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Sample records for alloy-60t

  1. Effects of silicon on mechanical properties of AM60 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon was added to improve the tensile, wear and creep behaviors of AM60 magnesium alloy in this study. The investigation has been undertaken by means of universal testing machine, HBE-3000A Brinell hardness tester, M-2000 friction-wear machine, DMA-Q800 creep machine, optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicate that the Chinese script type Mg2Si particles are formed by adding Si into the AM60 magnesium alloy. The ultimate tensile strength and hardness of the AM60 magnesium alloy increases with the Si addition, and the ultimate tensile strength and hardness of the AM60+1.0wt.%Si alloy are increased by 12% and 19.8%, respectively in comparison with that of the AM60 magnesium alloy. The wear property and the high temperature creep property of the AM60 magnesium alloy are also improved with Si addition. The wear mechanisms of the AM60 and AM60+1.0wt.%Si alloys are adhesive wear and abrasion wear, respectively. While, the elongation of the AM60 magnesium alloy decreases with the addition of Si. The optimum Si addition content is 1.0wt.%.

  2. Structure of Mn40Zn60 liquid alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbihi, D Es; Grosdidier, B; Gasser, J G

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present the structural study of the Mn 40 Zn 60 liquid alloy, whose two components have a high vapour pressure. The structure has been measured by neutron diffraction. The investigation of the chemical order in this alloy was readily made possible. This is due to the manganese negative scattering length which allows a good contrast. A magnetic correction has been considered since manganese is paramagnetic in the liquid state. An 'effective' spin is obtained and its value is discussed. The interpretation of the atomic structure is done in the frame of the Bhatia-Thornton formalism, (S NN (q), S NC (q), S CC (q)) which allows to separate topological, size and chemical effects. It appears clearly that manganese ions and zinc ions have approximately the same radius in the alloy as S NC (q) ≅ 0. The Bhatia-Thornton number-number partial structure factor S NN (q) has been approximated by a linear combination of the experimental structure factors of the two alloy pure components. In the frame of this assumption, the Bhatia-Thornton concentration-concentration partial structure factor S CC (q) is obtained, and shows clearly that this alloy is hetero-coordinated. The hard sphere model cannot explain the structure of this alloy. Its behaviour is compared to other manganese-polyvalent alloys and the general trends are discussed

  3. Oxidation mechanism studies of T-111 alloy by 238Pu dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teaney, P.E.; Selle, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A simple set of experiments was conducted in order to determine the actual mechanism by which oxygen is transported to a T-lll alloy liner in a heat source capsule. Two mechanisms are possible: (1) transport through the vapor phase; or (2) solid state diffusion across the fuel-liner interface. Two T-lll alloy capsules were fabricated containing six-watt plutonia pellets. The pellet in one capsule was wrapped several times with iridium wire to provide a stand-off to prevent contact between the fuel and liner. The pellet in the second capsule was placed in direct contact with the liner. After fabrication, the specimens were tested for 60 days at 900 0 C. Metallographic examination, microhardness measurements, and oxygen and nitrogen analyses of the cross sectioned specimen were utilized to determine the oxidation mechanism. Although the vapor phase mechanism contributed to the total oxygen uptake, solid state diffusion across the fuel-liner interface was the primary mechanism. 6 fig, 1 table

  4. MRI-compatible Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy used for vascular stents: Haemocompatibility and its correlation with protein adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiu-Mei [School of Stomatology, China Medical University, 117 Nanjing North Street, Shenyang 110002 (China); Li, Hui-Zhe; Wang, Shao-Ping [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Huang, Hsun-Miao; Huang, Her-Hsiung [Biomaterials and Electrochemistry Lab, Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei City 112, Taiwan (China); Ai, Hong-Jun, E-mail: aih0620@yahoo.com.cn [School of Stomatology, China Medical University, 117 Nanjing North Street, Shenyang 110002 (China); Xu, Jian, E-mail: jianxu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Nb–60Ta–2Zr is a newly developed MRI-compatible alloy used for vascular stents. In this work, its haemocompatibility was investigated, including platelet adhesion (lactate dehydrogenase activity), platelet activation (P-selectin expression), coagulation and haemolysis. For comparison, parallel assessments for these factors were performed for the niobium, tantalum, 316L stainless steel (316L SS) and L605 Co–Cr alloy (L605). In addition, albumin and fibrinogen were selected to examine the correlation of protein adsorption with platelet adhesion and metal surface properties. The propensity for platelet adhesion and activation on the Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy was at nearly the same level as that for Nb and Ta but was slightly less than those of 316L SS and L605. The mitigated platelet adhesion and activation of the Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy is associated with its decreased adsorption of fibrinogen. The Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy has a longer clotting time and exhibits significantly superior thromboresistance than 316L SS and L605. Moreover, the haemolysis rate of the Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy satisfies the bio-safety requirement of the ISO 10993–4 standard. The favourable haemocompatiblity of the Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy provides evidence of its good biocompatibility and of its suitability as a candidate stent material. - Highlights: • The Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy is less hydrophobic than the 316L SS and L605 alloy. • The Nb–60Ta–2Zr has slightly weak propensity for platelet adhesion and activation. • The Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy results in a longer clotting time. • Haemolysis of Nb–60Ta–2Zr is slightly lower than that of 316L SS and L605. • The Nb–60Ta–2Zr alloy is a promising MRI-compatible stent material.

  5. Effect of boron addition to the hard magnetic bulk Nd60Fe30Al10 amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, H.Z.; Li, Y.; Ding, J.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed study of the effect of boron addition to crystallinity, magnetic properties and thermal properties was carried out for alloys Nd 60-x Fe 30 Al 10 B x with x=0, 1, 3 and 5 produced by copper mold chill casting and melt-spinning. The cast rods of alloys Nd 60-x Fe 30 Al 10 B x were largely amorphous. Remanence up to 0.154 T and coercivity up to 355 kA/m were observed, which were higher than those of the bulk amorphous Nd 60 Fe 30 Al 10 rod of the same diameter. A step in hysteresis loop was observed for the hard magnetic cast rod and ribbon melt-spun at a low speed of 5 m/s of the alloys with boron addition. Consistent increase in the amplitude of the step and magnetic field (H) at which the step was observed as the boron content increased. A single magnetic phase with low coercivity was observed for fully amorphous ribbon melt-spun at high speed of 30 m/s. Full crystallization due to heat treatment resulted in transition of hard magnetic amorphous phase of Nd 55 Fe 30 Al 10 B 5 cast rod to paramagnetic crystalline phases. TEM results of the as-cast rods illustrated the existence of numerous minute Nd-crystallites in amorphous matrix

  6. Corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of tantalum-surface-functionalized biomedical ZK60 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Weihong; Wang, Guomin; Lin, Zhengjie; Feng, Hongqing; Li, Wan; Peng, Xiang; Qasim, Abdul Mateen; Chu, Paul K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Films comprising Ta_2O_5, Ta suboxide, and Ta are sputter-deposited on ZK60 Mg alloy. • The Ta-containing film significantly mitigates degradation of ZK60. • The modified ZK60 exhibits notably enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. - Abstract: Tantalum (Ta) is introduced to the surface of the ZK60 Mg alloy by reactive magnetron sputtering to enhance the corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility. The film thickness and composition, corrosion behavior, and cytocompatibility are studied by various techniques systematically. The surface layer composed of Ta_2O_5, Ta suboxide, and Ta increases the corrosion resistance of ZK60 while simultaneously improving cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation in vitro. The enhancement mechanism is proposed and discussed.

  7. Section thickness-dependent tensile properties of squeeze cast magnesium alloy AM60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhi Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative casting processes is essential for the high demand of light weight magnesium components to be used in the automotive industry, which often contain different section thicknesses. Squeeze casting with its inherent advantages has been approved for the capability of minimizing the gas porosity in magnesium alloys. For advanced engineering design of light magnesium automotive applications, it is critical to understand the effect of section thickness on mechanical properties of squeeze cast magnesium alloys. In this study, magnesium alloy AM60 with different section thicknesses of 6, 10 and 20 mm squeeze cast under an applied pressure of 30 MPa was investigated. The prepared squeeze cast AM60 specimens were tensile tested at room termperature. The results indicate that the mechanical properties including yield strength (YS, ultimate tensile strength (UTS and elongation (A decrease with an increase in section thickness of squeeze cast AM60. The microstructure analysis shows that the improvement in the tensile behavior of squeeze cast AM60 is primarily attributed to the low-gas porosity level and fine grain strucuture which result from the variation of cooling rate of different section thickness. The numerical simulation (Magmasoft? was employed to determine the solidification rates of each step, and the simulated results show that the solidification rate of the alloy decreases with an increase in the section thickness. The computed solidification rates support the experimental observation on grain structural development.

  8. T6 and T78 tempers of AA6065 alloy: a quantitative TEM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Warner, T. [Compagnie de Produits Chimiques et Electrometallurgiques Pechiney, Centre de Recherches de Voreppe, 38 (France)

    2000-07-01

    Quantitative transmission electron microscopy is used to characterize the microstructure of an industrial Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy (AA6056) in a state (T78 temper) desensitized to intergranular corrosion in comparison with the peak aged state (T6 temper). Analysis of dark-field images and of zero-loss filtered selected-area-diffraction patterns, along with EDX spectroscopy, indicates an advanced precipitation of the quaternary phase containing Si and Cu in the T78-tempered alloy compared to the T6 one. This supports the current theory of the desensitization of AA6056 alloy. However, the application of EDX analysis to provide direct evidence of the chemical composition variation in the solid solution across the grain boundary appears less satisfactory. (orig.)

  9. Microstructures of friction welded joints of AZ31 to AM60 magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, S.; Ono, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tsubakino, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan); Tomita, T.; Aritoshi, M. [Hyogo Prefectural Inst. of Industrial Research, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Okita, K. [Inst. of Industrial Research, Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy was friction-welded to AM60 and the microstructures and the friction welding process were studied. The microstructures changed near the weld interface. The AZ31 was refined to a grain size of several {mu}m near the weld interface. The nucleation occurred in the shear bands that were introduced during the welding process. On the other hand, the eutectic structure was deformed and the lamellar structure which was composed of {alpha}-Mg and Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} was formed near the weld interface in AM60 alloy. In the friction process, the adhesion and peel off occurred alternately between AZ31 and AM60. Eventually, bonding was completed during upset process. (orig.)

  10. Corrosion Resistance of 7475-T7351 Aluminum Alloy Plate for Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Ming; LI Hui-qu; CHEN Jun-zhou; LI Guo-ai; CHEN Gao-hong

    2017-01-01

    The intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion properties of 7475-T7351 aluminum alloy plate for aviation were investigated, and the corrosion behaviors of the alloy were analyzed by metallographic analysis(MA) and transmission electron microscope(TEM). The results show that no obvious intergranular corrosion is observed, but exfoliation corrosion grade of 7475-T7351 aluminum alloy increases from EA on surface to EC in the core. The exfoliation corrosion of 7475 alloy plate is mainly b...

  11. Effect of nanocrystalline phase on the electrochemical behavior of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Shubhra, E-mail: shubhramathur3@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jagannath Gupta Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jaipur 303905 (India); Jain, Rohit [Department of Physics, Jagannath Gupta Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jaipur 303905 (India); Kumar, Praveen [Surface Physics and Nanostructure Group, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sachdev, K.; Sharma, S.K. [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, JLN-Marg, Jaipur 302017 (India)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polarization studies carried out on different structural states of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystalline state exhibits superior corrosion resistance as compared to other states of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS results show that nanocrystalline specimen contains only TiO{sub 2} species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It leads to the formation of adherent and stable film and improves the corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Polarization studies were carried out on crystalline, amorphous and nanocrystalline states of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} in 1 M NaCl aqueous medium at room temperature. It was observed that nanocrystalline state exhibits superior corrosion resistance as compared to other states of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40}. Cyclic voltammetry studies and weight loss data corroborates the polarization studies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was used in order to decipher the nature of the oxide film formed after corrosion test on the specimens of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40}. The crystalline specimen of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} shows the presence of Ti{sup 2+}, Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+} species along with some unoxidized Ti in metallic form (Ti{sup 0}) whereas the amorphous specimen consists of Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+} species. On the other hand nanocrystalline specimen contains only Ti{sup 4+} species. Thus it is likely that the presence of fewer species and the absence of Ti{sup 3+} in the oxide film formed on nanocrystalline specimen of Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} lead to the formation of a film with greater homogeneity and protective quality in comparison to the films formed on crystalline and amorphous states of the alloy Ti{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} in 1 M NaCl aqueous medium.

  12. Combined Corrosion and Wear of Aluminium Alloy 7075-T6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aluminium alloy 7075-T6 is widely used in engineering. In some applications, like slurry transport, corrosion and abrasion occur simultaneously, resulting in early material failure. In the present work, we investigated the combined effect of corrosion and wear on the aluminium alloy 7075-T6. We

  13. Dependence on Temperature, pH, and Cl"− in the Uniform Corrosion of Aluminum Alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, I-Wen; Hurley, Belinda L.; Yang, Fan; Buchheit, Rudolph G.

    2016-01-01

    With regards to localized corrosion, the role of uniform corrosion of aluminum alloys has not always been accounted for in the past. The impact of uniform corrosion on aluminum alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6 is studied here to provide quantitative evidence of its importance. Preliminary weight loss experiments combined with optical profilometry (OP) indicate that corrosion attributed to uniform corrosion is very significant when compared to localized corrosion. A series of free immersion tests were conducted to understand the influence of environmental variables including temperature (20, 40, 60, 80 °C), initial pH without buffering (3, 5, 8, 10) and chloride concentration (0.01, 0.1, 1 M) for 1, 7, and 30 days. With time, uniform corrosion results exhibited a strong dependence on temperature accompanied by variable pH- and temperature-dependent corrosion product formation. Electrochemical approaches including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cathodic polarization were utilized to characterize the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and corrosion product formation as a function of temperature. Electron microscopy was conducted to assess the microstructure and morphology of corrosion products and provide supporting evidence for electrochemical findings.

  14. Dynamic Response and Microstructure Evolution of AA2219-T4 and AA2219-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, A.; Owolabi, G.; Odeshi, A.; Zeytinci, A.; Yilmaz, N.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the dynamic deformation behavior of AA2219 aluminum alloy was investigated in two different temper conditions: T4 and T6, with a view to determining the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and flow behavior of the material under high strain rates. Split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment was used in determining the dynamic response of the alloy while a digital image correlation system was employed in visualizing and tracking the surface deformation of the specimens. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. The results obtained showed heterogeneous deformation of the alloy in the two temper conditions. It was observed that the dynamic mechanical behavior of each sample preparation was dependent on its strength properties due to aging type, which in turn controls the metamorphosis of the strengthening precipitates and the initial microstructure. At the maximum strain rate of 3500 s-1, transformed bands leading to crack nucleation was observed in the AA2219-T4 aluminum alloy while AA2219-T6 had fractured at the same strain rate. The modes of crack formation and growth in the two alloys were found to be similar: nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. However, shear band bifurcation phenomenon was observed only in the AA2219-T6 alloy.

  15. Effects of Alloying Elements (Mo, Ni, and Cu on the Austemperability of GGG-60 Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Konca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interest in austempered ductile irons (ADI is continuously increasing due to their various advantageous properties over conventional ductile irons and some steels. This study aimed to determine the roles of alloying elements Ni, Cu, and Mo, on the austemperability of GGG-60 ductile cast iron. Two different sets of GGG-60 (EN-GJS-600-3 samples, one set alloyed with Ni and Cu and the other set alloyed with Mo, Ni, and Cu, were subjected to austempering treatments at 290 °C, 320 °C, and 350 °C. A custom design heat treatment setup, consisting of two units with the top unit (furnace serving for austenitizing and the 200 L capacity bottom unit (stirred NaNO2-KNO3 salt bath serving for isothermal treatment, was used for the experiments. It was found that austempering treatment at 290 °C increased the hardness of the Ni-Cu alloyed GGG-60 sample by about 44% without causing a loss in its ductility. In the case of the Mo-Ni-Cu alloyed sample, the increase in hardness due to austempering reached to almost 80% at the same temperature while some ductility was lost. Here, the microstructural investigation and mechanical testing results of the austempered samples are presented and the role of alloying elements (Mo, Ni, and Cu on the austemperability of GGG-60 is discussed.

  16. Analysis of the tool plunge in friction stir welding - comparison of aluminium alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, plastic strain and heat generation during the plunge stage of the friction stir welding (FSW of high-strength aluminium alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351 are considered in this work. The plunging of the tool into the material is done at different rotating speeds. A three-dimensional finite element (FE model for thermomechanical simulation is developed. It is based on arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation, and Johnson-Cook material law is used for modelling of material behaviour. From comparison of the numerical results for alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351, it can be seen that the former has more intensive heat generation from the plastic deformation, due to its higher strength. Friction heat generation is only slightly different for the two alloys. Therefore, temperatures in the working plate are higher in the alloy 2024 T3 for the same parameters of the plunge stage. Equivalent plastic strain is higher for 2024 T351 alloy, and the highest values are determined under the tool shoulder and around the tool pin. For the alloy 2024 T3, equivalent plastic strain is the highest in the influence zone of the tool pin. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34016 i br. TR 35006

  17. Characterization of 2024-T3: An aerospace aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Zainul; Taib, Nur Iskandar; Zaharinie, Tuan

    2009-01-01

    The 2024-T3 aerospace aluminum alloy, reported in this investigation, was acquired from a local aerospace industry: Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF). The heat treatable 2024-T3 aluminum alloy has been characterized by use of modern metallographic and material characterization techniques (e.g. EPMA, SEM). The microstructural characterization of the metallographic specimen involved use of an optical microscope linked with a computerized imaging system using MSQ software. The use of EPMA and electron microprobe elemental maps enabled us to detect three types of inclusions: Al-Cu, Al-Cu-Fe-Mn, and Al-Cu-Fe-Si-Mn enriched regions. In particular, the presence of Al 2 CuMg (S-phase) and the CuAl 2 (θ') phases indicated precipitation strengthening in the aluminum alloy

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of Fe60Al40 alloys prepared by means of a magnetic mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal-Correa, R.; Rosales-Rivera, A.; Pineda-Gomez, P.; Salazar, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    A study on synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of Fe 60 Al 40 (at.%) alloys prepared by means of mechanical alloying process is presented. The mechanical alloying was performed using a milling device with magnetically controlled ball movement (Uni-Ball-Mill 5 equipment) at several milling times. The characterization was carried out via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The effects of milling time on the structural state, morphological evolution and magnetic behaviour of the Fe 60 Al 40 (at.%) alloys are discussed. Besides, in this current study we emphasize the result that indicating a ferro-para-ferromagnetic transition from a correlation between X-ray diffraction and magnetization data.

  19. Abrupt symmetry decrease in the ThT2Al20 alloys (T = 3d transition metal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uziel, A.; Bram, A.I.; Venkert, A.; Kiv, A.E.; Fuks, D.; Meshi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Th-T-Al system, where T-3d transition metals, was studied at ThT 2 Al 20 stoichiometry to establish the influence of T on the structural stability of ternary aluminide formed. Different alloys were prepared, varying T in the row from Ti to Fe. Using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods it was found that ThT 2 Al 20 phase adopts CeCr 2 Al 20 structure type when T = Ti, V, and Cr. Starting from Mn, the symmetry of the stable Al-rich phase, which forms in the alloys with the same composition, decreases from cubic to orthorhombic. The results of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations coincide with experiments. Concepts of the Theory of Coordination Compounds and Jahn–Teller effect were used to explain the observed abrupt change of the symmetry. These considerations were supported by DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Type of transition metal influences symmetry change in the ThT 2 Al 20 alloys. • It was found that cubic ThT 2 Al 20 phase is stable for T = Ti, V and Cr. • When T = Mn, Fe–Al + orthorhombic ThT 2 Al 10 are formed, lowering the symmetry. • Experimental results and DFT calculations were in full agreement. • TCC and of Jahn–Teller effect were used for explanation of the results

  20. Characterization of 2024-T3: An aerospace aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, Zainul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: drzainulhuda@hotmail.com; Taib, Nur Iskandar [Department of Geology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: ntaib@alumni.indiana.edu; Zaharinie, Tuan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: rinie_3483@hotmail.com

    2009-02-15

    The 2024-T3 aerospace aluminum alloy, reported in this investigation, was acquired from a local aerospace industry: Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF). The heat treatable 2024-T3 aluminum alloy has been characterized by use of modern metallographic and material characterization techniques (e.g. EPMA, SEM). The microstructural characterization of the metallographic specimen involved use of an optical microscope linked with a computerized imaging system using MSQ software. The use of EPMA and electron microprobe elemental maps enabled us to detect three types of inclusions: Al-Cu, Al-Cu-Fe-Mn, and Al-Cu-Fe-Si-Mn enriched regions. In particular, the presence of Al{sub 2}CuMg (S-phase) and the CuAl{sub 2} ({theta}') phases indicated precipitation strengthening in the aluminum alloy.

  1. Role of Ca in Modifying Corrosion Resistance and Bioactivity of Plasma Anodized AM60 Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anawati, Anawati; Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The effect of alloying element Ca (0, 1, and 2 wt%) on corrosion resistance and bioactivity of the as-received and anodized surface of rolled plate AM60 alloys was investigated. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was carried out to form anodic oxide film in 0.5 mol dm{sup -3} Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. The corrosion behavior was studied by polarization measurements while the in vitro bioactivity was tested by soaking the specimens in Simulated Body Fluid (1.5xSBF). Optical micrograph and elemental analysis of the substrate surfaces indicated that the number of intermetallic particles increased with Ca content in the alloys owing to the formation of a new phase Al2Ca. The corrosion resistance of AM60 specimens improved only slightly by alloying with 2 wt% Ca which was attributed to the reticular distribution of Al2Ca phase existed in the alloy that might became barrier for corrosion propagation across grain boundaries. Corrosion resistance of the three alloys was significantly improved by coating the substrates with anodic oxide film formed by PEO. The film mainly composed of magnesium phosphate with thickness in the range 30 - 40 μm. The heat resistant phase of Al{sub 2}Ca was believed to retard the plasma discharge during anodization and, hence, decreased the film thickness of Ca-containing alloys. The highest apatite forming ability in 1.5xSBF was observed for AM60-1Ca specimens (both substrate and anodized) that exhibited more degradation than the other two alloys as indicated by surface observation. The increase of surface roughness and the degree of supersaturation of 1.5xSBF due to dissolution of Mg ions from the substrate surface or the release of film compounds from the anodized surface are important factors to enhance deposition of Ca-P compound on the specimen surfaces.

  2. Study of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of ScFeCrT (T=Si, Ge) Heusler alloys by first principles approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasool, Muhammad Nasir [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Hussain, Altaf, E-mail: altafiub@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Javed, Athar, E-mail: athar.physics@pu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2017-03-15

    Spin polarized structural, electronic, magnetic and bonding properties of ScFeCrT (T=Si, Ge) Heusler alloys are studied by employing density functional theory. The total energy calculation (for a static lattice) shows that both alloys are structurally stable in ferromagnetic phase with compressibility C{sub ScFeCrSi}>C{sub ScFeCrGe}. The electronic and band structure analysis show that the ScFeCrT alloys exhibit half-metallic ferromagnetic (HMF) behaviour for spin ↑ channel while semiconducting behaviour in spin ↓ channel. Both alloys exhibit total magnetic moment, M{sub Total}=3.0 µ{sub B}/cell obeying the Slater Pauling rule, M{sub SPR}=(N{sub v} –18)μ{sub B}. For ScFeCrSi and ScFeCrGe alloys, the charge density and interatomic bonding character show highly covalent and polar covalent character, respectively. For both alloys, 100% spin polarization (for spin ↑ state) is expected which is an indication of their suitability for applications in spintronic devices. - Highlights: • Heusler alloys ScFeCrT (T= Si, Ge) are studied by first principles approach. • Structural, electronic, magnetic and bonding properties are reported. • Both alloys show half-metallicity and ferromagnetic behaviour. • Combination of properties shows the suitability of alloys in spintronic devices.

  3. Friction stir welding of T joints of dissimilar aluminum alloy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Shrikant B.; Kalyankar, Vivek D.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum alloys are preferred in the mechanical design due to their advantages like high strength, good corrosion resistance, low density and good weldability. In various industrial applications T joints configuration of aluminum alloys are used. In different fields, T joints having skin (horizontal sheet) strengthen by stringers (vertical sheets) were used to increase the strength of structure without increasing the weight. T joints are usually carried out by fusion welding which has limitations in joining of aluminum alloy due to significant distortion and metallurgical defects. Some aluminum alloys are even non weldable by fusion welding. The friction stir welding (FSW) has an excellent replacement of conventional fusion welding for T joints. In this article, FSW of T joints is reviewed by considering aluminum alloy and various joint geometries for defect analysis. The previous experiments carried out on T joints shows the factors such as tool geometry, fixturing device and joint configurations plays significant role in defect free joints. It is essential to investigate the material flow during FSW to know joining mechanism and the formation of joint. In this study the defect occurred in the FSW are studied for various joint configurations and parameters. Also the effect of the parameters and defects occurs on the tensile strength are studied. It is concluded that the T-joints of different joint configurations can be pretended successfully. Comparing to base metal some loss in tensile strength was observed in the weldments as well as overall reduction of the hardness in the thermos mechanically affected zone also observed.

  4. A modified Johnson–Cook model of dynamic tensile behaviors for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ding-Ni, E-mail: siping4840@126.com [The College of Information, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Shangguan, Qian-Qian [The College of Information, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Xie, Can-Jun [Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China, Ltd., Shanghai 200120 (China); Liu, Fu [Shanghai Aircraft Design and Research Institute of COMAC, Shanghai 201210 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The dynamic mechanical behaviors at various strain rates were measured. • The strain rate hardening effect of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy is significant. • A new Johnson–Cook constitutive model of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy was obtained. • Numerical simulations of tensile tests at different rates were conducted. • Accuracy of the modified Johnson–Cook constitutive equation was proved. - Abstract: The dynamic mechanical behaviors of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy at various strain rates were measured by dynamic tensile tests using the electronic universal testing machine, high velocity testing system and split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB). Stress–strain curves at different rates were obtained. The results show that the strain rate hardening effect of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy is significant. By modifying the strain rate hardening term in the Johnson–Cook constitutive model, a new Johnson–Cook (JC) constitutive model of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy was obtained. The improved Johnson–Cook model matched the experiment results very well. With the Johnson–Cook constitutive model, numerical simulations of tensile tests at different rates for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were conducted. According to tensile loading and stress–strain relation of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, calculation results were compared with experimental results. Accuracy of the modified Johnson–Cook constitutive equation was further proved.

  5. A modified Johnson–Cook model of dynamic tensile behaviors for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ding-Ni; Shangguan, Qian-Qian; Xie, Can-Jun; Liu, Fu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dynamic mechanical behaviors at various strain rates were measured. • The strain rate hardening effect of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy is significant. • A new Johnson–Cook constitutive model of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy was obtained. • Numerical simulations of tensile tests at different rates were conducted. • Accuracy of the modified Johnson–Cook constitutive equation was proved. - Abstract: The dynamic mechanical behaviors of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy at various strain rates were measured by dynamic tensile tests using the electronic universal testing machine, high velocity testing system and split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB). Stress–strain curves at different rates were obtained. The results show that the strain rate hardening effect of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy is significant. By modifying the strain rate hardening term in the Johnson–Cook constitutive model, a new Johnson–Cook (JC) constitutive model of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy was obtained. The improved Johnson–Cook model matched the experiment results very well. With the Johnson–Cook constitutive model, numerical simulations of tensile tests at different rates for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were conducted. According to tensile loading and stress–strain relation of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, calculation results were compared with experimental results. Accuracy of the modified Johnson–Cook constitutive equation was further proved

  6. Effect of assembled time on the corrosion behaviors of SAMs film on the AM60B alloy and its assembled mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianbin, E-mail: xbliu@imr.ac.cn; Shan, Dayong; Song, Yingwei; Han, En-hou

    2015-01-15

    The influence of assembled time on the corrosion behaviors of SAMs film on the AM60B alloy and its assembled mechanism have been investigated by electrochemical measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The self-assembled experiment on the AM60B magnesium alloy indicates that the corrosion susceptibility decreases with increasing assembled time until 24 h on cast AM60B alloy and then increases with increase of the assembled time proved by EIS measurement and potentiodynamic curves. The self-assembled experiments on pure magnesium and various heat treated cast AM60B magnesium alloy illuminate that the dissolved aluminum in magnesium solid solution is the key factor for assembled efficiency and is hard to self-assemble on the pure magnesium without aluminum. The corrosion resistance of self-assembled film on AM60B magnesium alloy is monotonically increasing with the dissolved aluminum. The results of XPS analysis reveal the assembled mechanism on AM60B and corroborate the function of Al element. - Highlights: • It is hard to self-assemble on the pure magnesium. • 24 h assembled film has the low corrosion susceptibility by EIS and polarization. • The corrosion susceptibility of SAMs film lie on the Al atom state in AM60B. • The corrosion susceptibility of SAMs film is decreasing with the dissolved Al.

  7. Effect of assembled time on the corrosion behaviors of SAMs film on the AM60B alloy and its assembled mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Shan, Dayong; Song, Yingwei; Han, En-hou

    2015-01-01

    The influence of assembled time on the corrosion behaviors of SAMs film on the AM60B alloy and its assembled mechanism have been investigated by electrochemical measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The self-assembled experiment on the AM60B magnesium alloy indicates that the corrosion susceptibility decreases with increasing assembled time until 24 h on cast AM60B alloy and then increases with increase of the assembled time proved by EIS measurement and potentiodynamic curves. The self-assembled experiments on pure magnesium and various heat treated cast AM60B magnesium alloy illuminate that the dissolved aluminum in magnesium solid solution is the key factor for assembled efficiency and is hard to self-assemble on the pure magnesium without aluminum. The corrosion resistance of self-assembled film on AM60B magnesium alloy is monotonically increasing with the dissolved aluminum. The results of XPS analysis reveal the assembled mechanism on AM60B and corroborate the function of Al element. - Highlights: • It is hard to self-assemble on the pure magnesium. • 24 h assembled film has the low corrosion susceptibility by EIS and polarization. • The corrosion susceptibility of SAMs film lie on the Al atom state in AM60B. • The corrosion susceptibility of SAMs film is decreasing with the dissolved Al

  8. Investigation of electrochemical behaviour and structure of oxide films on Ni60Nb40 alloy in amorphous and crystalline states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashov, N.D.; Skvortsova, I.B.; Gorodetskij, A.E.; Bogomolov, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemical properties of Ni 60 Nb 40 alloy in amorphous and crystalline states as well as structure of oxide films forming during anode polarization in electrolytes on the surface of this alloy in both its states are investigated. It is stated that increased passive ability of Ni 60 Nb 40 alloys in amorphous state and high efficiency of chlorine evolution (2 n NaCl+HCl up to pH=0) anode process in comparison with crystalline state are defined by increased homogeneity and uniformity of passive films forming on amorphous alloy and their increased electron conductivity, that is in direct dependence on different structure of passive films forming on alloys in amorphous and crystalline states

  9. Characterization of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloy RX226-T8 Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Cynthia L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum-copper-magnesium-silver (Al-Cu-Mg-Ag) alloys that were developed for thermal stability also offer attractive ambient temperature strength-toughness combinations, and therefore, can be considered for a broad range of airframe structural applications. The current study evaluated Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy RX226-T8 in plate gages and compared performance with sheet gage alloys of similar composition. Uniaxial tensile properties, plane strain initiation fracture toughness, and plane stress tearing resistance of RX226-T8 were examined at ambient temperature as a function of orientation and thickness location in the plate. Properties were measured near the surface and at the mid-plane of the plate. Tensile strengths were essentially isotropic, with variations in yield and ultimate tensile strengths of less than 2% as a function of orientation and through-thickness location. However, ductility varied by more than 15% with orientation. Fracture toughness was generally higher at the mid-plane and greater for the L-T orientation, although the differences were small near the surface of the plate. Metallurgical analysis indicated that the microstructure was primarily recrystallized with weak texture and was uniform through the plate with the exception of a fine-grained layer near the surface of the plate. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed Al-Cu-Mg second phase particles which varied in composition and were primarily located on grain boundaries parallel to the rolling direction. Fractography of toughness specimens for both plate locations and orientations revealed that fracture occurred predominantly by transgranular microvoid coalescence. Introduction High-strength, low-density Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys were initially developed to replace conventional 2000 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7000 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) series aluminum alloys for aircraft structural applications [1]. During the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program, improvements in thermal stability were demonstrated for candidate

  10. Is Cu60Ti10Zr30 a bulk glass-forming alloy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Saida, J.; Kato, H.

    2003-01-01

    . Nanocrystals with a significant volume fraction are randomly distributed in the amorphous matrix. The copper element is enriched in nanocrystals while a slightly high zirconium content is found in the matrix. We classify that the Cu60Ti10Zr30 alloy prepared by both of the aforementioned methods...

  11. Microstructural evolution of Ni40Zr60 alloy during early stage of mechanical alloying of intermetallic compounds NiZr2 and Ni11Zr9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Peeyew; Koch, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    The microstructural change of Ni 40 Zr 60 alloy during mechanical alloying of mixtures of the intermetallic compounds NiZr 2 and Ni 11 Zr 9 has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. A specific ''cauliflower'' phase was formed during early stage of mechanical alloying process. It is suggested that the solid state reaction between intermetallic compounds NiZr 2 and Ni 11 Zr 9 is not the only origin for the formation of the ''cauliflower'' phase. ((orig.))

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40} alloys prepared by means of a magnetic mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Correa, R. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales (Colombia); Rosales-Rivera, A., E-mail: arosalesr@unal.edu.c [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales (Colombia); Pineda-Gomez, P. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales (Colombia); Universidad de Caldas, Manizales (Colombia); Salazar, N.A. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales (Colombia)

    2010-04-16

    A study on synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40} (at.%) alloys prepared by means of mechanical alloying process is presented. The mechanical alloying was performed using a milling device with magnetically controlled ball movement (Uni-Ball-Mill 5 equipment) at several milling times. The characterization was carried out via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The effects of milling time on the structural state, morphological evolution and magnetic behaviour of the Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40} (at.%) alloys are discussed. Besides, in this current study we emphasize the result that indicating a ferro-para-ferromagnetic transition from a correlation between X-ray diffraction and magnetization data.

  13. Additional materials for welding of the EP99 heat resisting alloy with the EI868 alloy and 12Kh18N9T steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, L.I.; Filippova, S.P.; Petrova, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    Presented are the results of the studies aimed at selecting an additive material for argon-arc welding process involving heat-resistant nickel EP99 alloy to be welded to the EI868 alloy and 12Kh18N9T steel. As the additive material use was made of wire made of nickel-chromium alloys and covered electrodes made of the EP367 alloy with additions of tungsten. It has been established that in order to improve the resistance of metal to hot-crack formation during argon arc welding of the EP99 alloy with the EI868 alloy, it is advisable to use an additive material of the EP533 alloy, and while welding the same alloy with the 12Kh18N9T steel, filler wire of the EP367 alloy is recommended

  14. Magnetic transition induced by mechanical deformation in Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40−x}Si{sub x} ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarra, E., E-mail: estibaliz.legarra@ehu.es [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), CP. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Apiñaniz, E. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Plazaola, F. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), CP. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Jimenez, J.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), Avda. Gregorio del amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40−x}Si{sub x} alloys were disordered by means of planetary ball milling technique. • Paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition is observed with disordering. • Si addition hinders the disordering process and the increase of the lattice parameter. • Si addition promotes the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition. -- Abstract: We have used Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction to study the influence of different Al/Si ratios on the structural and magnetic properties of the mechanically deformed Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40−x}Si{sub x} alloys. The results indicate that ternary alloys also present the magnetic transition with disordering observed in binary Fe{sub 60}Al{sub 40} alloys. Besides, Si introduction has two opposite contributions. From a structural point of view, hinders the disordering process, but, from a magnetic point of view promotes the magnetic transition.

  15. Influence of heat treatment on magnesium alloys meant to automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, G.; Moldovan, P.; Bojin, D.; Sillekens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the heat treatment realized on magnesium alloys, from AZ80 and ZK60 class. These alloys are destined to replace the conventional ferrous and aluminum alloys in automotive industry. It was realized the heat treatment, T5 - artificially aging, and it were

  16. Effects of Si on the microstructure, ordering transformation and properties of the Cu60Zn40 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doostmohammadi, Hamid; Moridshahi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A duplex brass (Cu 60 Zn 40 ) was developed by additions of Si. • Phase fractions in the microstructure were changed and β phase was increased. • Microstructural changes were discussed by electron to atom ratio. • Dilatometric showed that Si increased the ordering temperature of β to β′. • The developed lead-free brass alloy can find application in machining. - Abstract: Effects of small additions of Si to Cu 60 Zn 40 on the properties, microstructure and phase transformation were investigated. It was found that Si promotes the formation of β′ phase and the microstructure of the alloys was changed from duplex α + β′ to single phase β′ brass. Electron to atom ratio was calculated and it was concluded that increment in this ratio led to a decrease in stacking fault energy which had an important role in reduction of the grain size as well microstructural variations in this study. The dilatomeric analysis showed that Si increased the ordering temperature of Cu 60 Zn 40 alloy. Finally, based on the properties, the Cu–Zn 40 –Si alloys are predicted to have the potential of being an alternative for free cutting leaded brass

  17. Mechanical behavior and microstructure during compression of semi-solid ZK60-RE magnesium alloy at high solid content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Weiwei; Luo Shoujing

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical behavior during compression of semi-solid ZK60-RE magnesium alloy at high solid content is researched in this paper. The alloy was prepared from ZK60 alloy and rare earth elements by casting, equal channel angular extruding, and liquidus forging. Semi-solid isothermal pre-treatment was carried out to make the grains globular before the compression. Here, several groups of true strain-true stress curves with different variables during compression are given to make comparisons of their mechanical behaviors. Liquid paths were the most essential to deformation, and its variation during compression depends on the strain rate. Here, thixotropic strength is defined as the true stress at the first peak in the true stress-true strain curve

  18. Abrupt symmetry decrease in the ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} alloys (T = 3d transition metal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uziel, A.; Bram, A.I. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel); Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel); Venkert, A. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, POB 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Kiv, A.E.; Fuks, D. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel); Meshi, L., E-mail: louisa@bgu.ac.il [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel); Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel)

    2015-11-05

    Th-T-Al system, where T-3d transition metals, was studied at ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} stoichiometry to establish the influence of T on the structural stability of ternary aluminide formed. Different alloys were prepared, varying T in the row from Ti to Fe. Using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods it was found that ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} phase adopts CeCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20} structure type when T = Ti, V, and Cr. Starting from Mn, the symmetry of the stable Al-rich phase, which forms in the alloys with the same composition, decreases from cubic to orthorhombic. The results of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations coincide with experiments. Concepts of the Theory of Coordination Compounds and Jahn–Teller effect were used to explain the observed abrupt change of the symmetry. These considerations were supported by DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Type of transition metal influences symmetry change in the ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} alloys. • It was found that cubic ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} phase is stable for T = Ti, V and Cr. • When T = Mn, Fe–Al + orthorhombic ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 10} are formed, lowering the symmetry. • Experimental results and DFT calculations were in full agreement. • TCC and of Jahn–Teller effect were used for explanation of the results.

  19. Effect of Localized Corrosion on Fatigue-Crack Growth in 2524-T3 and 2198-T851 Aluminum Alloys Used as Aircraft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreto, J. A.; Broday, E. E.; Rossino, L. S.; Fernandes, J. C. S.; Bose Filho, W. W.

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion and fatigue of aluminum alloys are major issues for the in-service life assessment of aircraft structures and for the management of aging air fleets. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of localized corrosion on fatigue crack growth (FCG) resistance of the AA2198-T851 Al-Li alloy (Solution Heat Treated, Cold Worked, and Artificially Aged), comparing it with the FCG resistance of AA2524-T3 (Solution Heat Treated and Cold Worked), considering the effect of seawater fog environment. Before fatigue tests, the corrosion behavior of 2198-T851 and 2524-T3 aluminum alloys was verified using open circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Fatigue in air and corrosion fatigue tests were performed applying a stress ratio (R) of 0.1, 15 Hz (air) and 0.1 Hz (seawater fog) frequencies, using a sinusoidal waveform in all cases. The results showed that the localized characteristics of the 2198-T851 and 2524-T3 aluminum alloys are essentially related to the existence of intermetallic compounds, which, due to their different nature, may be cathodic or anodic in relation to the aluminum matrix. The corrosive medium has affected the FCG rate of both aluminum alloys, in a quite similar way.

  20. Effect of stress on the superconducting transition temperature in indium, indium-alloy, tin, and tin-alloy whisker samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.W. Jr.; Davis, W.T.; Chandler, J.H.; Skove, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The dependence of the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/) on stress (sigma) for pure In and Sn samples was found to be in qualitative agreement with earlier work. For convenience T/sub c/ is expressed as a function of the experimentally measured strain (epsilon), which is proportional to sigma. The effect of alloying on the initial dependence of the T/sub c/-vs-epsilon curves, (per. delta T/sub c//per. delta epsilon)/sub epsilon = 0/ = eta, was quite different for the In and Sn alloys. The In samples were alloyed with a maximum of 4.8 at.% Tl, 7.9 at.% Sn, and 6.7 at.% Pd; the Sn samples were alloyed with a maximum of 0.3 at.% Cd, 6.0 at.% In, 0.3 at.% Sb, and 2.2 at.% Bi. The addition of impurities had a large effect on eta for the In alloys, with eta reversing sign for some Sn and Pb alloy contents (chi). The T/sub c/-vs-epsilon curves also became nonlinear for some chi. The possible relationship of the In alloy results to changes in the Fermi surface due to the addition of impurities is discussed. For the Sn alloy samples, there was no change in eta with any impurity. The change in room-temperature resistivity with strain was also measured. There was only a slight decrease in the dependence of resistivity on strain for the In--Sn and In--Pb data and no effect on the In--Tl or Sn alloy data

  1. The effect of Mn and B on the magnetic and structural properties of nanostructured Fe60Al40 alloys produced by mechanical alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, M M; Alcázar, G A Pérez; Zamora, L E; González, C; Greneche, J M

    2008-06-01

    The effect of Mn and B on the magnetic and structural properties of nanostructured samples of the Fe60Al40 system, prepared by mechanical alloying, was studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. In the case of the Fe(60-x)Mn(x)Al40 system, 24 h milling time is required to achieve the BCC ternary phase. Different magnetic structures are observed according to the temperature and the Mn content for alloys milled during 48 h: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, spin-glass, reentrant spin-glass and superparamagnetic behavior. They result from the bond randomness behaviour induced by the atomic disorder introduced by the MA process and from the competitive interactions of the Fe-Fe ferromagnetic interactions and the Mn-Mn and Fe-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions and finally the presence of Al atoms acting as dilutors. When B is added in the Fe60Al40 alloy and milled for 12 and 24 hours, two crystalline phases were found: a prevailing FeAl BCC phase and a Fe2B phase type. In addition, one observes an additional contribution attributed to grain boundaries which increases when both milling time and boron composition increase. Finally Mn and B were added to samples of the Fe60Al40 system prepared by mechanical alloying during 12 and 24 hours. Mn content was fixed to 10 at.% and B content varied between 0 and 20 at.%, substituting Al. X-ray patterns show two crystalline phases, the ternary FeMnAl BCC phase, and a (Fe,Mn)2B phase type. The relative proportion of the last phase increases when the B content increases, in addition to changes of the grain size and the lattice parameter. Such behavior was observed for both milling periods. On the other hand, the magnetic hyperfine field distributions show that both phases exhibit chemical disorder, and that the contribution attributed to the grain boundaries is less important when the B content increases. Coercive field values of about 10(2) Oe slightly increase with boron content

  2. Intergranular corrosion following friction stir welding of aluminum alloy 7075-T651

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsden, J.B.; Mahoney, M.W.; Pollock, G.; Rhodes, C.G.

    1999-12-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW), a relatively new solid-state joining process, is used to join Al alloys of all compositions, including alloys essentially considered unweldable. This study focused on microstructures in FSW Al alloy 7075-T651 (AA 7075-T651 [UNS 97075-T651]), an alloy not commonly fusion welded, and the resultant corrosion susceptibility. Although the heat input associated with FSW was relatively low and the time at temperature was short compared to fusion welding, localized microstructures, chemical segregation, and precipitate distributions were created that generally are not present in parent metal AA 7075-T651. Typically, in the weld and heat affected zone (HAZ), the times at peak temperature were short, cooling was relatively rapid, and peak temperatures were {lt} {approx}500 C. Accordingly, a corresponding microstructural gradient developed from the weld nugget into the unaffected parent metal with the precipitate distribution in and around grain boundaries reflecting this temperature excursion. Some of these microstructures, when exposed to a corrosive environment, showed selective grain boundary attack and a decrease in the pitting potential relative to the parent metal. A characterization of the microstructure and localized chemistry differences within the weld zones suggested that the decrease in corrosion resistance correlated with a depletion of Cu within the grain boundaries and precipitate-free zones. These results provided evidence that the lowered resistance to intergranular corrosion following FSW of AA 7075-T651 was caused by a difference in pitting potentials.

  3. Thermal stability and glass-forming ability of amorphous Nd-Al-TM (TM=Fe, Co, Ni or Cu) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Zhang Tao

    1997-01-01

    Bulk amorphous alloys were prepared for Nd 70 Al 10 TM 20 and Nd 60 Al 10 TM 30 (TM=Fe or Co) alloys by copper mold casting. The maximum sample thickness for glass formation reaches 15 mm for the Nd-Al-Fe alloys and 5 mm for the Nd-Al-Co alloys. A significant difference in the phase transition upon heating is recognized between the Fe- and Co-containing alloys. No glass transition before crystallization is observed for the Nd-Al-Fe alloys, but the Nd-Al-Co alloys exhibit the glass transition. The ΔT x (=T x -T g ) and T g /T m are 40-55 K and 0.65-0.67, respectively, for the latter alloys. The absence of supercooled liquid for the former alloys is different from those for all bulk amorphous alloys reported up to date. The T x /T m and ΔT m (=T m -T x ) are 0.85-0.89 and 88-137 K, respectively, for the Nd-Al-Fe alloys and, hence, the large glass-forming ability is presumably due to the high T x /T m and small ΔT m values. (orig.)

  4. Finite element modelling of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 under transverse impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ahmad Sufian; Kuntjoro, Wahyu; Yamin, A. F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fiber metal laminate named GLARE is a new aerospace material which has great potential to be widely used in future lightweight aircraft. It consists of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 and glass-fiber reinforced laminate. In order to produce reliable finite element model of impact response or crashworthiness of structure made of GLARE, one can initially model and validate the finite element model of the impact response of its constituents separately. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable finite element model of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 under low velocity transverse impact loading using commercial software ABAQUS. Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage models were used to predict the alloy's material properties and impact behavior. The results of the finite element analysis were compared to the experiment that has similar material and impact conditions. Results showed good correlations in terms of impact forces, deformation and failure progressions which concluded that the finite element model of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy under low velocity transverse impact condition using Johnson-Cook plastic and damage models was reliable.

  5. ZK60 alloy processed by ECAP: Microstructural, physical and mechanical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, F.-D., E-mail: dianadumitru1986@yahoo.com [Materials Science and Engineering Faculty, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Higuera-Cobos, O.F., E-mail: osfahico@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ETSEIB – Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Vereda La Julita, Pereira (Colombia); Cabrera, J.M., E-mail: jose.maria.cabrera@upc.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ETSEIB – Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnológic, Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain)

    2014-01-31

    Lately, magnesium alloys have been extensively investigated through severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods in order to extend their application to structural components. In the present work, as-extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy samples were subjected to 4 passes of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at a processing temperature of 250 °C, following route Bc. The microstructural evolution of the deformed grains was analyzed using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) maps, together with the grain boundary misorientation distribution showed a reduction in the grain size accompanied by a large proportion of high angle grain boundaries. Calorimetric analysis showed a slight increase in the recrystallization temperature of the ECAPed magnesium samples. Mechanical tests showed an improvement in the elongation-to-failure after 4 ECAP passes, which were about 2 times higher than in the as-extruded sample. Also a brittle to ductile transition was observed.

  6. ZK60 alloy processed by ECAP: Microstructural, physical and mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, F.-D.; Higuera-Cobos, O.F.; Cabrera, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lately, magnesium alloys have been extensively investigated through severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods in order to extend their application to structural components. In the present work, as-extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy samples were subjected to 4 passes of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at a processing temperature of 250 °C, following route Bc. The microstructural evolution of the deformed grains was analyzed using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) maps, together with the grain boundary misorientation distribution showed a reduction in the grain size accompanied by a large proportion of high angle grain boundaries. Calorimetric analysis showed a slight increase in the recrystallization temperature of the ECAPed magnesium samples. Mechanical tests showed an improvement in the elongation-to-failure after 4 ECAP passes, which were about 2 times higher than in the as-extruded sample. Also a brittle to ductile transition was observed

  7. Measurements of T0 temperatures of supersaturated Si-As alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.R.; West, J.A.; Smith, P.M.; Aziz, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the congruent melting point, or T 0 curve, of crystalline Si-As alloys has been measured in the range of 1.6 to 18.1 at.% arsenic by line source electron beam annealing. Alloys were created by ion implantation of as into 0.1 mm Si-on-sapphire and crystallized by pulsed laser melting. T 0 temperatures decrease form 1673 ± 10K at 2.0 at.% As to 1516 ± 30K at 18.1 at.% As. The results of these measurements are significantly higher than the previous results of studies using pulsed laser melting techniques. Advantages of the e-beam technique over previous techniques are discussed. Chemical free energy functions of the solid and liquid phases were calculated from existing thermodynamic data. The calculated T 0 curve agrees with the measured values only in low concentration region (less than 8 at.%)

  8. Laser beam welding and friction stir welding of 6013-T6 aluminium alloy sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.; Dalle Donne, C.; Staniek, G.

    2000-01-01

    Butt welds of 1.6 mm thick 6013-T6 sheet were produced using laser beam welding and friction stir welding processes. Employing the former joining technique, filler powders of the alloys Al-5%Mg and Al-12%Si were used. Microstructure, hardness profiles, tensile properties and the corrosion behaviour of the welds in the as-welded condition were investigated. The hardness in the weld zone was lower compared to that of the base material in the peak-aged temper. Hardness minima were measured in the fusion zone and in the thermomechanically affected zone for laser beam welded and friction stir welded joints, respectively. Metallographic and fractographic examinations revealed pores in the fusion zone of the laser beam welds. Porosity was higher in welds made using the filler alloy Al-5%Mg than using the filler metal Al-12%Si. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the β '' (Mg 2 Si) hardening precipitates were dissolved in the weld zone due to the heat input of the joining processes. Joint efficiencies achieved for laser beam welds depended upon the filler powders, being about 60 and 80% using the alloys Al-5%Mg and Al-12%Si, respectively. Strength of the friction stir weld approached over 80% of the ultimate tensile strength of the 6013-T6 base material. Fracture occurred in the region of hardness minima unless defects in the weld zone led to premature failure. The heat input during welding did not cause a degradation of the corrosion behaviour of the welds, as found in continuous immersion tests in an aqueous chloride-peroxide solution. In contrast to the 6013-T6 parent material, the weld zone was not sensitive to intergranular corrosion. Alternate immersion tests in 3.5% NaCl solution indicated high stress corrosion cracking resistance of the joints. For laser beam welded sheet, the weld zone of alternately immersed specimens suffered severe degradation by pitting and intergranular corrosion, which may be associated with galvanic coupling of filler metal and

  9. In Vitro Corrosion and Cytocompatibility of ZK60 Magnesium Alloy Coated with Hydroxyapatite by a Simple Chemical Conversion Process for Orthopedic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Huang, Ping; Ou, Caiwen; Li, Kaikai; Yan, Biao; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys—a new class of degradable metallic biomaterials—are being increasingly investigated as a promising alternative for medical implant and device applications due to their advantageous mechanical and biological properties. However, the high corrosion rate in physiological environments prevents the clinical application of Mg-based materials. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on ZK60 magnesium alloy substrates to mediate the rapid degradation of Mg while improving its cytocompatibility for orthopedic applications. A simple chemical conversion process was applied to prepare HA coating on ZK60 magnesium alloy. Surface morphology, elemental compositions, and crystal structures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The corrosion properties of samples were investigated by immersion test and electrochemical test. Murine fibroblast L-929 cells were harvested and cultured with coated and non-coated ZK60 samples to determine cytocompatibility. The degradation results suggested that the HA coatings decreased the degradation of ZK60 alloy. No significant deterioration in compression strength was observed for all the uncoated and coated samples after 2 and 4 weeks’ immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cytotoxicity test indicated that the coatings, especially HA coating, improved cytocompatibility of ZK60 alloy for L929 cells. PMID:24300096

  10. Stress-corrosion cracking characterisation of the advanced aerospace Al–Li 2099-T86 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, J., E-mail: jannik.goebel@hzg.de; Ghidini, T.; Graham, A.J.

    2016-09-15

    New alloy developments driven by aircraft industry have identified aluminium lithium (Al–Li) alloys as potential candidates for substitution of incumbent high strength aluminium alloys used for manufacturing spacecraft and launchers. Whereas properties like specific stiffness, strength and toughness are proven as superior when compared to those of currently adopted Al alloys, the Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) characteristics are still an open aspect if advanced Al–Li alloys are considered for space structural applications. The present paper provides a comprehensive characterisation of the Al–Li 2099-T86 SCC performances.

  11. Stress-corrosion cracking characterisation of the advanced aerospace Al–Li 2099-T86 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, J.; Ghidini, T.; Graham, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    New alloy developments driven by aircraft industry have identified aluminium lithium (Al–Li) alloys as potential candidates for substitution of incumbent high strength aluminium alloys used for manufacturing spacecraft and launchers. Whereas properties like specific stiffness, strength and toughness are proven as superior when compared to those of currently adopted Al alloys, the Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) characteristics are still an open aspect if advanced Al–Li alloys are considered for space structural applications. The present paper provides a comprehensive characterisation of the Al–Li 2099-T86 SCC performances.

  12. Inhibition of stress corrosion cracking of alloy AA8090 T-8171 by addition of rare earth salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davo, B.; Conde, A.; Damborenea, J.J. de

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium-lithium alloys are suitable for aeronautical purposes because of their good mechanical properties and high damage tolerance. Although these alloys are less susceptible to stress corrosion cracking than conventional alloys, Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloy (8090-T8171) still experiences this problem in a NaCl + H 2 O 2 solution. In this work it has been demonstrated that the addition of 10,000 ppm of CeCl 3 to the medium inhibits the stress corrosion cracking of 8090 alloy by precipitation of cerium oxides/hydroxides. The deposition of these compounds on the alloy surface decreases the pit density and slows the crack growth through the grain boundaries by hindering the anodic dissolution of T phases

  13. Crack Resistance of Welded Joints of Pipe Steels of Strength Class K60 of Different Alloying Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatchikova, T. I.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Makovetskii, A. N.; Shander, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The crack resistance of welded joints of pipe steels of strength class K60 and different alloying systems is studied. The parameter of the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) is shown to be dependent on the size of the austenite grains and on the morphology of bainite in the superheated region of the heat-affected zone of the weld. The crack resistance is shown to be controllable due to optimization of the alloying system.

  14. Anisotropic Deformation Behavior of Al2024T351 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of material anisotropy on the yielding and hardening behavior of 2024T351 aluminum alloy using isotropic and anisotropic yield criteria. Anisotropy may be induced in a material during the manufacturing through processes like rolling or forging. This induced anisotropy gives rise to the concept of orientation-dependent material properties such as yield strength, ductility, strain hardening, fracture strength, or fatigue resistance. Inclusion of the effects of anisotropy is essential in correctly predicting the deformation behavior of a material. In this study, uniaxial tensile tests were first performed in all three rolling directions, L , T  and S , for smooth bar specimens made from hot rolled plate of Al2024 alloy. The experimental results showed that the L - and T -directions yielded higher yield strengths and a greater percentage of elongation before fracture than the S -direction. Subsequently, finite element analysis of tensile specimens was performed using isotropic (von Mises and anisotropic (Hill yield criteria to predict the onset of yielding and hardening behaviors during the course of deformation. Hill's criterion perfectly fitted with the test data in the S -direction, but slightly underestimated the yield strength in L -direction. The results indicated that the Hill yield criterion is the most suitable one to predict the onset of yielding and hardening behaviors for 2024T351 aluminum alloy in all directions.

  15. The Influence of T6 Heat Treatment to Hardness and Microstructure of Al-Si-Mg Alloys Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy Djatmiko; Budiarto

    2008-01-01

    Al-Si-Mg alloy is one of aluminium alloys that is suitable to be used as a car piston material. This is because it has some benefits such as light weight, corrosion resistance and interesting color but its mechanical properties do not meet criteria of JIS H5201. For that reason, to meet the standard, its mechanical properties need to be improved. Mechanical properties of this alloy can be improved using many ways. In this research the alloy was T6 heat treated (holding times 4 hour with treatment temperature variation of 30, 150, 180, 210, and 240 o C). Some tests were conducted to these new alloys including hardness test, impact test, phase identification and micro structural analysis. Test results showed that the change mechanical properties occurs due to increasing temperature during T6 heat treatment to these alloys. The optimum mechanical properties were obtained at treatment temperature of 210 o C. In this condition, the alloy has hardness of 93.30 HVN and impact strength of 5.13 J/cm 2 and these results fulfil JIS H5201 standard. The alloy microstructure showed hypoeutectic structure comprising primary aluminium dendrite and Al-Si-Mg eutectic mixture. The result of phase identification after T6 heat treatment showed that Al-Si-Mg alloys have α-Al phase, Si phase and MnAl 6 phase. (author)

  16. Magnesium Alloy WE43 and WE43-T5 - Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Chongchen

    Magnesium alloys are promising in aerospace, automotive and electronic industries due to low density, high specific strength and excellent machinability. A rare earth element alloy (WE43) is studied in as cast and heat treated conditions. Multiscale characterization is conducted to understand the nanomechanical response using a nanoindentor and microscale behavior using tensile tests. Further, compressive characterization is conducted across six orders of strain rate magnitudes from 10-3 to 3x103 s -1 under the range of liquid nitrogen (-196°C) to room temperature (25°C). Based on the results, a constitutive model is developed to estimate the plastic behavior of as-cast WE43 and WE43-T5 at different strain rates and under different temperatures. In addition, dynamic properties are studied using a dynamic mechanical analyzer at 1-100 Hz loading frequencies and the temperature range from 35°C to 500°C. Only Yttrium-rich cuboidal phase and zirconium-rich phase were present in WE43-T5 alloy and the eutectic phase was absent. Also, the grain size was reduced due to the hot rolling process. The difference in microstructure reflects into the mechanical properties. WE43-T5 specimens have improved mechanical properties over the as-cast alloy. Two transition temperatures are found at 210 and 250°C based on the storage and loss moduli results. The Mg24Y5 peak is found in the high temperature x-ray diffraction results along with a new Mg12Nd peak at those two temperature points. The corrosion behavior, studied by 7-day immersion in 3.5% NaCl solution, shows that the heat treated alloy has significantly lower corrosion rate than the as-cast alloy due to the absence of the eutectic mixture in the microstructure. With rapidly growing applications of magnesium alloys, particularly with rare earth elements, this study is expected to provide critical data and structure-property correlations that will help the scientific community.

  17. Internal friction study of neutron-irradiation effects on an amorphous Cu40Ti60 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Y.; Wu, G.; Xiao, K.; Li, X.; He, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on the structure of an amorphous Cu 40 Ti 60 alloy have been studied by internal friction measurements. After irradiation, the position of the first internal friction peak remains almost unchanged and the shoulder position shifts towards a higher temperature by about 5 K, which indicates that the Cu 40 Ti 60 glass becomes more stable. These results are finally discussed based on the concept of changes of chemical short-range ordering and geometrical short-range ordering due to radiation damage

  18. Nondestructive detection of an undesirable metallic phase, T.sub.1, during processing of aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Otto; Bracci, David J.; Jiles, David C.; Brasche, Lisa J. H.; Shield, Jeffrey E.; Chumbley, Leonard S.

    1990-08-07

    A method is disclosed for detecting the T.sub.1 phase in aluminum-lithium alloys through simultaneous measurement of conductivity and hardness. In employing eddy current to measure conductivity, when the eddy current decreases with aging of the alloy, while the hardness of the material continues to increase, the presence of the T.sub.1 phase may be detected.

  19. Magnetism of a sigma-phase Fe{sub 60}V{sub 40} alloy: Magnetic susceptibilities and magnetocaloric effect studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bałanda, Maria [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Science, PL-31-342 Kraków (Poland); Dubiel, Stanisław M., E-mail: Stanislaw.Dubiel@fis.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland); Pełka, Robert [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Science, PL-31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Sigma-phase Fe{sub 60}V{sub 40} alloy was studied by means of AC and DC magnetic susceptibilities. • Re-entrant character of the magnetism has been evidenced. • Curie temperature was found as ∼169 K and the spin-freezing temperature as ∼164 K. • Critical exponents β = 0.6, γ = 1.0 and Δ = 1.6 were determined. • Magnetocaloric effect was investigated. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of a sigma-phase Fe{sub 60}V{sub 40} intermetallic compound were studied by means of ac and dc magnetic susceptibility and magnetocaloric effect measurements. The compound is a soft magnet yet it was found to behave like a re-entrant spin-glass system. The magnetic ordering temperature was found to be T{sub C} ≈ 170 K, while the spin-freezing temperature was ∼164 K. Its relative shift per decade of ac frequency was 0.002, a value smaller than that typical of canonical spin-glasses. Magnetic entropy change, ΔS, in the vicinity of T{sub C} was determined for magnetic field, H, ranging between 5 and 50 kOe. Analysis of ΔS in terms of the power law yielded the critical exponent, n, vs. temperature with the minimum value of 0.75 at T{sub C}, while from the analysis of a relative shift of the maximum value of ΔS with the field a critical exponent Δ = 1.7 was obtained. Based on scaling laws relationships values of other two exponents viz. β = 0.6 and γ = 1 were determined.

  20. The influence of zigzag-curve defect on the fatigue properties of friction stir welds in 7075-T6 Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Shusheng; Yang Xinqi; Fang Dapeng; Luan Guohong

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure and fatigue properties of friction stir welded joints of 7075-T6 Al alloy were discussed. It was shown that the zigzag-curve defect at the root of welds is Key factor to reduce the fatigue performance of single-sided friction stir welded joints of 7075-T6 high strength aluminum alloy. On the other hand, the FSW joints of 7075-T6 Al alloy achieved higher fatigue strength compared to the traditional fusion design curves IIW FAT40 and Draft Eurocode 9 design category 55-6 for structural aluminum alloy components

  1. Influence of ECAP process on mechanical and corrosion properties of pure Mg and ZK60 magnesium alloy for biodegradable stent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaed, Ehsan; Vedani, Maurizio; Hashempour, Mazdak; Bestetti, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was performed on ZK60 alloy and pure Mg in the temperature range 150–250 °C. A significant grain refinement was detected after ECAP, leading to an ultrafine grain size (UFG) and enhanced formability during extrusion process. Comparing to conventional coarse grained samples, fracture elongation of pure Mg and ZK60 alloy were significantly improved by 130% and 100%, respectively, while the tensile strength remained at high level. Extrusion was performed on ECAP processed billets to produce small tubes (with outer/inner diameter of 4/2.5 mm) as precursors for biodegradable stents. Studies on extruded tubes revealed that even after extrusion the microstructure and microhardness of the UFG ZK60 alloy were almost stable. Furthermore, pure Mg tubes showed an additional improvement in terms of grain refining and mechanical properties after extrusion. Electrochemical analyses and microstructural assessments after corrosion tests demonstrated two major influential factors in corrosion behavior of the investigated materials. The presence of Zn and Zr as alloying elements simultaneously increases the nobility by formation of a protective film and increase the local corrosion damage by amplifying the pitting development. ECAP treatment decreases the size of the second phase particles thus improving microstructure homogeneity, thereby decreasing the localized corrosion effects. PMID:25482411

  2. Comparative assessment of filler wires for argon-arc welding of refractory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, L.I.; Bagdasarov, Yu.S.; Tupikin, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    It is recommended to use wires of similar composition as filler material during argon-arc welding of heat resisting alloys, and Sv-08Kh20N57M8V8T3R wire - for welding of dispersion hardening alloys. Sv-06Kh15N60M15, Sv-KhN64KBMYuVF or Kh11N60M23 wires should be used as filler materials to decrease tendency of welded joints to cracking during welding and heat treatment

  3. Determination of the enthalpy of fusion and thermal diffusivity for ternary Cu_6_0_−_xSn_xSb_4_0 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, W.; Zhou, K.; Hu, L.; Wei, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The increasing Sn content reduces the liquidus temperature. • High Sn content results in lower enthalpy of fusion by polynomial functions. • The thermal diffusivity drops from the solid toward the semi-solid state. • Undercoolability of alloys with primary Cu_2Sb phase is stronger than others. - Abstract: The liquidus and solidus temperatures, enthalpy of fusion, and the temperature dependence of thermal diffusivity for ternary Cu_6_0_−_xSn_xSb_4_0 alloys were systematically measured by DSC and laser flash methods. It is found that both the liquidus temperature and the enthalpy of fusion decrease with the rise of Sn content, and their relationships with alloy composition were established by polynomial functions. The thermal diffusivity usually drops from the solid toward the semi-solid state. The undercoolability of those liquid Cu_6_0_−_xSn_xSb_4_0 alloys with primary Cu_2Sb solid phase is stronger than the others with primary β(SnSb) intermetallic compound, and the increase of cooling rate facilitates further undercooling. Microstructural observation indicates that both of the primary Cu_2Sb and β(SnSb) intermetallic compounds in ternary Cu_6_0_−_xSn_xSb_4_0 alloys grow in faceted mode, and develop into coarse flakes and polygonal blocks.

  4. Tensile behavior of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarzadeh, A.; Khodaverdizadeh, H.; Mahmoudi, A.; Nazari, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Range of parameters for defect-free friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 was reached. ► A model was developed for predicting UTS and EL of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4. ► The maximum values of UTS and EL of joints were estimated by developed model. ► The optimum values of FSW process parameters were determined. -- Abstract: In this investigation response surface methodology based on a central composite rotatable design with three parameters, five levels and 20 runs, was used to develop a mathematical model predicting the tensile properties of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints at 95% confidence level. The three welding parameters considered were tool rotational speed, welding speed and axial force. Analysis of variance was applied to validate the predicted model. Microstructural characterization and fractography of joints were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Also, the effects of the welding parameters on tensile properties of friction stir welded joints were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the optimum parameters to get a maximum of tensile strength were 920 rev/min, 78 mm/min and 7.2 kN, where the maximum of tensile elongation was obtained at 1300 rev/min, 60 mm/min and 8 kN.

  5. Artifacts in MRI of the temporomandibular joint caused by dental alloys: a phantom study at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellner, C.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen; Behr, M.; Fellner, F.; Held, P.; Handel, G.; Feuerbach, S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of dental alloys on MRI of the temporomandibular joint was studied using a phantom model for this joint. Methods: At 1,5 T, 15 dental alloys and 14 of their most important components were investigated acquiring sagittal (FOV: 150 mm) and transverse (FOV: 250 mm) T 1 -weighted SE additionally. The artifacts were assessed qualitatively as well as quantitatively, and the samples were subdivided into four artifact categories. Results: Ag, Cu, Ga, In, Ti, Sn, Zn, amalgan, the precious alloys, the Au-Pd and Ag-Pd alloys showed no artifacts (category I). Minimal artifacts below 10 mm on transverse images (category II) were found for Cr, Pd, Pt and for the Ni-Cr alloy. Mn and the remaining non-precious alloys induced artifacts up to 30 mm (category III). Significant artifacts - more than 30 mm - (category IV) were to be more susceptible for artifacts than T 1 -weighted SE and FLASH techniques. Conclusions: In contrast to dental alloys for fixed prosthodontics, Ni-Cr- or 18/8 wires used for orthodontic bands can influence not only the image quality, but also the diagnostic reliability of MRI of the temporomandibular joint. (orig.) [de

  6. Measurements of the electrical resistance and the hydrogen depth distribution for Ni 60Nb 20Zr 20 amorphous alloy before and after hydrogen charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Sumiaki; Ohtsu, Naofumi; Nagata, Shinji; Yamaura, Shin-ichi; Uchinashi, Sakae; Kimura, Hisamichi; Shikama, Tatsuo; Inoue, Akihisa

    2005-02-01

    A Ni 60Nb 20Zr 20 amorphous alloy was prepared by the single-roller melt-spinning technique. The change in the electrical resistance of the alloy after electrochemical hydrogen charging in 6 N KOH solution was investigated. The change in the hydrogen depth distribution in the alloy was also investigated by elastic recoil detection. As a result, we found that the electrical resistance of the alloy increases with increasing the hydrogen content in the alloy and that a large number of hydrogen atoms are remained in the surface area of the hydrogen-charged alloy.

  7. Electrosynthesized polyaniline for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloy 2024-T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huerta-Vilca Domingo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Adherent polyaniline films on aluminum alloy 2024-T3 have been prepared by electrodeposition from aniline containing oxalic acid solution. The most appropriate method to prepare protective films was a successive galvanostatic deposition of 500 seconds. With this type of film, the open circuit potential of the coating shifted around 0.065V vs. SCE compared to the uncoated alloy. The polyaniline coatings can be considered as candidates to protect copper-rich (3 - 5% aluminum alloys by avoiding the galvanic couple between re-deposited copper on the surface and the bulk alloy. The performance of the polyaniline films was verified by immersion tests up to 2.5 months. It was good with formation of some aluminum oxides due to electrolyte permeation so, in order to optimize the performance a coating formulation would content an isolation topcoat.

  8. In-situ Investigation of the Fracture Behaviors of 2195-T8 Aluminum-Lithium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the tensile crack initiation and propagation behavior of 2195-T8 Aluminum-Lithium alloy was studied by in situ scanning electron microscope observation at room temperature. It was found that cracks initiated at second phases which propagated along the grain boundaries only as T1 phases could retard crack growth inside grains. With further increase of strain, within the grain a large number of slip bands were produced, resulting in the deflection of the grains, which leaded to transgranular fracture at last. SEM examination show both intergranular and transgranular fracture surface morphology indicating that the 2195-T8 alloy revealed a mix mechanism for the fracture.

  9. The Formation Mechanism and Corrosion Resistance of a Composite Phosphate Conversion Film on AM60 Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Lan, Xiangna; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Qinyong

    2018-03-08

    Magnesium alloy AM60 has high duc and toughness, which is expected to increase in demand for automotive applications. However, it is too active, and coatings have been extensively studied to prevent corrosion. In this work, a Ba-containing composite phosphate film has been prepared on the surface of AM60. The composition and formation mechanism of the film have been investigated using a scanning electronic microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry tests. The corrosion resistance of the film has been measured by electrochemical and immersion tests. The results show that the deposition film has fully covered the substrate but there are some micro-cracks. The structure of the film is complex, and consists of MgHPO₄·3H₂O, MnHPO₄·2.25H₂O, BaHPO₄·3H₂O, BaMg₂(PO₄)₂, Mg₃(PO₄)₂·22H₂O, Ca₃(PO₄)₂·xH₂O, and some amorphous phases. The composite phosphate film has better anticorrosion performance than the AM60 and can protect the bare alloy from corrosion for more than 12 h in 0.6 M NaCl.

  10. Investigation of the T4 and T6 heat treatment cycles of semi-solid processed aluminium alloy A356

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available of the solution treatment time at 540 C from 6 hours to 1 hour does not alter the T4 or T6 tensile properties of the SSM processed A356 alloy. Slightly better impact properties are obtained with the shorter solution treatment. This could lead to time and energy...

  11. Fe(Co)SiBPCCu nanocrystalline alloys with high Bs above 1.83 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Kong, Fengyu; Xie, Lei; Wang, Anding; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin; Liu, Chain-Tsuan

    2017-11-01

    Fe84.75-xCoxSi2B9P3C0.5Cu0.75 (x = 0, 2.5 and 10) nanocrystalline alloys with excellent magnetic properties were successfully developed. The fully amorphous alloy ribbons exhibit wide temperature interval of 145-156 °C between the two crystallization events. It is found that the excessive substitution of Co for Fe greatly deteriorates the magnetic properties due to the non-uniform microstructure with coarse grains. The alloys with x = 0 and 2.5 exhibit high saturation magnetization (above 1.83 T), low core loss and relatively low coercivity (below 5.4 A/m) after annealing. In addition, the Fe84.75Si2B9P3C0.5Cu0.75 nanocrystalline alloy also exhibits good frequency properties and temperature stability. The excellent magnetic properties were explained by the uniform microstructure with small grain size and the wide magnetic domains of the alloy. Low raw material cost, good manufacturability and excellent magnetic properties will make these nanocrystalline alloys prospective candidates for transformer and motor cores.

  12. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of as-cast and T6-treated AA2195 DC cast alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekmat-Ardakan, A.; Elgallad, E.M.; Ajersch, F.; Chen, X.-G.

    2012-01-01

    The use of direct chill (DC) cast ingot plates of AA2195 alloys has been recently extended for large mold applications in the plastics and automotive industries. The microstructural evolution of the as-cast AA2195 alloy was investigated using the Factsage thermodynamic software under both equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions, and was compared with the results from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and microstructural observations. The as-cast microstructure exhibited the presence of Al 2 CuMg, Al 2 Cu and Al 2 CuLi intermetallic phases formed at the aluminum dendrite boundaries, which can be completely dissolved in the α-Al matrix during the solution treatment. A significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the AA2195 cast alloy after the T6 heat treatment is attributed to the formation of nano-scale θ′ (Al 2 Cu) and T1 (Al 2 CuLi) precipitates. However, the non-uniform distribution of T1 precipitates together with the large size and low density indicate that the role of θ′ precipitates in strengthening the AA2195 cast alloy is more dominant than that of the T1 precipitates, in contrast with the strengthening mechanism of the pre-deformed AA2195-T8 rolled products.

  13. Corrosion fatigue of 2219-T87 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmillan, V. C.

    1986-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue studies were conducted on bare, chemical conversion coated, and anodized 2219-T87 aluminum alloy. These tests were performed using a rotating beam machine running at a velocity of 2500 rpm. The corrosive environments tested were distilled water, 100 ppm NaCl, and 3.5 percent NaCl. Results were compared to the endurance limit in air. An evaluation of the effect of protective coatings on corrosion fatigue was made by comparing the fatigue properties of specimens with coatings to those without.

  14. Investigating deformation processes in AM60 magnesium alloy using the acoustic emission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, K.; Chmelik, F.; Janecek, M.; Hadzima, B.; Trojanova, Z.; Lukac, P.

    2006-01-01

    Microstructure changes in an AM60 magnesium alloy were monitored using the acoustic emission (AE) technique during tensile tests in the temperature range from 20 to 300 deg. C. The correlation of the AE signal and the deformation processes is discussed. It is shown, using transmission electron and light microscopy, that the character of the AE response is associated with various modes of mechanical twinning at lower temperatures, whereas at higher temperatures also the influence of non-basal dislocations on the AE response must be taken into account

  15. The Formation Mechanism and Corrosion Resistance of a Composite Phosphate Conversion Film on AM60 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiangna; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Qinyong

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium alloy AM60 has high duc and toughness, which is expected to increase in demand for automotive applications. However, it is too active, and coatings have been extensively studied to prevent corrosion. In this work, a Ba-containing composite phosphate film has been prepared on the surface of AM60. The composition and formation mechanism of the film have been investigated using a scanning electronic microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry tests. The corrosion resistance of the film has been measured by electrochemical and immersion tests. The results show that the deposition film has fully covered the substrate but there are some micro-cracks. The structure of the film is complex, and consists of MgHPO4·3H2O, MnHPO4·2.25H2O, BaHPO4·3H2O, BaMg2(PO4)2, Mg3(PO4)2·22H2O, Ca3(PO4)2·xH2O, and some amorphous phases. The composite phosphate film has better anticorrosion performance than the AM60 and can protect the bare alloy from corrosion for more than 12 h in 0.6 M NaCl. PMID:29518038

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti6.0Al4.5Cr1.5Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Shu-sen; Gao, Peng-yue; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Xiong-gang; Li, Chong-he

    2016-01-01

    Based on previous Ti-Al-Cr-Mn quaternary system thermodynamic database, a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti-6.0Al-4.5Cr-1.5Mn alloy was designed and successfully prepared by the water-cooled copper crucible. Microscopic observation showed that both as-cast and annealing status consist of α phase, which coincides with the theoretical expectation. The mechanical properties at room temperature were measured and this alloy possesses good mechanical properties, its average yield-strength reaches 1051.5 MPa and tensile-strength is up to 1091.2 MPa while its average elongation is just 8.3%. Compared with the TA15, it has better mechanical strength and worse elongation. In the new alloy Laves phase Cr 2 Ti were detected by XRD pattern and TEM, which may cause the alloy's poor plasticity.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti6.0Al4.5Cr1.5Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-bin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Special Casting Engineering Technology Research Center, Shanghai 201605 (China); Wang, Shu-sen; Gao, Peng-yue; Jiang, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Xiong-gang; Li, Chong-he [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Special Casting Engineering Technology Research Center, Shanghai 201605 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Based on previous Ti-Al-Cr-Mn quaternary system thermodynamic database, a novel near-α titanium alloy Ti-6.0Al-4.5Cr-1.5Mn alloy was designed and successfully prepared by the water-cooled copper crucible. Microscopic observation showed that both as-cast and annealing status consist of α phase, which coincides with the theoretical expectation. The mechanical properties at room temperature were measured and this alloy possesses good mechanical properties, its average yield-strength reaches 1051.5 MPa and tensile-strength is up to 1091.2 MPa while its average elongation is just 8.3%. Compared with the TA15, it has better mechanical strength and worse elongation. In the new alloy Laves phase Cr{sub 2}Ti were detected by XRD pattern and TEM, which may cause the alloy's poor plasticity.

  18. Dynamic Mechanical Behaviors of 6082-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yibo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural components of high speed trains are usually made of aluminum alloys, for example, 6082. The dynamic mechanical behavior of the material is one of key factors considered in structural design and safety assessment. In this paper, dynamic mechanical experiments were conducted with strain rate ranging from 0.001 s−1 to 100 s−1 using Instron tensile testing machine. The true stress-strain curves were fitted based on experimental data. Johnson-Cook model of 6082-T6 aluminum alloy was built to investigate the effect of strain and strain rate on flow stress. It has shown that the flow stress was sensitive to the strain rate. Yield strength and tensile strength increased with a high strain rate, which showed strain rate effect to some extent. Fracture analysis was carried out by using Backscattered Electron imaging (BSE. As strain rate increased, more precipitates were generated in fracture.

  19. Localised corrosion in AA 2099-T83 aluminium-lithium alloy: The role of grain orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.; Zhou, X.; Liao, Y.; Yi, Y.; Wu, H.; Wang, Z.; Huang, W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Schmid factor of the grain/subgrain can indicate its corrosion susceptibility. • The localised corrosion prefers the grain with relatively large Schmid factor. • The localised corrosion is related to selective dissolution of T_1 phase. - Abstract: The mechanism for localised corrosion in AA 2099-T83 alloy during immersion in 3.5% NaCl solution is investigated. It is found that localised corrosion tends to occur in the grain with relatively large Schmid factor. The localised corrosion is related to selective dissolution of T_1 (Al_2CuLi) phase that preferentially precipitates at grain/subgrain boundaries and dislocations within grain interiors. A model is proposed to explain the development of the localised corrosion in the alloy by taking into account heterogeneous plastic deformation during cold working and preferential precipitation of T_1 phase at crystallographic defects within deformed grains.

  20. Improvement of the oxidation resistance of Tribaloy T-800 alloy by the additions of yttrium and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.-D.; Zhang, C.; Lan, H.; Hou, P.Y.; Yang, Z.-G.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The additions of yttrium (Y) reduced the oxidation rate of Tribaloy T-800 alloy. → Y promoted selective oxidation of Cr due to refinement of alloy phase size. → The oxidation rate was further reduced by Y plus Al with a protective Al 2 O 3 scale. → The positive effect of Y and Al being more pronounced at the higher temperature. - Abstract: The microstructures and oxidation behaviour of the modified Tribaloy T-800 alloys by additions of yttrium and yttrium plus aluminium have been studied. At the presence of yttrium alone, the oxidation rate decreased, and the selective oxidation of chromium was promoted, which was related to the refinement of alloy phase size. The addition of yttrium plus aluminium further reduced the oxidation rate. The selective oxidation of chromium and aluminium were both promoted significantly. The benefits were especially pronounced at 1000 o C, with the formation of protective alumina external layer and no internal oxides, which may be detrimental to the alloy mechanical property.

  1. Nickel-Titanium Alloys: Corrosion "Proof" Alloys for Space Bearing, Components and Mechanism Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, 60NiTi (60 wt% Ni, 40 wt% Ti), is shown to be a promising candidate tribological material for space mechanisms. 60NiTi offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. 60NiTi is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, and is non-magnetic. Despite its high Ti content, 60NiTi is non-galling even under dry sliding. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic, encompasses all of these attributes. Since 60NiTi contains such a high proportion of Ti and possesses many metallic properties, it was expected to exhibit poor tribological performance typical of Ti alloys, namely galling type behavior and rapid lubricant degradation. In this poster-paper, the oil-lubricated behavior of 60NiTi is presented.

  2. Impact toughness of laser alloyed aluminium AA1200 alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ),. 559-563. [2] T. Tomida, K. Nakata, S. Saji, T. Kubo, T, Formation of metal matrix composite layer on aluminium alloy with TiC-Cu powder by laser surface alloying process; Surface and Coatings Technology; vol. 142-144, 2001, 585-589. [3] L. A. B...

  3. Calculations of the properties of superconducting alloys via the average T-matrix approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, P.

    1980-01-01

    The theoretical formula of McMillan, modified via the multiple-scattering theory by Gomersall and Gyorffy, has been very successful in computing the electron-phonon coupling constant (lambda) and the transition temperature (Tsub(c)) of many superconducting elements and compounds. For disordered solids, such as substitutional alloys, however, this theory fails because of the breakdown of the translational symmetry used in the multiple-scattering theory. Under these conditions the problem can still be solved if the t-matrix is averaged in the random phase approximation (average T-matrix approximation). Gomersall and Gyorffy's expression is reformulated for lambda in the random phase approximation. This theory is applied to calculate lambda and Tsub(c) of the binary substitutional NbMo alloy system at different concentrations. The results appear to be in fair agreement with experiments. (author)

  4. The scale constituents and spalling characteristics of Ni-Fe(O-60%) alloys oxidized in air at 800-12000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, W.J.; Gardner, M.J.; Kowalski, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The spalling behaviour of scales on Ni-Fe alloys containing 0, 2, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% Fe oxidized in air at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200 0 C for periods up to 165 h have been investigated. The phases present and their relative amounts in the scales formed at 1200 0 C have been determined. Spalling was most severe in the Ni-30% Fe alloy, which had a scale consisting of 30% Nisub(x)Fesub(3-x)O 4 and 70% Nisub(1-x)Fesub(x)O. (author)

  5. Effect of hydrogen on change carrier dissipation in 60Co irradiated by γ-quanta and non-alloyed n-type GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, F.P.; Kurilovich, N.F.; Prokhorenko, T.A.; Shesholko, V.K.; Bumaj, Yu.A.

    2001-01-01

    The pretreatment in hydrogen plasma (the hydrogenation) influences on the charge carrier dissipation processes in the non-alloyed gallium arsenide of n-type with no = (5...7) centre dot 10 15 cm -3 and μo = (5...6) centre dot 10 13 cm 2 / (V centre dot c) irradiated by γ-quantum 60 Co was studied. The comparison of experimental dependence μ (T) with the designed one in the temperature range 77...291 K for non-hydrogenized and hydrogenized non irradiated and γ-quantum irradiated crystals was carried out. It is shown that the main dissipative mechanism that determine the charged carrier mobility in the non hydrogenized material is the dissipation on the charged centers - the radiation defects in the γ-quantum irradiated GaAs; the presence of double ionized defects is possible

  6. The Effects of Rare Earth Pr and Heat Treatment on the Wear Properties of AZ91 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the influences of Pr addition and heat treatment (T6 on the dry sliding wear behavior of AZ91 alloy. The wear rates and friction coefficients were measured by using a pin-on-disc tribometer under loads of 30, 60 and 90 N at dry sliding speeds of 100 rpm, over a sliding time of 15 min. The worn surfaces were examined using a scanning electron microscope and was analyzed with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The experimental results revealed that AZ91-1.0%Pr magnesium alloy exhibited lower wear rate and friction coefficient than the other investigated alloys. As the applied load increased, the wear rate and friction coefficient increased. Compared with the as-cast AZ91-1.0%Pr magnesium alloy, the hardness and wear resistance of the alloy after solution treatment were reduced, and through the subsequent aging, the hardness and wear resistance of the alloy were improved and the hardness was 101.1 HB (compared to as-cast AZ91 magnesium alloy, it increased by 45%. The AZ91-1.0%Pr with T6 magnesium alloy exhibited best wear resistance. Abrasion was dominant at load of 30 N, delamination was dominant at load of 60 N and plastic deformation was dominant at load of 90 N. Oxidation was observed at all loads.

  7. Microstructure, in vitro corrosion and cytotoxicity of Ca-P coatings on ZK60 magnesium alloy prepared by simple chemical conversion and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaikai; Wang, Bing; Yan, Biao; Lu, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable materials for biomedical application. But their poor corrosion resistance may result in premature failure of implants. In this study, to solve this problem, Ca-P coatings were prepared on ZK60 magnesium alloy by a simple chemical conversion process and heat treatment. Surface characterization showed that a flake-like Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) (CaHPO₄·2H₂O) coating was formed on ZK60 alloy by the chemical conversion process. DCPD transformed into Dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPa) (CaHPO₄) and Ca₂P₂O₇ after heat treatment. Results of potentiodynamic polarization showed the corrosion potential of ZK60 was increased from -1666 mV to -1566 mV with DCPD coating, while -1515 mV was obtained after heat treatment. The corrosion current density of ZK60 was measured to be reduced from 35 µA/cm² to 3.5 µA/cm² with DCPD coating, while a further reduction to 1 µA/cm² was observed after heat treatment. This indicated that the coatings improved the substrate corrosion resistance significantly, and apparently, the heat-treated coating had a higher corrosion resistance. Immersion test demonstrated that both the coatings could provide protection for the substrate and the heat-treated coating could induce deposition of bone-like apatite. Cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that none of the samples induced toxicity to L-929 cells after 1- and 3-day culture. The cytocompatibility of ZK60 was improved by the coatings, with the following sequence: uncoated ZK60 < DCPD-coated ZK60 < heat-treated coating.

  8. Cracking behavior and microstructure of austenitic stainless steels and alloy 690 irradiated in BOR-60 reactor, phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.; Chopra, O. K.; Soppet, W. K.; Shack, W. J.; Yang, Y.; Allen, T. R.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison

    2010-02-16

    Cracking behavior of stainless steels specimens irradiated in the BOR-60 at about 320 C is studied. The primary objective of this research is to improve the mechanistic understanding of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of core internal components under conditions relevant to pressurized water reactors. The current report covers several baseline tests in air, a comparison study in high-dissolved-oxygen environment, and TEM characterization of irradiation defect structure. Slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests were conducted in air and in high-dissolved-oxygen (DO) water with selected 5- and 10-dpa specimens. The results in high-DO water were compared with those from earlier tests with identical materials irradiated in the Halden reactor to a similar dose. The SSRT tests produced similar results among different materials irradiated in the Halden and BOR-60 reactors. However, the post-irradiation strength for the BOR-60 specimens was consistently lower than that of the corresponding Halden specimens. The elongation of the BOR-60 specimens was also greater than that of their Halden specimens. Intergranular cracking in high-DO water was consistent for most of the tested materials in the Halden and BOR-60 irradiations. Nonetheless, the BOR-60 irradiation was somewhat less effective in stimulating IG fracture among the tested materials. Microstructural characterization was also carried out using transmission electron microscopy on selected BOR-60 specimens irradiated to {approx}25 dpa. No voids were observed in irradiated austenitic stainless steels and cast stainless steels, while a few voids were found in base and grain-boundary-engineered Alloy 690. All the irradiated microstructures were dominated by a high density of Frank loops, which varied in mean size and density for different alloys.

  9. Self-organization behaviors of shear bands in 7075 T73 and annealed aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Li, D.H.; Zheng, H.G.; Li, X.M.; Jiang, F.

    2009-01-01

    The self-organization behaviors of multiple adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) in the 7075 T73 aluminum alloy were investigated by means of the thick-walled cylinder (TWC) technique. Shear bands first nucleate at the inner boundary of the aluminum alloy tube and propagate along the maximum shear stress direction in the spiral trajectory. On the cross section of the specimen, shear bands distribute either in the clockwise or the anticlockwise direction. The number of ASBs in the clockwise direction is roughly twice that in the anticlockwise direction. However, the 7075 annealed alloy does not generate any shear band under the same experimental conditions. Numerical simulation with coupled thermo-mechanical analysis was carried out to investigate the evolution mechanism of adiabatic shear bands. Both uniform and non-uniform finite element models were created. The simulation results of the non-uniform model are in better agreement with those of the experiment. In the non-uniform case, the spacing between ASBs is larger than that of the uniform model, and most of the ASBs prefer to propagate in the clockwise direction. For the first time, two types of particles (second phase), hard particles and soft particles, are separately introduced into the metal matrix in the non-uniform model to simulate their effects on the self-organization of ASBs. The soft particles reduce the time required for ASBs nucleation. Stress collapse first occurs at the region where the soft particles are located and most of the ASBs pass through these soft particles. However, ASBs propagate along the paths that are adjacent to the hard particles instead of passing through them. As experimental observations, there is no shear band nucleating in the annealed alloy in simulation. Under the same conditions, the energy barrier for the formation of ASBs in the annealed aluminum alloy is about 2.5 times larger than that in the T73 alloy, which means that the adiabatic shearing is less likely to nucleate in the

  10. Evaluation of Aluminum Alloy 2050-T84 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafley, Robert A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hales, Stephen J.; Shenoy, Ravi N.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 2050 is being considered for the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks to reduce the mass of future heavy-lift launch vehicles. The alloy is available in section thicknesses greater than that of the incumbent aluminum alloy, 2195, which will enable designs with greater structural efficiency. While ambient temperature design allowable properties are available for alloy 2050, cryogenic properties are not available. To determine its suitability for use in cryogenic propellant tanks, tensile, compression and fracture tests were conducted on 4 inch thick 2050-T84 plate at ambient temperature and at -320degF. Various metallurgical analyses were also performed in order to provide an understanding of the compositional homogeneity and microstructure of 2050.

  11. Strength and fatigue of an ultrafine-grained Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khafizova Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of strength and fatigue on microstructure of the Al-Cu-Mg alloy has been investigated. Various microstructures of the alloy were produced: the one with a coarse-grained (CG structure after T6 heat treatment; the one with a homogeneous ultrafine-grained (UFG structure and the one with a bimodal (mixed structure, both processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP. The mean grain size and morphology of precipitates were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The ultimate tensile strength and the fatigue endurance limit were determined using the tensile and fatigue tests of standard specimens. It is established that the formation of a homogeneous UFG structure and of a bimodal (mixed structure alloy contributes to a significant increase in microhardness by 16% and 60%, and an increase of the ultimate tensile strength by 20 and 52%, respectively, as compared to the samples subjected to T6 heat treatment. Fatigue tests show that the alloy with a bimodal (mixed structure has the highest fatigue endurance limit, 45% higher than in the sample subjected to T6 heat treatment. In contrast, the formation of a homogeneous UFG structure enables increasing the fatigue endurance limit by 15% only.

  12. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolik, Galen Richard; Petti, David Andrew; Sharpe, John Phillip; Schuetz, Stanley Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200°C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices

  13. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolik, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.

    2000-10-31

    Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200 C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices.

  14. Tracer diffusion of 60Co and 63Ni in amorphous NiZr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, K.; Averback, R.S.; Hahn, H.; Rothman, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Tracer diffusion of 60 Co and 63 Ni in equiatomic amorphous NiZr alloy in the temperature range between 486 and 641 0 K can be described by: D/sub Co/sup */ = 3.7 x 10 -7 exp[-(135 +- 14) kJ mole -1 /RT] m 2 /sec and D/sub Ni//sup */ = 1.7 x 10 -7 exp[-(140 +- 9) kJ mole -1 /RT] m 2 /sec. The values of D/sub Ni//sup */ are in reasonable agreement with those measured by the Rutherford backscattering technique. The measured diffusivities were independent of time, indicating that no relaxation took place during diffusion. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Evaluation of the effect of Ni-P coating on the corrosion resistance of the aluminium 7075 T6 alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, L.; Jiménez, L.; Castro, A. C.; Staia, M. H.; Puchi-Cabrera, E. S.

    2008-01-01

    The aluminum alloy 7075-T6 is a structural alloy widely used for aeronautical applications due to its high relationship between mechanical resistance and weight. Depending upon the environmental conditions, many types of corrosion mechanisms such as intergranular, exfoliation, have been found to occur in aircraft structural aluminum alloys. A significant advance in order to improve the behavior of this alloy is related to the application of the autocatalytic Ni-P coating which confers an exce...

  16. Effect of alkaline cleaning and activation on aluminum alloy 7075-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Simon; Fahrenholtz, William G.; O'Keefe, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of alkaline cleaning and activation on the composition and thickness of the oxide layer on aluminum alloy 7075-T6 was studied. E-pH diagrams were developed to predict the effect of alkaline cleaning and activation solutions on the stability of the oxide surface layers. The thickness of the native oxide layer was determined to be ∼30 nm by Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis. The outer ∼20 nm was rich in magnesium while the remaining ∼10 nm was rich in aluminum. Cleaning in a 9.1 pH alkaline solution was found to remove the magnesium-rich layer and leave behind an aluminum-rich oxide layer ∼10 nm thick. Activation in alkaline solutions of NaOH (pH > 12.9) or Na 2 CO 3 (pH > 11.5) produced an oxide that was ∼20 to 60 nm thick and rich in magnesium. Alkaline cleaning and activation altered the oxide composition and thickness making it possible for deposition of thicker cerium-based conversion coatings (∼100 to 250 nm) compared to only alkaline cleaning (∼30 nm), with application of one spray cycle of deposition solution.

  17. Effect of alkaline cleaning and activation on aluminum alloy 7075-T6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Simon, E-mail: sjwt5@mst.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Fahrenholtz, William G.; O' Keefe, Matthew J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The effect of alkaline cleaning and activation on the composition and thickness of the oxide layer on aluminum alloy 7075-T6 was studied. E-pH diagrams were developed to predict the effect of alkaline cleaning and activation solutions on the stability of the oxide surface layers. The thickness of the native oxide layer was determined to be {approx}30 nm by Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis. The outer {approx}20 nm was rich in magnesium while the remaining {approx}10 nm was rich in aluminum. Cleaning in a 9.1 pH alkaline solution was found to remove the magnesium-rich layer and leave behind an aluminum-rich oxide layer {approx}10 nm thick. Activation in alkaline solutions of NaOH (pH > 12.9) or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (pH > 11.5) produced an oxide that was {approx}20 to 60 nm thick and rich in magnesium. Alkaline cleaning and activation altered the oxide composition and thickness making it possible for deposition of thicker cerium-based conversion coatings ({approx}100 to 250 nm) compared to only alkaline cleaning ({approx}30 nm), with application of one spray cycle of deposition solution.

  18. T5 heat treatment of semi-solid metal processed aluminium alloy F357

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The T5 heat treatment of semi-solid metal (SSM) processed alloy F357 was investigated by considering the effects of cooling rate and natural aging after casting, as well as artificial aging parameters on tensile properties. In addition, the tensile...

  19. Rheo-Cast Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AM60 Alloy Produced by Self-Inoculation Rheo-Diecasting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheo-forming is becoming the choice for production of high quality parts with diminished defects and fine integrity. In this paper, the novel self-inoculation rheo-diecasting (SIRD process, in which semisolid slurry is produced by mixing two precursory solid and liquid alloys and subsequently pouring them through a multi-stream fluid director, has been proposed. Microstructural characteristics of AM60 alloy slurry and the microstructure and mechanical properties of rheo-diecasting AM60 samples were investigated. Quenching experiments reveal that the slurry microstructure of AM60 was well refined to irregular α-Mg particles with the average size of approximately 20–40 μm after pouring with the self-inoculation process, and these particles were evolved to globular and coarse morphology while continuously keeping in semisolid state. After rheo-diecasting, the microstructure of the sample was dominated by fine primary α-Mg globules accompanied with tiny secondary α-Mg particles while the sample from conventional liquid die casting was characterized by developed dendrite and porosity. Microscopic analysis indicates that there are three stages of remaining liquid solidification in die cavity in SIRD: α-Mg nucleation and growth on primary α-Mg surface, α-Mg nucleated independently in liquid, and, finally, formation of skeleton devoiced eutectic. Due to diminished porosity and hot tearing, tensile strength and elongation of SIRD samples were increased by 12.9% and 35.3%, respectively, compared to a conventional liquid die casting sample.

  20. Corrosion mitigation of rare-earth metals containing magnesium EV31A-T6 alloy via chrome-free conversion coating treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdy, Abdel Salam; Butt, Darryl P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Protective stannate coatings have been proposed for rare-earth-EV31A-T6 magnesium alloy. • A simple coating method based on direct treatment of EV31A-T6 in a diluted stannate was found promising. • Surface modification prior to stannate coating offer no substantial advantage over directly coating. • Stannate conversion coatings decrease corrosion rates by a factor of 1/7. • The coating does not display any self-healing characteristics as shown in AZ91D. -- Abstract: Magnesium alloys posses unique mechanical and physical characteristics making them attractive light-weight materials for several strategic industries such as electronics, computer, automotive and aerospace. Due to their high chemical reactivity and poor corrosion resistance, the protection of magnesium alloys from corrosion is one of the hottest topics in materials science and engineering. Addition of rare-earth metals (RE) as alloying elements to magnesium alloys is one of the common approaches to improve their mechanical properties and, sometimes, the corrosion resistance. However, the potential difference between the RE metals phase formed in the Mg matrix enhances the galvanic corrosion at the interfaces where RE metals inert phase acts as cathode and the active Mg matrix acts as anode. This paper introduces a simple one-step clean conversion coating treatment for improving the protection of RE containing magnesium EV31A-T6 alloy in Cl − media

  1. Rotary bending fatigue behavior of A356 –T6 aluminum alloys by vacuum pressurizing casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-qin Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum pressurizing casting technique, providing better mould filling and inter-dendritic feeding, can reduce the porosity greatly in cast aluminum alloys, and improve the fatigue properties. The rotary bending fatigue properties of A356-T6 alloys prepared by vacuum pressurizing casting were investigated. The S-N curve and limit strength 90 MPa under fatigue life of 107 cycles were obtained. The analyses on the fatigue fractography and microstructure of specimens showed that the fatigue fracture mainly occurs at the positions with casting defects in the subsurface, especially at porosities regions, which attributed to the crack propagation during the fatigue fracture process. Using the empirical crack propagation law of Pairs-Erdogon, the quantitative relationship among the initial crack size, fatigue life and applied stress was established. The fatigue life decreases with an increase in initial crack size. Two constants in the Pairs-Erdogon equation of aluminum alloy A356-T6 were calculated using the experimental data.

  2. Evaluation of the effect of Ni-P coating on the corrosion resistance of the aluminium 7075 T6 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil, L.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aluminum alloy 7075-T6 is a structural alloy widely used for aeronautical applications due to its high relationship between mechanical resistance and weight. Depending upon the environmental conditions, many types of corrosion mechanisms such as intergranular, exfoliation, have been found to occur in aircraft structural aluminum alloys. A significant advance in order to improve the behavior of this alloy is related to the application of the autocatalytic Ni-P coating which confers an excellent corrosion resistance coupled with both reduced erosive wear and higher hardness. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of the application of a Ni-P coating on the corrosion resistance of an aluminum 7075-T6 alloy. The results obtained indicated that the application of the Ni-P coatings diminishes the susceptibility to pitting and makes the aluminum 7075 T6 alloy immune to the exfoliation corrosion attack.

    La aleación de aluminio 7075-T6 es una aleación estructural ampliamente utilizada para aplicaciones aeronáuticas, debido a su alta relación entre resistencia mecánica y peso. Dependiendo de las condiciones ambientales, algunos mecanismos de corrosion tales como intergranular, exfoliacion, picadura y crevice se ha encontrado que ocurren en estructuras de aviones de aleaciones de aluminio. Un avance siginificativo para mejorar el comportamiento de esta aleación es la aplicación de recubrimientos autocatalíticos de Ni-P, los cuales confieren una excelente resistencia a la corrosión acoplado con una reducción del desgaste erosivo y un aumento de la dureza. El propósito de este trabajo fue investigar el efecto de la aplicación de un recubrimiento de Ni-P sobre la resistencia a la corrosión de una aleación de aluminio 7075-T6. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la aplicación del recubrimiento de Ni-P disminuye la susceptibilidad a la picadura y hace a la aleación de aluminio 7075 T6, prácticamente inmune al ataque

  3. Semi-quantitative evaluation of texture components and anisotropy of the yield strength in 2524 T3 alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Fanghua; Yi, Danqing; Wang, Bin; Liu, Huiqun; Jiang, Yong; Tang, Cong; Jiang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the anisotropy of 2524 alloys is a key factor for their use in applications such as high-performance inertial components or space robots. Studying the interaction between sheet textures and anisotropy is a key factor to overcome this problem. In this study, the semi-quantitative approach to estimate the relation between texture and in-plane anisotropy (IPA) of yield strength has been developed. The intensity ratio between Cube and Brass texture components (F CGB ) was used as an effective variable for this purpose. This approach has been tested in 2524 T3 aluminum alloy sheets, which were investigated using X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and tensile tests. The results show that F CGB decreased with an increase in cold reduction. The 2524 T3 sheet, dominated by Cube texture grains, possesses the lowest in-plane anisotropy for the yield strength of all texture components investigated. The alloy sheet dominated by Brass texture exhibits the highest anisotropy, while the Goss texture-led sheets fall in between them. These results agree with the trends seen in the factor F CGB , suggesting that is suited to evaluate the anisotropy of yield strength in 2524 T3 alloy sheets semi-quantitatively.

  4. Semi-quantitative evaluation of texture components and anisotropy of the yield strength in 2524 T3 alloy sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Fanghua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yi, Danqing, E-mail: yioffice@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); National Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nonferrous Structural Materials and Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, Bin; Liu, Huiqun; Jiang, Yong; Tang, Cong; Jiang, Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Decreasing the anisotropy of 2524 alloys is a key factor for their use in applications such as high-performance inertial components or space robots. Studying the interaction between sheet textures and anisotropy is a key factor to overcome this problem. In this study, the semi-quantitative approach to estimate the relation between texture and in-plane anisotropy (IPA) of yield strength has been developed. The intensity ratio between Cube and Brass texture components (F{sub CGB}) was used as an effective variable for this purpose. This approach has been tested in 2524 T3 aluminum alloy sheets, which were investigated using X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and tensile tests. The results show that F{sub CGB} decreased with an increase in cold reduction. The 2524 T3 sheet, dominated by Cube texture grains, possesses the lowest in-plane anisotropy for the yield strength of all texture components investigated. The alloy sheet dominated by Brass texture exhibits the highest anisotropy, while the Goss texture-led sheets fall in between them. These results agree with the trends seen in the factor F{sub CGB}, suggesting that is suited to evaluate the anisotropy of yield strength in 2524 T3 alloy sheets semi-quantitatively.

  5. Localized corrosion in AA2099-T83 aluminum–lithium alloy: The role of intermetallic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y., E-mail: myl@cqut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, 400054 (China); Zhou, X., E-mail: xiaorong.zhou@manchester.ac.uk [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Huang, W. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, 400054 (China); Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Luo, C.; Sun, Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing, 100095 (China)

    2015-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of intermetallic particles and their role in the process of localized corrosion in AA2099-T83 aluminum–lithium alloy has been investigated. It was found that both high- and low-copper containing Al–Fe–Mn–Cu-(Li) particles could result in superficial pits on the alloy, and the high level of lithium in the high-copper-containing particles rendered them electrochemically more active than the low-copper-containing particles. Additionally, severe localized corrosion was found not to be directly related to the distribution of constituent particles in the alloy. The findings are not only relevant to the understanding of corrosion mechanism but also beneficial to the evaluation of thermomechanical treatments of the alloy. - Highlights: • Lithium was detected in the high-copper-containing Al–Fe–Mn–Cu particles. • The high-copper-containing particles were relatively more active. • Localized corrosion induced by constituent particles was superficial. • Severe localized corrosion in the alloy propagated via grain/subgrain boundaries. • Severe localized corrosion was not related to constituent particles.

  6. Uniform Corrosion and General Dissolution of Aluminum Alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I.-Wen

    Uniform corrosion and general dissolution of aluminum alloys was not as well-studied in the past, although it was known for causing significant amount of weight loss. This work comprises four chapters to understand uniform corrosion of aluminum alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6. A preliminary weight loss experiment was performed for distinguishing corrosion induced weight loss attributed to uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion. The result suggested that uniform corrosion generated a greater mass loss than pitting corrosion. First, to understand uniform corrosion mechanism and kinetics in different environments, a series of static immersion tests in NaCl solutions were performed to provide quantitative measurement of uniform corrosion. Thereafter, uniform corrosion development as a function of temperature, pH, Cl-, and time was investigated to understand the influence of environmental factors. Faster uniform corrosion rate has been found at lower temperature (20 and 40°C) than at higher temperature (60 and 80°C) due to accelerated corrosion product formation at high temperatures inhibiting corrosion reactions. Electrochemical tests including along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to study the temperature effect. Second, in order to further understand the uniform corrosion influence on pit growth kinetics, a long term exposures for 180 days in both immersion and ASTM-B117 test were performed. Uniform corrosion induced surface recession was found to have limited impact on pit geometry regardless of exposure methods. It was also found that the competition for limited cathodic current from uniform corrosion the primary rate limiting factor for pit growth. Very large pits were found after uniform corrosion growth reached a plateau due to corrosion product coverage. Also, optical microscopy and focused ion beam (FIB) imaging has provided more insights of distinctive pitting geometry and subsurface damages found from immersion samples and B117

  7. Joint properties of dissimilar Al6061-T6 aluminum alloy/Ti–6%Al–4%V titanium alloy by gas tungsten arc welding assisted hybrid friction stir welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, HanSur; Bang, HeeSeon; Song, HyunJong; Joo, SungMin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid friction stir welding for Al alloy and Ti alloy joint has been carried out. • Mechanical strength of dissimilar joint by HFSW and FSW has been compared. • Microstructure of dissimilar joint by HFSW and FSW has been compared. - Abstract: Hybrid friction stir butt welding of Al6061-T6 aluminum alloy plate to Ti–6%Al–4%V titanium alloy plate with satisfactory acceptable joint strength was successfully achieved using preceding gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) preheating heat source of the Ti alloy plate surface. Hybrid friction stir welding (HFSW) joints were welded completely without any unwelded zone resulting from smooth material flow by equally distributed temperature both in Al alloy side and Ti alloy side using GTAW assistance for preheating the Ti alloy plate unlike friction stir welding (FSW) joints. The ultimate tensile strength was approximately 91% in HFSW welds by that of the Al alloy base metal, which was 24% higher than that of FSW welds without GTAW under same welding condition. Notably, it was found that elongation in HFSW welds increased significantly compared with that of FSW welds, which resulted in improved joint strength. The ductile fracture was the main fracture mode in tensile test of HFSW welds

  8. Superconductivity in U-T alloys (T = Mo, Pt, Pd, Nb, Zr stabilized in the cubic γ-U structure by splat-cooling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.-T.H. Kim-Ngan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We succeed to retain the high-temperature (cubic γ-U phase down to low temperatures in U-T alloys with less required T alloying concentration (T = Mo, Pt, Pd, Nb, Zr by means of splat-cooling technique with a cooling rate better than 106 K/s. All splat-cooled U-T alloys become superconducting with the critical temperature Tc in the range of 0.61 K–2.11 K. U-15 at.% Mo splat consisting of the γ-U phase with an ideal bcc A2 structure is a BCS superconductor having the highest critical temperature (2.11 K.

  9. Influence of Fluidized Bed Quenching on the Mechanical Properties and Quality Index of T6 Tempered B319.2-Type Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Kh. A.; Samuel, A. M.; Al-Ahmari, A. M. A.; Samuel, F. H.; Doty, H. W.

    2013-11-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of fluidized sand bed (FB) quenching on the mechanical performance of B319.2 aluminum cast alloys. Traditional water and conventional hot air (CF) quenching media were used to establish a relevant comparison with FB quenching. Quality charts were generated using two models of quality indices to support the selection of material conditions on the basis of the proposed quality indices. The use of an FB for the direct quenching-aging treatment of B319.2 casting alloys yields greater UTS and YS values compared to conventional furnace quenched alloys. The strength values of T6 tempered B319 alloys are greater when quenched in water compared with those quenched in an FB or CF. For the same aging conditions (170°C/4h), the fluidized bed quenched-aged 319 alloys show nearly the same or better strength values than those quenched in water and then aged in a CF or an FB. Based on the quality charts developed for alloys subjected to different quenching media, higher quality index values are obtained by conventional furnace quenched-aged T6-tempered B319 alloys. The modification factor has the most significant effect on the quality results of the alloys investigated, for all heat treatment cycles, as compared to other metallurgical parameters. The results of alloys subjected to multi-temperature aging cycles reveal that the optimum strength properties of B319.2 alloys, however, is obtained by applying multi-temperature aging cycles such as, for example, 240 °C/2 h followed by 170 °C/8 h, rather than T6 aging treatments. The regression models indicate that the mean quality values of B319 alloys are highly quench sensitive due to the formation of a larger percent of clusters in Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys. These clusters act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for precipitation and enhance the aging process.

  10. Microstructure, texture evolution, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of ECAP processed ZK60 magnesium alloy for biodegradable applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaed, Ehsan; Hashempour, Mazdak; Fabrizi, Alberto; Dellasega, David; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Bonollo, Franco; Vedani, Maurizio

    2014-09-01

    Ultra-fine grained ZK60 Mg alloy was obtained by multi-pass equal-channel angular pressing at different temperatures of 250°C, 200°C and 150°C. Microstructural observations showed a significant grain refinement after ECAP, leading to an equiaxed and ultrafine grain (UFG) structure with average size of 600nm. The original extrusion fiber texture with planes oriented parallel to extrusion direction was gradually undermined during ECAP process and eventually it was substituted by a newly stronger texture component with considerably higher intensity, coinciding with ECAP shear plane. A combination of texture modification and grain refinement in UFG samples led to a marked reduction in mechanical asymmetric behavior compared to the as-received alloy, as well as adequate mechanical properties with about 100% improvement in elongation to failure while keeping relatively high tensile strength. Open circuit potential, potentiodynamic and weight loss measurements in a phosphate buffer solution electrolyte revealed an improved corrosion resistance of UFG alloy compared to the extruded one, stemming from a shift of corrosion regime from localized pitting in the as-received sample to a more uniform corrosion mode with reduced localized attack in ECAP processed alloy. Compression tests on immersed samples showed that the rate of loss of mechanical integrity in the UFG sample was lower than that in the as-received sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of cathode current density on structure and corrosion resistance of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings formed on ZK60 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Peibo; Wu Xiaohong; Guo Yun; Jiang Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    Current density is a key factor in plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. The aim of this paper is to study the effects of cathode current density on the composition, morphology, and corrosion resistance of ceramic coatings on ZK60 magnesium alloy prepared through bi-polar plasma electrolytic oxidation in Na 3 PO 4 solution. The phase composition, morphology, and corrosion resistance were studied by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization in 3.5% NaCl solution. It is found that the as-produced coatings are only composed of MgO. The increase of cathode current density made the coatings less porous and more compact. Analysis of EIS and potentiodynamic polarization technique on the samples shows that the corrosion resistance of the coated samples is better than that of ZK60 magnesium alloy, and that a bigger cathode current density can improve the corrosion resistance of as-prepared coatings.

  12. Effect of T6 heat treatment on the microstructural and mechanical properties of Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Dhruv, E-mail: dhruv7654@gmail.com; Davda, Chintan; Keshvani, M. J. [B.H. Gardi College of Engineering and Technology, Rajkot – 361 162 (India); Solanki, P. S. [Department of Physics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot – 360 005 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this communication, it is aimed to optimize the conditions for T6 heat treatment of permanent die cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys. Various solutionizing temperatures, aging treatments and soaking times were used to improve / modify the mechanical properties of presently studied alloys. Formation mechanism of the particles was understood by carrying out optical microscopy and energy dispersive X–ray (EDX) spectroscopy measurements. Spherical particles of alloys were studied for their microstructural properties using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microhardness test was performed to investigate their mechanical properties. Dependence of cluster formation and microhardness of the alloys on the adequate solutionizing temperature, aging treatment and soaking time has been discussed in detail.

  13. Effect of T6 heat treatment on the microstructural and mechanical properties of Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Dhruv; Davda, Chintan; Keshvani, M. J.; Solanki, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, it is aimed to optimize the conditions for T6 heat treatment of permanent die cast Al–Si–Cu–Mg alloys. Various solutionizing temperatures, aging treatments and soaking times were used to improve / modify the mechanical properties of presently studied alloys. Formation mechanism of the particles was understood by carrying out optical microscopy and energy dispersive X–ray (EDX) spectroscopy measurements. Spherical particles of alloys were studied for their microstructural properties using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microhardness test was performed to investigate their mechanical properties. Dependence of cluster formation and microhardness of the alloys on the adequate solutionizing temperature, aging treatment and soaking time has been discussed in detail.

  14. Effect of T6 heat treatment on the microstructural and mechanical properties of Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhruv; Davda, Chintan; Solanki, P. S.; Keshvani, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this communication, it is aimed to optimize the conditions for T6 heat treatment of permanent die cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys. Various solutionizing temperatures, aging treatments and soaking times were used to improve / modify the mechanical properties of presently studied alloys. Formation mechanism of the particles was understood by carrying out optical microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy measurements. Spherical particles of alloys were studied for their microstructural properties using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microhardness test was performed to investigate their mechanical properties. Dependence of cluster formation and microhardness of the alloys on the adequate solutionizing temperature, aging treatment and soaking time has been discussed in detail.

  15. The effect of aging on the critical current density in superconducting Nb-Ti-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Fumihiko; Doi, Toshio

    1979-01-01

    The effect of aging temperature, cold-reduction prior to aging, O 2 content and composition on the variation in the critical current density, J sub(c), by isothermal aging was investigated in heavily cold-worked Nb-Ti-Zr alloys on the Nb-Ti side. The results are summarized as follows: (1) When these alloys are aged isothermally at temperatures from 350 to 500 0 C, J sub(c) increases initially, reaches a maximum value and then decreases. Increase in J sub(c) of three orders of magnitude is possible as a result of aging. (2) The maximum value of J sub(c) on the isothermal aging curve becomes higher at a lower aging temperature, at a less cold-reduction prior to aging or with a higher O 2 content. (3) The J sub(c) of aged alloy becomes a maximum in composition containing 35 at%Nb, 60 to 65 at%Ti and less than 5 at%Zr. (4) The maximum value of J sub(c) was obtained for Nb-60.0 at%Ti-5.0 at%Zr alloy containing 1200 wt ppm O 2 , aged at 350 0 C for 330 h after 98.44% cold-reduction. The values of J sub(c) at 4.2 K were 2.4 x 10 9 A/m 2 at 5.0 T, 1.1 x 10 9 A/m 2 at 7.0 T and 3.0 x 10 8 A/m 2 at 9.0 T, respectively. The upper critical field of this specimen was 11.3 T at 4.2 K and its critical temperature was 8.6 K. (author)

  16. Formation mechanism of precipitate T{sub 1} in AlCuLi alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Z. [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Liu, J.Z., E-mail: jzliu123@hnu.edu.cn [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Hunan Province Key Laboratory for Spray Deposition Technology and Application, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Chen, J.H., E-mail: jhchen123@hnu.edu.cn [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Hunan Province Key Laboratory for Spray Deposition Technology and Application, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Duan, S.Y.; Liu, Z.R.; Ming, W.Q.; Wu, C.L. [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • We found that T{sub 1}-precipitates nucleate directly from GP{sub T1} zones. • We found that T{sub 1}-precipitates grow thicker in two possible paths. • We determined the structure of GP{sub T1} zones by advanced atomic imaging techniques. • We suggested a possible structural evolution from GP{sub T1} zones to precipitate T{sub 1}. • The suggested structural evolution was proved to be energetically reasonable. - Abstract: The formation mechanism of the plate-like strengthening T{sub 1}-phase in an Al–4.15Cu–1.15Li (wt.%) alloy has been revealed by means of advanced imaging techniques and the first-principle calculations. It is shown that T{sub 1}-precipitates nucleate directly from their own GP{sub T1} zones and grow thicker in two possible paths. One is regular by repeating T{sub 1}-cells, and the other is abnormal via T{sub 1}-variants. Structural model of GP{sub T1} zones has been suggested, and refined by image simulation. A possible structural evolution from GP{sub T1} zones to precipitate T{sub 1} at atomic level is suggested and proved to be energetically reasonable.

  17. The role of Zr and T6 heat treatment on microstructure evolution and hardness of AlSi9Cu3(Fe diecasting alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vončina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure features and hardness of AlSi9Cu3(Fe die casting alloy was investigated in the presence of Zr addition. The cast alloys were undergone the solutionizing treatment 2 h at 500°C followed by artificial aging at 180°C for 5 h. Optical microscopy and electron micro-analyzer were used to study the formation of different intermetallic phases. The hardness was tested for all samples at 25°C. The results revealed that the intermetallic phase, based on (Al,Si(Zr,Ti, forms when Zr is added in the investigated alloy, while the T6 heat treatment does not influence on the formation of Zr-bearing phase. Results also indicate that the hardness slightly increases in the AlSi9Cu3 alloy in as-cast state when Zr is added, while after T6 heat treatment increases by 50% in the alloy without Zr and by 61% in the alloy with Zr addition.

  18. Study on glass-forming ability and hydrogen storage properties of amorphous Mg60Ni30La10−xCox (x = 0, 4) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Peng; Wang, Zhong-min; Zhang, Huai-gang; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Ji, Zi-jun; Deng, Jian-qiu; Zhou, Huai-ying

    2013-01-01

    Mg 60 Ni 30 La 10−x Co x (x = 0, 4) amorphous alloys were prepared by rapid solidification, using a melt-spinning technique. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis were employed to measure their microstructure, thermal stability and glass-forming ability, and hydrogen storage properties were studied by means of PCTPro2000. Based on differential scanning calorimetry results, their glass-forming ability and thermal stability were investigated by Kissinger method, Lasocka curves and atomic cluster model, respectively. The results indicate that glass-forming ability, thermal properties and hydrogen storage properties in the Mg-rich corner of Mg–Ni–La–Co system alloys were enhanced by Co substitution for La. It can be found that the smaller activation energy (ΔΕ) and frequency factor (υ 0 ), the bigger value of B (glass transition point in Lasocka curves), and higher glass-forming ability of Mg–Ni–La–Co alloys would be followed. In addition, atomic structure parameter (λ), deduced from atomic cluster model is valuable in the design of Mg–Ni–La–Co system alloys with good glass-forming ability. With an increase of Co content from 0 to 4, the hydrogen desorption capacity within 4000 s rises from 2.25 to 2.85 wt.% at 573 K. - Highlights: • Amorphous Mg 60 Ni 30 La 10−x Co x (x = 0 and 4) alloys were produced by melt spinning. • The GFA and hydrogen storage properties were enhanced by Co substitution for La. • With an increase of Co content, the hydrogen desorption capacity rises at 573 K

  19. Experimental studies on mechanical properties of T6 treated Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Fe alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondur, D. G.; Mallapur, D. G.; Udupa, K. Rajendra

    2018-04-01

    Effect of T6 treatment on the mechanical properties of Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Fe alloy was evaluated by conducting mechanical tests on test pieces using universal testing machine. Increase in the mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, hardness and % elongation was observed. Microstructure characterization revealed the modification in the size and shapes of the precipitates formed during the homogenization process. This modification increases the anisotropy of the microstructure and the stresses in the as cast structure. The increase in the hardness of T6 treated alloy is due to the partial recrystallization, fragmentation and redistribution of primary Mg2Si phase, precipitation of fine θ, Q phases. The high volume fractions of uniformly dispersed hard β-particles greatly increase the flow stress and provide an appreciable impediment to plastic deformation. Thus increasing the hardness of the alloy.

  20. The effect of solution heat treatments on the microstructure and hardness of ZK60 magnesium alloys prepared under low-frequency alternating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Caixia; Yu, Yan Dong

    2013-01-01

    The solidified structure of ZK60 magnesium alloys in the presence and absence of electromagnetic stirring during the solidification process was compared, and the precipitates of ZK60 magnesium alloys were analyzed after a solution heat treatment using optical microscopy, micro-hardness analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the microstructure of cast alloys under a low-frequency alternating magnetic field (LFAMF) was mainly composed of a primary crystalline Mg matrix and a non-equilibrium eutectic structure (Mg+MgZn+MgZn 2 ). In comparison with the microstructure observed in the absence of the electromagnetic field, the eutectic network structure on the grain boundary under low-frequency alternating magnetic field was finer and exhibited a more uniform grain distribution. The grains under the LFAMF were refined in comparison with those under no electromagnetic field before the solution heat treatment, and the former grain distribution was more uniform than the latter after the solution heat treatment. The more uniform grain distribution is because the solution heat treatment is conducive to the dissolution of the second phase particles. The hardness exhibited a downward trend with increasing solution heat treatment time. Under the same solution heat treatment, the hardness value of the samples prepared under the LFAMF was lower than those prepared in the absence of the electromagnetic field. In contrast, the mechanical properties of alloys prepared under the LFAMF were better than those prepared in the absence of the electromagnetic field.

  1. Reducing thermal conductivity of binary alloys below the alloy limit via chemical ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, John C; English, Timothy S; Jordan, Donald A; Norris, Pamela M; Soffa, William A

    2011-01-01

    Substitutional solid solutions that exist in both ordered and disordered states will exhibit markedly different physical properties depending on their exact crystallographic configuration. Many random substitutional solid solutions (alloys) will display a tendency to order given the appropriate kinetic and thermodynamic conditions. Such order-disorder transitions will result in major crystallographic reconfigurations, where the atomic basis, symmetry, and periodicity of the alloy change dramatically. Consequently, the dominant scattering mechanism in ordered alloys will be different than that in disordered alloys. In this study, we present a hypothesis that ordered alloys can exhibit lower thermal conductivities than their disordered counterparts at elevated temperatures. To validate this hypothesis, we investigate the phononic transport properties of disordered and ordered AB Lennard-Jones alloys via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and harmonic lattice dynamics calculations. It is shown that the thermal conductivity of an ordered alloy is the same as the thermal conductivity of the disordered alloy at ∼0.6T melt and lower than that of the disordered alloy above 0.8T melt .

  2. Microstructure of Multi-Pass Friction-Stir-Processed Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys Reinforced by Nano-Sized TiB2 Particles and the Effect of T6 Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Ju

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a fine-grained structure with a uniform distribution of TiB2 particles and precipitates was achieved in TiB2 particle-reinforced (PR Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys by friction stir processing (FSP. The effects of multi-pass FSP on the microstructure, and TiB2 particle distribution, as well as the microstructural evolution in the following T6 treatment, were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and associated electron backscattered diffraction. The results showed that the distribution of TiB2 particles and alloy precipitates was further improved with an increase in the FSP passes. Moreover, compared with alloy segregation in the as-cast PR alloys during T6 treatment, a complete solution of the precipitates was achieved in the FSP-treated PR alloys. The fine-grained structure of the FSP-treated PR alloys was thermally stable without any abnormal growth at the high temperature of T6 treatment due to the pinning effect of dispersed TiB2 particles. The strength and ductility of the PR alloys were simultaneously improved by the combination of FSP and T6 treatment.

  3. Experimental Study on Dissimilar Friction Stir welding of Aluminium Alloys (5083-H111 and 6082-T6) to investigate the mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, H. M. Anil; Venkata Ramana, V.; Pawar, Mayur

    2018-03-01

    Friction stir welding is an innovative technology in the joining realm of metals and alloys. This technique is highly economical and suitable especially for non ferrous alloys compared to ferrous alloys. It finds many applications in various fields of aeronautics, automobile, ship building industries etc. The paper presents the comparative results of mechanical properties such as tensile strength, microstructure, macro structure and hardness on the similar and dissimilar aluminum alloys AA5083-H111 and AA6082-T6 under certain selected variables - constant tool rotational speed, its tilt angle, welding speed using friction stir welding process. It is observed from the experimental results that joint efficiency of dissimilar aluminium alloys is higher than the similar aluminum alloys.

  4. In vitro degradation and biocompatibility of a strontium-containing micro-arc oxidation coating on the biodegradable ZK60 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Xiao [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yang, Xiaoming [Panyu Hospital of Chinese Medicine, 65 Qiaodong Road, Guangzhou 511400 (China); Tan, Lili, E-mail: lltan@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Mei [Hospital of Orthopedics, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, 111 Liuhua Road, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Wang, Xin [College of Chemistry, Liaoning University, 66 Chongshanzhong Road, Shenyang 110036 (China); Zhang, Yu, E-mail: luck_2001@126.com [Hospital of Orthopedics, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, 111 Liuhua Road, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Hu, Zhuangqi [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Qiu, Jianhong [Trauson Medical Instrument Co., Ltd., Changzhou 213163 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are promising biodegradable implant candidates for orthopedic application. In the present study, a phosphate-based micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating was applied on the ZK60 alloy to decrease its initial degradation rate. Strontium (Sr) was incorporated into the coating in order to improve the bioactivity of the coating. The in vitro degradation studies showed that the MAO coating containing Sr owned a better initial corrosion resistance, which was mainly attributed to the superior inner barrier layer, and a better long-term protective ability, probably owning to its larger thickness, superior inner barrier layer and the superior apatite formation ability. The degradation of MAO coating was accompanied by the formation of degradation layer and Ca-P deposition layer. The in vitro cell tests demonstrated that the incorporation of Sr into the MAO coating enhanced both the proliferation of preosteoblast cells and the alkaline phosphatase activity of the murine bone marrow stromal cells. In conclusion, the MAO coating with Sr is a promising surface treatment for the biodegradable magnesium alloys.

  5. High-strength wrought magnesium alloy with dense nano-scale spherical precipitate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU WenBin; CHEN ZhiQian; CHENG NanPu; GAN BingTai; HE Hong; LI XueLian; HU JinZhu

    2007-01-01

    This paper reported the influences of Yb addition on the precipitate and mechanical properties of wrought magnesium alloy ZK60. The ingots of ZK60-1.78Yb (wt%,0.26 at%) alloys were cast using permanent mould and extruded at 370℃. By means of TEM and HRTEM,it was observed that Yb affected the precipitate and precipitation of ZK60-1.78Yb alloys significantly. Dynamic precipitation occurred in the as-extruded alloy and spherical nano-scale precipitate with high density and homogeneity exhibited in the aged alloys. The precipitate particles were about 5-20 nm in diameter,10-30 nm in average space length. The tensile test results showed that the ZK60-1.78Yb alloy had excellent precipitation strengthening response with the maximum tensile strength 417.5 MPa at ambient temperature.

  6. Grain refining mechanism of Al-containing Mg alloys with the addition of Mn-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Gaowu W.; Ren Yuping; Huang Wei; Li Song; Pei Wenli

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: The ε-AlMn phase acts as the heterogeneous nucleus of α-Mg phase during the solidification of the AZ31 Mg alloy, not the γ-Al 8 Mn 5 phase. The grain refinement effect is very clear with the addition of only 0.5 wt% Mn-28Al alloy (pure ε-AlMn). The grain refinement does not deteriorate up to the holding time of 60 min at 740 o C. - Abstract: The effect of manganese on grain refinement of Al-containing AZ31 Mg alloy has been investigated by designing a series of Mn-Al alloys composed of either pure ε-AlMn, γ 2 -Al 8 Mn 5 or both of them using optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is experimentally clarified that the grain refinement of the AZ31 Mg alloy is due to the existence of the ε-AlMn phase in the Mn-Al alloys, not the γ 2 -Al 8 Mn 5 phase. The grain size of AZ31 Mg alloy is about 91 μm without any addition of Mn-Al alloys, but remarkably decreases to ∼55 μm with the addition of either Mn-34 wt% Al or Mn-28 wt% Al. With a minor addition of 0.5 wt% Mn-28Al alloy, the grain size of AZ31 alloy decreases to ∼53 μm, and the Mn-28Al alloy can be active as grain refiner for holding time up to 60 min for the melt AZ31 alloy at 750 o C.

  7. T Chandrashekar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. T Chandrashekar. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 24 Issue 4 August 2001 pp 345-353 Metals and Alloys. Effects and mechanisms of grain refinement in aluminium alloys · K T Kashyap T Chandrashekar · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  8. Features of argon-arc welding of aluminium alloy AD1 to stainless steel 12Kh18N10T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadov, I.I.

    1982-01-01

    Welding of pipes made of the 12Kh18N10T stainless steel and the AD1 aluminium alloy is proposed to perform using one-sided aluminizing. It is recommended to use shields in order to protect internal and external surfaces of pipes, aluminizing of which is impossible. It is shown that developed technological process for welded joints made of aluminium and stainless steel for cryogenic apparatus permits to create light-duty cryostat assembly using aluminium alloys instead of copper alloys, to increase reliability of apparatus (usage of welded joints instead of soldered ones), and to improve labour conditions

  9. Enhanced corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AM60 by cerium(III) in chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heakal, F. El-Taib; Shehata, O.S.; Tantawy, N.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion rate of AM60 in Cl − solution decreases with increasing [Ce 3+ ] up to 1 mM. ► Beyond that level the corrosion rate increases and then stabilizes. ► The spontaneously formed film characterises by increasing resistance with time. ► The converted film after 10 d immersion exhibits self-healing in plain Cl − solution. ► Ce(III) should be present in the corrodent to form a more compact surface coating. - Abstract: Cerium(III) was utilised to enhance the corrosion resistance of AM60 in NaCl solution. Ce 3+ can suppress corrosion deterioration up to 1.0 mM. Beyond that level corrosion rate increases till a steady value. Surface film resistance increases with time evolution until 24 h, then decreases and stabilizes. The converted film after 240 h immersion exhibits self-healing and thickening when re-exposed to plain chloride solution. SEM and EDX confirmed that when Ce is present as additive in solution, more compact coating is formed better than its presence as a post coating on the alloy surface before being immersed in the corrosive environment.

  10. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  11. Experimental Investigation on Electric Current-Aided Laser Stake Welding of Aluminum Alloy T-Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinge Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, aluminum alloy T-joints were welded using the laser stake-welding process. In order to improve the welding quality of the T-joints, an external electric current was used to aid the laser stake-welding process. The effects of the process parameters on the weld morphology, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the welded joints were analyzed and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the aided electric current should be no greater than a certain maximum value. Upon increasing the aided electric current, the weld width at the skin and stringer faying surface obviously increased, but there was an insignificant change in the penetration depth. Furthermore, the electric current and pressing force should be chosen to produce an expected weld width at the faying surface, whereas the laser power and welding speed should be primarily considered to obtain an optimal penetration depth. The tensile shear specimens failed across the faying surface or failed in the weld zone of the skin. The specimens that failed in the weld of the skin could resist a higher tensile shear load compared with specimens that failed across the faying surface. The microstructural observations and microhardness results demonstrated that the tensile shear load capacity of the aluminum alloy welded T-joint was mainly determined by the weld width at the faying surface.

  12. Effect of current density on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of microarc oxidized ZK60 magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qiongya; Yu, Huijun; Wang, Hui; Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2014-09-01

    The application of magnesium alloys as biomaterials is limited by their poor corrosion behavior. Microarc oxidation (MAO) treatment was used to prepare ceramic coatings on ZK60 magnesium alloys in order to overcome the poor corrosion resistance. The process was conducted at different current densities (3.5 and 9.0 A/dm(2)), and the effect of current density on the process was studied. The microstructure, elemental distribution, and phase composition of the MAO coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and x-ray diffraction, respectively. The increment of current density contributes to the increase of thickness. A new phase Mg2SiO4 was detected as the current density increased to 9.0 A/dm(2). A homogeneous distribution of micropores could be observed in the coating produced at 3.5 A/dm(2), while the surface morphology of the coating formed at 9.0 A/dm(2) was more rough and apparent microcracks could be observed. The coating obtained at 3.5 A/dm(2) possessed a better anticorrosion behavior.

  13. Radiation response of alloy T91 at damage levels up to 1000 peak dpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigax, J. G.; Chen, T.; Kim, Hyosim; Wang, J.; Price, L. M.; Aydogan, E.; Maloy, S. A.; Schreiber, D. K.; Toloczko, M. B.; Garner, F. A.; Shao, Lin

    2016-12-01

    Ferritic/martensitic alloys are required for advanced reactor components to survive 500e600 neutroninduced dpa. Ion-induced void swelling of ferritic/martensitic alloy T91 in the quenched and tempered condition has been studied using a defocused, non-rastered 3.5 MeV Fe-ion beam at 475 C to produce damage levels up to 1000 peak displacements per atom (dpa). The high peak damage level of 1000 dpa is required to reach 500e600 dpa level due to injected interstitial suppression of void nucleation in the peak dpa region, requiring data extraction closer to the surface at lower dpa levels. At a relatively low peak damage level of 250 dpa, voids began to develop, appearing first in the near-surface region. With increasing ion fluence, swelling was observed deeper in the specimen, but remained completely suppressed in the back half of the ion range, even at 1000 peak dpa. The local differences in dpa rate in the front half of the ion range induce an “internal temperature shift” that strongly influences the onset of swelling, with shorter transient regimes resulting from lower dpa rates, in agreement not only with observations in neutron irradiation studies but also in various ion irradiations. Swelling was accompanied by radiation-induced precipitation of Cu-rich and Si, Ni, Mn-rich phases were observed by atom probe tomography, indicating concurrent microchemical evolution was in progress. In comparison to other ferritic/martensitic alloys during ion irradiation, T91 exhibits good swelling resistance with a swelling incubation period of about 400 local dpa.

  14. Influence of laser parameters in surface texturing of Ti6Al4V and AA2024-T3 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuir-Torres, J. I.; Arenas, M. A.; Perrie, W.; de Damborenea, J.

    2018-04-01

    Laser texturing can be used for surface modification of metallic alloys in order to improve their properties under service conditions. The generation of textures is determined by the relationship between the laser processing parameters and the physicochemical properties of the alloy to be modified. In the present work the basic mechanism of dimple generation is studied in two alloys of technological interest, titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and aluminium alloy AA2024-T3. Laser treatment was performed using a pulsed solid state Nd: Vanadate (Nd: YVO4) laser with a pulse duration of 10 ps, operating at a wavelength of 1064 nm and 5 kHz repetition rate. Dimpled surface geometries were generated through ultrafast laser ablation while varying pulse energy between 1 μJ and 20 μJ/pulse and with pulse numbers from 10 to 200 pulses per spot. In addition, the generation of Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) nanostructures in both alloys, as well as the formation of random nanostructures in the impact zones are discussed.

  15. The study on binary Mg-Co hydrogen storage alloys with BCC phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yao; Tsushio, Yoshinori; Enoki, Hirotoshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2005-01-01

    Novel Mg-Co binary alloys were successfully synthesized by mechanical alloying. These alloys were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron micrograph (TEM), pressure-composition-isotherms measurements (P-C-T) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both XRD Rietveld analysis and TEM observation confirmed that these binary alloys contain BCC phase and that the BCC phase existed in the range from 37 to 80 at.% Co. The lattice parameter of the BCC phase increased with the increase of the Co content from 37 to 50 at.%. When the Co content reached 50 at.%, the lattice parameter reached a maximum value, and then turned to decrease gradually with further increase of the Co content. Most of Mg-Co BCC alloys absorbed hydrogen at 373 K under 6 MPa of hydrogen pressure. The Mg 60 Co 40 alloy showed the highest hydrogen absorption capacity, about 2.7 mass% hydrogen. However, all the Mg-Co alloys studied did not desorb hydrogen at 373 K. By means of DSC measurements and in situ XRD analysis, it was found that under 4 MPa hydrogen atmosphere, Mg 50 Co 50 alloy transformed from BCC solid solution to Mg 2 CoH 5 tetragonal hydride at 413 K

  16. Grain refining mechanism of Al-containing Mg alloys with the addition of Mn-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Gaowu W., E-mail: qingw@smm.neu.edu.c [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Wenhu Road 3-11, Heping District, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Province (China); Ren Yuping; Huang Wei; Li Song; Pei Wenli [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Wenhu Road 3-11, Heping District, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Province (China)

    2010-10-08

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: The {epsilon}-AlMn phase acts as the heterogeneous nucleus of {alpha}-Mg phase during the solidification of the AZ31 Mg alloy, not the {gamma}-Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} phase. The grain refinement effect is very clear with the addition of only 0.5 wt% Mn-28Al alloy (pure {epsilon}-AlMn). The grain refinement does not deteriorate up to the holding time of 60 min at 740 {sup o}C. - Abstract: The effect of manganese on grain refinement of Al-containing AZ31 Mg alloy has been investigated by designing a series of Mn-Al alloys composed of either pure {epsilon}-AlMn, {gamma}{sub 2}-Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} or both of them using optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is experimentally clarified that the grain refinement of the AZ31 Mg alloy is due to the existence of the {epsilon}-AlMn phase in the Mn-Al alloys, not the {gamma}{sub 2}-Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} phase. The grain size of AZ31 Mg alloy is about 91 {mu}m without any addition of Mn-Al alloys, but remarkably decreases to {approx}55 {mu}m with the addition of either Mn-34 wt% Al or Mn-28 wt% Al. With a minor addition of 0.5 wt% Mn-28Al alloy, the grain size of AZ31 alloy decreases to {approx}53 {mu}m, and the Mn-28Al alloy can be active as grain refiner for holding time up to 60 min for the melt AZ31 alloy at 750 {sup o}C.

  17. Investigation of interfacial heat transfer mechanism for 7075-T6 aluminum alloy in HFQ hot forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Liang; Gao, Tianhan; Dai, Minghua; Hu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The transient IHTC between 7075 alloy and die in HFQ process is investigated. • The accuracy of IHTC calculated by Beck and heat balance method is compared. • The relationship between IHTC and process parameter of 7075 alloy is studied. • The transient IHTC law is verified by U-type HFQ forming experiment. - Abstract: The IHTC (Interfacial-Heat-Transfer-Coefficient) between aluminum alloy and die during HFQ (Heat-Forming-Quenching) process is an important thermal parameter to reflect the heat transfer efficiency. In the present work, the instantaneous heat transfer law for high strength 7075-T6 alloy during HFQ process based on cylindrical-die model was investigated. The accuracy of IHTC calculated by Beck’s non-linear estimation method (Beck’s method) and heat balance method (HBM) were compared, and instantaneous IHTC of 7075-T6 alloy was acquired in experiment and analyzed in consideration of different contact pressure, surface roughness and lubricate conditions. Furthermore, the obtained IHTC was applied to the simulation process of typical U-type experimental model in order to validate the universality of heat transfer law. The result shows that the average IHTC goes near to 3300 W/m"2·K when pressure is above 80 MPa; Surface roughness can also affect the IHTC in HFQ process, but the effect mechanism is different from the boron steel in hot stamping process. The average IHTC decreases sharply when surface roughness increases in the range of 0.570–0.836 μm, the value is from 3453 W/m"2·K to 2001 W/m"2·K under 80 MPa. Furthermore, surface lubrication can promote heat transfer efficiency and increase IHTC value when contact pressure is relatively high.

  18. The effects of Mg addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of thixoformed Al–5%Si–Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salleh, M.S.; Omar, M.Z.; Syarif, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The average globule size of α-Al decreased when Mg amount is increased. • T6 heat treatment has increased the strength of the thixoformed alloys. • The elongation after T6 heat treatment is even significantly improved. • Thixoformed alloy with high Mg content shows a brittle type fracture. • Thixoformed alloy in T6 condition shows a ductile type fracture. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of different amounts of magnesium (Mg) on the microstructures and tensile properties of thixoformed Al–5%Si–Cu alloys were investigated. Three different alloys containing various amounts of Mg (0.5, 0.8 and 1.2 wt%) were prepared through the cooling slope casting technique, before they were thixoformed using a compression press. Several of the thixoformed samples were then treated with a T6 heat treatment, that is, solution treatment at 525 °C for 8 h, quenching in warm water at 60 °C, followed by aging at 155 °C for 4 h. All of the samples were then characterised by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as by tensile tests. The results revealed that magnesium was able to refine the size of α-Al globules and the eutectic silicon in the samples. It was also observed that a compact π-Al 9 FeMg 3 Si 5 phase was formed when the magnesium content was 0.8 wt% and 1.2 wt%. The mechanical properties of the thixoformed alloys improved significantly after the T6 heat treatment. The highest attainment was recorded by the latter alloy (i.e. with 1.2 wt%Mg) with its ultimate tensile strength (UTS) as high as 306 MPa, yield strength (YS), 264 MPa, and elongation to fracture of 1.8%. The fracture of thixoformed alloy with a low Mg content (0.5 wt%) showed a combination of dimple and cleavage fracture, whereas in the alloy that contained the highest Mg content (1.2 wt%), cleavage fracture was observed

  19. Microstructure Stability During Creep of Friction Stir Welded AA2024-T3 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Michael; Rashkovsky, Tal; Cabibbo, Marcello; Spigarelli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The poor weldability of the AA2024 aluminum alloy limits its use in industrial applications. Because friction stir welding (FSW) is a non-fusion welding process, it seems to be a promising solution for welding this alloy. In the current study, FSW was applied to butt weld AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy plates. Creep tests were conducted at 250 and at 315 °C on both the parent material and the friction stir welded specimens. The microstructures of the welded and non-welded AA2024-T3 specimens before and after the creep tests were studied and compared. A comprehensive transmission electron microscopy study together with a high-resolution scanning electron microscopy study and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis was conducted to investigate the microstructure stability. The parent material seems to contain two kinds of Cu-rich precipitates—coarse precipitates of a few microns each and uniformly dispersed fine nanosized precipitates. Unlike the parent material, the crept specimens were found to contain the two kinds of precipitates mentioned above together with platelet-like precipitates. In addition, extensive decoration of the grain boundaries with precipitates was clearly observed in the crept specimens. Controlled aging experiments for up to 280 h at the relevant temperatures were conducted on both the parent material and the welded specimens in order to isolate the contribution of exposure to high temperatures to the microstructure changes. TEM study showed the development of dislocation networks into a cellular dislocation structure in the case of the parent metal. Changes in the dislocation structure as a function of the creep strain and the FSW process were recorded. A detailed creep data analysis was conducted, taking into account the instability of the microstructure.

  20. Magnetic properties of the binary Nickel/Bismuth alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Şarlı, Numan, E-mail: numansarli82@gmail.com

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • We model and investigate the magnetic properties of the Ni/Bi alloy within the EFT. • Magnetizations of the Ni/Bi alloy are observed as Bi1 > Bi2 > Ni/Bi > Ni at T < Tc. • Magnetization of the Bi1 is dominant and Ni is at least dominant T < Tc. • Total magnetization of the Ni/Bi alloy is close to those of Ni at T < Tc. • Hysteresis curves are overlap at T < 0.1 and they behave separately at T > 0.1. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of the binary Nickel/Bismuth alloy (Ni/Bi) are investigated within the effective field theory. The Ni/Bi alloy has been modeled that the rhombohedral Bi lattice is surrounded by the hexagonal Ni lattice. According to lattice locations, Bi atoms have two different magnetic properties. Bi1 atoms are in the center of the hexagonal Ni atoms (Ni/Bi1 single layer) and Bi2 atoms are between two Ni/Bi1 bilayers. The Ni, Bi1, Bi2 and Ni/Bi undergo a second-order phase transition from the ferromagnetic phase to paramagnetic phase at Tc = 1.14. The magnetizations of the Ni/Bi alloy are observed as Bi1 > Bi2 > Ni/Bi > Ni at T < Tc; hence the magnetization of the Bi1 is dominant and Ni is at least dominant. However, the total magnetization of the Ni/Bi alloy is close to magnetization of the Ni at T < Tc. The corcivities of the Ni, Bi1, Bi2 and Ni/Bi alloy are the same with each others, but the remanence magnetizations are different. Our theoretical results of M(T) and M(H) of the Ni/Bi alloy are in quantitatively good agreement with the some experimental results of binary Nickel/Bismuth systems.

  1. Effect of water-cooling treatment times on properties of friction stir welded joints of 7N01-T4 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. H.; Wang, Y.; Fang, X. F.; Liang, P.; Zhao, Y.; Li, Y. H.; Liu, X. M.

    2018-02-01

    Due to the deformation caused by residual stress in the welding process, welded components need treatment to reduce welding distortion. In this paper, several different times of flame-heating and water-cooling treatment were subjected to the friction stir welding joints of 15mm thick 7N01P-T4 aluminum alloy sheets to study the microstructure variation of friction stir welding joints of 7N01P-T4 aluminum alloy, and to analyze the effect on micro-hardness, tensile and fracture mechanical properties. This investigation will be helpful to optimize treatment methods and provide instruction on industrial production.

  2. Blood Pressure Medicines Don’t Work If People Don’t Take Them PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Blood pressure medicines don’t work if people don’t take them. Learn how health care systems can work with patients to make taking medicines easier.

  3. Influence of friction stir welding process and tool parameters on strength properties of AA7075-T6 aluminium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajakumar, S.; Muralidharan, C.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    The aircraft aluminium alloys generally present low weldability by traditional fusion welding process. The development of the friction stir welding has provided an alternative improved way of satisfactorily producing aluminium joints, in a faster and reliable manner. In this present work, the influence of process and tool parameters on tensile strength properties of AA7075-T 6 joints produced by friction stir welding was analysed. Square butt joints were fabricated by varying process parameters and tool parameters. Strength properties of the joints were evaluated and correlated with the microstructure, microhardness of weld nugget. From this investigation it is found that the joint fabricated at a tool rotational speed of 1400 rpm, welding speed of 60 mm/min, axial force of 8 kN, using the tool with 15 mm shoulder diameter, 5 mm pin diameter, 45 HRc tool hardness yielded higher strength properties compared to other joints.

  4. Neutron irradiation of V-Cr-Ti alloys in the BOR-60 fast reactor: Description of the fusion-1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Tsai, H.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The FUSION-1 irradiation capsule was inserted in Row 5 of the BOR-60 fast reactor in June 1995. The capsule contains a collaborative RF/U.S. experiment to investigate the irradiation performance of V-Cr-Ti alloys in the temperature range 310 to 350{degrees}C. This report describes the capsule layout, specimen fabrication history, and the detailed test matrix for the U.S. specimens. A description of the operating history and neutronics will be presented in the next semiannual report.

  5. Green superlubricity of Nitinol 60 alloy against steel in presence of castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qunfeng; Dong, Guangneng; Martin, Jean Michel

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, first, we show that sliding Nitinol 60 alloy against steel under castor oil lubrication exhibits a new case of superlubricity (coefficient of friction CoF ≪ 0.01). So far, CoF below 0.01 have never been achieved under boundary lubrication at high contact pressure and in presence of vegetable oil as a green lubricant. Next, it is demonstrated that superlubricity is controlled by tribochemical reactions, involving chemical degradation of castor oil and the formation of metal oxy-hydroxides. Finally, to explain these findings, we propose a novel superlubricity mechanism consisting of hexanoic acid molecules intercalated between nickel and iron oxy-hydroxide lamellar layers, a structure very similar to the one found in Fe-Ni batteries. We propose that superlubricity is achieved due to repulsive electrostatic forces acting between the intercalated metal oxy-hydroxide lamellar compounds. This system would be suitable for practical engineering applications in many fields including biotechnologies.

  6. Laser shock peening on a 6056-T4 aluminium alloy for airframe applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Glaser, D

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Pityana1_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1356 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Pityana1_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1... Laser Shock Peening on a 6056-T4 Aluminium Alloy for Airframe Applications Daniel Glaser, Claudia Polese, Rachana D. Bedekar, Jasper Plaisier,Sisa Pityana, Bathusile Masina, Tebogo Mathebula, and Enrico Troiani Keywords: Laser Shock Peening...

  7. Enhanced corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AM60 by cerium(III) in chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heakal, F. El-Taib, E-mail: fakihaheakal@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Shehata, O.S. [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Tantawy, N.S. [Girl' s College of Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Asma Fahmi Street, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion rate of AM60 in Cl{sup -} solution decreases with increasing [Ce{sup 3+}] up to 1 mM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Beyond that level the corrosion rate increases and then stabilizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spontaneously formed film characterises by increasing resistance with time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The converted film after 10 d immersion exhibits self-healing in plain Cl{sup -} solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce(III) should be present in the corrodent to form a more compact surface coating. - Abstract: Cerium(III) was utilised to enhance the corrosion resistance of AM60 in NaCl solution. Ce{sup 3+} can suppress corrosion deterioration up to 1.0 mM. Beyond that level corrosion rate increases till a steady value. Surface film resistance increases with time evolution until 24 h, then decreases and stabilizes. The converted film after 240 h immersion exhibits self-healing and thickening when re-exposed to plain chloride solution. SEM and EDX confirmed that when Ce is present as additive in solution, more compact coating is formed better than its presence as a post coating on the alloy surface before being immersed in the corrosive environment.

  8. High-temperature deformation of a mechanically alloyed niobium-yttria alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, I.; Koss, D.A.; Howell, P.R.; Ramani, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing have been used to process two Nb alloys containing yttria particles, Nb-2 vol.%Y 2 O 3 and Nb-10 vol.%Y 2 O 3 . Similar to some thermomechanically processed nickel-based alloys, both alloys exhibit partially recrystallized microstructures, consisting of a 'necklace' of small recrystallized grains surrounding much larger but isolated, unrecrystallized, cold-worked grains. Hot compression tests from 1049 to 1347 C (0.5-0.6T MP ) of the 10% Y 2 O 3 alloy show that MA material possesses a much higher yield and creep strength than its powder-blended, fully recrystallized counterpart. In fact, the density-compensated specific yield strength of the MA Nb-10Y 2 O 3 exceeds that of currently available commercial Nb alloys. (orig.)

  9. Radiation response of alloy T91 at damage levels up to 1000 peak dpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigax, J.G., E-mail: gigaxj@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Chen, T.; Kim, Hyosim [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Wang, J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Price, L.M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Aydogan, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Maloy, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Schreiber, D.K.; Toloczko, M.B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Garner, F.A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Shao, Lin [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Ferritic/martensitic alloys are required for advanced reactor components to survive 500–600 neutron-induced dpa. Ion-induced void swelling of ferritic/martensitic alloy T91 in the quenched and tempered condition has been studied using a defocused, non-rastered 3.5 MeV Fe-ion beam at 475 °C to produce damage levels up to 1000 peak displacements per atom (dpa). The high peak damage level of 1000 dpa is required to reach 500–600 dpa level due to injected interstitial suppression of void nucleation in the peak dpa region, requiring data extraction closer to the surface at lower dpa levels. At a relatively low peak damage level of 250 dpa, voids began to develop, appearing first in the near-surface region. With increasing ion fluence, swelling was observed deeper in the specimen, but remained completely suppressed in the back half of the ion range, even at 1000 peak dpa. The local differences in dpa rate in the front half of the ion range induce an “internal temperature shift” that strongly influences the onset of swelling, with shorter transient regimes resulting from lower dpa rates, in agreement not only with observations in neutron irradiation studies but also in various ion irradiations. Swelling was accompanied by radiation-induced precipitation of Cu-rich and Si, Ni, Mn-rich phases were observed by atom probe tomography, indicating concurrent microchemical evolution was in progress. In comparison to other ferritic/martensitic alloys during ion irradiation, T91 exhibits good swelling resistance with a swelling incubation period of about 400 local dpa.

  10. The Effect of Artificial Aging on the Tensile Properties of Alclad 24S-T and 24S-T Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanchik, Joseph N.; Woods, Walter; Zender, George W.

    1943-01-01

    An experimental study was made to determine the effect of artificial aging on the tensile properties of alclad 24S-T and 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet material. The results of the tests show that certain combinations of aging time and temperature cause a marked increase in the yield strength and a small increase in the ultimate strength; these increases are accompanied by a very large decrease in elongation. A curve is presented that shows the maximum yield strengths that can be obtained by aging this material at various combinations of time and temperature. The higher values of yield stress are obtained in material aged at relatively longer times and lower temperatures.

  11. A Study on Surface Modification of Al7075-T6 Alloy against Fretting Fatigue Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mohseni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft engines, fuselage, automobile parts, and energy saving strategies in general have promoted the interest and research in the field of lightweight materials, typically on alloys based on aluminum. Aluminum alloy itself does not have suitable wear resistance; therefore, it is necessary to enhance surface properties for practical applications, particularly when aluminum is in contact with other parts. Fretting fatigue phenomenon occurs when two surfaces are in contact with each other and one or both parts are subjected to cyclic load. Fretting drastically decreases the fatigue life of materials. Therefore, investigating the fretting fatigue life of materials is an important subject. Applying surface modification methods is anticipated to be a supreme solution to gradually decreasing fretting damage. In this paper, the authors would like to review methods employed so far to diminish the effect of fretting on the fatigue life of Al7075-T6 alloy. The methods include deep rolling, shot peening, laser shock peening, and thin film hard coatings. The surface coatings techniques are comprising physical vapor deposition (PVD, hard anodizing, ion-beam-enhanced deposition (IBED, and nitriding.

  12. Nickel alloys and high-alloyed special stainless steels. Properties, manufacturing, applications. 4. compl. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubner, Ulrich; Kloewer, Jutta; Alves, Helena; Behrens, Rainer; Schindler, Claudius; Wahl, Volker; Wolf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the following eight topics: 1. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels - Material overview and metallurgical principles (U. Heubner); 2. Corrosion resistance of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (U. Heubner); 3. Welding of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (T. Hoffmann, M. Wolf); 4. High-temperature materials for industrial plant construction (J. Kloewer); 5. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels as hot roll clad composites-a cost-effective alternative (C. Schindler); 6. Selected examples of the use of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels in chemical plants (H. Alves); 7. The use of nickel alloys and stainless steels in environmental engineering (V. Wahl); 8: Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels for the oil and gas industry (R. Behrens).

  13. The dissimilar brazing of Kovar alloy to SiCp/Al composites using silver-based filler metal foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Xu, Dongxia; Zhai, Yahong; Niu, Jitai

    2017-09-01

    Aluminum metal matrix composites with high SiC content (60 vol.% SiCp/Al MMCs) were surface metallized with a Ni-P alloy coating, and vacuum brazing between the composites and Kovar alloy were performed using rapidly cooled Ag-22.0Cu-15.9In-10.86Sn-1.84Ti (wt%) foil. The effects of Ni-P alloy coating and brazing parameters on the joint microstructures and properties were researched by SEM, EDS, and single lap shear test, respectively. Results show that Ag-Al intermetallic strips were formed in the 6063Al matrix and filler metal layer because of diffusion, and they were arranged regularly and accumulated gradually as the brazing temperature was increased ( T/°C = 550-600) or the soaking time was prolonged ( t/min = 10-50). However, excessive strips would destroy the uniformity of seams and lead to a reduced bonding strength (at most 70 MPa). Using a Ni-P alloy coating, void free joints without those strips were obtained at 560 °C after 20 min soaking time, and a higher shear strength of 90 MPa was achieved. The appropriate interface reaction ( 2 μm transition layer) that occurred along the Ni-P alloy coating/filler metal/Kovar alloy interfaces resulted in better metallurgical bonding. In this research, the developed Ag-based filler metal was suitable for brazing the dissimilar materials of Ni-P alloy-coated SiCp/Al MMCs and Kovar alloy, and capable welding parameters were also broadened.

  14. Electric field gradient at the Nb3M(M = Al, In, Si, Ge, Sn) and T3Al (T = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) alloys by perturbed angular correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira, Astrogildo de Carvalho

    1999-01-01

    The electric field gradient (efg) at the Nb site in the intermetallic compounds Nb 3 M (M = Al, Si, Ge, Sn) and at the T site in the intermetallic compounds T 3 Al (T = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) was measured by Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) method using the well known gamma-gamma cascade of 133-482 keV in 181 Ta from the β - decay of 181 Hf. The compounds were prepared by arc melting the constituent elements under argon atmosphere along with radioactive 181 Hf substituting approximately 0.1 atomic percent of Nb and T elements. The PAC measurements were carried out at 295 K for all compounds and the efg was obtained for each alloy. The results for the efg in the T 3 Al compounds showed a strong correlation with the number of conduction electrons, while for the Nbs M compounds the efg behavior is influenced mainly by the p electrons of the M elements. The so-called universal correlation between the electronic and lattice contribution for the efg in metals was not verified in this work for all studied compounds. Measurements of the quadrupole frequency in the range of 100 to 1210 K for the Nb 3 Al compound showed a linear behaviour with the temperature. Superconducting properties of this alloys may probably be related with this observed behaviour. The efg results are compared to those reported for other binary alloys and discussed with the help of ab-initio methods. (author)

  15. Dynamic Behavior of AA2519-T8 Aluminum Alloy Under High Strain Rate Loading in Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, A. T.; Owolabi, G. M.; Odeshi, A. G.; Yilmaz, N.; Zeytinci, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effects of strain rate on the dynamic behavior, microstructure evolution and hence, failure of the AA2519-T8 aluminum alloy were investigated under compression at strain rates ranging from 1000 to 3500 s-1. Cylindrical specimens of dimensions 3.3 mm × 3.3 mm (L/D = 1) were tested using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with a digital image correlation system. The microstructure of the alloy was assessed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Results showed that the dynamic yield strength of the alloy is strain rate dependent, with the maximum yield strength attained by the material being 500 MPa. The peak flow stress of 562 MPa was attained by the material at 3500 s-1. The alloy also showed a significant rate of strain hardening that is typical of other Al-Cu alloys; the rate of strain hardening, however, decreased with increase in strain rate. It was determined that the strain rate sensitivity coefficient of the alloy within the range of high strain rates used in this study is approximately 0.05 at 0.12 plastic strain; a more significant value than what was reported in literature under quasi-static loading. Micrographs obtained showed potential sites for the evolution of adiabatic shear band at 3500 s-1, with a characteristic circular-shaped surface profile comprising partially dissolved second phase particles in the continuous phase across the incident plane of the deformed specimen. The regions surrounding the site showed little or no change in the size of particles. However, the constituent coarse particles were observed as agglomerations of fractured pieces, thus having a shape factor different from those contained in the as-received alloy. Since the investigated alloy is a choice material for military application where it can be exposed to massive deformation at high strain rates, this study provides information on its microstructural and mechanical responses to such extreme loading condition.

  16. Correlation of microstructure and mechanical properties in friction stir welded 2198-T8 Al–Li alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chong, E-mail: chonggao@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhu, Zhixiong, E-mail: zz056@uowmail.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Han, Jian; Li, Huijun [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    In this study, the 1.8 mm thick cold-rolled sheets of 2198-T8 Al–Li alloy were manufactured by friction stir welding (FSW) at a rotation rate of 800 rpm and a travel speed of 300 mm/min. The microstructure and mechanical properties of different regions of the produced joint were evaluated by means of optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), hardness testing and tensile testing. Results show that the original “pancake” grains became coarser in the heat affected zone (HAZ), transformed into equiaxed grains in the stir shoulder zone (SsZ) and stir pin zone (SpZ), and formed mixed grains with both “pancake” and equiaxed shapes in the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ). The hardness distribution in the cross-section of the FSW joint exhibited a “basin” shape. When approaching the weld centre, the hardness gradually decreased compared to the base metal (BM). The BM exhibited the highest strength due to the presence of fine T1 phase. In the HAZ, the strength decreased as T1 phase was partially dissolved. In the SsZ and SpZ, in spite of strength contribution from grain refinement, the strength further decreased as T1 phase was fully dissolved. The minimum strength in the TMAZ was related to the reduced amount of T1 phase and the presence of transition layer with sharp gradient of grain size. - Highlights: • FSW joint of 2198-T8 alloy was successfully produced. • Microstructure and precipitate evolution in FSW joint were evaluated. • Hardness and strength in different regions of FSW joint were tested. • Strengthening mechanisms in different regions of FSW joint were discussed.

  17. Fundamental Study of Electron Beam Welding of AA6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy for Nuclear Fuel Plate Assembly (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soosung; Lee, Haein; Lee, Donbae; Park, Jongman; Lee, Yoonsang

    2013-01-01

    Certain characteristics, such as solidification cracking, porosity, HAZ (Heat-affected Zone) degradation must be considered during welding. Because of high energy density and low heat input, especially LBW and EBW processes posses the advantage of minimizing the fusing zone and HAZ and producing deeper penetration than arc welding processes. In present study, to apply for the nuclear fuel plate fabrication and assembly, a fundamental EBW experiment using AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy specimens was conducted. Furthermore, to establish the welding process, and satisfy the requirements of the weld quality, EBW apparatus using a electron welding gun and vacuum chamber was developed, and preliminary investigations for optimizing the welding parameters of the specimens using AA6061-T6 aluminum plates were also performed. In this experiment, a feasibility test was carried out by tensile tester, bead-on-plate welding and metallographic examination to comply with the aluminum welding procedure. The EB weld quality of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy for the fuel plate assembly has been also studied by the mechanical testing and microstructure examinations. This study was carried out to determine the suitable welding process and to investigate tensile strength of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy. In the present experiment, satisfactory EBW of the square butt weld specimens was developed. In comparison with the rolling directions of test specimens, the tensile strengths were no difference between the longitudinal and transverse welds. Based on this fundamental study, fabrication and assembly of the nuclear fuel plates will be provided for the future Kijang research reactor project

  18. Structure and corrosion behavior of sputter deposited cerium oxide based coatings with various thickness on Al 2024-T3 alloy substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Huang, Jiamu, E-mail: huangjiamu@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Claypool, James B.; Castano, Carlos E. [Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); O’Keefe, Matthew J., E-mail: mjokeefe@mst.edu [Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Crystalline CeO{sub 2} coatings are deposited on Al 2024-T3 alloys by magnetron sputtering. • The crystal size and internal stress both increased with the thickness of CeO{sub 2} coating. • The ∼210 nm thick coating has the highest adhesion strength to the Al alloy substrate. • The ∼900 nm thick coating increased the corrosion resistance two orders of magnitude. • CeO{sub 2} coatings provide good cathodic inhibition for Al alloys by acting as physical barriers. - Abstract: Cerium oxide based coatings from ∼100 to ∼1400 nm in thickness were deposited onto Al 2024-T3 alloy substrates by magnetron sputtering of a 99.99% pure CeO{sub 2} target. The crystallite size of CeO{sub 2} coatings increased from 15 nm to 46 nm as the coating thickness increased from ∼100 nm to ∼1400 nm. The inhomogeneous lattice strain increased from 0.36% to 0.91% for the ∼100 nm to ∼900 nm thick coatings and slightly decreased to 0.89% for the ∼1400 nm thick coating. The highest adhesion strength to Al alloy substrates was for the ∼210 nm thick coating, due to a continuous film coverage and low internal stress. Electrochemical measurements indicated that sputter deposited crystalline CeO{sub 2} coatings acted as physical barriers that provide good cathodic inhibition for Al alloys in saline solution. The ∼900 nm thick CeO{sub 2} coated sample had the best corrosion performance that increased the corrosion resistance by two orders magnitude and lowered the cathodic current density 30 times compared to bare Al 2024-T3 substrates. The reduced defects and exposed surface, along with suppressed charge mobility, likely accounts for the improved corrosion performance as coating thickness increased from ∼100 nm to ∼900 nm. The corrosion performance decreased for ∼1400 nm thick coatings due in part to an increase in coating defects and porosity along with a decrease in adhesion strength.

  19. Moessbauer effect study on mechanically alloyed amorphous Fe1-xTix alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong; Xu Zuxiong; Ma Ruzhang; Zhao Zhongtao; Ping Jueyun

    1994-01-01

    Amorphous Fe 1-x Ti x (x = 0.50, 0.60) powders were produced by mechanical alloying from pure elemental powders in a vibratory ball-mill. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer effect (ME) were used to study the progress of amorphization and the property of hydrogen absorption in Fe-Ti alloys. The amorphization process and the properties of the amorphous phase are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Chemistry related to the procurement of vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.M.; Chung H.M.; Tsai, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of trace element concentrations in vanadium alloys is important to characterize the low-activation characteristics and possible effects of trace elements on the properties. Detailed chemical analysis of several vanadium and vanadium alloy heats procured for the Argonne vanadium alloy development program were analyzed by Johnson-Matthey (UK) as part of a joint activity to evaluate trace element effects on the performance characteristics. These heats were produced by normal production practices for high grade vanadium. The analyses include approximately 60 elements analyzed in most cases by glow-discharge mass spectrometry. Values for molybdenum and niobium, which are critical for low-activation alloys, ranged from 0.4 to 60 wppm for the nine heats

  1. Chemistry related to the procurement of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.M.; Chung H.M.; Tsai, H.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Evaluation of trace element concentrations in vanadium alloys is important to characterize the low-activation characteristics and possible effects of trace elements on the properties. Detailed chemical analysis of several vanadium and vanadium alloy heats procured for the Argonne vanadium alloy development program were analyzed by Johnson-Matthey (UK) as part of a joint activity to evaluate trace element effects on the performance characteristics. These heats were produced by normal production practices for high grade vanadium. The analyses include approximately 60 elements analyzed in most cases by glow-discharge mass spectrometry. Values for molybdenum and niobium, which are critical for low-activation alloys, ranged from 0.4 to 60 wppm for the nine heats.

  2. Experimental and numerical characterization of anisotropic damage evolution of forged Al6061-T6 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.; Garnier, J.; Allais, L.; Crepin, J.; Ancelet, O.; Hiver, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 6061-T6 (Al-Mg-Si) has been selected as the material of the vessel for the construction of Jules-Horowitz material testing reactor. Fracture mechanism of this alloy has been investigated using mechanical testing of smooth and notched tensile specimens loaded in different directions. A strong anisotropic fracture behavior has been observed. Microstructural studies using tomography and image analysis have shown a presence of anisotropic distributed coarse precipitates which is the key microstructural feature affecting the damage evolution. These observations were complemented by investigations on fractured tensile samples. A damage scenario of anisotropic growth and coalescence of voids is proposed to explain the fracture behavior associated with the distribution of precipitates. A GTN (Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman) damage model is used to simulate this scenario and to predict damage evolution. (authors)

  3. Corrosion Behavior of Arc Weld and Friction Stir Weld in Al 6061-T6 Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byoung Hyun; Kim, Heung Ju; Chang, Woong Seong; Kweon, Young Gak

    2006-01-01

    For the evaluation of corrosion resistance of Al 6061-T6 Alloy, Tafel method and immersion test was performed with Friction Stir Weld(FSW) and Gas Metal Arc Weld(GMAW). The Tafel and immersion test results indicated that GMA weld was severely attacked compared with those of friction stir weld. It may be mainly due to the galvanic corrosion mechanism act on the GMA weld

  4. Thermal conductivities and conduction mechanisms of Sb-Te Alloys at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Rui; Endo, Rie; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Susa, Masahiro; Kuwahara, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Sb-Te alloys have drawn much attention due to its application in phase change memory as well as the unique properties as chalcogenide. In this work, the thermal conductivities of Sb-x mol%Te alloys (x = 14, 25, 44, 60, 70, and 90) have been measured by the hot strip method from room temperature up to temperature just below the respective melting points. For the intermetallic compound Sb 2 Te 3 (x = 60), the thermal conductivity decreases up to approximately 600 K and then increases. For other Sb-x mol%Te alloys where x > 60, the thermal conductivities of the alloys decrease with increasing temperature. In contrast, for x < 60, the thermal conductivities of the alloys keep roughly constant up to approximately 600 K and then increase with increasing temperature. It is proposed that free electron dominates the heat transport below 600 K, and ambipolar diffusion also contributes to the increase in the thermal conductivity at higher temperatures. The prediction equation from temperature and chemical composition has been proposed for thermal conductivities of Sb-Te alloys.

  5. The effects of Mg addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of thixoformed Al–5%Si–Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salleh, M.S., E-mail: shukor@utem.edu.my [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Manufacturing Process, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Omar, M.Z., E-mail: zaidi@eng.ukm.my [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Selangor (Malaysia); Syarif, J., E-mail: syarif@eng.ukm.my [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • The average globule size of α-Al decreased when Mg amount is increased. • T6 heat treatment has increased the strength of the thixoformed alloys. • The elongation after T6 heat treatment is even significantly improved. • Thixoformed alloy with high Mg content shows a brittle type fracture. • Thixoformed alloy in T6 condition shows a ductile type fracture. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of different amounts of magnesium (Mg) on the microstructures and tensile properties of thixoformed Al–5%Si–Cu alloys were investigated. Three different alloys containing various amounts of Mg (0.5, 0.8 and 1.2 wt%) were prepared through the cooling slope casting technique, before they were thixoformed using a compression press. Several of the thixoformed samples were then treated with a T6 heat treatment, that is, solution treatment at 525 °C for 8 h, quenching in warm water at 60 °C, followed by aging at 155 °C for 4 h. All of the samples were then characterised by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as by tensile tests. The results revealed that magnesium was able to refine the size of α-Al globules and the eutectic silicon in the samples. It was also observed that a compact π-Al{sub 9}FeMg{sub 3}Si{sub 5} phase was formed when the magnesium content was 0.8 wt% and 1.2 wt%. The mechanical properties of the thixoformed alloys improved significantly after the T6 heat treatment. The highest attainment was recorded by the latter alloy (i.e. with 1.2 wt%Mg) with its ultimate tensile strength (UTS) as high as 306 MPa, yield strength (YS), 264 MPa, and elongation to fracture of 1.8%. The fracture of thixoformed alloy with a low Mg content (0.5 wt%) showed a combination of dimple and cleavage fracture, whereas in the alloy that contained the highest Mg content (1.2 wt%), cleavage fracture was observed.

  6. Effect of thermo mechanical treatments and aging parameters on mechanical properties of Al–Mg–Si alloy containing 3 wt.% Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamas, Ud Din; Kamran, Javed; Hasan, B.A.; Tariq, N.H.; Mehmood, M.; Shamas uz Zuha, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TMT studies of 3 wt.% Li on Al–0.5Mg–0.2Si in W, T6 and T8 conditions. • Artificial aging at 175 °C for 2–12 h with prior cold reductions of 10–60%. • Hardness surveys, YS and UTS, microscopy, fractography and DSC studies. • Mechanical properties significantly enhanced in T8 condition. • Property enhancement attributed to a possible refinement of δ′ (Al 3 Li) precipitates. - Abstract: In the present work, microstructure and mechanical properties of 3 wt.% Li addition in a Al–Mg–Si alloy of target composition 0.5 wt.% Mg and 0.2 wt.% Si in W (solution heat treated), T6 (solution heat treated and artificially aged) and T8 (solution heat treated, cold worked and artificially aged) conditions was studied. The age-hardening response of the alloy was determined after systematic cold reductions from 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% in quenched condition followed by aging at 175 °C (448 K) for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h (T8 condition). The results were compared with samples aged in the same conditions with 0% cold reduction (T6 condition). The alloy displayed a strong artificial aging response and maximum hardness value achieved was after 60% cold work and 10 h of aging time. Furthermore, the yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength were increased from 123 MPa to 224 MPa and 356 MPa to 540 MPa respectively with a slight decrease in ductility. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) based fractography showed a uniform network of bigger and deeper dimples with round morphology in T6 condition while a ductile tearing with few discernable cleavage planes was observed in T8 condition. The interplay of various precipitation hardening mechanisms and relevant phases was established by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was concluded that the enhancement in mechanical properties, with the degree of cold work, was attributed due to a possible refinement of δ′ (Al 3 Li) precipitates resulted after aging

  7. Industrialization of nanocrystalline Fe–Si–B–P–Cu alloys for high magnetic flux density cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Setyawan, Albertus D.; Sharma, Parmanand; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Makino, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe–Si–B–P–Cu alloys exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (B s ) and extremely low magnetic core loss (W), simultaneously. Low amorphous-forming ability of these alloys hinders their application potential in power transformers and motors. Here we report a solution to this problem. Minor addition of C is found to be effective in increasing the amorphous-forming ability of Fe–Si–B–P–Cu alloys. It allows fabrication of 120 mm wide ribbons (which was limited to less than 40 mm) without noticeable degradation in magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline (Fe 85.7 Si 0.5 B 9.5 P 3.5 Cu 0.8 ) 99 C 1 ribbons exhibit low coercivity (H c )~4.5 A/m, high B s ~1.83 T and low W~0.27 W/kg (@ 1.5 T and 50 Hz). Success in fabrication of long (60–100 m) and wide (~120 mm) ribbons, which are made up of low cost elements is promising for mass production of energy efficient high power transformers and motors - Highlights: • Minor addition of C in FeSiBPCu alloy increases amorphous-forming ability. • The FeSiBPCuC alloy exhibits B s close to Si-steel and Core loss lower than it. • Excellent soft magnetic properties were obtained for 120 mm wide ribbons. • Nanocrystalline FeSiBPCuC alloy can be produced at industrial scale with low cost. • The alloy is suitable for making low energy loss power transformers and motors.

  8. Two phase titanium aluminide alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Liu, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    A two-phase titanic aluminide alloy having a lamellar microstructure with little intercolony structures. The alloy can include fine particles such as boride particles at colony boundaries and/or grain boundary equiaxed structures. The alloy can include alloying additions such as .ltoreq.10 at % W, Nb and/or Mo. The alloy can be free of Cr, V, Mn, Cu and/or Ni and can include, in atomic %, 45 to 55% Ti, 40 to 50% Al, 1 to 5% Nb, 0.3 to 2% W, up to 1% Mo and 0.1 to 0.3% B. In weight %, the alloy can include 57 to 60% Ti, 30 to 32% Al, 4 to 9% Nb, up to 2% Mo, 2 to 8% W and 0.02 to 0.08% B.

  9. Structural stability, electronic and magnetic behaviour of spin-polarized YCoVZ (Z = Si, Ge) and YCoTiZ (Z = Si, Ge) Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasool, Muhammad Nasir, E-mail: nasir4iub@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 63100 (Pakistan); Hussain, Altaf, E-mail: altafiub@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 63100 (Pakistan); Javed, Athar [Department of Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Iqbal, F. [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 63100 (Pakistan)

    2016-11-01

    The structural stability, electronic and magnetic behaviour of YCoVZ (Z = Si, Ge) and YCoTiZ (Z = Si, Ge) Heusler alloys have been studied by first principle approach. Generalized gradient approximation (GGA) based on density functional theory (DFT) has been applied to investigate the properties of quaternary Heusler alloys. The YCoVSi, YCoVGe, YCoTiSi and YCoTiGe Heusler alloys of Type-3 structure are found to be stable in spin-polarized/magnetic phase. The YCoVSi and YCoVGe alloys exhibit nearly spin gapless semiconductor (SGS) behaviour while YCoTiSi and YCoTiGe alloys show half-metallic ferromagnetic (HMF) behaviour. For YCoVSi, YCoVGe, YCoTiSi and YCoTiGe alloys, the calculated energy band gaps in spin down (↓) channel are 0.60, 0.54, 0.68 and 0.44 eV, respectively. The YCoVZ and YCoTiZ alloys are found to have integral value of total magnetic moment (M{sub T}), thus obeying the Slater-Pauling rule, M{sub T} = (N{sub v}–18)μ{sub B}. - Highlights: • Four Heusler alloys i.e. YCoVZ (Z = Si, Ge) and YCoTiZ (Z = Si, Ge) are studied. • Type-3 crystal structure of all four alloys is stable in magnetic phase. • The compressibility (S) follows the order: S{sub YCoVSi} > S{sub YCoTiSi} > S{sub YCoVGe} > S{sub YCoTiGe}. • Half metallic ferromagnetic behaviour is observed in all four alloys. • All four alloys obey the Slater-Pauling rule, M{sub T} = (N{sub v} – 18)μ{sub B}.

  10. Die forging of the alloys Az80 and Zk60

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurz, G.; Clauw, B.; Sillekens, W.H.; Letzig, D.

    2009-01-01

    Overall goal of the MagForge project is to provide tailored and cost-effective technologies for the industrial manufacturing of magnesium forged components. Scientific and technological aspects are new alloys/feedstock materials with improved performance, forging process modeling and design tools

  11. Residual stress distribution of a 6061-T6 aluminum alloy under shear deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Ruiz, C.; Figueroa, I.A.; Braham, C.; Cabrera, J.M.; Zanellato, O.; Baiz, S.; Gonzalez, G.

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of information with regards to the friction effect in ECAPed aluminum alloys, even though it might substantially modify the deformation at the surface. In this work, the friction effect at the surface and the deformation heterogeneity in the ECAPed aluminum alloy 6061-T6 were characterized. X-Ray diffraction was used to determine residual stresses (RS) on the sample surface. The volumetric sections were characterized by Synchrotron diffraction at ESRF beamline ID15B (Grenoble, France). It was found that the microhardness mapping and residual stress results showed a good agreement with the finite element analysis for the first layer studied. Minor strain variation, Δd/d as a function of (hkl) planes, for the different analyzed sections was found. The study also showed that there was an incomplete symmetry in the residual stress near the surface, even at up to a depth of 400 µm. The regions with higher deformation were found to be at the top and bottom parts of the sample, while the central region showed stress variations of up to 50 MPa.

  12. Residual stress distribution of a 6061-T6 aluminum alloy under shear deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Ruiz, C.; Figueroa, I.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacán C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Braham, C. [Laboratoire Procédés et Ingénierie Mécanique et Matériaux, CNRS UMR 8006, ENSAM-CNAM, 151, Bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Cabrera, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ETSEIB-Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Av Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnológic, Pl. de la Ciencia 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Zanellato, O.; Baiz, S. [Laboratoire Procédés et Ingénierie Mécanique et Matériaux, CNRS UMR 8006, ENSAM-CNAM, 151, Bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Gonzalez, G., E-mail: joseggr@unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacán C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2016-07-18

    There is a lack of information with regards to the friction effect in ECAPed aluminum alloys, even though it might substantially modify the deformation at the surface. In this work, the friction effect at the surface and the deformation heterogeneity in the ECAPed aluminum alloy 6061-T6 were characterized. X-Ray diffraction was used to determine residual stresses (RS) on the sample surface. The volumetric sections were characterized by Synchrotron diffraction at ESRF beamline ID15B (Grenoble, France). It was found that the microhardness mapping and residual stress results showed a good agreement with the finite element analysis for the first layer studied. Minor strain variation, Δd/d as a function of (hkl) planes, for the different analyzed sections was found. The study also showed that there was an incomplete symmetry in the residual stress near the surface, even at up to a depth of 400 µm. The regions with higher deformation were found to be at the top and bottom parts of the sample, while the central region showed stress variations of up to 50 MPa.

  13. Improved TIG weld joint strength in aluminum alloy 2219-T87 by filler metal substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, R. M.; Lovoy, C. V.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an investigation on weld joint characteristics of aluminum alloy 2219-T87 are given. Five different alloys were utilized as filler material. The mechanical properties of the joints were determined at ambient and cryogenic temperatures for weldments in the as-welded condition and also, for weldments after elevated temperature exposures. Other evaluations included hardness surveys, stress corrosion susceptibility, and to a limited extent, the internal metallurgical weld structures. The overall results indicate that M-943 filler weldments are superior in strength to weldments containing either the standard 2319 filler or fillers 2014, 2020, and a dual wire feed consisting of three parts 2319 and one part 5652. In addition, no deficiencies were evident in M-934 filler weldments with regard to ductility, joint strength after elevated temperature exposure, weld hardness, metallographic structures, or stress corrosion susceptibility.

  14. Effects of alloying elements on the Snoek-type relaxation in Ti–Nb–X–O alloys (X = Al, Sn, Cr, and Mn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, H.; Li, C.X.; Yin, F.X.; Fang, Q.F.; Umezawa, O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The O Snoek-type relaxation in the Ti–Nb–X–O alloys was investigated. ► The dipole shape factor (δλ) and critical temperature T c were deduced from the peak. ► The δλ and T c were analyzed in terms of the d-orbital energy level (Md). ► With decreasing Md, the δλ increases and saturates at last while the T c decreases. ► The Md can be taken as a key parameter in designing high damping β-Ti alloys. - Abstract: The effect of alloying elements on the oxygen Snoek-type relaxation in the Ti–24Nb–X–1.7O alloys (X = 1Al, 2Al, 1Sn, 2Sn, 2Cr, 2Mn) was investigated in order to develop high damping materials based on point defect relaxation process. The relaxation strength of the Ti–Nb–Al–O and Ti–Nb–Sn–O alloys is the highest while that of the Ti–Nb–Mn–O and Ti–Nb–Cr–O alloys is the lowest. The dipole shape factor (δλ) and critical temperature T c , which are intrinsic to the Snoek-type relaxation, were figured out and analyzed in terms of the d-orbital energy level (Md) for each alloy based on the measured damping peak. With the decreasing Md, the δλ increases and saturates at last when the Md decreases to a certain value (about 2.435 eV), while the critical temperature T c decreases linearly. The parameter Md can be taken as a key parameter in designing high damping β-Ti alloys, that is, to design an intermediate value of Md at which the values of both δλ and T c are as high as possible.

  15. Comparison of susceptibility to pitting corrosion of AA2024-T4, AA7075-T651 and AA7475-T761 aluminium alloys in neutral chloride solutions using electrochemical noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Kyung-Hwan; Pyun, Su-Il

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility to pitting corrosion of AA2024-T4, AA7075-T651 and AA7475-T761 aluminium alloys was investigated in aqueous neutral chloride solution for the purpose of comparison using electrochemical noise measurement. The experimentally measured electrochemical noises were analysed based upon the combined stochastic theory and shot-noise theory using the Weibull distribution function. From the occurrence of two linear regions on one Weibull probability plot, it was suggested that there existed two stochastic processes of uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion; pitting corrosion was distinguished from uniform corrosion in terms of the frequency of events in the stochastic analysis. Accordingly, the present analysis method allowed us to investigate pitting corrosion independently. The susceptibility to pitting corrosion was appropriately evaluated by determining pit embryo formation rate in the stochastic analysis. The susceptibility was decreased in the following order: AA2024-T4 (the naturally aged condition), AA7475-T761 (the overaged condition) and AA7075-T651 (the near-peak-aged condition)

  16. Anodic galvanostatic polarization of AA2024-T3 aircraft alloy in conventional mineral acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhukharov, S., E-mail: stephko1980@abv.bg [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria); Girginov, Ch. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria); Avramova, I. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 11 “Georgi Bonchev” Str., 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria); Machkova, M. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the determination of the impact of the anodization of AA2024-T3 alloys in HCl, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on the samples’ surface morphology and properties. Subsequent systematic assessments were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). These observations were combined with Linear Voltammetry (LVA) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) after 48 and 168 h of exposure to a 3.5% NaCl model corrosive medium. The main result is, that completely different effects were observed in accordance to the acid used. It was established that the monoprotonic acids have a deep destructive effect due to dissolution of the alloy components, whereas the polyprotonic ones possess either indistinguishable influence, or surface film formation. - Highlights: • AA2024 was polarized anodically in 15%{sub wt} acid solutions at 15 mA cm{sup −2} for 2 h. • Four mineral acids were selected for investigation: HCl, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • SEM, EDX and XPS were applied for morphological description. • Electrochemical characterizations were performed by EIS and linear voltammetry. • The acid used predetermines completely different interaction with the AA2024 alloy.

  17. Caracterização microestrutural e comportamento mecânico das ligas de alumínio AA2139 T3 e T8 soldadas por fricção rotativa com mistura Microstructural characterization and mechanical behavior of an AA2139 T3 and T8 aluminum alloy joined by friction stir welding (FSW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Toledo Saccon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou analisar a caracterização microestrutural e o comportamento mecânico das ligas de alumínio AA2139 T3 e T8 quando são soldadas pelo processo Soldagem por Fricção Rotativa com Mistura, o qual é realizado na fase sólida. A análise microestrutural foi realizada utilizando microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura, e o comportamento mecânico foi avaliado através de medidas de microdureza e ensaio de tração convencional complementado pelo sistema ARAMIS. As ligas foram soldadas nos mesmos parâmetros de soldagem e com a mesma ferramenta, a fim de avaliar a qualidade da junta soldada para as duas condições de tratamento térmico, T3 e T8. Os resultados obtidos mostraram soldas resistentes para ambos os tratamentos térmicos, porém com melhores propriedades mecânicas para a liga AA2139 T3.This work aimed to study the microstructural characterization and mechanical behavior of AA2139 T3 and T8 aluminum alloys joined by FSW - Friction Stir Welding. The microstructural analysis has been done using optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy, and the mechanical analysis were evaluate through microhardness testing and conventional tensile test using the ARAMIS system . Each alloy were welded using the same welding parameters and the same tool in order to evaluate the joint quality for both heat treatment used for this work, T3 and T8. The result showed sounds joints for both heat treatments, although with better mechanical properties for the alloy AA2139 T3.

  18. 40 CFR 60.261 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cycle means the time period from completion of a furnace product tap to the completion of the next... reference—see § 60.17) grades HC1 through HC6. (r) Charge chrome means that alloy containing 52 to 70...

  19. On the nature of T(Al2Mg3Zn3) and S(Al2CuMg) phases present in as-cast and annealed 7055 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Chandan; Mukhopadhyay, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum alloys, encompassed by AA 7055 alloy composition, having the nominal zinc content (i.e. 8 wt.%) but varying copper and magnesium contents across the alloy composition range were examined in the as-cast form by a combination of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is observed that for all compositions, the second phases based on η(MgZn 2 ), T(Al 2 Mg 3 Zn 3 ) and S(Al 2 CuMg) are present. The T phase dissolves copper up to 28 wt.%, whilst the S phase shows metastable solubility of zinc that may range up to 30 wt.%. In alloys with magnesium at the lower limit and the copper contents approaching the upper limit of the alloy composition, the θ phase (Al 2 Cu) of the constituent binary Al-Cu system is further observed. The θ phase (Al 2 Cu) does not dissolve either zinc or magnesium. Below the nominal composition, the alloys could be homogenized substantially using a commercially viable homogenization treatment leaving small amounts of undissolved S phase that does not contain any zinc

  20. Low cycle fatigue behaviour of Ti-6Al-5Zr-0.5Mo-0.25Si alloy at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Anil Kumar; Praveen, K.V.U.; Singh, Vakil

    2006-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of the near α titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-5Zr-0.5Mo-0.25Si (LT26A), was investigated in the (α+ β) as well as β treated conditions at room temperature. LCF tests were carried out under total strain controlled mode in the range of Δε t /2: from ± 0.60% to ± 1.40%. The alloy shows cyclic softening in both the conditions. Also it exhibits dual slope Coffin-Manson (C-M) relationship in both the treated conditions. (author)

  1. The Role of Friction Stir Processing (FSP Parameters on TiC Reinforced Surface Al7075-T651 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe García-Vázquez

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aluminum alloys are very promising for structural applications in aerospace, military and transportation industries due to their light weight, high strength-to-weight ratio and excellent resistance to corrosion. In comparison to unreinforced aluminum alloys, aluminum/aluminum alloy matrix composites reinforced with ceramic phases exhibit higher strength and hardness, improved tribological characteristics. A novel surface modifying technique, friction stir processing (FSP, has been developed for fabrication of surface composite with an improved performance. The effect of FSP parameters such as number of passes, direction of each pass, sealed or unsealed groove on microstructure was investigated. In this work, nano-particles of TiC (2% in weight were added to aluminum alloy AA7075-T651 to produce a functional surface. Fixed parameters for this AA7075 alloy were used; rotation speed of 1000 rpm, travel speed of 300 mm/min and pin penetration of 2.8 mm. Optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM were employed to study the microstructure of the fabricated surface composites. The results indicated that the selected FSP parameters influenced the area of surface composite, distribution of TiC particles and micro-hardness of the surface composites. Finally, in order to evaluate rate wear the pin on disk test was carried out.

  2. Fabrication and mechanical behavior of bulk nanoporous Cu via chemical de-alloying of Cu–Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fei, E-mail: chenfei027@gmail.com [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen, Xi; Zou, Lijie; Yao, Yao; Lin, Yaojun; Shen, Qiang [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Lavernia, Enrique J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Zhang, Lianmeng, E-mail: lmzhang@whut.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2016-04-13

    We report on a study of the influence of microstructure on the mechanical behavior of bulk nanoporous Cu fabricated by chemical de-alloying of Cu{sub 50}Al{sub 50}, Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 60}, Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 67} and Cu{sub 30}Al{sub 70} (at%) alloys. The precursor Cu–Al alloys were fabricated using arc melting and bulk nanoporous Cu was obtained by subsequent de-alloying of Cu–Al alloys in 20 wt% NaOH aqueous solution at a temperature of 65 °C. We studied the microstructure of the precursor Cu–Al alloys, as well as that of the as de-alloyed bulk nanoporous Cu, using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. Moreover, the compressive strength of bulk nanoporous Cu was measured and the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties was studied. Our results show that the microstructure of bulk nanoporous Cu is characterized by bi-continuous interpenetrating ligament-channels with a ligament size of 130±20 nm (for Cu{sub 50}Al{sub 50}), 170±20 nm (for Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 60}) and 160±10 nm (for Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 67}). Interestingly the microstructure of de-alloyed Cu{sub 30}Al{sub 70} is bimodal with nanopores (100's nm) and interspersed featureless regions a few microns in size. The compressive strength increased with decreasing volume fraction of porosity; as porosity increased 56.3±2% to 73.9±2%, the compressive strength decreased from 17.18±1 MPa to 2.71±0.5 MPa.

  3. Blood Pressure Medicines Don’t Work If People Don’t Take Them PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-13

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Blood pressure medicines don’t work if people don’t take them. Learn how health care systems can work with patients to make taking medicines easier.  Created: 9/13/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/13/2016.

  4. Basic research for alloy design of Nb-base alloys as ultra high temperature structural materials; Chokoon kozoyo niobuki gokin no gokin sekkei no tame no kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, E [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yoshimi, K; Hanada, S [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Iron, Steel and Other Metals

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an influence of additional elements on the high temperature deformation behavior of Nb-base solid solution alloys. Highly concentrated solid solution single crystals of Nb-Ta and Nb-Mo alloys were prepared. Compression test and strain rate sudden change test were conducted in the vacuum at temperatures ranging from 77 to 1773 K, to determine the strain rate sensitivity index. Yield stress of the Nb-Ta alloy was similar to that of Nb alloy at temperatures over 0.3{times}T{sub M}, where T{sub M} is fusing point of Nb. While, the yield stress increased with increasing the impurity oxygen concentration at temperatures below 0.3{times}T{sub M}. The yield stress became much higher than that of Nb alloy. The strain rate sensitivity index showed positive values in the whole temperature range. On the other hand, the yield stress of Nb-Mo alloy was higher than that of Nb alloy in the whole temperature range, and increased with increasing the Mo concentration. The strain rate sensitivity index showed negative values at the temperature range from 0.3{times}T{sub M} to 0.4{times}T{sub M}. It was found that serration occurred often for Nb-40Mo alloys. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Effects of Alloying Elements on Room and High Temperature Tensile Properties of Al-Si Cu-Mg Base Alloys =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyaldin, Loay

    result of the presence of both Mg and Cu. These alloy types display excellent strength values at both low and high temperatures. Additions of Zr, Ni, Mn and Sc would be expected to maintain the performance of these alloys at still higher temperatures. Six alloys were prepared using 0.2 wt% Ti grain-refined 354 alloy, comprising alloy R (354 + 0.25wt% Zr) considered as the base or reference alloy, and five others, viz., alloys S, T, U, V, and Z containing various amounts of Ni, Mn, Sc and Zr, added individually or in combination. For comparison purposes, another alloy L was prepared from 398 (Al-16%Si) alloy, reported to give excellent high temperature properties, to which the same levels of Zr and Sc additions were made, as in alloy Z. Tensile test bars were prepared from the different 354 alloys using an ASTM B-108 permanent mold. The test bars were solution heat treated using a one-step or a multi-step solution heat treatment, followed by quenching in warm water, and then artificial aging employing different aging treatments (T5, T6, T62 and T7). The one-step (or SHT 1) solution treatment consisted of 5 h 495 °C) and the multi-step (or SHT 2) solution treatment comprised 5 h 495°C + 2 h 515°C + 2 h 530°C. Thermal analysis of the various 354 alloy melts was carried out to determine the sequence of reactions and phases formed during solidification under close-to-equilibrium cooling conditions. The main reactions observed comprised formation of the alpha-Al dendritic network at 598°C followed by precipitation of the Al-Si eutectic and post-eutectic beta-Al5FeSi phase at 560°C; Mg2Si phase and transformation of the beta-phase into pi-Al8Mg 3FeSi6 phase at 540°C and 525°C; and lastly, precipitation of Al2Cu and Q-Al5Mg8Cu2Si 6 almost simultaneously at 498°C and 488°C. Larger sizes of AlFeNi and AlCuNi phase particles were observed in T alloy with its higher Ni content of 4 wt%, when compared to those seen in S alloy at 2% Ni content. Mn addition in Alloy U helps

  6. Muonium hyperfine parameters in Si1-x Ge x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Philip; Lichti, Roger; Cottrell, Stephen; Yonenaga, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    We present studies of muonium behaviour in bulk, Czochralski-grown Si 1- x Ge x alloy material, focusing in particular on the hyperfine parameter of the tetrahedral muonium species. In contrast to the bond-centred species, the hyperfine parameter of the tetrahedral-site muonium centre (Mu T ) appears to vary non-linearly with alloy composition. The temperature dependence of the Mu T hyperfine parameter observed in low-Ge alloy material is compared with that seen in pure Si, and previous models of the Mu T behaviour in Si are discussed in the light of results from Si 1- x Ge x alloys

  7. Influence of energy input in friction stir welding on structure evolution and mechanical behaviour of precipitation-hardening in aluminium alloys (AA2024-T351, AA6013-T6 and Al-Mg-Sc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis Olea, Cesar Afonso [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    2008-12-04

    Aluminium alloys AA2024 T351, AA6013 T6 and the recently developed Al-Mg-Sc for aircraft industry applications, which are usually considered difficult to weld by conventional fusion welding processes, demonstrate outstanding performance when joined by friction stir welding (FSW). The main feature of the process is to produce solid-state welds, where the maximum temperatures attained during the process are about 80 % that of the melting temperature of the base material. The process generates substantial plastic deformation, due to the solid-state stirring, and consequently creates a high dislocation density, which is a precursor to dynamic recrystallization, a metallurgical feature that characterizes the stir zone (weld centre). A relevant aspect considered, regarding precipitation-hardening aluminium alloys, is the deterioration of the mechanical properties in the weld zones, which are fundamentally attributed to changes in the characteristics of strengthening precipitates. Among the strengthening mechanisms acting in these aluminium alloys, the most important is basically dependent on the morphology, size and population of the precipitates. The thermal cycle and deformation generated during the FSW process alter the precipitation characteristics previously present in the base material. FSW input energy regulates the magnitude of the thermal cycle and the intensity of deformation taking place during the process, and it can be controlled by the welding parameters, affecting the precipitates evolution and consequently the mechanical properties of the joint. Nevertheless, there remains a lack of knowledge about the substructural evolution of these alloys during FSW, and its correlation with weld energy input and their respective mechanical properties, particularly for the Al-Mg-Sc alloy. The main objective of this work is to explain the micro and substructural evolution (emphasizing precipitates evolution) of AA2024- T351, AA6013-T6 and Al-Mg-Sc alloys in similar

  8. Development and characterization of Al-Li alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Nayan, Niraj; Nagasireesha, G.; Sharma, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    Increased strength to weight ratio of aluminium-lithium alloys has attracted material scientists to develop these for aerospace applications. But commercial scale production of these alloys has always been slow in view of difficulties encountered during addition of lithium and in ensuring homogeneous billet composition. A new technique of Li addition has been adapted, which gives maximum recovery of Li in the billet. Using this technique, aluminium-lithium alloys of two different grades for aerospace application were cast. Billets were hot forged and rolled to the thickness range of 3-4 mm and heat-treated for different temper conditions. Mechanical properties were evaluated in T6 (solution treated and artificial aged), T8 (solution treated, cold worked and artificial aged) and T4 (solution treated and natural aged) temper conditions. Both alloys exhibit a strong natural aging response. Reversion for short periods at 180 deg. C results in decrease of strength. With artificial reaging strength reaches above the T4 temper condition level. Characterization was carried out using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Experimental investigation shows that addition of lithium at high melt temperature gives lower recovery of Li, and use of impure aluminium adversely affects the mechanical properties of the alloy in all temper conditions

  9. Reinforcement with alumina particles at the interface region of AA6101-T6 and AA1350 alloys during friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, R.; Thansekhar, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals the combinational effect of friction stir welding and friction stir processing on dissimilar AA6101-T6 and AA1350 aluminium alloys. For that, alumina particles are reinforced at interface region of AA6101-T6 and AA1350 aluminium alloys. Friction Stir Welding and Friction Stir Processing are done simultaneously for various sizes of groove. To analyze the welding quality and surface modifications, mechanical, wear and microstructural tests are carried out. Among these, smallest groove of 0.5 mm width and 1 mm depth reveals highest tensile and bending strengths and largest groove of 2 mm width and 3 mm depth gives maximum hardness and wear resistance. Taguchi technique shows that groove width is most influencing parameter. Developed second order models with interaction predict the responses with minimum error.

  10. Study of the glass forming ability of Cu60Zr32,5Ti7,5 alloy by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimidt, C.S.; Lima, L.V.; Bastos, I.N.; Aliaga, L.C.R.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of molecular dynamics simulation of Cu 60 Zr 32.5 Ti 7.5 alloy through the open source code LAMMPS. Amorphous samples were produced by quenching the metallic molten from 2300K to 200K at cooling rates of 50, 5 and 0.5K/ps. The pair distribution functions of both the liquid and solid were calculated and compared at different temperatures. The topology of short-range order was analyzed using the Voronoi tessellation method, which determined the presence of Cu-centered icosahedral clusters as the prevailing in the amorphous state at 300K. Moreover, the sample was submitted to uniaxial tensile tests at strain rate of 10ps -1 , in order to investigate the mechanical behavior of the metallic glass. The result of the stress-strain curve showed that applied loads lead to the plastic regime. However, the presences of shear bands, typical in the experimental testing, were not observed. Moreover, the evolution of the viscosity above the glass transition temperature and the fragility of the alloy were determined. The solidus and liquidus temperatures were determined and a good agreement with experimental data was found. (author)

  11. Electrochemical noise study on 2024-T3 Aluminum alloy corrosion in simulated acid rain under cyclic wet-dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yanyan; Zhang Zhao; Su Jingxin; Cao Fahe; Zhang Jianqing

    2006-01-01

    Potential noise records have been collected for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, which was exposed to simulated acid rain with different pH value for 15 wet-dry cycles. Meanwhile, Potentiodynamic polarization and SEM techniques were also used as assistant measurements. Three mathematic methods including average, standard deviation and wavelet transformation have been employed to analyze the records. The results showed that each single wet-dry cycle can be divided into three regions with respect to the change of the cathodic reaction rate, and with the increase of pH value the main cathodic reaction changes from the reduction of protons to that of oxygen molecules. The analysis of the EDP versus time evolution clearly indicates that the whole corrosion process can be divided into three segments for the case of pH 3.5 and only one for the cases of pH 4.5 and 6.0, which have been theoretically interpreted according to the corrosion theory and experimentally proved by SEM. The results also showed that the corrosion in the case of pH 3.5 was much more rigorous than that in the cases of pH 4.5 and 6.0. It may due to synergistic effects of that, the characteristic of hydrogen ions which is much more active than that of oxygen molecules, the high diffusion/migration rate of hydrogen ions in solution or through surface films and the lower stability of surface passive film at low pH value system

  12. Nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks in magnesium alloys of different structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, N.M.; Serdyuk, V.A.; Malinkina, T.I.; Kamyshkov, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Duration of the fatigue crack nucleation and growth rate have been in a wide range of stress intensity factor variations for MA2-1, MA2-1 hp (higher purity), MA12, (T2, T6 and T8), MA15, IMB6, MA21 magnesium alloys of different composition and structural state. The threshold and criti- cal values of stress intensity factors, Ksub(th) and Ksub(fc) are determined for those alloys, and morphology of fracture is studied at different stages of crack growth. Duration of the nucleation stage of a fatigue crack, the rate and micromechanisms of its growth are found to depedend on alloying and structural state of magnesium alloys. The best crack resistance characteristics has the MA2-1 alloy, the poorest - MA12 (T2) alloy. It is stated that thermal treatment by hardening and ageing increases the resistance of the MA12 alloy to fatigue fracture and the MA2-1 alloy of higher purity gives poorer parameters of crack resistance [ru

  13. Tensile and fracture behavior of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys: micro-mechanical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was chosen as the material for the core vessel of the future Jules Horowitz testing reactor (JHR). The objective of this thesis is to understand and model the tensile and fracture behavior of the material, as well as the origin of damage anisotropy. A micro-mechanical approach was used to link the microstructure and mechanical behavior. The microstructure of the alloy was characterized on the surface via Scanning Electron Microscopy and in the 3D volume via synchrotron X-ray tomography and laminography. The damage mechanism was identified by in-situ SEM tensile testing, ex-situ X-ray tomography and in-situ laminography on different levels of triaxiality. The observations have shown that damage nucleated at lower strains on Mg 2 Si coarse precipitates than on iron rich intermetallics. The identified scenario and the in-situ measurements were then used to develop a coupled GTN damage model incorporating nucleation, growth and coalescence of cavities formed by coarse precipitates. The relationship between the damage and the microstructure anisotropies was explained and simulated. (author)

  14. Microstructural effects on the initiation of zinc phosphate coatings on 2024-T3 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susac, D.; Sun, X.; Li, R.Y.; Wong, K.C.; Wong, P.C.; Mitchell, K.A.R.; Champaneria, R.

    2004-01-01

    The initiation of coatings deposited on to 2024-T3 aluminum alloy from supersaturated zinc phosphating solutions has been studied using scanning Auger microscopy (SAM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The alloy microstructure, especially associated with the second-phase particles, strongly affects the formation stages of the coating process, where etching of the substrate has a significant role. At the start, zinc phosphate (ZPO) crystals form on the Al-Cu-Mg second-phase particles, rather than on the matrix or on the Al-Cu-Fe-Mn particles, with the initial nucleation appearing at interfaces between Al-Cu-Mg particles and the matrix. In contrast, the formation of the ZPO coating is delayed on the cathodic Al-Cu-Fe-Mn particles, compared to those of the Al-Cu-Mg composition. When the coating process is completed, the whole sample surface is covered with ZPO although its thickness varies at the different micro-regions

  15. Assessment of residual stress of 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging using the contour method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheng [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Yang, Yinfei, E-mail: yyfgoat@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Li, Liang [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Bo; Tian, Hui [Xi’an Aircraft Industrial (Group) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710000 (China)

    2015-09-17

    The cold-compression stress relief process has been used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings. However, this method does not completely relieve the stress. Longitudinal residual stresses in 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging were measured with contour method. The measuring procedure of the contour method including specimen cutting under clamps with a wire electrical discharge machine, contour measurement of the cut surface with a laser scanner, careful data processing and elastic finite element analysis was introduced in detail. In addition, multiple cuts were used to map cross sectional stress at different cut surfaces. Finally, the longitudinal residual stress throughout the cut plane was mapped, and through thickness longitudinal stress profiles were also analyzed. Investigated results suggest that spatial variation of stress distribution can be attributed to the non-uniform plastic deformation of the cold-compression stress relief process. The overall reduction of peak stress magnitudes is approximately 43–79%.

  16. Assessment of residual stress of 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging using the contour method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Yinfei; Li, Liang; Chen, Bo; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The cold-compression stress relief process has been used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings. However, this method does not completely relieve the stress. Longitudinal residual stresses in 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging were measured with contour method. The measuring procedure of the contour method including specimen cutting under clamps with a wire electrical discharge machine, contour measurement of the cut surface with a laser scanner, careful data processing and elastic finite element analysis was introduced in detail. In addition, multiple cuts were used to map cross sectional stress at different cut surfaces. Finally, the longitudinal residual stress throughout the cut plane was mapped, and through thickness longitudinal stress profiles were also analyzed. Investigated results suggest that spatial variation of stress distribution can be attributed to the non-uniform plastic deformation of the cold-compression stress relief process. The overall reduction of peak stress magnitudes is approximately 43–79%

  17. Corrosion protection of AM60B magnesium alloy by application of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    it appears that more investigation is needed to develop safe and effective routes for ... conversion film on the magnesium alloy as an environment- friendly alternative for ... Prior to the electrochemical measurements, working elec- trodes were ...

  18. Cellular Shape Memory Alloy Structures: Experiments & Modeling (Part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    High -­‐ temperature  SMAs 24 Braze  Joint  between  two  wrought  pieces  of  a  Ni24.5Pd25Ti50.5  HTSMA   (HTSMA  from...process  can  be  used   to  join  other  metal  alloys  and   high -­‐ temperature   SMAs 25 Cellular  Shape  Memory...20 30 40 50 60 910 3 4 8 5 2 T (°C) Shape memory & superelasticity 1 0 e (%) (GPa) 6 7 A NiTi wire

  19. Effect of impact angles on ejecta and crater shape of aluminum alloy 6061-T6 targets in hypervelocity impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi K.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the impact angle of projectiles on the crater shape and ejecta in thick aluminum alloy targets was investigated in hypervelocity impacts. When polycarbonate projectiles and aluminum alloy 6061-T6 target were used, the impact angle of the projectiles clearly affected the crater shape, as expected. The impact angle also affected the ejecta mass, ejecta size and scatter angle. However, the effect at 15∘ and 22.5∘ was not great. When the impact angles were 30∘ and 45∘, the effect was clearly confirmed. The impact angle clearly affected the axial ratio of ejecta fragments, c/a.

  20. High-temperature mechanical properties of high-purity 70 mass% Cr-Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahina, M.; Harima, N.; Takaki, S.; Abiko, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    2002-01-16

    An ingot of high-purity 70 mass% Cr-Fe alloy was prepared by high-frequency induction melting in a high-purity argon atmosphere using a cold copper crucible. Its tensile properties such as hot-ductility and tensile strength were measured, and compared with the results for a high-purity 50 mass% Cr-Fe alloy, a high-purity 60 mass% Cr-Fe alloy and a Ni-based super-alloy. The formation of {sigma}-phase was also examined. The purity of a 70Cr-Fe alloy (70 mass% Cr-Fe alloy) ingot is more than 99.98 mass% and the total amount of gaseous impurities (C, N, O, S, H) in the 70Cr-Fe alloy is 69.9 mass ppm. The strength of the 70Cr-Fe alloy is higher than those of the 60Cr-Fe alloy and the 50Cr-Fe alloy at the temperatures between 293 and 1573 K, without decrease in ductility with increasing Cr content. The 70Cr-Fe alloy also possesses excellent high-temperature ductility. The {sigma}-phase was not observed after aging of 3.6 Ms at 873 K. Consequently, the 70Cr-Fe alloy is an excellent alloy as the base of super heat-resistant alloys. (orig.)

  1. Strategies for optimizing organic solar cells. Correlation between morphology and performance in DCV6T-C{sub 60} heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynands, David

    2011-02-04

    This work investigates organic solar cells made of small molecules. Using the material system {alpha}{omega}-bis(dicyanovinylene)-sexithiophene (DCV6T)-C{sub 60} as model, the correlation between the photovoltaic active layer morphology and performance of the solar cell is studied. The chosen method for controlling the layer morphology is applying different substrate temperatures (T{sub sub}) during the deposition of the layer. In neat DCV6T layers, substrate heating induces higher crystallinity as is shown by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The absorption spectrum displays a more distinct fine structure, a redshift of the absorption peaks by up to 11 nm and a significant increase of the low energy absorption band at T{sub sub}=120 C compared to T{sub sub}=30 C. Contrary to general expectations, the hole mobility as measured in field effect transistors and with the method of charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV) does not increase in samples with higher crystallinity. In mixed layers, investigations by AFM and UV-Vis spectroscopy reveal a stronger phase separation induced by substrate heating, leading to larger domains of DCV6T. This is indicated by an increased grain size and roughness of the topography, the increase of the DCV6T luminescence signal, and the more distinct fine structure of the DCV6T related absorption. Based on the results of the morphology analysis, the effect of different substrate temperatures on the performance of solar cells with flat and mixed DCV6T-C{sub 60} heterojunctions is investigated. In flat heterojunction solar cells, a slight increase of the photocurrent by about 10% is observed upon substrate heating, attributed to the increase of DCV6T absorption. In mixed DCV6T:C{sub 60} heterojunction solar cells, much more pronounced enhancements are achieved. By varying the substrate temperature from -7 C to 120 C, it is shown that the stronger phase separation upon substrate heating facilitates the

  2. Mechanical behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazer, J.; Verzasconi, S.L.; Sawtell, R.R.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The cryogenic mechanical properties of aluminum-lithium alloys are of interest because these alloys are attractive candidate materials for cryogenic tankage. Previous work indicates that the strength-toughness relationship for alloy 2090-T81 (Al-2.7Cu-2.2Li-0.12Zr by weight) improves significantly as temperature decreases. The subject of this investigation is the mechanism of this improvement. Deformation behavior was studied since the fracture morphology did not change with temperature. Tensile failures in 2090-T81 and -T4 occur at plastic instability. In contrast, in the binary aluminum-lithium alloy studied here they occur well before plastic instability. For all three materials, the strain hardening rate in the longitudinal direction increases as temperature decreases. This increase is associated with an improvement in tensile elongation at low temperatures. In alloy 2090-T4, these results correlate with a decrease in planar slip at low temperatures. The improved toughness at low temperatures is believed to be due to increased stable deformation prior to fracture

  3. Effect of Sc addition and T6 aging treatment on the microstructure modification and mechanical properties of A356 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramod, S.L. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Ravikirana [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Chennai 603203 (India); Rao, A.K. Prasada [College of Engineering and Design, Alliance University, Bengaluru 562106 (India); Murty, B.S., E-mail: murty@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bakshi, Srinivasa R., E-mail: sbakshi@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2016-09-30

    Effect of Sc addition and T6 aging treatment on the secondary dendritic arm spacing (SDAS), modification of eutectic Si morphology, β-Al{sub 5}FeSiand π-Al{sub 8}Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 6}Fe{sub 1} phases and its effect on mechanical properties in A356 alloy has been investigated. Addition of 0.4 wt%Sc in A356 alloy resulted in a 50%reduction in the secondary dendritic arm spacing (SDAS). Sc addition changed the morphology of eutectic Si from plate like to fibrous and globular. The needle like morphology of β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase in A356 alloy changed to Al{sub 5}Fe(Si,Sc) phase having smaller size and irregular morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) diffraction pattern and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed the presence of β-Al{sub 5}FeSiand π-Al{sub 8}Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 6}Fe{sub 1} phases in A356 alloy which changed to β-Al{sub 5}Fe(Si,Sc), π-Al{sub 8}Mg{sub 3}(Si,Sc){sub 6}Fe{sub 1} and additional V-AlSi{sub 2}Sc{sub 2}phase was observed in Sc containing alloys. Addition of 0.4 wt%Sc to A356 alloy improved its Vickers hardness, Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), Yield strength (YS) and ductility by 20%, 25%, 20% and 30% respectively. Artificial aging treatment resulted in significant improvement in the tensile properties for both A356 and Sc added A356 alloys.

  4. Heat input effect of friction stir welding on aluminium alloy AA 6061-T6 welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedmak Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the heat input and maximum temperature developed during friction stir welding with different parameters. Aluminium alloy (AA 6061-T6 has been used for experimental and numerical analysis. Experimental analysis is based on temperature measurements by using infrared camera, whereas numerical analysis was based on empirical expressions and finite element method. Different types of defects have been observed in respect to different levels of heat input.

  5. Review and Study of Physics Driven Pitting Corrosion Modeling in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    aluminum subjected to pitting corrosion under fatigue conditions ”, Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 1253-1259 Wei, R.P. (2001) “A model for...and material microstructure applied to corrosion and fatigue of aluminum and steel alloys”, Engineering Fracture Mechanics , Vol. 76, pp. 695-708 Wei...Fatigue Behavior of Aluminum Alloy 7075 -T6: Modeling and Experimental Studies", Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 297, Issue: 1-2, 15, pp. 223

  6. 60-MW/sub t/ methanation plant design for HTGR process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.R.; Arcilla, N.T.; Hui, M.M.; Hutchins, B.A.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes a 60 MW(t) Methanation Plant for generating steam for industrial applications. The plant consists of four 15 MW(t) methanation trains. Each train is connected to a pipeline and receives synthesis gas (syngas) from a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reforming (HTGR-R) plant. Conversion of the syngas to methane and water releases exothermic heat which is used to generate steam. Syngas is received at the Methanation Plant at a temperature of 80 0 F and 900 psia. One adiabatic catalytic reactor and one isothermal catalytic reactor, in each methanation train, converts the syngas to 92.2% (dry bases) methane. Methane and condensate are returned at temperatures of 100 to 125 0 F and at pressures of 860 to 870 psia to the HTGR-R plant for the reproduction of syngas

  7. Positron annihilation studies of vacancies in Ag-Zn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabik, S.

    1982-01-01

    The temperature dependence of annihilation rate, F(T), at the peak of angular correlation curve has been measured for Ag-29.2%at Zn and Ag-50%at Zn alloys. By applying the trapping model the vacancy formation energy for Ag-29.2%at Zn alloy has been found to be equal to 0.94+-0.06 eV. It has been found that the course of the F(T) curve for Ag-50%at Zn depends on the phase composition and thermal history of the investigated sample. For alloys containing not more than 50%at Zn, the concentration dependence of the vacancy formation energy for Ag-Zn alloys is very similar to that for Cu-Zn alloys. (Auth.)

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Cast Aluminum Alloys for Automotive Cylinder Heads: Part I—Microstructure Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence F.; Rodriguez, Andres; Watkins, Thomas R.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-05-01

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to the dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ^'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ^' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β^' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.

  9. Anodic oxidation of Ta/Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mato, S.; Alcala, G.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.; Shimizu, K.; Habazaki, H.; Quance, T.; Graham, M.J.; Masheder, D.

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of iron during anodizing of sputter-deposited Ta/Fe alloys in ammonium pentaborate electrolyte has been examined by transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Anodic films on Ta/1.5 at.% Fe, Ta/3 at.% Fe and Ta/7 at.% Fe alloys are amorphous and featureless and develop at high current efficiency with respective formation ratios of 1.67, 1.60 and 1.55 nm V -1 . Anodic oxidation of the alloys proceeds without significant enrichment of iron in the alloy in the vicinity of the alloy/film interface and without oxygen generation during film growth, unlike the behaviour of Al/Fe alloys containing similar concentrations of iron. The higher migration rate of iron species relative to that of tantalum ions leads to the formation of an outer iron-rich layer at the film surface

  10. Effects of 60 MeV C5+ ion irradiation on PmT-PVC and p-TSA doped PoT-PVC blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmi, G.B.V.S.; Siddiqui, Azher M.; Ali, Vazid; Kulriya, Pawan K.; Zulfequar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Poly(m-toluidine) (PmT) and Poly(o-toluidine) (PoT) have been synthesized from derivatives of aniline (m-toluidine), (o-toluidine) monomers by chemical oxidative polymerization method. After polymerization, PoT powder was doped with p-toluene sulphonic acid (p-TSA) and the polymer powders were blended with poly vinyl chloride (PVC) to achieve PmT and p-TSA doped PoT dispersed films. XRD, FTIR and UV-visible studies were carried out to get their structural changes and optical information. These blends were irradiated by 60 MeV C 5+ ions with different fluences. Post Irradiation XRD, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy were also performed on all films. On p-TSA doped PoT-PVC blends dc-conductivity measurements are also carried out before and after irradiation. The results show structural modifications which lead to changes in optical and electrical properties

  11. Influence of Microstructure on Corrosion Property of Mg-Al-Zn Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ja; Na, Seung Chan; Yang, Won Seong; Hwang, WoonSuk; Jang, Si Sung; Yoo, Hwang Ryong

    2006-01-01

    Influence of microstructure on the corrosion property of Mg-Al-Zn Alloy was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization experiments, galvanic coupling experiments, and scanning electron microscopy in sodium chloride solutions. Pitting was the mot common form of attack in chloride solution, and filiform corrosion was also occurred in AZ91D-T4 alloy. On the contrary, filiform attack in the bulk matrix was predominant corrosion form in AZ91D-T6 alloy, and the number and size of pit were decreased than those of AZ91D-T4 alloy. Galvanic coupling effect between Mg 17 Al 12 and matrix was existed, but the propagation of galvanic corrosion was localized only near the Mg 17 Al 12 phase in AZ91D-6T alloy. The corrosion resistance of Mg-Al matrix increased with decreasing Al content in the matrix. And, it could be regarded that Al content in the matrix is decreased by precipitation of Mg 17 Al 12 curing the aging treatment and it decreases the anodic reaction rate of the matrix and galvanic effect in AZ91D-T6 alloy. It could be considered that the composition and macrostructure of surface protective layer would be varied by precipitation of Mg 17 Al 12 and subsequent decreasing of Al content in the matrix. And it would contribute the corrosion resistance of AZ91D-T6 aging alloy

  12. Inhomogeneity of Microstructure and Properties of 7085-T651 Aluminum Alloy Extra-thick Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Chengbo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhomogeneity of microstructure and properties of 7085-T651 aluminum alloy extra-thick plate were investigated by tensile properties, exfoliation corrosion, optical microscopy(OM, composition analysis, scanning electron microscopy(SEM,differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results show that the microstructure, tensile property and exfoliation corrosion in different layers of 7085-T651 aluminum alloy of 110 mm thick are inhomogeneous. For the 1/4 thickness layer, the tensile strength is the minimum, 540 MPa, and the resistance to exfoliation corrosion of this layer is the worst, with exfoliation corrosion classification of EB. For the core layer, the tensile strength is the maximum, 580 MPa. The resistance to exfoliation corrosion of the surface layer is the best, with exfoliation corrosion classification of EA. For the 1/4 thickness layer, it has the largest recrystallized fraction up to about 47.7% and the grain size is about 105 μm; there are equilibrium phase particles precipitated on grain boundaries or within grains; the size of aging precipitates is small; and thus both mechanical properties and resistance to exfoliation corrosion are the worst. For the core layer, it has the smallest recrystallized fraction of about 14.8% and there are a large amount of sub-grains; the fraction of residual phase Al7Cu2Fe almost reaches up to about 1.43%; the size of the equilibrium phase on grain boundaries, the size of aging precipitates and the width of PFZ are large, and therefore good mechanical properties and bad resistance to exfoliation corrosion are obtained.

  13. Modification of Sr on 4004 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Erjun; Cao, Guojian; Feng, Yicheng; Wang, Liping; Wang, Guojun; Lv, Xinyu

    2013-05-01

    As a brazing foil, 4004 Al alloy has good welding performance. However, the high Si content decreases the plasticity of the alloy. To improve the plasticity of 4004 Al alloy and subsequently improve the productivity of 4004 Al foil or 434 composite foil, 4004 Al alloy was modified by Al-10%Sr master alloy. Modification effects of an additional amount of Sr, modification temperature, and holding time on 4004 aluminum alloy were studied by orthogonal design. The results showed that the greatest impact parameter of 4004 aluminum alloy modification was the additional amount of Sr, followed by holding time and modification temperature. The optimum modification parameters obtained by orthogonal design were as follows: Sr addition of 0.04%, holding time of 60 min, and modification temperature of 760°C. The effect of Sr addition on modification was analyzed in detail based on orthogonal results. With increasing of Sr addition, elongation of 4004 alloy increased at first, and decreased after reaching the maximum value.

  14. Biaxial Testing of 2195 Aluminum Lithium Alloy Using Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W. M.; Pollock, W. D.; Dawicke, D. S.; Wagner, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A cruciform biaxial test specimen was used to test the effect of biaxial load on the yield of aluminum-lithium alloy 2195. Fifteen cruciform specimens were tested from 2 thicknesses of 2195-T8 plate, 0.45 in. and 1.75 in. These results were compared to the results from uniaxial tensile tests of the same alloy, and cruciform biaxial tests of aluminum alloy 2219-T87.

  15. The effect of hardening laws and thermal softening on modeling residual stresses in FSW of aluminum alloy 2024-T3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    or kinematic hardening together with the metallurgical softening model were applied in order to give a first impression of the tendencies in residual stresses in friction stir welds when choosing different hardening and softening behaviors. Secondly, real friction stir butt welding of aluminum alloy 2024-T3...

  16. Shear Punch Testing of BOR-60 Irradiated TEM Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Matthew Estevan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Tobias J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-13

    As a part of the project “High Fidelity Ion Beam Simulation of High Dose Neutron Irradiation” an Integrated Research Program (IRP) project from the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP), TEM geometry samples of ferritic cladding alloys, Ni based super alloys and model alloys were irradiated in the BOR-60 reactor to ~16 dpa at ~370°C and ~400°C. Samples were sent to Los Alamos National Laboratory and subjected to shear punch testing. This report presents the results from this testing.

  17. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4 and aging (T6 heat treatment.The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH2 and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7, revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269, and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  18. Coupling between bulk ordering and surface segregation: from alloy surfaces to surface alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallis, Coralie

    1997-01-01

    -The knowledge of the alloy surfaces is of prime interest to understand their catalytic properties. On the one hand, the determination of the stability of the surface alloys depends very strongly on the behaviours of the A c B 1-c alloy surfaces. On the other hand, the knowledge of the kinetics of the formation-dissolution of surface alloys can allow to understand the equilibrium segregation isotherm. We have then studied the relation between the equilibrium surface segregation in an alloy A c B 1-c and the kinetics of dissolution of a few metallic layers of A/B and the inverse deposit. We have used an energetic model derived from the electronic structure (T.I.B.M.) allowing us to study the surface segregation both in the disordered state and in the ordered one. The kinetics of dissolution were studied using the kinetic version of this model (K.T.I.B.M.) consistent with the equilibrium model. To illustrate our study, we have chosen the Cu-Pd system, a model for the formation of surface alloys and for which a great number of studies, both experimental and theoretical, are in progress. We then have shown for the (111) surface of this system that the surface alloys obtained during the dissolution are related to the alloy surfaces observed for the equilibrium segregation. The Cu-Pd system is characteristic of systems which have a weak segregation energy. Then, we have performed an equivalent study for a system with a strong segregation energy. Our choice was directly put on the Pt-Sn system. The surface behaviour, both in equilibrium and during the kinetics of dissolution, is very different from the Cu-Pd case. In particular, we have found pure 2-D surface alloys. Finally, a quenched molecular dynamics study has allowed us to determine the relative stability of various possible surface superstructures. (author) [fr

  19. Study of microstructural evolutions of the 6061-T6 aluminium alloy under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, Camille

    2015-01-01

    The 6061-T6 Aluminium alloy, whose microstructure contains Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si dispersoids and hardening needle-shaped β'' precipitates (Mg, Si), has been chosen as the structural material for the core vessel of the Material Testing Jules Horowitz Nuclear Reactor. Because it will be submitted to high neutron flux at a temperature around 50 C, it is necessary to study microstructural evolutions induced by irradiation and especially the stability of the second phase particles. In this work, an analytical study by in-situ and ex-situ electron and ion irradiations has been performed, as well as a study under neutron irradiation. The precipitate characterization by Transmission Electron Microscopy demonstrates that Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si dispersoids are driven under irradiation towards their equilibrium configuration, consisting of a core/shell structure, enhanced by irradiation, with a (Fe, Mn) enriched core surrounded by a Cr-enriched shell. In contrast, the (Mg,Si) β'' precipitates are destabilized by irradiation. They dissolve under ion irradiation in favor of a new precipitation of (Mg,Si,Cu,Cr,Al) rich clusters resulting in an increase of the alloy's hardness. β'' precipitates tend towards a transformation to cubic precipitates under neutron irradiation. (author) [fr

  20. Mechanical spectroscopy studies of partially amorphous Nd60Fe30Al10 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnowski, German C.; Salva, Horacio; Ghilarducci, Ada A.; Urreta, Silvia E.; Billoni, Orlando V.; Fabietti, Luis M.

    2004-01-01

    The hard magnetic properties of melt spun Nd 60 Fe 30 Al 10 alloys are attributed to a major matrix nominally amorphous for X-ray diffraction, composed by two metastable nanosized (∼5 nm) phases with different intrinsic magnetic properties. This composite system is investigated for the first time by mechanical spectroscopy techniques in the temperature range between 50 K and 450 K (1 kHz) where large annealing effects and two damping phenomena are detected. The as-cast microstructure irreversibly changes during annealing above 330 K, leading to a large modulus recovery accompanied by a reduction in the internal friction level. A relatively large relaxation effect is observed about 290 K, evidenced by a narrow internal friction peak with the corresponding step in the elastic modulus; this peak remains stable under thermal cycling between 200 K and 300 K but is affected by aging at 330 K and practically vanishes after heating to 450 K. Another internal friction peak is observed at about 250 K which has associated an anomalous modulus effect; in this temperature range, the internal friction and the elastic modulus exhibit heating/cooling hysteresis, which strongly depends on the extreme temperatures of the thermal cycle, a behavior frequently associated to first-order phase transformations

  1. Effect of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sivaraj

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of post weld heat treatments, namely artificial ageing and solution treatment followed by artificial ageing, on microstructure and mechanical properties of 12 mm thick friction stir welded joints of precipitation hardenable high strength armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy. The tensile properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and notch tensile strength, are evaluated and correlated with the microhardness and microstructural features. The scanning electron microscope is used to characterie the fracture surfaces. The solution treatment followed by ageing heat treatment cycle is found to be marginally beneficial in improving the tensile properties of friction stir welds of AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy.

  2. Axial Fatigue Tests at Zero Mean Stress of 24S-T and 75S-T Aluminum-alloy Strips with a Central Circular Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, W C; Mayer, M JR

    1948-01-01

    Axial fatigue tests at zero mean stress have been made on 0.032- and 0.064-inch 24S-T and 0.032-inch 75S-T sheet-metal specimens 1/4, 1/2, 1, and 2 inches wide without a hole and with central holes giving a range of hole diameter D to specimen width W from 0.01 to 0.95. No systematic difference was noted between the results for the 0.032-inch and the 0.064-inch specimens although the latter seemed the more consistent. In general the fatigue strength based on the minimum section dropped sharply as the ration D/W was increased from zero to about 0.25. The plain specimens showed quite a pronounced decrease in fatigue strength with increasing width. The holed specimens showed only slight and rather inconclusive evidence of this size effect. The fatigue stress-concentration factor was higher for 75S-T than for 24S-T alloy. Evidence was found that a very small hole would not cause any reduction in fatigue strength.

  3. Development of low activation aluminum alloys for reacting plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Kawai, H.; Saida, T.; Onozuka, M.

    1986-01-01

    In the advanced fusion devices aiming at D-T burning, structural components such as vacuum vessels, coil casings are exposed to high energy neutrons produced by D-T reaction. From a view point of maintenability of accessibility, low radioactive structural materials are strongly preferred. The authors have developed two types of improved alloys of reduced radioactivity based on 5083 aluminum alloy: Al-Mg-Bi . Cr and Al-Mg-Cu . Zr. Both of the alloys of 50mm thickness have been proved to have excellent material properties virtually equivalent to those of 5083 alloy

  4. Amorphous alloys in the U-Cr-V system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Musso, E.

    1979-01-01

    Amorphous uranium-chromium-vanadium alloys and a method of producing them are described. The uranium content of the alloys may vary between 60 and 80 atom percent, and chromium and vanadium between 0 and 40 atom percent, most particularly between 20 and 40 atom percent. A maximum of 10 atom percent of Cr or V may be replaced by other alloying elements, including metalloids and at least one transtion metal element. (LL)

  5. Effect of Multipath Laser Shock Processing on Microhardness, Surface Roughness, and Wear Resistance of 2024-T3 Al Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Kadhim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser shock processing (LSP is an innovative surface treatment technique with high peak power, short pulse, and cold hardening for strengthening metal materials. LSP is based on the application of a high intensity pulsed laser beam (I>1 GW/cm2;  t<50 ns at the interface between the metallic target and the surrounding medium (a transparent confining material, normally water forcing a sudden vaporization of the metallic surface into a high temperature and density plasma that immediately develops inducing a shock wave propagating into the material. The shock wave induces plastic deformation and a residual stress distribution in the target material. In this paper we study the increase of microhardness and surface roughness with the increase of laser pulse energy in 2024-T3 Al alloy. The influence of the thickness of the confining layer (water on microhardness and surface roughness is also studied. In addition, the effect of LSP treatment with best conditions on wear behaviors of the alloy was investigated.

  6. Comparative evaluation of cast aluminum alloys for automotive cylinder heads: Part I Microstructure evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence Frederick Jr; Rodriguez, Andres; Watkins, Thomas R.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-01-01

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to the dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ''θ'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ'θ' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β'β' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.

  7. Two-fold origin of the deformation-induced ferromagnetism in bulk Fe60Al40 (at.%) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez, E; Surinach, S; Baro, M D; Sort, J; Liedke, M O; Fassbender, J; Nogues, J

    2008-01-01

    The transition from the atomically ordered B2-phase to the chemically disordered A2-phase and the concomitant deformation-induced ferromagnetism have been investigated in bulk polycrystalline Fe 60 Al 40 (at.%) alloys subjected to compression processes. A detailed correlation between structural, magnetic and mechanical properties reveals that the generated ferromagnetism depends on the stress level but is virtually independent of the loading rate. The mechanisms governing the induced ferromagnetism also vary as the stress level is increased. Namely, in the low-stress regime both lattice cell expansion and atomic intermixing play a role in the induced ferromagnetic behavior. Conversely, lattice expansion seems to become the main mechanism contributing to the generated ferromagnetism in the high-stress regime. Furthermore, a correlation is also observed between the order-disorder transition and the mechanical hardness. Hence, a combination of magnetic and mechanical measurements can be used, in synergetic manner, to investigate this deformation-induced phase transition.

  8. Ion mass dependence of irradiation-induced local creation of ferromagnetism in Fe60Al40 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, J.; Liedke, M. O.; Strache, T.; Moeller, W.; Menendez, E.; Sort, J.; Rao, K. V.; Deevi, S. C.; Nogues, J.

    2008-01-01

    Ion irradiation of Fe 60 Al 40 alloys results in the phase transformation from the paramagnetic, chemically ordered B2 phase to the ferromagnetic, chemically disordered A2 phase. The magnetic phase transformation is related to the number of displacements per atom (dpa) during the irradiation. For heavy ions (Ar + , Kr + , and Xe + ), a universal curve is observed with a steep increase in the fraction of the ferromagnetic phase that reaches saturation, i.e., a complete phase transformation, at about 0.5 dpa. This proves the purely ballistic nature of the disordering process. If light ions are used (He + and Ne + ), a pronounced deviation from the universal curve is observed. This is attributed to bulk vacancy diffusion from the dilute collision cascades, which leads to a partial recovery of the thermodynamically favored B2 phase. Comparing different noble gas ion irradiation experiments allows us to assess the corresponding counteracting contributions. In addition, the potential to create local ferromagnetic areas embedded in a paramagnetic matrix is demonstrated

  9. Evaluation and Comparison of the Effects of RRA, T73 and T6 Heat Treatments on Hardness, Tensile and Bending Strengths of 7075 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Assadi

    2016-09-01

    20 min and in the third stage aging process was repeated like T6 treatment. Evaluation of the microstructures and fractured surfaces were performed with optical microscopes (OM and scanning electron microscopes (SEM. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS was used to study the chemical composition of precipitates. Hardness, tensile and bending strength were evaluated according to ASTM E384-11e1, ASTM B557-06 and DIN 50121 standards. RRA treatment increased tensile strength from 466 to 485 MPa and hardness from 110 to 165 Vickers. After T6 treatment, tensile strength increased from 466 to 505 MPa and hardness from 110 to 160 Vickers. In T73 process, the tensile strength remained almost constant (465 MPa but yield strength increased from 394 to 410 MPa and hardness decreased from 110 to 84 Vickers. The bending strength increased from 797 to 844, 920 and 1030 MPa in T73, RRA and T6 processes, respectively. By applying RRA process in optimized temperature and time, hardness, tensile and bending strengths of 7075 aluminum alloy were enhanced from 5 to 15% compared to that of T6 and T73 processes.

  10. Superplastic formability of Al-Cu-Li alloy Weldalite (TM) 049

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bao-Tong; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive research during the past decade shows that several aluminum lithium alloys can be processed to attain a microstructure that enables superplasticity. The high tensile stress of Al-Cu-Li alloy Weldalite (TM) 049 in the T4 and T6 tempers offers tremendous potential for attaining exceptional post-SPF (superplastic formability) properties. The used SPF material is Weldalite, which was shown to induce SPF behavior in other Al-Cu-Li alloys. The superplastic behavior and resulting post-SPF mechanical properties of this alloy, which was designed to be the next major structural alloy for space applications, were evaluated. The results indicate that Weldalite alloy does indeed exhibit excellent superplasticity over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates and excellent post-SPF tensile strength at various potential service temperatures.

  11. Microstructural Characterization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloys 1460 and 2195

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. M.; Shenoy, R. N.

    1998-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were employed to characterize the precipitate distributions in lithium-containing aluminum alloys 1460 and 2195 in the T8 condition. TEM examinations revealed delta prime and T1 as the primary strengthening precipitates in alloys 1460 and 2195 respectively. TEM results showed a close similarity of the Russian alloy 1460 to the U.S. alloy 2090, which has a similar composition and heat treatment schedule. DSC analyses also indicate a comparable delta prime volume fraction. TEM study of a fractured tensile sample of alloy 1460 showed that delta prime precipitates are sheared by dislocations during plastic deformation and that intense stress fields arise at grain boundaries due to planar slip. Differences in fracture toughness of alloys 1460 and 2195 are rationalized on the basis of a literature review and observations from the present study.

  12. Molecular field analysis for melt-spun amorphous Fe sub 1 sub 0 sub 0 sub - sub x Gd sub x alloys (18<=60)

    CERN Document Server

    Yano, K

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic properties for the melt-spun amorphous Fe sub 1 sub 0 sub 0 sub - sub x Gd sub x alloys were analyzed using the molecular field theory (MFT). A concentration dependence of three exchange interaction constants was derived over a wide concentration range (18=T sub c sub o sub m sub p. Curvature of the Arrott plot in Gd-rich region was qualitatively simulated.

  13. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding between Ultrafine Grained 1050 and 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The ultrafine grained (UFGed 1050 Al plates with a thickness of 2 mm, which were produced by the accumulative roll bonding technique after five cycles, were friction stir butt welded to 2 mm thick 6061-T6 Al alloy plates at a different revolutionary pitch that varied from 0.5 to 1.25 mm/rev. In the stir zone, the initial nano-sized lamellar structure of the UFGed 1050 Al alloy plate transformed into an equiaxial grain structure with a larger average grain size due to the dynamic recrystallization and subsequent grain growth. However, an equiaxial grain structure with a much smaller grain size was simultaneously formed in the 6061 Al alloy plates, together with coarsening of the precipitates. Tensile tests of the welds obtained at different welding speeds revealed that two kinds of fracture modes occurred for the specimens depending on their revolutionary pitches. The maximum tensile strength was about 110 MPa and the fractures were all located in the stir zone close to the 1050 Al side.

  14. Synthesis and crytallization of amorphous In-Te alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengrenovich, R.D.; Lopatnyuk, I.A.; Mikhal'chenko, V.P.; Kasiyan, I.M.; Geshko, E.I.

    1988-01-01

    Tendency of Te-In alloys with indium content from 5 to 40 % to amorphization is investigated. It is marked that in this interval of concentrations the alloys have the tendency to subcooling even at cooling velocities equalling only 0.2-0.3 K/s. Maximal subcooling ΔT=70 deg takes place for the eutectic composition. Tendency of Te-In alloys to vitrification is explained by the character to interatomic interactions in a liquid, the interactions promote the formation of molecular clusters in it in cooling, that leads to fast increase of viscosity and to increase of T g amorphization temperature

  15. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength

  16. Production of A356 aluminum alloy wheels by thixo-forging combined with a low superheat casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuncheng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The A356 aluminum alloy wheels were produced by thixo-forging combined with a low superheat casting process. The as-cast microstructure, microstructure evolution during reheating and the mechanical properties of thixo-forged wheels made from the A356 aluminum alloy were studied. The results show that the A356 aluminum alloy round billet with fine, uniform and non-dendritic grains can be obtained when the melt is cast at 635 篊. When the round billet is reheated at 600 篊 for 60 min, the non-dendritic grains are changed into spherical ones and the round billet can be easily thixo-forged into wheels. The tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of the thixo-forged wheels with T6 heat treatment are 327.6 MPa, 228.3 MPa and 7.8%, respectively, which are higher than those of a cast wheel. It is suggested that the thixo-forging combined with the low superheat casting process is an effective technique to produce aluminum alloy wheels with high mechanical properties.

  17. The Effect of Operational Cutting Parameters on Nitinol-60 in Wire Electrodischarge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar LotfiNeyestanak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys are a kind of active materials, which have significant characteristics in comparison with other alloys. Since these materials are applicable in different fields such as aerospace, automobile industry, medicine, and dentistry, the effects of wire electrodischarge machining on the properties of these alloys have been studied. In this paper, changes in the shape recovery ability and microhardness of the machined surface of Nitonol-60 shape memory alloy have been studied considering recasting and formation of resolidificated layer on the shape memory alloy surface. XRD and EDXA analyses of the surface layer of the sample besides a microscopic study of the shape memory alloy layer by SEM and a study of the changes in mechanical properties of the surface layer were done by performing microhardness and tension tests on the work piece surface. Considering the surface layer, reversible strain has been studied according to the shape recovery percentage of Nitinol-60 shape memory alloy. Results show that the surface layer formed on the surface of the samples has caused changes in both physical and mechanical properties of the cut surface because of the penetration of the separated materials in comparison with deeper layers of the piece.

  18. Superconducting properties of the hexagonal-close-packed alloy system TcZr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, P.

    1984-01-01

    The theoretical formula of McMillan, modified via the multiple-scattering theory of Gomersall and Gyorffy, is very successful in computing the electron-phonon coupling constant (lambda) and the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/) of elements and compounds from quantities readily obtainable from band structure work or approaches based on the scattering theory. However, for disordered solids this theory fails because of the breakdown of the translational symmetry used in the multiple scattering theory. In the particular case of substitutional alloys, the problem can still be solved however if, at each lattice point, the t-matrix of an individual scatterer is replaced by a configurational average of the t-matrices of the alloying materials (average t-matrix approximation). This modified theory, which has already been successfully applied to some cubic substitutional alloys, is herein used to predict lambda and T/sub c/ for the h.c.p. TcZr alloy system. The results indicate that this system has good superconducting properties. (author)

  19. Dislocation polymorphism transformation of 6061-T651 aluminum alloy processed by laser shock processing: Effect of tempering at the elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, X.D.; Ruan, L.; Yuan, S.Q.; Ren, N.F.; Zheng, L.M.; Zhan, Q.B.; Zhou, J.Z.; Yang, H.M.; Wang, Y.; Dai, F.Z.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of tempering on surface topography and dislocation configuration of 6061-T651 aluminum alloy by laser shock processing (LSP) were investigated at the elevated temperatures. Surface topography and surface roughness were tested by a Surfcom 130A-Monochrome surface rough-meter. Morphologies of precipitated phases were monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the dislocation configurations of samples after LSP were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results showed that LSP had a beneficial effect on micro-hardness at elevated temperature. There was a little change of the surface roughness as subjected to LSP. The main strengthening mechanism of micro-hardness was dislocation strengthening and fine grain strengthening, and precipitated phase strengthening was the main strengthening mechanism at elevated temperature. “Dislocation polymorphism transformation” (DPT) effect was affirmed at elevated temperature, and the elevated temperature was principal element for inducing the DPT effect of 6061-T651 aluminum alloy by LSP

  20. Comment on ``(Au-Ag)144(SR)60 alloy nanomolecules'' by C. Kumara and A. Dass, Nanoscale, 2011, 3, 3064

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcaro, Giovanni; Sementa, Luca; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Stener, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    A recent paper in this journal reported the synthesis and characterization via electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy of (Au-Ag)144(SR)60 alloy nanomolecules with different compositions, ranging from 1 : 0 to 1 : 0.75 Au : Ag ratios. The UV-vis spectra of such systems were found to exhibit absorption peaks at 310 nm, 425 nm and 560 nm, interpreted as reminiscent of the silver surface plasmon resonance band due to simple atomic replacement of Au by Ag atoms in a fixed structural framework. On the basis of a comparison of experimentally observed and theoretically simulated optical absorption spectra, we conclude that the experimental situation must be more complicated, and that further work is needed to achieve atomistic insight into these fascinating systems.

  1. Thermophysical Properties of 60-NITINOL for Mechanical Component Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2012-01-01

    The linear thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat capacity, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of 60- NITINOL were studied over a range of temperatures representing the operating environment of an oil-lubricated bearing. The behavior of this material appears to follow wellestablished theories applicable to either metal alloys, in general, or to intermetallic compounds, more specifically and the measured data were found to be comparable to those for conventional bearing alloys.

  2. Slow positron beam study of corrosion behavior of AM60B magnesium alloy in NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Zhu, Z.J.; Wang, J.J.; Wu, Y.C.; Zhai, T.; Song, G.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Positron annihilation is a sensitive tool to characterize the corrosion layer. • The interfacial voids promoted the formation of Mg(OH) 2 corrosion layer. • Mg(OH) 2 precipitated during early corrosion stage provided a temporary protection. - Abstract: The corrosion behavior of super vacuum die-cast AM60B magnesium alloys immersed in a 5 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by slow positron beam technique, XRD, XPS, SEM and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The XRD and XPS results indicated that Mg(OH) 2 was main corrosion product in the salt solution. With prolonging the immersion time, a significant decrease of Doppler-broadened annihilation line-width parameter near the surface after corrosion was observed and interpreted that the pre-existing interfacial voids between oxide film and matrix might promote the formation of Mg(OH) 2 corrosion layer. Polarization tests found that Mg(OH) 2 could provide a temporary protection.

  3. STUDY THE EFFECTS OF PRESTRAINS IN UNIAXIAL TENSION ON THE FORMING LIMIT DIAGRAM OF ALUMINUM ALLOY SHEETS(2024 T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed J. Ali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available           The strain path for sheet metal may be changed during forming , this may be affect the forming limit curve (FLC . In this work the FLC before and after prestraining was determined for aluminum alloy (2024 T3 to study the effect of this type of prestraining and in different values on the FLC. This alloy was chosen because it is used widely , specially in aircraft structures .It was shown that the using of uniaxial tension prestrain affects the FLC . The major strain in right side is increased with the increasing in the prestrain , while in the left side the effect is small .

  4. The effect of copper, chromium, and zirconium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John A.; Shenoy, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of the systematic variation of copper, chromium, and zirconium contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 7000-type aluminum alloy. Fracture toughness and tensile properties are evaluated for each alloy in both the peak aging, T8, and the overaging, T73, conditions. Results show that dimpled rupture essentially characterize the fracture process in these alloys. In the T8 condition, a significant loss of toughness is observed for alloys containing 2.5 pct Cu due to the increase in the quantity of Al-Cu-Mg-rich S-phase particles. An examination of T8 alloys at constant Cu levels shows that Zr-bearing alloys exhibit higher strength and toughness than the Cr-bearing alloys. In the T73 condition, Cr-bearing alloys are inherently tougher than Zr-bearing alloys. A void nucleation and growth mechanism accounts for the loss of toughness in these alloys with increasing copper content.

  5. Analysis of controlled-mechanism of grain growth in undercooled Fe-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zheng; Liu Feng; Yang Xiaoqin; Shen Chengjin; Fan Yu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In terms of a thermo-kinetic model applicable for micro-scale undercooled Fe-4 at.% Cu alloy, grain growth behavior of the single-phase supersaturated granular grain was investigated. → In comparison of pure kinetic model, pure thermodynamic model and the extended thermo-kinetic model, two characteristic annealing time were determined. → The controlled-mechanism of grain growth in undercooled Fe-Cu alloy was proposed, including a mainly kinetic-controlled process, a transition from kinetic-mechanism to thermodynamic-mechanism and purely thermodynamic-controlled process. - Abstract: An analysis of controlled-mechanism of grain growth in the undercooled Fe-4 at.% Cu immiscible alloy was presented. Grain growth behavior of the single-phase supersaturated granular grains prepared in Fe-Cu immiscible alloy melt was investigated by performing isothermal annealings at 500-800 deg. C. The thermo-kinetic model [Chen et al., Acta Mater. 57 (2009) 1466] applicable for nano-scale materials was extended to the system of micro-scale undercooled Fe-4 at.% Cu alloy. In comparison of pure kinetic model, pure thermodynamic model and the extended thermo-kinetic model, two characteristic annealing time (t 1 and t 2 ) were determined. The controlled-mechanism of grain growth in undercooled Fe-Cu alloy was proposed, including a mainly kinetic-controlled process (tt 1 ), a transition from kinetic-mechanism to thermodynamic-mechanism (t 1 2 ) and purely thermodynamic-controlled process (tt 2 ).

  6. A new high-strength iron base austenitic alloy with good toughness and corrosion resistance (GE-EPRI alloy-TTL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, S.

    1989-01-01

    A new high strength, iron based, austenitic alloy has been successfully developed by GE-EPRI to satisfy the strength and corrosion resistance requirements of large retaining rings for high capacity generators (>840Mw). This new alloy is a modified version of the EPRI alloy-T developed by the University of California, Berkeley, in an earlier EPRI program. It is age hardenable and has the nominal composition (weight %): 34.5 Ni, 5Cr, 3Ti, 1Nb, 1Ta, 1Mo, .5Al, .3V, .01B. This composition was selected based on detailed metallurgical and processing studies on modified versions of alloy-T. These studies helped establish the optimum processing conditions for the new alloy and enabled the successful scale-up production of three large (50-52 inch dia) test rings from a 5,000 lb VIM-VAR billet. The rings were metallurgically sound and exhibited yield strength capabilities in the range 145 to 220 ksi depending on the extent of hot/cold work induced. The test rings met or exceeded all the property goals. The above alloy can provide a good combination of strength, toughness and corrosion resistance and, through an suitable modification of chemistry or processing conditions, could be a viable candidate for high strength LWR internal applications. 3 figs

  7. Grain distinct stratified nanolayers in aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donatus, U., E-mail: uyimedonatus@yahoo.com [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Zhou, X.; Alias, J. [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom); Tsai, I.-L. [Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis, HP12 2SE, High Wycombe (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    The grains of aluminium alloys have stratified nanolayers which determine their mechanical and chemical responses. In this study, the nanolayers were revealed in the grains of AA6082 (T6 and T7 conditions), AA5083-O and AA2024-T3 alloys by etching the alloys in a solution comprising 20 g Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 30 ml HPO{sub 3} in 1 L H{sub 2}O. Microstructural examination was conducted on selected grains of interest using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction technique. It was observed that the nanolayers are orientation dependent and are parallel to the {100} planes. They have ordered and repeated tunnel squares that are flawed at the sides which are aligned in the <100> directions. These flawed tunnel squares dictate the tunnelling corrosion morphology as well as appearing to have an affect on the arrangement and sizes of the precipitation hardening particles. The inclination of the stratified nanolayers, their interpacing, and the groove sizes have significant influence on the corrosion behaviour and seeming influence on the strengthening mechanism of the investigated aluminium alloys. - Highlights: • Stratified nanolayers in aluminium alloy grains. • Relationship of the stratified nanolayers with grain orientation. • Influence of the inclinations of the stratified nanolayers on corrosion. • Influence of the nanolayers interspacing and groove sizes on hardness and corrosion.

  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1M3DI-1T60W [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tryIDChain>1M3DI APLPM--MPVAE ...> -- EEE> ATOM 14546 CA ALA I 86 32.542 22.976 78.017 1.00...ain>1T60W EPMPMSMAPITG > EEE> IECHG-RGTCN >EEEE - EEEE.../entryIDChain> IECNGARGTCH >EEEEGGGEEEE>

  9. Corrosion of martensitic steels in flowing 17Li83Pb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, T.; Fauvet, P.; Hocde, B.; Sannier, J.

    1988-01-01

    Corrosion of three martensitic steels - 1.4914, HT9 and T91 - in the presence of flowing 17Li83Pb is investigated in thermal convection loops Tulip entirely made of 1.4914 steel. Two 3000-hour tests were performed at maximal temperatures of respectively 450 and 475 0 C with a δT of 60 0 C and an alloy velocity of about 0.08 m.s -1 . In both tests, corrosion is characterized by an homogeneous dissolution of the steel without formation of a corrosion layer. Corrosion rate is constant and very temperature dependent: the sound-metal loss of 1.4914 steel is 22 μm. year -1 at 450 0 C and 40 μm.year -1 at 475 0 C. Behaviours of 1.4914 and HT9 steels are very similar whereas T91 steel is about 20% less corroded

  10. Oxidation Behavior of Mo-Si-B Alloys in Wet Air; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Kramer; A. Thom; O. Degirmen; V. Behrani; M. Akinc

    2002-01-01

    Multiphase composite alloys based on the Mo-Si-B system are candidate materials for ultra-high temperature applications. In non load-bearing uses such as thermal barrier coatings or heat exchangers in fossil fuel burners, these materials may be ideally suited. The present work investigated the effect of water vapor on the oxidation behavior of Mo-Si-B phase assemblages. Three alloys were studied: Alloy 1= Mo(sub 5)Si(sub 3)B(sub x) (T1)- MoSi(sub 2)- MoB, Alloy 2= T1- Mo(sub 5)SiB(sub 2) (T2)- Mo(sub 3)Si, and Alloy 3= Mo- T2- Mo(sub 3)Si. Tests were conducted at 1000 and 1100C in controlled atmospheres of dry air and wet air nominally containing 18, 55, and 150 Torr H(sub 2)O. The initial mass loss of each alloy was approximately independent of the test temperature and moisture content of the atmosphere. The magnitude of these initial losses varied according to the Mo content of the alloys. All alloys formed a continuous, external silica scale that protected against further mass change after volatilization of the initially formed MoO(sub 3). All alloys experienced a small steady state mass change, but the calculated rates cannot be quantitatively compared due to statistical uncertainty in the individual mass measurements. Of particular interest is that Alloy 3, which contains a significant volume fraction of Mo metal, formed a protective scale. All alloys formed varying amounts of subscale Mo and MoO(sub 2). This implies that oxygen transport through the external silica scale has been significantly reduced. For all alloys, water vapor accelerated the growth of a multiphase interlayer at the silica scale/unoxidized alloy interface. This interlayer is likely composed of fine Mo and MoO(sub 2) that is dispersed within a thin silica matrix. Alloy 3 was particularly sensitive to water accelerated growth of this interlayer. At 1100 C, the scale thickness after 300 hours increased from about 20 mm in dry air to nearly 100 mm in wet air

  11. Annealing Induced Softening in Deformed AI-4043 Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, G.; Fawzy, A.; Soliman, H.N.; Mohammed, Gh.; Fayek, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to study the effect of annealing temperature for different annealing periods of time on the structure and consequently on the tensile properties of Al-4043 alloy. The obtained results showed that the microstructure of AI-4043 alloy is characterized by the presence of spherically shaped Si-particles, which were found to be uniformly distributed within the AI-matrix. Stress-strain characterizations of AI-4043 samples annealed at different temperatures (T a = 573, 673 and 773 K) for different periods of time (t a = 0.5, 1,2.5,5 and 10 h), showed that the tensile parameters; yield stress ε y 0.2 and fracture stress ε f were decreased with increasing Ta and/or ta while the total strain ε T was increased. This was interpreted in terms of growth of Si-particles with increasing T a and/or t a . Attention has been also paid to the role of the minor elements Fe, Cu and Ti on the structure and tensile response behavior of the alloy under investigation

  12. Coherent electron-correlation compatible with random atom stacking in amorphous Ce-Ru alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Yoshiya; Sumiyama, Kenji; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenji

    1997-01-01

    The amorphous Ce-Ru alloys produced by the sputtering technique show the following distinct behaviors at low temperatures. The electronic specific heat coefficient rapidly increases below 5 K for Ce-19 and 42 at.%Ru alloys with decreasing temperature, T, (a heavy fermion behavior). The electrical resistivity displays -logT dependence at T > 40 K (an incoherent or impurity Kondo effect). Is slightly decreases at T < 30 K for Ce-19 and 42 at.%Ru alloys (a coherent Kondo effect), while it abruptly decreases at 2.5 K for 82 at.%Ru (a superconducting phenomenon). These coherent states may originate from the strong mixing and correlation of 4f-electrons and conduction-electrons even in the random alloy system. (author)

  13. Effect of Si on the glass-forming ability, thermal stability and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Zr-Mo-W-B alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.-M. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. 270016, Dresden D-01171 (Germany); Key Lab of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Gebert, A. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. 270016, Dresden D-01171 (Germany)], E-mail: a.gebert@ifw-dresden.de; Roth, S.; Kuehn, U.; Schultz, L. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. 270016, Dresden D-01171 (Germany)

    2008-07-14

    This paper presents investigations on the effect of Si on the glass-forming ability, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-Co-Zr-Mo-W-B samples (group I: Fe{sub 60}Co{sub 8}Zr{sub 10}Mo{sub 5}W{sub 2}B{sub 15-x}Si{sub x}, 1 {<=} x {<=} 4; group II: Fe{sub 60}Co{sub 8}Zr{sub 10-x}Mo{sub 5}W{sub 2}B{sub 15}Si{sub x}, 0 {<=} x {<=} 4; group III: Fe{sub 60}Co{sub 8}Zr{sub 8}Mo{sub 5}W{sub 2}B{sub 17-x}Si{sub x}, 0 {<=} x {<=} 2) prepared by melt spinning, injection casting, and centrifugal casting methods. It is found that the glass-forming ability (GFA) of the alloys in group I is more deteriorated than that in group II, and that the alloys in group III can be cast into the rods of 1-3 mm diameter without crystalline reflections in their XRD patterns. For the amorphous ribbons and rods, a non-monotonic change of the nearest neighbour distance r{sub 1} with increasing Si content c{sub Si} was detected, which is parallel to that of the glass transition and crystallization temperatures T{sub g} and T{sub x}, but opposite to that of the magnetization at room temperature M{sub RT} and the Curie temperature T{sub c}. This correlation can be interpreted by a structure model presuming that iron atoms appear simultaneously in two types of local structures in the amorphous samples.

  14. Improvement of magnetocaloric properties of Gd-Ge-Si alloys by alloying with iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erenc-Sędziak T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of annealing of Gd5Ge2Si2Fex alloys at 1200°C and of alloying with various amount of iron on structure as well as thermal and magnetocaloric properties is investigated. It was found that annealing for 1 to 10 hours improves the entropy change, but reduces the temperature of maximum magnetocaloric effect by up to 50 K. Prolonged annealing of the Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy results in the decrease of entropy change due to the reduction of Gd5Ge2Si2 phase content. Addition of iron to the ternary alloy enhances the magnetocaloric effect, if x = 0.4 – 0.6, especially if alloying is combined with annealing at 1200°C: the peak value of the isothermal entropy change from 0 to 2 T increases from 3.5 to 11 J/kgK. Simultaneously, the temperature of maximum magnetocaloric effect drops to 250 K. The changes in magnetocaloric properties are related to the change in phase transformation from the second order for arc molten ternary alloy to first order in the case of annealed and/or alloyed with iron. The results of this study indicate that the minor addition of iron and heat treatment to Gd-Ge-Si alloys may be useful in improving the materials’ magnetocaloric properties..

  15. EN AW-4032 T6 Piston Alloy After High-Temperature Exposure: Residual Strength and Microstructural Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Eleonora; Ceschini, Lorella; Morri, Alessandro; Morri, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of prolonged thermal exposure on both microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the EN AW-4032 T6 piston alloy. For the purpose, the experimental activities have been carried out on samples machined from forged and heat-treated automotive pistons. The effects of overaging have been investigated in the temperature range of 140-290 °C, firstly by evaluating the time-temperature-hardness curves and then by carrying out room-temperature tensile tests on overaged samples. The material softening was substantial and extremely rapid when the soaking temperature exceeded 250 °C. During overaging, both the tensile strength and the residual hardness considerably decreased, and a relationship between these parameters has been established. The alloy behavior in the plastic field has been modeled according to the Hollomon's equation, showing that both the strain hardening exponent and the strength coefficient are a function of the residual hardness. The results were finally related to the corresponding microstructural changes: OM and FEG-SEM metallographic and fractographic analyses on overaged samples gave evidence of coarsened precipitates along the grain boundaries.

  16. Development and performance of high speed processing system of magnetohydrodynamic equilibria for discharge analyses on the J T-60 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Yukiharu; Shirai, Hiroshi; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Harada, Yoshio; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    1999-01-01

    In order to provide a set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium database which is indispensable for both the studies on improvement of energy confinement and stabilization of MHD activities in tokamaks, a high speed data-processing system synchronizing with J T-60 discharge sequence was newly developed by utilizing the latest model of hugh speed workstation and by optimizing the parallel processing technique to perform fast calculation of MHD equilibria. This high speed system was found to have a sufficient ability to complete the whole equilibrium calculations during each inter-shot period. Cooperating with the mass data storage subsystem preserving the latest equilibrium database automatically, the animated discharge monitoring subsystem provides valuable information for the J T-60 operator to determine control parameters of the succeeding discharge. This report describes the system performance realized in the J T-60 experiment. (author)

  17. Influences of post weld heat treatment on tensile strength and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded butt joints of AA2014-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C.; Srinivasan, K.; Balasubramanian, V.; Balaji, H.; Selvaraj, P.

    2016-08-01

    Friction stir welded (FSWed) joints of aluminum alloys exhibited a hardness drop in both the advancing side (AS) and retreating side (RS) of the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) due to the thermal cycle involved in the FSW process. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to overcome this problem by post weld heat treatment (PWHT) methods. FSW butt (FSWB) joints of Al-Cu (AA2014-T6) alloy were PWHT by two methods such as simple artificial aging (AA) and solution treatment followed by artificial aging (STA). Of these two treatments, STA was found to be more beneficial than the simple aging treatment to improve the tensile properties of the FSW joints of AA2014 aluminum alloy.

  18. An Auger and XPS survey of cerium active corrosion protection for AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhart, A. [IPREM-ECP-UMR CNRS 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Technopole Hélioparc, 2 Avenue Président Pierre Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 09 (France); Ledeuil, J.B. [IPREM-ECP-UMR CNRS 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Technopole Hélioparc, 2 Avenue Président Pierre Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 09 (France); Université de Toulouse, UPS-INP-CNRS, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France); Gonbeau, D. [IPREM-ECP-UMR CNRS 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Technopole Hélioparc, 2 Avenue Président Pierre Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 09 (France); Dupin, J.C., E-mail: dupin@univ-pau.fr [IPREM-ECP-UMR CNRS 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Technopole Hélioparc, 2 Avenue Président Pierre Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 09 (France); Bonino, J.P.; Ansart, F. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-INP-CNRS, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France); Esteban, J. [Messier-Bugatti-Dowty, Etablissement de Molsheim, 3, rue Antoine de St Exupéry, 67129 Molsheim (France)

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Coupled SAM/SEM survey of cerium inhibitor migration towards corrosion pits in a conversion coating over AA2024-T3 substrate. - Highlights: • XPS evidenced the proximity of the inhibitor with the surface AA2024 alloy. • Cerium conversion coatings with [Ce] = 0.1 M offer the best corrosion resistance. • SAM shown the migration of Ce + III entities towards the corrosion pits or crevices. • High resolution analyses (Auger) connecting the nano-scale order with the chemical distribution.

  19. Microstructural, mechanical and electrochemical behaviour of a 7017 Al–Zn–Mg alloy of different tempers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, Prasanta Kumar, E-mail: prasantonnet55@yahoo.com; Ghosh, M.M.; Ghosh, K.S., E-mail: ksghosh2001@yahoo.co.uk

    2015-06-15

    The aim of the investigation is to assess the microstructural features and associated physical, mechanical and electrochemical properties of a 7017 Al–Zn–Mg alloy of various tempers. A 7017 Al–Zn–Mg alloy was subjected to different ageing schedules to produce under-(T4), peak-(T6), over-(T7) and highly over-aged tempers. Optical microscopy, hardness measurement, electrical conductivity measurement, tensile testing and SEM fractographs, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrochemical polarization studies have been used to characterize the alloy tempers. Hardness measurement and tensile testing showed the characteristic age hardening phenomenon of aluminium alloys. Optical and TEM micrographs have revealed the variation in size of matrix strengthening η′ (MgZn{sub 2}) and also the size and distribution of grain boundary η (MgZn{sub 2}) precipitate with ageing time. DSC thermograms exhibiting exothermic and endothermic peaks indicated the characteristic solid state reaction sequence of the 7017 alloy. Potentiodynamic polarization study of the 7017 alloy of various tempers in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at near neutral pH showed typical active metal dissolution behaviour, but at pH 12 an active–passive–transpassive transition behaviour has been observed. - Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of the 7017 aluminium alloy of various tempers (a, b) under aged (T4), (c, d) peak aged (T6), (e, f) over aged (T7) and (g, h) highly over-aged. Display Omitted - Highlights: • 7017 Al-Zn-Mg alloy was subjected to different artificial ageing treatments. • Characterization of 7017 alloy tempers by hardness, tensile, DSC, TEM and electrochemical behaviour. • Structure-properties relationship of the 7017 Al-Zn-Mg alloy of various tempers.

  20. Spheroidization of primary Mg{sub 2}Si in Al-20Mg{sub 2}Si-4.5Cu alloy modified with Ca and Sb during T6 heat treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hong-Chen; Wang, Hui-Yuan, E-mail: wanghuiyuan@jlu.edu.cn; Chen, Lei; Zha, Min, E-mail: minzha@jlu.edu.cn; Wang, Cheng; Li, Chao; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2017-02-08

    The morphology evolution of primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles in a Al-20Mg{sub 2}Si-4.5Cu alloy both unmodified and modified with 0.5 wt% Ca-Sb prepared by hot-extrusion followed by T6 heat treatment was investigated in the present study. Interestingly, we found that the combination of hot-extrusion and T6 heat treatment was efficient in transforming truncated octahedral primary Mg{sub 2}Si into sphere in the modified alloy. In contrast, the primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles still kept dentritic in the unmodified alloy. It suggested that the formation of truncated octahedral primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles in as-cast state, the fragmentation of particles by hot-extrusion and the enhanced solid-state diffusion of Si and/or Mg atoms during heat treatment were responsible for the spheroidization of primary Mg{sub 2}Si. Moreover, the existence of fine (~10–20 µm) spherical primary Mg{sub 2}Si played an important role in strengthening the alloy, i.e., the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increased from ~227 MPa in the unmodified alloy to ~303 MPa in the modified one. It is because the fine spherical primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles can provide a higher fracture stress and strength of the matrix/particle interface. Our study offered a simple methodology to prepare spherical primary Mg{sub 2}Si in an Al-high Mg{sub 2}Si alloy, which is beneficial to design novel light-weight Al-Mg-Si alloys with improved mechanical properties.

  1. Influence of scandium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A319 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emadi, Daryoush; Rao, A.K. Prasada; Mahfoud, Musbah

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of aluminum scrap alloys by melting is gaining its importance in foundry sector. During recycling, some of the alloying elements present in scrap alloys eventually become trace/tramp impurities in the recycled alloy. These elements could potentially affect the alloy's microstructure and hence its mechanical properties. In the present work, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of one of such trace elements on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A319 alloy. The element chosen for the present investigation is scandium (Sc). This paper discusses the effects of the additions of trace amount of Sc on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A319 alloy in as-cast, T6 and T7 heat treated conditions.

  2. Study of localized corrosion in aluminum alloys by the scanning reference electrode technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1995-01-01

    Localized corrosion in 2219-T87 aluminum (Al) alloy, 2195 aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy, and welded 2195 Al-Li alloy (4043 filler) have been investigated using the relatively new scanning reference electrode technique (SRET). Anodic sites are more frequent and of greater strength in the 2195 Al-Li alloy than in the 2219-T87 Al alloy, indicating a greater tendency toward pitting for the latter. However, the overall corrosion rates are about the same for these two alloys, as determined using the polarization resistance technique. In the welded 2195 Al-Li alloy, the weld bean is entirely cathodic, with rather strongly anodic heat affected zones (HAZ) bordering both sides, indicating a high probability of corrosion in the HAZ parallel to the weld bead.

  3. Tensile Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of AA 2024-T6 Alloy at Different Welding Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Dhananjayulu; Devuri, Venkateswarlu; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Dwivedi, Dheerendra Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The influence of welding speed on the friction stir welded joint properties of hardness, tensile properties, defects and microstructure characterization are studied in the present study. The friction stir welding was conducted on AA2014-T6 heat treated alloy with 5 mm thickness plate in butt joint configuration. The welding speed was varied from 8 mm/min to 120 mm/min at the fixed travel speed and load conditions. It is observed that the welding speeds at higher rate with wide range can be possible to weld this alloy at higher rates of tool revolution suggesting that the inherent capability of friction stir welding technique for aluminum 2014 alloys. The strength of the joints gradually increases with enhancing of welding speed. The micro structural observations exhibited the formation of equiaxed grains in the stir zone and slightly in the thermo-mechanically affected zone. In addition, the size of the grains decreases with increase in welding speed owing to the presence of low heat input. Hence the hardness of the joints slightly increased in the stir zones over the other zones of the weld nugget. The joint strength initially increases with the welding speed and starts to decreases after reaching to the maximum value. The relationship between the welding conditions and friction stir welded joint properties has been discussed.

  4. Electrochemical corrosion characteristics of aluminium alloy 6061 T6 in demineralized water containing 0.1 % chloride ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaifol Samsu; Muhammad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin; Mohd Saari Ripin; Rusni Rejab; Mohd Shariff Sattar

    2012-01-01

    Direct current electrochemical method is one of the techniques has been used to study the corrosion behaviour of metal/alloy in its environment. This paper attempts to investigate the corrosion behaviour of Al 6061 T6 immersed in Reactor TRIGA Mark II pool water containing about 0.1% NaCl content. The result shown that the corrosion rate value of the aluminium 6061 T6 increased with the presence of 0.1 % Ion Chloride content in the demineralized water reactor pool as compared to normal demineralized water. This is due to aggressiveness of chloride ion attack to metal surface. Beside corrosion rate analysis, the further tests such as corrosion behaviour diagram, cyclic polarization have been carried and the results have been reported. (author)

  5. Influence of cobalt content on the structure and hard magnetic properties of nanocomposite (Fe,Co)-Pt-B alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabias, A., E-mail: agnieszka.grabias@itme.edu.pl [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Kopcewicz, M. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Latuch, J.; Oleszak, D. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Pękała, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Al. Żwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); Kowalczyk, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nanocomposite alloys were formed by annealing of the rapidly quenched alloys. • Magnetically hard L1{sub 0} (Fe,Co)Pt and soft (Fe,Co){sub 2}B or (Fe,Co)B were formed. • Mössbauer spectra revealed Co substitution for Fe in L1{sub 0} FePt, FeB and Fe{sub 2}B phases. • Annealed alloys exhibit hard magnetic properties which depend on phase compositions. • Co addition was found to decrease the magnetization and the energy product. - Abstract: The influence of Co content on the structural and hard magnetic properties of two sets of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 52−x}Co{sub x}Pt{sub 28}B{sub 20} (x = 0–26) and Fe{sub 60−y}Co{sub y}Pt{sub 25}B{sub 15} (y = 0–40) alloys was studied. The alloys were prepared as ribbons by the rapid quenching technique. The nanocomposite structure in the alloys was obtained by annealing at 840–880 K for 30 min. Structural characterization of the samples was performed using the Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Magnetic properties of the samples were studied by the measurements of the hysteresis loops and of the magnetization at increasing temperatures. An amorphous phase prevailed in the as-quenched Fe{sub 52−x}Co{sub x}Pt{sub 28}B{sub 20} alloys while a disordered solid solution of fcc-(Fe,Co)Pt was a dominating phase in the Fe{sub 60−y}Co{sub y}Pt{sub 25}B{sub 15} ribbons. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements revealed one or two exothermic peaks at temperatures up to 993 K, depending on the composition of the alloys. Thermal treatment of the samples led to the formation of the magnetically hard ordered L1{sub 0} tetragonal (Fe,Co)Pt nanocrystallites and magnetically softer phases of (Fe,Co)B (for Fe{sub 52−x}Co{sub x}Pt{sub 28}B{sub 20}) or (Fe,Co){sub 2}B (for Fe{sub 60−y}Co{sub y}Pt{sub 25}B{sub 15}). Detailed Mössbauer spectroscopy studies revealed that cobalt substituted for iron in both the L1{sub 0} phase and in iron borides. The nanocomposite Fe{sub 60−y}Co{sub y

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser treated aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deHosson, JTM; vanOtterloo, LDM; Noordhuis, J; Mazumder, J; Conde, O; Villar, R; Steen, W

    1996-01-01

    Al-Cu alloys and an Al-Cu-Mg alloy, Al 2024-T3, were exposed to laser treatments at various scan velocities. In this paper the microstructural features and mechanical properties are reported. As far as the mechanical property of the Al-Cu-Mg alloy is concerned a striking observation is a minimum in

  7. Susceptibility of ternary aluminum alloys to cracking during solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiangwei; Kou, Sindo

    2017-01-01

    The crack susceptibility map of a ternary Al alloy system provides useful information about which alloy compositions are most susceptible to cracking and thus should be avoided by using a filler metal with a significantly different composition. In the present study the crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems were calculated based on the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | as an index for the crack susceptibility, where T is temperature and f S fraction solid. Due to the complexity associated with ternary alloy solidification, commercial thermodynamic software Pandat and Al database PanAluminum, instead of analytical equations, were used to calculate f S as a function of T and hence the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | for ternary Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si alloy systems. A crack susceptibility map covering 121 alloy compositions was constructed for each of the three ternary alloy systems at each of the following three levels of back diffusion: no back diffusion, back diffusion under a 100 °C/s cooling rate, and back diffusion under 20° C/s. The location of the region of high crack susceptibility, which is the most important part of the map, was shown in each of the nine calculated maps. These locations were compared with those observed in crack susceptibility tests by previous investigators. With back diffusion considered, either under 20 or 100 °C/s, the agreement between the calculated and observed maps was good especially for Al-Mg-Si and Al-Cu-Mg. Thus, the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | can be used as a crack susceptibility index to construct crack susceptibility maps for ternary Al alloys and to evaluate the effect of back diffusion on their crack susceptibility. - Graphical abstract: The crack susceptibility map of a ternary alloy system indicates the composition range most susceptible to cracking, which should be avoided in welding or casting. The crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si were calculated based

  8. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  9. In vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of binary magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuenan; Zheng, Yufeng; Cheng, Yan; Zhong, Shengping; Xi, Tingfei

    2009-02-01

    As bioabsorbable materials, magnesium alloys are expected to be totally degraded in the body and their biocorrosion products not deleterious to the surrounding tissues. It's critical that the alloying elements are carefully selected in consideration of their cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility. In the present study, nine alloying elements Al, Ag, In, Mn, Si, Sn, Y, Zn and Zr were added into magnesium individually to fabricate binary Mg-1X (wt.%) alloys. Pure magnesium was used as control. Their mechanical properties, corrosion properties and in vitro biocompatibilities (cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility) were evaluated by SEM, XRD, tensile test, immersion test, electrochemical corrosion test, cell culture and platelet adhesion test. The results showed that the addition of alloying elements could influence the strength and corrosion resistance of Mg. The cytotoxicity tests indicated that Mg-1Al, Mg-1Sn and Mg-1Zn alloy extracts showed no significant reduced cell viability to fibroblasts (L-929 and NIH3T3) and osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1); Mg-1Al and Mg-1Zn alloy extracts indicated no negative effect on viabilities of blood vessel related cells, ECV304 and VSMC. It was found that hemolysis and the amount of adhered platelets decreased after alloying for all Mg-1X alloys as compared to the pure magnesium control. The relationship between the corrosion products and the in vitro biocompatibility had been discussed and the suitable alloying elements for the biomedical applications associated with bone and blood vessel had been proposed.

  10. Radiation-induced segregation and phase stability in ferritic-martensitic alloy T 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharry, Janelle P.; Jiao Zhijie; Shankar, Vani [University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Was, Gary S., E-mail: gsw@umich.edu [University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Radiation-induced segregation in ferritic-martensitic alloy T 91 was studied to understand the behavior of solutes as a function of dose and temperature. Irradiations were conducted using 2 MeV protons to doses of 1, 3, 7 and 10 dpa at 400 deg. C. Radiation-induced segregation at prior austenite grain boundaries was measured, and various features of the irradiated microstructure were characterized, including grain boundary carbide coverage, the dislocation microstructure, radiation-induced precipitation and irradiation hardening. Results showed that Cr, Ni and Si segregate to prior austenite grain boundaries at low dose, but segregation ceases and redistribution occurs above 3 dpa. Grain boundary carbide coverage mirrors radiation-induced segregation. Irradiation induces formation of Ni-Si-Mn and Cu-rich precipitates that account for the majority of irradiation hardening. Radiation-induced segregation behavior is likely linked to the evolution of the precipitate and dislocation microstructures.

  11. Gamma rays shielding parameters for white metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Taranjot; Sharma, Jeewan; Singh, Tejbir

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to check the feasibility of white metal alloys as gamma rays shielding materials. Different combinations of cadmium, lead, tin and zinc were used to prepare quaternary alloys Pb60Sn20ZnxCd20-x (where x = 5, 10, 15) using melt quench technique. These alloys were also known as white metal alloys because of its shining appearance. The density of prepared alloys has been measured using Archimedes Principle. Gamma rays shielding parameters viz. mass attenuation coefficient (µm), effective atomic number (Zeff), electron density (Nel), Mean free path (mfp), Half value layer (HVL) and Tenth value layer (TVL) has been evaluated for these alloys in the wide energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV. The WinXCom software has been used for obtaining mass attenuation coefficient values for the prepared alloys in the given energy range. The effective atomic number (Zeff) has been assigned to prepared alloys using atomic to electronic cross section ratio method. Further, the variation of various shielding parameters with photon energy has been investigated for the prepared white metal alloys.

  12. The evolution of precipitation and microstructure in friction stir welded 2195-T8 Al–Li alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Hailong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: hua.zhang@twi.co.uk [The Welding Institute, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL (United Kingdom); Wu, Huiqiang [Beijing Institute of Astronautical Systems Engineering, Beijing 100076 (China)

    2015-02-25

    Precipitate and microstructure evolution in friction stir welding of 2195-T8 aluminum alloy was characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The results show that precipitations in the base metal primarily consist of T{sub 1} (Al{sub 2}CuLi) platelets and small amounts of θ′ (Al{sub 2}Cu) and τ{sub 2} (Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 2}Fe) phase. In the heat affected zone (HAZ), these precipitations dissolve during welding, allowing the re-precipitation of δ′ (Al{sub 3}Li) and β′ (Al{sub 3}Zr) during cooling. δ′ and β′ phase are the major strengthening phase in the weld nugget zone (WNZ), which results in the observed lower microhardness of the nugget region. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve is used to confirm and interpret the results provided by the microscopy.

  13. Effects of Friction Stir Welding on Corrosion Behaviors of AA2024-T4 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Steve Korakan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the corrosion behavior of welded joints of AA2024-T4 Al alloy produced by friction stir welding process has been investigated. Tests were performed in an aerated 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution with pH = 7 at 20±2°C. Corrosion rate and corrosion morphology of weld regions were evaluated and compared to those of the parent metal. The microstructure of weld nugget, thermomechanical affected zone, heated affected zone, and parent metal were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was observed that corrosion initiated at FSW related spots and the sizes of local corrosion increased with time.

  14. Anodic behavior of alloy 22 in bicarbonate containing media: Effect of alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N S; Giordano, C M; Rebak, R B; Ares, A E; Carranza, R M

    2012-01-01

    Alloy 22 is one of the candidates for the manufacture of high level nuclear waste containers. These containers provide services in natural environments characterized by multi-ionic solutions.It is estimated they could suffer three types of deterioration: general corrosion, localized corrosion (specifically crevice corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It has been confirmed that the presence of bicarbonate and chloride ions is necessary to produce cracking, . It has also been determined that the susceptibility to SCC could be related to the occurrence of an anodic peak in the polarization curves in these media at potentials below transpassivity. The aim of this work is to study the effect of alloying elements on the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in media containing bicarbonate and chloride ions at different concentrations and temperatures. Polarization curves were made on alloy 22 (Ni-22% Cr-13% Mo), Ni-Mo (Ni-28, 5% Mo) and Ni-Cr (Ni-20% Cr) in the following solutions: 1 mol/L NaCl at 90 o C, and 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 ; 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 1 mol/L NaCl; 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 0.1 mol/L NaCl, at 90 o C, 75 o C, 60 o C and 25 o C. It was found that alloy 22 has a anodic current density peak at potentials below transpassivity, only in the presence of bicarbonate ions. Curves performed in 1 mol/L NaCl did not show any anodic peak, in any of the tested alloys. The curves made on alloys Ni-Mo and Ni-Cr in the presence of bicarbonate ions, allowed to determine that Cr, is responsible for the appearance of the anodic peak in alloy 22. The curves of alloy Ni-Mo showed no anodic peak in the studied conditions. The potential at which the anodic peak appears in alloy 22 and Ni-Cr alloy, increases with decreasing temperature. The anodic peak was also affected by solution composition. When chloride ion is added to bicarbonate solutions, the anodic peak is shifted to higher potential and current densities, depending on the concentration of added chloride ions (author)

  15. Nickel-titanium alloys: stress-related temperature transitional range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; Beshers, D N

    2000-12-01

    The inducement of mechanical stress within nickel-titanium wires can influence the transitional temperature range of the alloy and therefore the expression of the superelastic properties. An analogous variation of the transitional temperature range may be expected during orthodontic therapy, when the archwires are engaged into the brackets. To investigate this possibility, samples of currently used orthodontic nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC; Copper Ni-Ti superelastic at 27 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, Ormco; Nitinol Heat-Activated, 3M-Unitek) were subjected to temperature cycles ranging between 4 degrees C and 60 degrees C. The wires were mounted in a plexiglass loading device designed to simulate clinical situations of minimum and severe dental crowding. Electrical resistivity was used to monitor the phase transformations. The data were analyzed with paired t tests. The results confirmed the presence of displacements of the transitional temperature ranges toward higher temperatures when stress was induced. Because nickel-titanium wires are most commonly used during the aligning stage in cases of severe dental crowding, particular attention was given to the performance of the orthodontic wires under maximum loading. An alloy with a stress-related transitional temperature range corresponding to the fluctuations of the oral temperature should express superelastic properties more consistently than others. According to our results, Copper Ni-Ti 27 degrees C and Nitinol Heat-Activated wires may be considered suitable alloys for the alignment stage.

  16. Preparation and Properties of Mg-Cu-Y-Al bulk Amorphous Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Ohnuma, M.

    2000-01-01

    Bulk amorphous (Mg(1-gamma)Al(gamma))(60)CU(30)Y(10) alloys were prepared using a relatively simple technique of rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The temperature vs, time was recorded during the cooling and solidification process of the melt and compared with a spacial and tempo......Bulk amorphous (Mg(1-gamma)Al(gamma))(60)CU(30)Y(10) alloys were prepared using a relatively simple technique of rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The temperature vs, time was recorded during the cooling and solidification process of the melt and compared with a spacial...... temperatures in specimens containing a few percent Al. The alloy with no Al crystallises apparently without the formation of nanoparticles. The critical cooling rate for the formation of an amorphous Mg(60)CU(30)Y(10) specimen was determined experimentally by a combination of DSC data and temperature vs, time...

  17. Feasibility study of hydrogenated amorphous alloys as high-damping materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizubayashi, H.; Ishikawa, Y.; Tanimoto, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrogen internal friction peak (HIFP) and the tensile strength, σ f , in amorphous (denoted by 'a') Zr 60-y Cu 30 Al 10 Si y (y=0, 1) and a-Zr 40 Cu 50-x Al 10 Si x (x=0, 1) alloys are investigated as a function of the hydrogen concentration, C H . The drastic increase in the peak temperature, T p , of the HIFP due to the Si addition by 1 at.% is found for the a-Zr 40 Cu 49 Al 10 Si 1 , where the decrease in 1/τ 0 (τ 0 denotes the pre-exponential factor of the relaxation time for the HIFP) from 1.5x10 12 s -1 to 3.0x10 10 s -1 is observed. On the other hand, the increase in T p due to the Si addition by 1 at.% is much smaller for a-Zr 59 Cu 30 Al 10 Si 1 , where 1/τ 0 for the HIFP in a-Zr 60 Cu 30 Al 10 is already as low as that for a- Zr 40 Cu 49 Al 10 Si 1 . For the HIFP with the peak height, Q p -1 , beyond 1x10 -2 , Q p -1 in the as-charged state decreases after heating to about 380 K because of the hydrogen induced structural relaxation (HISR). The HIFP with Q p -1 below 1x10 -2 is rather stable against the HISR. It is suggested that the highly anisotropic local strain around a hydrogen atom is responsible for the very high Q p -1 and the HISR. For the high-strength and high-damping performance, σ f is higher than 1.5 GPa and Q p -1 after the HISR is slightly lower than 1x10 -2 for the present Zr-Cu-Al-(Si) a-alloys

  18. Characterization and property evaluation of U–15 wt%Pu alloy for fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaity, Santu; Banerjee, Joydipta; Ravi, K.; Keswani, R.; Kutty, T.R.G.; Kumar, Arun; Prasad, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The characterization and high temperature behaviour of U–15 wt%Pu alloy has been investigated in this study for the first time. U–15 wt%Pu alloy sample for this study was prepared by following melting and casting route. Microstructural characterization of the alloy was carried out by XRD and optical microscopy. The thermophysical properties like phase transition temperatures, coefficient of thermal expansion and hot hardness of the above alloy were determined. Eutectic temperature between T91 and U–15 wt%Pu was established. Apart from that, the fuel–cladding chemical compatibility of U–15 wt%Pu alloy with T91 grade steel was studied by diffusion couple experiment

  19. Effect of laser shock processing on fatigue crack growth and fracture toughness of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Ocana, J.L.; Gomez-Rosas, G.; Molpeceres, C.; Paredes, M.; Banderas, A.; Porro, J.; Morales, M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. Specimens of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy are used in this investigation. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm onto a water-immersed type aluminum samples. Effect of pulse density in the residual stress field is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is assessed by the hole drilling method. It is observed that the higher the pulse density the larger the zone size with compressive residual stress. Densities of 900, 1350 and 2500 pulses/cm 2 with infrared (1064 nm) radiation are used. Pre-cracked compact tension specimens were subjected to LSP process and then tested under cyclic loading with R = 0.1. Fatigue crack growth rate is determined and the effect of LSP process parameters is evaluated. Fatigue crack growth rate is compared in specimens with and without LSP process. In addition fracture toughness is determined in specimens with and without LSP treatment. It is observed that LSP reduces fatigue crack growth and increases fracture toughness in the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy

  20. Tribological properties of Al 7075 alloy based composites strengthened with Al2O3 fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naplocha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wear resistance of 7075 aluminium alloy based composite materials reinforced with Al2O3 Saffil fibres was investigated. The measurementsof wear were performed applying the pin-on-disc method at dry friction conditions with the gray iron counterpart. The effects ofpressure of composite samples on the counterpart made of gray iron and the orientation of fibers in relation to the friction surface on wear rate were determined. The materials were produced by squeeze casting method where 80-90% porous ceramic preform were infiltrated.After T6 heat treatment hardness increased about 50-60% both for unreinforced alloy and composites containing strengthening Saffilfibres. Wear resistance of composite materials in relation to the unreinforced 7075 alloy was slightly worse at lower pressure of 0.8 MPa. Under higher pressure of 1.2 MPa wear resistance of unreinforced 7075 alloy was even better whereas no effect of orientation of fibers on wear in composite materials was observed. Additionally, significant wear of counterface in the presence of debris with fragmented Al2O3 fibres as abrasives was observed. Wear resistance improvement of composite materials was obtained when with alumina Saffil fibres Carbon C fibres in the preforms were applied.

  1. Development and properties of duplex MgF2/PCL coatings on biodegradable magnesium alloy for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Preeti; Kang, Hoe Jin; Padalhin, Andrew R; Park, Ihho; Moon, Byoung-Gi; Lee, Byong Taek

    2018-01-01

    The present work addresses the performance of polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on fluoride treated (MgF2) biodegradable ZK60 magnesium alloy (Mg) for biomedical application. MgF2 conversion layer was first produced by immersing Mg alloy substrate in hydrofluoric acid solution. The outer PCL coating was then prepared using dip coating technique. Morphology, elements profile, phase structure, roughness, mechanical properties, invitro corrosion, and biocompatibility of duplex MgF2/PCL coating were then characterized and compared to those of fluoride coated and uncoated Mg samples. The invivo degradation behavior and biocompatibility of duplex MgF2/PCL coating with respect to ZK60 Mg alloy were also studied using rabbit model for 2 weeks. SEM and TEM analysis showed that the duplex coating was uniform and comprised of porous PCL film (~3.3 μm) as upper layer with compact MgF2 (~2.2 μm) as inner layer. No significant change in microhardness was found on duplex coating compared with uncoated ZK60 Mg alloy. The duplex coating showed improved invitro corrosion resistance than single layered MgF2 or uncoated alloy samples. The duplex coating also resulted in better cell viability, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation compared to fluoride coated or uncoated alloy. Preliminary invivo studies indicated that duplex MgF2/PCL coating reduced the degradation rate of ZK60 Mg alloy and exhibited good biocompatibility. These results suggested that duplex MgF2/PCL coating on magnesium alloy might have great potential for orthopedic applications.

  2. The evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance of chosen casting alloys in the aspect of the impact bending test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Sadowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase of quality and durability of produced casting alloys can be evaluated on the base of material tests performed on a high level. One of such modern test methods are tests of the dynamic damage process of materials and the evaluation on the base of obtained courses F(f, F(t of parameters of dynamic cracking resistance KId, JId, performed with the usage of instrumented Charpy pendulums. In the paper there was presented the evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance parameters of casting alloys such as: AK12 aluminum alloy, L20G cast steel and spheroid cast iron. The methodology of the evaluation of that parameters was described and their change as well, for the AK12 alloy with the cold work different level, L20G cast steel cooled from different temperatures in the range +20oC -60oC, and for the spheroid cast iron in different stages of treatment i.e. raw state, after normalization, spheroid annealing and graphitizing annealing.Obtained parameters of dynamic cracking resistance KId, JId of tested casting alloys enabled to define the critical value of the ad defect that can be tolerated by tested castings in different work conditions with impact loadings.

  3. Correlation of electrical transport and magnetism in amorphous Mn-B alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, W. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Kistenmacher, T. J.; Moorjani, K.

    1987-04-01

    X-ray scattering, magnetism, and electrical transport studies on amorphous thin films of MnxB100-x alloys with x=52 and 48 are reported. Each alloy exhibits a low-field (5 G) static susceptibility peak (10 K, x=52; 16 K, x=48) associated with a spin-glass transition. Isothermal magnetization data (6 K) are analyzed within the random anisotropy model of Chudnovsky, Saslow, and Serota. The magnetization isotherm for the x=52 alloy is dominated at high fields (>24 kG) by field-induced moments, while for x=48 a term (αH-1/2) arising from a ferromagnet with a wandering axis prevails to the highest field strength (44 kG). Initially the electrical resistance for these Mn-B alloys decreases monotonically with decreasing temperature, reaching a minimum (Tm) at 22 K (x=52) and 45 K (x=48). For T>Tm, a quadratic form can be effectively employed, with a negative T2 coefficient and a positive linear coefficient. The rise in resistivity for TT)1/2 law and is interpreted in terms of a disorder-induced localization transition in a correlated electron gas. Both alloys display only weakly field-dependent (to 10 kG) magnetoresistance.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thixoformed A319 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salleh, M.S.; Omar, M.Z.; Syarif, J.; Alhawari, K.S.; Mohammed, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A319 was successfully thixoformed at 50% liquid, i.e. at 571 °C. • T6 heat treatment has increased the strength and hardness of the thixoformed alloy. • The elongation after T6 heat treatment is even significantly improved. • The iron-rich intermetallic phase reduces the strength of the thixoformed alloy. - Abstract: Thixoforming is a viable technology for forming alloys in a semisolid state into near net-shaped products. In the present study, the effect of a thixoforming process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A319 aluminium alloy was investigated. The ingots obtained from the cooling slope were thixoformed in a press after they remained at 571 °C for 5 min, yielding a microstructure predominantly composed of α-Al globules and inter-globular Si particles. Some of the thixoformed samples were treated with an ageing process (T6) and then, hardness and tensile samples were prepared from the as-cast, as-thixoformed and thixoformed T6. All the thixoformed samples were characterised using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as hardness measurements and tensile tests. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of the thixoformed A319 alloy increased after the T6 heat treatment (hardness of 124.2 ± 3.2 HV, tensile strength of 298 ± 3.0 MPa, yield strength of 201 ± 2.6 MPa and elongation to fracture of 4.5 ± 0.3%). The fracture samples from the tensile test were analysed, revealing that the iron-rich intermetallic observed in the samples reduced the tensile strength and ductility of the thixoformed A319 alloys

  5. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T e and N e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T e and N e for aluminum in aluminum alloys as a marker for the correct alloying using an optical fiber probe.

  6. Influence of Al7Cu2Fe intermetallic particles on the localized corrosion of high strength aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemin, Aline; Marques, Denys; Bisanha, Leandro; Motheo, Artur de Jesus; Bose Filho, Waldek Wladimir; Ruchert, Cassius Olivio Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The corrosion on new aerospace aluminum alloy is studied. • Al 7 Cu 2 Fe precipitate was detected in the 7475-T7351 and 7081 T73511 alloy by scanning electron microscopy. • Al 7 Cu 2 Fe particles have different morphologies depending on the forming process. • Corrosion pitting occurs around Al 7 Cu 2 Fe precipitates in 7475-T7351 and 7081-T73511 alloys. - Abstract: The development of aluminum alloys of the Al–Zn–Mg–Cu system is the primary factor that enabled the evolution of aircraft. However, it has been shown that these alloys tend to undergo pitting corrosion due to the presence of elements such as iron, copper and silicon. Thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the behavior of the Al 7 Cu 2 Fe precipitate in 7475-T7351 and 7081-T73511 alloys based on microstructural characterization and polarization tests. The corrosion and pitting potentials were found to be very similar, and matrix dissolution occurred around the Al 7 Cu 2 Fe precipitate in both alloys, revealing the anodic behavior of the matrix

  7. Coercivity of the Nd–Fe–B hot-deformed magnets diffusion-processed with low melting temperature glass forming alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, U.M.R. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Liu, Lihua [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Akiya, T.; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Sakuma, N.; Yano, M.; Kato, A. [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials (ESICMM), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Nd- and Pr-based alloys with bulk glass forming ability and low melting temperatures, Nd{sub 60}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 20} and Pr{sub 60}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 20}, were used for grain boundary diffusion process to enhance the coercivity of hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity increment was proportional to the weight gain after the diffusion process. For the sample with 64% weight gain, the coercivity increased up to 2.8 T, which is the highest value for bulk Nd–Fe–B magnets that do not contain heavy rare-earth elements, Dy or Tb. Approximately half of the intergranular regions were amorphous and the remaining regions were crystalline. Magnetic isolation of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains by the Nd-rich amorphous/crystalline intergranular phases is attributed to the large coercivity enhancement. The coercivity does not change after the crystallization of the intergranular phase, indicating that the coercivity is not influenced by the strain at the interface with the crystalline intergranular phase. - Highlights: • Bulk-glass forming alloys were infiltrated into hot-deformed Nd–Fe–B magnets. • Very high coercivity of 2.8 T was attained without heavy rare-earth elements. • Approximately half of the inter-granular regions were amorphous. • Crystallization of amorphous intergranular phase does not change coercivity.

  8. Effect of Si addition on the glass-forming ability of a NiTiZrAlCu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, W.Z.; Shen, J.; Sun, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Si addition on the glass-forming ability (GFA) of a NiTiZrAlCu alloy was investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The maximum diameter of glassy rods increased from 0.5 mm for the Ni 42 Ti 20 Zr 25 Al 8 Cu 5 alloy (the base alloy) to 2.5 mm for the Ni 42 Ti 20 Zr 21.5 Al 8 Cu 5 Si 3.5 alloy and to 3 mm for the Ni 42 Ti 19 Zr 22.5 Al 8 Cu 5 Si 3.5 alloy, when prepared by using the copper mould casting. The GFA of the alloys can be assessed by the reduced glass transition temperature T rg (=T g /T l ) and a newly proposed parameter, δ(=T x /T l - T g ). An addition of a proper amount of Si and a minor substitution of Ti with Zr can enhance the GFA of the base alloy by suppressing the formation of primary Ni(TiZr) and (TiZr)(CuAl) 2 phases and inducing the composition close to eutectic

  9. Galvanic Corrosion between Alloy 690 and Magnetite in Alkaline Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Hyeok Jeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The galvanic corrosion behavior of Alloy 690 coupled with magnetite has been investigated in an alkaline solution at 30 °C and 60 °C using a potentiodynamic polarization method and a zero resistance ammeter. The positive current values were recorded in the galvanic couple and the corrosion potential of Alloy 690 was relatively lower. These results indicate that Alloy 690 behaves as the anode of the pair. The galvanic coupling between Alloy 690 and magnetite increased the corrosion rate of Alloy 690. The temperature increase led to an increase in the extent of galvanic effect and a decrease in the stability of passive film. Galvanic effect between Alloy 690 and magnetite is proposed as an additional factor accelerating the corrosion rate of Alloy 690 steam generator tubing in secondary water.

  10. Microsegregation and homogenization in U-Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, J. Fernando; Nogueira, R.A.; Ambrozio Filho, F.

    1987-01-01

    Microsegregation results in U-4 w t% Nb alloys casted in nonconsumable electrode arc furnace are presented. The microsegregation is studied qualitatively by optical microscopy and quantitatively by electron microprobe. The degreee of homogenetization has been measured after 800 0 C heat treatments. The times required for homogeneization of the alloys are also discussed. (author) [pt

  11. Unexpected formation of hydrides in heavy rare earth containing magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanding Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mg–RE (Dy, Gd, Y alloys show promising for being developed as biodegradable medical applications. It is found that the hydride REH2 could be formed on the surface of samples during their preparations with water cleaning. The amount of formed hydrides in Mg–RE alloys is affected by the content of RE and heat treatments. It increases with the increment of RE content. On the surface of the alloy with T4 treatment the amount of formed hydride REH2 is higher. In contrast, the amount of REH2 is lower on the surfaces of as-cast and T6-treated alloys. Their formation mechanism is attributed to the surface reaction of Mg–RE alloys with water. The part of RE in solid solution in Mg matrix plays an important role in influencing the formation of hydrides.

  12. Cryogenic mechanical properties of low density superplastically formable Al-Li alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzasconi, S. L.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The aerospace industry is considering the use of low density, superplastically formable (SPF) materials, such as Al-Li alloys in cryogenic tankage. SPF modifications of alloys 8090, 2090, and 2090+In were tested for strength and Kahn tear toughness. The results were compared to those of similar tests of 2219-T87, an alloy currently used in cryogenic tankage, and 2090-T81, a recently studied Al-Li alloy with exceptional cryogenic properties (1-9). With decreasing temperature, all materials showed an increase in strength, while most materials showed an increase in elongation and decrease in Kahn toughness. The indium addition to 2090 increased alloy strength, but did not improve the strength-toughness combination. The fracture mode was predominantly intergranular along small, recrystallized grains, with some transgranular fracture, some ductile rupture, and some delamination on large, unrecrystallized grains.

  13. Expression of cell adhesion and differentiation related genes in MC3T3 osteoblasts plated on titanium alloys: role of surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sista, Subhash; Wen, Cuie; Hodgson, Peter D.; Pande, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand the cellular and molecular events that take place at the cell–material interface of implants used for bone repair. An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the initial stages of osteoblast interactions with the surface of the implant material is fundamental in deciding the fate of the cells that come in contact with it. In this study, we compared the relative gene expression of markers that are known to be associated with cell adhesion and differentiation in MC3T3 osteoblast cells, at various time points after plating the cells on surfaces of titanium (Ti) and its two alloys, titanium–zirconium (TiZr) and titanium–niobium (TiNb) by using Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Our analysis indicated that expression of adhesion supporting genes was higher on TiZr surface as compared to Ti and TiNb. The behavior of these genes is possibly driven by a higher surface energy of TiZr. However no significant difference in the expression of differentiation related genes could be seen between the two alloys, although on both substrates it was higher as compared to unalloyed Ti. We propose that substrate composition of the alloys can influence the adhesion and differentiation related gene expression and that Ti alloys are better substrates for inducing osteogenesis as compared to unalloyed Ti. - Highlights: ► Methodology for comparing gene expression in osteoblasts plated on Ti, TiZr or TiNb ► Alloys with higher surface energy (TiZr) induce cell adhesion genes more efficiently ► Alloyed Ti is superior to unalloyed Ti to induce osteoblast differentiation genes

  14. Superconductivity and specific heat measurements in V--Nb--Ta ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.Y.P.

    1977-01-01

    The correlation between the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ with electronic specific heat coefficient γ and Debye temperature theta/sub D/ in some isoelectronic ternary V--Nb--Ta alloys is investigated. It has been known that the variation of theta/sub D/ with concentration in both V--Nb and V--Ta systems is clearly of the same curvature as that of T/sub c/ and γ. In Ta--Nb alloys, however, over most of the concentration range theta/sub D/ seems to have a slight negative curvature while T/sub c/ and γ curve upwards. (But beyond approx. 80 at. % Nb theta/sub D/ rises rapidly to the pure Nb value.) By choosing alloys along a line connecting Ta and V 25 --Nb 75 which is close to the Nb--Ta side of the Gibb's triangle the extent to which the Nb--Ta type of behavior persists in this ternary system can be estimated. A model proposed by Miedema that takes into account the variation of properties caused by possible charge transfer among constituent atoms in an alloy has been found to apply almost quantitatively for nearly all binary alloy systems whose experimental data are available, including those for which Hopfield's method fails. A previous test of the extension of Miedema's empirical model into ternary alloys shows qualitatively correct behavior for intra-row Zr/sub x/Nb/sub 1-2x/Mo/sub x/ alloys. The good agreement between the predicted values of γ and T/sub c/ and the experimental values in the inter-row ternary V--Nb--Ta system studied here gives another and better test of the application of Miedema's model

  15. Creep Aging Behavior Characterization of 2219 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the creep behaviors of 2219 aluminum alloy at different temperatures and stress levels, a RWS-50 Electronic Creep Testing Machine (Zhuhai SUST Electrical Equipment Company, Zhuhai, China was used for creep experiment at temperatures of 353~458 k and experimental stresses of 130~170 MPa. It was discovered that this alloy displayed classical creep curve characteristics in its creep behaviors within the experimental parameters, and its creep value increased with temperature and stress. Based on the creep equation of hyperbolic sine function, regression analysis was conducted of experimental data to calculate stress exponent, creep activation energy, and other related variables, and a 2219 aluminum alloy creep constitutive equation was established. Results of further analysis of the creep mechanism of the alloy at different temperatures indicated that the creep mechanism of 2219 aluminum alloy differed at different temperatures; and creek characteristics were presented in three stages at different temperatures, i.e., the grain boundary sliding creep mechanism at a low temperature stage (T < 373 K, the dislocation glide creep mechanism at a medium temperature stage (373 K ≤ T < 418 K, and the dislocation climb creep mechanism at a high temperature stage (T ≥ 418 K. By comparative analysis of the fitting results and experiment data, they were found to be in agreement with the experimental data, revealing that the established creep constitutive equation is suitable for different temperatures and stresses.

  16. Assessment of Some Advanced Protective Schemes, Including Chromate and Non-Chromate Conversion Coatings for Mg Alloy ZE41A-T5 Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Frank

    1994-01-01

    .... Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests have been employed to compare the corrosion behavior in chloride containing solutions of Mg alloy ZE41A-T5 which has been coated with various combinations of a conversion coating...

  17. Development and Evaluation of Wide Clearance Braze Joints in Gamma Prime Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    process , it also cleans crack surfaces, and this opens a way to repair the very costly parts. Since the alloys contain aluminum and titanium , post- weld ...assembly was comr Let ,d by weld tacking the ends of the T-bar with a TIG torch. Sufficient T-bars of each parent alloy were prepared so that each surface...fluorocarbon cleaning process (FCP). For the right filler metal combination (Ren6 80 with D 15 alloy ) joint tensile strengths rivalled the base metal

  18. Measurement and Analysis of Density of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; XIAO Feng; TAO Zainan; MuKai Kusuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The density of molten Ni-W alloys was measured with a modified pycnometric method. It is found that the density of the molten Ni- W alloys decreases with temperature rising, but increases with the increase of tungsten concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of molten Ni- W binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and tungsten concentration. The partial molar volume of tungsten in liquid Ni- W binary alloy has been calculated approximately as ( - 1.59+ 5.64 × 10-3 T) × 10-6m3 ·mol-1.

  19. Kerosene-water separation in T-junction with orientation upward branch with a 60° angle: Variation of diameter ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Dewi; Indarto, Purnomo, Khasani

    2016-06-01

    Research on the T-junction is still underway for the flow of liquid-liquid (kerosene-water). Some research on the characteristics of kerosene-water separation was performed using T-junction oriented upward branch with a 60° angle. To observe the effect of diameters ratio on the phase separation that produced T-junction then made a test section with a horizontal pipe diameter 36 mm, while the side arm 36 mm diameter, 26 mm and 19 mm (diameters ratio of 1, 0.7 and 0.5) by using plexiglass pipe type. Based on experimental results and visualization of data flow in the test section, to the value obtained 60% water cut, the maximum separation efficiency of 94%, FK = 0.94 and FW = 0.001 with a diameter ratio of 1. For other diameter ratio of 0.7 and 0.5 respectively separation efficiency of 66%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.34 for 0.7 and separation efficiency of 84%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.16 for 0.5, the best value is obtained at a water cut 60% too. All the best conditions to achieve the above-stratified flow pattern.

  20. Investigation on microstructure characterization and property of rapidly solidified Mg-Zn-Ca-Ce-La alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Tao, E-mail: tzhou1118@163.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Chen Zhenhua, E-mail: chenzhenhua45@hotmail.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Yang Mingbo, E-mail: yangmingbo@cqit.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Hu Jianjun, E-mail: hujj@qq.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Xia Hua, E-mail: xiahua@cqut.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Rapidly solidified (RS) Mg-Zn-Ca-Ce-La (wt.%) alloys have been produced via atomizing the alloy melt and subsequent splat-quenching on the water-cooled copper twin-rollers in the form of flakes. Microstructure characterization, phase compositions and thermal stability of the alloys have been systematically investigated. The results showed that with addition of RE (Ce and La) to the Mg-6Zn-5Ca alloy, the stable intermetallic compounds i.e. the Mg{sub x}Zn{sub y}RE{sub z} phase with a few Ca (about 3 at.%), shortened as the T Prime phase, were formed at the expense of the binary Mg-Zn and Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 6}Zn{sub 3} phases, which was possibly beneficial to the enhanced thermal stability of the alloy. In the Mg-6Zn-5Ca-3Ce-0.5La alloy, the composition of the T Prime phase in the grain interior was different from that at the grain boundaries, in which the segregation of the La elements was found, and the atomic percentage ratio of Zn to Ce in the T Prime phase within the grains was close to 2. Moreover, the stable Mg{sub 2}Ca phases were detected around the T Prime phases at the grain boundaries in the alloy. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase constitution of RS Mg-6Zn-5Ca alloy can be improved by RE additions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the Mg-Zn-Ca-Ce-La alloys, the Mg{sub x}Zn{sub y}RE{sub z} phase with a few Ca (T Prime phase) is formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of the T Prime phase leads to the loss of the Mg-Zn and Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 6}Zn{sub 3} phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of the T Prime phase differs from the grain interior to the grain boundary.

  1. Research for magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub 1-x}Dy{sub x} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xueling; Shitao, Li; An, Zhang; Hui, Xu; Ni, Jiansen; Zhou, Bangxin [Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 20007 (China)

    2007-12-15

    The magnetocaloric effect (MEC) in Gd{sub 1-x}Dy{sub x} (x=0.13,0.20,0.27,0.34,0.40) alloys is investigated using commercial elements with purity of up to 99.80% for Gd and Dy. These alloys are prepared by arc melting in stoichiometric proportions on a water-cooled copper crucible under high pure argon atmosphere. As a result, when x was changed from 0 to 40at%, the adiabatic temperature change ({delta}T) increases from 1.6 K to 3.1 K, the Curie temperature decreased from 288 K to 245.5 K. Gd{sub 73}Dy{sub 27} exhibits the largest {delta}T{sub max} value of 3.1 K at the T{sub C} value of 260 K among the alloys investigated up to 1.2 T (tesla) applied field, it is almost same as the {delta}T of high pure unitary Gd (99.99%) and is clearly superior to commercial unitary Gd (99.80%). The T{sub C} of Gd{sub 73}Dy{sub 27} alloy is minor to high pure unitary Gd (99.99%) and commercially unitary Gd (99.80%). But this alloy prepared by commercial elements with low cost has better MEC to be a promising candidate for magnetic working substances for room temperature magnetic refrigeration. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Hydrogen evolution characteristics of Ni-Mn microencapsulated MlNi{sub 3.03}Si{sub 0.85}Co{sub 0.60}Mn{sub 0.31}Al{sub 0.08} alloys in 6 M KOH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananth, MV. [Ni-MH Section, Electrochemical Energy Sources Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India); Ananthi, P. [Department of Chemistry, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan College of Arts and Science for Women, Perambalur 621 212 (India)

    2008-10-15

    Nickel-manganese alloys were coated from sulphate baths by electrodeposition with 'Packed Bed' technique on the surface of proprietary lanthanum rich non-stoichiometric MlNi{sub 3.03}Si{sub 0.85}Co{sub 0.60}Mn{sub 0.31}Al{sub 0.08} (Ml = lanthanum rich misch metal) hydrogen storage alloy particles. The structure and nature of the microencapsulated alloys were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was investigated in 6 M KOH at 30 C by galvnostatic cathodic polarisation technique. The effects of Ni/Mn ratio in the bath and deposition current density were studied. Among the investigated depositions, Ni{sub 150}Mn{sub 100} (30) and Ni{sub 150}Mn{sub 10} (60) (concentration of Ni and Mn salts in electrodeposition bath given in grams per liter; electrodeposition current density (CD) given within brackets in milliamphere per square centimeter) coated samples exhibited the highest activity towards the HER. It can be concluded that disordered paramagnetic coatings with Ni concentrations above 80 at.% exhibit higher catalytic activity towards HER. The Tafel mechanism is the easiest pathway for HER on most of the studied coatings. However, some of the Ni-rich coatings prefer the Volmer-Tafel path and one sample [Ni{sub 150}Mn{sub 150} (80)] prefers the Heyrovsky-Volmer path. (author)

  3. Cryogenic mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloy 2090

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazer, J.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Emigh, R.A.; Verzasconi, S.L.; Yu, W.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanical properties of aluminum-lithium alloy 2090-T8E41 were evaluated at 298 K, 77 K, and 4 K. Previously reported tensile and fracture toughness properties at room temperature were confirmed. This alloy exhibits substantially improved properties at cryogenic temperatures; the strength, elongation, fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth resistance all improve simultaneously as the testing temperature decreases. This alloy has cryogenic properties superior to those of aluminum alloys currently used for cryogenic applications

  4. Room temperature creep in metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibler, Lisa Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Characterization and Performance

    2014-09-01

    Time dependent deformation in the form of creep and stress relaxation is not often considered a factor when designing structural alloy parts for use at room temperature. However, creep and stress relaxation do occur at room temperature (0.09-0.21 Tm for alloys in this report) in structural alloys. This report will summarize the available literature on room temperature creep, present creep data collected on various structural alloys, and finally compare the acquired data to equations used in the literature to model creep behavior. Based on evidence from the literature and fitting of various equations, the mechanism which causes room temperature creep is found to include dislocation generation as well as exhaustion.

  5. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T(e and N(e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T(e and N(e for the aluminum in aluminum alloys using an optical fiber probe.

  6. Effect of Alloy Elements on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties in Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshikazu; Hisayuki, Koji; Sakaguchi, Masashi; Higashi, Kenji

    Microstructures and mechanical properties in the modified Al-Mg-Si alloys with variation in the alloy elements and their contents were investigated to enhance higher strength and ductility. Optimizing both the alloy element design and the industrial processes including heat-treatments and extrusion technology was carried out along the recent suggestion from the first principles calculation. The investigation concluded that the addition of Fe and/or Cu could recovery their lost ductility, furthermore increase their tensile strength up to 420 MPa at high elongation of 24 % after T6 condition for Al-0.8mass%Mg-1.0mass%Si-0.8mass%Cu-0.5mass%Fe alloy with excess Si content. The excellent combination between strength and ductility could be obtained by improvement to the grain boundary embitterment caused by grain boundary segregation of Si as a result from the interaction of Si with Cu or Fe with optimizing the amount of Cu and Fe contents.

  7. Surface asperity evolution and microstructure analysis of Al 6061T5 alloy in a quasi-static cold uniaxial planar compression (CUPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hejie; Jiang, Zhengyi; Wei, Dongbin; Gao, Xingjian; Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We used AFM and EBSD to analyses the surface asperity flattening process. • Analysis of the influence of deformation rate on the surface asperity flattening. • Investigation of the effect of lubrication on microstructure development. • Deformation rate influence the generation of orientation components obviously. - Abstract: In a quasi-static cold uniaxial planar compression, surface asperity evolution and microstructure analysis of Al 6061T5 alloy are carried out by employing Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) methods. Strain rate affects the surface asperity evolution obviously. While lubrication can hinder the surface asperity flattening by constraining the surface localized deformation. Lubrication can accelerate the crystallization in CUPC process. It also impedes the activation of some orientation components by hindering the activation of related slip systems in light metal Al alloy

  8. Effect of the weld thermal cycles by the modified indirect electric arc (MIEA) on the mechanical properties of the AA6061-T6 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, R. A.; Barrera, G.; Garcia, R.; Lopez, V. H.

    2009-01-01

    Results of temperature measurements during welding of 12.7 mm thick AA6061-T6 alloy plates by modified indirect electric arc (MIEA) are presented. This study describes the thermal cycles of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and also in the fusion zone. Depending upon the position of the transducers, the maximum temperatures measured in the HAZ range from 308 to 693 degree centigrade, these measurements were related with the tensile test results, and the failure zone reported previously by the authors. It was observed that, there is a decrease in the mechanical strength of the welded joints, due to the microstructural changes suffered by AA6061-T6 alloy in which formation of the βoccurs according to the TTT transformation diagram. The inherent cooling conditions of the weld pool observed for the MIEA technique (only one pass of welding), have permitted to establish the characteristics of solidification and microstructure for a specific cooling rate. (Author) 24 refs

  9. Synthesis, crystallization behavior and surface modification of Ni-Cr-Si-Fe amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Akhter, J.I.; Rajput, M.U.; Mahmood, K.; Hussain, Z.; Hussain, S.; Rafiq, M.

    2011-01-01

    A quaternary Ni/sub 86/Cr/sub 7/Si/sub 4/Fe/sub 3/ amorphous alloy was synthesized by melt spinning technique. Surface modification was done by electron beam melting (EBM), neutron irradiation and gamma-rays. Microstructure of as cast, annealed and modified samples was examined by scanning electron microscope. Crystallization behavior was studied by annealing the samples in vacuum at different temperatures in the range 773-1073 K. Techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used for characterization. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was conducted at various heating rates in the range 10-40 K/min. Thermal parameters like glass transition temperature T/sub g/, crystallization temperature T/sub x/, supercooled liquid region delta T/sub x/ and reduced glass transition temperature T/sub rg/ were measured. The Ni/sub 86/Cr/sub 7/Si/sub 4/Fe/sub 3/ alloy exhibits wide supercooled liquid region of 60 K indicating good thermal stability. The activation energy was calculated to be 160 +- 4 kJ/mol using Kissinger and Ozawa equations respectively which indicates high resistance against crystallization. The XRD results of the samples annealed at 773 K, 923 K, 973 K and 1073 K/20 min show nucleation of Ni/sub 2/Cr/sub 3/ and NiCrFe crystalline phases. Vickers microhardness of the as cast ribbon was measured to be 680. About 30-50 % increase in hardness was achieved by applying EBM technique. (author)

  10. Density of Liquid Ni-Mo Alloys Measured by a Modified Sessile Drop Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang FANG; Zushu LI; ZaiNan TAO; Feng XIAO

    2004-01-01

    The density of liquid binary Ni-Mo alloys with molybdenum concentration from 0 to 20% (mass fraction) was measured by a modified sessile drop method. It has been found that the density of the liquid Ni-Mo alloys decreases with increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of molybdenum concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Mo binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and molybdenum concentration. The partial molar volume of molybdenum in Ni-Mo binary alloy has been approximately calculated as [13.18 - 2.65 × 10-3T + (-47.94 + 3.10 × 10-2T) × 10-2XMo] × 10-6m3·mol-1. The molar volume of Ni-Mo alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear mixing molar volume.

  11. The Effect of Creep Aging on the Fatigue Fracture Behavior of 2524 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal temperature tensile and fatigue tests were adopted to test the mechanical performance and fatigue life of 2524 aluminum alloy under the three states of T3, artificial aging, and creep aging, and scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were also used to observe the fatigue fracture morphology and aging precipitation features of the alloy under the above three states. Results showed that the alloy treated by creep aging can obtain higher fatigue life, but that treated by artificial aging is lower than T3; T3 alloy is mainly dominated by GPB region. Meanwhile, the crystal boundary displays continuously distributed fine precipitated phases; after artificial aging and creep aging treatment, a large amount of needle-shaped S′ phases precipitate inside the alloy, while there are wide precipitated phases at the crystal boundary. Wide precipitation free zones appear at the crystal boundary of artificial-aging samples, but precipitation free zones at the alloy crystal boundary of creep aging become narrower and even disappear. It can be seen that creep aging can change the precipitation features of the alloy and improve its fatigue life.

  12. The corrosion and biological behaviour of titanium alloys in the presence of human lymphoid cells and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yumei; Zhao Yimin; Chai Feng; Hildebrand, Hartmut F; Hornez, Jean-Christophe; Li, Chang Liang; Traisnel, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion behaviour of biomedical alloys is generally determined in mineral electrolytes: unbuffered NaCl 0.9% (pH 7.4) or artificial saliva (pH 6.8). The assays with exclusive utilization of these electrolytes are of low relevance for the biological condition, to which the alloys will be exposed once implanted in the human organism. As an approach to the biological situation regarding the interaction of proteins, electrolytes and metals, we added the RPMI cell culture medium containing foetal calf serum as a biological electrolyte (pH 7.0). The analysis of corrosion behaviour was also performed in the presence of human lymphoid cells (CEM). The rest potential (E r ) and the global polarization were determined on cp-Ti, micro-arc oxidized cp-Ti (MAO-Ti), four different Ti-alloys (Ti6Al4V, Ti12Zr, Ti(AlMoZr), Ti(NbTaZr)) and 316L stainless steel. The 316L exhibited an appropriate E r and a good passive current density (I p ), but a high corrosion potential (E c ) and a very low breakdown potential (E b ) in all electrolytes. All Ti-alloys exhibited a much better electrochemical behaviour: better E r and E c and very high E b . No significant differences of the above parameters existed between the Ti-alloys, except for Zr-containing alloys that showed better corrosion behaviour. A remarkable difference, however, was stated with respect to the electrolytes. NaCl 0.9% induced strong variations between the Ti-alloys. More homogeneous results were obtained with artificial saliva and RPMI medium, which induced a favourable E c and an increased I p . The presence of cells further decreased these values. The unbuffered NaCl solution seems to be less appropriate for the analysis of corrosion of metals. Additional in vitro biological assessments with CEM cell suspensions and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed the advantages of the Ti(AlMoZr) and Ti(NbTaZr) alloys with an improved cell proliferation and vitality rate.

  13. The corrosion and biological behaviour of titanium alloys in the presence of human lymphoid cells and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Mei; Chai, Feng; Hornez, Jean-Christophe; Li, Chang Liang; Zhao, Yi Min; Traisnel, Michel; Hildebrand, Hartmut F

    2009-02-01

    Corrosion behaviour of biomedical alloys is generally determined in mineral electrolytes: unbuffered NaCl 0.9% (pH 7.4) or artificial saliva (pH 6.8). The assays with exclusive utilization of these electrolytes are of low relevance for the biological condition, to which the alloys will be exposed once implanted in the human organism. As an approach to the biological situation regarding the interaction of proteins, electrolytes and metals, we added the RPMI cell culture medium containing foetal calf serum as a biological electrolyte (pH 7.0). The analysis of corrosion behaviour was also performed in the presence of human lymphoid cells (CEM). The rest potential (Er) and the global polarization were determined on cp-Ti, micro-arc oxidized cp-Ti (MAO-Ti), four different Ti-alloys (Ti6Al4V, Ti12Zr, Ti(AlMoZr), Ti(NbTaZr)) and 316L stainless steel. The 316L exhibited an appropriate Er and a good passive current density (Ip), but a high corrosion potential (Ec) and a very low breakdown potential (Eb) in all electrolytes. All Ti-alloys exhibited a much better electrochemical behaviour: better Er and Ec and very high Eb. No significant differences of the above parameters existed between the Ti-alloys, except for Zr-containing alloys that showed better corrosion behaviour. A remarkable difference, however, was stated with respect to the electrolytes. NaCl 0.9% induced strong variations between the Ti-alloys. More homogeneous results were obtained with artificial saliva and RPMI medium, which induced a favourable Ec and an increased Ip. The presence of cells further decreased these values. The unbuffered NaCl solution seems to be less appropriate for the analysis of corrosion of metals. Additional in vitro biological assessments with CEM cell suspensions and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed the advantages of the Ti(AlMoZr) and Ti(NbTaZr) alloys with an improved cell proliferation and vitality rate.

  14. Internal friction behavior of liquid Bi-Sn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Aiqing; Guo Lijun; Liu Changsong; Jia Erguang; Zhu Zhengang

    2005-01-01

    Pure Bi and Sn and four Bi-Sn alloys distributed on the entire concentration range were selected for internal-friction investigation over a wide temperature range. There exist two peaks in the plots of internal friction versus temperature for liquid Sn, Bi-Sn60 and Bi-Sn90 alloys, one peak being located at about 480 - bar Cand another at about 830 - bar C. Only a single internal-friction peak at about 830 - bar C occurs in liquid Bi-Sn43 (eutectic composition). No internal-friction peak appears in liquid Bi-Sn20 alloy and pure Bi. The height of the internal-friction peaks depends on the content of Sn. The present finding suggests that Sn-rich Bi-Sn alloys may inherit the internal-friction behaviors of pure Sn, whereas Bi-rich Bi-Sn alloy seems to be like pure Bi. The position of the internal-friction peaks is frequency dependent, which resembles the internal-friction feature in structure transition in solids

  15. Internal friction behavior of liquid Bi-Sn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Aiqing [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Guo Lijun [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu Changsong [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Jia Erguang [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhu Zhengang [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China)]. E-mail: zgzhu@issp.ac.cn

    2005-12-01

    Pure Bi and Sn and four Bi-Sn alloys distributed on the entire concentration range were selected for internal-friction investigation over a wide temperature range. There exist two peaks in the plots of internal friction versus temperature for liquid Sn, Bi-Sn60 and Bi-Sn90 alloys, one peak being located at about 480{sup -}bar Cand another at about 830{sup -}bar C. Only a single internal-friction peak at about 830{sup -}bar C occurs in liquid Bi-Sn43 (eutectic composition). No internal-friction peak appears in liquid Bi-Sn20 alloy and pure Bi. The height of the internal-friction peaks depends on the content of Sn. The present finding suggests that Sn-rich Bi-Sn alloys may inherit the internal-friction behaviors of pure Sn, whereas Bi-rich Bi-Sn alloy seems to be like pure Bi. The position of the internal-friction peaks is frequency dependent, which resembles the internal-friction feature in structure transition in solids.

  16. Preparing rare earth-silicon-iron-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, J.D.; Morrice, E.; Herve, B.P.; Wong, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    As part of its mission to assure the maximum recovery and use of the Nation's mineral resources, the Bureau of Mines, investigated an improved procedure for producing rare earth-silicon alloys. For example, a charge consisting of 681 grams of mixed rare-earth oxides, 309 grams of ferrosilicon (75 wt-pct Si), and 182 grams of aluminum metal along with a flux consisting of 681 grams of CaO and 45 grams of MgO was reacted at 1500 0 C in an induction furnace. Good slag-metal separation was achieved. The alloy product contained, in weight-percent, 53 RE, 28 Si, 11 Fe, and 4 Al with a rare earth recovery of 80 pct. In current industrial practice rare earth recoveries are usually about 60 pct in alloy products that contain approximately 30 wt-pct each of rare earths and silicon. Metallurgical evaluations showed the alloys prepared in this investigation to be as effective in controlling the detrimental effect of sulfur in steel and cast iron as the commercial rare earth-silicon-iron alloys presently used in the steel industry

  17. Tool material effect on the friction stir butt welding of AA2124-T4 Alloy Matrix MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Bozkurt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to study on the effect of material properties tool on friction stir butt welding of AA2124-T4 alloy matrix MMC. Uncoated tool, coated tool with a CrN, and coated tool with AlTiN were used to weld aluminum MMC plates. Macrostructure and microstructure observations, ultimate tensile strength, wear resistance, and chemical analysis were carried out to determine the appropriate tool for joining these composite plates. Results showed that the good welded joints could be obtained when a tool is coated with AlTiN.

  18. Friction stir welding of dissimilar AA2024 and AA7075 aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodir, Saad Ahmed; Shibayanagi, Toshiya

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on the microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints of 2024-T3 Al alloy to 7075-T6 Al alloy produced by friction stir welding. Effects of welding speed and fixed location of base metals on microstructures, hardness distributions, and tensile properties of the welded joints were investigated. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the stir zone contains a mixed structure and onion ring pattern with a periodic change of grain size as well as a heterogeneous distribution of alloying elements. The maximum tensile strength of 423.0 MPa was achieved for the joint produced at welding speed of 1.67 mm/s when 2024 Al alloy was located on the advancing side

  19. Study of the Metallurgical Aspects of Steel Micro-Alloying by Titan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijac, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal properties upgrading applying it’s alloying with the simultaneous limitation of the impurities represents a prospective possibility of the metallurgical production further development. The interaction of the alloying substance active element with oxygen in metal and adjacent multiphase environment occurs under the actual conditions. Present paper is oriented particularly to the thermodynamic aspects of deoxygenation by titan in process of production of micro alloyed low carbon steel in two plants (oxygen converter 1-OC1 and 2-OC2 with the different effect of micro-alloy exploitation. Analysis of the effect of the metallurgical factors on the titan smelting loss in micro-alloyed steel production points at the need to master the metal preparation for the alloying and especially has got the decisive effect upon the oxidizing ability and rate of the slag phase availability. When comparing the micro-alloying matter yield among the individual production units, disclosed have been better results obtained in plant OC 2. Confirmed has been the effect of the slag amount (average amount of 7,3 t at OC 1 and 5,83 t at OC 2 and its quality during the steel tapping as one among the most significant factors affecting the alloying process and which also represent its oxidizing potential.

  20. Uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 0,5 to 3 per cent by weight of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.

    1959-01-01

    The following properties have been determined in the new cast state of uranium alloys containing 0.5-1-1.8-2 and 3.5 per cent of molybdenum: micro-graphical aspect, crystalline structure, thermal expansion, the mechanical characteristics, behaviour when subjected to cyclic temperature variations, and heat treatment. The transformation curves have been established for continuous cooling at rates varying between 2.5 and 200 deg. C per minute, using a dilatation method for the alloys containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 per cent Mo. T.T.T. curves have been traced for 0.5 and 1.0 per cent Mo alloys and the Ms points determined for alloys containing 2.0 and 3.0 par cent Mo. In this way it has been possible to show the different results of transformation, brought about either by nucleation and diffusion or by shear - the alloy containing 1 per cent Mo, give two martensites α' and α'' and the alloys containing 2 and 3 per cent Mo give one martensite with a band structure. (author) [fr

  1. Effects of annealing and deforming temperature on microstructure and deformation characteristics of Ti-Ni-V shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Zhirong, E-mail: hezhirong01@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723003 (China); Liu Manqian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723003 (China)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deformation behaviors of annealed Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V shape memory alloy (SMA) were given. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of annealing temperature on microstructure and deformation characteristics of Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V SMA was shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of deforming temperature on deformation characteristics of Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V SMA was given. - Abstract: Effects of annealing temperature T{sub an} and deforming temperature T{sub d} on microstructure and deformation characteristics of Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V (atomic fraction, %) shape memory alloy were investigated by means of optical microscopy and tensile test. With increasing T{sub an}, the microstructure of Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V alloy wire changes from fiber style to equiaxed grain, and the recrystallization temperature of the alloy is about 580 Degree-Sign C; the critical stress for stress-induced martensite {sigma}{sub M} of the alloy decreases first and then increases, and the minimum value 382 MPa is got at T{sub an} = 450 Degree-Sign C; the residual strain {epsilon}{sub R} first increases, then decreases, and then increases, and its maximum value 2.5% is reached at T{sub an} = 450 Degree-Sign C. With increasing T{sub d}, a transformation from shape memory effect (SME) to superelasticity (SE) occurs in the alloy annealed at different temperatures, and the SME {yields} SE transformation temperature was affected by T{sub an}; the {sigma}{sub M} of the alloy increases linearly; the {epsilon}{sub R} of the alloy annealed at 350-600 Degree-Sign C decreases first and then tends to constant, while that of the alloy annealed at 650 Degree-Sign C and 700 Degree-Sign C decreases first and then increases. To get an excellent SE at room temperature for Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V alloy, T{sub an} should be 500-600 Degree-Sign C.

  2. Advanced Class of FML on the Base Al-Li Alloy 1441 with Lower Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, V. V.; Senatorova, O. G.; Lukina, N. F.

    Structure, composition, properties combination of specimens and components, a number of technological parameters for production of advanced FML based on high-modulus Al-Li 1441 alloy (E 79 GPa) with reduced density (d 2.6 g/m3) and optimized adhesive prepreg reinforced with high-strength high-modulus VMP glass fibres are described. Service life 1441 alloy provides the possibility of manufacture of thin sheets (up to 0.3 mm), clad and unclad. Moreover, some experience on the usage of 1441 T1, T11 sheets and shapes in Be 200 and Be 103 aircraft was accumulated. The class of FML materials based on Al-Li alloy provide an 5% improvement in weight efficiency and stiffness of skin structures as compared with those made from FML with conventional Al-Cu-Mg (2024T3 a.o.) and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7475T76 a.o.) alloys.

  3. Fatigue characteristics of sand-cast AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue characteristics of the AZ91D-T6 alloy samples taken from engine blocks have been investigated at 20 °C and elevated temperature (150 °C. The fatigue strength and cyclic stress amplitude of the alloy significantly decrease with the increase of the test temperature, although cyclic hardening occurs continuously until failure for both temperatures. With the increase of the temperature, the decreased fatigue life of the alloy tested at the same stress amplitude is mainly attributed to the decreased matrix strength and the increased hysteresis energies. Fatigue failure of the engine blocks made of AZ91D-T6 alloy is mainly controlled by casting defects. For the defect-free specimens, the crack initiation behavior is determined by the single-slip (20 °C and by environment-assisted cyclic slip (150 °C during fatigue, respectively. The low-cycle fatigue lives of the alloy can be predicted using the Coffin-Manson relation and Basquin laws, the three-parameter equation and the energy-based concepts, while the high-cycle fatigue lives of the alloy fitted well with the developed long crack life model and MSF life models.

  4. Evaluation of mechanical properties of as-cast Al-Zn-Ce alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindaraju, H.K.; Jayaraj, T.; Sadanandarao, P.R.; Venkatesha, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cerium on Al-Zn alloys with T6 and T5 treatments was investigated for mechanical and impact properties. Alloys were prepared by controlled melting and casting. The cast alloys were solution heat treated at 500-550 o C, for up to 24 h, followed by artificial aging at 165 o C for 6 h (T6). The T5 type temper was produced merely by applying a precipitation treatment to the as-cast castings, without previous solution treatment. All the tests were conducted according to ASTM standards. From the investigation, it was found that there was an improvement in mechanical and impact properties. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to characterize the structural properties of different heat treatments and the effect of cerium. In addition, the fractured specimens were examined using a scanning electron microscopy in order to clarify fracture.

  5. The use of hardfacing alloys in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarinen, K.; Aaltonen, P.

    1987-08-01

    In this report the structure and applications of cobalt-, nickel- and iron-based hardfacing alloys are reviewed. Cobalt-based hardfacing alloys are widely used in nuclear power plant components due to their good wear and corrosion resistance. However, the wear and corrosion products of the cobalt-containing alloys are released into the primary cooling water and transported to the reactor core where cobalt (Co-59) is transmuted to the radioactive isotope Co-60. It has been estimated that cobalt-based hardfacing alloys are responsible for up to 90% of the total cobalt released to the primary water circuit. The cobalt based hardfacing alloys are used in such components as valves, control blade pins and pumps, etc. In the Finnish nuclear power plants they are not used in in-core components. The replacement of cobalt-containing alloys in primary cooling system components is studied in many laboratories, but substitutes for the cobalt-based alloys in the complete range of nuclear hardfacing applications have so far not been found. However, the modified austenitic stainless steels have showed good resistance to galling wear and are therefore considered substitutes for cobalt-based alloys

  6. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...... thermoelastic coefficients and age hardenable low expansion alloys....

  7. Replacement of steel parts with extruded aluminum alloys in an automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggula, Manikantha Reddy

    Over the past years, vehicle emissions have shown a negative impact on environment and human health. A new strategy has been used by automakers to reduce a vehicle's weight which significantly reduce fuel consumption and C02 emissions. A very light car consumes very less fuel as it needs to overcome less inertia, decreasing the required power to movie the vehicle. Reducing weight is the easiest way to increase fuel economy and making it by just 10% can increase its efficiency 6 to 8 percent. For a normal scale 80% of vehicles weight is shared among chassis, power train and other exterior components. Almost 60% of the vehicles weight is comprised of steel and the remaining is with cast and extruded aluminum and magnesium alloys. Our main aim is to look for the parts like Fuel tank holder, Fuel filler neck, Turbo inlet assembly, and Brake lines, Dash board frame which are made from steel and replace them with extruded aluminum alloys, to analyze a conventional rear wheel aluminum drive shaft and replace it with a new design and with a new aluminum alloy. The current project involves dismantling an automobile and looking for feasible steel parts and making samples, analyzing the hardness of the samples. These parts are optimally analyzed using Ansys Finite element analysis tool, these parts are subjected to the constraints such as three-point bending, tensile testing, hydrostatic pressure and also torsional stress action on the drive shaft, the deformation and stress are observed in these parts. The results show the current steel parts can be replaced with 3000 series aluminum alloy and the drive shaft can be replaced with new design with 6061-T6 Al-alloy which decreases 25% of the shaft weight.

  8. Mechanical and corrosion properties of binary Mg–Dy alloys for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lei; Huang Yuanding; Peng Qiuming; Feyerabend, Frank; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Willumeit, Regine; Hort, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of binary magnesium–dysprosium (Mg-5, 10, 15, 20 wt.% Dy) alloys were investigated for medical applications. In the as-cast condition, the distribution of Dy is quite inhomogeneous. Mg–10Dy alloy exhibits a moderate tensile and compression yield strength, and the best elongation and corrosion resistance. After T4 (solutionizing) treatment, the distribution of Dy becomes homogeneous. The tensile and compression yield strength of all Mg–Dy alloys decreases. The elongation remains unchanged, while the corrosion resistance is largely improved after T4 treatment.

  9. Mechanical and corrosion properties of binary Mg-Dy alloys for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Lei, E-mail: lei.yang@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Yuanding, Huang; Qiuming, Peng; Feyerabend, Frank; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Willumeit, Regine; Hort, Norbert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of binary magnesium-dysprosium (Mg-5, 10, 15, 20 wt.% Dy) alloys were investigated for medical applications. In the as-cast condition, the distribution of Dy is quite inhomogeneous. Mg-10Dy alloy exhibits a moderate tensile and compression yield strength, and the best elongation and corrosion resistance. After T4 (solutionizing) treatment, the distribution of Dy becomes homogeneous. The tensile and compression yield strength of all Mg-Dy alloys decreases. The elongation remains unchanged, while the corrosion resistance is largely improved after T4 treatment.

  10. Effect of Zr on microstructures and mechanical properties of an Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr alloy prepared by low frequency electromagnetic casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Yi, E-mail: yimonmy@sina.com; Cui, Jianzhong; Zhao, Zhihao; He, Lizi

    2014-06-01

    The Al-1.6Mg-1.2Si-1.1Cu-0.15Cr (all in wt. %) alloys with and without Zr addition prepared by low frequency electromagnetic casting process were investigated by using the optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive analytical X-ray. The effects of Al{sub 3}Zr phases on the microstructures and mechanical properties during solidification, homogenization, hot extrusion and solid solution were studied. The results show that Al{sub 3}Zr phases reduce the grain size by ∼ 29% and promote the formation of an equiaxed grain structure during solidification. Numerous spherical Al{sub 3}Zr dispersoids with 35–60 nm in diameters precipitate during homogenization, and these fine dispersoids change little during subsequent hot extrusion and solid solution. Adding 0.15 wt. % Zr results in no recrystallization after hot extrusion and partial recrystallization after solid solution, while the recrystallized grain size is 400–550 μm in extrusion direction in the Zr-free alloy. In addition, adding 0.15 wt. % Zr can obviously promote Q′ phase precipitation, while the β″ phases are predominant in the alloy without Zr. Adding 0.15 wt. % Zr, the ultimate tensile strength of the T6 treated alloy increases by 45 MPa, while the elongation remains about 16.7%. - Highlights: • Minor Zr can refine as-cast grains of the LFEC Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr alloy. • L1{sub 2} Al{sub 3}Zr phases with 35–60 nm in diameter precipitate during homogenization. • L1{sub 2} and DO{sub 22} Al{sub 3}Zr phases result in partial recrystallization after solid solution. • Minor Zr can promote the precipitation of Q′ phases. • Mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr-Zr alloy are higher than those of AA7005.

  11. Effect of Zr on microstructures and mechanical properties of an Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr alloy prepared by low frequency electromagnetic casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Yi; Cui, Jianzhong; Zhao, Zhihao; He, Lizi

    2014-01-01

    The Al-1.6Mg-1.2Si-1.1Cu-0.15Cr (all in wt. %) alloys with and without Zr addition prepared by low frequency electromagnetic casting process were investigated by using the optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive analytical X-ray. The effects of Al 3 Zr phases on the microstructures and mechanical properties during solidification, homogenization, hot extrusion and solid solution were studied. The results show that Al 3 Zr phases reduce the grain size by ∼ 29% and promote the formation of an equiaxed grain structure during solidification. Numerous spherical Al 3 Zr dispersoids with 35–60 nm in diameters precipitate during homogenization, and these fine dispersoids change little during subsequent hot extrusion and solid solution. Adding 0.15 wt. % Zr results in no recrystallization after hot extrusion and partial recrystallization after solid solution, while the recrystallized grain size is 400–550 μm in extrusion direction in the Zr-free alloy. In addition, adding 0.15 wt. % Zr can obviously promote Q′ phase precipitation, while the β″ phases are predominant in the alloy without Zr. Adding 0.15 wt. % Zr, the ultimate tensile strength of the T6 treated alloy increases by 45 MPa, while the elongation remains about 16.7%. - Highlights: • Minor Zr can refine as-cast grains of the LFEC Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr alloy. • L1 2 Al 3 Zr phases with 35–60 nm in diameter precipitate during homogenization. • L1 2 and DO 22 Al 3 Zr phases result in partial recrystallization after solid solution. • Minor Zr can promote the precipitation of Q′ phases. • Mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr-Zr alloy are higher than those of AA7005

  12. Laser coating of aluminum alloy EN AW 6082-T651 with TiB2 and TiC: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnikar, Dunja; Dahotre, Narendra B.; Grum, Janez

    2013-10-01

    This paper deals with laser coating of ceramics by deposition of a precursor powder mixture of TiB2-TiC-Al on an EN AW 6082-T651 aluminum alloy. The resulting coating was studied by means of a microstructural and mechanical analysis. The coating has with TiC and TiB2 particles of various shapes and sizes embedded in an Al matrix, as well as being adherent and free of cracks with an average porosity lower than 2%. Microhardness in the coating is 40% higher than the uncoated alloy, while the microhardness in the laser melt zone and heat-affected zone dropped significantly. The wear test showed a great improvement in terms of the mass lost after the 30 min test. The three-point bending test was used to determine the flexural properties of the coated aluminum alloy. Higher content of TiB2 in ceramic components increases the flexural strength of the coated specimens, delaying the occurrence of the first crack in the coating or the occurrence of delamination. The measurements of residual stresses confirmed the presence of favorable compressive residual stresses in the surface coating. With depth, these stresses become tensile.

  13. Measurements and mechanisms of localized aqueous corrosion in aluminum-lithium-copper alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Douglas; Stoner, Glenn E.

    1991-01-01

    Summary information is included for electrochemical aspects of stress corrosion cracking in alloy 2090 and an introduction to the work to be initiated on the new X2095 (Weldalite) alloy system. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was studied in both S-T and L-T orientations in alloy 2090. A constant load TTF test was performed in several environments with a potentiostatically applied potential. In the same environments the electrochemical behavior of phases found along subgrain boundaries was assessed. It was found that rapid failure due to SCC occurred when the following criteria was met: E(sub BR,T1) is less than E(sub applied) is less than E(sub Br, matrix phase). Although the L-T orientation is usually considered more resistant to SCC, failures in this orientation occurred when the stated criteria was met. This may be due to the relatively isotropic geometry of the subgrains which measure approximately 12 to 25 microns in diameters. Initial studies of alloy X2095 includes electrochemical characterization of three compositional variations each at three temperatures. The role of T(sub 1) dissolution in SCC behavior is addressed using techniques similar to those used in the research of 2090 described. SCC susceptibility is also studied using alternate immersion facilities at Reynolds Metals Corporation. Pitting is investigated in terms of stability, role of precipitate phases and constituent particles, and as initiation sites for SCC. In all research endeavors, attempts are made to link electrochemistry to microstructure. Previous work on 2090 provides a convenient basis for comparison since both alloys contain T(sub 1) precipitates but with different distributions. In 2090 T(sub 1) forms preferentially on subgrain boundaries whereas in X2095 the microstructure appears to be more homogeneous with finer T(sub 1) particles. Another point for comparison is the delta prime strengthening phase found in 2090 but absent in X2095.

  14. Electrodeposition of bismuth alloys by the controlled potential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Alvarez, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    We worked with the electrodeposition of three bismuth alloys, the composition of the first electrolyte was: 0.3 g/l. Bi; 20 g/l. Ni; and the conditions were pH = 5.2 - 5.6; T = 25 Centigrade degrees; current density 0.3 A / dm 2 - 6.6 A / dm 2 . Following alloy was between Bi - Pb, composition of the electrolyte was 3.18 g/l. Bi (metallic); 31.81 g/l. Pb (Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) pH : 1; T = 20 Centigrade degrees; current density 10.20 A/dm 2 . The third electrolyte was Bi-Cu, its composition was: 20.89 g/l. Bi; (metallic) 63.54 g/l Cu (Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ) pH : 1.5 - 1.8; T = 25-30 Centigrade degrees; current density 1-2 A/dm 2 . The best results were obtained with the third electrolyte. The purpose of this work was to experiment with different parameters like temperature, pH and the electrolyte concentration to obtain a bismuth alloy. (Author)

  15. Reshock Response of 2A12 Aluminum Alloy at High Pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ri-Li, Hou; Jian-Xiang, Peng; Fu-Qian, Jing; Jian-Hua, Zhang; Ping, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    By means of mounting the specimen on a low-impedance buffer, reshock experiments were carried out on a 2A12 aluminum alloy up to shock stresses of 67.6 GPa. Reshock wave profiles from the initial shock stresses of 60.9–67.6 GPa were measured with a velocity interferometer, and it shows that the 2A12 aluminum alloy characterizes as quasi-elastic response during recompression process. The Lagrange longitudinal velocities along the reloading path from initial shock state were obtained from two shots of experiments, while the bulk velocities at corresponding shock stresses were determined via extrapolating from the public reported unloading plastic sound velocities. Combining the reshock and the release experimental results, the yield strength of 2A12 aluminum alloy at shock stress of 60.9 GPa was estimated to be about 1.7 GPa

  16. Sparking-out optimization while surface grinding aluminum alloy 1933T2 parts using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Ya I.; Salov, V. M.; Kien Nguyen, Chi

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of a search for optimal sparing-out strokes when surface grinding aluminum parts by high-porous wheels Norton of black silicon carbide 37C80K12VP using fuzzy logic. The topography of grinded surface is evaluated according to the following parameters: roughness – Ra, Rmax, Sm; indicators of flatness deviation – EFEmax, EFEa, EFEq; microhardness HV, each of these parameters is represented by two measures of position and dispersion. The simulation results of fuzzy logic in the Matlab medium establish that during the grinding of alloy 1933T2, the best integral performance evaluation of sparking-out was given to two double-strokes (d=0.827) and the worst – to three ones (d=0.405).

  17. Facile synthesis of dendritic Cu by electroless reaction of Cu-Al alloys in multiphase solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Shuhua; Yang, Qing; Wang, Xianhui

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic coppers (FDCs) were synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in hydrochloric acid solution containing copper chloride without any assistance of template or surfactant. The FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl2 + HCl solution. Compared to Cu40Al60 and Cu45Al55 alloys, the FDC shows hierarchical distribution and homogeneous structures using Cu17Al83 alloy as the starting alloy. The growth direction of the FDC is , and all angles between the trunks and branches are 60°. Nanoscale Cu2O was found at the edge of FDC. Interestingly, nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained through Cu17Al83 alloy. Studies showed that the formation of FDC depended on two key factors: the potential difference between CuAl2 intermetallic and α-Al phase of dual-phase Cu-Al alloys; a replacement reaction that usually occurs in multiphase solution. The electrochemical experiment further proved that the multi-branch dendritic structure is very beneficial to the proton transfer in the process of catalyzing methanol.

  18. Effect of Bi on the corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Meiyi; Zhou Bangxin; Li Qiang; Zhang Weipeng; Zhu Li; Zou Linghong; Zhang Jinlong; Peng Jianchao

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate systematically the effect of Bi addition on the corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys, different zirconium-based alloys, including Zr-4 (Zr-l.5Sn-0.2Fe-0.1Cr), S5 (Zr-0.8Sn-0.35Nb-0.4Fe-0.1Cr), T5 (Zr-0.7Sn-l.0Nb-0.3Fe-0.1Cr) and Zr-1Nb, were adopted to prepare the zirconium alloys containing Bi of 0∼0.5% in mass fraction. These alloys were denoted as Zr-4 + xBi, S5 + xBi, T5 + xBi and Zr-1Nb + xBi, respectively. The corrosion behavior of these specimens was investigated by autoclave testing in lithiated water with 0.01 M LiOH or deionized water at 360 ℃/18.6 MPa and in superheated steam at 400 ℃/10.3 MPa. The microstructure of the alloys was examined by TEM and the second phase particles (SPPs) were analyzed by EDS. Microstructure observation shows that the addition of Bi promotes the precipitation of Sn as second phase particles (SPPs) because Sn is in solid solution in α-Zr matrix in Zr-4, S5 and T5 alloys. The concentration of Bi dissolved in α-Zr matrix increase with the increase of Nb in the alloys, and the excess Bi precipitates as Bi-containing SPPs. The corrosion results show that the effect of Bi addition on the corrosion behavior of different zirconium-based alloys is very complicated, depending on their compositions and corrosion conditions. In the case of higher Bi concentration in α-Zr, the zirconium alloys exhibit better corrosion resistance. However, in the case of precipitation of Bi-containing SPPs, the corrosion resistance gets worse. This indicates that the solid solution of Bi in α-Zr matrix can improve the corrosion resistance, while the precipitation of the Bi-containing SPPs is harmful to the corrosion resistance. (authors)

  19. High temperature salt corrosion cracking of intermediate products of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyavskij, V.S.; Usova, V.V.; Lunina, S.I.; Kushakevich, S.A.; Makhmutova, E.A.; Khanina, Z.K.

    1982-01-01

    The high temperature salt corrosion cracking (HTSCC) of intermediate products from titanium base alloys in the form of hot rolled plates and rods has been studied. The investigated materials are as follows: VT20 pseudo-α-alloy, VT6 and VT14 α+β alloys; the comparison has been carried out with commercial titanium and low-alloyed OT4-1 α-alloy. The experiments have been held at 400 and 500 deg C, defining different stress levels: 0.4; 0.5; 0.75 and 0.9 tausub(0.2). The test basis - not less than 100 h. Standard tensile samples of circular cross section with NaCl (approximately 0.2-0.3 mg/cm 2 ) salt coatings, cut off from hot-rolled rods along the direction of rolling and hot-rolled plates along and across the direction of rolling have been tested. It has been extablished before hand that the notch doesn't affect the resistance of titanium alloys to HTSCC. The sensitivity of titanium alloy subproducts to HTSCC is estimated as to the time until the failure of the sample with salt coatings and without them. It is shown that salt coating practically doesn't affect the behaviour of titanium, that allows to consider it to be resistant to HTSCC. Titanium alloys alloying with β-isomorphous stabilizing additions increases it's HTSCC resistance. Vanadium alloying of the alloy (VT6 alloy of Ti-Al-V system) produces a favourable effect; intermediate products of VT14 (α+β) alloy (Ti-Al-V-Mo system), containing two β-stabilizing additions-vanadium and molybdenum, have satisfactory HTSCC resistance. It is shown that by changes is mechanical properties of alloys during HTSCC one can indirectly judge about their HTSCC sensitivity

  20. Fracture mechanisms of aluminium alloy AA7075-T651 under various loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Ketill O.; Borvik, Tore; Hopperstad, Odd Sture

    2011-01-01

    The fracture behaviour of the aluminium alloy AA7075-T651 is investigated for quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions and different stress states. The fracture surfaces obtained in tensile tests on smooth and notched axisymmetric specimens and compression tests on cylindrical specimens are compared to the fracture surfaces that occur when a projectile, having either a blunt or an ogival nose shape, strikes a 20 mm thick plate of the aluminium alloy. The stress state in the impact tests is much more complex and the strain rate significantly higher than in the tensile and compression tests. Optical and scanning electron microscopes are used in the investigation. The fracture surface obtained in tests with smooth axisymmetric specimens indicates that the crack growth is partly intergranular along the grain boundaries or precipitation free zones and partly transgranular by void formation around fine and coarse intermetallic particles. When the stress triaxiality is increased through the introduction of a notch in the tensile specimen, delamination along the grain boundaries in the rolling plane is observed perpendicular to the primary crack. In through-thickness compression tests, the crack propagates within an intense shear band that has orientation about 45 o with respect to the load axis. The primary failure modes of the target plate during impact were adiabatic shear banding when struck by a blunt projectile and ductile hole-enlargement when struck by an ogival projectile. Delamination and fragmentation of the plates occurred for both loading cases, but was stronger for the ogival projectile. The delamination in the rolling plane was attributed to intergranular fracture caused by tensile stresses occurring during the penetration event.

  1. Origin of nondetectable x-ray diffraction peaks in nanocomposite CuTiZr alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Kato, H.; Ohsuna, T.

    2003-01-01

    Microscopic structures of Cu60Ti10+xZr30-x (x=0 and 10) alloys have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In the Cu60Ti10Zr30 samples annealed at 708 K for times ranging from 0 to 130 min, where the enthalpy...... of the first exothermic peak decreases by 80%, the corresponding XRD patterns still look similar to that for the as-prepared sample. However, the simulated XRD patterns for the pure Cu51Zr14 phase, which is the crystalline phase formed during the first exothermic reaction, with small grain sizes and defects...... clearly show a broadened amorphous-like feature. This might be the reason that no diffraction peaks from the nanocrystalline component were detected in the XRD patterns recorded for the as-cast or as-spun Cu60Ti10+xZr30-x (x=0 and 10) alloys and for the alloys annealed at lower temperatures, in which...

  2. Corrosion behaviour of Alloy 800 in high temperature aqueous solutions: Electrochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmedo, A.M.; Villegas, M.; Alvarez, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of Alloy 800 in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and sodium bicarbonate were studied by electrochemical techniques in the temperature range from 60 C to 280 C. The pitting resistance and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride plus sulphate and chloride plus bicarbonate mixtures, at 60 C and 280 C, were also examined. Increasing bicarbonate or sulphate additions to chloride solutions shift the characteristic pitting potential of Alloy 800 to higher values, both at low and high temperatures. Changes in pitting morphology were observed in sulphate containing solutions while the morphology of the attack found in bicarbonate containing solutions was similar to that in pure chloride solutions. Finally, no localized or substantial generalized corrosion was detected in pure sulphate or bicarbonate solutions at any temperature. (orig.)

  3. Structural and transport properties of Sn-Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meydaneri, F.; Saatci, E.; Oezdemir, M.; Ari, M.; Durmus, S.

    2010-01-01

    The structural and temperature dependence transport of Sn-Mg alloys have been investigated for five different samples (Pure Sn, Sn-1.0 wt % Mg , Sn-2.0 wt % Mg , Sn-6.0 wt.% Mg and Pure Mg). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive x-ray Analysis (EDX) measurements were carried out in order to clarify the structural properties of the samples. It has been found that, the samples have tetragonal crystal symmetry except the pure Mg which has hexagonal crystal symmetry. The cell parameters decrease slightly with addition of Mg element. The SEM micrographs of the samples show that, the samples have smooth surfaces with clear grain boundary. There is no crack, porosity or defects on the surfaces. The electrical resistivity of the samples increases almost linearly with the increasing temperature, which were measured by four-point probe technique. The thermal conductivity values are in between 0.60-1.00 W/Km, which are decrease slightly with temperature and increase with composition of Mg. The thermal conductivity values of the alloys are in between the values of the pure samples. Thermal conductivity results of the alloys have been compared with available other studies and a good agreement has been seen between the results. In addition, the temperature coefficients of electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity have been determined, which are independent with the compositions of alloying elements

  4. Comparison of three Ni-Hard I alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Rice, J. (Texaloy Foundry Co., Inc., Floresville, Texas)

    2004-09-01

    This report documents the results of an investigation which was undertaken to reveal the similarities and differences in the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of three Ni-Hard I alloys. One alloy (B1) is ASTM A532 class IA Ni-Hard containing 4.2 wt. pct. Ni. The second alloy (B2) is similar to B1 but higher in Cr, Si, and Mo. The third alloy (T1) also falls in the same ASTM specification, but it contains 3.3 wt. pct. Ni. The alloys were evaluated in both as-cast and stress-relieved conditions except for B2, which was evaluated in the stress-relieved condition only. While the matrix of the high Ni alloys is composed of austenite and martensite in both conditions, the matrix of the low Ni alloy consists of a considerable amount of bainite, in addition to the martensite and the retained austenite in as cast condition, and primarily bainite, with some retained austenite, in the stress relieved condition. It was found that the stress relieving treatment does not change the tensile strength of the high Ni alloy. Both the as cast and stress relieved high Ni alloys had a tensile strength of about 350 MPa. On the other hand, the tensile strength of the low Ni alloy increased from 340 MPa to 452 MPa with the stress relieving treatment. There was no significant difference in the wear resistance of these alloys in both as-cast and stressrelieved conditions.

  5. Development Program for Natural Aging Aluminum Casting Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Geoffrey K. Sigworth

    2004-05-14

    A number of 7xx aluminum casting alloys are based on the ternary Al-Zn-Mg system. These alloys age naturally to high strength at room temperature. A high temperature solution and aging treatment is not required. Consequently, these alloys have the potential to deliver properties nearly equivalent to conventional A356-T6 (Al-Si-Mg) castings, with a significant cost saving. An energy savings is also possible. In spite of these advantages, the 7xx casting alloys are seldom used, primarily because of their reputation for poor castibility. This paper describes the results obtained in a DOE-funded research study of these alloys, which is part of the DOE-OIT ''Cast Metals Industries of the Future'' Program. Suggestions for possible commercial use are also given.

  6. Mechanical Properties Of AA 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy Friction Stir Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa M. Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The different parameters on mechanical and microstructural properties of aluminium alloy 6061-T6 Friction stir-welded (FSW joints were investigated in the present study. Different welded specimens were produced by employing variable rotating speeds and welding speeds. Tensile strength of the produced joints was tested at room temperature and the the effecincy was assessed, it was 75% of the base metal at rotational speed 1500 rpm and weld speed 50 mm/min. Hardness of various zones of FSW welds are presented and analyzed by means of brinell hardness number . Besides to thess tests the bending properties investigated and showed good results in some specimen and not in onother the mamximum stress was 240 N/mm2 at rotational speed 1500 rpm and weld speed 50 mm/min , while the maximum stress at 1250 rpm and 75 mm/min 94 N/mm2 , hardness results shwed lower values in heat affected and nugget zones than the base metal with improving of hardness at 1500 rpm, 75 mm/min .

  7. Friction stir spot welding of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with SiC nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidar, Moslem; Sarab, Mahsa Laali [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this study, the Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with 1.6 mm thickness was investigated. The effects of the silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles on the metallurgical and mechanical properties were discussed. The effects of particles on tension shear and wear tests were also investigated. The process was conducted at a constant rotational speed of 1000 rpm. Results showed that adding SiC nanoparticles to the weld during FSSW had a major effect on the mechanical properties. In fact, the addition of nanoparticles as barriers prevented grain growth in the Stir zone (SZ). The data obtained in the tensile-shear and wear tests showed that tensile-shear load and wear resistance increased with the addition of SiC nanoparticles, which was attributed to the fine grain size produced in the SZ.

  8. Development of graded Ni-YSZ composite coating on Alloy 690 by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique to reduce hazardous metallic nuclear waste inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pranesh; Rogalla, Detlef; Becker, Hans Werner; Dey, Gautam Kumar; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2011-08-15

    Alloy 690 based 'nuclear waste vitrification furnace' components degrade prematurely due to molten glass-alloy interactions at high temperatures and thereby increase the volume of metallic nuclear waste. In order to reduce the waste inventory, compositionally graded Ni-YSZ (Y(2)O(3) stabilized ZrO(2)) composite coating has been developed on Alloy 690 using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Five different thin-films starting with Ni80YSZ20 (Ni 80 wt%+YSZ 20 wt%), through Ni60YSZ40 (Ni 60 wt%+YSZ 40 wt%), Ni40YSZ60 (Ni 40 wt%+YSZ 60 wt%), Ni20YSZ80 (Ni 20 wt%+YSZ 80 wt%) and Ni0YSZ100 (Ni 0 wt%+YSZ 100 wt%), were deposited successively on Alloy 690 coupons. Detailed analyses of the thin-films identify them as homogeneous, uniform, pore free and crystalline in nature. A comparative study of coated and uncoated Alloy 690 coupons, exposed to sodium borosilicate melt at 1000°C for 1-6h suggests that the graded composite coating could substantially reduced the chemical interactions between Alloy 690 and borosilicate melt. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Creep Aging on the Fatigue Fracture Behavior of 2524 Aluminum Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Wenke Li; Lihua Zhan; Lingfeng Liu; Yongqian Xu

    2016-01-01

    Normal temperature tensile and fatigue tests were adopted to test the mechanical performance and fatigue life of 2524 aluminum alloy under the three states of T3, artificial aging, and creep aging, and scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were also used to observe the fatigue fracture morphology and aging precipitation features of the alloy under the above three states. Results showed that the alloy treated by creep aging can obtain higher fatigue life, but that t...

  10. Investigation of enthalpy and specific heat of the gallium-indium-tin eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, V.V.; Migaj, L.L.; Fordeeva, L.K.; Perlova, N.L.

    1978-01-01

    Enthalpy and specific heat of the fusible (melting point is 10.6 deg C) eutectic alloy (67% Ga - 20.5% In - 12.5% Sn according to mass) are determined by the mixing method. The determination was carried out in vacuum at the residual pressure of >= 1x10 -5 torr in the temperature range from 59.3 to 437.0 deg C. It is established that temperature dependence of alloy enthalpy is described by the equation: Hsub(t) - Hsub(0degC)=1.014+0.0879t-0.0000129 t 2 , where (Hsub(t) - Hsub(0degC)) is enthalpy, cal/g; t-temperature, deg C. Mean-square dispersion is +-0.6%. Temperature dependence of alloy specific heat in the temperature range under study was determined by differentiation of the equation obtained for enthalpy: Csub(p)=0.0879-0.000026t, where Csub(p)-specific heat, cal/gx deg. It is supposed that temperature increase makes it possible to decrease slightly specific heat

  11. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples.

  12. Improving Joint Formation and Tensile Properties of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys by Solving the Pin Adhesion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenlei; Ji, Shude; Meng, Xiangchen

    2018-03-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW), as a solid-state welding technology invented by TWI in 1991, has potential to join dissimilar Al/Mg alloys. In this study, the pin adhesion phenomenon affecting joint quality during FSW of 6061-T6 aluminum and AZ31B magnesium alloys was investigated. The adhesion phenomenon induced by higher heat input easily transformed the tapered-and-screwed pin into a tapered pin, which greatly reduced the tool's ability to drive the plasticized materials and further deteriorated joint formation. Under the condition without the pin adhesion, the complex intercalated interlayer at the bottom of stir zone was beneficial to mechanical interlocking of Al/Mg alloys, improving tensile properties. However, the formation of intermetallic compounds was still the main reason of the joint fracture, significantly deteriorating tensile properties. Under the welding speed of 60 mm/min without the pin adhesion phenomenon, the maximum tensile strength of 107 MPa and elongation of 1.2% were achieved.

  13. Dissolution kinetics of small amounts of oxygen in tantalum alloy T-111 and internal oxide displacement reactions during annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecura, S.

    1976-01-01

    Oxygen was added to T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf, wt. %) at 820 and 990 C at an oxygen pressure of about 0.0003 torr. The technique employed permitted predetermined and reproducible doping of T-111 up to 3.0 at. % oxygen. Based on the temperature dependence of the doping reaction, it is concluded that the initial rates of oxygen pickup are probably controlled by solution of oxygen into the T-111 lattice. Although hafnium oxides are more stable than those of tantalum or tungsten, analyses of extracted residues indicate that the latter oxides predominate in the as-doped specimens, presumably because of the higher concentrations of tantalum and tungsten in the alloy. However, high-temperature annealing promotes gettering of dissolved oxygen and of other oxides to form hafnium oxides. Small amounts of tantalum and tungsten oxides were still present after high-temperature annealing. Tungsten oxide (WO3) volatilizes slightly from the surface of T-111 at 990 C. The vaporization of WO3 has no apparent affect on the doping reaction.

  14. Natural aging behaviour of friction stir welded 6005A-T6 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Peng; Sun, Daqian; Li, Hongmei, E-mail: lihongmei@jlu.edu.cn

    2013-08-01

    By local thermal cycles and hardness measurements, supported by transmission electron microscopy, the post-weld natural aging behaviour of friction stir welded 6005A-T6 aluminium alloy was investigated. The results show that the softening in the nugget zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone immediately after welding is mainly caused by the high peak temperatures and rapid cooling rates, resulting in the original β″ precipitates dissolving and restraining re-precipitation. On the one hand, the hardness recovery in both microstructural zones during post-weld natural aging is attributed to the formation of clusters or GP zones depending on the natural aging time. On the other hand, the softening in the heat-affected zone after welding is due to the transformation of the β′′ to β′ precipitates and the precipitation of Q′. Natural aging has little effect on the microstructure and hardness of the heat-affected zone. The mechanism of natural aging behaviour was discussed.

  15. Chromium-free conversion coatings based on inorganic salts (Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo) for aluminum alloys used in aircraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Coloma, P., E-mail: patricia.santacoloma@tecnalia.com [TECNALIA Research & Innovation, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, E-20009 Donostia-San Sebastián, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Izagirre, U.; Belaustegi, Y.; Jorcin, J.B.; Cano, F.J. [TECNALIA Research & Innovation, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, E-20009 Donostia-San Sebastián, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Lapeña, N. [Boeing Research & Technology Europe, S.L.U., Avenida Sur del Aeropuerto de Barajas 38, Building 4 – 3rd Floor, E-28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Chromium-free conversion coatings for corrosion protection of aluminum alloys. • Salt spray and potentiodynamic sweep tests to study the corrosion behavior. • Local deposits on Cu-rich intermetallic particles enhanced corrosion resistance. • Surface characterization to relate bath's composition and corrosion resistance. • Best corrosion protection with conversion baths without titanium salts. - Abstract: Novel chromium-free conversion coatings based on Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo compounds were developed at a pilot scale to improve the corrosion resistance of the AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys for aircraft applications. The influence of the presence of Zr and Ti in the Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo conversion bath's formulation on the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys was investigated. The corrosion resistance provided by the conversion coatings was evaluated by salt spray exposure and potentiodynamic sweeps. Optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating in the Kelvin Probe mode (SKPFM) were used to provide microstructural information of the coated samples that achieved the best results in the corrosion tests. The salt spray test evidenced the higher corrosion resistance of the coated samples compared to the bare surfaces for both alloys. The potentiodynamic tests showed that the corrosion current density decreased for coated AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys, which indicated an obvious improvement of the corrosion resistance with all the processes for both alloys. Although the corrosion resistance of the coated samples appeared to be higher for the alloy AA7075-T6 than for the alloy AA2024-T3, both alloys achieved the best corrosion protection with the coatings deposited from conversion bath formulations containing no titanium salts. The microscopy analysis on the coated AA7075-T6 samples revealed that a local deposition of Zr compounds and, possibly, an

  16. Chromium-free conversion coatings based on inorganic salts (Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo) for aluminum alloys used in aircraft applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Coloma, P.; Izagirre, U.; Belaustegi, Y.; Jorcin, J.B.; Cano, F.J.; Lapeña, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Chromium-free conversion coatings for corrosion protection of aluminum alloys. • Salt spray and potentiodynamic sweep tests to study the corrosion behavior. • Local deposits on Cu-rich intermetallic particles enhanced corrosion resistance. • Surface characterization to relate bath's composition and corrosion resistance. • Best corrosion protection with conversion baths without titanium salts. - Abstract: Novel chromium-free conversion coatings based on Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo compounds were developed at a pilot scale to improve the corrosion resistance of the AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys for aircraft applications. The influence of the presence of Zr and Ti in the Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo conversion bath's formulation on the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys was investigated. The corrosion resistance provided by the conversion coatings was evaluated by salt spray exposure and potentiodynamic sweeps. Optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating in the Kelvin Probe mode (SKPFM) were used to provide microstructural information of the coated samples that achieved the best results in the corrosion tests. The salt spray test evidenced the higher corrosion resistance of the coated samples compared to the bare surfaces for both alloys. The potentiodynamic tests showed that the corrosion current density decreased for coated AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys, which indicated an obvious improvement of the corrosion resistance with all the processes for both alloys. Although the corrosion resistance of the coated samples appeared to be higher for the alloy AA7075-T6 than for the alloy AA2024-T3, both alloys achieved the best corrosion protection with the coatings deposited from conversion bath formulations containing no titanium salts. The microscopy analysis on the coated AA7075-T6 samples revealed that a local deposition of Zr compounds and, possibly, an

  17. Study of Bending Fatigue Properties of Al-Si Cast Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillová E.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue properties of casting Al-alloys are very sensitive to the microstructural features of the alloy (e.g. size and morphology of the eutectic Si, secondary dendrite arm spacing - SDAS, intermetallics, grain size and casting defects (porosity and oxides. Experimental study of bending fatigue properties of secondary cast alloys have shown that: fatigue tests up to 106-107cycles show mean fatigue limits of approx. 30-49 MPa (AlSi9Cu3 alloy - as cast state, approx. 65-76 MPa (AlSi9Cu3 alloy after solution treatment and 60-70 MPa (self-hardened AlZn10Si8Mg alloy in the tested casting condition; whenever large pore is present at or near the specimen’s surface, it will be the dominant cause of fatigue crack initiation; in the absence of large casting defects, the influence of microstructural features (Si morphology; Fe-rich phases on the fatigue performance becomes more pronounced.

  18. Suppression of alloy fluctuations in GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loitsch, Bernhard; Winnerl, Julia; Parzinger, Eric; Matich, Sonja; Wurstbauer, Ursula; Riedl, Hubert; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan J.; Koblmüller, Gregor [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jeon, Nari; Lauhon, Lincoln J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Döblinger, Markus [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, 81377 München (Germany)

    2016-08-29

    Probing localized alloy fluctuations and controlling them by growth kinetics have been relatively limited so far in nanoscale structures such as semiconductor nanowires (NWs). Here, we demonstrate the tuning of alloy fluctuations in molecular beam epitaxially grown GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell NWs by modifications of shell growth temperature, as investigated by correlated micro-photoluminescence, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. By reducing the shell growth temperature from T > 600 °C to below 400 °C, we find a strong reduction in alloy fluctuation mediated sharp-line luminescence, concurrent with a decrease in the non-randomness of the alloy distribution in the AlGaAs shell. This trend is further characterized by a change in the alloy compositional structure from unintentional quasi-superlattices of Ga- and Al-rich AlGaAs layers at high T to a nearly homogeneous random alloy distribution at low T.

  19. Alloys of nickel-iron and nickel-silicon do not swell under fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, G.; Silvent, A.; Regnard, C.; Sainfort, G.

    1975-01-01

    This research is concerned with the effect of fast-neutron irradiation on the swelling of nickel and nickel alloys. Ni-Fe (0-60at%Fe) and Ni-Si (0-8at%Si) were studied, and the fluences were in the range 10 20 -4.3x10 22 n/cm 2 . In dilute alloys, the added elements are dissolved and reduce swelling, silicon being particularly effective. In more concentrated alloys, irradiation of Ni-Fe and Ni-Si alloys brings about the formation of plate-shaped precipitates of Ni 3 X and these alloys do not swell. (Auth.)

  20. The T1u x 8 hg Jahn-Teller system - an improved model for the C60-molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rough, S.M.; Dunn, J.L.; Bates, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The ground state of C 60 - gives rise to a T 1u x 8 h g Jahn-Teller (JT) system. A proof is presented showing that the presence of eight active h g modes rather than one makes little difference to the mathematical complexity of this problem compared to the simpler single-mode variant. After showing that the T 1u x 8 h g Jahn-Teller system has the same electronic eigenstates as the T 1u x h g Jahn-Teller system, the inversion splitting and first-order reduction factors are derived. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogen interactions in aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. W.; Scully, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    A program is described which seeks to develop an understanding of the effects of dissolved and trapped hydrogen on the mechanical properties of selected Al-Li-Cu-X alloys. A proposal is made to distinguish hydrogen (H2) induced EAC from aqueous dissolution controlled EAC, to correlate H2 induced EAC with mobile and trapped concentrations, and to identify significant trap sites and hydride phases (if any) through use of model alloys and phases. A literature review shows three experimental factors which have impeded progress in the area of H2 EAC for this class of alloys. These are as listed: (1) inter-subgranular fracture in Al-Li alloys when tested in the S-T orientation in air or vacuum make it difficult to readily detect H2 induced fracture based on straight forward changes in fractography; (2) the inherently low H2 diffusivity and solubility in Al alloys is further compounded by a native oxide which acts as a H2 permeation barrier; and (3) H2 effects are masked by dissolution assisted processes when mechanical testing is performed in aqueous solutions.

  2. GOMA 6.0 :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Chen, Ken S; Labreche, Duane A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Hopkins, Matthew M; Moffat, Harry K.; Roach, Robert Allen; Hopkins, Polly L.; Notz, Patrick K.; Roberts, Scott Alan; Sackinger, Philip A.; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Baer, Thomas A.; Noble, David R.; Secor, Robert B.

    2013-07-01

    Goma 6.0 is a finite element program which excels in analyses of multiphysical processes, particularly those involving the major branches of mechanics (viz. fluid/solid mechanics, energy transport and chemical species transport). Goma is based on a full-Newton-coupled algorithm which allows for simultaneous solution of the governing principles, making the code ideally suited for problems involving closely coupled bulk mechanics and interfacial phenomena. Example applications include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, super-alloy processing, welding/soldering, electrochemical processes, and solid-network or solution film drying. This document serves as a users guide and reference.

  3. Gd{sub 90}Co{sub 2.5}Fe{sub 7.5} alloy displaying enhanced magnetocaloric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, V., E-mail: virgil12@nist.gov [Materials Science and Engineering Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8552 (United States); Shull, R.D., E-mail: robert.shull@nist.gov [Materials Science and Engineering Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8552 (United States); Kletetschka, G., E-mail: kletetschka@gmail.com [Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague 12843 (Czech Republic); Institute of Geology, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Prague 16500 (Czech Republic); Stutzman, P.E., E-mail: paul.stutzman@nist.gov [Materials and Structural Systems Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-861 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The Gd{sub 90}Co{sub 2.5}Fe{sub 7.5} alloy displays superior magnetocaloric properties than Gd. • Alloy’s superior properties at relatively low field values: 400, 800 kA/m (0.5, 1 T). • We proposed two possible mechanisms for the Gd-based alloy enhanced properties. • We indicated a pathway for further improving the alloy magnetocaloric properties. - Abstract: We report on the discovery of a new Gd{sub 90}Co{sub 2.5}Fe{sub 7.5} alloy exhibiting superior magnetocaloric properties compared to those of gadolinium. We present magnetically-derived entropy change, ΔS{sub M}, computed from magnetic data, and thermally-derived temperature change, ΔT{sub ad}, obtained from direct thermal measurements together with their respective MCE peaks for the alloy and gadolinium. The MCE peaks of the alloy are taller and broader than the corresponding MCE peaks of gadolinium. Correspondingly, the refrigeration capacity (RC) values of the alloy computed from magnetic and thermal MCEs for field changes, ΔH, of 400 kA/m (0.5 T) and 800 kA/m (1 T) are about 20% larger than those of gadolinium. Two possible mechanisms are proposed to account for the improved magnetocaloric properties of gadolinium alloyed with small amounts of Co and Fe, thereby pointing out a different methodology to use in the search for improved low field magnetic refrigerants.

  4. Influence of layer compositions and annealing conditions on complete formation of ternary PdAgCu alloys prepared by sequential electroless and electroplating methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumrunronnasak, Sarocha [Graduate Program of Petrochemistry and Polymer Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Tantayanon, Supawan, E-mail: supawan.t@chula.ac.th [Green Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Kiatgamolchai, Somchai [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-01-01

    PdAgCu ternary alloy membranes were synthesized by the sequential electroless plating of Pd following by electroplating of Ag and Cu onto stainless steel substrate. The composition of the composite was varied by changing the deposition times. The fabricated layers were annealed at the temperatures between 500 and 600 °C for 20–60 h. The Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to investigate the element distribution in the membrane which provided the insight on membrane alloying process. Complete formation of the alloy could be obtained when the Pd composition was greater than a critical value of 60 wt%, and Ag and Cu contents were in the range of 18–30 wt% and 2–13 wt%, respectively. Deposition times of Ag and Cu were found to affect the completion of alloy formation. Excess amount of the deposited Cu particularly tended to segregate on the surface of the membrane. - Highlights: • Ternary PdAgCu alloy membranes were successfully prepared by the sequential electroless and electroplating methods. • The average Pd composition required to form alloy was found to be approximately at least 60%wt. • The alloy region was achieved for f Pd 60–73 wt%, Cu 18–30 wt% and Ag 2–13 wt%. • Suitable annealing temperature in the range of 500–600 °C for an adequate period of treating time (20–60 h).

  5. Processing of Refractory Metal Alloys for JOYO Irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RF Luther; ME Petrichek

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary of the refractory metal processing experienced by candidate Prometheus materiats as they were fabricated into specimens destined for testing within the JOYO test reactor, ex-reactor testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), or testing within the NRPCT. The processing is described for each alloy from the point of inception to the point where processing was terminated due to the cancellation of Naval Reactor's involvement in the Prometheus Project. The alloys included three tantalum-base alloys (T-111, Ta-10W, and ASTAR-811C), a niobium-base alloy, (FS-85), and two molybdenum-rhenium alloys, one containing 44.5 w/o rhenium, and the other 47.5 w/o rhenium. Each of these alloys was either a primary candidate or back-up candidate for cladding and structural applications within the space reactor. Their production was intended to serve as a forerunner for large scale production ingots that were to be procured from commercial refractory metal vendors such as Wah Chang

  6. Effects of low-pressure air on oxygen contamination and lithium corrosion of a tantalum alloy, T-111, at 980 and 1260 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahn, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The effects were studied of low-pressure air on contamination and corrosion in the tantalum alloy T-111/lithium system at 980 and 1260 C. Capsules of T-111 containing lithium were exposed to six vacuum levels between 1 x 10 to the 8th power and 0.0003 torr by controlled air leakage into a vacuum system. Capsules exposed at 980 C and 0.0002 torr failed from intragranular oxidation. The remainder of the capsules completed the 96-hour tests. The depth of oxygen contamination was greater at 980 C than at 1260 C. Tests made at 0.0001 and 0.00001 torr levels caused large increases in the oxygen content of the T-111. Tests at 0.000001 torr or less produced no significant contamination. No lithium corrosion of the T-111 was observed under any of the conditions.

  7. UH-60M Black Hawk Helicopter (UH-60M Black Hawk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-341 UH-60M Black Hawk Helicopter (UH-60M Black Hawk ) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 21, 2016 18:25:45 UNCLASSIFIED UH-60M Black Hawk December 2015 SAR March 21, 2016 18...Operational Requirements Document OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense O&S - Operating and Support PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost UH-60M Black Hawk

  8. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  9. Ultrafast demagnetization in rare-earth alloys: the role of spin-orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guyader, Loic; Solopow, Sergej; Radu, Florin; Holldack, Karsten; Mitzner, Rolf; Kachel, Torsten; Pontius, Niko; Foehlisch, Alexander; Radu, Ilie [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Abrudan, Radu [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik/Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the ultrafast demagnetization occurring upon femtosecond laser excitation of a magnetic material is a fundamental problem of modern magnetism and its microscopic origin remains highly elusive and intensely debated. Particularly, the spin-orbit coupling mediating the spin-lattice interaction is one of the key ingredients. An intriguing case of tunable parallel to anti-parallel LS coupling can be realized in rare-earth (RE) alloys. For instance, Gd60Sm40 and Gd60Dy40 alloys have similar absolute S and L, but exhibit opposite LS coupling while displaying the same ferromagnetic ordering temperature of 250 K. They constitute thus an ideal case to investigate the particular role of the LS coupling on the ultrafast demagnetization. Here we report on the properties of such RE thin film alloys using X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) with the spin and orbit sum rules at M5,4 edges. Femtosecond time-resolved transmission XMCD measurements performed at the slicing beamline reveal the element-specific demagnetization time constant in these alloys. Funding from European Union through FEMTOSPIN is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. EFFECT OF CONTROLLED QUENCHING ON THE AGING OF 2024 ALUMINUM ALLOY CONTAINING BORON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khatami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of alloying elements, sometimes in a very small amount, affects mechanical properties one of these elements is Boron. In Aluminum industries, Boron master alloy is widely used as a grain refiner In this research, the production process of Aluminum –Boron master alloy was studied at first then, it was concurrently added to 2024 Aluminum alloy. After rolling and homogenizing the resulting alloy, the optimal temperature and time of aging were determined during the precipitation hardening heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C. Then, in order to find the effect of controlled quenching, different cycles of heat treatment including precipitation heat treatment by controlled quenching (T6C and conventional quenching (T6 were applied on the alloy at the aging temperature of 110°C. Mechanical properties of the resulting alloy were evaluated after aging at optimum temperature of 110°C by performing mechanical tests including hardness and tensile tests. The results of hardness test showed that applying the controlled quenching instead of conventional quenching in precipitation heat treatment caused reduction in the time of reaching the maximum hardness and also increase in hardness rate due to the generated thermo-elastic stresses rather than hydrostatic stresses and increased atomic diffusion coefficient as well. Tensile test results demonstrated that, due to the presence of boride particles in the microstructure of the present alloy, the ultimate tensile strength in the specimens containing Boron additive increased by 3.40% in comparison with the specimens without such an additive and elongation (percentage of relative length increase which approximately increased by 38.80% due to the role of Boron in the increase of alloy ductility

  11. The effect of hot isostatic pressing on the microstructure and tensile properties of an unmodified A356-T6 cast aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Guang; Zhou Jingen; Wang, Q.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of HIPping process on the microstructure and tensile properties of an unmodified sand cast A356-T6 aluminum alloy was studied. The microstructure and tensile fracture surfaces of the alloy were examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. The results show that sub-grain boundaries are formed by HIPping process, and some silicon precipitates are formed at the sub-grain boundaries during aging hardening. The needle-shape precipitates are Mg 2 Si particles according to SED pattern analysis. The lattice misfit between Mg 2 Si and aluminum matrix is about 0.256% for [111] Al //[410] Mg 2 Si HIPping process significantly reduces porosity volume fraction and pore sizes and thus improves ductility. However, the tensile strength is improved very marginally due to the brittle nature of the unmodified coarse microstructure. The sub-grain boundary formed in the HIPping process has not shown significant influence on the tensile properties. For the studied alloy with large secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) (above 80μm), the tensile fracture exhibits a transgranular mode (along the cell boundaries) with quasi-cleavage feature

  12. The effect of quench rate on the microstructure and properties of AF/C-458 and AF/C-489 Al-Li-Cu-X alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csontos, A.A.; Gable, B.M.; Starke, E.A. Jr. [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.; Gaber, A.

    2000-07-01

    The air force recently developed two isotropic Al-Li-Cu-X alloys with 1.8{sup w}/oLiLi and 2.1{sup w}/oLi designated AF/C-458 and AF/C-489, respectively. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of quench rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the AF/C-458 and AF/C-489 alloys. TEM, SEM, microhardness, and tensile testing were utilized to ascertain these microstructure/property relationships for both alloys in the T4, T6, and T86 tempers as a function of quench rate. Subsequent losses in ductility for both alloys in all tempers with decreasing quench rate were determined to be due to the precipitation of the equilibrium Al{sub 2}CuLi (T{sub 1}) phase along subgrain and grain boundaries which promoted intergranular fracture. Furthermore, yield and tensile strengths increased for both alloys in the T4 temper but decreased in the T6 and T86 tempers with decreasing quench rate. The increased strengths for the T4 condition resulted from the heterogeneous precipitation of coarse T{sub 1} and naturally aged {delta}' phases. The decrease in yield and tensile strengths for the T6 and T86 tempers were also due to the coarse heterogeneous precipitation of T{sub 1} which denuded regions of Cu thereby reducing the number density of fine matrix {theta}{sup ''} (T6) and T{sub 1} (T86). Finally, a comparison of the quench sensitivity for both the AF/C-458 and AF/C-489 alloys indicates that the mechanical properties for both alloys were less quench rate sensitive than other typical Al-Li-Cu-X alloys. (orig.)

  13. Development of the electron beam welding of the aluminium alloy 6061-T6 for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The aluminium alloy 6061-T6 has been selected for the construction of the Jules Horowitz's reactor vessel. This reactor vessel is pressurized and will be made through butt welding of ∼ 2 cm thick aluminium slabs. The electron beam welding process has been tested and qualified. It appears that this welding process allows: -) welding without pre-heating, -) vacuum welding, -) welding of 100% of the thickness in one passage, -) very low deforming welding process, -) very low density and very low volume of blow holes, -) weak ZAT (Thermal Affected Zones), and -) high reproducibility that permits automation. (A.C.)

  14. High damping Fe-Mn martensitic alloys for engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, S.-H.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods for reducing vibration in engineering designs (i.e. by stiffening or detuning) may be undesirable or inadequate in conditions where size or weight must be minimized or where complex vibration spectra exist. Alloys which combine high damping capacity with good mechanical properties can provide attractive technical and economic solutions to problems involving seismic, shock and vibration isolation. To meet these trends, we have developed a new high damping Fe-17%Mn alloy. Also, the alloy has advantages of good mechanical properties and is more economical than any other known damping alloys (a quarter the cost of non-ferrous damping alloy). Thus, the high damping Fe-17%Mn alloy can be widely applied to household appliances, automobiles, industrial facilities and power plant components with its excellent damping capacity (SDC, 30%) and mechanical property (T.S. 700 MPa). It is the purpose of this paper to introduce the characterization of the high damping Fe-17%Mn alloy and the results of retrofit of several such applications. (orig.)

  15. Corrosion and nanomechanical behaviors of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AA7020-T6 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, A., E-mail: arjun_venu@hotmail.com [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Srinath, J. [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Rama Krishna, L. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur P.O., Hyderabad 500005 (India); Ramesh Narayanan, P.; Sharma, S.C.; Venkitakrishnan, P.V. [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India)

    2016-04-13

    Alumina coating was deposited on AA7020 aluminum alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and nano-mechanical behaviors were examined by means of potentiodynamic polarization, slow strain rate test (SSRT) and nano-indentation tests. Potentiodynamic polarization (PP) was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coating and slow strain rate test (SSRT) was used for evaluating the environmental cracking resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution. The mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) were obtained from each indentation as a function of the penetration depth across the coating cross section. The above results were compared with similar PEO coated aluminum and magnesium alloys. Results indicated that PEO coating on AA7020 alloy significantly improved the corrosion resistance. However the environmental cracking resistance was found to be only marginal. The hardness and elastic modulus values were found to be much higher when compared to the base metal and similar PEO coated 7075 aluminum alloys. The fabricated coating also exhibited good adhesive strength with the substrate similar to other PEO coated aluminum alloys reported in the literature.

  16. Forgeability test of extruded Mg–Sn–Al–Zn alloys under warm forming conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jonghun; Park, Sunghyuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We compared forgeability of new developed TAZ alloys with conventional AZ alloys. • Forgeability was evaluated with a T-shape forging under hot forming condition. • TAZ alloys show the best performance in forgeability under hot forging condition. • Microstructures of the forged part were investigated with EBSD experiments. • YS and UTS of forged part with TAZ alloy are enhanced compared with AZ alloy. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been thoroughly researched to replace steel or aluminum parts in automotives for reducing weight without sacrificing their strength. The widespread use of Mg alloys has been limited by its insufficient formability, which results from a lack of active slip systems at room temperature. It leads to a hot forming process for Mg alloys to enhance the formability and plastic workability. In addition, forged or formed parts of Mg alloys should have the reliable initial yield and ultimate tensile strength after hot working processes since its material properties should be compatible with other parts thereby guaranteeing structural safety against external load and crash. In this research, an optimal warm forming condition for applying extruded Mg–Sn–Al–Zn (TAZ) Mg alloys into automotive parts is proposed based on T-shape forging tests and the feasibility of forged parts is evaluated by measuring the initial yield strength and investigating the grain size in orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) maps

  17. On the role of Nb-related sites of an oxidized β-TiNb alloy surface in its interaction with osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirka, Ivan, E-mail: Ivan.Jirka@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Acad. Sci. CR, v.v.i. Dolejškova 3, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vandrovcová, Marta [Institute of Physiology, Acad. Sci. CR, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Frank, Otakar [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Acad. Sci. CR, v.v.i. Dolejškova 3, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Tolde, Zdeněk [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Materials Engineering, Karlovo nám. 13, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Plšek, Jan [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Acad. Sci. CR, v.v.i. Dolejškova 3, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Luxbacher, Thomas [Anton Paar GmbH, Anton Paar Str. 20, 8054 Graz (Austria); Bačáková, Lucie [Institute of Physiology, Acad. Sci. CR, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Starý, Vladimír [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Materials Engineering, Karlovo nám. 13, Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2013-04-01

    β-Stabilized titanium (Ti) alloys containing non-toxic elements, particularly niobium (Nb), are promising materials for the construction of bone implants. Their biocompatibility can be further increased by oxidation of their surface. Therefore, in this study, the adhesion, growth and viability of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells in cultures on oxidized surfaces of a β-TiNb alloy were investigated and compared with the cell behavior on thermally oxidized Ti, i.e. a metal commonly used for constructing bone implants. Four experimental groups of samples were prepared: Ti or TiNb samples annealed to 600 °C for 60 min in a stream of dry air, and Ti and TiNb samples treated in Piranha solution prior to annealing. We found that on all TiNb-based samples, the cell population densities on days 1, 3 and 7 after seeding were higher than on the corresponding Ti-based samples. As revealed by XPS and Raman spectroscopy, and also by isoelectric point measurements, these results can be attributed to the presence of T-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} oxide phase in the surface of the alloy sample, which decreased its negative zeta (ζ)-potential in comparison with zeta (ζ)-potential of the Ti sample at physiological pH. This effect was tentatively explained by the presence of positively charged defects acting as Lewis sites of the surface Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase. Piranha treatment slightly decreases the biocompatibility of the samples, which for the alloy samples may be explained by a decrease in the number of defective sites with this treatment. Thus, the presence of Nb and thermal oxidation of β-stabilized Ti alloys play a significant role in the increased biocompatibility of TiNb alloys. - Highlights: ► T-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and rutile are the main components of the oxidized β-TiNb alloy surface. ► Negative value of ζ potential is reduced by presence of Nb in the alloy surface. ► Less negative ζ potential is beneficial for interaction of the alloy with cells. ► The β-TiNb alloy

  18. Microstructural features associated with the effect of temperature on the dimensional stability of an automotive Al-A319 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Lopez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work an automotive Al-A319 was given a solid solution heat treatment (T4 at 753 K (480 °C for 4.5 hours and an ageing treatment (T7 at 513 K (240 °C for various times up to 3.0 h. The alloy in the T4 condition was dilatometrically tested at various temperatures in order to measure its relative dimensional changes. It was found that the dimensional changes are due to both, alloy thermal expansion and nucleation and growth of second phases. In addition, in the T7 condition the alloy strength and ductility were determined as a function of ageing times. Ageing promoted alloy strength but at the expenses of a rather poor alloy ductility (down to 1%. Apparently, Cu rich intermetallic phases and regions provided a brittle path for fracturing. In particular, microstructural characterization using high resolution transmission electron microscopy indicated that not all the Cu in the matrix was dissolved during the T4 treatment. Hence, after ageing (T7 these Cu-rich regions seemed to coarsen into spherical particles.

  19. Study by acoustic emission and electrochemical methods of the corrosion and the protection of the copper-zinc alloy (60/40) in neutral and alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assouli, B.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study and characterize, by electrochemical methods and acoustic emission, the corrosion and the protection of the copper-zinc alloy (60/40) having a metallographic structure αβ'. The electrochemical measurements, in neutral, chlorinated or alkaline medium have allowed, to study the corrosion resistance of the copper-zinc and to show that the corrosion of this alloy, in the used media, is determined by a diffusional mechanism. The observations to the optical and scanning electron microscopes and the EDX analyzes have confirmed that this corrosion phenomenon is mainly due to the selective dissolution of the β' phase. The acoustic emission has shown, during this corrosion, the presence of two emissive sources whose initiation has been attributed to the relaxation of the micro- and macro- residual stresses of the α phase. These stresses have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and the salvoes emitted during the relaxation of these stresses have been discriminated by the characteristic frequencies and by the barycenter of their spectral density. The protection of this alloy has been carried out by the 2-mercapto-benzimidazole (MBI). This last compound has been tested both as inhibitor added directly in the corrosive medium and/or as polymer film previously deposited by an electrochemical way (p-MBI). The MBI is very efficient for an inhibition in a chlorinated alkaline medium. It is an interphase inhibitor. The p-MBI is efficient too in a neutral chlorinated medium and is moreover non pollutant for the environment. (O.M.)

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation on under-water friction stir welding of armour grade AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sree Sabari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW is a promising welding process that can join age hardenable aluminium alloys with high joint efficiency. However, the thermal cycles experienced by the material to be joined during FSW resulted in the deterioration of mechanical properties due to the coarsening and dissolution of strengthening precipitates in the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ and heat affected zone (HAZ. Under water friction stir welding (UWFSW is a variant of FSW process which can maintain low heat input as well as constant heat input along the weld line. The heat conduction and dissipation during UWFSW controls the width of TMAZ and HAZ and also improves the joint properties. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy joints made by FSW and UWFSW processes. Finite element analysis has been used to estimate the temperature distribution and width of TMAZ region in both the joints and the results have been compared with experimental results and subsequently correlated with mechanical properties.

  1. U.S. Contribution 1994 Summary Report Task T12: Compatibility and irradiation testing of vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1995-03-01

    Vanadium alloys exhibit important advantages as a candidate structural material for fusion first wall/blanket applications. These advantages include fabricability, favorable safety and environmental features, high temperature and high wall load capability, and long lifetime under irradiation. Vanadium alloys with (3-5)% chromium and (3-5)% titanium appear to offer the best combination of properties for first wall/blanket applications. A V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is recommended as the reference composition for the ITER application. This report provides a summary of the R ampersand D conducted during 1994 in support of the ITER Engineering Design Activity. Progress is reported for Vanadium Alloy Production, Welding, Physical Properties, Baseline Mechanical Properties, Corrosion/Compatibility, Neutron Irradiation Effects, Helium Transmutation Effects on Irradiated Alloys, and the Status of Irradiation Experiments. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports from this publication

  2. U.S. Contribution 1994 Summary Report Task T12: Compatibility and irradiation testing of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    Vanadium alloys exhibit important advantages as a candidate structural material for fusion first wall/blanket applications. These advantages include fabricability, favorable safety and environmental features, high temperature and high wall load capability, and long lifetime under irradiation. Vanadium alloys with (3-5)% chromium and (3-5)% titanium appear to offer the best combination of properties for first wall/blanket applications. A V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is recommended as the reference composition for the ITER application. This report provides a summary of the R&D conducted during 1994 in support of the ITER Engineering Design Activity. Progress is reported for Vanadium Alloy Production, Welding, Physical Properties, Baseline Mechanical Properties, Corrosion/Compatibility, Neutron Irradiation Effects, Helium Transmutation Effects on Irradiated Alloys, and the Status of Irradiation Experiments. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports from this publication.

  3. The modification of some properties of Al-2%Mg alloy by Ti &Li alloying elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Abdulameer Jasim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium-Magnisium alloys are light, high strength with resistance to corrosion and good weldability. When the content of magnesium  exceeds 3% there is a tendency to stress corrosion . This work is an attempt is to prepare low density alloy with up to approximately 2.54 g / cm3 by adding different contents of Ti, and lithium to aluminum-2%Magnisium alloy. The lithium is added in two aspects, lithium chloride and pure metal. The casting performed using conventional casting method. Moreover, solution heat treatment (SHT at 520 ºC for 4 hrs, quenching in cold water, and aging at 50ºC for 4 days were done to get better mechanical properties of all samples. Microstructure was inspected by light optical microscope before and after SHT. Alloy3 which contains 1.5%Ti was tested by SEM and EDS spectrometer to exhibit the shape and micro chemical analysis of Al3Ti phase. Hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity were tested for all alloys. The results indicated that Al3Ti phase precipitates in alloys contain 0.5%T, 1%Ti, And 1.5%Ti.  The phases Al3Li as well as Al3Ti were precipitated in alloy4 which contains 2%Ti, and 2.24%Li. Mechanical properties test results also showed that the alloy4 has achieved good results, the modulus of elasticity chanced from 310.65GPa before SHT to 521.672GPa, after SHT and aging, the ultimate tensile strength was changed from 365MPa before SHT to 469MPa, after SHT and aging,  and hardness was increased from 128 to 220HV.

  4. Mechanical alloying of the FeNi-Ag system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Ibarra, D.; Ochoa, J.; Villalba, R.; Sagarzazu, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Fe-Ni-Ag system is of particular interest for its potential applications as soft magnetic granular material with small magnetic grains embedded in a non-magnetic metal matrix. Under equilibrium conditions: Fe-Ag and Ni-Ag are immiscible and Fe-Ni shows complete solubility. These materials are particularly important for magnetoresistivity properties. The properties of these alloys are closely related to their microstructure; therefore, a detailed study of the transformations occurring during milling was undertaken using pre-alloyed Fe x Ni 100-x (x = 30, 50 and 70) further milled with different Ag content to give the following alloys compositions (Fe x -Ni 100-x ) 100-y Ag y (y = 5, 20, 60). Consolidation of the mechanically alloyed powders by sintering at 950 o C was performed. Morphological and structural characterization of the sintered powders was carried out by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Fe 30 Ni 70 and Fe 50 Ni 50 formed ordered FeNi 3 compound. Fe 70 Ni 30 showed the formation of a mixture of γ-(Fe,Ni) and α-Fe(Ni) solid solutions. The mixture of these systems with Ag showed the metal solid solutions surrounded by Ag islands of Fe x Ni y -Ag, There was also evidence of Ag diffusing into the γ-(Fe,Ni). High Ag content (60%) shows formation of islands of FeNi surrounded by Ag. Sintering is always improved with the Ag content

  5. Effect of T6 treatment on the coefficient of friction of Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Fe alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondur, D. G.; Mallapur, D. G.; Udupa, K. Rajendra

    2018-04-01

    Effect of T6 treatment on the coefficient of friction of Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Fe alloy was evaluated by conducting wear test on pin on disc wear testing machine. Wear test parameters such as the load and the speed were varied by keeping one constant and varying the other respectively. It was observed that the coefficient of friction is high for as cast condition due to the brittle microstructure. After T6 heat treatment the precipitates formed such as the Chinese scripts and the Mg2Si blocks got modified that lead to improvement in the hardness and the wear resistance. This reduces the coefficient of friction.

  6. Plutonium-238 dioxide/T-111 compatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-01-01

    The tantalum-base alloy, T-111, is an ideal radioisotope encapsulant from the aspect of mechanical properties, but unfortunately undergoes severe oxygen embrittlement during long-term, high-temperature exposure to PuO 2 . A study was undertaken in an effort to improve T-111/PuO 2 compatibility by testing the hypothesis that reduction of fuel stoichiometry to the range PuO 1 . 75 to PuO 1 . 8 would suspend the embrittlement process by producing a state of thermodynamic equilibrium within the capsule. Test temperatures ranged from 773 to 1373 0 K, with aging times of 60 days, 240 days, and 2 y. The desired reaction did not proceed rapidly enough at the aging temperatures to stop T-111 embrittlement. Capsules heated above 1573 0 K for 1 hr showed no signs of embrittlement during aging, even after 2 y at temperatures as high as 1173 0 K. Results with test specimens employing pelletized fuel indicated the solid-state diffusion of oxygen from the fuel to the T-111 was the dominating transport process. In nonpretreated capsules oxygen diffusion in T-111 was the rate-controlling process. Pretreatment does result in the desired thermodynamic equilibrium at temperatures up to at least 1173 0 K. (auth)

  7. Dendrite tungsten liquation in molybdenum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, M.M.; Ageeva, E.N.; Kolotinskij, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made on primary crystallization structure of ingots of Mo-W-B system alloys with electron microscopy were used to establish, that cells and cellular dendrites were the main elements of primary crystallization structure. Method of local X-ray spectral analysis enabled to establish, that intracrystallite liquation at cellular growth developed more intensively, as compared to the case of cellular dendrite formation. Change of boron content in alloys didn't practically affect the degree of development of intracrystallite W liquation in Mo

  8. Fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrivas, Anastasios Dimitrios

    2000-10-01

    A melting technique was developed to simulate the fusion boundary of aluminum alloys using the GleebleRTM thermal simulator. Using a steel sleeve to contain the aluminum, samples were heated to incremental temperatures above the solidus temperature of a number of alloys. In alloy 2195, a 4wt%Cu-1wt%Li alloy, an equiaxed non-dendritic zone (EQZ) could be formed by heating in the temperature range from approximately 630 to 640°C. At temperatures above 640°C, solidification occurred by the normal epitaxial nucleation and growth mechanism. Fusion boundary behavior was also studied in alloys 5454-H34, 6061-T6, and 2219-T8. Additionally, experimental alloy compositions were produced by making bead on plate welds using an alloy 5454-H32 base metal and 5025 or 5087 filler metals. These filler metals contain zirconium and scandium additions, respectively, and were expected to influence nucleation and growth behavior. Both as-welded and welded/heat treated (540°C and 300°C) substrates were tested by melting simulation, resulting in dendritic and EQZ structures depending on composition and substrate condition. Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM(TM)) was employed to study the crystallographic character of the microstructures produced and to verify the mechanism responsible for EQZ formation. OIM(TM) proved that grains within the EQZ have random orientation. In all other cases, where the simulated microstructures were dendritic in nature, it was shown that epitaxy was the dominant mode of nucleation. The lack of any preferred crystallographic orientation relationship in the EQZ supports a theory proposed by Lippold et al that the EQZ is the result of heterogeneous nucleation within the weld unmixed zone. EDS analysis of the 2195 on STEM revealed particles with ternary composition consisted of Zr, Cu and Al and a tetragonal type crystallographic lattice. Microdiffraction line scans on EQZ grains in the alloy 2195 showed very good agreement between the measured Cu

  9. Dendritic solidification and thermal expansion of refractory Nb-Zr alloys investigated by electrostatic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.J.; Hu, L.; Wang, L.; Wei, B. [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an (China)

    2017-05-15

    The dendritic growth and thermal expansion of isomorphous refractory Nb-5%Zr, Nb-10%Zr, and Nb-15%Zr alloys were studied by electrostatic levitation technique. The obtained maximum undercoolings for the three alloys were 534 (0.2T{sub L}), 498 (0.19T{sub L}), and 483 K (0.18T{sub L}), respectively. Within these undercooling ranges, the dendritic growth velocities of the three alloys all exhibited power laws, and achieved 38.5, 34.0, and 27.1 m s{sup -1} at each maximum undercooling. The microstructures were characterized by coarse dendrites at small undercooling, while they transformed into refined dendrites under large undercooling condition. In addition, the measured thermal expansion coefficients of solid Nb-Zr alloys increased linearly with temperature. The values at liquid state were more than double of those at solid state, which also displayed linear dependence on temperature. (orig.)

  10. The structure of the alphinizing coat on alloy steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results of the structure of the coat alphinizing in AlSi5 silumin on alloy steels: acid-proof 1H18N9T (X6CrNiTi18-10 and high speed SW18 (HS18-0-1 were presented. The temperature of the alphinizing bath was amounts to750±5°C, and immersion time of the element τ = 180s. It was shown, that there is the different “g” coat thickness on testing steels. On the 1H18N9T steel it amounts to g = 52μm, and on the SW18 steel – g = 203μm. Regardless of a grade of testing alloy steels the coat consist of three layers with diversified phasic structure. There is different chemical composition of coat layers on testing steels. The first layer from the base consist of AlFe phase containing alloy addictions of steels: Cr and Ni (1H18N9T and W, V and Cr (SW18. On this layer crystallize the second layer of intermetallic phases. It is the phase containing the main alloy addiction of steels: AlFeCr (1H18N9T and AlFeW (SW18. The last, outside layer consist of silumin containing AlFeNi intermetallic phases on the 1H18N9T steel and AlFeW on the SW18 steel. Regardless of the grade of testing steels there is Si element in all layers of the coat. There are morphological differences in tested layers. The second layer (AlFeW phase inside the coat on the SW18 steel consist of faced crystals growing into in outside silumin layer. On the 1H18N9T steel a boundary between transient and outside layer is more uniform. Free separations of intermetallic phases inside silumin layer on the 1H18N9T steel have lamellar and on the SW18 steel – faced form.

  11. The effect of the T6 heat treatment on hardness and microstructure of the en AC-AlSi12CuNiMg alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented work discusses research results concerning the effect of the T6 heat treatment process, including soaking of the alloy near the solidus temperature, holding in this temperature and next cooling in cold water (20 oC, as well as exposing to the artificial ageing to check the change in HB hardness and microstructure of the EN AC-AlSi12Cu-NiMg (EN AC-48000 alloy modified with strontium and cast into metal moulds. The temperature range of solutioning and ageing treatments was selected on the basis of crystallization curves recorded with the use of thermal-derivative method. Performed investigations enabled to determine the optimal parameters (temperature and time of solutioning and ageing heat treatments and their effect on the change in alloy’s hardness.

  12. High-temperature electrochemical performance of low-cost La–Ni–Fe based hydrogen storage alloys with different preparation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiannan [Department of Advanced Energy Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhu, Ding [Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhou, Wanhai; Zhong, Chenglin; Wu, Chaoling [Department of Advanced Energy Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chen, Yungui, E-mail: ygchen60@aliyun.com [Department of Advanced Energy Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Effects of four different preparation processes were studied at 20/60 °C. • All NS + HT, RS and RS + HT processes can optimize the thermodynamic performance. • The HT process can provoke the precipitation of A{sub 2}B{sub 7} and leads to a poor cycling life. • Al exhibits the most remarkable dissolution for all the alloys, especially at 60 °C. - Abstract: In order to optimize the microstructure and high temperature electrochemical performances of low-cost AB{sub 5}-type Ml(NiMnAl){sub 4.2}Co{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 0.5} hydrogen storage electrode alloys, four different preparation methods including normal solidification (NS), normal solidification and 900 °C heat treatment (NS + HT), rapid solidification (RS), rapid solidification and 900 °C heat treatment (RS + HT) were adopted in this work. All alloys exhibit CaCu{sub 5} type hexagonal structure and there is a small amount of A{sub 2}B{sub 7} phase in NS + HT and RS + HT alloys. It is found the using of HT process can decrease the hydrogen equilibrium plateau pressure, the plateau slope and hysteresis at 40, 60 and 80 °C. The NS + HT and RS + HT alloys also possess better activation, high rate discharge performance, larger discharge capacity, but poor cycling performance due to the existence of A{sub 2}B{sub 7} phase which can accelerate dissolution of Ni, Mn and Fe elements in KOH alkaline electrolyte. The RS process can make alloy exhibit the best cycling performance especially at 60 °C.

  13. Wear behaviors of pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy (AA2024-T4) under variable vertical loads and linear speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeki; Oak, Jeong-Jung; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Cho, Yi Je; Park, Yong Ho

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transition of wear behavior for pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy 2024-T4 (AA2024-T4). The wear test was carried using a ball-on-disc wear testing machine at various vertical loads and linear speeds. The transition of wear behaviors was analyzed based on the microstructure, wear tracks, wear cross-section, and wear debris. The critical wear rates for each material are occurred at lower linear speed for each vertical load. The transition of wear behavior was observed in which abrasion wears with the generation of an oxide layer, fracture of oxide layer, adhesion wear, severe adhesion wear, and the generation of seizure occurred in sequence. In case of the pure aluminum, the change of wear debris occurred in the order of blocky, flake, and needle-like debris. Cutting chip, flake-like, and coarse flake-like debris was occurred in sequence for the extruded AA2024-T4. The transition in the wear behavior of extruded AA2024-T4 occurred slower than in pure aluminum.

  14. Positron-annihilation 2D-ACAR studies of disordered and defected alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansil, A.; Prasad, R.; Smedskjaer, L.C.; Benedek, R.; Mijnarends, P.E.

    1987-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental progess in connection with 2D-ACAR positron annihilation studies of ordered, disordered, and defected alloys is discussed. We present, in particular, some of the recent developments concerning the electronic structure of disordered alloys, and the work in the area of annihilation from positrons trapped at vacancy-type defects in metals and alloys. The electronic structure and properties of a number of compounds are also discussed briefly; we comment specifically on high T/sub c/ ceramic superconductors, Heusler alloys, and transition-metal aluminides. 58 refs., 116 figs

  15. Microstructure, corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of Mg-5Y-4Rare Earth-0.5Zr (WE54) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smola, Bohumil, E-mail: bohumil.smola@mff.cuni.cz [Charles University Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Joska, Ludek [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Brezina, Vitezslav [University of South Bohemia, Institute of Physical Biology, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Stulikova, Ivana [Charles University Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Hnilica, Frantisek [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Karlovo namesti 13, 121 35 Praha 2 (Czech Republic)

    2012-05-01

    Conventionally cast Mg-5Y-4Rare Earth-0.5Zr alloy (WE54) was solution treated (525 Degree-Sign C/8 h - T4) and one part subsequently aged (200 Degree-Sign C/16 h - T6). Powder from the cast WE54 alloy prepared by gas atomizing was consolidated by extrusion at 250 Degree-Sign C or 400 Degree-Sign C. Dense triangular arrangement of prismatic plates of transient D0{sub 19} and C-base centered orthorhombic phases precipitated in the {alpha}-Mg matrix during the T6 treatment. Both alloys prepared by powder metallurgy exhibit similar microstructure consisting of {approx} 4-6 {mu}m {alpha}-Mg matrix fibers surrounded by particles of the equilibrium Mg{sub 5}(Y, Nd) phase and of oxides. Open circuit potential and polarization resistance in the isotonic saline (9 g/l NaCl/H{sub 2}O) were monitored for 24 h. The corrosion rate of the T4 and T6 treated alloys was about 80 times lower than that of commercial Mg. Both alloys prepared by powder metallurgy exhibited approximately 8 times higher corrosion resistance than commercial Mg. The human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells spreading and division in the extracts (0.28 g in 28 ml of EMEM) of all 4 alloys were monitored by cinemicrography for 24 h. The MG-63 cells proliferate without cytotoxicity in all extracts. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T6 treated WE54 alloy exhibit dense triangular arrangement of {beta} Double-Prime and {beta} Prime phase prismatic plates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure of PM prepared WE54 alloy consists of {alpha}-Mg phase cells surrounded by {beta} phase particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PM produced WE54 corroded 10 times faster in physiological solution thanT4 and T6 treated WE54. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG63 cell spreading in EMEM extracts of PM prepared WE54 is comparable to that in control EMEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell mitosis is enhanced in PM WE54 extracts compared to the control and extracts of T4 and T6 WE54.

  16. Effects of Sn addition on the microstructure and tensile properties of AX55 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, K. Q.; Huang, P.

    2018-04-01

    The microstructures and tensile properties at both room and elevated temperatures for both the as-cast and as-aged Mg-5Al-5Ca (AX55) alloy with 0–2 wt% Sn addition were studied. The results indicate that the α-Mg dendrite is gradually refined and the interdendritic Al2Ca and Mg2Ca intermetallics become more connected with Sn addition. The as-cast AX55-1Sn alloy shows optimal ultimate tensile strength (UTS) at testing temperature from 25 to 225 °C. After T61 and T62 heat treatment, the eutectic-lamellar microstructure of the as-cast alloys tends to be spheroidized and distributed uniformly along the grain boundaries. While the alloys with higher Sn content show higher density of granulated and needle-shaped Al2Ca phases precipitated into α-Mg matrix, which results in the increase of UTS, yield strength (YS), elongation and microhardness with Sn addition. The morphology of CaMgSn phase can be improved by T62 treatment, which makes as-aged AX55-2.0Sn alloy exhibit a smaller decrease rate of the UTS at temperature up to 225 °C. The heat resistance of different heat-resistant magnesium alloys were compared and discussed by using the decrease rate of the UTS.

  17. Precipitation of the sigma-phase in Mo-Re alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freze, N.I.; Levitskij, A.D.; Tyumentsev, A.N.; Korotaev, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Disintegration processes in thin foils and replicas of alloys Mo+(52 - 56) wpc Re and Mo+(52 - 56)% Re+(0.05 - 0.10)% Fe wpc were studied by electronic microscopy. Alloying with iron was conducted to determine the effect of iron atom segregations at the grain boundaries on separation of the sigma-phase in these regions. Since the nature of disintegration in all alloys was identical, the experimental data were considered on the example of alloy Mo + 54 wpc Re. The laminated specimens of 1 - 2 mm in thickness subjected to cold rolling with subsequent tempering at T = 1100 deg C for 15 min were characterized by intensive disintegration. As a result finelydispersed laminated sigma-phase uniformly distributed throughout the entire volume of the material was formed. The non-deformed specimens did not show separation of the sigma-phase. As a result of separation of the finely-dispersed sigma-phase plasticity of the alloys was increased. So that a foil of Δh = 0.2 mm in thickness can be produced by cold rolling of the laminated specimens without intermediate annealing. By changing the initial state of the specimens and temperature of annealing dispersity and spatial distribution of the sigma-phase may be substantially modified. It provides for considerably increasing plasticity of the two-phase alloys. During separation of the sigma-phase hardness of the deformed specimens becomes greater. Therefore the low-temperature disintegration accompanied by separation of the sigma-phase may be employed for disperse strengthening of the Mo-Re alloys. The refractory properties of such alloye will not be high, since it is coagulated the finely-dispersed segregations of the sigma-phase even at T > 1100 deg C

  18. High-power laser and arc welding of thorium-doped iridium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Liu, C.T.

    1980-05-01

    The arc and laser weldabilities of two Ir-0.3% W alloys containing 60 and 200 wt ppM Th have been investigated. The Ir-.03% W alloy containing 200 wt ppM Th is severely prone to hot cracking during gas tungsten-arc welding. Weld metal cracking results from the combined effects of heat-affected zone liquation cracking and solidification cracking. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the fractured surface revealed patches of low-melting eutectic. The cracking is influenced to a great extent by the fusion zone microstructure and thorium content. The alloy has been welded with a continuous-wave high-power CO 2 laser system with beam power ranging from 5 to 10 kW and welding speeds of 8 to 25 mm/s. Successful laser welds without hot cracking have been obtained in this particular alloy. This is attributable to the highly concentrated heat source available in the laser beam and the refinement in fusion zone microstructure obtained during laser welding. Efforts to refine the fusion zone structure during gas tungsten-arc welding of Ir-0.3 % W alloy containing 60 wt ppM Th were partially successful. Here transverse arc oscillation during gas tungsten-arc welding refines the fusion zone structure to a certain extent. However, microstructural analysis of this alloy's laser welds indicates further refinement in the fusion zone microstructure than in that from the gas tungsten-arc process using arc oscillations. The fusion zone structure of the laser weld is a strong function of welding speed

  19. Forming characteristics of artificial aging Al-Mg-Si-Cu sheet alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Artur; Kellner, Sven; Wortberg, Daniel; Walter, Philipp; Bassi, Corrado; Merklein, Marion

    2017-10-01

    AA6111 is a commonly used aluminum alloy for body-in-white (BIW) components with good bake-hardening response, high strength and excellent formability. For industrial applications various process strategies are considered to reach strength of about 250 MPa in the final body part with that type of alloy. The purpose of this paper is to discuss recent process strategies of high-strength AA6111 sheets to evaluate the forming characteristics, precipitation kinetics dissolution and mechanical properties in the final condition. The forming behavior is investigated by four potential process chains after single-stage or multi-stage heat treatment including T4 (pre-aged at > 80 °C after quenching), T61 (T4 + artificial aged at 120-150 °C for 10-18 h), T6 (T4 + artificial aged at 180-220°C up to 12 h) and PFHT (T4 + post form heat treatment at 205°C for 30 min). The experimental input for characterization of the formability consists of tensile tests, bending tests and drawing tests. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is used, to correlate the forming behavior with the precipitation distribution in the advanced stages of aging. The study shows that the forming behavior is strongly dependent on the condition the alloy.

  20. Influence of heat treatment on the strength and fracture toughness of 7N01 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Wang, Xiaomin, E-mail: xmwang991011@163.com [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Chen, Hui; Hu, Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Huang, Cui [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China); Gou, Guoqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan (China)

    2016-09-05

    7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys are treated by five heat treatment methods as peak aging (T6), over aging (T74), high temperature and subsequently low temperature aging (HLA), retrogression and reaging (RRA) and double retrogression and reaging (DRRA). The strength and fracture toughness of the five samples are tested, and the microstructures are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that 7N01 Al-alloy treated at T6 condition has high strength but low fracture toughness. Compared with T6 treatment, T74 and HLA treatments increase the fracture toughness by 67% and 90% respectively, while the strength decrease by 9% and 17%. RRA process is a proper treatment method for 7N01 which improves the fracture toughness without sacrificing strength. The fracture toughness of DRRA treated alloy is much lower than that of RRA. Quantitative analysis through TEM images shows that the heat treatment affects the mechanical properties of 7N01 Al-alloy highly through changing the precipitates in grains and on grain boundaries, which can be explained by the coherency strengthening mechanism and Orowan mechanism. - Highlights: • Five heat treatments which can change the properties of 7N01 Al alloy were designed. • Quantitative analysis of precipitates was employed to study the mechanism. • RRA treatment can make proper strength/toughness property balances for 7N01 Al alloy.

  1. Influence of heat treatment on the strength and fracture toughness of 7N01 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Hui; Hu, Jie; Huang, Cui; Gou, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    7N01 aluminum (Al) alloys are treated by five heat treatment methods as peak aging (T6), over aging (T74), high temperature and subsequently low temperature aging (HLA), retrogression and reaging (RRA) and double retrogression and reaging (DRRA). The strength and fracture toughness of the five samples are tested, and the microstructures are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that 7N01 Al-alloy treated at T6 condition has high strength but low fracture toughness. Compared with T6 treatment, T74 and HLA treatments increase the fracture toughness by 67% and 90% respectively, while the strength decrease by 9% and 17%. RRA process is a proper treatment method for 7N01 which improves the fracture toughness without sacrificing strength. The fracture toughness of DRRA treated alloy is much lower than that of RRA. Quantitative analysis through TEM images shows that the heat treatment affects the mechanical properties of 7N01 Al-alloy highly through changing the precipitates in grains and on grain boundaries, which can be explained by the coherency strengthening mechanism and Orowan mechanism. - Highlights: • Five heat treatments which can change the properties of 7N01 Al alloy were designed. • Quantitative analysis of precipitates was employed to study the mechanism. • RRA treatment can make proper strength/toughness property balances for 7N01 Al alloy.

  2. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity response of biodegradable magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompa, Luis; Rahman, Zia Ur; Munoz, Edgar; Haider, Waseem

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have raised an immense amount of interest to many researchers because of their evolution as a new kind of third generation materials. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium alloys experience a natural phenomenon to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosion activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, a major concern with such alloys is fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of biodegradable implants. In this investigation, three different grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by using a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS. - Highlights: • Micro-textured features formed after the anodization of magnesium alloys. • Contact angle increased and surface free energy decreased by anodization. • Corrosion rate increased for anodized surfaces compared to untreated samples. • Cell viability was greater than 75% implying the cytocompatibility of Mg alloys

  3. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity response of biodegradable magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompa, Luis; Rahman, Zia Ur; Munoz, Edgar; Haider, Waseem, E-mail: haiderw@utpa.edu

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium alloys have raised an immense amount of interest to many researchers because of their evolution as a new kind of third generation materials. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium alloys experience a natural phenomenon to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosion activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, a major concern with such alloys is fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of biodegradable implants. In this investigation, three different grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by using a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS. - Highlights: • Micro-textured features formed after the anodization of magnesium alloys. • Contact angle increased and surface free energy decreased by anodization. • Corrosion rate increased for anodized surfaces compared to untreated samples. • Cell viability was greater than 75% implying the cytocompatibility of Mg alloys.

  4. Size and alloying induced shift in core and valence bands of Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengar, Saurabh K.; Mehta, B. R.; Govind

    2014-01-01

    In this report, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out on Pd, Ag, Cu, Pd-Ag, and Pd-Cu nanoparticles having identical sizes corresponding to mobility equivalent diameters of 60, 40, and 20 nm. The nanoparticles were prepared by the gas phase synthesis method. The effect of size on valence and core levels in metal and alloy nanoparticles has been studied by comparing the values to those with the 60 nm nanoparticles. The effect of alloying has been investigated by comparing the valence and core level binding energies of Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag alloy nanoparticles with the corresponding values for Pd, Ag, and Cu nanoparticles of identical sizes. These effects have been explained in terms of size induced lattice contractions, alloying induced charge transfer, and hybridization effects. The observation of alloying and size induced binding energy shifts in bimetallic nanoparticles is important from the point of view of hydrogen reactivity

  5. Role and distribution of strontium during the dissolving and grain refining process of AlSi7Mg alloy's structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldovan, P.; Popescu, G.; Zsigmond, M.; Apostolescu, I. [Universitatea Politehnica, Bucharest (Romania)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of the modification of AlSi7Mg alloy with two types of master alloys: AlSr10 wire type and AlSr10 block type, at a temperature of 750 C with different contents of strontium. Due to the applicability of the AlSr10 master alloy wire type, the study was mainly elaborated on the dissolving process of this one. Due to this fact we used a 10 mm diameter wire of AlSr10 master alloy, which was introduced in the melt. After the grain refining process we obtained a sample, which was cut at different heights for a better observation of the alloy structure. We can notice that the grain refining degree is not uniform along the sample. Strontium as a grain refiner equalize the qualities of sodium but is much more efficient and keeps its grain refining properties for a longer period of time. The efficiency of the two types of master alloys was compared by the grain refinement degree of AlSi7Mg alloy function of the distance till the lower part of the casting mould and by determination of the grain refinement degree function of strontium content added. We made a micrographic study of the pieces of the sample and we used an optical microscope (OLYMPUS BX 60M) and the image analyzing system was OMNIMENT EXPRESS. Analyzing the results of this study we can see that the AlSi7Mg alloy grain refining degree doesn't depend too much on the form of the master alloy (if is wire or block) but grain refining time is increased when we use block types of master alloy. Also we can see that the cooling rate has a significant influence on the grain refinement degree. The industrial application of the AlSr master alloys are mainly for the light alloys ingots producers and light alloys casting plant for the obtaining of high quality components required by automotive and aeronautical industry. (orig.)

  6. Finite strain transient creep of D16T alloy: identification and validation employing heterogeneous tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutov, A. V.; Larichkin, A. Yu

    2017-10-01

    A cyclic creep damage model, previously proposed by the authors, is modified for a better description of the transient creep of D16T alloy observed in the finite strain range under rapidly changing stresses. The new model encompasses the concept of kinematic hardening, which allows us to account for the creep-induced anisotropy. The model kinematics is based on the nested multiplicative split of the deformation gradient, proposed by Lion. The damage evolution is accounted for by the classical Kachanov-Rabotnov approach. The material parameters are identified using experimental data on cyclic torsion of thick-walled samples with different holding times between load reversals. For the validation of the proposed material model, an additional experiment is analyzed. Although this additional test is not involved in the identification procedure, the proposed cyclic creep damage model describes it accurately.

  7. Laser Powder Cladding of Ti-6Al-4V α/β Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Samar Reda Al-Sayed Ali; Abdel Hamid Ahmed Hussein; Adel Abdel Menam Saleh Nofal; Salah Elden Ibrahim Hasseb Elnaby; Haytham Abdelrafea Elgazzar; Hassan Abdel Sabour

    2017-01-01

    Laser cladding process was performed on a commercial Ti-6Al-4V (α + β) titanium alloy by means of tungsten carbide-nickel based alloy powder blend. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used with coaxial jet nozzle coupled with a standard powder feeding system. Four-track deposition of a blended powder consisting of 60 wt % tungsten carbide (WC) and 40 wt % NiCrBSi was successfully made on the alloy. The high content of the hard WC particles is intended to enhance the abrasion resist...

  8. Characterization of high cycle fatigue behavior of a new generation aluminum lithium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, P.S.; Mishra, R.S.; Baumann, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Effect of microstructure on fatigue fracture of an advanced Al-Li alloy was studied in detail. → Preferential crack propagation in T3 state at specific orientations was analyzed. → Fatigue crack propagation difference between T3 and T8 tempers and friction stir welded condition was rationalized. → The effect of grain size on fatigue life for T3 and T8 tempers was justified based on current theories. → Delamination in T3 and T8 tempers was rationalized using microstructural analysis and FEA simulation. - Abstract: The high cycle fatigue life characteristics of an Al-Li alloy were studied as a function of microstructure. While for the parent microstructure fatigue life decreased as grain size increased, no such effect was noted at high stresses. This decrease in fatigue life was correlated with lower crack initiation life due to small crack effect. Under multiaxial stress conditions, the alloy exhibited intergranular cracking. The cross-linking of intergranular cracks (in the T8 condition) caused a further deterioration in fatigue life. Additionally, planar slip movements (in the T3 condition) in stage I crack propagation were observed. Slip planarity depended on both the sample texture and the nature of the precipitates. Fractographic and textural evidence is presented.

  9. Characterization of high cycle fatigue behavior of a new generation aluminum lithium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, P.S. [Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Mishra, R.S., E-mail: rsmishra@mst.edu [Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Baumann, J.A. [Boeing Company, St. Louis, MO 631666 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of microstructure on fatigue fracture of an advanced Al-Li alloy was studied in detail. {yields} Preferential crack propagation in T3 state at specific orientations was analyzed. {yields} Fatigue crack propagation difference between T3 and T8 tempers and friction stir welded condition was rationalized. {yields} The effect of grain size on fatigue life for T3 and T8 tempers was justified based on current theories. {yields} Delamination in T3 and T8 tempers was rationalized using microstructural analysis and FEA simulation. - Abstract: The high cycle fatigue life characteristics of an Al-Li alloy were studied as a function of microstructure. While for the parent microstructure fatigue life decreased as grain size increased, no such effect was noted at high stresses. This decrease in fatigue life was correlated with lower crack initiation life due to small crack effect. Under multiaxial stress conditions, the alloy exhibited intergranular cracking. The cross-linking of intergranular cracks (in the T8 condition) caused a further deterioration in fatigue life. Additionally, planar slip movements (in the T3 condition) in stage I crack propagation were observed. Slip planarity depended on both the sample texture and the nature of the precipitates. Fractographic and textural evidence is presented.

  10. In vitro corrosion properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys as potential biodegradable metallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Henan; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan@buaa.edu.cn

    2017-02-01

    The in vitro biodegradable properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys including Fe{sub 81}Ga{sub 19}, (Fe{sub 81}Ga{sub 19}){sub 98}B{sub 2} and (Fe{sub 81}Ga{sub 19}){sub 99.5}(TaC){sub 0.5}, and pure Fe were investigated for biomedical applications. The microstructure of the alloys was characterized using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The results showed that A2 and D0{sub 3} phases were detected for the three types of Fe-Ga alloys, and additional Fe{sub 2}B and TaC phases were found in the (Fe{sub 81}Ga{sub 19}){sub 98}B{sub 2} and (Fe{sub 81}Ga{sub 19}){sub 99.5}(TaC){sub 0.5} alloys, respectively. The corrosion rates of the Fe-Ga alloys were higher than that of pure Fe, as demonstrated by both potentiodynamic polarization measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid. The alloying element Ga lowered the corrosion potential of the Fe matrix and made it more susceptible to corrosion. Severe pitting corrosion developed on the surface of the Fe{sub 81}Ga{sub 19} alloy after the addition of ternary B or TaC due to the multi-phase microstructures. The MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited good adhesion and proliferation behavior on the surfaces of the Fe-Ga alloys after culture for 4 h and 24 h. - Highlights: • Fe-Ga alloys showed a higher degradation rate than pure Fe. • Fe-Ga alloys exhibited good cytocompatibility for the MC3T3-E1 cells. • The MC3T3-E1 cells were tolerable to the corrosion products of Fe-Ga alloys.

  11. Crystallisation and microstructure of low-silicon silumins with alloy additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of crystallisation and microstructure of non-alloy silumins that contain: 2,0÷6,0% of Si and alloy additions, approximately: 4,0% Ni, 4,0% of Cu and 0,5% of Mg, the knowledge of which is still very little. It has been proven that in non-alloy silumins, the increase of silicone concentration causes extending of crystallisation time of the eutectic mixture α+and refinement of α phase dendrites. It also causes the increase of the temperature of crystallisation of the eutectic mixture α+ . Alloy additions: Ni, Cu and Mg decrease by approximately 30 C the liquidus and solidus temperatures of silumins and extend the time of their crystallisation by around 100 sec. in comparison with non-alloy silumins. It is caused by crystallisation of additional phases Al3NiCu, Mg2Si and Al2Cu. Nickel, copper and magnesium refine the microstructure of castings.

  12. Characteristic of DTA curves for cast ferrous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study presents DTA curves for selected grades of cast iron and cast steel. The thermal effects observed on derivative curves, caused by crystallisation of single phases and eutectic were discussed. The thermal effects having their origin in crystallisation of secondary carbides were determined. It has been indicated that the range of temperatures of their crystallisation can be determined from the cooling curve t = f(τ, from the solidification curve dt/dτ = f′(τ, and from the second derivative d2t/dτ2 = f″(τ. The crystallisation rate of single phases or of their mixture is indicated by the duration of thermal effect and by the slope angle of the curve responsible for a specific thermal effect before and after its maximum. A very high sensitivity of the derivative curve to temperature changes in liquid and solid alloy and to the phase (phases growth rate enables control of alloy before pouring of moulds. The control of alloy may consist in identification of phases the presence of which is indispensable in alloy microstructure and in determination of some important properties, e.g. Rp0,2, Rm, A5 and HB. In the latter case, the statistical relationships between the above mentioned characteristic parameters of DTA curves and the selected mechanical properties have been determined. The said relationships form a basis for construction of algorithms used in development of computer programs for control of individual alloys.

  13. Vaporization study on lanthanum-neodymium alloys by mass-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Y.; Matsui, T.

    1999-01-01

    Partial vapor pressure of Nd(g) over La x Nd 1-x alloys (x = 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80 and 0.90) was measured with a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer equipped with a tungsten Knudsen cell over the temperature range of 1474-1767 K. Thermodynamic activity of neodymium in the liquid alloys was determined by comparing the partial vapor pressure of Nd(g) over the alloys with that over the pure metal. The thermodynamic activity of lanthanum in the alloys was calculated from that of neodymium obtained experimentally in this study by graphic integration using the Gibbs-Duhem equation. Both activities for each element, thus obtained, showed positive deviations from Raoult's law over the entire compositional range. Thermodynamic quantities such as Gibbs free energy of formation, excess enthalpy etc. were also calculated from the thermodynamic activities. (orig.)

  14. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum alloys containing 10 to 11.5 wt. pct. of iron and 1.5 to 3 wt. pct. of chromium using the technique of rapid solidification powder metallurgy were studied. Alloys were prepared as thin ribbons (.002 inch thick) rapidly solidified at uniform rate of 10(6) C/second by the melt spinning process. The melt spun ribbons were pulverized into powders (-60 to 400 mesh) by a rotating hammer mill. The powders were consolidated by hot extrusion at a high reduction ratio of 50:1. The powder extrusion temperature was varied to determine the range of desirable processing conditions necessary to yield useful properties. Powders and consolidated alloys were characterized by SEM and optical metallography. The consolidated alloys were evaluated for (1) thermal stability, (2) tensile properties in the range, room temperature to 450 F, and (3) notch toughness in the range, room temperature to 450 F.

  15. Anti-Invar properties and magnetic order in fcc Fe-Ni-C alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadutov, V.M.; Kosintsev, S.G.; Svystunov, Ye.O.; Garamus, V.M.; Willumeit, R.; Eckerlebe, H.; Ericsson, T.; Annersten, H.

    2011-01-01

    Anti-Invar effect was revealed in the fcc Fe-25.3%Ni-0.73%C (wt%) alloy, which demonstrates high values of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) (15-21)x10 -6 K -1 accompanied by almost temperature-insensitive behavior in temperature range of 122-525 K. Alloying with carbon considerably expanded the low temperature range of anti-Invar behavior in fcc Fe-Ni-based alloy. The Curie temperature of the alloy T C =195 K was determined on measurements of temperature dependences of magnetic susceptibility and saturation magnetization. The Moessbauer and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on the fcc Fe-25.3%Ni-(0.73-0.78)%C alloys with the varying temperatures below and above the Curie point and in external magnetic field of 1.5-5 T were conducted. Low value of the Debye temperature Θ D =180 K was estimated using the temperature dependence of the integral intensity of Moessbauer spectra for specified temperature range. The inequality B eff =(0.7-0.9)B ext was obtained in external field Moessbauer measurement that points to antiferromagnetically coupled Fe atoms, which have a tendency to align their spins perpendicular to B ext . Nano length scale magnetic inhomogeneities nearby and far above T C were revealed, which assumed that it is caused by mixed antiferromagnetically and ferromagnetically coupled Fe atom spins. The anti-Invar behavior of Fe-Ni-C alloy is explained in terms of evolution of magnetic order with changing temperature resulting from thermally varied interspin interaction and decreasing stiffness of interatomic bond. - Highlights: → Anti-Invar effect was revealed in the fcc Fe-25.3%Ni-0.73%C (wt%) alloy. → Carbon expanded the temperature range of anti-Invar behavior in Fe-Ni-based alloy. → Moessbauer data point to mixed interspin interaction and low the Dedye temperature. → The SANS experiments reveal nano length scale magnetic inhomogeneities ≤6 nm. → Anti-Invar behavior of Fe-Ni-C alloy explained by thermally varied magnetic order.

  16. Vacancy enhancement of diffusion after quenching and during irradiation in silver-zinc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuele, W.

    1980-01-01

    Quenching and annealing experiments were performed on silver-zinc alloys with 8.14 and 30 at %Zn. From the changes of the electrical resistivity due to an increase of the degree of short-range order, the activation energy of self-diffusion was determined to be Qsub(SD) = 1.60 and Qsub(SD) = 1.38 eV for both alloys, respectively. For the migration energy of vacancies, a value Esub(V)sup(M) = 0.64 eV was found for the alloy with 8.14 at %Zn. Evidence is given that the vacancy migration energy Esub(V)sup(M) of the alloys with 30 at %Zn is smaller than 0.60 eV in agreement with data given by Berry and Orehotsky. The results of measurements of radiation-enhanced diffusion obtained by a Russian and a French group, are reinterpreted. It follows that the increase of the degree of order during irradiation is obtained only be vacancy enhancement of diffusion and that the migration activation energy of self-interstitials is Esub(I)sup(M) approximately 0.46 eV and Esub(I)sup(M) approximately 0.41 eV for the alloys with 8.14 and 30 at %Zn, respectively. (author)

  17. Preparation, microstructure and thermal properties of Mg−Bi alloys as phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Dong; Sun, Zheng; Li, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure and thermal properties of Mg−Bi alloys are determined. • The relationship between melting enthalpies and phase composition are studied. • The activation energy of Mg−54%Bi alloy is calculated by multiple DSC technology. • Mg−54%Bi alloy is proposed as a phase change material at high (>420 °C) temperature. - Abstract: Comparing with Al-based phase change material, Mg-based phase change material is getting more and more attention due to its high corrosion resistance with encapsulation materials based on iron. This study focuses on the characterization of Mg−36%Bi, Mg−54%Bi and Mg−60%Bi (wt. %) alloys as phase change materials for thermal energy storage at high temperature. The phase compositions, microstructure and phase change temperatures were investigated by X-ray diffusion (XRD), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis, respectively. The results indicates that the microstructure of Mg−36%Bi and Mg−54%Bi alloys are mainly composed of α-Mg matrix and α-Mg + Mg_3Bi_2 eutectic phases, Mg−60%Bi alloy are mainly composed of the Mg_3Bi_2 phase and α-MgMg_3Bi_2 eutectic phases. The melting enthalpies of Mg−36%Bi, Mg−54%Bi and Mg−60%Bi alloys are 138.2, 180.5 and 48.7 J/g, with the phase change temperatures of 547.6, 546.3 and 548.1 °C, respectively. The Mg−54%Bi alloy has the highest melting enthalpy in three alloys. The main reason may be that it has more proportion of α-Mg + Mg_3Bi_2 eutectic phases. The thermal expansion of three alloys increases with increasing temperature. The values of the thermal conductivity decrease with increasing Bi content. Besides, the activation energy of Mg−54%Bi was calculated by multiple DSC technology.

  18. The fluctuation field and anomalous magnetic viscosity in commercial NdFeB alloys, AlNiCo and the bulk amorphous ferromagnets Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 30}Al{sub 10} and Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 20}Co{sub 10}Al{sub 10}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collocott, S.J. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)], E-mail: stephen.collocott@csiro.au; Dunlop, J.B. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2008-08-15

    The fluctuation field, H{sub f}, is a useful parameter for characterising any ferromagnetic material that displays hysteresis, as it is a measure of the thermally activated rate processes that govern magnetisation reversals. Anomalous magnetic viscosity, i.e. nonmonotonic behaviour of the time dependent magnetisation, where the magnetisation is seen to increase, reach a peak, and then decrease, has been observed on both the upper and lower branches of minor loops or recoil curves in some ferromagnetic materials. Parameters relevant to the Preisach model are discussed as to their usefulness in predicting anomalous magnetic viscosity in ferromagnetic materials. This is done with reference to measurements of H{sub f} and the time dependent magnetisation in commercial NdFeB alloys, AlNiCo and the bulk amorphous ferromagnets Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 30}Al{sub 10} and Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 20}Co{sub 10}Al{sub 10}.

  19. Work hardening characteristics of gamma-ray irradiated Al-5356 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, G.; Fayek, S.A.; Fawzy, A.; Soliman, H.N.; Nassr, E.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation and deformation temperatures on the hardening behavior of Al-5356 alloy have been investigated by means of stress–strain measurements. Wire samples irradiated with different doses (ranging from 500 to 2000 kGy) were strained at different deformation temperatures T w (ranging from 303 to 523 K) and a constant strain rate of 1.5×10 −3 s −1 . The effect of γ-irradiation on the work-hardening parameters (WHP): yield stress σ y , fracture stress σ f , total strain ε T and work-hardening coefficient χ p of the given alloy was studied at the applied deformation temperature range. The obtained results showed that γ-irradiation exhibited an increase in the WHP of the given alloy while the increase in its deformation temperature showed a reverse effect. The mean activation energy of the deformation process was calculated using an Arrhenius-type relation, and was found to be ∼80 kJ/mole, which is close to that of grain boundary diffusion in aluminum alloys

  20. Electronic properties of a new class of aluminum-based metallic glasses: Al/sub 100-x-y/(T)/sub x/(La,Y)/sub y/ with T=Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pont, M.; Gonzalo, J.; Rao, K.V.; Inoue, A.; Department of Solid State Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden; Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980, Japan)

    1989-01-01

    Electrical and Hall resistivity studies have been carried out on a new class of melt-spun, Al-T-R, Al-rich (above 75 at. %) ternary amorphous alloys in order to study the possible correlation between their electronic and enhanced mechanical properties. We find for all these alloys (over 26 of them) the room-temperature Hall coefficient has a negative sign and increases significantly in magnitude with the (T-R) content, which indicates a decrease in the effective carrier concentration. This is consistent with the suggestion that the observed remarkable mechanical properties in these alloys are due to the enhanced strength of the additional local Al-T and AL-R bonds. In these alloys the electrical resistivity at room temperature increases from about 65 μΩ cm for the binary Al 90 (R) 10 amorphous alloys to over 250 μΩ cm on further substitution of Al with less than 15 at. % of T elements. From a systematic study the importance of s-d scattering mechanism and a crossover in the electronic properties from s- to d-band amorphous metal with T substitution are discussed

  1. Modelling, characterisation and uncertainties of stabilised pseudoelastic shape memory alloy helical springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar; Savi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical behaviour of pseudoelastic shape memory alloy helical springs is of concern discussing stabilised and cyclic responses. Constitutive description of the shape memory alloy is based on the framework developed by Lagoudas and co-workers incorporating two modifications related t...

  2. Enhanced upper critical fields in binary Nb-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariharan, Y.; Sastry, V.S.; Janawadkar, M.P.; Radhakrishnan, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report the enhancement of H/sub c2/ in quenched and suitably heat treated binary Nb-65 at % Ti alloys. The inherent metastability of the bcc β phase and its instability towards athermal ω are used to realise high values of normal state resistivity ε/sub n/. The consequences of this on the upper critical field have been experimentally determined by the measurement of dH/sub c2//dT at T/sub c/ and of T/sub c/. These together with our similar measurements on Nb-83 at % Ti alloy to which at 1 at % N was added (to retain it in the β phase) are analysed in terms of the existing theories for upper critical fields. It is shown that a peak in H/sub c2/(o) occurs at 17 - 18 T when ε/sub n/ has a value of approximately 100 μΩcm

  3. Influence of molybdate species on the tartaric acid/sulphuric acid anodic films grown on AA2024 T3 aerospace alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rubio, M. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain); Ocon, P. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: pilar.ocon@uam.es; Climent-Font, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Smith, R.W. [Unidad de Microanalisis de Materiales, Parque Cientifico de Madrid (PCM), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Curioni, M.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, M60 1QD England (United Kingdom); Lavia, A.; Garcia, I. [Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    AA2024 T3 alloy specimens have been anodised in tartaric acid/sulphuric media and tartaric acid/sulphuric media containing sodium molybdate; molybdate species were added to the anodising bath to enhance further the protection provided by the porous anodic film developed over the macroscopic alloy surface. Morphological characterisation of the anodic films formed in both electrolytes was undertaken using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies; the chemical compositions of the films were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy that was complemented by elemental depth profiling using rf-glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the corrosion performance was examined after salt spray testing. The porous anodic film morphology was little influenced by the addition of molybdate salt, although thinner films were generated in its presence. Chemical composition of the anodic film was roughly similar; however, addition of sodium molybdate in the anodizing bath resulted in residues of molybdate species in the porous skeleton and improved corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical techniques that was confirmed by salt spray testing.

  4. Influence of molybdate species on the tartaric acid/sulphuric acid anodic films grown on AA2024 T3 aerospace alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rubio, M.; Ocon, P.; Climent-Font, A.; Smith, R.W.; Curioni, M.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.; Lavia, A.; Garcia, I.

    2009-01-01

    AA2024 T3 alloy specimens have been anodised in tartaric acid/sulphuric media and tartaric acid/sulphuric media containing sodium molybdate; molybdate species were added to the anodising bath to enhance further the protection provided by the porous anodic film developed over the macroscopic alloy surface. Morphological characterisation of the anodic films formed in both electrolytes was undertaken using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies; the chemical compositions of the films were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy that was complemented by elemental depth profiling using rf-glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the corrosion performance was examined after salt spray testing. The porous anodic film morphology was little influenced by the addition of molybdate salt, although thinner films were generated in its presence. Chemical composition of the anodic film was roughly similar; however, addition of sodium molybdate in the anodizing bath resulted in residues of molybdate species in the porous skeleton and improved corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical techniques that was confirmed by salt spray testing.

  5. Magnetic regimes in amorphous Ni--Fe--P--B alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.

    1976-10-01

    A complete substitution of iron for nickel was obtained by splat-cooling in amorphous alloys of composition (Ni/sub 100-y/Fe/sub y/) 79 P 13 B 8 . Results of high-field magnetization (up to 70 kOe), ac and dc low-field susceptibility, Curie temperature, and resistivity measurements over a temperature range of 1.7 to 300 0 K are reported. The Ni 79 P 13 B 8 alloy is not ferromagnetic, but the magnetization behavior as a function of field and temperature is typically that of alloys in the critical concentration range for ferromagnetism. The Fe 79 P 13 B 8 alloy is ferromagnetic with a Curie temperature T/sub c/ of 616 0 K. For y = 1 at. percent, the Fe atoms are magnetic. The variation of the moment per Fe atom as a function of y is discussed. When y is increased, the Ni atoms are likely to be polarized progressively and the moment per Ni atom would be roughly constant for y equal to or greater than 30 at. percent. Various magnetic behaviors were defined as a function of the Fe content. The value of T/sub c/ reaches a maximum for y similarly ordered 90 at. percent and extrapolates to zero for y similarly ordered 7 at. percent. Alloys within the range 1 equal to or less than y equal to or less than 10 at. percent did not exhibit well-defined Curie transition, but sharp maxima in low-field susceptibility measurements were observed at T/sub M/. The value of T/sub M/ is proportional to y for 1 equal to or less than y equal to or less than 4 at. percent, as in classical spin-glass regimes. For 4 less than y equal to or less than 10 at. percent, the variation of T/sub M/ as a function of y implies a more complicated type of magnetic ordering (micromagnetism or superparamagnetism). Homogeneous ferromagnetic ordering emerges only for y greater than 10 at. percent. Results of resistivity measurements are discussed in relation to the magnetic properties of different regimes in the magnetic phase diagram. 6 figures, 2 tables

  6. Alpha and beta stabilizer character of Al in Zr-Nb-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peruzzi Bardella, A.; Bolcich, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The T β/α+β of Zr5Nb and Zr5Nb2Al (weight %) were determined in order to observe the alpha-stabilizer character of Al in ternary Zr-Nb-Al alloys. Techniques employed were change of resistivity with temperature in dynamic experiences, and metallography of samples quenched to room temperature after isothermal annealings. The T β/α+β of the ternary resulted 17 ± 8 deg C higher than that of the binary alloy. In addition, taking into account the results of previous investigations of the transformation of beta on quenching Zr-Nb-Al alloys from the beta field to room temperature, it is concluded that the beta-stabilizer character of Nb is stronger than the alpha-stabilizer character of Al in these Zr alloys, and that the Al can have important influence on the mechanical properties by the appearance of TRIP effect. (Author) [es

  7. Method to increase the toughness of aluminum-lithium alloys at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Krishnan K. (Inventor); Sova, Brian J. (Inventor); Babel, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method to increase the toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 and similar alloys at cryogenic temperatures above their room temperature toughness is provided. Increasing the cryogenic toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 allows the use of alloy C458 for cryogenic tanks, for example for launch vehicles in the aerospace industry. A two-step aging treatment for alloy C458 is provided. A specific set of times and temperatures to age the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 to T8 temper is disclosed that results in a higher toughness at cryogenic temperatures compared to room temperature. The disclosed two-step aging treatment for alloy 458 can be easily practiced in the manufacturing process, does not involve impractical heating rates or durations, and does not degrade other material properties.

  8. Structural Investigation of Rapidly Quenched FeCoPtB Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabias, A.; Kopcewicz, M.; Latuch, J.; Oleszak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Two sets of Fe 52-x Co x Pt 28 B 20 (x = 0-26 at.%) and Fe 60-x Co x Pt 25 B 15 (x = 0-40 at.%) alloys were prepared in the form of ribbons by the rapid quenching technique. Structure of the samples was characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In the as-quenched alloys the amorphous phase coexisted with the fcc-(Fe,Co)Pt disordered solid solution. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements performed in the range 50-720 ± C revealed one or two exothermal peaks. The magnetically hard ordered L1 0 (Fe,Co)Pt and magnetically soft (Fe,Co) 2 B nanocrystalline phases were formed due to thermal treatment of the alloys. The influence of Co content on the structure of the as-quenched and heated alloys was studied. (authors)

  9. Fracture toughness evaluation of select advanced replacement alloys for LWR core internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chen, Xiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Life extension of the existing nuclear reactors imposes irradiation of high fluences to structural materials, resulting in significant challenges to the traditional reactor materials such as type 304 and 316 stainless steels. Advanced alloys with superior radiation resistance will increase safety margins, design flexibility, and economics for not only the life extension of the existing fleet but also new builds with advanced reactor designs. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) teamed up with Department of Energy (DOE) to initiate the Advanced Radiation Resistant Materials (ARRM) program, aiming to develop and test degradation resistant alloys from current commercial alloy specifications by 2021 to a new advanced alloy with superior degradation resistance in light water reactor (LWR)-relevant environments by 2024. Fracture toughness is one of the key engineering properties required for core internal materials. Together with other properties, which are being examined such as high-temperature steam oxidation resistance, radiation hardening, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking resistance, the alloys will be down-selected for neutron irradiation study and comprehensive post-irradiation examinations. According to the candidate alloys selected under the ARRM program, ductile fracture toughness of eight alloys was evaluated at room temperature and the LWR-relevant temperatures. The tested alloys include two ferritic alloys (Grade 92 and an oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloy 14YWT), two austenitic stainless steels (316L and 310), four Ni-base superalloys (718A, 725, 690, and X750). Alloy 316L and X750 are included as reference alloys for low- and high-strength alloys, respectively. Compact tension specimens in 0.25T and 0.2T were machined from the alloys in the T-L and R-L orientations according to the product forms of the alloys. This report summarizes the final results of the specimens tested and analyzed per ASTM Standard E1820. Unlike the

  10. C60H- an intermediate in the photochemical reduction of C60 fullerene with triethylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasko, A.; Brezova, V.; Neudeck, A.; Bartl, A.; Dunsch, L.

    1999-01-01

    The systematic investigations on the photo reduction of C 60 fullerene and its derivatives using triethylamine and TiO 2 donors, and also other techniques, verified the formation of C 60 .- . Formation of the mono-anion a narrow EPR line (pp A = 0.1 mT) was observed. During a continuous irradiation line A is replaced with line B having g B - 2.0006 and pp B = 0.04 mT which also vanished under prolonged irradiation. But lines A and B repeated after stopping irradiation. This unusual behaviour was re-investigated in analogous EPR-NIR experiments using now a rapid NIR spectrometer. The band at 996 nm was assigned to C 60 H - . The mechanism of C 60 H - formation is discussed

  11. Giant magnetocaloric effect from reverse martensitic transformation in Ni–Mn–Ga–Cu ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sudip Kumar; Sarita; Babu, P.D.; Biswas, Aniruddha; Siruguri, Vasudeva; Krishnan, Madangopal

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to produce Giant Magnetocaloric effect (GMCE) near room temperature, in a first ever such study, the austenite transformation temperature (A_s) was fine tuned to ferromagnetic Curie temperature (T_C) in Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys (FSMA) and a large GMCE of ΔSM = −81.8 J/Kg-K was achieved in Ni_5_0Mn_1_8_._5Cu_6_._5Ga_2_5 alloy during reverse martensitic transformation (heating cycle) for a magnetic field change of 9 T at 303 K. Fine tuning of A_s with T_C was achieved by Cu substitution in Ni_5_0Mn_2_5_−_xCu_xGa_2_5 (0 ≤ x ≤ 7.0)-based FSMAs. Characterizations of these alloys were carried out using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and DC magnetization measurements. Addition of Cu to stoichiometric Heusler type Ni_2MnGa increases the martensitic transformation temperatures and decreases T_C. Concurrently, ΔSM increases with Cu addition and peaks at 6.5 at% Cu for which there is a virtual overlap between T_C and A_s. Maximum Refrigerant Capacity (RCP) of 327.0 J/Kg was also achieved in the heating cycle for 9 T field change at 303 K. Corresponding values for the cooling cycle measurements (measured during forward transformation) were 30.4 J/Kg-K and 123.5 J/Kg respectively for the same 6.5 at% Cu sample under the same thermo-magnetic conditions. - Highlights: • A_s was fine tuned to T_C in Cu substituted Ni_5_0Mn_2_5_−_xCu_xGa_2_5 (0 ≤ x ≤ 7.0) alloys. • MT temperature increases with Cu addition while T_C decreases. • A virtual overlapping of A_s with T_C was found in Ni_5_0Mn_1_8_._5Cu_6_._5Ga_2_5 alloys. • ΔSM = −81.8 J/Kg-K achieved from reverse MT for Δ(μ_0H) = 9 T at 303 K. • A highest RCP value of 94.6 J/Kg was observed for Δ(μ_0H) = 5 T in Cu:6.5 alloys.

  12. Acoustic properties of TiNiMoFe base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunter, V.Eh.; Chernyshev, V.I.; Chekalkin, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    The regularity of changing the acoustic properties of the TiNi base alloys in dependence on the alloy composition and impact temperature is studied. It is shown that the oscillations of the TiNiMoFe base alloys within the temperature range of the B2 phase existence and possible appearance of the martensite under the load differ from the traditional materials oscillations. After excitation of spontaneous oscillations within the range of M f ≤ T ≤ M d there exists the area of long-term and low-amplitude low-frequency acoustic oscillations. It is established that free low-frequency oscillations of the TH-10 alloy sample are characterized by the low damping level in the given temperature range [ru

  13. Microstructures and Electrochemical Behavior of Ti-Mo Alloys for Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Back-Sub Sung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ti alloy with 7 wt% Mo revealed a microstructure that contained only the orthorhombic α′′ phase of a fine acicular martensitic structure. The corrosion resistance of the Ti-Mo alloys increased as the Mo content increased. Based on the results obtained from the polarization curve and electrochemical impedance, the Ti-Mo alloys were shown to be corrosion resistant because of the passive films formed on their surfaces. No ion release was detected in SBF (simulated body fluid solution, while Ti ions were released in 0.1% lactic acid ranging from 0.05 to 0.12 μg/mL for the Ti-Mo alloys. In vitro tests showed that MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation on Ti-7 wt% Mo alloy was rather active compared to other Ti-Mo alloys and commercial-grade pure Ti.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 aluminum alloys and austenitic stainless steel 304 after being exposed to hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, Nofrijon Bin Imam

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide used as a decontaminant agent on selected aircraft metallic materials has been investigated. The work is divided into three sections; bacterial attachment behavior onto an austenitic stainless steel 304 surface; effect of decontamination process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of aircraft metallic structural materials of two aluminum alloys, i.e. 2024-T3 and 7075-T6, and an austenitic stainless steel 304 as used in galley and lavatory surfaces; and copper dissolution rate into hydrogen peroxide. With respect to bacterial attachment, the results show that surface roughness plays a role in the attachment of bacteria onto metallic surfaces at certain extent. However, when the contact angle of the liquid on a surface increased to a certain degree, detachment of bacteria on that surface became more difficult. In its relation to the decontamination process, the results show that a corrosion site, especially on the austenitic stainless steel 304 weld and its surrounding HAZ area, needs more attention because it could become a source or a harborage of bio-contaminant agent after either incidental or intentional bio-contaminant delivery. On the effect of the decontamination process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of aircraft metallic structural materials, the results show that microstructural effects are both relatively small in magnitude and confined to a region immediately adjacent to the exposed surface. No systematic effect is found on the tensile properties of the three alloys under the conditions examined. The results of this investigation are promising with respect to the application of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide as a decontaminant agent to civilian aircraft, in that even under the most severe circumstances that could occur; only very limited damage was observed. The results from the dissolution of copper by concentrated liquid hydrogen peroxide showed that the rate of copper dissolution increased for

  15. In search of zero thermal expansion anisotropy in Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} by strategic alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmawardhana, C.C., E-mail: ccdxz8@mail.umkc.edu; Sakidja, R., E-mail: sakidjar@umkc.edu; Aryal, S.; Ching, W.Y.

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • For the first time, theoretical prediction of achieving isotropic thermal expansion anisotropy (TEA) for T1 phase Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} by alloying with a mere 17.5% Al substitution on the Si sites. Most effective alloying proposed for the said system up to date. • The theoretical approach is verified by simulating the experimentally observed unusual TEA behaviour for (Mo,V){sub 5}Si{sub 3} alloys as a function of percent alloying. • The 2nd order and 3rd order elastic constants we explain the origin of the TEA in T1 phase for Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} system and how Al effect in reducing the TEA. • We use directional dependent phonon density of state, a novel approach, to identify the origin of the anisotropy and show this method of analysis could be used for other intermetallic alloys as well. - Abstract: Reducing the thermal expansion anisotropy (TEA) of alloy compounds is one of the most important issues for their potential applications in high temperature environment. The Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} (T1 phase) is known to be an important intermetallic compound with high melting temperature. Unfortunately, its large TEA renders it unsuitable for high temperature structural/coating applications. Many attempts have been made in the past to reduce TEA by substituting Mo by other transition metal ions such as V with little success and some unexpected observations. Here we use accurate ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations to obtain the TEA from thermal expansion coefficients for two T1 phase alloy systems (Mo,V){sub 5}Si{sub 3} and Mo{sub 5}(Si,Al){sub 3}. We demonstrate that strategic alloying with Al substituting Si can achieve zero TEA for T1 phase. The microscopic origin of this outstanding thermomechanical properties in this alloy is explained by the calculation of higher order elastic constants in conjunction with atom and direction-resolved phonon density of states.

  16. Effects of biodegradable Mg–6Zn alloy extracts on apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhanhui; Yan Jun; Li Jianan; Zheng Qi; Wang Zhigang; Zhang Xiaonong; Zhang Shaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluated the effects of Mg–6Zn alloys on apoptosis of IEC-6 cells. ► The apoptosis was evaluated by investigating the expression of caspase-1 and Bcl-2. ► The IEC-6 cells displayed better cell functions in 60% or 20% extract. ► The conspicuous alkaline environment is disadvantageous to apoptosis of IEC cells. ► The excessive Mg concentration is disadvantageous to apoptosis of IEC-6 cells. - Abstract: In this study, intestinal epithelial cells (IEC)-6 were cultured in different concentration extracts of Mg–6Zn alloys for different time periods. To achieve a total of three concentrations (100%, 60% and 20% concentration), the extracts were serially diluted with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium High Glucose to observe a dose–response relationship. We studied the indirect effects of Mg–6Zn alloys on IEC-6 cells apoptosis. The apoptosis of IEC-6 cells was measured using flow cytometry. And the apoptosis of IEC-6 cells was evaluated by investigating the expression of caspase-1and Bcl-2 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting tests. It was found that the levels of apoptosis in IEC-6 cells cultured in 100% Mg–6Zn alloy extracts were significantly higher than those in 60% and 20% extracts; the 100% extract can down-regulate expression of Bcl-2 after culture. The in vitro results indicated that the conspicuous alkaline environment and excessive Mg concentration, even Zn concentration caused by rapid corrosion of Mg–6Zn alloys promote IEC-6 cells apoptosis, although further experiments will be necessary to formally prove our conclusions. Therefore, the adjustment of the degradation rate is needed for using Mg–Zn alloy as a surgical suture material.

  17. Powder metallurgical low-modulus Ti-Mg alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Kaiyang; Luo, Tao; Song, Min; Wu, Hong; Xiao, Jian; Tan, Yanni; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Bing; Niu, Xinrui; Hu, Rong; Li, Xiaohui; Tang, Huiping

    2015-11-01

    In this work, powder metallurgical (PM) Ti-Mg alloys were prepared using combined techniques of mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The alloys mainly consist of super saturations of Mg in Ti matrix, and some laminar structured Ti- and Mg-rich phases. The PM Ti-Mg alloys contain a homogeneous mixtures of nanocrystalline Mg and Ti phases. The novel microstructures result in unconventional mechanical and biological properties. It has been shown that the PM Ti-Mg alloys have a much lower compression modulus (36-50GPa) compared to other Ti alloys, but still remain a very high compressive strength (1500-1800MPa). In addition, the PM Ti-Mg alloys show good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Mg can dissolve in the simulated body fluids, and induce the formation of the calcium phosphate layer. The compression modulus of PM Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the amount of Mg, while the bioactivity increases. Although the corrosion resistance of Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the content of Mg, the alloys still show good stability in simulated body fluid under electrochemical conditions. The indirect and direct cytotoxicity results show that PM Ti-Mg alloys have a good biocompatibility to NIH-3T3 cells. Therefore, the PM Ti-Mg alloys are promising candidates in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigations on the Hot Stamping of AW-7921-T4 Alloy Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AW-7xxx alloys have been nowadays considered for greater light weighting potential in automotive industry due to its higher strength compared to AW-5xxx and AW-6xxx alloys. However, due to their lower formability the forming processes are still in development. This paper investigates one such forming process called hot stamping. The investigation started by carrying out hot tensile testing of an AW-7xxx alloy, that is, AW-7921 at temperatures between 350°C and 475°C, to measure the strength and formability. Formability was found to improve with increasing temperature and was sensitive to the strain rate. Dynamic recovery is considered as usual reason for the formability improvement. However, examining the precipitation states of the as-received condition and after hot stamping using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the dissolution of precipitates was also believed to contribute to this increase in formability. Following solution heat treatment there was no precipitation during cooling across the cooling rates investigated (5–10°C/s. Samples taken from parts hot stamped at 10 and 20 mm s−1 had similar yield strengths. A 3-step paint baking heat treatment yielded a higher postpaint baking strength than a single step treatment.

  19. Effect of Mn on microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr-V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhihao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performances of the Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr-V alloy, various amounts of Mn (0-0.9wt.% were added. The effect of this Mn on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr-V alloys in different states, especially after hot extrution and solid solution treatment, was systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and mechanical tests at room temperature. The results show that 0.2wt.% Mn can both refine the as-cast microstructure of the alloy and strengthen the extrusion+T6 state alloy without damaging the plasticity badly due to the formation of Al15(FeMn3Si2 and Al15Mn3Si2 dispersoids. Compared with the extrusion+T6 state alloy without Mn addition, the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the alloy with 0.2wt.% Mn addition are increased from 416.9 MPa to 431.4 MPa, 360.8 MPa to 372 MPa, respectively. The elongation of the extrusion+T6 state alloy does not show obvious change when the Mn addition is less than 0.5wt.%, and for the alloy with 0.2wt.% Mn addition its elongation is still as high as 15.6%. However, when over 0.7wt.% Mn is added to the alloy, some coarse, stable and refractory AlVMn and Al(VMnSi phases form. These coarse phases can reduce the effect of Mn on the inhibition of re-crystallization; and they retain the angular morphology permanently after the subsequent deformation process and heat treatment. This damages the mechanical properties of the alloy.

  20. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM) alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable high-strength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO 2 laser . This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloy, over the last years. (Author) 16 refs

  1. Characterization of BOR-60 Irradiated 14YWT-NFA1 Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aydogan, Eda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Matthew Estevan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Tobias J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Tubes of FCRD 14YWT-NFA1 Alloy were placed in the BOR-60 reactor and irradiated under a fast flux neutron environment to two conditions: 7 dpa at 360-370 °C and 6 dpa at 385-430 °C. Small sections of the tube were cut and sent to UC Berkeley for nanohardness testing and focused ion beam (FIB) milling of TEM specimens. FIB specimens were sent back to LANL for final FIB milling and TEM imaging. Hardness data and TEM images are presented in this report. This is the first fast reactor neutron irradiated information on the 14YWT-NFA1 alloy.

  2. Gibbs free energy difference between the undercooled liquid and the beta phase of a Ti-Cr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Holzer, J. C.; Johnson, W. L.

    1992-01-01

    The heat of fusion and the specific heats of the solid and liquid have been experimentally determined for a Ti60Cr40 alloy. The data are used to evaluate the Gibbs free energy difference, delta-G, between the liquid and the beta phase as a function of temperature to verify a reported spontaneous vitrification (SV) of the beta phase in Ti-Cr alloys. The results show that SV of an undistorted beta phase in the Ti60Cr40 alloy at 873 K is not feasible because delta-G is positive at the temperature. However, delta-G may become negative with additional excess free energy to the beta phase in the form of defects.

  3. Evaluation and comparison of castability between an indigenous and imported Ni-Cr alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: The Student t-test was used. Results: When the castability of alloys A and B was compared, the calculated value was less than the tabular value (1.171 < 2.048 leading to the conclusion that castability between alloys A and B is insignificant. Therefore we conclude that both the alloys have the same castability. Conclusions: Using the above-mentioned materials and following the method to test castability, we were able to derive favorable results. As the results were satisfactory, we can conclude that the castability of the indigenous alloy is on par with the imported alloy.

  4. Interaction of hydrogen with Pb83Li17 eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Taxak, Manju; Krishnamurthy, N.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid Metal blankets are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. Lead-lithium alloy appears to be promising for the use in self cooled breeding blanket, which has inherent simplicity with candidate material liquid lithium serving as both breeder and coolant. The crucial issues in case of lead lithium are the permeation loss of tritium (T) to the coolant and surroundings and the formation of new phase LiH/LiT, which eventually change the physical properties. Present investigation is based on the interaction process of hydrogen with the alloy and the relevant changes in physical properties. (author)

  5. Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Binary Amorphous Transition Metal Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Sy-Hwang

    The electrical, superconductive and magnetic properties of several binary transition metal amorphous and metastable crystalline alloys, Fe(,x)Ti(,100-x) (30 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 100), Fe(,x)Zr(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 93), Fe(,x)Hf(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 100), Fe(,x)Nb(,100 -x) (22 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 85), Ni(,x)Nb(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 80), Cu(,x)Nb(,100-x) (10 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 90) were studied over a wide composition range. Films were made using a magnetron sputtering system, and the structure of the films was investigated by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. The composition region of each amorphous alloys system was determined and found in good agreement with a model proposed by Egami and Waseda. The magnetic properties and hyperfine interactions in the films were investigated using a conventional Mossbauer spectrometer and a ('57)Co in Rh matrix source. In all Fe-early transition metal binary alloys systems, Fe does not retain its moment in the low iron concentration region and the result is that the critical concentration for magnetic order (x(,c)) is much larger than anticipated from percolation considerations. A direct comparison between crystalline alloys and their amorphous counterparts of the same composition illustrate no clear correlation between crystalline and amorphous states. Pronounced discontinuities in the magnetic properties with variation in Fe content of all Fe-early transition metal alloys at phase boundaries separating amorphous and crystalline states have been observed. This is caused by the differences in the atomic arrangement and the electronic structure between crystalline and amorphous solids. The temperature dependence of resistivity, (rho)(T), of several binary amorphous alloys of Fe-TM (where TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb etc.) has been studied from 2K to 300K. The Fe-poor (x x(,c)) samples have distinctive differences in (rho)(T) at low temperature (below 30K). All the magnetic samples

  6. Microstructure-modified biodegradable magnesium alloy for promoting cytocompatibility and wound healing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Da-Jun; Hung, Fei-Yi; Yeh, Ming-Long; Lui, Truan-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure of biomedical magnesium alloys has great influence on anti-corrosion performance and biocompatibility. In practical application and for the purpose of microstructure modification, heat treatments were chosen to provide widely varying microstructures. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of the microstructural parameters of an Al-free Mg-Zn-Zr alloy (ZK60), and the corresponding heat-treatment-modified microstructures on the resultant corrosion resistance and biological performance. Significant enhancement in corrosion resistance was obtained in Al-free Mg-Zn-Zr alloy (ZK60) through 400 °C solid-solution heat treatment. It was found that the optimal condition of solid-solution treatment homogenized the matrix and eliminated internal defects; after which, the problem of unfavorable corrosion behavior was improved. Further, it was also found that the Mg ion-release concentration from the modified ZK60 significantly induced the cellular activity of fibroblast cells, revealing in high viability value and migration ability. The experimental evidence suggests that this system can further accelerate wound healing. From the perspective of specific biomedical applications, this research result suggests that the heat treatment should be applied in order to improve the biological performance.

  7. Influence of the Aluminium Alloy Type on Defects Formation in Friction Stir Lap Welding of Thin Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The weldability in Friction Stir Lap Welding (FSLW of heat and non-heat treatable aluminium alloys, the AA6082-T6 and the AA5754-H22 aluminium alloys, respectively, are compared. For both alloys, welds were produced in very thin sheets, using the same welding parameters and procedures, and strong differences in welds morphology were found. The strength of the welds was evaluated by performing tensile-shear tests under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. As-welded and heat-treated samples of the AA6082- T6 were tested. It was found that the heat-treatable alloy is more sensitive to defects formation, in lap welding, than the non-heat-treatable alloy. The presence of defects has a strong influence on the monotonic and fatigue behaviour of the welds. In spite of this, for very high-applied stresses, the heat-treatable alloy welds perform better in fatigue than the non-heat-treatable alloy welds.

  8. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions

  9. Internal stress relaxation and load redistribution during the twinning-detwinning-dominated cyclic deformation of a wrought magnesium alloy, ZK60A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L.; Agnew, S.R.; Brown, D.W.; Stoica, G.M.; Clausen, B.; Jain, A.; Fielden, D.E.; Liaw, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the internal strain (stress) evolution during cyclic deformation dominated by {101-bar2} twinning and detwinning mechanisms within a magnesium alloy, ZK60A, was conducted using in situ neutron diffraction. It is shown that once the matrix grains twin, the (00.2) matrix and twin grains are relaxed relative to the neighbors. This load redistribution between the soft- and hard-grain orientations is a result of plastic anisotropy. The twins which formed during the initial compression sustain a tensile stress along the c-axis, when the applied compressive stress is less than ∼80 MPa upon unloading. This local (intergranular) tensile stress is hypothesized to be effective for driving the detwinning event under a macroscopic compressive field along the c-axis. The activation stresses, 15 and 6 MPa, respectively, for the {101-bar2} extension twinning and detwinning, are approximated, based on the relaxation of the internal stresses in the matrix and twin grains

  10. Characteristics of MAO coating obtained on ZK60 Mg alloy under two and three steps voltage-increasing modes in dual electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Ze-Xin; Lu, Sheng; Lv, Wei-gang; Jiang, Xi-zhi; Sun, Lei

    2017-03-01

    The micro-arc oxidation process was conducted on ZK60 Mg alloy under two and three steps voltage-increasing modes by DC pulse electrical source. The effect of each mode on current-time responses during MAO process and the coating characteristic were analysed and discussed systematically. The microstructure, thickness and corrosion resistance of MAO coatings were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), microscope with super-depth of field and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results indicate that two and three steps voltage-increasing modes can improve weak spark discharges with insufficient breakdown strength in later period during the MAO process. Due to higher value of voltage and voltage increment, the coating with maximum thickness of about 20.20μm formed under two steps voltage-increasing mode shows the best corrosion resistance. In addition, the coating fabricated under three steps voltage-increasing mode shows a smoother coating with better corrosion resistance due to the lower amplitude of voltage-increasing.

  11. The crystal structure and electronic properties of a new metastable non-stoichiometric BaAl{sub 4}-type compound crystallized from amorphous La{sub 6}Ni{sub 34}Ge{sub 60} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Masashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Katahira 980-8577 (Japan); Suzuki, Shoichiro [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Katahira 980-8577 (Japan); Ohsuna, Tetsu [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Katahira 980-8577 (Japan); Matsubara, Eiichiro [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Katahira 980-8577 (Japan); Endo, Satoshi [Center for Low Temperature Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Katahira 980-8577 (Japan); Inoue, Akihisa [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Katahira 980-8577 (Japan)

    2004-11-17

    A new metastable La-Ge-Ni ternary BaAl{sub 4}-type (ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type) compound, of which the space group is I4/mmm is synthesized. It is obtained by a polymorphic transformation from an La{sub 6}Ni{sub 34}Ge{sub 60} amorphous alloy on crystallizing. The formula of the compound is (La{sub 0.3}Ge{sub 0.7})(Ni{sub 0.85}Ge{sub 0.15}){sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. This indicates that it is highly non-stoichiometric compared to the stoichiometric LaNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. It is found that the c-axis lattice parameter of this compound is much longer than that of LaNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. It should be noted that the longer c-axis unit cell parameter is attributable only to the longer interlayer distance between Ge site and Ni site layers. The temperature dependences of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of the (La{sub 0.3}Ge{sub 0.7})(Ni{sub 0.85}Ge{sub 0.15}){sub 2}Ge{sub 2} compound and La{sub 6}Ni{sub 34}Ge{sub 60} amorphous alloy are also clarified. The comparison of these electronic properties between the two materials indicates that sp-electrons mainly contribute to the density of states around the Fermi level of this compound.

  12. Effect of T6 heat treatment on tensile strength of EN AB-48000 alloy modified with strontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Among alloys of non-ferrous metals, aluminum alloys have found their broadest application in foundry industry. Silumins are widely used in automotive, aviation and shipbuilding industries; as having specific gravity nearly three times lower than specific gravity of cast iron. The silumins can be characterized by high mechanical properties. To upgrade mechanical properties of a castings made from silumins one makes use of heat treatment, what leads to change of their structure and advantageously affects on mechanical properties of the silumins. In the paper are presented test results concerning effect of dispersion hardening on change of tensile strength of EN AB-48000 silumin modified with strontium. Investigated alloy was melted in electric resistance furnace. Temperature ranges of solution heat treatment and ageing heat treatment were selected on base of curves from ATD method, recorded for refined alloy and for modified alloy. The heat treatment resulted in change of Rm tensile strength, while performed investigations have enabled determination of temperatures and durations of solution heat treatment and ageing heat treatment, which precondition obtainment of the best tensile strength Rm of the investigated alloy.

  13. Facile synthesis of dendritic Cu by electroless reaction of Cu-Al alloys in multiphase solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Shuhua, E-mail: liangxaut@gmail.com; Yang, Qing; Wang, Xianhui

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic copper (FDC) was synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in CuCl{sub 2} + HCl. • FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl{sub 2} + HCl solution. • Nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O was found at the edge of FDC. Nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained by using Cu{sub 17}Al{sub 83} alloy. • The potential difference between CuAl{sub 2} and α-Al phase and the replacement reaction in multiphase solution are key factors. - Abstract: Two-dimensional nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic coppers (FDCs) were synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in hydrochloric acid solution containing copper chloride without any assistance of template or surfactant. The FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl{sub 2} + HCl solution. Compared to Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 60} and Cu{sub 45}Al{sub 55} alloys, the FDC shows hierarchical distribution and homogeneous structures using Cu{sub 17}Al{sub 83} alloy as the starting alloy. The growth direction of the FDC is <110>, and all angles between the trunks and branches are 60°. Nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O was found at the edge of FDC. Interestingly, nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained through Cu{sub 17}Al{sub 83} alloy. Studies showed that the formation of FDC depended on two key factors: the potential difference between CuAl{sub 2} intermetallic and α-Al phase of dual-phase Cu-Al alloys; a replacement reaction that usually occurs in multiphase solution. The electrochemical experiment further proved that the multi-branch dendritic structure is very beneficial to the proton transfer in the process of catalyzing methanol.

  14. Survey research report by the hydrogen occluding alloy utilization development committee; Suiso kyuzo gokin riyo kaihatsu iinkai chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 1984 survey research results, issued by the hydrogen occluding alloy utilization development committee. The basic property subcommittee is responsible for collecting published data related to the basic properties of metal halides as much as possible, and pigeonholing them to have the data which can contribute to development of the new alloys for basic researches and engineering applications of hydrogen occluding alloys. The subcommittee members have collected these data. The common theme subcommittee has planned to collect the P-C-T diagrams of the hydrogen occluding alloys and new alloys as much as possible, for the designs, development, production and system designs of the hydrogen occluding alloys. The P-C-T diagrams have been collected for a total of 340 types of alloys, which fall into the broad categories of Mg-based, TiFe-based, TiMn-based, other Ti-based, rare-earth-based, Zr-based, Ca-based and others. The analytical methods have been also investigated while collecting P-C-T diagrams. (NEDO)

  15. Relaxation and corrosion resistance of alloy 800 used for steam generator tubes of ship borne boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrieu, J.M.; Cortial, F.; Maillard, J.L.; Vernot-Loier, C.; Lebeau, M.

    1994-01-01

    The INCO ''INCOLOY 800'' trademark groups the Fe-Cr-Ni alloys containing 30 to 35% nickel, 19 to 23% chromium, 0,15 to 0,60% aluminium, 0,15 to 0,60% titanium and less than 0,10% carbon contents, used as construction materials for condenser and heat exchanger tubes. In parallel with water chemistry control and studies aimed at reducing the residual stresses resulting from tube expansion, studies have been conducted to a better understanding of this alloy, its metallurgy and its corrosion behaviour under accurately defined fabrication and heat treatment conditions. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a behaviour study of INDRET alloy 800 concerning isothermal relaxation and effects of the said relaxation heat treatments on alloy microstructure studied with a transmission electron-chemical method to determine the sensitiveness to intergranular corrosion, and by electrochemistry in pressurized hot water. (authors). 4 figs., 5 tabs., 7 refs

  16. Irradiation Stability of Uranium Alloys at High Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    Postirradiation examinations were begun of a series of unrestrained dilute uranium alloy specimens irradiated to exposures up to 13,000 MWD/T in NaK-containing stainless steel capsules. This test, part of a program of development of uranium metal fuels for desalination and power reactors sponsored by the Division of Reactor Development and Technology, has the objective of defining the temperature and exposure limits of swelling resistance of the alloyed uranium. This paper discusses those test results

  17. Study crevice corrosion alloys C-22 and 625 by electrochemical noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungaro, María L.; Carranza, Ricardo M.; Rodríguez, Martín A.

    2013-01-01

    C-22 and 625 alloys are two of the Ni –Cr-Mo alloys considered as candidate materials to form the corrosion resistance engineered barriers for nuclear waste repositories. The corrosion resistance of these alloys is remarkable in a wide variety of environments. Despite of their resistance these alloys are susceptible to crevice corrosion in a certain aggressive environments. This work presents the use of electrochemical noise technique to study crevice corrosion susceptibility of alloys C-22 and 625 in 1M NaCl acidic solutions at 60ºC and 90ºC. Asymmetrical electrodes and a complementary platinum electrode were used to assess the influence of cathodic reaction in crevice process. The obtained records were analyzed directly and through statistical parameters. The potential drop and the simultaneous increment of the current records indicated the occurrence of crevice corrosion. The alternative use of a platinum electrode resulted in higher currents and higher potentials and reduced the induction time to crevice formation. The reason for this behavior is that platinum surface allows faster cathodic reactions than C-22 and 625 alloys. The standard deviation of the current records was responsive to the crevice corrosion intensity. C-22 alloy had better crevice corrosion performance than 625 alloy. (author)

  18. SU-F-T-28: Evaluation of BEBIG HDR Co-60 After-Loading System for Skin Cancer Treatment Using Conical Surface Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W Y [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Meigooni, A S [Department of Radiation Therapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Han, D [Departemt of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the possibility of utilizing the BEBIG HDR 60Co remote after-loading system for malignant skin surface treatment using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique. Methods: First TG-43 parameters of BEBIG-Co-60 and Nucletron Ir-192-mHDR-V2 brachytherapy sources were simulated using MCNP6 code to benchmark the sources against the literature. Second a conical tungsten-alloy with 3-cm diameter of Planning-Target-Volume (PTV) at surface for use with a single stepping HDR source is designed. The HDR source is modeled parallel to treatment plane at the center of the conical applicator with a source surface distance (SSD) of 1.5-cm and a removable plastic end-cap with a 1-mm thickness. Third, MC calculated dose distributions from HDR Co-60 for conical surface applicator were compared with the simulated data using HDR Ir-192 source. The initial calculations were made with the same conical surface applicator (standard-applicator) dimensions as the ones used with the Ir-192 system. Fourth, the applicator wall-thickness for the Co-60 system was increased (doubled) to diminish leakage dose to levels received when using the Ir-192 system. With this geometry, percentage depth dose (PDD), and relative 2D-dose profiles in transverse/coronal planes were normalized at 3-mm prescription-depth evaluated along the central axis. Results: PDD for Ir-192 and Co-60 were similar with standard and thick-walled applicator. 2D-relative dose distribution of Co-60, inside the standard-conical-applicator, generated higher penumbra (7.6%). For thick-walled applicator, it created smaller penumbra (<4%) compared to Ir-192 source in the standard-conicalapplicator. Dose leakage outside of thick-walled applicator with Co-60 source was approximately equal (≤3%) with standard applicator using Ir-192 source. Conclusion: Skin cancer treatment with equal quality can be performed with Co-60 source and thick-walled conical applicators instead of Ir-192 with standard applicators. These conical

  19. Electrical resistivity in Zr48Nb8Cu12Fe8Be24 glassy and crystallized alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, H. Y.; Tong, C. Z.; Zheng, P.

    2004-02-01

    The electrical resistivity of Zr48Nb8Cu12Fe8Be24 bulk metallic glassy and crystallized alloys in the temperature range of 4.2-293 K is investigated. It is found that the resistivity in glassy and crystallized states shows opposite temperature coefficients. For the metallic glass, the resistivity shows a negative logarithmic dependence at temperatures below 16 K, whereas it has more normal behavior for the crystallized alloy. At higher temperatures, the resistivity in both glassy and crystallized alloys shows dependence upon both T and T2, but the signs of the T and T2 terms are opposite. The results are interpreted in terms of scattering from two-level tunneling states in glasses and the generalized Ziman diffraction model.

  20. The thermodynamic stability induced by solute co-segregation in nanocrystalline ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Tao; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Jinyong; Zhang, Ping [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mateial Science and Engineering; Yang, Xiaoqin [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2017-06-15

    The grain growth and thermodynamic stability induced by solute co-segregation in ternary alloys are presented. Grain growth behavior of the single-phase supersaturated grains prepared in Ni-Fe-Pb alloy melt at different undercoolings was investigated by performing isothermal annealings at T = 400 C-800 C. Combining the multicomponent Gibbs adsorption equation and Guttmann's grain boundary segregation model, an empirical relation for isothermal grain growth was derived. By application of the model to grain growth in Ni-Fe-Pb, Fe-Cr-Zr and Fe-Ni-Zr alloys, it was predicted that driving grain boundary energy to zero is possible in alloys due to the co-segregation induced by the interactive effect between the solutes Fe/Pb, Zr/Ni and Zr/Cr. A non-linear relationship rather than a simple linear relation between 1/D* (D* the metastable equilibrium grain size) and ln(T) was predicted due to the interactive effect.

  1. Electrochemical, Polarization, and Crevice Corrosion Testing of Nitinol 60, A Supplement to the ECLSS Sustaining Materials Compatibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    In earlier trials, electrochemical test results were presented for six noble metals evaluated in test solutions representative of waste liquids processed in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Subsequently, a seventh metal, Nitinol 60, was added for evaluation and subjected to the same test routines, data analysis, and theoretical methodologies. The previous six test metals included three titanium grades, (commercially pure, 6Al-4V alloy and 6Al-4V low interstitial alloy), two nickel-chromium alloys (Inconel(RegisteredTrademark) 625 and Hastelloy(RegisteredTrademark) C276), and one high-tier stainless steel (Cronidur(RegisteredTrademark) 30). The three titanium alloys gave the best results of all the metals, indicating superior corrosive nobility and galvanic protection properties. For this current effort, the results have clearly shown that Nitinol 60 is almost as noble as titanium, being very corrosion-resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals electrochemically and during long-term exposure. is also quite noble as it is very corrosion resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals from both an electrochemical perspective and long-term crevice corrosion scenario. This was clearly demonstrated utilizing the same techniques for linear, Tafel and cyclic polarization, and galvanic coupling of the metal candidate as was done for the previous study. The high nobility and low corrosion susceptibility for Nitinol 60 appear to be intermediate to the nickel/chromium alloys and the titanium metals with indications that are more reflective of the titanium metals in terms of general corrosion and pitting behavior.

  2. Effects of Zr alloying on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Alnico permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sajjad Ur; Ahmad, Zubair; Haq, A. ul; Akhtar, Saleem

    2017-11-01

    Alnico-8 permanent magnets were produced through casting and subsequent thermal treatment process. Magnetic alloy of nominal composition 32.5 Fe-7.5 Al-1.0 Nb-35.0 Co-4.0 Cu-14.0 Ni-6.0 Ti were prepared by arc melting and casting technique. The Zr was added to 32.5 Fe-7.5 Al-1.0 Nb-35.0 Co-4.0 Cu-14.0 Ni-6.0 Ti alloy ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 wt%. The magnets were developed by employing two different heat treatment cycles known as conventional treatment and thermo-magnetic annealing treatment. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction method, Scanning electron microscope and magnetometer by plotting magnetic hysteresis demagnetization curves. The results indicate that magnetic properties are strongly depended upon alloy chemistry and process. The 0.6 wt% Zr added alloys yielded the best magnetic properties among the studied alloys. The magnetic properties obtained through conventional heat treatment are Hc = 1.35 kOe, Br = 5.2 kG and (BH)max = 2 MGOe. These magnetic properties were enhanced to Hc = 1.64 kOe, Br = 6.3 kG and (BH)max = 3.7 MGOe by thermo-magnetic annealing treatment.

  3. Corrosion assessment and enhanced biocompatibility analysis of biodegradable magnesium-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, Luis Enrique

    Magnesium alloys have raised immense interest to many researchers because of its evolution as a new third generation material. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium based alloys experience a natural phenomena to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosive activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, major concerns with such alloys are fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of an implant. In this investigation, three grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS.

  4. Fatigue Characteristics of Selected Light Metal Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśla M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses results of fatigue testing of light metal alloys used in the automotive as well as aerospace and aviation industries, among others. The material subject to testing comprised hot-worked rods made of the AZ31 alloy, the Ti-6Al-4V two-phase titanium alloy and the 2017A (T451 aluminium alloy. Both low- and high-cycle fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature on the cycle asymmetry ratio of R=-1. The low-cycle fatigue tests were performed using the MTS-810 machine on two levels of total strain, i.e.Δεc= 1.0% and 1.2%. The high-cycle fatigue tests, on the other hand, were performed using a machine from VEB Werkstoffprufmaschinen-Leipzig under conditions of rotary bending. Based on the results thus obtained, one could develop fatigue life characteristics of the materials examined (expressed as the number of cycles until failure of sample Nf as well as characteristics of cyclic material strain σa=f(N under the conditions of low-cycle fatigue testing. The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was found to be characterised by the highest value of fatigue life Nf, both in lowand high-cycle tests. The lowest fatigue life, on the other hand, was established for the aluminium alloys examined. Under the high-cycle fatigue tests, the life of the 2017A aluminium and the AZ31 magnesium alloy studied was determined by the value of stress amplitude σa. With the stress exceeding 150 MPa, it was the aluminium alloy which displayed higher fatigue life, whereas the magnesium alloy proved better on lower stress.

  5. Structure and magnetic properties of nanostructured MnNi alloys fabricated by mechanical alloying and annealing treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, T.; Hossein Nedjad, S.; Khalili Molan, S.

    2013-05-01

    A nearly equiatomic MnNi alloy was fabricated from the elemental powders by means of mechanical alloying in a planetary ball milling apparatus. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and measurements of magnetization were conducted to identify the structural states and properties of the prepared alloys. After ball milling for 20 h, a disordered face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) solid solution was formed which increased in lattice parameter by further milling up to 50 h. An exothermic reaction took place at around 300-400°C during continuous heating of the disordered f.c.c. solid solution. This reaction is attributed to a structural ordering leading to the formation of a face-centered tetragonal (f.c.t.) phase with L10 type ordering. Examination of the magnetic properties indicated that the structural ordering increases remnant magnetization and decreases coerecivity.

  6. Structural and magnetic study of mechanically deformed Fe rich FeAlSi ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarra, E.; Apiñaniz, E.; Plazaola, F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Addition of Si to binary Fe–Al alloys makes the disordering more difficult. ► Si addition opposes the large volume increase found in FeAl alloys with deformation. ► Disordering induces a redistribution of non-ferrous atoms around Fe atoms in Fe 75 Al 25−x Si x and Fe 70 Al 30−x Si x . ► Addition of Si to binary Fe 75 Al 25 and Fe 70 Al 30 alloys opposes the magnetic behavior induced by Al in the magnetism of Fe. ► Si inhibits the para-ferro transition found in Fe 60 Al 40 alloy with disordering. - Abstract: In this work we study systematically the influence of different Al/Si ratios on the magnetic and structural properties of mechanically disordered powder Fe 75 Al 25−x Si x , Fe 70 Al 30−x Si x and Fe 60 Al 40−x Si x alloys by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. In order to obtain different stages of disorder the alloys were deformed by different methods: crushing induction melted alloys and ball milling annealed (ordered) alloys using different number of balls and speed. X-ray and Mössbauer data show that mechanical deformation induces the disordered A2 structure in these alloys. The results indicate that addition of Si to binary Fe–Al alloys makes the disordering more difficult. In addition, X-ray diffraction patterns show that the normalized lattice parameter variation of the disordered alloys of each composition decreases monotonically with Si content, indicating clearly that Si addition opposes the large volume increase found in FeAl alloys with deformation. The study of the hyperfine fields indicates that there is a redistribution of non-ferrous atoms around Fe atoms with the disordering; indeed, there is an inversion of the behavior of the hyperfine field of the Fe atoms. On the other hand, the magnetic measurements indicate that addition of Si to binary Fe 75 Al 25 and Fe 70 Al 30 alloys opposes the magnetic behavior induced by Al in the magnetism of Fe.

  7. Structure and mechanical properties of nanostructured Al-0.3%Cu alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakeel, Aneela; Huang, Tianlin; Wu, Guilin

    2014-01-01

    An Al-0.3%Cu alloy has been produced using extremely high purity (99.9996%) Al and OFHC Cu.The alloy was cold rolled to 98% thickness reduction, forming a stable lamellar structure that has a lamellar boundary spacing of about 200nm and a tensile strength of 225MPa. During recovery annealing at t...

  8. Study of the glass forming ability of Cu{sub 60}Zr{sub 32,5}Ti{sub 7,5} alloy by molecular dynamics; Formacao de fase amorfa na liga Cu{sub 60}Zr{sub 32,5}Ti{sub 7,5} por dinamica molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimidt, C.S.; Lima, L.V.; Bastos, I.N.; Aliaga, L.C.R., E-mail: camilaschimidt17@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    This article presents the results of molecular dynamics simulation of Cu{sub 60}Zr{sub 32.5}Ti{sub 7.5} alloy through the open source code LAMMPS. Amorphous samples were produced by quenching the metallic molten from 2300K to 200K at cooling rates of 50, 5 and 0.5K/ps. The pair distribution functions of both the liquid and solid were calculated and compared at different temperatures. The topology of short-range order was analyzed using the Voronoi tessellation method, which determined the presence of Cu-centered icosahedral clusters as the prevailing in the amorphous state at 300K. Moreover, the sample was submitted to uniaxial tensile tests at strain rate of 10ps{sup -1}, in order to investigate the mechanical behavior of the metallic glass. The result of the stress-strain curve showed that applied loads lead to the plastic regime. However, the presences of shear bands, typical in the experimental testing, were not observed. Moreover, the evolution of the viscosity above the glass transition temperature and the fragility of the alloy were determined. The solidus and liquidus temperatures were determined and a good agreement with experimental data was found. (author)

  9. Deformation behaviour of a new magnesium ternary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, P.; Kaya, A. Arslan; Sorgente, D.; Palumbo, G.

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium based alloys are yet to fill a greater niche especially in the automotive and aeronautical industry. In fact, such alloys have a big weight saving potential, together with good damping characteristics. However, nowadays about 90% of Magnesium products are produced by casting, mainly using two alloy systems, namely Mg-Al-Zn (AZ91D) and Mg-Al (AM50, AM60). Now the emphasis, especially after having achieved considerable success in creep resistance and understanding of the deformation behaviour of Magnesium, has been shifted towards wrought alloys; AZ31, in this case, is the most popular. In this work a multi-element Magnesium alloy, developed to improve the deformation capacity of such a lightweight material, has been investigated and compared to a commercial AZ31B. The possibility of adopting such a multi-element Magnesium alloy for manufacturing components via unconventional sheet forming (such as superplastic forming, warm hydroforming, incremental forming) has been proved in the present work focusing the attention on the superplastic field. Free inflation tests were thus conducted at 450°C setting constant pressure to investigate the superplastic behaviour (in terms of dome height and strain rate sensitivity index) of both the multi-element Magnesium alloy (Mg-2Zn-Ce) and the commercial one (AZ31B). To enhance information on the thickness distribution and investigate the microstructure evolution, metallographic analyses on the samples used to carry out free inflation tests were also performed. The developed ternary alloy manifested quite a good deformation behaviour (high strain rate sensitivity index), even being tested in the as cast condition; in addition a limited grain coarsening was observed in the specimens after deformation.

  10. Experimental investigation of hardness of FSW and TIG joints of Aluminium alloys of AA7075 and AA6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports hardness testing conducted on welded butt joints by FSW and TIG welding process on similar and dissimilar aluminium alloys. FSW joints were produced for similar alloys of AA7075T651 and dissimilar alloys of AA7075T651- AA6061T6. The Friction stir welds of AA7075 & AA6061 aluminium alloy were produced at different tool rotational speeds of 650,700, 800, 900, 1000 and transverse speed of 30, 35, 40 mm/min. TIG welding was conducted along the rolling direction of similar and dissimilar aluminium plates. The Brinell hardness testing techniques were employed to conduct the tests; these tests were conducted on the welds to ascertain the joint integrity before characterization to have an idea of the quality of the welds

  11. Effects of Al-Mn-Ti-P-Cu master alloy on microstructure and properties of Al-25Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chunxiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a higher microstructural refining efficiency, and improve the properties and processing ability of hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy, a new environmentally friendly Al-20.6Mn-12Ti-0.9P-6.1Cu (by wt.% master alloy was fabricated; and its modification and strengthening mechanisms on the Al-25Si alloy were studied. The mechanical properties of the unmodified, modified and heat treated alloys were investigated. Results show that the optimal addition amount of the Al-20.6Mn-12Ti-0.9P-6.1Cu master alloy is 4wt.%. In this case, primary Si and eutectic Si as well as メ-Al phase were clearly refined, and this refining effect shows an excellent long residual action as it can be heat-retained for at least 5 h. After being T6 heat treated, the morphology of primary and eutectic Si in the Al-25Si alloys with the addition of 4wt.% Al-20.6Mn-12Ti-0.9P-6.1Cu alloy changes into particles and short rods. The average grain size of the primary and eutectic Si decreases from 250 レm (unmodified to 13.83 レm and 35 レm (unmodified to 7 レm; the メ-Al becomes obviously finer and the distribution of Si phases tends to be uniform and dispersed. Meanwhile, the tensile properties are improved obviously; the tensile strengths at room temperature and 300 ìC reach 241 MPa and 127 MPa, increased by 153.7% and 67.1%, respectively. In addition, the tensile fracture mechanism changes from brittle fracture for the alloy without modification to ductile fracture after modification. Modifying the morphology of Si phase and strengthening the matrix can effectively block the initiation and propagation of cracks, thus improving the strength of the hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy.

  12. Effect of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaraj, P.; Kanagarajan, D.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of post weld heat treatments, namely artificial ageing and solution treatment followed by artificial ageing, on microstructure and mechanical properties of 12 mm thick friction stir welded joints of precipitation hardenable high strength armour grade AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy. The tensile properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and notch tensile strength, are evaluated and correlated with the microhardness and microstructural features....

  13. Thermal efficiency on welding of AA6061-T6 alloy by modified indirect electric arc and current signals digitalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, R. R.; Barrera, G.; Garcia, R.; Lopez, V. H.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the thermal efficiency on welding by modified indirect electric arc technique (MIEA) [1] of the 6061- T6 aluminum alloy are presented. These values are in a range of 90 to 94 %, which depend of the preheating employed. Thermal efficiency was obtained by means of a balance energy which considers the heat input, the amount of melted mass of the welding profiles, and welding parameters during the joining, especially of the arc current data acquisition. Also, some dimensionless parameters were employed in order to determine the approximation grade of the melted pool, the heat affected zone (HAZ), and their corresponding values with the experimental results. (Author) 13 refs

  14. The effect of solution annealing on properties of steel Nitronic 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gigović-Gekić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitronic 60 (UNS S21800 is a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel. This steel provides exceptional wear and galling resistance as well as a high temperature corrosion resistance. Increasing strength of Nitronic 60 is obtained by cold deformation. A solution annealing is necessary to achieve a complete austenitic microstructure without the presence of precipitates in the matrix. This paper describes determination of the appropriate heat treatment to obtain austenitic microstructure with a minimum consumption of time and energy.

  15. Vibrational entropies in metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Wolverton, Christopher

    2000-03-01

    Recently, it has been recognized that vibrational entropy can have significant effects on the phase stability of metallic alloys. Using density functional linear response calculations and molecular dynamics simulations we study three representative cases: (i) phase diagram of Al-rich Al-Sc alloys, (ii) stability of precipitate phases in CuAl_2, and (iii) phonon dynamics in bcc Zr. We find large vibrational entropy effects in all cases. In the Al-Sc system, vibrations increase the solid solubility of Sc in Al by decreasing the stability of the L12 (Al_3Sc) phase. This leads to a nearly ten-fold increase in the solid solubility of Sc in Al at T=800 K. In the Cu-Al system, our calculations predict that the tetragonal Laves phase of CuAl2 has 0.35 kB/atom higher vibrational entropy than the cubic CaF_2-type phase (the latter is predicted to be the T=0 K ground state of CuAl_2). This entropy difference causes a structural transformation in CuAl2 precipitates from the fluorite to the tetragonal Laves phase around T=500 K. Finally, we analyze the highly unusual dynamics of anharmonically stabilized bcc Zr, finding large diffuse-scattering intensity streaks between the bcc Bragg peaks.

  16. Characterization of age-hardening behavior of eutectic region in squeeze-cast A356-T5 alloy using nanoindenter and atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, S.W. [Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan)]. E-mail: youn.sung-won@aist.go.jp; Kang, C.G. [National Laboratory of Thixo/Rheo Forming, School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cgkang@pusan.ac.kr

    2006-06-15

    The nano/microstructure, the aging response (in T5 heat treatment), and the mechanical/tribological properties of the eutectic regions in squeeze-cast A356 alloy parts were investigated using nano/micro-indentation and mechanical scratching, combined with optical microscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). Most eutectic Si crystals in the A356 alloy showed a modified morphology as fine-fibers. The loading curve for the eutectic region was more irregular than that of the primary Al region due to the presence of various particles of varying strength. In addition, the eutectic region showed lower pile-up and higher elastic recovery than the primary Al region. The aging responses of the eutectic regions in the squeeze-cast A356 alloys aged at 150 deg. C for different times (0, 2, 4, 8, 10, 16, 24, 36, and 72 h) were investigated. As the aging time increased, acicular Si particles in the eutectic regions gradually came to a fine structure. Both Vickers hardness (H {sub V}) and indentation (H {sub IT}) test results showed almost the same trend of aging curves, and the peak was obtained at the same aging time of 10 h. A remarkable size-dependence of the tests was found. The friction coefficient for the eutectic region was lower than that for the primary Al region.

  17. Hot forging of roll-cast high aluminum content magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Tomohiro; Watari, Hisaki; Suzuki, Mayumi; Haga, Toshio

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on hot forging of high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using horizontal twin-roll casting. AZ111 and AZ131 were applied for twin-roll casting, and a hot-forging test was performed to manufacture high-strength magnesium alloy components economically. For twin-roll casting, the casting conditions of a thick sheet for hot forging were investigated. It was found that twin-roll casting of a 10mm-thick magnesium alloy sheet was possible at a roll speed of 2.5m/min. The grain size of the cast strip was 50 to 70µm. In the hot-forging test, blank material was obtained from as-cast strip. A servo press machine with a servo die cushion was used to investigate appropriate forging conditions (e.g., temperature, forging load, and back pressure) for twin-roll casts (TRCs) AZ111 and AZ131. It was determined that high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using twin-roll casting could be forged with a forging load of 150t and a back pressure of 3t at 420 to 430°C. Applying back pressure during hot forging effectively forged a pin-shaped product.

  18. The experimental search for new predicted binary-alloy structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, K. C.; Richey, Lauren; Lang, Candace; Campbell, Branton; Hart, Gus

    2010-10-01

    Predicting new ordered phases in metallic alloys is a productive line of inquiry because configurational ordering in an alloy can dramatically alter their useful material properties. One is able to infer the existence of an ordered phase in an alloy using first-principles calculated formation enthalpies.ootnotetextG. L. W. Hart, ``Where are Nature's missing structures?,'' Nature Materials 6 941-945 2007 Using this approach, we have been able to identify stable (i.e. lowest energy) orderings in a variety of binary metallic alloys. Many of these phases have been observed experimentally in the past, though others have not. In pursuit of several of the missing structures, we have characterized potential orderings in PtCd, PtPd and PtMo alloys using synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction and symmetry-analysis tools.ootnotetextB. J. Campbell, H. T. Stokes, D. E. Tanner, and D. M. Hatch, ``ISODISPLACE: a web-based tool for exploring structural distortions,'' J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 607-614 (2006)

  19. Characterization of age-hardening behavior of eutectic surface on rheo-cast A356-T5 alloy by using nano/micro-indentation, scratching and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, S.W. [Department of Precision and Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: youn.sung-won@aist.go.jp; Kang, C.G. [National Research Laboratory of Thixo/Rheo Forming, School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, JangJun-Dong, Gumjung-Gu, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: cgkang@pusan.ac.kr

    2006-11-10

    This study investigates the nano/microstructure, the aging response (in T5 heat treatment), and the mechanical/tribological properties of the eutectic regions in rheo-cast A356 alloy parts using nano/micro-indentation and mechanical scratching, combined with optical microscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). Most eutectic Si crystals in the A356 alloy showed a modified morphology as fine-fibers. The loading curve for the eutectic region was more irregular than that of the primary Al region due to the presence of various particles of varying strength. The aging responses of the eutectic regions in the rheo-cast A356 alloys aged at 150 deg. C for different times (0, 2, 4, 8, 10, 16, 24, 36, and 72 h) were investigated. Both Vickers hardness and indentation test results showed a similar trend of aging curves, and the peak was obtained at the same aging time of 10 h. A remarkable size-dependence of the tests was found. The friction coefficient for the eutectic region was lower than that for the primary Al region.

  20. New ternary ordered structures in CuMPt6 (M=3d elements) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ananda Kumar; Nakamura, Reo; Takahashi, Miwako; Ohshima, Ken-ichi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Shishido, Toetsu

    2006-01-01

    X-ray and electron diffraction measurements were performed to investigate the structure and ordering behaviour of the ternary alloys CuMPt 6 (M=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni). X-ray polycrystalline diffraction patterns of all the speciments quenched from 1000degC have shown that a single phase is formed at this stoichiometric composition. The alloys with M=Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni have the face-centred cubic (fcc) structure, while in the alloys with M=Ti, V, and Fe ordering has occurred and the structure is of the Cu 3 Au type. On annealing at lower temperatures ordering has been induced in the alloys with M=Cr, Mn, and Co and the structure is of the Cu 3 Au type, though the ordering in the last alloy has remained incomplete. Detailed X-ray diffraction measurements on single crystals of the CuMnPt 6 alloy have revealed that further ordering takes place and structure changes from the Cu 3 Au type into the cubic ABC 6 type with the unit cell as large 2 x 2 x 2 as the fcc unit cell, a new observation of the double-step ordering in the ternary fcc alloy. The corresponding transition temperatures are T c =970(±5)degC and T cl =750(±5)degC. (author)

  1. Correlation of Thermal and Microstructural Properties of an Al-0.60wt%Mg-0.25wt%Fe-0.05wt%Cu Alloy Unidirectionally Solidified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro LAMARÃO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the thermal, mechanical and microstructural properties of an Al-0.60 wt% Mg-0.25 wt% Fe- -0.05 wt% Cu alloy for application as an electrical conductor. The ingots were obtained by unidirectional horizontal casting, a