 3.5 wt% NaCl and 1 M H2SO4 solutions indicating that self-activation occurred rapidly on immersion. Anodic polarisation of the alloys showed that AlFeTiV alloy exhibited a narrow range of passivity in both solutions. In addition, the alloys exhibited lower Ecorr and higher Icorr when compared with traditional Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The traditional Ti-6Al-4V alloy showed superior corrosion resistant to the AlFeTiV alloy in both 3.5 wt.% NaCl and 1 M H2SO4 solutions.

  15. Tribological Properties of HVOF-Sprayed TiB2-NiCr Coatings with Agglomerated Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zichun; Li, Hui; Yang, Tianlong; Zhu, Hongbin

    2018-04-01

    Boride materials have drawn great attention in surface engineering field, owing to their high hardness and good wear resistance. In our previous work, a plasma-sprayed TiB2-based cermet coating was deposited, but the coating toughness was significantly influenced by the formation of a brittle ternary phase (Ni20Ti3B6) derived from the reaction between TiB2 and metal binder. In order to suppress such a reaction occurred in the high-temperature spraying process, the high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying technique was applied to prepare the TiB2-NiCr coating. Emphasis was paid on the microstructure, the mechanical properties, and the sliding wearing performance of the coating. The result showed that the HVOF-sprayed coating mainly consisted of hard ceramic particles including TiB2, CrB, and the binder phase. No evidence of Ni20Ti3B6 phase was found in the coating. The mechanical properties of HVOF-sprayed TiB2-NiCr coating were comparable to the conventional Cr3C2-NiCr coating. The frictional coefficient of the TiB2-NiCr coating was lower than the Cr3C2-NiCr coating when sliding against a bearing steel ball.

  16. Tribological Properties of HVOF-Sprayed TiB2-NiCr Coatings with Agglomerated Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zichun; Li, Hui; Yang, Tianlong; Zhu, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Boride materials have drawn great attention in surface engineering field, owing to their high hardness and good wear resistance. In our previous work, a plasma-sprayed TiB2-based cermet coating was deposited, but the coating toughness was significantly influenced by the formation of a brittle ternary phase (Ni20Ti3B6) derived from the reaction between TiB2 and metal binder. In order to suppress such a reaction occurred in the high-temperature spraying process, the high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying technique was applied to prepare the TiB2-NiCr coating. Emphasis was paid on the microstructure, the mechanical properties, and the sliding wearing performance of the coating. The result showed that the HVOF-sprayed coating mainly consisted of hard ceramic particles including TiB2, CrB, and the binder phase. No evidence of Ni20Ti3B6 phase was found in the coating. The mechanical properties of HVOF-sprayed TiB2-NiCr coating were comparable to the conventional Cr3C2-NiCr coating. The frictional coefficient of the TiB2-NiCr coating was lower than the Cr3C2-NiCr coating when sliding against a bearing steel ball.

  17. Development of Fe-Ni and Ni-base alloys without {gamma}' strengthening for advanced USC boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semba, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hirokazu; Igarashi, Masaaki; Hirata, Hiroyuki [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Corporate Research and Development Labs.; Yoshizawa, Mitsuru [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Steel Tube Works

    2010-07-01

    An Fe-Ni base alloy, 23Cr-45Ni-7W alloy (HR6W) strengthened by Fe{sub 2}W-type Laves phase is one of the candidate materials for the piping application. Stability of long-term creep strength and superior creep rupture ductility have been proved by creep rupture tests up to 60000h at 650-800 C. The 10{sup 5}h extrapolated creep rupture strength at 700 C approved by TUV is 85MPa. It has also been confirmed that HR6W has excellent microstructural stability by means of microstructural observations after term creep tests and aging. A thick wall pipe of HR6W, which is 457mm in diameter and 60mm in wall thickness, has successfully been manufactured by the Erhart Push Bench press method. This trial production has shown that hot workability of HR6W is sufficient for manufacturing thick wall piping for A-USC plants. A new Ni-base alloy, 30r-50Ni-4W alloy (HR35) has been proposed for piping application having comparable creep rupture strength with Alloy 617 at 700 C. This alloy is not strengthened by {gamma}' phase but mainly by {alpha}-Cr phase. The 10{sup 5}h extrapolated creep rupture strength is estimated to be 114 MPa at 700 C. It has sufficient creep rupture ductility compared with Alloy 617. A thick wall pipe of HR35 has also been successfully manufactured. Capability of HR6W and HR35 as structural materials for A-USC plants has been examined in detail. They have high resistance to relaxation cracking after welding. It is, therefore, concluded that both the alloys are promising candidates especially for thick wall piping in A-USC power plants. (orig.)

  18. Thermodynamic stability of oxides in the Ni-Cr-Fe system and stress corrosion crack growth kinetics of alloy 600 in primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, D.; Cassagne, T.; Daret, J.; Santarini, G.; Mazille, H.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the study of stress corrosion of alloy-600, a thermodynamical study of stoichiometric simple and mixed oxides of Ni-Cr-Fe system has been performed. This theoretical work shows that the oxidation of alloy-600 is dependent on temperature and on the quantity of dissolved hydrogen

  19. Mutual influences in solution spectroscopy of Fe, Ni Cr, Ti elements taken two by two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, Guy; Henon, Genevieve

    1960-01-01

    The effect of third elements in solution spectroscopy has been studied for Fe, Ni Cr, Ti elements taken two by two. The existence of a linear relation Δc x /c x = f(c y ) between this effect and the third element concentration has been evidenced and opens interesting perspectives for the analysis of stainless steels. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 1463-1465, sitting of 22 February 1960 [fr

  20. Morphology, deformation, and defect structures of TiCr2 in Ti-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.C.; Allen, S.M.; Livingston, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The morphologies and defect structures of TiCr 2 in several Ti-Cr alloys have been examined by optical metallography, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to explore the room-temperature deformability of the Laves phase TiCr 2 . The morphology of the Laves phase was found to be dependent upon alloy composition and annealing temperature. Samples deformed by compression have also been studied using TEM. Comparisons of microstructures before and after deformation suggest an increase in twin, stacking fault, and dislocation density within the Laves phase, indicating some but not extensive room-temperature deformability

  1. Strength and ductility of Ni3Al alloyed with boron and substitutional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, K.; Aoki, K.; Masumoto, T.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous alloying of boron (B) and the substitutional elements M on mechanical properties of Ni 3 Al was investigated by the tensile test at room temperature. The yield strength of Ni 3 Al+B increases by alloying with M except for Fe and Ga. In particular, it increases by alloying with Hf, Nb, W, Ta, Pd and Si. The fracture strength of Ni 3 Al+B increases by alloying with Pd, Ga, Si and Hf, but decreases with the other elements. Elongation of Ni 3 Al+B increases by alloying with Ga, Fe and Pd, but decreases with other elements. Hf and Pd is the effective element for the increase of the yield strength and the fracture strength of Ni 3 Al+B, respectively. Alloying with Hf leads to the increases of the yield strength and the fracture strength of Ni 3 Al+B, but to the lowering of elongation. On the other hand, alloying with Pd improves all mechanical properties, i.e. the yield strength, the fracture strength and elongation. On the contrary, alloying with Ti, V and Co leads to the lowering of mechanical properties of Ni 3 Al+B. The reason why ductility of Ni 3 Al+B is reduced by alloying with some elements M is discussed

  2. Microstructural characterization of Y2O3 ODS-Fe-Cr model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Munoz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.; Marquis, E.A.; Lozano-Perez, S.; Jenkins, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Two Fe-12 wt% Cr alloys, one containing 0.4 wt% Y 2 O 3 and the other Y 2 O 3 -free, have been produced by mechanical alloying followed by hot isostatic pressing. These oxide dispersion strengthened and reference alloys were characterized both in the as-HIPed state and after tempering by transmission electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography. The as-HIPed alloys exhibited the characteristic microstructure of lath martensite and contained a high density of dislocations. Small voids with sizes 3 C and M 23 C 6 carbides (M = Cr, Fe) probably as a result of C ingress during milling. After tempering at 1023 K for 4 h the microstructures had partially recovered. In the recovered regions, martensite laths were replaced by equiaxed grains in which M 23 C 6 carbides decorated the grain boundaries. In the ODS alloy nanoparticles containing Y were commonly observed within grains, although they were also present at grain boundaries and adjacent to large carbides.

  3. Shape of growing crystals of primary phases in autectic alloys of Fe - Fe2B and Ni - Ni3B systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavadze, F.N.; Garibashvili, V.I.; Nakaidze, Sh.G.

    1983-01-01

    Shapes of Fe 2 B and Ni 3 B crystal growth in eutectic Fe-B and Ni-B system alloys are considered. Iron hemiboride primary crystals take the form of a plane-face phase boundary and inherit a tetragonal prismatic lattice. After the crystal attains the critical size the dendritic branching occurs resulting in formation of a typical sceleton dendrite. Comparison of data obtained with entropy of melting for Fe 2 B and Ni 3 B borides shows that FeB crystals during the growth should take the spherical form. It is stated that the shape of growing crystals in Fe-Fe 2 B and Ni-Ni 2 B eutectic colonies is determined by the shape of borides

  4. Processing and characterization of AlCoFeNiXTi{sub 0,5} (X = Mn, V) high entropy alloys; Processamento e caracterizacao de ligas de alta entropia AlCoFeNixTi{sub 0,5} (X = Mn, V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triveno Rios, C., E-mail: carlos.triveno@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Engenharia de Materiais; Lopes, E.S.N.; Caram, R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/DEMA/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Kiminami, C.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    The microstructure of high entropy alloys consists of solid solution phases with FC and BCC simple structures, contrary to classical metallurgy where they form complex structures of intermetallic compounds. Because of this they have several attractive properties for engineering applications. In this work the AlCoFeNiMnTi{sub 0,5} and AlCoFeNiVTi{sub 0,5} alloys were processed by melting arc. Since the main objective was the microstructural and mechanical characterization of ingots as-cast. The alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microhardness and cold compression test. The results showed that the microstructure consists mainly of dendrites and interdendritic regions consisting of metastable crystalline phases. It was also observed that the AlCoFeNiVTi{sub 0,5} alloy showed better mechanical properties than the AlCoFeNiMnTi{sub 0,5} alloy. This may be associated with differences in the parameters of formation of simple solid solution phases between the two alloys. (author)

  5. The effect of applied stress on the shape memory behavior of TiNi-based alloys with different consequences of martensitic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, L.L.; Sivokha, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    The development of plastic deformation and shape memory behavior of the Ti 49.5 Ni 50.5 , Ti 50 Ni 34 Pt 16 , Ti 50 Ni 39,25 Cu 10 Fe 0,75 alloys are studied. The alloys differ by consequences of martensitic transformations (MT). It is found that the behavior of both accumulated and returned strain components exhibit some features in the alloys under consideration. The strain-temperature diagrams of the Ti 49.5 Ni 50.5 alloy with the B2↔B19' MT are of the one-step form. There are three stages on the strain-stress curves of this alloy depending on value of the applied mechanical torque. The regularity of plastic behavior of the Ti 50 Ni 34 Pt 16 alloy with the B2↔B19 transformation is similar to that of the Ti 49.5 Ni 50.5 alloy. The strain-stress diagram has three stages. However, there is a significant difference in the shape memory behavior of this alloy. The shape-memory behavior of the Ti 50 Ni 39,25 Cu 10 Fe 0,75 alloy corresponds to the two-stage nature of its B2↔B19↔B19' MT. The deformation mechanisms for these stages have their features in contrast to those of the foregoing alloys. The strain and temperature parameters of the shape memory effect and plastic behavior of the TiNi-based alloys are also examined

  6. Effect of titanium on the creep deformation behaviour of 14Cr-15Ni-Ti stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, S.; Mathew, M. D.; Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M.; Mannan, S. L.

    2011-02-01

    14Cr-15Ni-Ti modified stainless steel alloyed with additions of phosphorus and silicon is a potential candidate material for the future cores of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. In order to optimise the titanium content in this steel, creep tests have been conducted on the heats with different titanium contents of 0.18, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.36 wt.% at 973 K at various stress levels. The stress exponents indicated that the rate controlling deformation mechanism was dislocation creep. A peak in the variation of rupture life with titanium content was observed around 0.23 wt.% titanium and the peak was more pronounced at lower stresses. The variation in creep strength with titanium content was correlated with transmission electron microscopic investigations. The peak in creep strength exhibited by the material with 0.23 wt.% titanium is attributed to the higher volume fraction of fine secondary titanium carbide (TiC) precipitates.

  7. Effect of titanium on the creep deformation behaviour of 14Cr-15Ni-Ti stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latha, S. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Mathew, M.D., E-mail: mathew@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Mannan, S.L. [National Engineering College, Kovilpatti, Tamil Nadu 628 503 (India)

    2011-02-28

    14Cr-15Ni-Ti modified stainless steel alloyed with additions of phosphorus and silicon is a potential candidate material for the future cores of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. In order to optimise the titanium content in this steel, creep tests have been conducted on the heats with different titanium contents of 0.18, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.36 wt.% at 973 K at various stress levels. The stress exponents indicated that the rate controlling deformation mechanism was dislocation creep. A peak in the variation of rupture life with titanium content was observed around 0.23 wt.% titanium and the peak was more pronounced at lower stresses. The variation in creep strength with titanium content was correlated with transmission electron microscopic investigations. The peak in creep strength exhibited by the material with 0.23 wt.% titanium is attributed to the higher volume fraction of fine secondary titanium carbide (TiC) precipitates.

  8. Effect of titanium on the creep deformation behaviour of 14Cr-15Ni-Ti stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latha, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Parameswaran, P.; Nandagopal, M.; Mannan, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    14Cr-15Ni-Ti modified stainless steel alloyed with additions of phosphorus and silicon is a potential candidate material for the future cores of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. In order to optimise the titanium content in this steel, creep tests have been conducted on the heats with different titanium contents of 0.18, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.36 wt.% at 973 K at various stress levels. The stress exponents indicated that the rate controlling deformation mechanism was dislocation creep. A peak in the variation of rupture life with titanium content was observed around 0.23 wt.% titanium and the peak was more pronounced at lower stresses. The variation in creep strength with titanium content was correlated with transmission electron microscopic investigations. The peak in creep strength exhibited by the material with 0.23 wt.% titanium is attributed to the higher volume fraction of fine secondary titanium carbide (TiC) precipitates.

  9. Assessment of the radiation-induced loss of ductility in V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Alloys based on the V-Cr-Ti system are attractive candidates for structural applications in fusion systems because of their low activation properties, high thermal stress factor (high thermal conductivity, moderate strength, and low coefficient of thermal expansion), and their good compatibility with liquid lithium. The U.S. program has defined a V-4Cr-4Ti (wt %) alloy as a leading candidate alloy based upon evidence from laboratory-scale (30 kg) heats covering the approximate composition range 0-8 wt % Ti and 5 to 15 wt % Cr. A review of the effects of neutron displacement damage, helium, and hydrogen generation on mechanical behavior, and of compatibility with lithium, water, and helium environments was presented at the ICFRM-5 conference at Clearwater in 1991. The results of subsequent optimization studies, focusing on the effects of fast reactor irradiation on tensile and impact properties of a range of alloys, were presented at the ICFRM-6 conference at Stresa in 1993. The primary conclusion of this work was that the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy composition possessed a near-optimal combination of physical and mechanical properties for fusion structural applications. Subsequently, a production-scale (500 kg) heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat No. 832665) was procured from Teledyne Wah-Chang, together with several 15 kg heats of alloys with small variations in Cr and Ti. Further testing has been carried out on these alloys, including neutron irradiation experiments to study swelling and mechanical property changes. This paper discusses ductility measurements from some of these tests which are in disagreement with earlier work.

  10. Multifunctional Beta Ti Alloy with Improved Specific Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Hee; Hong, Jae-Keun; Lee, Sang Won; Yeom, Jong-Taek

    2017-12-01

    Gum metals feature properties such as ultrahigh strength, ultralow elastic modulus, superelasticity, and superplasticity. They are composed of elements from Groups 4 and 5 of the periodic table and exist when the valance electron concentration (\\overline{e/a}) is 4.24; the bond order (\\overline{Bo}) is 2.87; and the "d" electron-orbital energy level (\\overline{Md}) is 2.45 eV. Typical compositions include Ti-23Nb-2Zr-0.7Ta-O and Ti-12Ta-9Nb-6Zr-3 V-O, which contain large amounts of heavy Group-5 elements such as Nb and Ta. In the present study, to improve the specific strength of a multifunctional beta Ti alloy, three alloys (Ti-20Nb-5Zr-1Fe-O, Ti-12Zr-10Mo-4Nb-O, and Ti-24Zr-9Cr-3Mo-O) were designed by satisfying the above three requirements while adding Fe, Mo, and Cr, which are not only lightweight but also have strong hardening effects. Microstructural and mechanical property analyses revealed that Ti-20Nb-5Zr-1Fe-O has a 25% higher specific strength than gum metal while maintaining an ultralow elastic modulus.

  11. Wetting behavior of liquid Fe-C-Ti alloys on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbstein, M.; Froumin, N.; Frage, N.

    2008-01-01

    Wetting behavior in the (Fe-C-Ti)/sapphire system was studied at 1823 K. The wetting angle between sapphire and Fe-C alloys is higher than 90 deg. (93 deg. and 105 deg. for the alloys with 1.4 and 3.6 at.% C, respectively). The presence of Ti improves the wetting of the iron-carbon alloys, especially for the alloys with carbon content of 3.6 at.%. The addition of 5 at.% Ti to Fe-3.6 at.% C provides a contact angle of about 30 deg., while the same addition to Fe-1.4 at.% C decreases the wetting angle to 70 deg. only. It was established that the wetting in the systems is controlled by the formation of a titanium oxicarbide layer at the interface, which composition and thickness depend on C and Ti contents in the melt. The experimental observations are well accounted for by a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-Ti-Al-O-C system

  12. FTIR study of the influence of minor alloying elements on the high temperature oxidation of nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenglet, M.; Delaunay, F.; Lefez, B.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the reflectance spectra of the different single oxide layer systems : Cr 2 O 3 /Fe, MnCr 2 O 4 /Fe, TiO 2 /Fe, NiCr 2 O 4 /Fe and NiFe 2 O 4 /Fe and to extend the theoretical calculations to multilayer oxide systems on metallic substrates. The interpretation of the resulting reflectance spectra for these systems is used to explain the initial stages of oxide formation and the influence of minor alloying elements on the high temperature oxidation of three commercial nickel alloys : Incoloy 800, Inconel 600 and X. (orig.)

  13. A new Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni-Si-Sn bulk amorphous alloy with high glass-forming ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.J.; Shen, J.; Sun, J.F.; Yu, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of Sn substitution for Cu on the glass-forming ability was investigated in Ti 41.5 Zr 2.5 Hf 5 Cu 42.5-x Ni 7.5 Si 1 Sn x (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7) alloys by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry. The alloy containing 5% Sn shows the highest glass-forming ability (GFA) among the Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni-Si-Sn system. Fully amorphous rod sample with diameters up to 6 mm could be successfully fabricated by the copper mold casting Ti 41.5 Zr 2.5 Hf 5 Cu 37.5 Ni 7.5 Si 1 Sn 5 alloy. The activation energies for glass transition and crystallization for Ti 41.5 Zr 2.5 Hf 5 Cu 37.5 Ni 7.5 Si 1 Sn 5 amorphous alloy are both larger than those values for the Sn-free alloy. The enhancement in GFA and thermal stability after the partial replacement of Cu by Sn may be contributed to the strong atomic bonding nature between Ti and Sn and the increasing of atomic packing density. The amorphous Ti 41.5 Zr 2.5 Hf 5 Cu 37.5 Ni 7.5 Si 1 Sn 5 alloy also possesses superior mechanical properties

  14. Phase transformation, magnetic property and microstructure of Ni-Mn-Fe-Co-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Sho, Y.; Kushima, T.; Todaka, Y.; Umemoto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of addition of Fe and Co on the phase stability, magnetic property and microstructures were investigated for Ni-Mn-Ga. In Ni-Mn 21- x -Fe x -Ga 27 alloys, martensitic transformation temperatures decreased with increasing amount of Fe (x) up to 15 mol%, then slightly increased by the further addition. The crystal structure of martensite phase was 10 M for x 15 mol%. Relatively high martensite stability was obtained for Ni 52 -Mn 16- x -Fe x -Co 5 -Ga 27 alloys. The highest stability of the ferromagnetic martensite phase was achieved in Ni 52 -Mn 6 -Fe 10 -Co 5 -Ga 27 after aging at 773 K for 3.6 ks. Martensite structure was non-modulated 2 M in this series of alloys

  15. Dynamic Shear Deformation and Failure of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chun; Chen, Pengwan

    2018-01-05

    To study the dynamic shear deformation and failure properties of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) alloy and Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe (Ti-55511) alloy, a series of forced shear tests on flat hat shaped (FHS) specimens for the two investigated materials was performed using a split Hopkinson pressure bar setup. The evolution of shear deformation was monitored by an ultra-high-speed camera (Kirana-05M). Localized shear band is induced in the two investigated materials under forced shear tests. Our results indicate that severe strain localization (adiabatic shear) is accompanied by a loss in the load carrying capacity, i.e., by a sudden drop in loading. Three distinct stages can be identified using a digital image correlation technique for accurate shear strain measurement. The microstructural analysis reveals that the dynamic failure mechanisms for Ti-64 and Ti-55511 alloys within the shear band are of a cohesive and adhesive nature, respectively.

  16. Research on low strain magnetic mechanical hysteresis damping performance of Fe-15Cr-3Mo-0.5Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Huawei; Hong, Xiaofeng; Yin, Changgeng; Huang, Zhaohua; Chen, Le

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat treatment system has a great effect on the alloy damping performance. • Damping performance does not improve monotonously with temperature. • Furnace cooling is higher than that of alloy after air cooling. • There is an optimum annealing temperature and grain size to obtain high damping. - Abstract: This paper studies the preparation of Fe-15Cr-3Mo-0.5Si alloy by using vacuum induction melting furnace and vacuum annealing furnace, the damping performance of which in different heat treatment states is tested with dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMA). Through microstructure observation with metallographic microscope (OM), grain boundary observation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), phase structure analysis with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and internal stress of S-B model analysis, the effect law of annealing temperature, types of cooling, holding time and grain sizes on the damping performance of alloy and the related mechanism can be concluded as follows. The annealing temperature and grain sizes have a significant impact on the damping strain amplitude as well as the magnetic and mechanical damping performance of this ferromagnetic alloy. Proper annealing temperature and grain size is the necessary condition to get high damping performance of the alloy. It is not conducive to improvement of the damping performance if the annealing temperature is too high or too low and the grain size is too small or too large. For Fe-15Cr-3Mo-0.5Si alloy, within the range of the low strain amplitude, alloy damping performance does not improve monotonously with the increase of the annealing temperature and grain size. The maximum value appears at the annealing temperature of 1100 °C/1 h with the grain size of about 300 μm. At high annealing temperature of 1100 °C, the damping performance of alloy in the slow cooling furnace is higher than that with air cooling treatment. The extension or shortening of the holding time, to a certain extent

  17. Research on low strain magnetic mechanical hysteresis damping performance of Fe-15Cr-3Mo-0.5Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui, E-mail: qinghe5525@163.com; Huang, Huawei; Hong, Xiaofeng; Yin, Changgeng; Huang, Zhaohua; Chen, Le

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Heat treatment system has a great effect on the alloy damping performance. • Damping performance does not improve monotonously with temperature. • Furnace cooling is higher than that of alloy after air cooling. • There is an optimum annealing temperature and grain size to obtain high damping. - Abstract: This paper studies the preparation of Fe-15Cr-3Mo-0.5Si alloy by using vacuum induction melting furnace and vacuum annealing furnace, the damping performance of which in different heat treatment states is tested with dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMA). Through microstructure observation with metallographic microscope (OM), grain boundary observation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), phase structure analysis with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and internal stress of S-B model analysis, the effect law of annealing temperature, types of cooling, holding time and grain sizes on the damping performance of alloy and the related mechanism can be concluded as follows. The annealing temperature and grain sizes have a significant impact on the damping strain amplitude as well as the magnetic and mechanical damping performance of this ferromagnetic alloy. Proper annealing temperature and grain size is the necessary condition to get high damping performance of the alloy. It is not conducive to improvement of the damping performance if the annealing temperature is too high or too low and the grain size is too small or too large. For Fe-15Cr-3Mo-0.5Si alloy, within the range of the low strain amplitude, alloy damping performance does not improve monotonously with the increase of the annealing temperature and grain size. The maximum value appears at the annealing temperature of 1100 °C/1 h with the grain size of about 300 μm. At high annealing temperature of 1100 °C, the damping performance of alloy in the slow cooling furnace is higher than that with air cooling treatment. The extension or shortening of the holding time, to a certain extent

  18. Molecular dynamics study on threshold displacement energies in Fe-Cr alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiawei; Ding, Wenyi; Zheng, Mingjie; Mao, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    The threshold displacement energies (Ed) of Fe and Cr atoms in Fe-Cr alloys with Cr contents ranging from 0% to 21% have been obtained with molecular dynamics (MD) method. The values of Ed have been calculated along the three high-symmetry crystallographic directions [0 0 1], [0 1 1] and [1 1 1], a slightly 2° tilt from these directions, and a high-index crystallographic directions [1 3 5]. The results showed that [0 1 1] crystallographic direction had the highest Ed among the three high-symmetry directions in each Cr content alloy. Fe-9Cr had higher weighted average Ed than the other Cr content alloys for both Fe and Cr PKA due to its statistically high Ed along the [0 1 1] crystallographic direction up to 44.3 eV. And the statistical analysis on the primary damage configuration demonstrated that 〈1 1 0〉Fe-Fe dumbbells were the dominant defect structures after relaxation. These data can enrich the database of Ed in Fe-Cr alloys and have potential applications in guiding the optimization design of radiation-resistant RAFM steels.

  19. Study on properties of stress relaxation for NiTiNb shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xuchang; Mo Huaqiang; Zeng Guangting; Shen Baoluo; Huo Yongzhong

    2002-01-01

    Stress relaxation tests at high temperature are performed for NiTiNb shape memory alloy to obtain the properties of stress relaxation. The relaxation curve fitted with the expression, which is deduced based on the relation between the relaxation and the creep. With the aid of experimental data, relaxation characteristic coefficient and remaining stress ratio are obtained, which characterize the relaxation behavior. The results of the study show that stress relaxation would be more evident with the higher temperature and/or greater initial stress. NiTiNb alloy has good relaxation resistance in the temperature range 300-400 degree C and the initial stress range 260-360 MPa. NiTiNb has better properties to resist relaxation than NiTiFe, therefore it is more applicable to work at high temperature

  20. Improved hardness of laser alloyed X12CrNiMo martensitic stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebiyi, DI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in hardness of X12CrNiMo martensitic stainless steel laser alloyed with 99.9% pure titanium carbide, stellite 6 and two cases of premixed ratio of titanium carbide and stellite 6 [TiC (30 wt.%)- stellite 6 (70 wt.%) and TiC (70 wt...

  1. Hydrogen isotopes mobility and trapping in V-Cr-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budylkin, N.; Voloschin, L.; Mironova, E.; Riazantseva, N.; Tebus, V.

    1996-01-01

    In the last years the V-Ti-Cr alloys were considered as candidate materials for different structures of fusion reactors (blanket, first wall, divertor and so on) due to their advantages over other structure materials. Mobility and trapping parameters of hydrogen are essential characteristics for an assessment of using the V-Ti-Cr alloys in FR. In this paper: hydrogen problems for V-Ti-Cr alloys are formulated; V-H system data base is analyzed; study results of the hydrogen mobility and trapping in V-4Ti-4Cr and V-10Ti-5Cr alloys are given; the classification of V-alloys as radioactive waste according to the Russian Federation waste management rules is developed taking into account the residual amount of tritium ('inventory'). (orig.)

  2. A study on the shape memory characteristics of Ti-Ni50-x-Pdx alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. W.; Chun, B. S.; Oh, S. J.; Kuk, I.H.

    1991-01-01

    The shape memory characteristics in TiNi alloys are greatly effected by the alloy composition and heat treatment condition. The present work was aimed to investigate the effect of Pd x (x=5,10,15,20) addition on the shape memory chracteristics of TiNi alloys by means of electrical resistance measurement. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and electron dispersive analysis X-ray measurement. The results obtained from this study are as follows; 1. The martensitic transformation start temperature, Ms of Ti-Ni 50-x -Pd x alloys decreased considerably with the increase of Pd content up to 10at%, whereas increased largely with the increase of Pd content in the alloys with Pd content more than 15at%. 2. The Ms temperature of Ti-Ni 50-x -Pd x alloys with cold working was significantly lower than that of the fully annealed alloys because high density dislocation has been introduced by the cold working which suppressed the martensitic transformation. (Author)

  3. Microstructure of reactive synthesis TiC/Cr18Ni8 stainless steel bonded carbides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Junsheng; Liu Junbo; Wang Limei

    2008-01-01

    TiC/Cr18Ni8 steel bonded carbides were synthesized by vacuum sintering with mixed powders of iron, ferrotitanium, ferrochromium, colloidal graphite and nickel as raw materials. The microstructure and microhardness of the steel bonded carbides were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rockwell hardometer. Results show that the phases of steel bonded carbides mainly consist of TiC and Fe-Cr-Ni solid solution. The synthesized TiC particles are fine. Most of them are not more than 1 μm With the increase of sintering temperature, the porosity of TiC/Cr18Ni8 steel bonded carbides decreases and the density and hardness increase, but the size of TiC panicles slightly increases. Under the same sintering conditions, the density and hardness of steel bonded carbides with C/Ti atomic ratio 0.9 are higher than those with C/Ti atomic ratio 1.0.The TiC particles with C/Ti atomic ratio 0.9 are much finer and more homogeneous.

  4. Application of electroless Ni-P coating on magnesium alloy via CrO3/HF free titanate pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabalizadeh, Z.; Seifzadeh, D.

    2017-11-01

    The titanate conversion coating was applied as CrO3/HF free pretreatment for the electroless Ni-P plating on AM60B magnesium alloy. The microscopic images revealed that the alloy surface was completely covered by a cracked conversion film after titanate pretreatment which was mainly composed of Mg(OH)2/MgO, MgF2, TiO2, SiO2, and Al2O3/Al(OH)3. The microscopic images also revealed that numerous Ni nucleation centers were formed over the titanate film after short electroless plating times. The nucleation centers were created not only on the cracked area but also over the whole pretreated surface due to the catalytic action of the titanate film. Also, uniform, dense, and defect-free Ni-P coating with fine structure was achieved after 3 h plating. The Ni-P coating showed mixed crystalline-amorphous structure due to its moderate phosphorus content. The results of two traditional corrosion monitoring methods indicated that the Ni-P coating significantly increases the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy. Moreover, Electrochemical Noise (EN) method was used as a non-polarized technique to study the corrosion behavior of the electroless coating at different immersion times. The results of the EN tests were clearly showed the localized nature of the corrosion process. Micro-hardness value of the magnesium alloy was remarkably enhanced after the electroless plating. Finally, suitable adhesion between the Ni-P coating and the magnesium alloy substrate was confirmed by thermal shock and pull-off-adhesion tests.

  5. Change of Cr atoms distribution in Fe85Cr15 alloy caused by 250 keV He+ ion irradiation to different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiel, S.M.; Żukrowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of He-ion irradiation dose on Fe 85 Cr 15 alloy. • Irradiation-induced clustering of Cr atoms. • Irradiation-caused reorientation of the surface magnetization vector. • Irradiation-caused increase of Fe-site spin-density. - Abstract: Redistribution of Cr atoms in a Fe 85 Cr 15 alloy caused by its irradiation with 250 keV He + ions to different doses, D = 8 ⋅ 10 16 , 16 ⋅ 10 16 and 48 ⋅ 10 16 ions/cm 2 was investigated by means of conversion electrons Mössbauer spectroscopy. The redistribution was expressed in terms of the Warren–Cowley short-range order parameters α 1 , α 2 and α 12 pertaining to the first (1NN), second (2NN) and both i.e. 1NN + 2NN shells, respectively. Clear evidence was found, both for non-irradiated and irradiated samples that the actual distribution of Cr atoms is characteristic of the shell, and for a given shell it depends on the irradiation dose. In particular, α 1 is positive, hence indicates an under population of Cr atoms in 1NN with respect to the random case, α 2 is negative, giving evidence thereby that 2NN is overpopulated by Cr atoms, and α 12 is weakly positive. Under the applied irradiation the number of Cr atoms in both neighbor shells decreased signifying thereby a clustering of Cr atoms. The underlying decrease of Cr concentration within the 1NN–2NN volume around the probe Fe atoms was estimated at 1.5 at.% ranging between 2.1 for the lowest and 0.8 at.% for the highest dose

  6. Synthesis Of NiCrAlC alloys by mechanical alloying; Sintese de ligas NiCrAlC por moagem de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.K.; Pereira, J.I.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M., E-mail: alissonkws@gmail.co [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is the synthesis of nickel alloys (NiCrAlC), which has been proposed like a economic alternative to the Stellite family Co alloys using mechanical alloying, followed by sintering heat treatment of milled material. The NiCrAlC alloys consist of a chromium carbides dispersion in a Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic matrix, that is easily synthesized by mechanical alloying. The use of mechanical alloying enables higher carbides sizes and distribution control in the matrix during sintering. We are also investigated the compaction of the processed materials by compressibility curves. The milling products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the end product was featured by conventional metallography and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), that enabled the identification of desired phases, beyond microhardness test, which has been shown comparable to alloys manufactured by fusion after heat treating. (author)

  7. Structure of Ni-rich Ni--Cr--B--Si coating alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, O.; Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.

    1975-01-01

    The structures of quaternary, nickel-rich Ni--Cr--B--Si alloys were analyzed at a constant boron content of 10 at. percent and a temperature of 850 0 C. The composition range for silicide formation was determined. In these quaternary alloys, known binary nickel silicides, nickel and chromium borides, and the ternary silico-boride Ni 6 Si 2 B were confirmed. A new composition for the W 5 Si 3 -type phase in the Ni--B--Si system was proposed. (U.S.)

  8. Study of microstructural evolution of X4CrNiSiTi14-7 during thermal aging; Untersuchung der mikrostrukturellen Entwicklung von X4CrNiSiTi14-7 waehrend thermischer Alterung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhawat, Shahroz; Falahati, Ahmad [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Materials Science and Technology; Domankova, Maria [MTF STU Trnava (Slovakia). Inst. of Materials Science

    2010-09-15

    Microstructural evolution during aging treatment in a high tensile precipitation hardening stainless steel (X4CrNiSiTi14-7) has been investigated. Matrix consists of martensitic structure and the combined addition of Si and Ti causes an intermetallic phase type Ni{sub 16}Ti{sub 6}Si{sub 7} that precipitates with-in grains and enhance precipitation strengthening. This material shows a good combination of high strength and ductility. Light-Optical microscopy, electron back scattered diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis have been used to study the microstructural evolution during aging. It has been found that precipitations of various kinds are taking place during aging treatments including nm-scaled G-phase and various carbides. Higher aging temperatures lead to reverse transformation of martensite to austenite. (orig.)

  9. Mechanism study of c.f.c Fe-Ni-Cr alloy corrosion in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payet, M.

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical water can be use as a high pressure coolant in order to improve the thermodynamic efficiency of power plants. For nuclear concept, lifetime is an important safety parameter for materials. Thus materials selection criteria concern high temperature yield stress, creep resistance, resistance to irradiation embrittlement and also to both uniform corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.This study aims for supplying a new insight on uniform corrosion mechanism of Fe-Ni-Cr f.c.c. alloys in deaerated supercritical water at 600 C and 25 MPa. Corrosion tests were performed on 316L and 690 alloys as sample autoclaves taking into account the effect of surface finishes. Morphologies, compositions and crystallographic structure of the oxides were determined using FEG scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. If supercritical water is expected to have a gas-like behaviour in the test conditions, the results show a significant dissolution of the alloy species. Thus the corrosion in supercritical water can be considered similar to corrosion in under-critical water assuming the higher temperature and its effect on the solid state diffusion. For alloy 690, the protective oxide layer formed on polished surface consists of a chromia film topped with an iron and nickel mixed chromite or spinel. The double oxide layer formed on 316L steel seems less protective with an outer porous layer of magnetite and an inhomogeneous Cr-rich inner layer. For each alloy, the study of the inner protective scale growth mechanisms by marker or tracer experiments reveals that diffusion in the oxide scale is governed by an anionic process. However, surface finishes impact deeply the growth mechanisms. Comparisons between the results for the steel suggest that there is a competition between the oxidation of iron and chromium in supercritical water. Sufficient available chromium is required in order to form a thin oxide layer. Highly deformed or ultra fine

  10. X-ray determination of static displacements of atoms in alloyed Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morinaga, M.; Sone, K.; Kamimura, T.; Ohtaka, K.; Yukawa, N.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystals of Ni 3 (Al, M) were grown by the Bridgman method, where M is Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Nb, Mo and Ta. The composition was controlled to be about Ni 75 Al 20 M 5 so that the alloying element, M, substitutes mainly for Al. With these crystals conventional X-ray structural analysis was performed. The measured static displacements of atoms from the average lattice points depended largely on the alloying elements and varied in the range 0.00-0.13 A for Ni atoms and 0.09-0.18 A for Al atoms. It was found that these atomic displacements correlated well with the atomic radius of the alloying element, M. For example, when the atomic radius of M is larger than that of Al, the static displacements are large for the atoms in the Al sublattice but small for the atoms in the Ni sublattice. By contrast, when the atomic radius of M is smaller than that of Al, the displacements are more enhanced in the Ni sublattice than in the Al sublattice. Thus, there is an interesting correlation between the atomic displacements in both the Al and Ni sublattices in the presence of alloying elements. This seems to be one of the characteristics of alloyed compounds with several sublattices. (orig.)

  11. Tensile and fracture toughness properties of the nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy 13Cr-1W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiselt, Ch.Ch.; Klimenkov, M.; Lindau, R.; Moeslang, A.; Odette, G.R.; Yamamoto, T.; Gragg, D.

    2011-01-01

    The realization of fusion power as an attractive energy source requires advanced structural materials that can cope with ultra-severe thermo-mechanical loads and high neutron fluxes experienced by fusion power plant components, such as the first wall, divertor and blanket structures. Towards this end, two variants of a 13Cr-1W-0.3Ti-0.3Y 2 O 3 reduced activation ferritic (RAF-) ODS steel were produced by ball milling phase blended Fe-13Cr-1W, 0.3Y 2 0 3 and 0.3Ti powders in both argon and hydrogen atmospheres. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The as-HIPed alloys were then hot rolled into 6 mm plates. Microstructural, tensile and fracture toughness characterization of the hot rolled alloys are summarized here and compared to results previously reported for the as-HIPed condition.

  12. Improvement in Microstructure Performance of the NiCrBSi Reinforced Coating on TA15 Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li

    2012-10-01

    This work is based on the dry sliding wear of NiCrBSi reinforced coating deposited on TA15 titanium alloy using the laser cladding technique, the parameters of which were such as to provide almost crack-free coatings with minimum dilution and very low porosity. SEM results indicated that a laser clad coating with metallurgical joint to the substrate was formed. Compared with TA15 substrate, an improvement of the micro-hardness and wear resistance was observed for this composite coating. Rare earth oxide Y2O3 was beneficial in producing of the amorphous phases in laser clad coating. With addition of Y2O3, more amorphous alloys were produced, which increased the micro-hardness and wear resistance of the coating.

  13. Promising Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy for first wall ITER applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Abramov, V.; Rodin, M.

    1996-01-01

    Precipitation-hardened Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy, a promising material for ITER applications, is considered. Available commercial products, chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties are presented. Embrittlement of Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy at 250-300 C is observed. Mechanical properties of Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy neutron irradiated to a dose of ∝0.2 dpa at 293 C are investigated. Embrittlement of Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy can be avoided by annealing. (orig.)

  14. Fabrication of Mg-X-O (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Ti, V, and Zn) barriers for magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushiji, K.; Kitagawa, E.; Ochiai, T.; Kubota, H.; Shimomura, N.; Ito, J.; Yoda, H.; Yuasa, S.

    2018-05-01

    We fabricated magnetic tunnel junctions with a 3d-transition material(X)-doped MgO (Mg-X-O) barrier, and evaluated the effect of the doping on magnetoresistance (MR) and microstructure. Among the variations of X (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Ti, V, and Zn), X = Fe and Mn showed a high MR ratio of more than 100%, even at a low resistance-area product of 3 Ωμm2. The microstructure analysis revealed that (001) textured orientation formed for X = Fe and Mn despite substantial doping (about 10 at%). The elemental mappings indicated that Fe atoms in the Mg-Fe-O barrier were segregated at the interfaces, while Mn atoms were evenly involved in the Mg-Mn-O barrier. This suggests that MgO has high adaptability for Fe and Mn dopants in terms of high MR ratio.

  15. Functional Properties of Porous Ti-48.0 at.% Ni Shape Memory Alloy Produced by Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnina, Natalia; Belyaev, Sergey; Voronkov, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    The functional behavior of the porous shape memory alloy produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis from the Ti-48.0 at.% Ni powder mixture was studied. It was found that a large unelastic strain recovered on unloading and it was not attributed to the pseudoelasticity effect. A decrease in deformation temperatures did not influence the value of strain that recovered on unloading, while the effective modulus decreased from 1.9 to 1.44 GPa. It was found that the porous Ti-48.0 at.% Ni alloy revealed the one-way shape memory effect, where the maximum recoverable strain was 5%. The porous Ti-48.0 at.% Ni alloy demonstrated the transformation plasticity and the shape memory effects on cooling and heating under a stress. An increase in stress did not influence the shape memory effect value, which was equal to 1%. It was shown that the functional properties of the porous alloy were determined by the TiNi phase consisted of the two volumes Ti49.3Ni50.7 and Ti50Ni50 where the martensitic transformation occurred at different temperatures. The results of the study showed that the existence of the Ti49.3Ni50.7 volumes in the porous Ti-48.0 at.% Ni alloy improved the functional properties of the alloy.

  16. Hot corrosion of Co-Cr, Co-Cr-Al, and Ni-Cr alloys in the temperature range of 700-750 deg C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, K. T.; Meier, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of SO3 pressure in the gas phase on the Na2SO4 induced hot corrosion of Co-Cr, Ni-Cr, and Co-Cr-Al alloys was studied in the temperature range 700 to 750 C. The degradation of the Co-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys was found to be associated with the formation of liquid mixed sulfates (CoSO4-Na2SO4 or NiSO4-Na2SO4) which provided a selective dissolution of the Co or Ni and a subsequent sulfidation oxidation mode of attack which prevented the maintenance of a protective Cr2O3 film. A clear mechanism was not developed for the degradation of Co-Cr-Al alloys. A pitting corrosion morphology was induced by a number of different mechanisms.

  17. Local Energies and Energy Fluctuations — Applied to the High Entropy Alloy CrFeCoNi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Tetsuya; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori; Ogura, Masako; Zeller, Rudolf; Dederichs, Peter H.

    2017-11-01

    High entropy alloys show a variety of fascinating properties like high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. They are random solid solutions of many components with rather high concentrations. We perform ab-initio calculations for the high entropy alloy CrFeCoNi, which equal concentration of 25% for each element. By the KKRnano program package, which is based on an order-N screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method, we consider a face-centered cubic (FCC) supercell with 1372 randomly distributed elements, and in addition also smaller supercells with 500 and 256 atoms. It is found from our calculations that the local moments of the Cr atoms show a large environmental variation, ranging from -1.70 μB to +1.01 μB with an average of about -0.51 μB. We present a new method to calculate "local energies" of all atoms. This is based on the partitioning of the whole space into Voronoi cells and allows to calculate the energetic contribution of each atomic cell to the total energy of the supercell. The supercell calculations show very large variations of the local energies, analogous to the variations of the local moments. This shows that the random solid solution is not stable and has a tendency to form an L12-structure with the Cr-atoms ordered at the corner of the cube and the elements Fe, Co, and Ni randomly distributed on the three other FCC sublattices. For this structure the variation of the local moments are much smaller.

  18. Corrosion testing of NiCrAl(Y) coating alloys in high-temperature and supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljan, S.; Huang, X.; Qian, Y.; Guzonas, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear power reactors, materials capable of operating in high-temperature and supercritical water environment are essential. This study focuses on the corrosion behavior of five alloys with compositions of Ni20Cr, Ni5Al, Ni50Cr, Ni20Cr5Al and Ni20Cr10AlY above and below the critical point of water. Corrosion tests were conducted at three different pressures, while the temperature was maintained at 460 o C, in order to examine the effects of water density on the corrosion. From the preliminary test results, it was found that the binary alloys Ni20Cr and Ni50Cr showed weight loss above the critical point (23.7 MPa and 460 o C). The higher Cr content alloy Ni50Cr suffered more weight loss than Ni-20Cr under the same conditions. Accelerated weight gain was observed above the critical point for the binary alloy Ni5Al. The combination of Cr, Al and Y in Ni20Cr10AlY provides stable scale formation under all testing conditions employed in this study. (author)

  19. Influence of chemical composition in crystallographic texture Fe-Cr-Mo alloys; Influencia da composicao quimica na textura cristalografica de ligas Fe-Cr-Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, L.B.; Guimaraes, R.F. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. da Industria; Abreu, H.F.G. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of steels with higher contents of Mo in the oil industry has been an alternative to reduce the effect of naphthenic corrosion in refining units. The addition of Mo in Fe-Cr alloys in the same manner that increases resistance to corrosion naphthenic causes some difficulties such as difficulty of forming, welding and embrittlement. In this work, experimental ingots of Fe-Cr-Mo alloys (Cr - 9, 15 and 17%, Mo - 5, 7 and 9%) were melted in vacuum induction furnace and hot and cold rolled in a laboratory rolling mill. The influence of chemical composition on crystallographic texture of samples subjected to the same thermo-mechanical treatment was analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The results indicate that fiber (111) becomes more intense with increasing Mo and/or Cr contents. (author)

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-20Si-5Fe-2X (X = Cu, Ni, Cr) alloys produced by melt-spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabi, M.; Simchi, A.; Davami, P.

    2008-01-01

    Al-20Si-5Fe-2X (X = Cu, Ni and Cr) ribbons were produced by melt-spinning and consolidated by hot pressing at 400 deg. C for 60 min. The microstructure of the ribbons and the consolidated alloys was investigated using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) method, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hardness and compressive strength of the specimens at ambient and elevated temperatures were examined. The microstructure of the ribbons exhibited featureless and dendritic zones. Results of XRD and TEM showed formation of spherically shaped Si particles with an average diameter of 20 nm. Ultrafine Si (110-150 nm) and iron-containing intermetallic particles were noticed in the microstructure of the consolidated ribbons. An improved strength was achieved by alloying of Al-20Si-5Fe with Cu, Ni, and Cr. Nickel was found to be the most effective element in increasing the maximum stress, particularly at elevated temperatures

  1. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Ni-Alloy/CrN Nanolayered Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Hsiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ni-alloy/CrN nanolayered coatings, Ni-Al/CrN and Ni-P/CrN, were deposited on (100 silicon wafer and AISI 420 stainless steel substrates by dual-gun sputtering technique. The influences of the layer microstructure on corrosion behavior of the nanolayered thin films were investigated. The bilayer thickness was controlled approximately 10 nm with a total coating thickness of 1m. The single-layer Ni-alloy and CrN coatings deposited at 350∘C were also evaluated for comparison. Through phase identification, phases of Ni-P and Ni-Al compounds were observed in the single Ni-alloy layers. On the other hand, the nanolayered Ni-P/CrN and Ni-Al/CrN coatings showed an amorphous/nanocrystalline microstructure. The precipitation of Ni-Al and Ni-P intermetallic compounds was suppressed by the nanolayered configuration of Ni-alloy/CrN coatings. Through Tafel analysis, the corr and corr values ranged from –0.64 to –0.33 V and 1.42×10−5 to 1.14×10−6 A/cm2, respectively, were deduced for various coating assemblies. The corrosion mechanisms and related behaviors of the coatings were compared. The coatings with a nanolayered Ni-alloy/CrN configuration exhibited a superior corrosion resistance to single-layer alloy or nitride coatings.

  2. Grain Refinement of Al-Si-Fe-Cu-Zn-Mn Based Alloy by Al-Ti-B Alloy and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Yong-Ho; Jung, Chang-Gi; Lee, Sang-Chan; Lee, Seong-Hee; Son, Hyeon-Taek

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the effects of Al-5.0wt%Ti-1.0wt%B addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-extruded Al-0.15wt%Si-0.2wt%Fe-0.3wt%Cu-0.15wt%Zn-0.9wt%Mn based alloys. The Aluminum alloy melt was held at 800 °C and then poured into a mould at 200 °C. Aluminum alloys were hot-extruded into a rod that was 12 mm in thickness with a reduction ratio of 38:1. AlTiB addition to Al-0.15Si-0.2Fe-0.3Cu-0.15Zn-0.9Mn based alloys resulted in the formation of Al3Ti and TiB2 intermetallic compounds and grain refinement. With increasing of addition AlTiB, ultimate tensile strength increased from 93.38 to 99.02 to 100.01 MPa. The tensile strength of the as-extruded alloys was improved due to the formation of intermetallic compounds and grain refinement.

  3. Shape memory effect of Fe-14% Mn-6% Si-9% Cr-6% Ni alloy polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Hirosuke

    1992-01-01

    Factors affecting the shape memory effect in Fe-14% Mn-6% Si-9% Cr-6% Ni alloy polycrystals were studied in detail. It was found that the shape memory effect in this alloy was most influenced by the amount of deformation. With increasing amount of deformation, the shape memory effect diminished appreciably. Although the fraction of the initial dimensional change that could be restored was about 45% in the specimen strained by 4%, only 21% of the initial dimensional change was recovered in the specimen strained by 9%. Temperatures of deformation were found to be also an important factor that affected the shape memory effect. The maximum shape memory effect was observed in the specimens strained at temperatures between the M s and M d temperatures. In this alloy, however, specimens strained at temperatures below the M s temperature indicated a relatively large shape memory effect, too. It was further found that the shape memory effect was appreciably intensified by repeated straining and annealing, especially when straining was performed at 500deg C. It was suggested that the shape memory effect in Fe base alloys was strongly influenced by the dislocation substructure present in the starting material. (orig.) [de

  4. Behavior and effect of Ti2Ni phase during processing of NiTi shape memory alloy wire from cast ingot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagyaraj, J.; Ramaiah, K.V.; Saikrishna, C.N.; Bhaumik, S.K.; Gouthama

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Ti 2 Ni second phase particles forms in different sizes and shapes in cast ingot. •TEM evidences showed shearing/fragmentation of Ti 2 Ni during processing. •Matrix close to Ti 2 Ni experienced severe plastic deformation lead to amorphisation. •Ti 2 Ni interfaces were mostly faceted and assist in nucleation of martensite. •Heterogeneity of microstructure observed near to and away from Ti 2 Ni. -- Abstract: Binary NiTi alloy is one of the commercially successful shape memory alloys (SMAs). Generally, the NiTi alloy composition used for thermal actuator application is slightly Ti-rich. In the present study, vacuum arc melted alloy of 50.2Ti–Ni (at.%) composition was prepared and characterized using optical, scanning and transmission electron microcopy. Formation of second phase particles (SPPs) in the cast alloy and their influence on development of microstructure during processing of the alloy into wire form has been investigated. Results showed that the present alloy contained Ti 2 Ni type SPPs in the matrix. In the cast alloy, the Ti 2 Ni particles form in varying sizes (1–10 μm) and shapes. During subsequent thermo-mechanical processing, these SPPs get sheared/fragmented into smaller particles with low aspect ratio. The presence of SPPs plays a significant role in refinement of the microstructure during processing of the alloy. During deformation of the alloy, the matrix phase around the SPPs experiences conditions similar to that observed in severe plastic deformation of metallic materials, leading to localized amorphisation of the matrix phase

  5. The permeation behavior of deuterium through 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with TiN+TiC-TiN multiple films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Y.; Song, J.; Luo, D.; Lei, Q.; Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    The prevention of tritium losses via permeation through structure components is an important issue in fusion technology. The production of thin layers on materials with low diffusivity and/or low surface recombination constants (so-called permeation barriers) seems to be the most practical method to reduce or hinder the permeation of tritium through materials. TiN+TiC+TiN multiple films are deposited on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel by ion-beam assisted deposition technology. The characteristics of films are tested by XPS ASEM and XRD, which shows that the film are compact and uniform with a thickness of about 15 μm, and have a good adherence with the substrate below 773 K. The diffraction peaks in the XRD patterns for TiC and TiN are broadened, implying that the multiple films are deposited on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel. Meanwhile, the C-H bonded CH 4 -appears in the infrared spectra of multiple films, suggesting that the CH 4 - is in a static state, so hydrogen atom cannot migrate from the site bonded with carbon to a neighboring site. The measured deuterium permeability in 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel coated with multiple films is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of pure 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate from 473 K to 773 K. However, this barrier is partly destroyed above 773 K

  6. Structural evolution of Ni-20Cr alloy during ball milling of elemental powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez B, I.; Trapaga M, L. G.; Martinez F, E.; Zoz, H.

    2011-01-01

    The ball milling (B M) of blended Ni and Cr elemental powders was carried out in a Simoloyer performing on high-energy scale mode at maximum production to obtain a nano structured Ni-20Cr alloy. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring during mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (Om). A gradual solid solubility of Cr and the subsequent formation of crystalline metastable solid solutions described in terms of the Avrami-Ero fe ev kinetics model were calculated. The XRD analysis of the structure indicates that cumulative lattice strain contributes to the driving force for solid solution between Ni and Cr during B M. Microstructure evolution has shown, additionally to the lamellar length refinement commonly observed, the folding of lamellae in the final processing stage. Om observations revealed that the lamellar spacing of Ni rich zones reaches a steady value near 500 nm and almost disappears after 30 h of milling. (Author)

  7. Structural evolution of Ni-20Cr alloy during ball milling of elemental powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, I.; Trapaga M, L. G. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Martinez F, E. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Cerrada de Cecati s/n, Col. Santa Catarina Azcapotzalco, 02250 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Zoz, H., E-mail: israelbaez@gmail.co [Zoz GmbH, D-57482, Wenden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The ball milling (B M) of blended Ni and Cr elemental powders was carried out in a Simoloyer performing on high-energy scale mode at maximum production to obtain a nano structured Ni-20Cr alloy. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring during mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (Om). A gradual solid solubility of Cr and the subsequent formation of crystalline metastable solid solutions described in terms of the Avrami-Ero fe ev kinetics model were calculated. The XRD analysis of the structure indicates that cumulative lattice strain contributes to the driving force for solid solution between Ni and Cr during B M. Microstructure evolution has shown, additionally to the lamellar length refinement commonly observed, the folding of lamellae in the final processing stage. Om observations revealed that the lamellar spacing of Ni rich zones reaches a steady value near 500 nm and almost disappears after 30 h of milling. (Author)

  8. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite reinforcement in mechanically alloyed NiTi composites for biomedical implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akmal, Muhammad; Raza, Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Mudasser; Khan, M. Imran; Hussain, Muhammad Asif

    2016-01-01

    Equi-atomic NiTi alloy composites reinforced with 0, 2, 4 and 6 vol.% nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) were successfully synthesized using pressureless sintering. Pure Ni and Ti elements were ball milled for 10 h in order to produce a mechanically alloyed equi-atomic NiTi alloy (MA-NiTi). Mechanically alloyed NiTi and HA powders were blended, compacted and then sintered for 3 h at 1325 K. The sintered density varied inversely with volume percent of HA reinforcement. The X-Ray diffraction spectra and SEM images showed the formation of multiple phases like NiTi, NiTi 2 , Ni 3 Ti, and Ni 4 Ti 3 . The back scattered-SEM image analysis confirmed the presence of Ni-rich and Ti-rich phases with increasing HA content. The 6 vol.% HA reinforced composite showed Ni 3 Ti as the major phase having the highest hardness value which can be attributed to the presence of relatively harder phases along with higher HA content as a reinforcement. The composite of MA-NiTi with 2 vol.% HA manifested the most desirable results in the form of better sintering density mainly due to the minute decomposition of NiTi into other phases. Therefore, the 2 vol.% reinforced MA-NiTi composite can be exploited as a novel material for manufacturing biomedical implants. - Highlights: • NiTi-HA composites were synthesized using powder metallurgy route. • New phases such as NiTi 2 , Ni 3 Ti and Ni 4 Ti 3 were observed for sintered composites. • Mechanical properties enhanced with the increasing content of HA and new phases. • No martensitic transformation was observed for all composites by DSC analysis. • 2 vol.% HA composite is a novel candidate for biomedical implants.

  9. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite reinforcement in mechanically alloyed NiTi composites for biomedical implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akmal, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.akmal@giki.edu.pk [Faculty of Materials and Chemical Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640 (Pakistan); Raza, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmadrazac@yahoo.com [Faculty of Materials and Chemical Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Mudasser; Khan, M. Imran [Faculty of Materials and Chemical Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640 (Pakistan); Hussain, Muhammad Asif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kangwon National University, Samcheok, 25913 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Equi-atomic NiTi alloy composites reinforced with 0, 2, 4 and 6 vol.% nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) were successfully synthesized using pressureless sintering. Pure Ni and Ti elements were ball milled for 10 h in order to produce a mechanically alloyed equi-atomic NiTi alloy (MA-NiTi). Mechanically alloyed NiTi and HA powders were blended, compacted and then sintered for 3 h at 1325 K. The sintered density varied inversely with volume percent of HA reinforcement. The X-Ray diffraction spectra and SEM images showed the formation of multiple phases like NiTi, NiTi{sub 2}, Ni{sub 3}Ti, and Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}. The back scattered-SEM image analysis confirmed the presence of Ni-rich and Ti-rich phases with increasing HA content. The 6 vol.% HA reinforced composite showed Ni{sub 3}Ti as the major phase having the highest hardness value which can be attributed to the presence of relatively harder phases along with higher HA content as a reinforcement. The composite of MA-NiTi with 2 vol.% HA manifested the most desirable results in the form of better sintering density mainly due to the minute decomposition of NiTi into other phases. Therefore, the 2 vol.% reinforced MA-NiTi composite can be exploited as a novel material for manufacturing biomedical implants. - Highlights: • NiTi-HA composites were synthesized using powder metallurgy route. • New phases such as NiTi{sub 2}, Ni{sub 3}Ti and Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} were observed for sintered composites. • Mechanical properties enhanced with the increasing content of HA and new phases. • No martensitic transformation was observed for all composites by DSC analysis. • 2 vol.% HA composite is a novel candidate for biomedical implants.

  10. My Experience with Ti-Ni-Based and Ti-Based Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2017-12-01

    The present author has been studying shape memory alloys including Cu-Al-Ni, Ti-Ni-based, and Ni-free Ti-based alloys since 1979. This paper reviews the present author's research results for the latter two materials since 1981. The topics on the Ti-Ni-based alloys include the achievement of superelasticity in Ti-Ni alloys through understanding of the role of microstructures consisting of dislocations and precipitates, followed by the contribution to the development of application market of shape memory effect and superelasticity, characterization of the R-phase and monoclinic martensitic transformations, clarification of the basic characteristics of fatigue properties, development of sputter-deposited shape memory thin films and fabrication of prototypes of microactuators utilizing thin films, development of high temperature shape memory alloys, and so on. The topics of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory alloys include the characterization of the orthorhombic phase martensitic transformation and related shape memory effect and superelasticity, the effects of texture, omega phase and adding elements on the martensitic transformation and shape memory properties, clarification of the unique effects of oxygen addition to induce non-linear large elasticity, Invar effect and heating-induced martensitic transformation, and so on.

  11. Alloying process of sputter-deposited Ti/Ni multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.; Kim, H.Y.; Miyazaki, S.

    2006-01-01

    Alloying process of a Ti/Ni multilayer thin film was investigated in detail by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Ti/Ni multilayer thin film was prepared by depositing Ti and Ni layers alternately on a SiO 2 /Si substrate. The number of each metal layer was 100, and the total thickness was 3 μm. The alloy composition was determined as Ti-51 at.%Ni by electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). The DSC curve exhibited three exothermic peaks at 621, 680 and 701 K during heating the as-sputtered multilayer thin film. In order to investigate the alloying process, XRD and TEM observation was carried out for the specimens heated up to various temperatures with the heating rate same as the DSC measurement. The XRD profile of the as-sputtered film revealed only diffraction peaks of Ti and Ni. But reaction layers of 3 nm in thickness were observed at the interfaces of Ti and Ni layers in cross-sectional TEM images. The reaction layer was confirmed as an amorphous phase by the nano beam diffraction analysis. The XRD profiles exhibited that the intensity of Ti diffraction peak decreased in the specimen heat-treated above 600 K. The peak from Ni became broad and shifted to lower diffraction angle. The amorphous layer thickened up to 6 nm in the specimen heated up to 640 K. The diffraction peak corresponding to Ti-Ni B2 phase appeared and the peak from Ni disappeared for the specimen heated up to 675 K. The Ti-Ni B2 crystallized from the amorphous reaction layer. After further heating above the third exothermic peak, the intensity of the peak from the Ti-Ni B2 phase increased, the peak from Ti disappeared and the peaks corresponding to Ti 2 Ni appeared. The Ti 2 Ni phase was formed by the reaction of the Ti-Ni B2 and Ti

  12. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  13. Permeation of deuterium implanted into V-15Cr-5Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Struttmann, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Permeation and reemission of deuterium for the vanadium alloy, V-15Cr-5Ti, was investigated using 3 keV, D 3 + ion beams from a small accelerator. The experiments consisted of measurement of the deuterium reemission and permeation rates as a function of implantation fluence for 0.5 mm thick specimens heated to temperatures from 623 K to 823 K. Implantation-side surface characterization was made by simultaneous measurements of sputtered ions with a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). For the experimental conditions used, the steady-state deuterium permeation flux in V-15Cr-5Ti is approximately 18% of the implantation flux. This is approximately 1000 times that seen in the austenitic stainless steel, PCA, and 200 times that seen in the ferritic steel, HT-9, under comparable conditions. Measurement of deuterium diffusivity in V-15Cr-5Ti using permeation break-through times indicates that D = 1.4x10 -8 exp(-0.11 eV/kT)(m 2 /s), over the temperature range 723 K to 823 K. (orig.)

  14. Permeation of deuterium implanted into V-15Cr-5Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Longhurst, G. R.; Struttmann, D. A.

    1987-02-01

    Permeation and reemission of deuterium for the vanadium alloy, V-15Cr-5Ti, was investigated using 3 keV, D 3+ ion beams from a small accelerator. The experiments consisted of measurement of the deuterium reemission and permeation rates as a function of implantation fluence for 0.5 mm thick specimens heated to temperatures from 623 K to 823 K. Implantation-side surface characterization was made by simultaneous measurements of sputtered ions with a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). For the experimental conditions used, the steady-state deuterium permeation flux in V-15Cr-5Ti is approximately 18% of the implantation flux. This is approximately 1000 times that seen in the austenitic stainless steel, PCA, and 200 times that seen in the ferritic steel, HT-9, under comparable conditions. Measurement of deuterium diffusivity in V-15Cr-5Ti using permeation break-through times indicates that D = 1.4 × 10 -8 exp( -0.11 eV/ kT) (m 2/s), over the temperature range 723 K to 823 K.

  15. Permeation of deuterium implanted into V-15Cr-5Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Struttmann, D.A.

    1987-02-01

    Permeation and reemission of deuterium for the vanadium alloy, V-15Cr-5Ti, was investigated using 3 keV, D/sub 3//sup +/ ion beams from a small accelerator. The experiments consisted of measurement of the deuterium reemission and permeation rates as a function of implantation fluence for 0.5 mm thick specimens heated to temperatures from 623 K to 823 K. Implantation-side surface characterization was made by simultaneous measurements of sputtered ions with a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). For the experimental conditions used, the steady-state deuterium permeation flux in V-15Cr-5Ti is approximately 18% of the implantation flux. This is approximately 1000 times that seen in the austenitic stainless steel, PCA, and 200 times that seen in the ferritic steel, HT-9, under comparable conditions. Measurement of deuterium diffusivity in V-15Cr-5Ti using permeation break-through times indicates that D = 1.4x10/sup -8/ exp(-0.11 eVkT)(m/sup 2/s), over the temperature range 723 K to 823 K.

  16. The tensile behavior of Ti36Ni49Hf15 high temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Q.; Zheng, Y.F.; Cai, W.; Zhao, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, ternary Ti-Ni-Hf alloys have attracted great interest in the field of high temperature shape memory materials research and development. Extensive studies have been made on its manufacture process, constitutional phases, phase transformation behavior, the structure, substructure and interface structure of martensite and the precipitation behavior during ageing. Yet up to date there is no report about the fundamental mechanical properties of Ti-Ni-Hf alloys, such as the stress-strain data, the variation laws of the yield strength and elongation with the temperature. In the present study, tensile tests at various temperatures are employed to investigate the mechanical behavior of Ti-Ni-Hf alloy with different matrix structures, from full martensite to full parent phase structure, with the corresponding deformation mechanism discussed

  17. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, R

    2011-01-01

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi 2 composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al 8 Cr 5 and CrNi 2 chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  18. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, R

    2011-06-15

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi(2) composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al(8)Cr(5) and CrNi(2) chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  19. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce crack-free thin surface layers consisting of binary (Al-Ni, Al-Fe) and ternary (Al-Ni-Fe) intermetallic phases by means of a high power laser beam. The laser surface alloying was carried out by melting Fe and Ni...

  20. Magnetic properties of point defect interaction with impurity atoms in Fe-Cr alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Manh, D.; Lavrentiev, M. Yu.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2009-04-01

    An integrated ab initio and statistical Monte Carlo investigation has been recently carried out to model the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of Fe-Cr alloys. We found that the conventional Fe-Cr phase diagram is not adequate at low temperature region where the magnetic contribution to the free energy plays an important role in the prediction of an ordered Fe 15Cr phase and its negative enthalpy of formation. The origin of the anomalous thermodynamic and magnetic properties of Fe-Cr alloys can be understood using a tight-binding Stoner model combined with the charge neutrality condition. We investigate the environmental dependence of magnetic moment distributions for various self-interstitial atom dumbbells configurations using spin density maps found using density functional theory calculations. The mixed dumbbell Fe-Cr and Fe-Mn binding energies are found to be positive due to magnetic interactions. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the migration energy of vacancy in Fe-Cr alloys and magnetism at the saddle point configuration.

  1. Superelasticity, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Pengfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Kangming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [Life Tech Scientific Corporation, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zhou, Chungen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Microstructure, mechanical properties, superelasticity and biocompatibility of a Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe alloy are investigated. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations show that the as-cast Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe alloy is composed of α′ and β phases, but only the β phase exists in the as-rolled and as-quenched alloys. The tensile stress–strain tests indicate that the as-quenched alloy exhibits a good combination of mechanical properties with a large elongation of 25%, a low Young's modulus of 59 GPa and a high ultimate tensile stress of 723 MPa. Superelastic recovery behavior is found in the as-quenched alloy during tensile tests, and the corresponding maximum of superelastic strain is 4.7% at the pre-strain of 6%. A superelastic recovery of 4% with high stability is achieved after 10 cyclic loading–unloading training processes. Potentiodynamic polarization and ion release measurements indicate that the as-quenched alloy shows a lower corrosion rate in Hank's solution and a much less ion release rate in 0.9% NaCl solution than those of the NiTi alloys. Cell culture results indicate that the osteoblasts' adhesion and proliferation are similar on both the Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe and NiTi alloys. A better hemocompatibility is confirmed for the as-quenched Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe alloy, attributed to more stable platelet adhesion and small activation degree, and a much lower hemolysis rate compared with the NiTi alloy. - Highlights: • A stable superelastic strain of 4.0% is achieved for the Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe alloy. • The ion release rates of Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe are much lower than that of Ni in NiTi. • Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe has a similar cytocompatibility compared with the NiTi alloy. • Ti–19Zr–10Nb–1Fe exhibits a better hemocompatibility than the NiTi alloy.

  2. Abrasive wear resistance and microstructure of Ni-Cr-B-Si hardfacing alloys with additions of Al, Nb, Mo, Fe, Mn and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, H.; Fischer, A.; Theisen, W.

    1987-01-01

    The development of new Ni-base hardfacing alloys for filler wire welding or metal spraying should result in materials with a good resistance against high temperature corrosion and abrasive wear. The first step is to design microstructures, which obtain a satisfactory abrasive wear behaviour at room temperature. Thus, different alloys are melted and scrutinized as to their microstructure and their abrasive wear resistance in laboratory. Compared to commercial Ni-base hardfacing alloys they show a higher volume fraction of coarse hard phases due to the additional, initial solidification of Nb-carbides and Cr-, and Mo-borides. Thus, the abrasive wear resistance is improved. For hard abrasive particles, such as corundum, the Ni-base alloys are more wear resistant than harder Fe-base alloys investigate earlier. This is due to the tougher Ni metal matrix that results in microcracking not to be the most significantly acting wear mechanism

  3. Effect of pre-oxidation on high temperature sulfidation behavior of FeCr and FeCrAl alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillis Marina Fuser

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature corrosion of structural alloys in sulfur bearing environments is many orders of magnitude higher than in oxidizing environments. Efforts to increase sulfidation resistance of these alloys include addition of alloying elements. Aluminum additions to iron-chromium alloys bring about increase in sulfidation resistance. This paper reports the effect of pre-oxidation on the sulfidation behavior of Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-5Al alloys in H2-2% H2S environment at 800 °C. The surfaces of sulfidized specimens were also examined. Pre-oxidation of the two alloys results in an incubation period during subsequent sulfidation. After this incubation period, the Fe-20Cr alloy showed sulfidation behavior similar to that when the alloy was not pre-oxidized. The incubation period during sulfidation of the Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy was significantly longer, over 45 h, compared to 2 h for the Al free alloy. Based on the microscopic and gravimetric data a mechanism for sulfidation of these alloys with pre-oxidation has been proposed.

  4. A new Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni-Si-Sn bulk amorphous alloy with high glass-forming ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shen, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: junshen@hit.edu.cn; Sun, J.F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yu, X.B. [Lab of Energy Science and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)]. E-mail: yuxuebin@hotmail.com

    2007-01-16

    The effect of Sn substitution for Cu on the glass-forming ability was investigated in Ti{sub 41.5}Zr{sub 2.5}Hf{sub 5}Cu{sub 42.5-x}Ni{sub 7.5}Si{sub 1}Sn {sub x} (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7) alloys by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry. The alloy containing 5% Sn shows the highest glass-forming ability (GFA) among the Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni-Si-Sn system. Fully amorphous rod sample with diameters up to 6 mm could be successfully fabricated by the copper mold casting Ti{sub 41.5}Zr{sub 2.5}Hf{sub 5}Cu{sub 37.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Si{sub 1}Sn{sub 5} alloy. The activation energies for glass transition and crystallization for Ti{sub 41.5}Zr{sub 2.5}Hf{sub 5}Cu{sub 37.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Si{sub 1}Sn{sub 5} amorphous alloy are both larger than those values for the Sn-free alloy. The enhancement in GFA and thermal stability after the partial replacement of Cu by Sn may be contributed to the strong atomic bonding nature between Ti and Sn and the increasing of atomic packing density. The amorphous Ti{sub 41.5}Zr{sub 2.5}Hf{sub 5}Cu{sub 37.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Si{sub 1}Sn{sub 5} alloy also possesses superior mechanical properties.

  5. Microstructure of aluminized coating on a Ni-Cr alloy after annealing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.-L.; Gan Dershin

    2008-01-01

    The effects of annealing on the microstructure of first stage (high-Al activity pack) aluminized coating on Ni-15Cr alloy prepared by pack cementation method were analyzed by transmission electron microscope. The coating consists of a thin layer of γ'-Ni 3 Al, an interfacial zone of mixed β-NiAl and α-Cr, and a thick outer zone of β-NiAl (A layer) and mixed β-NiAl and α-Cr (B layer). Martensitic transformation was observed in the β-NiAl grains in the interfacial zone. Parallel crystallographic relationship was found at the γ/γ' interface in the substrate and the α/β interface in the interfacial zone. Cr 2 Al was found to precipitate in the β-NiAl and α-Cr grains in the B layer of the outer zone. The formation mechanisms of the coating layers, the precipitates, and the observed crystallographic relationships are discussed

  6. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H. [Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Tahara, S. [Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Okada, T. [Niigata College of Technology, Kamishin’eicho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2076 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  7. Powder metallurgical processing of equiatomic AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, S.; Maity, T.N.; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Sarkar, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Gurao, N.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Bhowmick, S. [Hysitron Inc., Eden Prairie, MN 55344 (United States); Biswas, Krishanu, E-mail: kbiswas@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2017-01-02

    Phase formation, microstructural evolution and the mechanical properties of novel multi-component equiatomic AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy synthesized by high energy ball milling followed by spark plasma sintering have been reported here. The microstructure of the mechanically alloyed (MA) powder and sintered samples were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, whereas the detailed investigation of the mechanical properties of the sintered samples were measured using micro and nano hardness techniques. The fracture toughness measurements were performed by applying single edge V notch beam (SEVNB) technique. The MA powder shows the presence of FCC (τ) and BCC (κ) solid solution phases. Extended ball milling (up to 60 h) does not change the phases present in MA powder. The sintered pellets show phase-separated microstructure consisting of Al-Ni rich L1{sub 2} phase, α′ and tetragonal Cr-Fe-Co based σ phase along with Al-Ni-Co-Fe FCC solid solution phase (ε) for sample sintered from 973 to 1273 K. The experimental evidences indicate that BCC (κ) solid solution undergoes eutectoid transformation during sintering leading to the formation of L1{sub 2} ordered α′ and σ phases, whereas FCC (τ) phase remains unaltered with a slight change in the lattice parameter. The hardness of the sample increases with sintering temperature and a sudden rise in hardness is observed 1173 K. The sample sintered at 1273 K shows the highest hardness of ~8 GPa. The elastic modulus mapping clearly indicates the presence of three phases having elastic moduli of about 300, 220 and 160 GPa. The fracture toughness obtained using SEVNB test shows a maximum value of 3.9 MPa m{sup 1/2}, which is attributed to the presence of brittle nanosized σ phase precipitates. It is proposed that significant increase in the fraction of σ phase precipitates and eutectoid transformation of the τ phase contribute to increase in hardness along with

  8. Ostwald ripening of decomposed phases in Cu-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Santiago, Felipe; Lopez-Hirata, Victor; Dorantes-Rosales, Hector J.; Saucedo-Munoz, Maribel L.; Gonzalez-Velazquez, Jorge L.; Paniagua-Mercado, Ana Ma.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the coarsening process of the decomposed phases was carried out in the Cu-34 wt.% Ni-4 wt.% Cr and Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloys using transmission electron microscopy. As aging progressed, the morphology of the coherent decomposed Ni-rich phase changed from cuboids to platelets aligned in the Cu-rich matrix directions. Prolonged aging caused the loss of coherency between the decomposed phases and the morphology of the Ni-rich phase changed to ellipsoidal. The variation of mean radius of the coherent decomposed phases with aging time followed the modified LSW theory for thermally activated growth in ternary alloy systems. The linear variation of the density number of precipitates and matrix supersaturation with aging time, also confirmed that the coarsening process followed the modified LSW theory in both alloys. The coarsening rate was faster in the symmetrical Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloy due to its higher volume fraction of precipitates. The activation energy for thermally activated growth was determined to be about 182 and 102 kJ mol -1 in the Cu-34 wt.% Ni-4 wt.% Cr and Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloys, respectively. The lower energy for the former alloy seems to be related to an increase in the atomic diffusion process as the chromium content increases. The size distributions of precipitates in the Cu-Ni-Cr alloys were broader and more symmetric than that predicted by the modified LSW theory for ternary alloys

  9. Low-field spin dynamics of Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu -Cr 7Ni molecular rings as detected by μ SR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, S.; Arosio, P.; Bordonali, L.; Adelnia, F.; Mariani, M.; Garlatti, E.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Sabareesh, K. P. V.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E. P.; Blundell, S. J.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-11-01

    Muon spin rotation measurements were used to investigate the spin dynamics of heterometallic Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni molecular clusters. In Cr7Ni the magnetic ions are arranged in a quasiplanar ring and interact via an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant J , while Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni is composed of two Cr7Ni linked by a bridging moiety containing one Cu ion, that induces an inter-ring ferromagnetic interaction J'≪J . The longitudinal muon relaxation rate λ collected at low magnetic fields μ0H BPP)-like heuristic fitting model that takes into account of a distribution of electronic spin characteristic times for T >5 K, while the shoulder presented by Cr7Ni can be reproduced by a BPP function that incorporates a single electronic characteristic time theoretically predicted to dominate for T <5 K. The flattening of λ (T ) in Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni occurring at very low temperature can be tentatively attributed to field-dependent quantum effects and/or to an inelastic term in the spectral density of the electronic spin fluctuations.

  10. Aqueous electrochemistry of precipitation-hardened nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, K.; Ballinger, R.; Prybylowski, J.; Hwang, I.S.

    1990-11-01

    An investigation has been conducted to explore the importance of local crack tip electrochemical processes in precipitation-hardened Ni-Cr-Fe alloys driven by galvanic couples between grain boundary precipitates and the local matrix. The electrochemical behavior of γ' [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] has been determined as a function of titanium concentration, temperature, and solution pH. The electrochemical behavior of Ni-Cr-Fe solid solution alloys has been investigated as a function of chromium content for a series of 10 Fe-variable Cr (6--18%)-balance Ni alloys, temperature, and pH. The investigation was conducted in neutral and pH3 solutions over the temperature range 25--300 degree C. The results of the investigation show that the electrochemical behavior of these systems is a strong function of temperature and composition. This is especially true for the γ' [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] system where a transition from active/passive behavior to purely active behavior and back again occurs over a narrow temperature range near 100 degree C. Behavior of this system was also found to be a strong function of titanium concentration. In all cases, the Ni 3 (Al,Ti) phase was active with respect to the matrix. The peak in activity near 100 degree C correlates well with accelerated crack growth in this temperature range, observed in nickel-base alloy X-750 heat treated to precipitate γ' on the grain boundaries. 20 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Effect of boron and carbon addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-15-3 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, R.; Ghosal, P.; Muraleedharan, K.; Nandy, T.K.; Ray, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Development of β Ti alloys with B and C addition for improved mechanical properties. → Detailed characterization of microstructural constituents using electron microscopy. → Microstructure-mechanical property correlation in this new class of alloys. → Strengthening mechanism in β Ti alloy in the presence of hard and non-deformable phases. - Abstract: A detailed microstructure-mechanical property correlation was carried out in beta titanium alloys (Ti-15V-3Al-3Sn-3Cr) with boron and carbon additions. The alloys were prepared by non-consumable vacuum arc melting followed by hot rolling. Microstructural characterization was carried out using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a high resolution TEM (HRTEM). Addition of boron and carbon resulted in the precipitation of TiB and TiC, respectively, and these phases acted as reinforcements. Evaluation of mechanical properties in solution treated and solution treated plus aged condition showed strengthening in the boron and carbon containing alloy with respect to the base. Strengthening in solution treated condition was attributed to a synergistic effect of grain refinement and load transfer in the presence of non-deformable phases. On the other hand, higher strength in boron and carbon containing alloys on aging was ascribed to the presence of finer aged microstructures.

  12. Laser cladding Ni-base composite coating on titanium alloy with pre-placed B4C+NiCoCrAlY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qingwu Meng; Lin Geng; Zhenzhu Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Using a CO 2 laser, a process of cladding Ni-base composite coating on Ti6Al4V with pre-placed B 4 C and NiCoCrAlY was studied. A good metallurgical bonding coating without cracks and pores was obtained in reasonable ratio of components and low energy laser process. Morphology and microstructure of the coating were analyzed with OM, XRD, SEM and EDS. It is certain that there was a reaction between B 4 C and Ti during in-situ producing TiB 2 and TiC. The Ni-base composite coating is strengthened with TiB 2 and TiC reinforcement phases. Vickers hardness tester measured that the average microhardness of the coating is HV1200 and it is 3.5 times of the Ti6Al4V substrate. The high hard coating containing several reinforcement phases greatly enhances wear resistance of titanium alloy. (orig.)

  13. Corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. Chemical composition and metallurgical condition's effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N.S.; Rebak, Raul B.

    2009-01-01

    Ni-Cr-Mo alloys offer an outstanding corrosion resistance in a wide variety of highly-corrosive environments. This versatility is due to the excellent performance of nickel in hot alkaline solutions and the beneficial effect of chromium and molybdenum in oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively. Alloy C-22 (22 % Cr-13 % Mo-3% W) is a well known versatile member of this family. Due to its excellent corrosion resistance in a wide variety of environments, Alloy C-22 has been selected for the fabrication of the corrosion-resistant outer shell of the high-level nuclear waste container. The increasing demand of the industry for corrosion resistant alloys with particular properties of corrosion and mechanical resistance has led to the development of new alloys. Alloy C-22HS (Ni-21 % Cr-17 % Mo) is a new high-strength corrosion resistant material recently developed and introduced into the market. This alloy provides a corrosion resistance comparable with that of other C-type alloys, and it can also be age hardened to effectively double its yield strength. HASTELLOY HYBRID-BC1 (Ni-22 % Mo-15 % Cr) is a new development intended for filling the gap between Ni-Mo and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. This novel alloy is able to withstand HCl and H 2 SO 4 , even in the presence of dissolved oxygen and other oxidizing species. Its resistance to chloride-induced pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking is also remarkable. Thermal aging of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys leads to microstructure changes depending on the temperature range and exposure time at temperature. A Long Range Ordering (LRO) reaction can occur in the range of 350 C degrees to 600 C degrees, producing an ordered Ni 2 (Cr,Mo) phase. This ordering reaction does not seem to affect the corrosion resistance and produces only a slight loss in ductility. LRO transformation is homogeneous and has proven to be useful to fabricate the age-hard enable Alloy C22-HS. Tetrahedral Close Packed (TCP) phases, like μ, σ and

  14. Grain refinement of Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy by novel Al-3.5FeNb-1.5C master alloy and its effect on mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparao, K. Ch; Birru, Anil Kumar

    2018-01-01

    A novel Al-3.5FeNb-1.5C master alloy with uniform microstructure was prepared using a melt reaction process for this study. In the master alloy, basic intermetallic particles such as NbAl3, NbC act as heterogeneous nucleation substrates during the solidification of aluminium. The grain refining performance of the novel master alloy on Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy has also been investigated. It is observed that the addition of 0.1 wt.% of Al-3.5FeNb-1.5C master alloy can induce very effective grain refinement of the Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy. The average grain size of α-Al is reduced to 22.90 μm from about 61.22 μm and most importantly, the inoculation of Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy with FeNb-C is not characterised by any visible poisoning effect, which is the drawback of using commercial Al-Ti-B master alloys on aluminium cast alloys. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the Al-Si9.8-Cu3.4 alloy have been improved obviously by the addition of the 0.1 wt.% of Al-3.5FeNb-1.5C master alloy, including the yield strength and elongation.

  15. Surface Modification of NiTi Alloy via Cathodic Plasma Electrolytic Deposition and its Effect on Ni Ion Release and Osteoblast Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ying; Cai Kaiyong; Yang Weihu; Liu Peng

    2013-01-01

    To reduce Ni ion release and improve biocompatibility of NiTi alloy, the cathodic plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED) technique was used to fabricate ceramic coating onto a NiTi alloy surface. The formation of a coating with a rough and micro-textured surface was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry test showed that the formed coating significantly reduced the release of Ni ions from the NiTi alloy in simulated body fluid. The influence of CPED treated NiTi substrates on the biological behaviors of osteoblasts, including cell adhesion, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation function (alkaline phosphatase), was investigated in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining of nuclei revealed that the CPED treated NiTi alloy was favorable for cell growth. Osteoblasts on CPED modified NiTi alloy showed greater cell viability than those for the native NiTi substrate after 4 and 7 days cultures. More importantly, osteoblasts cultured onto a modified NiTi sample displayed significantly higher differentiation levels of alkaline phosphatase. The results suggested that surface functionalization of NiTi alloy with ceramic coating via the CPED technique was beneficial for cell proliferation and differentiation. The approach presented here is useful for NiTi implants to enhance bone osteointegration and reduce Ni ion release in vitro

  16. Surface Modification of NiTi Alloy via Cathodic Plasma Electrolytic Deposition and its Effect on Ni Ion Release and Osteoblast Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Cai, Kaiyong; Yang, Weihu; Liu, Peng

    2013-07-01

    To reduce Ni ion release and improve biocompatibility of NiTi alloy, the cathodic plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED) technique was used to fabricate ceramic coating onto a NiTi alloy surface. The formation of a coating with a rough and micro-textured surface was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry test showed that the formed coating significantly reduced the release of Ni ions from the NiTi alloy in simulated body fluid. The influence of CPED treated NiTi substrates on the biological behaviors of osteoblasts, including cell adhesion, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation function (alkaline phosphatase), was investigated in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining of nuclei revealed that the CPED treated NiTi alloy was favorable for cell growth. Osteoblasts on CPED modified NiTi alloy showed greater cell viability than those for the native NiTi substrate after 4 and 7 days cultures. More importantly, osteoblasts cultured onto a modified NiTi sample displayed significantly higher differentiation levels of alkaline phosphatase. The results suggested that surface functionalization of NiTi alloy with ceramic coating via the CPED technique was beneficial for cell proliferation and differentiation. The approach presented here is useful for NiTi implants to enhance bone osseointegration and reduce Ni ion release in vitro.

  17. Design of Novel Precipitate-Strengthened Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Nb-Ni High-Entropy Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Stoichko; Detrois, Martin; Tin, Sammy

    2018-01-01

    A series of non-equiatomic Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Nb-Ni high-entropy alloys, with varying levels of Co, Nb and Fe, were investigated in an effort to obtain microstructures similar to conventional Ni-based superalloys. Elevated levels of Co were observed to significantly decrease the solvus temperature of the γ' precipitates. Both Nb and Co in excessive concentrations promoted the formation of Laves and NiAl phases that formed either during solidification and remained undissolved during homogenization or upon high-temperature aging. Lowering the content of Nb, Co, or Fe prevented the formation of the eutectic type Laves. In addition, lowering the Co content resulted in a higher number density and volume fraction of the γ' precipitates, while increasing the Fe content led to the destabilization of the γ' precipitates. Various aging treatments were performed which led to different size distributions of the strengthening phase. Results from the microstructural characterization and hardness property assessments of these high-entropy alloys were compared to a commercial, high-strength Ni-based superalloy RR1000. Potentially, precipitation-strengthened high-entropy alloys could find applications replacing Ni-based superalloys as structural materials in power generation applications.

  18. Hot rolling effect on the characters of Zr-0.6Nb-0.5Fe-0.5Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungkono; Siti Aidah

    2015-01-01

    Characters of Zr-0.6Nb-0.5Fe-0.5Cr alloy after hot rolling have been studied. The objective of this research was to obtain of hot rolling effect on the characteristics of microstructures, hardness and phases formed in Zr-0.6Nb-0.5Fe-0.5Cr alloy. The hot rolling process of alloy carried out at temperature of 800 °C with retention time of 1.5 and 2 hours and a thickness reduction between 5 to 25 %. The results of this experiment showed that the Zr-0.6Nb-0.5Fe-0.5Cr alloy has Widmanstaetten structure with microstructure evolving into deformed columnar grains and deformed elongated grains with increasing thickness reduction. Besides, the longer the retention time at temperature of 800 °C is the larger are the grain structures and formation of α-Zr and Zr_3Fe phase. The hardness of Zr-0.6Nb-0.5Fe-0.5Cr alloy has same trends i.e the larger thickness reduction gives higher hardness. The Zr-0.6Nb-0.5Fe-0.5Cr alloy can under go hot rolling deformation at a thickness reduction of 25 % and the formation of α-Zr and Zr_3Fe can increased of hardness and strength of Zr-0.6 Nb-0.5 Fe-0.5 Cr alloy. (author)

  19. Microstructure and erosive wear behaviors of Ti6Al4V alloy treated by plasma Ni alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.X.; Wu, H.R.; Shan, X.L.; Lin, N.M.; He, Z.Y., E-mail: tyuthzy@126.com; Liu, X.P.

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: The Ni modified layers were prepared on the surface of Ti6Al4V substrate by the plasma surface alloying technique. The surface and cross-section morphology, element concentration and phase composition were investigated by thermal field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The cross-section nano-scale hardness of Ni modified layer was measured by nano indenter. The results showed that Ni modified layers exhibited triple layers structure and continuous gradient distribution of the concentration. From the surface to the matrix, they were 2 μm Ni deposition layer, 8 μm Ni-rich alloying layer including the phases of Ni{sub 3}Ti, NiTi, Ti{sub 2}Ni, AlNi{sub 3} and 24 μm Ni-poor alloying layer forming the solid solution of nickel. With increasing of the thickness of Ni modified layer, the microhardness increased first, reached the climax, then gradient decreased. The erosion tests were performed on the surface of the untreated and treated Ti6Al4V sample using MSE (Micro-slurry-jet Erosion) method. The experiment results showed that the wear rate of every layer showed different value, and the Ni-rich alloying layer was the lowest. The strengthening mechanism of Ni modified layer was also discussed. - Highlights: • The Ni modified layers were prepared by the plasma surface alloying technique. • Triple layers structure was prepared. • Using Micro-slurry-jet Erosion method. • The erosion rate of Ni modified layer experienced the process of descending first and then ascending. • Improvement of erosion resistance performance of Ni-rich alloying layer was prominent. The wear mechanism of Ni modified layer showed micro-cutting wearing. - Abstract: The Ni modified layers were prepared on the surface of Ti6Al4V substrate by the plasma surface alloying technique. The surface and cross-section morphology, element concentration and phase composition

  20. Study and characterization of FeNi and NiCr(80-20) % w alloys, during and after neutron irradiation, using the resistivity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, Mauro Pereira

    1978-01-01

    We have used the resistivity method with and without neutron irradiation to study the parameters that appear in the Order-Disorder Transitions of Fe Ni(50-50)% at. and Ni Cr( 80 - 20) % w. alloys. The results obtained with Fe Ni are in agreement with those obtained by Marchand at the University of Grenoble. Several isothermal annealings were made in the range 400 - 302 deg C in which T c (Order-Disorder Transition Critical Temperature) was determined between 327 and 310 deg C. The activation energy obtained was E a = 0,49 eV and is in agreement with works of Marchand, Dienes and Damask. As for Ni Cr(80-20)% the following has been done: a) Electrical Properties characterizations, having in mind the technological applications; b) Linear and isothermal annealings were performed to determine the Order-Disorder Transition Critical Temperature (I ) supported by hypothesis made, taking into account the Yano's and Taylor's marks. The-result is T c = (536 +- 4) deg C; c) determination of activation energy E a = (1,36 +- 0.14) eV. The resistivity measurements mere performed by means of the classical 4-wire method. An anisotropy of electrical resistivity was found to exist depending on the sense of the applied electrical field. (author)

  1. Microstructural comparison of effects of hafnium and titanium additions in spark-plasma-sintered Fe-based oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yina, E-mail: huangyina1981@hotmail.com [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); School of Electronic Science & Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Zhang, Hongtao [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Auger, Maria A.; Hong, Zuliang [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Ning, Huanpo [School of Engineering of Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Nanoforce Technology Ltd, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Gorley, Michael J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Grant, Patrick S. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Reece, Michael J.; Yan, Haixue [School of Engineering of Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Nanoforce Technology Ltd, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Roberts, Steve G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Two oxide dispersion strengthened alloys: 14Cr-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.22Hf (wt.%) and Fe-14Cr-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.4Ti (wt.%) were fabricated by mechanical alloying and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Electron backscatter diffraction showed grain sizes in the range 0.5–15 μm in both alloys. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy showed a homogeneous distribution of nano-oxides precipitated during SPS. Using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atom probe tomography, several different oxide phases were found in both alloys, but the majority of dispersoids were Y-Hf-O type in Fe-14Cr-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.22Hf and Y-Ti-O type in Fe-14Cr-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.4Ti. There were a variety of orientation relationships between the different dispersoids and the ferritic matrix. Both alloys had dispersoid densities of ∼10{sup 23}/m{sup 3}, with average diameters of 4.3 nm and 3.5 nm in the 0.22Hf and 0.4Ti containing alloys, respectively. Per atom added, Hf (0.07 at.%) is suggested to be more potent than Ti (0.46 at.%) in refining the nano-oxides.

  2. Oxidation performance of a Fe-13Cr alloy with additions of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Villafane, A.; Chacon-Nava, J.G.; Gaona-Tiburcio, C.; Almeraya-Calderon, F.; Dominguez-Patino, G.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of rare earth elements (REE's) i.e. Neodymium (Nd) and Praseodymium (Pr) on the oxidation behavior of a Fe-13Cr alloy has been studied, and its role on the oxidation rate and oxide morphology and formation is discussed. Specimens were isothermally oxidized in oxygen at 800 deg. C for 24 h. It was found that a small addition (≤0.03 wt.%) of either Nd or Pr, reduced the oxidation rate of the Fe-13Cr base alloy. Moreover, the simultaneous addition of both elements to the alloy produced a dramatic reduction in the oxidation kinetics. Analysis by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) revealed that the morphology of oxides formed on Fe-13Cr specimens with and without REE's specimens was very different. In fact, a fine-grained oxide morphology was observed for alloys with REE's addition. For these alloys only, chromium enrichment at the metal/scale interface was observed. From transmission electronic microscope (TEM) analysis, it was found the following: at the early stages of oxide formation, after 0.25 h, Cr 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , α-Fe 2 O 3 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 were formed; at 6 h, Cr 2 O 3 , FeCr 2 O 4 and α-Fe 2 O 3 were identified and, for exposure times greater than 6 h, Cr 2 O 3 , α-Fe 2 O 3 and a spinel which was presumably transformed into a solid solution (Fe 2 O 3 ·Cr 2 O 3 ) were found

  3. New ternary ordered structures in CuMPt6 (M=3d elements) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ananda Kumar; Nakamura, Reo; Takahashi, Miwako; Ohshima, Ken-ichi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Shishido, Toetsu

    2006-01-01

    X-ray and electron diffraction measurements were performed to investigate the structure and ordering behaviour of the ternary alloys CuMPt 6 (M=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni). X-ray polycrystalline diffraction patterns of all the speciments quenched from 1000degC have shown that a single phase is formed at this stoichiometric composition. The alloys with M=Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni have the face-centred cubic (fcc) structure, while in the alloys with M=Ti, V, and Fe ordering has occurred and the structure is of the Cu 3 Au type. On annealing at lower temperatures ordering has been induced in the alloys with M=Cr, Mn, and Co and the structure is of the Cu 3 Au type, though the ordering in the last alloy has remained incomplete. Detailed X-ray diffraction measurements on single crystals of the CuMnPt 6 alloy have revealed that further ordering takes place and structure changes from the Cu 3 Au type into the cubic ABC 6 type with the unit cell as large 2 x 2 x 2 as the fcc unit cell, a new observation of the double-step ordering in the ternary fcc alloy. The corresponding transition temperatures are T c =970(±5)degC and T cl =750(±5)degC. (author)

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.4Mn1.5Cr0.1O4 and