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Sample records for alloy-600 inconel

  1. Stress-corrosion-cracking testing of INCONEL alloys 600 and 690 In high-temperature caustic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study determined the effects of composition, heat treatment, and microstructure on the resistance of INCONEL alloy 690 to stress-corrosion cracking in caustic. The results were compared with the effects of the same factors on INCONEL alloy 600. Both alloys were evaluated in the annealed condition and after a post-anneal exposure to 7040C (13000F) for 15 hours. Resistance to SCC was determined by constant-extension-rate tests (CERT) in deaerated 10% sodium hydroxide at 288 to 3160C (550 to 6000F)

  2. Relationship between ferromagnetic properties and grain size of Inconel alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel alloy 600 is widely used in steam generator tubings where sensitization due to chromium depletion occurs at grain boundaries and the sensitization induces tubing failures. Though the alloy usually exhibits paramagnetic properties, it shows ferromagnetic properties along grain boundaries when chromium depletion occurs. This means that magnetic nondestructive evaluation of sensitization is possible. Therefore, as a fundamental study to develop magnetic nondestructive evaluation technique for sensitization, the relationship between ferromagnetic properties and grain size in Inconel 600 was investigated using isothermal heat treatment. The grain was controlled using solution annealing, and then, specimens were heat treated at 873, 923, and 973 K within 400 h. The saturation magnetization increases as heat treatment time increases and eventually peaks. The peak time depends on the heat treatment temperature. The coercivity increases during the initial heat treatment stage, and decreases as the duration of heat treatment increases. The maximum saturation magnetization decreases as the grain diameter increases and is inversely proportional to the grain diameter squared, which is consistent with the fact that the ferromagnetic phase only formed along grain boundaries. - Highlights: • Relationship between ferromagnetism and grain size in Inconel 600 was clarified. • The saturation magnetization increases and eventually peaks during heat treatment. • The coercivity increases during the initial heat treatment stage, and then decreases. • The saturation magnetization is inversely proportional to the grain diameter squared. • The magnetic property changes are explained by the Cr depletion at grain boundaries

  3. A study on fretting fatigue life for the Inconel alloy 600 at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae-do [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dae-kyu [Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Seung-wan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dong-hwan [Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ilsup, E-mail: ilchung@yu.ac.k [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Fatigue tests of the Inconel 600, a type of nickel-chromium based heat resistant alloy used for steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants, were carried out. Temperature increase to 320 {sup o}C did not change the fatigue strength much, but the fretting condition caused a significant reduction in the fatigue strength. The reduction at 10{sup 7} cycles was about 70% for both of room and the high temperatures. An apparatus to realize the fretting condition has been developed and instrumented to measure the normal and friction forces. The bridge type of contact pad was fabricated of SUS 409 stainless steel. Fracture surfaces and wear scars were observed by electron microscope and the profiles of wear scar were measured by non-contact 3D-profiler.

  4. Microstructure and precipitation effects in inconel alloy 600.

    OpenAIRE

    Gane, Peter James

    1992-01-01

    The main objectives of the project were to investigate the interactions of carbon, titanium and aluminium contents, grain size and cold working, with precipitation reactions which occur during heat treatments similar to those experienced as a consequence of commercial PWR Steam Generator (SG) tube processing. In order to carry out this investigation commercial material was supplemented by a range of experimental casts. The selected casts allowed the investigation of the following comp...

  5. Stress corrosion of alloy 600: mechanism problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand better stress corrosion of alloy 600, we experimentally studied: the simultaneous action of atmosphere and stress, the continuous or discontinuous propagation, the part of the formed oxide, the characteristics and peculiar properties in conditions where the material is sensitive. The results show that the beginning of cracking by stress corrosion may be explained by a limited brittleness of grains boundary (a preferential penetration of this grains boundary by a brittle oxide under a traction stress). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Integrated Guidelines for Management of Alloy 600 Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Kyung-Hwan; Chung, Hansub; Yang, Jun-Seog; Lee, Kyoung-Soo [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The locations experiencing PWSCC include steam generator tubes, pressurizer instrumental nozzles, control rod driving mechanism(CRDM) penetration nozzles, reactor outlet nozzles, and bottom mounted instrumental(BMI) nozzles. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co.(KHNP) has developed integrated guidelines for management of alloy 600 locations and the guidelines are under review by the regulator. The guidelines consist of alloy 600 location database, inspection program, maintenance/preventive maintenance method, and finally water chemistry management for PWSCC mitigation. In this paper, the detailed contents are presented. The integrated guidelines collected all relevant information on the management of alloy 600 locations. This information may be useful for establishing the most effective preventive maintenance strategies by prioritization in addition to maintenance strategies. Table II summarize maintenance strategies for alloy 600 locations.

  7. Integrated Guidelines for Management of Alloy 600 Locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The locations experiencing PWSCC include steam generator tubes, pressurizer instrumental nozzles, control rod driving mechanism(CRDM) penetration nozzles, reactor outlet nozzles, and bottom mounted instrumental(BMI) nozzles. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co.(KHNP) has developed integrated guidelines for management of alloy 600 locations and the guidelines are under review by the regulator. The guidelines consist of alloy 600 location database, inspection program, maintenance/preventive maintenance method, and finally water chemistry management for PWSCC mitigation. In this paper, the detailed contents are presented. The integrated guidelines collected all relevant information on the management of alloy 600 locations. This information may be useful for establishing the most effective preventive maintenance strategies by prioritization in addition to maintenance strategies. Table II summarize maintenance strategies for alloy 600 locations

  8. Literature survey of cracking of alloy 600 penetrations in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a literature survey of cracking of alloy 600 components in PWR plants. Alloy 600 cracking of S/G tubes and/or plugs has been previously addressed. This report focuses on incidents occurring primarily in the pressurizer region. It documents these problems and recommends utility actions to address the issue of PWSCC of alloy 600 components in the primary system. Cracking problems have occurred both domestically and abroad. Information provided for each event includes plant, affected component, date of incident, plant date of commercial operation, detection method, outcome, remedial actions, and number of components cracked. Incidents are reported for US plants including San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station Unit 3, St. Lucie Unit 2, Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 2, and Calvert Cliffs Unit, and for Electricite de France. 38 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Dissolution of Oxide Layer on Alloy 600 by HYBRID Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulated oxide layer formed on Alloy 600 surface was efficiently dissolved by the successive applications of NP and HYBRID. The total concentration of HYBRID used for the dissolution of simulated oxide layer is below 0.2 wt%. From the test results, we can also infer that HYBRID does not cause any corrosion problem to Alloy 600. The simultaneous destruction of hydrazine and nitrate ion will greatly reduce the generation of the secondary waste. A feasibility study on the reduction of the generation of the secondary waste is performed

  10. Effect of dissolved oxygen on IGSCC of Alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dissolved oxygen on the SCC of Alloy 600 was studied by the slow strain rate test(SSRT) method. The SSRT tests were carried out in aerated and in deaerated pure water at 360 C at the strain rate of 2.5 x 10-7/s. Hump specimens were used to shorten test time. The SCC susceptibility was higher in the deaerated water environment than in aerated water environments. The shape of load-deformation curves of the tests in those two environments indicates that oxygen content in water significantly influences the SCC susceptibility of Alloy 600. It was considered that the increase of SCC resistance in aerated water is due to the high corrosion potential of the metal surface, and the according decrease of corrosion current due to the formation of a protective oxide layer. (authors)

  11. Corrosion behavior of alloy 600 coupled with electrodeposited magnetite in simulated secondary water of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behavior of Alloy 600 coupled with magnetite was investigated in simulated secondary water of pressurized water reactors using a potentiodynamic polarization test and zero-resistance ammeter. Passive film formed on the surface of Alloy 600 was also analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Alloy 600 was the anodic element of the galvanic pair since its corrosion potential was less noble than that of the magnetite. Galvanic coupling increased the corrosion current density of Alloy 600 due to the shifting of the potential of Alloy 600 to the positive value. The passive film of coupled Alloy 600 was more slowly stabilized and was thinner and less protective than that of non-coupled Alloy 600. (author)

  12. Stress relief treatment of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 tubing in the primary side of operating steam generators is the subject of this investigation. The objective of the program was to examine the feasibility of heat treatment to alleviate the IGSCC problem. In addition to this, tests were also performed to examine the IGSCC susceptibility of nuclear grade Alloy 600 tubing obtained from various sources. Examination of temperature-time combinations that may hold potential for improved IGSCC resistance of the transition regions of tubes expanded into tube sheet holes was done. The combinations fall in two categories. One is of short duration and relatively high temperature, where induction is the best method of heating because the treatment only lasts from some tens of seconds to a few minutes. The other is carried out in a lower temperature range and lasts for several hours. This latter combination of temperatures and times is considered for the so-called global heat treatment of entire tube sheet. To assess the effect of these treatments, reverse U-bend testing in high purity deaerated water containing an overpressure of hydrogen was employed and several heats of Alloy 600 were compared in tests at 365 degrees C, which is well above actual operating temperatures of steam generators, but provides an accelerated test procedure. Results of furnace heating in the range of 550-610 degrees C indicated improvement in IGSCC resistance, with best performance after a heat treatment at 610 degrees C for nine hours. In addition to stress relief, carbide precipitation can also occur, and their relative contributions to the improvement is discussed

  13. An update of the alloy 600 mitigation/repair technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitoiset, Xavier [Primary Systems Design and Repair, Westinghouse Electric Belgium, 43 rue de l' Industrie, 1400 Nivelles (Belgium); Grendys, Rick [Primary Systems Design and Repair, Westinghouse Electric Company, 4350 Northern Pike, 15146 Monroeville (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Many utilities are currently implementing their Alloy 600 Management plans. Mitigation techniques have been developed to assure the long term operability of the components containing Alloy 600/82/182, especially those with high susceptibility that will develop cracks from Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) during the remaining life of the plants. Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) requires the confluence of a susceptible material, a chemical environment conducive to cracking, and tensile stresses of significant magnitude on the material in contact with the primary water. Mitigation is intended to extend the life of components by altering one or more of the conditions necessary for SCC to occur in PWR's. Based on the susceptibility ranking of the Alloy 600 locations in the Westinghouse designed PWR's, the priority has been given to the mitigation of the pressurizer nozzle locations which is about being complete in the US and has largely started in Europe. The next most susceptible locations in Westinghouse designed PWR's are the Reactor Vessel hot leg nozzle to safe-end dissimilar metal welds. A few plants have implemented repairs or mitigation techniques on the RV nozzle locations and many utilities are currently planning these activities. The development of mitigation, repair or replacement processes by the industry has been a major effort over the last years. This paper provides an update of the main techniques that are currently available or under evaluation, namely: the Structural Weld Overlay (SWOL) process, the Mechanical Stress Improvement Process (MSIP), the Underwater Laser Beam Welding (ULBW) process and the Safe-End Replacement (SER) process. For each mitigation/repair/replacement technique, the paper addresses the recent developments in terms of process and qualification, tooling and equipment, evolutions of the ASME Code and applications. (authors)

  14. Corrosion testing of INCONEL alloy 690 for PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INCONEL alloy 690, an austenitic, high-chromium modification of INCONEL alloy 600, was developed to resist stress-corrosion cracking and general corrosion in hightemperature aqueous environments associated with nuclear steam generators. Tests in nitric acid and nitric-hydrofluoric acid show that the high chromium content provides alloy 690 with good resistance to highly oxidizing environments over a wide range of high temperatures and oxygen concentrations, in the presence of crevices and lead or chloride contamination. Alloy 690 releases a negligible amount of material when exposed to high-velocity water at elevated temperatures. In constant extension rate tests, alloy 690 resists crack propagation in a deaerated 10 pct solution of sodium hydroxide better than alloy 600. Long-time tests also suggest greater resistance to intergranular attack in deaerated caustic solutions and to the oxidation of radioactive waste disposal involving nitric-hydrofluoric acid dissolution and vitrification

  15. Detecting Grain-Boundary Chromium Depletion in Inconel 600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. P.; Vaia, A. R.; Pessall, N.; Aspden, R. G.

    1981-11-01

    Techniques to evaluate grain-boundary chromium depletion in Inconel Alloy 600 were investigated. Procedures studied were a modified Huey test, reactivation polarization, magnetic permeability measurements, and eddy current measurements. Results from these tests were correlated with susceptibility to stress-assisted intergranular cracking in polythionic acid. Thermally treated Inconel Alloy 600 steam generator tubing was the principal source of material evaluated, but experimental heats of Ni-Cr-Fe alloys with 8-18 wt.% Cr were prepared to determine the critical chromium level below which stress-assisted intergranular cracking occurs; this critical chromium content was found to be between 9.8 and 11.7 wt.%. All four techniques were considered suitable to evaluate grain-boundary chromium depletion; the modified Huey test and reactivation polarization technique showed a greater sensitivity than the magnetic permeability and eddy current measurements.

  16. Laboratory studies of lead stress corrosion of alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 was first reported in the open literature by Copson and Dean. Since then, other laboratory studies were performed and documented either in the open literature or various company reports. The Electric Power Research Institute conducted three projects to determine the possible extent of a lead stress corrosion cracking problem in nuclear power plants. The first study was a comprehensive review of the information available either in the open literature or various company reports. The second study was a water chemistry analysis program to investigate lead contamination in operating nuclear plants. The third study, a laboratory investigation, is the subject here. The primary objective of this laboratory project was to investigate the stress corrosion cracking behavior of nuclear grade Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 tubing materials in lead contaminated environments at an elevated temperature (3240C). Variables of importance included material heat treatment, lead species, specimen location (liquid or vapor), and solution pH regime. A secondary objective was to correlate any observed cracking with the test variables and calculated high temperature lead chemistries

  17. Influence of silica on stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicate is a major constituent of sludge on the tubesheet region of PWR steam generators, where stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the steam generator tubing generally occurs in nuclear power plants. In this work, the effects of silicate on SCC of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 have been studied in 10 % NaOH and 40 % NaOH with and without 2 g/l SiO2 at 315 degC. The experiments were performed using C-ring specimens at 200 mV above the corrosion potential. The stress at the apex of the C-ring specimen ranged from about 300 MPa to about 600 MPa. Polarization behaviors of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 were also studied. High temperature mill annealed Alloy 600, sensitized Alloy 600, thermally treated Alloy 600 and thermally treated Alloy 690 were used for the SCC and polarization test. Composition profiles of the deposit layer on Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 were examined with an Auger electron microscope. The degree of sensitization was evaluated with a modified Huey test and TEM-EDX. Effects of silica on SCC of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 are discussed in terms of polarization behavior and the oxide layer composition. (author) Key Words: stress corrosion cracking, Alloy 600, Alloy 690, polarization curves, AES, TEM, NaOH, silica

  18. Electrochemical response of scratched Alloy 600 in simulated primary water and its influence with hydrogen entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of scratches on oxidation evolution of Alloy 600 was monitored by EIS in 290℃ simulated primary water. EIS result indicates that oxide film reached a stable condition until 7 days' immersion. The scratched Alloy 600 possessed almost the same evolution of oxide film with plain specimens. Anodic polarization was performed to study combined effect of scratches and changed hydrogen. The anodic current changes of scratched Alloy 600 after hydrogen charging were not the simple superimposition between that of scratched and charged plain Alloy 600. Alloy 600 after scratching was supposed to trap more hydrogen because of introduction of cold work. The trapped hydrogen could accelerate the oxidation by enhancing dissolution of chromium oxides. Thus, the oxides became less protective and anodic current increased considerably over more noble potential range. (author)

  19. Steam tests of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 mechanical plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988-89, randomly selected heats of Inconel 600 TT plugs were laboratory tested to determine the extent and distribution of carbide precipitation in the microstructure and their resistance to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in a 400 C doped steam autoclave. Early results indicated a ranking could be established between microstructure and PWSCC potential. Corrosion tests were extended to include Alloy 690 plugs after a top plug release occurred due to circumferential cracking above the expander. Destructive examination of pulled plugs confirmed the accuracy of the laboratory results which showed corrosion resistance can be correlated with the density of intergranular carbides and the doped steam test method did provide an accelerated method for assessing the relative PWSCC of mechanical plugs. To date, 70 Inconel 690 plugs, representing 17 heat treatment lots, have been tested and all plugs remain crack-free after 1000 hour exposure in doped steam. 4 figs

  20. Primary water stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As United States nuclear reactors have aged, a number of problems have arisen. Among these are primary water cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 in PWRs. Since 1989, when PWSCC was identified to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as an emerging issue, it has been reported in several components, including control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetrations. To address PWSCC of CRDM penetrations at U.S. plants, the industry developed a comprehensive inspection, evaluation, repair and mitigation program. Recent pilot inspections that revealed cracking at two of the three U.S. plants inspected indicate the problem is generic. Further, results of stress analyses indicate that an area of high stress exists that could cause cracking that would follow the J-groove weld. Such cracking was identified in a foreign reactor that had a resin intrusion. PWSCC of CRDMs remains an open issue. Proactive NRC/Industry programs for inspection and repair or replacement of affected components are essential for continued operation of nuclear reactors and for license extensions. (author)

  1. Intergranular failures of Alloy 600 in high temperature caustic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of our investigation of two commonly observed modes of failure of Alloy 600 in high temperature caustic environment namely, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) and intergranular attack (IGA). Specimens are studied as C-rings under constant deflection, wires with and without any externally applied load, and as straining electrodes. The potential dependence of average crack propagation rate is established in a single test by using several C-rings held at different potentials, by using a modification of the static potential gradient method of Seys and Van Haute. SCC appears to be governed by a film rupture mechanism and its propagation rate is significantly influenced by the electrochemical potential and associated surface film formation. The maximum crack propagation rate for C-rings and constant load specimens is very similar but much smaller than that calculated for a straining electrode at the same potential. IGA occurs over a wide range of potential - starting from a few tens of millivolts cathodic to the corrosion potential up to the lower end of anodic potentials normally required for SCC. IGA seems to be rather independent of stress and is generally more pronounced in the crevice area under the nuts used in C-rings. Examination of several creviced coupons shows that outside the crevice, enrichment of iron and chromium occurs on the surface as the potential is raised anodically, whereas the Ni:Fe and Ni:Cr ratios remain relatively independent of potential within the crevice

  2. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of the nickel base alloy (Alloy 600) after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of microstructural and mechanical properties of cold rolled and heat treated alloys 600 made in Brazil were investigated. The recovery and recrystallization behavior as well as solubilization and aging have been studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness and tensile testing have been carried out. The recovery process of the cold rolled alloy 600 occurred until 600 deg C and the recrystallization stage was situated between 600 and 850 deg C. The primary recrystallization temperature was obtained at 850 deg C after 1 hour (isochronal heat treatments). The aged alloy 600 shows carbide precipitation on grains bu with ductility maintenance. (author)

  3. Low temperature fatigue behavior of Alloy 600 in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) rates of mill annealed Alloy 600 in NaCl solution were studied by a fracture mechanics test method. Compact tension (CT) specimens were tested under load control with a sinusoidal wave form, in accordance with ASTM specification E647-83, to investigate the effects of environment, load frequency (f), load ratio (R = Pmin/Pmax). The FCG rates of Alloy 600, R = 0.1, f = 1Hz, were quite similar in air, distilled water, and NaCl (0.6M, 0.1M, and 0.001M) solution at room temperature. Environmental enhancement effect on the FCG rate of Alloy 600 was not significant in NaCl solution. Variations of the load frequency (0.03Hz--3Hz) did not influence the FCG rates of Alloy 600 significantly in air and 0.1M NaCl solution. The FCG rates of Alloy 600 in air and 0.1M NaCl solution increased with increasing the load ratio. Compared with the corrosion effects, test results showed that the mechanical effects dominated on the FCG rates of Alloy 600 in chloride solution at room temperature. The SEM fractographs showed that significant striations and transgranular fracture modes were observed on tested specimens

  4. Fatigue behavior of alloy 600 in sodium chloride solution at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) rates of mill annealed Alloy 600 in NaCI solution were studied by a fracture mechanics test method. Compact tension (CT) specimens were tested under load control with a sinusoidal wave form, in accordance with ASTM specification E647-83, to investigate the effects of environment, load frequency (f), load ratio (R=Pmin/Pmax). The FCG rates of Alloy 600, R=0.1, f=1Hz, were quite similar in air, distilled water, and NaCI (0.6 M, 0.1 M, and 0.001 M) solution at room temperature. Environmental enhancement effect on the FCG rate of Alloy 600 was not significant in NaCI solution. Variations of the load frequency (0.03Hz-3Hz) did not influence the FCG rates of Alloy 600 significantly in air and 0.1 M NaCI solution. The FCG rates of Alloy 600 in air and 0.1 M NaCI solution increased with increasing the load ratio. Compared with the corrosion effects, test results showed that the mechanical effects dominated on the FCG rates of Alloy 600 in chloride solution at room temperature. The SEM fractographs showed that significant striations and transgranular fracture modes were observed on tested specimens. (author)

  5. The Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanism of Alloy 600 Steam Generator Tubes: Materials Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem is that intergranular (IG) cracking of austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys occurs even in Ar with no corrosion or oxidation of grain boundaries being accompanied. This fact suggests that IG cracking has nothing to do with grain boundary (GB) corrosion or oxidation. This fact cast a doubt about the current notion that applied stresses are required to initiate IG cracking or PWSCC. These facts indicate that PWSCC is closely related to internal factors of materials, not to external factors such as grain boundary oxidation or corrosion or applied stresses. Given that austenitic alloys including Alloy 600 are a kind of solid solution alloys with alloying elements dissolved in the matrix as solutes, ordering of alloying elements of Fe, Cr and Ni occur in Alloy 600 during exposure to reactor operating condition. We suggest that atomic ordering is the main internal factor to govern PWSCC or IG cracking of austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys because lattice contraction due to atomic ordering induces internal stresses which are large enough to cause GB cracking. The aim of this work is to provide experimental evidence for our suggestion. To this end, water quenching (WQ) or air cooling (AC) or furnace cooling (FC) was applied respectively to Alloy 600 after solution treatment at 1095 .deg. C for 0.5h to make Alloy 600 with either disorder (DO) or different degrees of short range order, respectively. Alloy 600 showed lattice contraction upon aging at 400 .deg. C whose extent increased with increasing cooling rate: the water-quenched (WQ) Alloy 600 exhibited the largest amount of lattice contraction than the furnace-cooled (FC) or air-cooled (AC) one. Yonezawa's experiments have indeed shown that the WQ-Alloy 600 with the largest amount of lattice contraction upon aging at 400 .deg. C is the most susceptible to PWSCC when compared to the AC- or FC-Alloy 600 with the lesser amount of lattice contraction. These observations demonstrate, for the first time, that PWSCC of Alloy 600 is

  6. Effects of Pb on the Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 in Weak Caustic Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of lead on the stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 were investigated in weak caustic water at high temperature by Slow Strain Rate Test (SSRT). The extent and morphology of cracking were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The chemical compositions on the fracture surface were analyzed by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDX). Alloy 600 was cracked severely under the condition of 100 ppm Pb, 1 x 10-7sec-1. PbO acted as a role of oxidizer on the surface of Alloy 600, and IGA and SCC occurred at a low concentration of PbO, while SCC only occurred at a high concentration of PbO. The strain rate is a critical factor in this SCC test, no SCC occurred in the solution containing 1000 ppm Pb at strain rates of 5x10-7 and 1 x 10-6sec-1. The transgranular stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in lead doped water may be closely associated with the carbide morphology at a grain boundary, the lead concentration and the strain rate. And the transgranular cracking mechanism of Alloy 600 was interpreted on the base of the anodic dissolution followed by active slip step dissolution

  7. Review of PWSCC and mitigation management strategies of Alloy 600 materials of PWRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seong Sik

    2013-11-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), pressurizer instrumentation, and pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of the steam generators (SGs) in Korea. PWSCC crack indication in CRDM was also detected in a Korea plant. It is necessary to set up a rigid maintenance and inspection guidelines for the components. The PWSCC history of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles of PWRs and maintenance strategies are reviewed based upon the open literature and some experiences in Korea. The inspection requirements, repair techniques such as material changes, the isolation, weld overlays, stress improvements, water chemistry changes are reviewed. Management strategies for the Alloy 600 nozzles are also described.

  8. Review of PWSCC and mitigation management strategies of Alloy 600 materials of PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seong Sik, E-mail: sshwang@kaeri.re.kr

    2013-11-15

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), pressurizer instrumentation, and pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of the steam generators (SGs) in Korea. PWSCC crack indication in CRDM was also detected in a Korea plant. It is necessary to set up a rigid maintenance and inspection guidelines for the components. The PWSCC history of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles of PWRs and maintenance strategies are reviewed based upon the open literature and some experiences in Korea. The inspection requirements, repair techniques such as material changes, the isolation, weld overlays, stress improvements, water chemistry changes are reviewed. Management strategies for the Alloy 600 nozzles are also described.

  9. Contribution to a model for stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel base alloys such as Alloy 600 are widely used for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) components. One of the main drawbacks of Alloy 600 is its susceptibility to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in PWR primary water. This phenomenon has been extensively studied since more than 30 years and a lot of data are now available in the literature. However, the models proposed are still under debate as the mechanisms of cracking are still not well-known. The aim of this study is to improve our knowledge of SCC mechanisms of Alloy 600 in PWR primary water. The influence of intergranular carbides precipitation and cold-working on intergranular oxide penetrations after exposure in simulated PWR primary environment was more specifically studied. The morphology, the chemical nature and crystalline structure of the oxide formed at the surface of the samples and inside the grain boundaries were characterized using analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). (authors)

  10. Study of the IGA/SCC behavior of Alloy 600 and 690 in high temperature solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IGA/SCC of Alloy 600 steam generator (SG) tubes in the secondary side has been recognized as a matter of great concern for PWRs. IGA/SCC behavior of Alloy 600 and 690 in high temperature solutions were studied using CERT method under potentiostatic conditions. The IGA/SCC susceptible regions were investigated as the function of pH and electrode potential. To understand the cause of IGA/SCC, the electrochemical measurements and surface film analysis were also performed in acidic and alkaline solutions. To verify the results of CERT test, the long term model boiler tests were also carried out. Thermally treated Alloy 690 showed higher IGA/SCC resistance than Alloy 600 under both acid and alkaline conditions

  11. Review of PWSCC and mitigation management strategies of Alloy 600 materials of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), pressurizer instrumentation, and pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of the steam generators (SGs) in Korea. PWSCC crack indication in CRDM was also detected in a Korea plant. It is necessary to set up a rigid maintenance and inspection guidelines for the components. The PWSCC history of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles of PWRs and maintenance strategies are reviewed based upon the open literature and some experiences in Korea. The inspection requirements, repair techniques such as material changes, the isolation, weld overlays, stress improvements, water chemistry changes are reviewed. Management strategies for the Alloy 600 nozzles are also described

  12. Fatigue cracking of alloy 600 in simulated steam generator crevice environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out to generate fatigue life (S-N) and near-threshold fatigue crack propagation (da/dN) data to determine the environmental influence on fatigue behavior for Alloy 600 in air, deionized water and in simulated Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A' crevice environments under appropriate loading conditions. In the low cycle fatigue regime, the simulated crevice environment did not affect the fatigue life of Alloy 600 under the applied loading conditions. The near-threshold fatigue crack growth rates of Alloy 600 in the simulated crevice environment were significantly lower compared to either pure water or air environments and is believed to be the result of higher crack closure in the crevice environment. (author)

  13. Stress corrosion mechanisms of alloy-600 polycrystals and monocrystals in primary water: effect of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to identify the mechanisms involved in Alloy 600 primary water stress corrosion cracking. Therefore, this work is mainly focussed on the two following points. The first one is to understand the influence of hydrogen on SCC of industrial Alloy 600 and the second one is to study the crack initiation and propagation on polycrystals and single crystals. A cathodic potential applied during slow strain rate tests does not affect crack initiation but increases the slow crack growth rate by a factor 2 to 5. Cathodic polarisation, cold work and 25 cm3 STP/kg hydrogen content increase the slow CGR so that the KISCC (and therefore fast CGR) is reached. The influence of hydrogenated primary water has been studied for the first time on Alloy 600 single crystals. Cracks cannot initiate on tensile specimens but they can propagate on pre-cracked specimens. Transgranular cracks present a precise crystallographic aspect which is similar to that of 316 alloy in MgCl2 solutions. Moreover, the following results improve the description of the cracking conditions. Firstly, the higher the hydrogen partial pressure, the lower the Alloy 600 passivation current transients. Since this result is not correlated with the effect of hydrogen on SCC, cracking is not caused by a direct effect of dissolved hydrogen on dissolution. Secondly, hydrogen embrittlement of Alloy 600 disappears at temperatures above 200 deg.C. Thirdly, grain boundary sliding (GBS) does not directly act on SCC but shows the mechanical weakness of grain boundaries. Regarding the proposed models for Alloy 600 SCC, it is possible to draw the following conclusions. Internal oxidation or absorbed hydrogen effects are the most probable mechanisms for initiation. Dissolution, internal oxidation and global hydrogen embrittlement models cannot explain crack propagation. On the other hand, the Corrosion Enhanced Plasticity Model gives a good description of the SCC propagation. (author)

  14. Workshop on cracking of Alloy 600 U-bend tubes in steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urgency of evaluating the current state of knowledge relating to pure water cracking of Alloy 600 is apparent. The susceptibility of Alloy 600 in regions of high stress concentration is a major concern to a number of utilities who are members of the Steam Generator Owners Group. Resolution of the various questions which have been posed, relating to initiation time, crack propagation rate, safety concerns, and in-situ NDE characterization need to be addressed and were considered in preparing the agenda and structuring this workshop

  15. Microstructural characterization on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in PWR primary water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We examine PWSCC cracks of Alloy 600 through microscopic equipment. • Oxygen diffuses into the grain boundaries from the external primary water. • Cr oxides are precipitated on the crack tips and the attacked grain boundaries. • The oxide structure inside a crack consists of double (inner and outer) layers. • The penetrated oxygen strongly affects the PWSCC behaviors of Alloy 600. -- Abstract: Stress corrosion cracks in Alloy 600 compact tension specimens tested at 325 °C in a simulated primary water environment of a pressurized water reactor were analyzed using microscopic equipment. Oxygen diffused into the grain boundaries just ahead of the crack tips from the external primary water. As a result of oxygen penetration, Cr oxides were precipitated on the crack tips and the attacked grain boundaries. The oxide layer in the crack interior was revealed to consist of double (inner and outer) layers. Cr oxides were found in the inner layer, with NiO and (Ni,Cr) spinels in the outer layer. Cr depletion (or Ni enrichment) zones were created in the attacked grain boundary, the crack tip, and the interface between the crack and matrix, which means that the formation of Cr oxides was due to the Cr diffusion from the surrounding matrix. The oxygen penetration and resultant metallurgical changes around the crack tip are believed to be significant factors affecting the PWSCC initiation and growth behaviors of Alloy 600

  16. XRD residual stress measurements on Alloy 600 pressurizer heater sleeve mockups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 600 penetrations in several pressurized water reactors have experienced primary water stress corrosion cracking near the partial penetration J-welds between the Alloy 600 and the cladding on the inside diameter of the components. The microstructure and tensile properties indicated that the Alloy 600 was susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) providing that a high tensile stress (applied + residual) was present. The residual stress distributions at the inside diameter surface and at different depths below the surface were measured in two Alloy 600 heater sleeve mockups. Surface residual stresses ranged from 340 to 690 MPa. For the most part, the residual stresses decreased with increasing depth below the surface. For the heater sleeve mockups, the percent cold-work (i.e. true plastic strain) and yield strength as a function of depth were determined. As a result of pre-reaming and welding the heater sleeves, the amount of plastic strain and yield strength increased to a nominal depth of 0.025 cm. The true plastic strain and yield strength decreased with increasing depth below the surface

  17. PWSCC Preventive Maintenance Activities for Alloy 600 in Japanese PWR Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because many nuclear plants have been in operation for ages, the importance of preventive maintenance technologies is getting higher. One conspicuous problem found in pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants is the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) observed in Alloy 600 (a kind of high nickel based alloy) parts. Alloy 600 was used for butt welds between low alloy steel and stainless steel of nozzles of Reactor Vessel (RV), Steam Generator (SG), and Pressurizer (Pz). As PWSCC occurred at these parts may cause Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), preventive maintenance is necessary. PWSCC is considered to be caused by a mixture of three elements: high residual tensile stress on surface, material (Alloy 600) and environment. PWSCC can be prevented by improving one of the elements. MHI has been developing stress improvement methods, for example, Water Jet Peening (WJP), Shot Peening by Ultrasonic vibration (USP), and Laser Stress Improvement Process (L-SIP). According to the situation, appropriate method is applied for each part. WJP has been applied for RV nozzles of a lot of plants in Japan. However PWSCC was observed in RV nozzles during the inspection before WJP in recent years, MHI developed the Advanced INLAY system to improve the material from Alloy 600 to Alloy 690. Alloy 600 on the inner surface of the nozzles is removed and welding with Alloy 690 is performed. In addition, heat treatments for the nozzles are difficult for its structural situation, so ambient temperature temper bead welding technique for RV nozzles was developed to make the heat treatments unnecessary. This paper describes countermeasures against PWSCC and introduces the maintenance activities performed in Japan. (author)

  18. Effect of pulse energy and density on laser peening of Inconel 600 without a protective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Choi, Jong Wan; Chung, Chinman [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Weon JIn; Park, Kwang Soo [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, a laser peening process without protective coating on an Inconel 600 plate is being developed for application to a BMI (bottom mounted instrument) J-weld and nozzle inner wall in a PWR reactor vessel to prevent PWSCC occurring in weld areas during operating nuclear power plants. To obtain the optimum peening conditions, laser peening was performed in water at different peening parameters to obtain the maximum compressive residual stress and depth on the Alloy 600 plate. From a study on laser peening without a protective surface coating, the effect of its process has been proved to be high enough to prevent Inconel 600 material for stress corrosion cracking. The effect of laser peening on susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of Inconel 600 was confirmed by stress corrosion cracking tests; no stress corrosion cracking was occurred in a laser-peened specimen, while an un-peened specimen failed by cracking in a very short period of testing time.

  19. Fracture toughness of Alloy 600 and EN82H weld in air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fracture toughness of Alloy 600 and its weld, EN82H, was characterized in 54 C to 338 C air and hydrogenated water. Elastic-plastic JIC testing was performed due to the inherent high toughness of these materials. Alloy 600 exhibited excellent fracture toughness under all test conditions. While EN82H welds displayed excellent toughness in air and high temperature water, a dramatic toughness degradation occurred in water at temperatures below 149 C. Comparison of the cracking response in low temperature water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air demonstrated that the loss in toughness is due to a hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking mechanism. At loading rates about approx. 1000 MPa √m/h, the toughness in low temperature water is improved because there is insufficient time for hydrogen to embrittle grain boundaries. Electron fractographic examinations were performed to correlate macroscopic properties with key microstructural features and operative fracture mechanisms

  20. Chloride stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in boric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high nickel austenitic alloys are generally considered to have good resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking. In the standard boiling magnesium chloride solution tests, alloys with more than 40% nickel are immune. Nevertheless, more recent data show that cracking can occur in both Alloys 600 and 690 if the solution is acidified. In other low pH media, such as boric acid solution at 100 deg C, transgranular and intergranular cracking are observed in Alloy 600 in the presence of minor concentrations of sodium chloride (2g/I). In concentrated boric acid at higher temperatures (250 and 290 deg C), intergranular cracking also occurs, either when the chloride concentration is high, or at low chloride contents and high oxygen levels. The role of pH and a possible specific action of boric acid are discussed, together with the influence of electrochemical potential. (author)

  1. Chloride stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in boric acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Ph. [Electricite de France, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Noel, D.; Gras, J.M.; Prieux, B. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-10-01

    The high nickel austenitic alloys are generally considered to have good resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking. In the standard boiling magnesium chloride solution tests, alloys with more than 40% nickel are immune. Nevertheless, more recent data show that cracking can occur in both Alloys 600 and 690 if the solution is acidified. In other low pH media, such as boric acid solution at 100 deg C, transgranular and intergranular cracking are observed in Alloy 600 in the presence of minor concentrations of sodium chloride (2g/I). In concentrated boric acid at higher temperatures (250 and 290 deg C), intergranular cracking also occurs, either when the chloride concentration is high, or at low chloride contents and high oxygen levels. The role of pH and a possible specific action of boric acid are discussed, together with the influence of electrochemical potential. (author) 21 refs.

  2. Effects of applied potential on the fatigue behavior of Alloy 600 in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatigue crack growth (FCG) rates of mill annealed Alloy 600 in 0.1 M NaCl solution, 25 C, were studied by a fracture mechanics test method and were affected by the applied potential, load frequency and load ratio. At an applied cathodic potential of -1,300mVSCE, the FCG rates increased with lowering, the load frequency and with increasing the load ratio. The enhanced FCG rate was found in the lower load frequencies (≤< 0.1 Hz) and was more significant with increasing the load ratio. The secondary cracks and transgranular fracture modes were observed on the fractured surfaces with applied cathodic potential. The possible hydrogen-assisted cracking mechanism on enhancing the FCG rates of Alloy 600 cathodically charged in 0.1 M NaCl solution, 25 C, is discussed in this paper. This study is pertinent to the fatigue cracking problems occurring in steam generator tubes of PWR

  3. Stability of oxide film formed at different temperatures on Alloy 600 in lithiated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nickel base alloys are susceptible to localized corrosion attack and the major contributing factor in these corrosion mechanisms is the oxide film formed on the alloy. The chromium content in the oxide film determines its stability against localized attack that act as precursors for the initiation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the material. The present study aimed at optimizing the hot conditioning parameter by varying the temperature of oxide formation for minimum ion release rate during reactor operation. The surface and in-depth compositional characterization of oxide film formed on Alloy 600 was carried out using micro-laser Raman spectroscopy (MLRS) and glow discharge quadrapole mass spectroscopy (GDQMS) respectively. The relative defect density of oxide films were studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The oxide film stability of Alloy 600 in chloride containing environment was correlated to chromium concentration in the film as well as relative defect density

  4. Effect of caustic environment on intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intergranular corrosion of alloy 600 tubes in PWR steam generators has been a continuing mode of degradation at many sites. The Steam Generator Owners Group has funded a program addressing the intergranular corrosion of commercial tubing materials for the past 6 years. In April 1987, the Mechanistic and Environmental Effects Program was reviewed at a contractors' workshop. Intergranular corrosion (IGC) of alloy 600 can occur in caustic, acid and neutral waters. This paper summarizes the work of EPRI contractors on caustic IGC and integrates different viewpoints and experimental techniques. The paper explores the postulated mechanisms of corrosion including: segregation of alloy impurities, formation of nickel sulfide, dealloying at grain boundaries, and the role of chromium oxide. The paper also focuses on the role of environment, microstructure, electrochemical potential and stress on the incidence and rate of intergranular corrosion

  5. Hydrogen embrittlement of the Ni-base alloy 600 correlated with hydrogen transport by dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen transport by dislocations is one of the mechanisms reported in the literature to be responsible for the hydrogen embrittlement (H.E.) of some metals even if it needs to be associated with one or several cracking mechanisms. This study brings new evidence of dislocation sweeping of hydrogen and some arguments in favor of its contribution to the H.E. mechanism of alloy 600 (Ni-Cr-Fe). A study of tritium desorption assisted by the plastic deformation has been conducted by coupling a β counting technique and a tensile test. The experimental results obtained with alloy 600 strongly support the mechanism of hydrogen transport by dislocations. The H.E. characteristics of alloy 600 have been measured on smooth tensile specimens in relationship with the microstructure and the testing conditions. The influence of different parameters including the prestrain level, the strain rate and the temperature supports the role of hydrogen transport in the embrittlement process and the existence of local hydrogen enrichment associated with dislocations pile-ups. (orig.)

  6. The study of intergranular corrosion of sensitized alloy 600 using DL-EPR and Huey method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Kuk, Il Hyun; Ryu, Woo Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Intergranular corrosion(IGC) of sensitized Alloy 600 has been studied with double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) and Huey test. Corrosion of solution annealed Ni-XCr-10Fe(X=6 {approx} 15) alloys was also evaluated with DL-EPR and Huey method to simulate corrosion of Cr depleted grain boundary region of Alloy 600. Cr concentration profile across grain boundary was measured with TEM. In the range of the Cr concentration from 6 to 8%, corrosion rate of solution annealed Ni-XCr-10Fe(X=6 {approx} 15) alloys were much higher in Huey test than in DL-EPR. But in the range of the Cr concentration from 12 to 15%, the trend were reversed. The width of IGC crack of Alloy 600 was higher in DL-EPR test than in Huey test in agreement with corrosion of solution annealed Ni-XCr-10Fe alloys. Width of IGC along depth produced by DL-EPR test was almost uniform and wide while that produced by Huey test was sharp and narrow. These results suggest that IGC in DL-EPR test proceeds following uniform dissolution model and IGC in Huey test proceeds following Cr concentration dependent dissolution model. (author). 22 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in primary water of PWR: study of chromium diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 600 (Ni-15%Cr-10%Fe) is known to be susceptible to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in primary water of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). Recent studies have shown that chromium diffusion is a controlling rate step in the comprehension of SCC mechanism. In order to improve the understanding and the modelling of SCC of Alloy 600 in PWR primary medium the aim of this study was to collect data on kinetics diffusion of chromium. Volume and grain boundary diffusion of chromium in pure nickel and Alloy 600 (mono and poly-crystals) has been measured in the temperature range 678 K to 1060 K by using Secondary Ions Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and Glow Discharge-Optical Spectrometry (GD-OES) techniques. A particular emphasis has been dedicated to the influence of plastic deformation on chromium diffusion in nickel single crystals (orientated <101>) for different metallurgical states. The experimental tests were carried out in order to compare the chromium diffusion coefficients in free lattice (not deformed), in pre-hardening specimens (4% and 20%) and in dynamic deformed tensile specimens at 773 K. It has been found that chromium diffusivity measured in dynamic plastic deformed creep specimens were six orders of magnitude greater than those obtained in not deformed or pre-hardening specimens. The enhancement of chromium diffusivity can be attributed to the presence of moving dislocations generated during plastic deformation. (author)

  8. Predictive methodology to address PWSCC of Alloy 600 locations in PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contributing factors to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) are susceptible microstructure, temperature, and residual and applied stresses. In order to predict PWSCC of Inconel 600 components in PWR type reactors, a number of steps were taken. All Inconel 600 components were located, fabrication history, weld procedures and material properties were identified. Service temperatures and approximate stresses were determined. Precise service stress evaluations of Inconel 600 locations by Finite Element and other analytical evaluations were made. Using data analysis, relative PWSCC susceptibility evaluations of Inconel 600 locations were made on the basis of the Westinghouse RSI model. Finally, a prioritized inspection plan for Inconel 600 locations was developed and recommendations provided. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Crack growth rate in the HAZ of alloy 600/182

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Garcia-Redondo, M.; Castro, L.; Perosanz, F.J. [CIEMAT (Spain); Ahluwalia, K. [EPRI, (United States); Hickling, J. [EPRI Consultant (Cyprus)

    2011-07-01

    CGR (Crack Growth Rate) experiments to obtain data for the HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) of nickel base alloys using fracture mechanics specimens are a challenge, primarily due to the difficulties of positioning the tip of the notch (or pre-crack) in the desired location within the complex region adjacent to the fusion line. This paper presents some results obtained in an experimental program carried out to the CGR in the HAZ of several welded Alloy 600 plates. Compact tension (CT) specimens have been tested in simulated PWR primary water at temperatures of 340 and 360 C degrees under cyclic and constant loading (both with and without periodic partial unloading). Satisfactory CGR data were obtained for the HAZ in an Alloy 600 plate (mill annealed at high temperature) welded with Alloy 182 under both environmentally assisted fatigue test conditions (cyclic loading at different frequencies) and during stress corrosion testing (i.e. at predominantly constant load). The CGR values were generally similar to those obtained for the corresponding base metal (with tentative evidence for slightly faster growth in the HAZ under pure constant load). The HAZ specimens showed a higher tendency to crack inter-granularly under cyclic loading. CGR values under predominantly SCC conditions corresponded well (after temperature correction) with the MRP - 55 75. percentile disposition curve for PWSCC in Alloy 600 materials. This contrasts with the behavior observed by other investigators, where the HAZ material was found to exhibit markedly higher CGRs. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is the higher PWSCC susceptibility of the Alloy 600 base metal used to prepare the HAZ specimens in this program. It appears that the strong increase in the HAZ CGR observed elsewhere may take place if the base metal is a heat with inherently low PWSCC susceptibility (i.e. with good microstructure, adequate carbide distribution, etc.). However, if the Alloy 600 base metal already has a susceptible

  10. Possible first occurrence of external corrosion on alloy 600TT tubes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade, in different countries, several occurrences of external corrosion have been identified on steam generator (SG) tube bundles equipped with thermally treated 600 alloy. In France, this feedback leads EDF to enhance the SG inspection program. Nevertheless, until now, no damage of this type was reported. Recently, during in-service inspection at the Cattenom plant on a SG equipped with alloy 600TT tubes, Eddy current tests have highlighted a signal that could be related to external corrosion. The tube was removed and sent to the EDF hot laboratory for destructive examinations. Various exams were performed at different scales to characterize the causes of this NDT signal, the material properties and the residual stresses. The assessments carried out on the tube conclude that the source of the damage is external intergranular stress corrosion cracking, also called ODSCC (Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking) making it the first occurrence on the tube bundles made of alloy 600TT in the French fleet. This first case of 600 TT ODSCC in France is an unexpected and particular one, because of its altitude in the full mechanical rolling area. This is reinforced by the low number of occurrences noted to date (only one after nearly 30 years of operation of alloy 600TT tube bundles). International (Biblis) OPEX had identified recent IGSCC with cracks initiated and propagated in the tubesheet. For this case, the scenario considered requires highly restrictive conditions (tube in the sludge zone and on the periphery of the tube bundle, including the tube lane) and may explain the singular nature of the Cattenom tube

  11. The influence of copper on the SCC of alloy 600 and alloy 690 steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsule tests have been performed on alloy 600 and alloy 690 steam generator tubes in acid sulfate environments. The most important result is that alloy 690, which is completely immune in this type of environment, becomes very susceptible to SCC in the presence of copper, even when it is added to the solution under the metallic form. Although the role of copper is not fully understood, its influence can not be explained only by an effect on the electrochemical potential. Complexation, adsorption and diffusion properties of copper could play an important role. (authors)

  12. Integrity evaluation of Alloy 600 RV head penetration tubes in Korean PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural integrity assessment of Alloy 600 RV head penetration tubes has been an important issue for the economical and reliable operation of power plants. In this paper, an overview of the integrity evaluation program for the RV head penetration tubes in Korean nuclear power plants is presented. Since the crack growth mechanism of the penetration tube is due to the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) which is mainly related to the stress at the tube, the present paper consists of three primary activities: the stress evaluation, the flaw evaluation, and data generation through material and mechanical tests. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  13. Study of alloy 600'S stress corrosion cracking mechanisms in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better understand the mechanisms involved in Alloy 600's stress corrosion cracking in PWR environment, laboratory tests were performed. The influence of parameters pertinent to the mechanisms was studies : hydrogen and oxygen overpressures, local chemical composition, microstructure. The results show that neither hydrogen nor dissolution/oxidation, despite their respective roles in the process, are sufficient to account for experimental facts. SEM observation of micro-cleavage facets on specimens' fracture surfaces leads to pay attention to a new mechanism of corrosion/plasticity interactions. (author). 113 refs., 73 figs., 15 tabs., 4 annexes

  14. Study of alloy 600 (NC15Fe) stress corrosion cracking mechanisms in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better understand the mechanisms involved in Alloy 600's stress corrosion cracking in PWR environment, laboratory tests were performed. The influence of parameters pertinent to the mechanisms was studies: hydrogen and oxygen overpressures, local chemical composition, microstructure. The results show that neither hydrogen nor dissolution/oxidation, despite their respective roles in the process, are sufficient to account for experimental facts. SEM observation of micro-cleavage facets on specimens' fracture surfaces leads to pay attention to a new mechanism of corrosion/plasticity interactions. (author)

  15. Crack growth of throughwall flaw in Alloy 600 tube during leak testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of leak testing was conducted at a constant pressure and room temperature. • The time-dependent increase in the leak rate was observed. • The fractography revealed slip offsets and crystallographic facets. • Time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip caused the slip offsets. • Fatigue by jet/structure interaction caused the crystallographic facets. - Abstract: We examined the issue of whether crack growth in a full thickness material can occur in a leaking crack. A series of leak tests was conducted at a room temperature and constant pressure (17.3 MPa) with Alloy 600 tube specimens containing a tight rectangular throughwall axial fatigue crack. To exclude a potential pulsation effect by a high pressure pump, the test water was pressurized by using high pressure nitrogen gas. Fractography showed that crack growth in the full thickness material can occur in the leaking crack by two mechanisms: time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip and fatigue induced by jet/structure interaction. The threshold leak rate at which the jet/structure interaction was triggered was between 1.3 and 3.3 L/min for the specific heat of the Alloy 600 tube tested

  16. Estimation of residual stress distribution of Alloy600/SUS304 dissimilar weld joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the estimation of residual stress distribution of Alloy600/SUS304 dissimilar weld joint in the nuclear power plant piping. The calculated results by two-dimensional axi-symmetric finite element method (FEM) modeling were compared with the measurements by non-destructive methods of the X-Ray diffraction and strain gauge procedures. In the thermal elasto-plastic analysis, two factors were considered. One is the geometric modeling of weld deformation and another is the modeling of heat flux in welding. Though thermal histories were affected by the modeling of weld deformation and heat flux, estimation of residual stress was robust to the modeling. Applicability of X-Ray diffraction method is also confirmed to measure axial residual stress at the surface of the welded piping, because the scatter between measured and calculated results were less than 50 MPa. It was confirmed that the axial residual stress distribution near the weld joint of Alloy600/SUS304 piping is estimated by FEM analysis and X-Ray diffraction method within acceptable accuracy. (author)

  17. Crack growth of throughwall flaw in Alloy 600 tube during leak testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, Chi Bum, E-mail: bahn@pusan.ac.kr [Pusan National University, 2 Busandaehak-ro 63beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of leak testing was conducted at a constant pressure and room temperature. • The time-dependent increase in the leak rate was observed. • The fractography revealed slip offsets and crystallographic facets. • Time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip caused the slip offsets. • Fatigue by jet/structure interaction caused the crystallographic facets. - Abstract: We examined the issue of whether crack growth in a full thickness material can occur in a leaking crack. A series of leak tests was conducted at a room temperature and constant pressure (17.3 MPa) with Alloy 600 tube specimens containing a tight rectangular throughwall axial fatigue crack. To exclude a potential pulsation effect by a high pressure pump, the test water was pressurized by using high pressure nitrogen gas. Fractography showed that crack growth in the full thickness material can occur in the leaking crack by two mechanisms: time-dependent plasticity at the crack tip and fatigue induced by jet/structure interaction. The threshold leak rate at which the jet/structure interaction was triggered was between 1.3 and 3.3 L/min for the specific heat of the Alloy 600 tube tested.

  18. Corrosion fatigue of alloys 600 and 690 in simulated LWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crack growth data were obtained on fracture-mechanics specimens of Alloys 600 and 690 to investigate environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in simulated boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor environments at 289 and 320 C. Preliminary information was obtained on the effect of temperature, load ratio, stress intensity (K), and the dissolved-oxygen and -hydrogen concentrations of the water on EAC. Specimens of Type 316NG and sensitized Type 304 stainless steel (SS) were included in several of the experiments to assess the behavior of these materials and Alloy 600 under the same water chemistry and loading conditions. The experimental data are compared with predictions from an Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) model for crack growth rates (CGRs) of SSs in water and the ASME Code Section 11 correlation for CGRs in air at the Kmax and load-ratio values in the various tests. The data for all of the materials were bounded by ANL model predictions and the ASME Section 11 ''air line.''

  19. Environmental degradation of Alloy 600 and welded filler metal EN82 in an elevated temperature aqueous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Alloy 600 and welded nickel base filler metal EN82 in high temperature water was investigated. A regression model was developed to show the effects of stress and temperature on SCC initiation for Alloy 600 tubing. An activation energy of 50.6 kcal/mole and a stress exponent of -5.7, applicable to these heats of low temperature mill annealed tubing, where determined from the regression analysis. Data are also presented on the SCC behavior of other classes of materials, including low temperature thermally treated tubing, hot worked and annealed ring forgings, and ENG82 weld metal in relation to the tubing data

  20. Stress corrosion of alloy 600 tubes for steam generators: influence of surface cold working and of metallurgical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alloy 600 is used in the primary circuit of the PWR type reactors especially for the steam generator tubes (heat transfer between primary and secondary circuit). In the primary atmosphere, this alloy is sensitive to the stress corrosion cracking. It is an intergranular brittle cracking the mechanism of which is not well understood. This article describes the surface cold working influence and that of the metallurgical structure of the alloy 600 tubes used in steam generators and their cracking kinetics by stress corrosion. 2 figs

  1. The effects of cold work on the ordering reaction in Alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently it is reported that there is ordering reaction in Alloy 600 and that the exothermic reaction near 500 .deg. C in the water quenching specimen originated from formation of short range order (SRO). Marucco and Nath have investigated and concluded that most commercial Ni.Cr based alloys like Alloy 600 have an ordering reaction based on Ni2Cr at temperatures below 550 .deg. C. Ordering is known to have the following consequences: (i) dimensional instability due to lattice parameter changes; (ii) electrical and thermal characteristics; (iii) changes in mechanical properties due to pile-ups of dislocations; and (iv) phenomenon of negative creep or material contraction under load. Completing the picture further, Lang et al. found that order and precipitation phenomena in Ni.Cr based alloys is strongly dependent on thermo-mechanical treatments producing different metallurgical states. Slow cooling from solution annealing temperatures produces a rather advanced precipitation stage and a degree of SRO corresponding to the thermodynamic equilibrium at 500 .deg. C while a more disordered state is retained. The kinetics of SRO formation is strongly determined by the nucleation of ordered zones, and carbon in the solution appears to suppress the formation of SRO nuclei by trapping excess vacancies during water quenching and hence, retarding the establishment of SRO. Cold working destroys SRO but also produces various lattice defects, which enhance SRO formation and carbide precipitation during re-heating. Marucco has established the existence of an order. disorder transformation in Ni.Cr base alloys from the study of Ni2Cr, Ni3Cr, and Ni.Cr.Fe. She concluded that the degree of order primarily depends on Cr content and that the ordering kinetics become slower when the Ni:Cr atomic ratio departs from that of stochiometric Ni2Cr. The presence of Fe has a strong delaying effect on ordering kinetics, even in small quantities and other alloying elements can also influence the

  2. Inhibition of caustic induced stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 by inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of inhibitors on the electrochemical behavior and the stress corrosion cracking resistance of Alloy 600 was evaluated in 10% sodium hydroxide solution at 315.deg.C. The C-ring specimens for stress corrosion cracking test were polarized at 150 mV above the corrosion potential for 120 hours with and without inhibitors such as titanium oxide, titanium boride and cerium boride. The chemical compositions of the films formed on the crack tip in the C-ring specimens were analyzed using scanning Auger electron spectroscopy. The cerium boride, the most effective inhibitor, was observed to decrease the crack propagation rate by more than a factor of three compared with that obtained in a no inhibitor solution. It was found that the changes of the active-passive transition potentials and the film compositions were related to the resistance to stress corrosion cracking in high temperature caustic solutions

  3. Relating the grain boundary microchemistry of alloy 600 to the DL-EPR response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) response of Alloy 600 was characterized for a variety of grain boundary Cr depletion profiles. Solutions containing H2SO4 with either KSCN, Na2S4O6 or SC(NH2)2 were studied for their sensitivity to pitting and variations in the grain boundary Cr minimum and width of the depletion zone. Results show that a solution consisting of 0.01IM H2SO4 + 0.0001M KSCN has good sensitivity to the grain boundary Cr minimum and produced minimal pitting. A solution of 0.5M H2SO4 + 0.001M SC(NH2)2 was slightly more sensitive to small amounts of Cr depletion than the KSCN solution. Solutions containing H2SO4 + Na2S4O6 were not successful as they did not consistently repassivate all heat treat conditions

  4. Characterization of SCC crack tips and surface oxide layers in alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the mechanism of primary water stress corrosion cracking (SCC), direct observation of microstructures of SCC crack tips and surface oxide layers in alloy 600 were carried out. A focused-ion beam (FIB) micro-processing technique was applied to prepare electron transparent foils including the crack tip and the surface oxide layer without any damage to those microstructures. Transmission electron microscopy and analysis were used to characterize the crack tips and surface oxide layers. Cr-rich oxides and a metal-Ni phase were identified in the crack tips and grain boundaries ahead of the crack tips independent of dissolved hydrogen concentrations. From the fact that the Cr-rich oxides and metal-Ni phase were observed in the inner surface oxide layer, the same oxidation mechanism as the surface is proposed for the crack tip region and internal oxidation accompanying selective Cr oxidation is suggested as the mechanism. (author)

  5. Effects of heat treatments on the stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in high temperature waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of low temperature ageing treatments on the susceptibility of alloy 600 to stress corrosion cracking in simulated primary side reactor water have been studied by a variety of techniques. Chromium depletion at grain boundaries was assessed by Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (EPR) and polythionic acid tests while cracking was investigated using U bend, constant strain tensile and slow strain rate tests. The susceptibility to cracking was increased by annealing at 925deg C after a small amount of cold work and further enhanced by ageing for 60 h at 450deg C. The activation energy for cracking is in the region of 190 kJ/mol, which indicates that marked cracking is only likely at relatively high temperatures in water. (orig./HP)

  6. Irreversible embrittlement of Alloy 600 in hydrogenated steam at 400 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intergranular embrittlement of Alloy 600 has been studied by pre-exposing thin foils, 20--30 pm thick, in high-pressure steam/hydrogen at 400 C, then fracturing them at room temperature. Hydrogen egress was believed to be complete before fracture, so any embrittlement was due to irreversible damage at the grain boundaries. Embrittlement was observed in both as-received and cold-worked material, to a depth of a few microns. The kinetics of this embrittlement are insufficient to account for stress corrosion velocities measured in this environment, unless one postulates an improbably frequent crack advance. The most likely cause of embrittlement is selective intergranular oxidation of chromium. Various other internal embrittlement processes are discussed

  7. Stress corrosion cracking behaviour of alloys 600 and 690 in water and caustic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many industries, corrosion damages and particularly those due to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) remain one of the most difficult problems to fight as well as to understand for the researcher. The Nuclear Energy Industry is no exception to that rule and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique has been studying the stress corrosion cracking phenomenon of nuclear alloys for more than 30 years, phenomenon which is still the subject of a great number of studies among the Nuclear Industrialists. The aim of the following paper is to briefly summarize some results obtained in a study of the SCC behaviour of Alloys 600 and 690 in mediums such as primary water and caustic solution (simulating local conditions of the secondary side) involving, in the case of the Constant Elongation Rate Tests in primary medium, the influence of the temperature, surface state, thermal treatment and strain rate

  8. Pitting evaluation on alloy 600 tubings of Kori 1 retired steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitting on alloy 600 in Kori 1 retired steam generator has been evaluated using results obtained from pulled out tube and repaired tube due to pitting with EFPD. Pitting occured exclusively at crevice between tube and sludge. Pit was filled with corrosion product. The corrosion product was seemed to be a sediment which proceeded following process. At start up, Cu base alloys dissolve due to high dissolved oxygen concentration and then dissolved copper ion or particulate moves through secondary circuit to steam generator. Dissolved oxygen concentration decreases with operating time, so copper ion is reduced. Around pit and them corrosion product was formed inside a pit due to metal dissolution. By repeating the two processes, sediment in pit was formed. Pitting seemed to be caused by influx of sea water through condenser tube, high oxygen concentration, copper ion and sulfur compound detached from resin. Pitting was mitigated by replacement of condenser and preheater material, chemical cleaning and advancement in water chemistry treatment

  9. Stress corrosion cracking behaviour of Alloy 600 in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Alloy 600 in deaerated water at 360 deg. C, as measured with statistically-loaded U-bend specimens, is dependent upon microstructure and whether the material was cold-worked and annealed (CWA) or hot-worked and annealed (HWA). All cracking was intergranular, and materials lacking grain boundary carbides were most susceptible to SCC initiation. CWA tubing materials are more susceptible to SCC initiation than HWA ring-rolled forging materials with similar microstructures, as determined by light optical metallography (LOM). In CWA tubing materials one crack dominated and grew to a large size that was observable by visual inspection. HWA materials with a low hot-working finishing temperature (below 925 deg. C) and final anneals at temperatures ranging from 1010 deg. C to 1065 deg. C developed both large cracks, similar to those found in CWA materials, and also small intergranular microcracks, which are detectable only by destructive metallographic examination. HWA materials with a high hot-working finishing temperature (above 980 deg. C) and high-temperature final anneal (above 1040 deg. C), with grain boundaries that are fully decorated, developed only microcracks, which were observed in all specimens examined. These materials developed no large, visually detectable cracks, even after more than 300 weeks exposure. A low-temperature thermal treatment (610 deg. C for 7h), which reduced or eliminates SCC in Alloy 600, did not eliminate microcrack formation in the high temperature processed HWA materials. Detailed microstructural characterization using conventional metallographic and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) techniques was performed on selected materials to identify the factors responsible for the observed differences in cracking behaviour. 11 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Galvanic corrosion between carbon steel 1018 and Alloy 600 in crevice with boric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work dealt with the evaluation of galvanic corrosion rate in a corrosion cell having annular gap of 0.5 mm between carbon steel 1018 and alloy 600 as a function of temperature and boron concentration. Temperature and boron concentration were ranged from 110 to 300 .deg. C and 2000∼10000 ppm, respectively. After the operating temperature of the corrosion cell where the electrolyte was injected was attained at setting temperature, galvanic coupling was made and at the same time galvanic current was measured. The galvanic corrosion rate decreased with time, which was described by corrosion product such as protective film as well as boric acid deposit formed on the carbon steel with time. From the galvanic current obtained as a function of temperature and boron concentration, it was found that the galvanic corrosion rate decreased with temperature while the corrosion rate increased with boron concentration. The experimental results obtained from galvanic corrosion measurement were explained by adhesive property of corrosion product such as protective film, boric acid deposit formed on the carbon steel wall and dehydration of boric acid to be slightly soluble boric acid phase. Moreover the galvanic corrosion rate calculated using initial galvanic coupling current instead of steady state coupling current was remarked, which could give us relatively closer galvanic corrosion rate to real pressurized water reactor

  11. Characterization of SCC crack tip in alloy 600 in simulated primary water of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution observations on microstructure of SCC crack tips were carried out on alloy 600 exposed to a simulated PWR primary water environment. A focused-ion beam (FIB) micro-processing has been applied to prepare electron transparent foils for cross-sectional observations of the crack tips. Cr rich oxides ((Cr,Fe)3O4 and Cr2O3) and a metallic Ni phase were identified at the crack tip and along the grain boundary ahead of the crack tip. Oxide layers on the crack walls were identified as a double layer structure. The inner layer consisted of Cr rich oxides and the outer layer consisted of NiO. Similar microstructure was observed in cross sections of surface oxide layers that were prepared by using the same FIB technique. The inner layer consisted of Cr rich oxides and a metallic Ni phase and was covered by the outer layer of NiFe2O4 and NiO. In addition, Cr rich oxides were observed along uncracked grain boundaries intercepted by the surface. It is suggested that selective oxidation of chromium occurs at the crack tips, grain boundaries and inner layers. The observations of oxygen penetration along the grain boundaries support a larger diffusivity of oxygen in the stressed grain boundary than that in the unstressed one. (author)

  12. Structural analysis of surface film on alloy 600 formed under environment of PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown by one of the present authors and so forth that PWSCC of alloy 600 relates to dissolved hydrogen concentration (DH) in water and oxide film structure. However, the mechanism of PWSCC has not been clear yet. Therefore, in order to investigate relationship between them, structural analysis of the oxide film formed under the environment of PWR primary water was carried out by using X-ray diffraction, the scanning electron microscope and the transmission electron microscope. Especially, to perform accurate analysis, the synchrotron orbital radiation with SPring-8 was tried to use for thin film X-ray diffraction measurement. From the results, observed are as follows: 1. the oxide film is mainly composed of NiO, under the condition without hydrogen. 2. In the environment of DH 2.75ppm, the oxide film forms thin spinel structures. 3. On the other hand, needlelike oxides are formed at DH 1ppm. For this reason, around 1ppm of DH there would be the boundary that stable NiO and spinel oxide generate, and it agrees with the peak range of the PWSCC susceptibility on hydrogen. From this, it is suggested that the boundary of NiO/spinel oxide affects the SCC susceptibility. (author)

  13. Oxidation Behavior around the Stress Corrosion Crack Tips of Alloy 600 under PWR Primary Water Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress corrosion cracks in Alloy 600 compact tension specimens tested at 325 .deg. C in a simulated primary water environment of pressurized water reactor were analyzed by analytical transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). From a fine-prode chemical analysis, oxygen was found on the grain boundary just ahead of the creak tip, and chromium oxides were precipitated on the crack tip and the grain boundary attacked by the oxygen diffusion, leaving a Cr/Fe depletion (or Ni enrichment) zone. The oxide layer inside the crack was revealed to consist of a double (inner and outer) layer. Chromium oxides existed in the inner layer, with NiO and (Ni,Cr) spinels in the outer layer. From the nano-SIMS analysis, oxygen was detected at the locations of intergranular chromium carbides ahead of the crack tip, which means that oxygen diffused into the grain boundary and oxidized the surfaces of the chromium carbides. The intergranular chromium carbide blunted the crack tip, thereby suppressing the crack propagation

  14. An assessment of the CRDM alloy 600 reactor vessel head penetration PWSCC remedial techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the evaluations and results of an autoclave accelerated SCC (stress corrosion cracking) test program designed to assess the effectiveness of selected surface remedial techniques to mitigate Alloy 600 PWSCC (primary water stress corrosion cracking) in the reactor vessel head penetration base and weld materials in PWRs. The testing employed ring samples representing commercial heats of penetration tube material in service. The test rings were stressed by cyclic ovalization to represent the penetration weld residual stresses and were treated with specified repair and mitigative remedial techniques prior to exposure in the autoclaves. A reference sample fabricated from the Ringhals 2 susceptible penetration tube material with known cracking history was included in the testing for the purpose of 'real time bench marking' the test results. The results of the accelerated SCC testing suggested that depending on the treatment employed, the assessed remedial treatments could be effective in extending the penetration life by a period ranging from a few cycles to beyond the licensed life of the plant. The anticipated benefit is largely determined by the details of the application of the process and the vessel head (service) temperature. There appears to be room for improvements to be made in all processes, but sufficient information is available for utilities to make informed judgments. (authors)

  15. Methodologies to assess PWSCC susceptibility of primary component Alloy 600 locations in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methodologies to assess susceptibility to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 component locations in the Primary System of Pressurized Water Reactors are presented. The assessment methodologies are presented. The assessment methodologies are based on Relative Susceptibility Index (RSI) and Cumulative Susceptibility Index (CSI) models utilizing key contributing parameters such as service and residual stresses, yield strength, service temperature, material condition and microstructure, and the accumulated service time. To aid in the development of future inspection plans, a method of ranking of the assessed susceptibilities by 'bench marking' with respect to the susceptibility of a reference location of known PWSCC history of a reference location of known PWSCC history is presented. Means of utilizing the susceptibility ranking results in developing a prioritized inspection plan are discussed. A follow-up investigative plan to the initial inspection is proposed, which includes identification of critical sampling locations, sample extraction, sample investigations and testing to ensure that the potentially highest susceptibility locations are free from near term PWSCC and, further, to provide a basis for established schedules for future inspections. Finally, parametric considerations of the contributing factor are presented to help the utility choose suitable option to mitigate the PWSCC issue while minimizing the impact on continued service

  16. Experience with detection and disposition of PWSCC flaws in PWR pressurizer and reactor coolant system loop Alloy 600 penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of cracking of alloy 600 heater sleeve penetrations in a Combustion Engineering (CE) designed pressurizer in 1989, prompted utilities and the designer to form a group to investigate the cracking and address the potential safety concerns. The cause of cracking was determined to be axial primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). Its axial orientation made ejection of a penetration highly unlikely. Therefore, PWSCC of alloy 600 penetrations was not considered a safety issue but an economic issue. To manage the issue at the Florida Power and Light Co.'s (FPL's) two unit St. Lucie Nuclear Power Plant, FPL has: performed visual inspections for evidence of PWSCC (leakage), preventively replaced penetrations based on predictions from industry data, and developed a standardized repair method as a contingency to respond to emergent repairs while minimizing the associated outage time

  17. Effect of cyclic loadings on the stress corrosion crack growth rate in Alloy 600 in PWR primary water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerre, Catherine; Raquet, Olivier [CEA, DEN/DPC/SCCME/LECA, bat.458, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Duisabeau, Laure [CEA, DEN/DMN/SEMI/LCMI, bat.625, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Turluer, G. [IRSN, DSR/SAMS, BP17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-roses Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    Fatigue air pre-cracked Compact Tensile (CT) specimens in Alloy 600 were tested in primary water (325 deg. C) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). In order to assess the effect of cyclic loading on crack growth, CT specimens are tested under constant loadings and low frequencies cyclic loadings: triangular and saw-tooth. Two Alloy 600 materials, with different intrinsic susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC), are studied. Crack growth rates are monitored in-situ by the direct current potential drop method and are validated by postmortem observations. Fracture surfaces are characterized by macroscopic and microscopic observations. Comparison of the crack growth rate and of the fracture features demonstrated that they depend on the characteristics of the mechanical loading (constant, triangular or sawtooth) and on the material intrinsic sensibility to SCC. (authors)

  18. Effect of cyclic loadings on the stress corrosion crack growth rate in Alloy 600 in PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue air pre-cracked Compact Tensile (CT) specimens in Alloy 600 were tested in primary water (325 deg. C) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). In order to assess the effect of cyclic loading on crack growth, CT specimens are tested under constant loadings and low frequencies cyclic loadings: triangular and saw-tooth. Two Alloy 600 materials, with different intrinsic susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC), are studied. Crack growth rates are monitored in-situ by the direct current potential drop method and are validated by postmortem observations. Fracture surfaces are characterized by macroscopic and microscopic observations. Comparison of the crack growth rate and of the fracture features demonstrated that they depend on the characteristics of the mechanical loading (constant, triangular or sawtooth) and on the material intrinsic sensibility to SCC. (authors)

  19. Microstructural effects on microdeformation and primary-side stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 tubing: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microdeformation characteristics in Alloy 600 tubing have been examined after various tensile deformations. Microstructure developed during processing was found to control subsequent microdeformation behavior. Grain boundary carbides were the most effective source of dislocations, activating at lower macro-strains and continuing to operate at higher macro-strains than other sources. Ledges within grain boundaries, twin boundaries and matrix carbides also acted as dislocation sources. Most dislocation activity at low strains was confined to planar arrays. A conceptual model is presented to account for the effects of interfacial and matrix microstructure on microdeformation and primary-side SCC of Alloy 600 tubing. Microstructure is linked to IGSCC resistance through its influence on microdeformation behavior and the resultant crack-tip stress state. Dislocation source activity at grain interfaces is proposed to be a critical aspect controlling IGSCC susceptibility. Effective sources such as grain boundary carbides promote crack blunting, decrease the crack-tip stress state and increase resistance to cracking

  20. Relationship between Microstructure and Ductility Dip Cracking resistance of Alloy 600/690 weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni-Cr-Fe alloys are used extensively in nuclear power systems for their resistance to general corrosion, localized corrosion, and environmentally assisted cracking. However, concerns with stress corrosion cracking of moderate chromium (14.22 wt-%) alloys such as Alloy 600 and its filler metals(FMs) (E-182 and EN82) have driven the application of higher chromium (28.30 wt-%) alloys like Alloy 690. While Alloy 690 and its FMs show outstanding resistance to environmentally assisted cracking in most water-reactor environments, these alloys are prone to welding defects, most notably to ductility dip cracking(DDC). The DDC occurs at temperatures between 0.5 and 0.8 of their melting temperature. This ductility drop may result in intergranular elevated temperature cracking often referred to as DDC. The DDC may occur during the high temperature processing of these alloys or during welding if the imposed strain exhausts the available ductility within this temperature range. Several alloy systems including Ni-base alloys, Ni.Cu alloys, Cu alloys, stainless steels and steels, have been reported to be susceptible to DDC. A complete understanding of the DDC mechanism does not exist, which makes DDC control in actual production conditions a very difficult task. In this study, the DDC resistance was evaluated with different FMs which have different chemical composition. The microstructural features of FMs such as precipitation behavior and grain boundaries morphology were observed, and it were correlated with the DDC susceptibility. The hot ductility test and strainto- fracture test was used to evaluate the DDC susceptibility at high temperature

  1. Stress field determination in an alloy 600 stress corrosion crack specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of EDF studies on stress corrosion cracking rates in the Alloy 600 steam generators tubes, we studied the influence of strain hardened surface layers on the different stages of cracking for a tensile smooth specimen (TLT). The stress field was notably assessed to try and explain the slow/rapid-propagation change observed beyond the strain hardened layers. The main difficulty is to simulate in a finite element model the inner and outer surfaces of these strain hardened layers, produced by the final manufacturing stages of SG tubes which have not been heat treated. In the model, the strain hardening is introduced by simulating a multi-layer material. Residual stresses are simulated by an equivalent fictitious thermomechanical calculation, realigned with respect to X-ray measurements. The strain hardening introduction method was validated by an analytical calculation giving identical results. Stress field evolution induced by specimen tensile loading were studied using an elastoplastic 2D finite element calculations performed with the Aster Code. The stress profile obtained after load at 660 MPa shows no stress discontinuity at the boundary between the strain hardened layer and the rest of the tube. So we propose that a complementary calculation be performed, taking into account the multi-cracked state of the strain hardened zones by means of a damage variable. In fact, this state could induce stress redistribution in the un-cracked area, which would perhaps provide an explanation of the crack-ground rate change beyond the strain hardened zone. The calculations also evidence the harmful effects of plastic strains on a strain hardened layer due to the initial state of the tube (not heat-treated), to grit blasting or to shot peening. The initial compressive stress condition of this surface layer becomes, after plastic strain, a tensile stress condition. These results are confirmed by laboratory test. (author). 10 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs., 2 appends

  2. Mechanical and corrosion properties of Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy 600 related to primary side SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-fold objective of the program is to provide the mechanical property data required for the development of a strain rate damage model for environmentally assisted cracking of Inconel 600 and to evaluate critical damage model parameters in primary water environments by conducting a series of stress corrosion tests. The test program includes mechanical property tests at 200C, 3160C and strain rate tests to determine critical strain rate SCC parameters in primary water environments. Data are presented from slow strain rate tensile tests, stress relaxation tests and creep tests. A short discussion of the Gerber-Garud Strain Rate Damage Model is included to provide the background rationale for the test program. Utilitarian aspects of the Strain Rate Damage Model and the test program data are presented. Analysis of accelerated stress corrosion testing at high temperatures, and the contribution of thermally activated inelastic deformation to apparent activation energies for stress corrosion cracking is emphasized

  3. Lead-induced SCC of alloy 600 in plausible steam generator crevice environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory stress corrosion cracking (SCC) test environments developed to simulate representative BNGS-A steam generator (SG) crevice chemistries have been used to determine the susceptibility of Alloy 600 to lead-induced SCC under plausible SG conditions. Test environments were based on plant SG hideout return data and analysis of removed tubes and deposits. Deviations from the normal near neutral crevice pH environment were considered to simulate possible faulted excursion crevice chemistry and to bound the postulated crevice pH range of 3-9 (at temperature). The effect of lead contamination up to 1000 ppm, but with an emphasis on the 100 to 500 ppm range, was determined. SCC susceptibility was investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests and encapsulated C-ring tests. CERT tests were performed at 305 degrees C on tubing representative of BNGS-A SG U-bends. The C-ring test method allowed a wider test matrix covering three temperatures (280, 304 and 315 degrees C), three strain levels (0.2%, 2% and 4%) and tubing representative of U-bends plus tubing given a simulated stress relief to represent material at the tubesheet. The results of this test program confirmed that in the absence of lead contamination, cracking does not occur in these concentrated, 3.3 to 8.9 pH range, crevice environments. Also, it appears that the concentrated crevice environments suppress lead-induced cracking relative to that seen in all-volatile-treatment (AVT) water. For the (static) C-ring tests, lead-induced SCC was only produced in the near-neutral crevice environment and was more severe at 500 ppm than 100 ppm PbO. This trend was also observed in CERT tests but some cracking/grain boundary attack occurred in acidic (pH 3.3) and alkaline (pH 8.9) environments. The C-ring tests indicated that a certain amount of resistance to cracking was imparted by simulated stress relief of the tubing. This heat treatment, confirmed to have resulted in sensitization, promoted

  4. Zinc Treatment Effects on Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 600 in High Temperature, Hydrogenated Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace levels of soluble zinc(II) ions (30 ppb) maintained in mildly alkaline, hydrogenated water at 260 C were found to reduce the corrosion rate of Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) by about 40% relative to a non-zinc baseline test [2]. Characterizations of the corrosion oxide layer via SEM/TEM and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of a chromite-rich oxide phase and recrystallized nickel. The oxide crystals had an approximate surface density of 3500 (micro)m-2 and an average size of 11 ± 5 nm. Application of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with argon ion milling, followed by target factor analyses, permitted speciated composition vs. depth profiles to be obtained. Numerical integration of the profiles revealed that: (1) alloy oxidation occurred non-selectively and (2) zinc(II) ions were incorporated into the chromite-rich spinel: (Zn0.55Ni0.3Fe0.15)(Fe0.25Cr0.75)2O4. Spinel stoichiometry places the trivalent ion composition in the single phase oxide region, consistent with the absence of the usual outer, ferrite-rich solvus layer. By comparison with compositions of the chromite-rich spinel obtained in the non-zinc baseline test, it is hypothesized that zinc(II) ion incorporation was controlled by the equilibrium for 0.55 Zn2+(aq) + (Ni0.7Fe0.3)(Fe0.3Cr0.7)2O4(s) (requilibrium) 0.40 Ni2+(aq) + 0.15 Fe2+(aq) + (Zn0.55Ni0.3Fe0.15)(Fe0.3Cr0.7)2O4(s). It is estimated that only 8% of the Ni(II) ions generated during non-selective oxidation of the alloy were retained as Ni(II) in the corrosion layer; the remainder either recrystallized to Ni(0) (38%) or were released to the aqueous phase (54%)

  5. Lead-induced stress-corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in plausible steam generator crevice environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) test environments were developed to simulate crevice chemistries representative of Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A (BNPD A) steam generators (SGs); these test environments were used to determine the susceptibility of Alloy 600 to lead-induced SCC under plausible SG conditions. Test environments were based on plant SG hideout return data and analysis of removed tubes and deposits. Deviations from the normal near-neutral crevice pH environment were considered to simulate possible faulted excursion crevice chemistry and to bound the postulated crevice pH range of 3 to 9 (at temperature). The effect of lead contamination up to 1000 ppm, but with an emphasis on the 100- to 500-ppm range, was determined. SCC susceptibility was investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests and encapsulated C-ring tests. CERT tests were performed at 305 degrees C on tubing representative of BNPD A SG U-bends. The C-ring test method allowed a wider test matrix, covering 3 temperatures (280 degrees C, 304 degrees C and 315 degrees C), 3 strain levels (0.2%, 2% and 4%), and tubing representative of U-bends plus tubing given a simulated stress relief to represent material at the tube sheet. The results of this test program confirmed that in the absence of lead contamination, cracking does not occur in these concentrated, 3.3 to 8.9 pH range, crevice environments. Also, it appears that the concentrated crevice environments suppress lead-induced cracking relative to that seen in all-volatile-treatment (AVT) water. For the (static) C-ring tests, lead-induced SCC was only produced in the near-neutral crevice environment and was more severe at 500 ppm than at 100 ppm PbO. This trend was also observed in CERT tests, but some cracking-grain boundary attack occurred in acidic (pH 3.3) and alkaline (pH 8.9) environments. The C-ring tests indicated that a certain amount of resistance to cracking was imparted by simulated stress relief of

  6. SCC analysis of Alloy 600 tubes from a retired steam generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2013-09-01

    Steam generators (SG) equipped with Alloy 600 tubes of a Korean nuclear power plants were replaced with a new one having Alloy 690 tubes in 1998 after 20 years of operation. To set up a guide line for an examination of the other SG tubes, a metallographic examination of the defected tubes was carried out. A destructive analysis on 71 tubes was addressed, and a relation among the stress corrosion crack (SCC) defect location, defect depth, and location of the sludge pile was obtained. Tubes extracted from the retired SG were transferred to a hot laboratory. Detailed nondestructive analysis examinations were taken again at the laboratory, and the tubes were then destructively examined. The types and sizes of the cracks were characterized. The location and depth of the SCC were evaluated in terms of the location and height of the sludge. Most axial cracks were in the sludge pile, whereas the circumferential ones were around the top of the tube sheet (TTS) or below the TTS. Average defect depth of the axial cracks was deeper than that of the circumferential ones. Axial cracks at tube support plate (TSP) seem to be related with corrosion/sludge in crevice like at the TTS region. Circumferential cracks at TSP seem to be caused by tube denting at the upper part of the TSP. Tubes not having clear ECT signals for quantifying an ECT data-base. Tubes having no ECT signal. Tubes with a large ECT signal. Tubes with various types and sizes of flaws (primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), outside diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC), Pit). Tubes with distinct PWSCC or ODSCC. Tubes were extracted from the RSG based on the field ECT with the criteria, and transferred to a hot laboratory at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for destructive examination. A comprehensive ECT inspection was performed again at the hot laboratory to confirm the location of the cracks obtained from a field inspection. These exact locations of the defects were marked on the

  7. A comparing study of alloy 600 and alloy 690 on resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking(IGSCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to compare the effect of senitization on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking(IGSCC) between Alloy 600 and Alloy 690, these alloys have been sensitized for 1 to 100 hours at 700 .deg. C. The degree of sensitization(DOS) has evaluated by the ratio of Ir(the maximum current density at anodic scan) to Ia(the maximum current density at reverse scan) in the modified double loop EPR(electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation) test in 0.01M H2SO4 + 0.0001M KSCN at 25 .deg. C and at scan rate of 0.5mV/sec. The susceptibility to IGSCC has been measured in 0.01M Na2S4O6 solution using CERT(constant extension rate tester) at strain rate of 1.0 x 10-6S-1. With increasing sensitization time the DOS of Alloy 600 increases to the maximum value at 5 hours and decreases gradually due to the replenishment of Cr to the Cr-depleted grain boundaries. For Alloy 600 samples except those sensitized for less than 1 hour, the DOS measured by the modified EPR test parallel to susceptibility to IGSCC revealed by the ratio of strain to failure (εf, Na2S4O6/εf, Air). It appears that the susceptibility to IGSCC is closely associated with the depth in Cr-depleted concentration profile across grain boundary. For the sensitized Alloy 690 samples exhibited extremely low value of Ir/Ia less than 0.074% and also were immune to IGSCC. The good resistance of Alloy 690 to IGSCC is considered to be attributed to the higher Cr concentration to avoid serious Cr-depletion problems adjacent to grain boundary

  8. Studies on the growth of oxide films on alloy 800 and alloy 600 in lithiated water at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the oxide films grown on Alloy 800 and Alloy 600 in lithiated (pH25Cdegrees = 10.2-10.4) water at high temperature, with and without hydrogen overpressure (HO) and an initial oxygen dissolved in the water have been studied. The oxide films were grown at different temperatures (220-350 C degrees) and exposure times with HO, and at 315 C degrees without HO in static autoclaves. Some results are also reported for oxide layers grown on Alloy 800 coupons exposed in a high temperature loop during extended exposure times. The average oxide thickness was determined using descaling procedures. The morphology and composition of the oxide films were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For both Alloys, at 350 C degrees with HO, the oxide layers were clearly composed of a double layer: an inner one of very small crystallites and an outer layer formed by bigger crystals scattered over the inner one. The analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated the presence of spinel structures like magnetite (Fe3O4) and ferrites and/or nickel chromites. In this case the average oxide thickness was around 0.12 to 0.15 μm for both Alloys. Similar values were found at lower temperatures. The morphology of the oxide layer was similar at lower temperatures for Alloy 800, but a different morphology consisting of platelets or needles was found for Alloy 600. The oxide morphology found at 315 C degrees, without HO and with initial dissolved oxygen in the water, was also very different between both Alloys. The oxide film grown on Alloy 600 with an initial dissolved oxygen in the water, showed clusters of platelets forming structures like flowers that were dispersed on an rather homogeneous layer consisting of smaller platelets or needles. The average oxide film grown in this case was around 0.25 μm for Alloy 600 and 0.18 μm for Alloy 800. (author)

  9. Effects of ethanolamine, pH change, and increased hydrazine levels on deposit-covered alloy 600 and brass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical dissolution tests and electrochemical tests were carried out on alloy 600 (UNS N06600) specimens covered with synthetic deposit simulating the tube deposits in the steam generators at Indian Point 2 Station in Buchanan, New York. The tests showed that the introduction of ethanolamine (ETA) and a moderate increase in pH gave rise to lower corrosion rates, but enhancement of hydrazine levels caused them to rise. In the case of brass, both types of tests showed that raising the pH caused the corrosion rates to increase, but the introduction of ETA led to a mild decrease in these rates

  10. Texture, residual strain, and plastic deformation around scratches in alloy 600 using synchrotron X-ray Laue micro-diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deformation around two scratches in Alloy 600 (A600) was studied nondestructively using synchrotron Laue differential aperture X-ray microscopy. The orientation of grains and elastic strain distribution around the scratches were measured. A complex residual deviatoric elastic strain state was found to exist around the scratches. Heavy plastic deformation was observed up to a distance of 20 μm from the scratches. In the region 20-30 μm from the scratches the diffraction spots were heavily streaked and split indicating misoriented dislocation cell structures

  11. Effect of temperature and cold work on the crack growth rate of alloy 600 in primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) has been used to fabricate the tubing in steam generators (SG) of pressurized water reactors (PWR) in nuclear power plants. The susceptibility of alloy 600 to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in hydrogenated high-temperature water was studied as a function of the degree of cold work (CW) of the alloy and the temperature of the solution. Cracks did not nucleate in smooth specimens during constant extension rate testing (CERT). However, cracking susceptibility increased as the degree of CW by bending increased. An extrapolation was made to predict cracking susceptibility in smooth non-CW conditions. The activation energy (Q) for the crack growth rate (CGR) was calculated for two CW conditions in the temperature ranges between 315 C and 350 C and 270 C to 350 C. Results showed there was no unique value of Q. Analysis of Q values suggested that the CGR depended primarily on events occurring inside the alloy, which were enhanced by processes occurring in the metal-electrolyte interface

  12. Destructive examination of an Alloy 600 pressurizer relief line elbow removed from an advanced test reactor loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While pressurizing a materials test loop at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), reactor operators discovered a pinhole leak in the heat affected zone of a weld that joins an Alloy 600 elbow to the nozzle of a solid Alloy 600 pressurizer. The ATR is a fuels and materials test reactor operated for the Department of Energy by EG ampersand G Idaho, Incorporated. This loop had operated for over 20 years with a deaerated PWR-type water coolant chemistry. The 1.5 inch diameter relief line interior was typically exposed to a stagnant steam phase environment under nominal operating conditions of 620 degrees F and 1800 psi. The removed elbow, the defective weld area, and a small section of the pressurizer nozzle were destructively examined. Failure was attributed to an intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanism. The leak path was through the heat affected zone on the elbow side of the weld, and followed a wide weld underbead area. This underbead area apparently resulted from a burn-through that occurred when the initial weld layer was made. The through-wall crack displayed a completely intergranular mode of propagation typical of SCC. Scanning Electron Microscope examinations of other areas of the weld underbead revealed microcracks at the underbead edges. Metallographic examination of the elbow material revealed that it had a microstructure that materials testing has shown to have poor resistance to SCC; in addition, grain size banding was observed

  13. The effects of chemical factors on stress corrosion of Alloy 600 exposed to the cooling medium in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of chemical factors in reducing stress corrosion of Alloy 600 in a primary coolant medium were investigated in France as part of a test program undertaken by three laboratories (EDF, FRAMATOME and CEA) on tubes with differing sensitivity to corrosion. Studied parameters were type of Alloy 600 material, temperature, lithium concentration and pH. The effect of each parameter was first estimated separately by qualitative analysis and the parameter groups which best describe the corrosion phenomenon were then defined. The preponderant effect of increasing the temperature (by 40 degrees C) and the type of material were confirmed, as was that of the boron and lithium concentrations. The risk of cracking increases with lithium content but the phenomenon reverses at high concentrations. The effect of pH variations is mainly reflected in variations in the lithium content. A quantitative study was then carried out to assess the effect of each parameter in terms of risk and time to cracking in a given reference medium. A model of the chemical effects is proposed, based on the mechanism involving dissolution-repassivation of the metal after failure of the passive film during the phase when cracks propagate slowly. This allows a quantitative approach to the effects of hydrogen and the other chemical parameters involved and the results are compared with those of the statistical model

  14. A comparison of the passive oxide films formed on CANDU steam generator tubing alloy 600 and alloy 800

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 600 (A600) steam generator (SG) tubing has been shown to be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Alloy 800 (A800) was developed as a replacement, though it has shown susceptibility to corrosion under certain conditions. The properties of the passive oxide films on both alloys were extensively analyzed to determine why the performance of A800 is superior to that of A600. Surface analysis to determine oxide composition was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron spectroscopy (AES). Electrochemical measurements were made using anodic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The oxide films on A600 and A800 were shown to have different electrochemical and compositional properties. (author)

  15. Remedial methods for intergranular attack of alloy 600 tubing. Volume 3. Boric acid and acetic acid remedial methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important cause of recent tube degradation in recirculating pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators with open tube/tubesheet crevices is intergranular attack (IGA) of alloy 600 tubing in the crevice region. The attack appears to occur on the hot leg tubing because of high concentrations of caustic species formed from remnants of past phosphate water treatment, combined with materials from inleakage from freshwater-cooled condensers. The concept of using neutralizers to modify the aggressiveness of the crevice environment was examined. It appears that this can be accomplished by neutralizing the caustic species with an acid. Two ways to apply the acid are by off-line flushing during plant shutdown and by on-line treatment during operation. The substance that appears to be most suitable for off-line flushing is acetic acid, with boric acid as a second choice. Concentrations should be in the range of from 1000 to 5000 ppM. The addition of 1000 to 5000 ppM of a non-ionic detergent in the flush solution should improve penetration of the crevice. Use of preflush lancing to remove sludge on the tubesheet will also help by reducing acid consumption. The requirements for materials to be used in on-line treatment are more stringent because of possible interaction with other components in the secondry system. Boric acid is the only substance that has operational experience. A series of tests are proposed to investigate the behavior of acetic acid and boric acid on tubesheet sludge, on tubesheet/support plate material, and on alloy 600/tubesheet couples. Similarly, areas of uncertainty of on-line treatment with boric acid are its effect on tubesheet/support plate materials and on the rest of the secondary system. 23 refs

  16. Stress relief to prevent stress corrosion in the transition region of expanded Alloy 600 steam-generator tubing. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of preventing primary side roll transition cracking has been investigated, using induction heating to attain stress relief of expanded Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Work on rolled tubing and U-bends has shown that temperatures with which stress relief can be obtained range from 700 to 8500C, with lower temperatures in this range requiring longer times at temperature to provide the requisite reduction in residual stresses. No work has yet been done outside this range. Preliminary tests, using induction heating, have been carried out on a mock tube sheet assembly, designed to the dimensions of a typical steam generator, and have identified the type of heating/cooling cycle that would occur in the tube sheet during a stress relief operation. Preliminary results show that the times to reach the higher temperatures in the range observed to give stress relief, of the order of 8500C, can be as short as 8 seconds, and less with optimum coil design and power control

  17. Inspection and Repair Techniques and Strategies for Alloy 600 PWSCC in Reactor Vessel Head CRD Nozzles and Welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Alloy 600 PWSCC CRD nozzle leaks discovered in the fall of 2000 and spring of 2001 in several US plants, the NRC has recommended a more pro-active effort by U.S. utilities to inspect similarly susceptible nozzles in all US plants. The primary safety concern is circumferential cracks that can permit the nozzle to separate from the head at high velocity and produce a large-break leak in the reactor vessel. A secondary concern is head leakage from any through-wall cracks in the nozzle or J-groove weld area. Although the fundamental weld and seal design are similar for all US PWR plants, the various surrounding geometry and repair probability considerations require multiple inspection and repair alternatives. Geometry issues include the head insulation design that influences the ability to perform visual examinations from above the head, and the presence or absence of thermal sleeves and funnels governing the type of NDE probes than can be used. Repair probability considerations primarily include the likelihood for repair of a small or large number of nozzles and the length of time the repair must last before a head replacement. This paper discusses the various inspection and repair alternatives offered by one service vendor and discusses a decision process for planning the inspection and repair effort. (authors)

  18. Analysis of the cracking behavior of Alloy 600 RVH penetrations. Part 1: Stress analysis and K computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study presented here concerns the analysis of crack propagation behavior in the Alloy 600 RVH penetrations used in the French 900 and 1300 MWe PWR series. The damage mechanism identified is clearly the SCC in primary water environment. Consequently the analysis presented here is based on: (1) the stress analysis carried out on the RVH penetrations, (2) the SCC model developed in primary water environment and at the operating temperatures, and (3) the fracture mechanics concepts. The different steps involved in the study are: (1) Evaluation of the stress state for the case of the peripheral configuration of RVH penetrations; the case retained here is that of a conic tube with stress analysis conducted using multi-pass welding. (2) Computation of the influence functions (IF) for a polynomial stress distribution in case of a tube of Ri/t ratio (internal diameter/thickness) corresponding to that of an RVH penetration. (3) Establishment of a propagation law based on study and review of data available in the literature. (4) Conduction of a parametric study of crack propagation using several initial defects. (5) Analysis of crack propagation of defects observed in various reactors and comparison with measured propagation rates. This paper (Part 1) deals with the first two steps namely Stress Analysis and K Computation

  19. Electrochemical and metallurgical aspects of stress corrosion cracking of sensitized Alloy 600 in simulated primary water containing sulfur contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of sensitized Alloy 600 was investigated in aerated solutions of sodium thiosulfate containing 1.3% boric acid. Results indicate that in the borated thiosulfate solution containing 7 ppM sulfur, 5 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide is sufficient to inhibit SCC in U-bends. The occurrence of inhibition seems to correlate to the rapid increase of pH and conductivity of the solution as a result of the lithium hydroxide addition. In the slow strain rate tests in the borated solution containing 0.7 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide, significant SCC is observed at a sulfur level of 30 ppB, i.e., a lithium to sulfur ratio of 23. In a parallel test in 30 ppB sulfur level but without any lithium hydroxide, the SCC is more severe than that in the lithiated environment. In the constant load test on a specimen held initially at a nominal stress near the yield strength of the material, cracks continue to grow until fracture during controlled, progressive dilution of the bulk solution, leading to final lithium concentration of 1.5 ppM and sulfur concentration (as thiosulfate) of 9.6 ppB i.e., a lithium to sulfur ratio of about 156, although lithium hydroxide retards the rate of crack propagation to some extent. The crack growth rate is strongly influenced by the electrochemical potential which is primarily governed by the local crack tip chemistry

  20. Effect of water chemistry on environmentally assisted cracking of alloy 600 in simulated primary side PWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental aspects of crack growth due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 in simulated primary side PWR environments have been studied. The purpose of the study was to quantify the effects of the water chemistry (Li, B and H2 concentrations, and the pH-value by adding KOH) on the crack growth rate, da/dt. 12.5 mm thick compact tension (CT) specimens were used for testing at a constant maximum stress intensity factor in the range of 26-32 MPa□m. The crack growth was continuously monitored using a direct current potential drop system. Intergranular crack growth due to IGSCC was dominant in the specimens, although there were also small fractions of transgranular cracking. Multivariate analysis was used on the results from the present work together with results from previous tests on the same material. Temperature and the stress intensity were also included as factors in the analysis. A partial least squares regression was developed and interaction effects between the factors were found to affect the crack growth rate. The Partial Least Square regression predicts the observed crack growth rates reasonably well. (authors)

  1. Assessment of the interaction of variables in the intergranular stress corrosion crack growth rate behavior of Alloys 600, 82, and 182

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCC testing of Alloy 600 and its weld metals has demonstrated that temperature, stress intensity factor (K), dissolved hydrogen, and yield strength all play a role on crack growth in deaerated, hydrogenated water. Typically, each variable has been modeled independently. However, some of these variables interact, which can affect crack growth predictions. In particular, testing has demonstrated several important interactions, including final annealing temperature and K, cold work and dissolved hydrogen, and orientation and cold work. The annealing temperature influences the K dependence of Alloy 600, with lower temperature anneals decreasing the influence of stress on growth. The response to cold work varies as a function of processing method and orientation, with crack growth in the processing direction having a stronger yield strength dependence than crack growth perpendicular to the processing direction. The effect of hydrogen has been found to be related to electrochemical potential, with the most susceptible condition occurring near the Ni/NiO phase transition. However, cold worked Alloy 600 maintains the peak susceptibility at low hydrogen conditions. (author)

  2. The role of Hydrogen and Creep in Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water Environments ? a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Hua, F H

    2004-07-12

    Intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 in PWR steam generator environment has been extensively studied for over 30 years without rendering a clear understanding of the essential mechanisms. The lack of understanding of the IGSCC mechanism is due to a complex interaction of numerous variables such as microstructure, thermomechanical processing, strain rate, water chemistry and electrochemical potential. Hydrogen plays an important role in all these variables. The complexity, however, significantly hinders a clearer and more fundamental understanding of the mechanism of hydrogen in enhancing intergranular cracking via whatever mechanism. In this work, an attempt is made to review the role of hydrogen based on the current understanding of grain boundary structure and chemistry and intergranular fracture of nickel alloys, effect of hydrogen on electrochemical behavior of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 (e.g. the passive film stability, polarization behavior and open-circuit potential) and effect of hydrogen on PWSCC behavior of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690. Mechanistic studies on the PWSCC are briefly reviewed. It is concluded that further studies on the role of hydrogen on intergranular cracking in both inert and primary side environments are needed. These studies should focus on the correlation of the results obtained at different laboratories by different methods on materials with different metallurgical and chemical parameters.

  3. High-Resolution Characterization of Intergranular Attack and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 in High-Temperature Primary Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intergranular (IG) attack regions and stress-corrosion cracks in alloy 600 U-bend samples tested in 330C, pressurized-water-reactor water have been characterized by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM). Observations of cross-sectional samples revealed short oxidized zones preceding crack tips and narrow (10-nm wide), deeply penetrated, oxidized zones along grain boundaries exposed along open cracks. High-resolution TEM imaging and fine-probe analysis were used to determine the local chemistries and structures in these corrosion-affected zones. Matrix areas surrounding the crack tips appeared highly strained, whereas the IG penetrations generally did not. The predominant oxide structure found along crack walls and just ahead of crack tips was NiO with metal-atom ratios similar to the alloy. The attacked grain boundaries off open cracks contained similar fine-grained NiO-structure oxide together with local areas of Cr-rich oxide and Ni-rich metal. In contrast, Cr-rich oxide identified as Cr2O3 predominated at the leading edges of the IG attack. Stereoscopic imaging of these tip structures revealed nm-scale porosity and tunnels within the oxide and pores along the grain-boundary plane ahead of the oxide. The general interpretation of these results is that IG attack and cracking follows local dissolution or oxidation and the formation of pores at grain boundaries. This degradation occurs at the nanometer scale and therefore requires high-resolution ATEM methods to reveal detailed characteristics. Experimental support for several possible IG degradation mechanisms is considered

  4. The role of time-dependent deformation in intergranular crack initiation of alloy 600 steam generator tubing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, G.S.; Lian, K.

    1998-03-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of two commercial alloy 600 conditions (600LT, 600HT) and controlled- purity Ni-18Cr-9Fe alloys (CDMA, CDTT) were investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests in primary water (0.01M LiOH+0.01M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) with 1 bar hydrogen overpressure at 360{degrees}C and 320{degrees}C. Heat treatments produced two types of microstructures in both commercial and controlled-purity alloys: one dominated by grain boundary carbides (600HT and CDTT) and one dominated by intragranular carbides (600LT and CDMA). CERT tests were conducted over a range of strain rates and at two temperatures with interruptions at specific strains to determine the crack depth distributions. Results show that in all samples, IGSCC was the dominant failure mode. For both the commercial alloy and the controlled-purity alloys, the microstructure with grain boundary carbides showed delayed crack initiation and shallower crack depths than did the intragranular carbide microstructure under all experimental conditions. This data indicates that a grain boundary carbide microstructure is more resistant to IGSCC than an intragranular carbide microstructure. Observations support both the film rupture/slip dissolution mechanism and enhanced localized plasticity. The advantage of these results over previous studies is that the different carbide distributions were obtained in the same commercial alloy using different heat treatments, and in the other case, in nearly identical controlled-purity alloys. Therefore, observations of the effects of carbide distribution on IGSCC can more confidently be attributed to the carbide distribution alone rather than other potentially significant differences in microstructure or composition.

  5. High cycle fatigue properties of inconel 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel 690 is presently used as sleeve material and a replacement alloy in degraded steam generators, as well as the material for new steam generators. But Inconel 690 has low thermal conductivity which are 3-8% less than that of Inconel 600 at operating temperature. For the same power output, conduction area must be increased. As a result, more fluid induced vibration can cause a fatigue damage of Inconel 690. High cycle fatigue ruptures occurred in the U-bend regions of North Anna Unit 1 and Mihama Unit 2 steam generators. At this study, the effect of temperature on fatigue crack growth rate in Inconel 690 steam generator tube was investigated at various temperature in air environment. With increasing temperature, fatigue crack growth rate increased and grain size effect decreased. Chromium carbides which have large size and semi-continuous distribution in the grain boundaries decreased fatigue crack growth rate

  6. Influence of hydrogen on the propagation rate of stress corrosion cracks in alloy 600 in the primary medium pressurized water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of hydrogen on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Alloy 600 in the primary water of pressurized water reactors. At 330 deg C, the threshold stress intensity factor (KISCC) depends on the dissolved hydrogen content. An increase in the hydrogen concentration from 2 to 30 mL STP.kg-1 H2O induces a decrease of KISCC from 15 to a value close to 10 MPa√m. Moreover, CGR increases with hydrogen content increasing from 2 to 30 mL STP.kg-1 H2O. For higher hydrogen content up to 260 mL STP.kg-1 1 H2O, CGR decreases and no propagation occurs above that hydrogen content. This behavior was confirmed at 290 deg C. To investigate more thoroughly the effect of hydrogen content in primary water, the oxide film composition was characterized on fracture surfaces for each hydrogen content. According to XPS analyses, the CGR is very low when a nickel rich oxide forms on the surface and it is nil when a chromium rich oxide is present. On the opposite, CGR is maximum when the oxide is a mixed nickel chromium oxide. The ability of the acoustic emission (AE) technique to detect crack initiation and to follow crack propagation at the operating temperatures of a PWR was evidenced. Furthermore, AE parameters are quite different from those recorded during the intergranular SCC of Alloy 600 under cathodic polarization at room temperature in an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. This result leads to think that the sources supposed to be emissive after filtering are not the same in both processes. Our results together with other literature data, are discussed regarding the proposed mechanisms for Alloy 600 SCC. A grain boundary oxidation mechanism seems to be more consistent with our observations. (author)

  7. Microstructure Investigation of Modified Inconel 706 Superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Kindrachuk, Vitaliy

    2006-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird die Nickel-Basis-Superlegierung Inconel 706 untersucht. Die Legierung ist stabil in einem Temperaturbereich bis zu 650°C und findet Anwendung bei der Herstellung von Gas- und Dampfturbinen. Das Ziel ist die Legierung zu optimieren um den Einsatz bei 700°C und eine Lebensdauer im Bereich von 200 000 h zu ermöglichen. Zwei Modifizierungen von Inconel 706 werden betrachtet: Rhenium (Re)-zulegiertes Inconel 706 und die Legierung DT 706 mit geänderter Zusammensetzung. Die Mik...

  8. Development of INCONEL 600 precision tube (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Yeong Han; Jo, Bong Hyeon; Lee, Dong Hee; Kim, Wan Kyo; Jeong, Pyeong Keun; Yoon, Hwang Lo; Chio, Seok Sik [Sammi Steel Co. Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    Steam generator, being connected with nuclear fuel reactor is one of the most important part of nuclear power plant and consists of a large number of INCONEL 600 tubes. Approximately 160 tons of tubes are needed for a single nuclear power plant. All of INCONEL 600 steam generator tubes for domestic nuclear power plants have been imported. The aim of this research is to develop INCONEL 600 precision tubes for steam generator of nuclear power plant. If this research is conducted successfully, we can produce nuclear fuel tubes, Ni-alloy precision tubes and stainless steel precision tubes for many purposes and technology of INCONEL 600 steam generator tubes are similar to those of other tubes above mentioned. In the current study, development of preliminary manufacturing process of INCONEL 600 precision tubes for steam generator and investigation of material`s metallurgical characteristics were conducted. The main scope of this research is as follows. First, the preliminary manufacturing process design was conducted after investigations of foreign manufacturing processes and technical reports. Second, the results of investigations of material`s metallurgical characteristics through the manufacturing process were applied to the production technology of tentative INCONEL 600 precision tubes for sample. Third, preliminary process routes were established and samples of INCONEL 600 precision tube were produced by this process. As the results of this research, 14 pieces of INCONEL 600 precision tubes were produced by preliminary manufacturing process and the material`s metallurgical characteristics were investigated through the processes. But the SCC test could not be conducted due to the absence of equipment. In order to apply the results of SCC test to the manufacturing process, we need a SCC tester which can simulate SCC characteristics under high temperature and high pressurized circulating water. 95 refs., 55 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. Stress corrosion mechanisms of alloy-600 polycrystals and monocrystals in primary water: effect of hydrogen; Mecanismes de corrosion sous contrainte de l'alliage 600 polycristallin et monocristallin en milieu primaire: role de l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foct, F

    1999-01-08

    The aim of this study is to identify the mechanisms involved in Alloy 600 primary water stress corrosion cracking. Therefore, this work is mainly focussed on the two following points. The first one is to understand the influence of hydrogen on SCC of industrial Alloy 600 and the second one is to study the crack initiation and propagation on polycrystals and single crystals. A cathodic potential applied during slow strain rate tests does not affect crack initiation but increases the slow crack growth rate by a factor 2 to 5. Cathodic polarisation, cold work and 25 cm{sup 3} STP/kg hydrogen content increase the slow CGR so that the K{sub ISCC} (and therefore fast CGR) is reached. The influence of hydrogenated primary water has been studied for the first time on Alloy 600 single crystals. Cracks cannot initiate on tensile specimens but they can propagate on pre-cracked specimens. Transgranular cracks present a precise crystallographic aspect which is similar to that of 316 alloy in MgCl{sub 2} solutions. Moreover, the following results improve the description of the cracking conditions. Firstly, the higher the hydrogen partial pressure, the lower the Alloy 600 passivation current transients. Since this result is not correlated with the effect of hydrogen on SCC, cracking is not caused by a direct effect of dissolved hydrogen on dissolution. Secondly, hydrogen embrittlement of Alloy 600 disappears at temperatures above 200 deg.C. Thirdly, grain boundary sliding (GBS) does not directly act on SCC but shows the mechanical weakness of grain boundaries. Regarding the proposed models for Alloy 600 SCC, it is possible to draw the following conclusions. Internal oxidation or absorbed hydrogen effects are the most probable mechanisms for initiation. Dissolution, internal oxidation and global hydrogen embrittlement models cannot explain crack propagation. On the other hand, the Corrosion Enhanced Plasticity Model gives a good description of the SCC propagation. (author)

  10. Total hemispherical emissivity of Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We have measured the total hemispherical emissivity for Inconel 718 from about 600–1250 K. • Oxidation in air at 1073 K resulted in an increase in emissivity. • Sandblasting of Inconel 718 was also observed to increase the emissivity. • Coating of graphite powder onto the ‘as-received’ Inconel 718 showed no increase in the emissivity. • Coating of graphite powder onto the 220 grit sandblasted Inconel 718 did show an increase in emissivity. - Abstract: Total hemispherical emissivity for Inconel 718 was measured in anticipation of its application in Very High Temperature Gas Reactors (VHTRs). A majority of current emissivity data for Inconel 718 is in the form of spectral measurements. The data presented here were obtained with an experimental apparatus based on the standard ASTM C835-06 for total hemispherical emittance. Measurements of Inconel 718 were made for four different surface types including: (i) ‘as-received’ from the manufacturer, (ii) oxidized in air and humidified helium, (iii) sandblasted with aluminum oxide powder, and (iv) with a thin coating of nuclear grade graphite powder (grade NGB-18). The emissivity for the ‘as-received’ sample ranged from 0.21 to 0.28 in the temperature interval from 760 K to 1275 K. Oxidation in air at 1073 K resulted in an increase in emissivity into the range from 0.2 at 650 K to 0.52 at 1200 K. There was no dependence on the oxidation times studied here. Oxidation with humidified helium at 1073 K produced less of an increase in emissivity than the oxidation in air but there was an increase up to the range from 0.2 at 600 K to 0.35 at 1200 K. Sandblasting of Inconel 718 was also observed to increase the emissivity up to the range from 0.43 at 780 K to 0.53 at 1270 K when 60 grit sized powder was used and up to the range from 0.45 at 683 K to 0.57 at 1267 K when 120 and 220 grit sized powders were used. Coating of graphite powder onto the ‘as-received’ Inconel 718 showed no increase

  11. Total hemispherical emissivity of Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Benjamin P.; Nelson, Shawn E.; Walton, Kyle L.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Robert V.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K., E-mail: LoyalkaS@missouri.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We have measured the total hemispherical emissivity for Inconel 718 from about 600–1250 K. • Oxidation in air at 1073 K resulted in an increase in emissivity. • Sandblasting of Inconel 718 was also observed to increase the emissivity. • Coating of graphite powder onto the ‘as-received’ Inconel 718 showed no increase in the emissivity. • Coating of graphite powder onto the 220 grit sandblasted Inconel 718 did show an increase in emissivity. - Abstract: Total hemispherical emissivity for Inconel 718 was measured in anticipation of its application in Very High Temperature Gas Reactors (VHTRs). A majority of current emissivity data for Inconel 718 is in the form of spectral measurements. The data presented here were obtained with an experimental apparatus based on the standard ASTM C835-06 for total hemispherical emittance. Measurements of Inconel 718 were made for four different surface types including: (i) ‘as-received’ from the manufacturer, (ii) oxidized in air and humidified helium, (iii) sandblasted with aluminum oxide powder, and (iv) with a thin coating of nuclear grade graphite powder (grade NGB-18). The emissivity for the ‘as-received’ sample ranged from 0.21 to 0.28 in the temperature interval from 760 K to 1275 K. Oxidation in air at 1073 K resulted in an increase in emissivity into the range from 0.2 at 650 K to 0.52 at 1200 K. There was no dependence on the oxidation times studied here. Oxidation with humidified helium at 1073 K produced less of an increase in emissivity than the oxidation in air but there was an increase up to the range from 0.2 at 600 K to 0.35 at 1200 K. Sandblasting of Inconel 718 was also observed to increase the emissivity up to the range from 0.43 at 780 K to 0.53 at 1270 K when 60 grit sized powder was used and up to the range from 0.45 at 683 K to 0.57 at 1267 K when 120 and 220 grit sized powders were used. Coating of graphite powder onto the ‘as-received’ Inconel 718 showed no increase

  12. Stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in water at high temperature: contribution to a phenomenological approach to the understanding of mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the understanding of mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking of an alloy 600 in water at high temperature. More precisely, it aimed at determining, by using quantitative data characterizing cracking phenomenology, which mechanism(s) is (are) able to explain crack initiation and crack growth. These data concern quantitative characterization of crack initiation, of crack growth and of the influence of two cracking parameters (strain rate, medium hydrogen content). They have been obtained by quantifying cracking through the application of a morphological model. More precisely, these data are: evolution of crack density during a tensile test at slow rate, value of initial crack width with respect to grain boundary length, and relationship between crack density and medium hydrogen content. It appears that hydrogen absorption seems to be involved in the crack initiation mechanism. Crack growth mechanisms and crack growth rates are also discussed

  13. Investigation on Effect of Distance Between Two Collinear Circumferential Surface Cracks on Primary Water Stress Corrosion Crack Growth in Alloy 600TT Steam Generator Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigated the effect of the distance between two collinear circumferential surface cracks on the primary stress corrosion crack (PWSCC) growth in alloy 600TT steam generator tubes using a finite element damage analysis based on the PWSCC initiation model and macroscopic phenomenological damage mechanics approach. The damage analysis method was verified by comparing the results to the previous study results. The verified method was applied to collinear circumferential surface PWSCCs. As a result, it was found that the collinear cracks showed earlier coalescence and penetration times than the a single crack, and the times increased with the distance. In addition, it is expected that penetration may occur before coalescence of two cracks if they are more than a specific distance apart

  14. Effects of Cr and Nb contents on the susceptibility of Alloy 600 type Ni-base alloys to stress-corrosion cracking in a simulated BWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to discuss the effects of chromium and niobium contents on the susceptibility of Alloy 600 type nickel-base alloys to stress-corrosion cracking in the BWR primary coolant environment, a series of creviced bent-beam (CBB) tests were conducted in a high-temperature, high-purity water environment. Chromium, niobium, and titanium as alloying elements improved the resistivity to stress-corrosion cracking, whereas carbon enhanced the susceptibility to it. Alloy-chemistry-based correlations have been defined to predict the relative resistances of alloys to stress-corrosion cracking. A strong correlation was found, for several heats of alloys, between grain-boundary chromium depletion and the susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking

  15. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-05-05

    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  16. The study of stress application and corrosion cracking on Ni–16 Cr–9 Fe (Alloy 600) C-ring samples by polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microscopic strains associated with stress corrosion cracks have been investigated in stressed C-rings of Ni–16 Cr–9 Fe (Alloy 600) boiler tubing. Polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction was used to measure deviatoric strain tensors and the distribution of dislocations near cracks that had been propagated in electrochemically accelerated corrosion tests. An associated investigation of the C-ring-induced strains prior to corrosion showed significant tensile strain in the stress axis direction by the torsional closure of the alloy tube section in the C-ring test. Significant grain lattice rotation and pronounced plastic strain at some grain boundaries were noted. Stress-corrosion-cracking-generated intergranular cracks were produced in two Alloy 600 specimens after 6 h and 18 h tests. The diffraction patterns and resultant strain tensors were mapped around the cracked area to a 1 μm spatial resolution. The strain tensor transverse to the crack growth direction showed tensile strain at the intergranular region just ahead of the crack tip for both specimens. Both cracks were found to follow grain boundary pathways that had the lowest angle of misorientation. Dislocation distributions within each grain were qualitatively obtained from the shapes of the diffraction spots and the effect of “hard” and “soft” grains on the crack pathway was explored for both 6 h and 18 h specimens. The Schmid factor of one of the grains adjacent to the crack at the 6 h and 18 h initiation sites was found to be the lowest, compared to Schmid factors calculated for surface grains away from the initiation site, and also along the crack path into the bulk.

  17. Weldability of Inconel 718 - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses the main issues related to weldability of Inconel 718. How the problem of strain age cracking during post weld treatment is avoided in this alloy has also been discussed. It also elaborates phases present in the alloys of 718 and its solidification metallurgy

  18. Plastic and elastic strains in short and long cracks in Alloy 600 studied by polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction and electron backscatter diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microscopic strain distributions were studied for stress corrosion cracks produced electrochemically in C-rings of Alloy 600 (0.65 Ni, 0.16 Cr, 0.08 Fe). The strain data were obtained using polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction (PXM) and (in part) by electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD). PXM was used to measure plastic and elastic strain distributions around the tip of a short crack, along with the changes to the direction and shape of the diffraction spots (ellipticity). For a sample with a short (30 μm) crack, the misorientation map showed a well-defined region of plastic deformation along the grain boundary in advance of the crack tip, extending to the next triple point. For the large crack sample, plastic and elastic stains as well as crystalline order could be measured in high detail with respect to the crack path. However, no correlation between these could be obtained, except for a notable degradation of crystalline order near the crack mouth. A comparable EBSD misorientation map shows strong correlation between misorientation and the crack edges; this may in part reflect the role of sharp edges in the more surface-sensitive approach.

  19. Fatigue strain-life behavior of carbon and low-alloy steels, austenitic stainless steels, and Alloy 600 in LWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing fatigue strain vs. life (S-N) data, foreign and domestic, for carbon and low-alloy steels, austenitic stainless steels, and Alloy 600 used in the construction of nuclear power plant components have been compiled and categorized according to material, loading, and environmental conditions. Statistical models have been developed for estimating the effects of the various service conditions on the fatigue life of these materials. The results of a rigorous statistical analysis have been used to estimate the probability of initiating a fatigue crack. Data in the literature were reviewed to evaluate the effects of size, geometry, and surface finish of a component on its fatigue life. The fatigue S-N curves for components have been determined by adjusting the probability distribution curves for smooth test specimens for the effect of mean stress and applying design margins to account for the uncertainties due to component size/geometry and surface finish. The significance of the effect of environment on the current Code design curve and on the proposed interim design curves published in NUREG/CR-5999 is discussed. Estimations of the probability of fatigue cracking in sample components from BWRs and PWRs are presented

  20. Bending of pipes with inconel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachpitz, Leonardo; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo B.; Vieira, Carlos R. Tavares [Primus Processamento de Tubos S.A. (PROTUBO), Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The high-frequency induction bending process, using API pipes coated with Inconel 625 reconciled to a mechanical transformation for a higher degree of resistance, was developed through a careful specification and control of the manufacturing parameters and inherent heat treatments. The effects of this technology were investigated by a qualification process consisting of a sequence of tests and acceptance criteria typically required by the offshore industry, and through the obtained results was proved the effectiveness of this entire manufacturing process, without causing interference in the properties and the quality of the inconel cladding, adding a gain of resistance to the base material, guaranteed by the requirements of the API 5L Standard. (author)

  1. Economical Inconel 718%经济型Inconel 718合金

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄志高; 黄漫

    2012-01-01

    为了降低Inconel 718合金的生产成本,设计了常规方案和经济方案两种试验方案:常规方案用纯金属冶炼718合金,经济方案用铌铁合金替代金属铌、用铬铁合金替代金属铬冶炼718合金.运用两种方案在真空感应炉内分别冶炼了一炉718合金并浇铸成锭,将两支铸锭按照相同的工艺参数进行扩散退火、轧制成材及热处理,随后取样进行力学性能及金相组织分析.试验结果表明,用两种方案冶炼的718合金均能满足国内优质Inconel718合金的技术标准,且用铌铁合金替代金属铌、用铬铁合金替代金属铬冶炼的Inconel 718合金可降低18%的原料成本.%In order to decrease the production costs of Inconel 718 alloy, two kinds of test programs were designed including conventional program and economical program. The conventional program was designed to smelt Inconel 718 alloy with elemental metal. The economical program was designed to smelt Inconel 718 alloy with Nb-Fe and Cr-Fe instead of metal Nb and Cr. Two heats of 718 alloy were smelted separately by two kinds of test programs in vacuum induction furnace, molten alloy were casted to two ingots. Under the same processing parameter, two ingots were carried out diffusion annealing, roll forming and heat treatment. Specimens were taken to analyze the mechanical properties and metallurgical structure. The testing results show Inconel 718 alloy by both kinds of test programs can reach domestic technical standard of superior alloy. Compared with conventional program, economical program of using Nb-Fe and Cr-Fe instead of metal Nb and Cr can decrease 18% costs of the raw material.

  2. Bending of pipes with inconel cladding; Curvamento de tubos revestidos com inconel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachpitz, Leonardo; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo B.; Vieira, Carlos R. Tavares [PROTUBO, Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The pipes used in offshore equipment, such as wet Christmas trees, sub sea manifolds and rigid platform risers, as well as some pipes for refineries and ships, must have mechanical resistance to high pressure and also be resistant to corrosion from acids. Some special materials, such as stainless steel, duplex and super duplex steel are used to resolve this problem, but the cost is very high. Besides the problem of cost, these materials have other drawbacks, such as the difficulty of welding them, a technology mastered in few countries. As a better alternative, the use has been increasing of carbon steel and API pipes coated internally with inconel by welding deposition. This groundbreaking technology, of proven efficiency, has a far superior cost-benefit relation. Carbon steel and API pipes, besides having better mechanical resistance to high pressure and corrosion resistance, can be fabricated with technology mastered worldwide. Nickel alloys, such as inconel, are highly resistant to corrosion and temperature, and in these aspects are better than stainless steels. The pipes for transportation equipment and for refining hydrocarbons, as mentioned above, require various turns and special geometries, which generally are solved by the use of bends and spools made by high-frequency induction. This technology, already well established for various carbon and stainless steels, was developed to work with pipes coated internally with inconel (inconel cladding). Therefore, our work describes the process of fabricating bends from API steel pipes with inconel cladding, demonstrating the efficacy of this technology along with its quality gains and cost reduction. (author)

  3. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  4. Velocity of crack growing of Inconel-600, sensitized, contaminated with sulphur in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of the vessel head penetration cracking of Jose Cabrera NPP has been attributed to an IGA/SCC process in a highly sensitized Alloy 600 assisted by sulphur species, as both acid sulphates and reduced species originated by the thermal breakdown of the cationic resins present in the primary coolant. The thermal degradation of the cationic resins leads sulphonic acid group scission and sulphates. Under the operating conditions the reduction of sulphates to sulphides is produced. The sulphides formed from the reduction of sulphate can precipitate with metallic cations and be incorporated into the oxide layers of the materials, preferably into nickel alloys. Others components at Jose Cabrera NPP are fabricated from sensitized alloy 600, as bottom vessel penetrations. In order to determine the influence of sulphur incorporated to the oxide layers of bottom vessel penetration alloy 600, an experimental work has been performed to obtained crack growth rate data under PWR primary conditions on sensitized alloy 600. (Author) 5 refs

  5. The analysis of local plasticity during macro-indentation of the nickel-based alloy 600 used in CANDU steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-indents were performed on the cross-sectional plane of the macro-indent made in Inconel-600 alloy to investigate the plastic flow behavior of material in plastic zone around it. Average hardness values were calculated in three directions i.e. vertical, horizontal and diagonal. Both, calculated average hardness and von-mises equivalent plastic strain (obtained from FEM modeling) decrease with increasing distance. Yield stress and von-mises equivalent plastic strain in three directions coincide with the flow curve of the material implying that this type of testing technique can be used to extract the material plastic flow curve as obtained from a conventional mechanical testing method. (author)

  6. Hot tensile tests of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The physical metallurgy of near-solidus integranular cracking in Inconel 718 welds was investigated. The data, although inconclusive, suggest at least two mechanisms which might explain intergranular cracking (microfissuring) in the heat-affected zone of several high temperature alloys. One theory is based on the separation of intergranular liquid while the other involves mechanical failure of solid ligaments surrounded by intergranular liquid. Both mechanisms concentrate strain in the grain boundaries resulting in low strain (1%) intergranular brittleness. The mechanisms reported might also pertain to the physical metallurgy of casting, powder metallurgy sintering and hot isostatic pressing.

  7. Thermo-Physical Properties of Selected Inconel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski P.K.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings results of examinations of main thermo-physical properties of selected Inconel alloys, i.e. their heat diffusivity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity, measured in wide temperature range of 20 – 900 oC. Themathematical relationships of the above properties vs. temperature were obtained for the IN 100 and IN 713C alloys. These data can be used when modelling the IN alloys solidification processes aimed at obtaining required structure and properties as well as when designing optimal work temperature parameters.

  8. Role of carbides in stress corrosion cracking resistance of alloy 600 and controlled-purity Ni-16% Cr-9% Fe in primary water at 360 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of two commercial alloy 600 (UNS N06600) conditions (heat-treated at low temperature [600LT] and at high temperature [600HT]) and two controlled-purity Ni-16% Cr-9% Fe alloys (carbon-doped mill-annealed [CDMA] and carbon-doped thermally treated [CTRR]) were investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests in primary water (0.001 M lithium hydroxide [LiOH] + 0.01 M boric acid [H3BO3]) with 1 bar (100 kPa) hydrogen overpressure at 360 C and 320 C. Heat treatments produced two types of microstructures in the commercial and controlled-purity alloys: one dominated by grain-boundary carbides (600HT and CDTT) and one dominated by intragranular carbides (600LT and CDMA). CERT tests were conducted over a range of strain rates and at two temperatures with interruptions at specific strains to determine the crack depth distributions. Results showed IGSCC was the dominant failure mode in all samples. For the commercial alloy and controlled-purity alloys, the microstructure with grain-boundary carbides showed delayed crack initiation and shallower crack depths than did the intragranular carbide microstructure under all experimental conditions. Data indicated a grain-boundary carbide microstructure is more resistant to IGSCC than an intragranular carbide microstructure. Observations supported the film rupture/slip dissolution mechanism and enhanced localized plasticity. The advantage of these results over previous studies was that the different carbide distributions were obtained in the same commercial alloy using different heat treatments and, in the other case, in nearly identical controlled-purity alloys. Observations of the effects of carbide distribution on IGSCC could be attributed more confidently to the carbide distribution alone rather than other potentially significant differences in microstructure or composition. Crack growth rates (CGR) increased with increasing strain rate according to a power law

  9. In-situ heat treatment and polythionic acid testing of Inconel 600 Row 1 steam-generator U-bends. Final report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilkison, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    U-bend leakage in Row 1 steam generator tubes has been reported at some operating plants. The leakage in these U-bends has been attributed to stress corrosion cracking that initiated at the ID surface of the tubes. The objective of Project S191-3 is to demonstrate the feasibility of heating the U-bends from the bore of the tube to a temperature that will reduce the residual stresses at the U-bend and thereby provide added resistance to stress corrosion. A number of U-bends fabricated from 3/4-inch and 7/8-inch O.D. mill annealed Inconel Alloy 600 tubing were heated to 788/sup 0/C (1450/sup 0/F) for 15 minutes using specially designed electrical resistance heaters. The results of these tests showed that the resistance heaters were capable of heating the U-bends to the desired temperatures and thus cause a significant reduction in the residual stresses. However, a desired improvement in microstructure was not detected. No significant distortion in the U-bends was detected, but the tube support plate was heated sufficiently to possibly cause unacceptable local thermally induced stresses.

  10. In-situ heat treatment and polythionic acid testing of Inconel 600 Row 1 steam-generator U-bends. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-bend leakage in Row 1 steam generator tubes has been reported at some operating plants. The leakage in these U-bends has been attributed to stress corrosion cracking that initiated at the ID surface of the tubes. The objective of Project S191-3 is to demonstrate the feasibility of heating the U-bends from the bore of the tube to a temperature that will reduce the residual stresses at the U-bend and thereby provide added resistance to stress corrosion. A number of U-bends fabricated from 3/4-inch and 7/8-inch O.D. mill annealed Inconel Alloy 600 tubing were heated to 7880C (14500F) for 15 minutes using specially designed electrical resistance heaters. The results of these tests showed that the resistance heaters were capable of heating the U-bends to the desired temperatures and thus cause a significant reduction in the residual stresses. However, a desired improvement in microstructure was not detected. No significant distortion in the U-bends was detected, but the tube support plate was heated sufficiently to possibly cause unacceptable local thermally induced stresses

  11. Kinetic study of hydrogen-material interactions in nickel base alloy 600 and stainless steel 316L through coupled experimental and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    defects. Concerning these H-trap site interactions, literature presents very few complete sets of kinetic data; it is therefore necessary to study and characterize these interactions in-depth. This work is composed of two interdependent parts: (i) the development of a calculation code capable to manage these H-material interactions and (ii) to extract the kinetic constants for trapping and detrapping from experimental results in order to fuel the simulation code and create a solid database. Due to the complexity of industrial materials (A600 and SS316L), 'model materials' were elaborated using a series of thermomechanical treatments allowing for the study of simplified systems and the deconvolution of the different possible trapped and interstitial hydrogen contributions. These 'model' specimens were charged with deuterium (an isotopic hydrogen tracer) by cathodic polarization. After charging, specimens were subjected to thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDS) analysis where the deuterium desorption flux is monitored during a temperature ramp or at an isotherm. Interstitial diffusion and kinetic trapping and detrapping constants were extracted from experimental TDS spectra using a numerical fitting routine based upon the numerical resolution of the McNabb and Foster equations. This study allowed for the determination of the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in two alloys, Ni base alloy 600 and stainless steel 316L, and the kinetic trapping and detrapping constants at two trap site types, chromium carbides and dislocations. These constants will be used to construct a kinetic database which will serve as input parameters for a numerical model for the prediction and simulation of SCC in PWRs. (author)

  12. Hydrogen embrittlement of sensitized inconel 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tensile tests under cathodic charging were carried out on sensitized Inconel 600 alloy poly crystals. The maximum sensitivity of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) was recognized on the specimen sensitized at 973K, and the specimen fractured with intercrystalline mode. The effect of cold working before the sensitized treatment was recognized in the sensitivity of HE and the morphology of fractured surface. When the prestrain increased, the sensitivity of HE was decreased and the fracture morphology changed from intercrystalline to transgranular. On the single crystal specimen, no effect was recognized in both the sensitized temperature and the cold working before sensitization. Intercrystalline and transcrystalline cracks occurred on the surface of polycrystal specimen by hydrogen charging under no loading condition. Also, the cracks on the surface of single crystal specimen were produced along {001} planes hydrogen under the same condition. (author)

  13. Fatigue strength on superalloy Inconel 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the strain controlled fatigue test at room temperature in air and the fractographic study on superalloy Inconel 600 are performed. From the test results, the relations between nominal stresses and number of cycles are obtained to show that the stress increases slightly in the early period, then remains stable at constant value for a subsequent long period, and then steeply drops immediately before the final failure. The relationships on strain amplitude with fatigue life are introduced. The values of fictitious stress amplitude calculated from the test results are just lying between the two best fit curves from ASME, Sec. III, Division I, Appendix Table 1.9.1/2 in 1983 and Transaction of ASME, Nov. 1977, p. 584. From the microscopic examination of the fatigue fracture, there are three failure process zones: fatiguecrack origin appearance zone, stable radial spread zone, and final fast fracture zone. (author)

  14. Manifestations of DSA in austenitic stainless steels and inconel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the investigation was to examine and compare different types of DSA (Dynamic Strain Aging) manifestations in AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel (SS) and Inconel 600 and Inconel 690 alloys by means of slow strain rate tensile testing, mechanical loss spectrometry (internal friction) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Another aim was to determine differences in the resulting dislocation structures and internal friction response of materials showing and not showing DSA behaviour

  15. Circular Vibration Planing of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Nandita Kalyanakumara; Moriwaki, Toshimichi; Shibasaka, Toshiro; Nakamoto, Keiichi

    Circular vibration milling (CVM) is achieved by vibrating a milling cutter about the machine tool spindle axis in a circular path, in addition to its rotary motion. CVM has been proven capable of producing better surface finishes on difficult to cut materials. However, the CVM process is far slower than conventional milling process. In circular vibration planing (CVP) process, the cutting tool is clamped without rotation and fed at a speed comparable to the feed speed of conventional milling. By superimposing circular vibration motion, necessary cutting speed could be achieved keeping the feed speed at realistic values. Inconel 718 was machined by CVP and conventional milling at a similar feed rate. It was observed that CVP could reduce tool wear and hence produce better surface finishes than conventional milling. A geometric simulation showed a major difference between uncut chip shapes of the two processes. The difference of uncut chip shapes suggests that in CVP process, less rubbing occurs between tool flank face and work before the tool penetrates in to the work to form a chip. The reduced rubbing of the flank face is proposed as the reson for reduced tool wear in CVP when compared with conventional milling.

  16. Weldability testing of Inconel trademark filler metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the findings of a research program aimed at quantifying the weld solidification cracking susceptibility and weld metal liquation cracking susceptibility of Inconel trademark filler materials 52, 82, 152 and 182 deposited on a variety of materials intended for pressurized water reactor applications. A cursory investigation on the repair weldability of Filler Metal 52 using the Gleeble trademark thermo-mechanical simulation technique is also included. The brittle temperature range (BTR) in the fusion zone and HAZ was determined using the longitudinal-Varestraint test and spot-Varestraint test, respectively, and used as a weldability index for quantification of susceptibility to weld solidification cracking and HAZ liquation cracking. Results from this study showed that Filler Metals 52 exhibited the best resistance to both weld solidification cracking and weld metal liquation cracking followed by 82, 152 and 182 for the base metal combinations tested in this study. Repair weldability study suggested that the resistance to weld metal liquation cracking of 52 all weld metal would not be significantly reduced after ten times of weld simulation at peak temperatures of 900 C and 1,300 C

  17. Study of residual elastic- and plastic-deformation in uniaxial tensile strained nickel-based Alloy 600 samples by polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction (PXM) and neutron diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the reliability of the relatively new polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction (PXM) method for measuring the magnitude and distribution of mechanical strains, PXM and the traditional technique-neutron diffraction measurements were made on the gauge section of an uniaxially 1% strained Alloy 600 tensile specimen and an unstressed sample of the same alloy. The average strain magnitudes for the grains analyzed by PXM were found to be similar with those measured from neutron diffraction within the large experimental uncertainty. Of particular interest was the behavior of dislocations in opposing grains across grain boundaries of differing orientations, which was studied by comparing the elongation and splitting of PXM spots. Similar dislocation densities, operating on the similar slip systems, were found on both sides of 60 deg. boundaries, while considerable differences in the degree of elongation and splitting of diffraction spots occurred between grains with other misorientation angles.

  18. Statistical analysis of the deformations of the alloy 600: quantification and localization at the micro and macroscopic scale; Analyse statistique des deformations de l alliage 600: quantification et localisation a l echelle micro et macroscopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, Aurelie; Markey, Laurent; Finot, Eric [Laboratoire Physique de l Universite de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 5027, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon (France); Clair, Aurelie; Foucault, Marc; Brugier, Benedicte [Areva NP, Centre Technique Departement Corrosion-Chimie, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Vignal, Vincent [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Reactivite des Solides, UMR CNRS 5613, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon (France)

    2006-07-01

    The study of the stress corrosion cracking of the alloy 600 is fundamental for the understanding of the aging of PWR power plants. The quantification of the local deformation of the material and the surface analysis, key parameters of the corrosion, are indispensable to the study of the substrate damage due to this mechanism. A semi-automatic statistical assessment method of the local deformation tensor has been developed. On account of the material poly-crystallinity, the knowledge of the deformations distribution and the localization phenomena at the grain scale become fundamental. Nano-plots matrices being used as deformation markers have been lithographied at the surface of the tensile test specimens. Different analysis parameters such as the measurement error and the length of the gauges have been studied. (O.M.)

  19. Hardness and electrochemical behavior of ceramic coatings on Inconel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SUJAYA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of ceramic materials like alumina and silicon carbide are deposited on Inconel substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique using Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. Deposited films are characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction. Composite microhardness of ceramic coated Inconel system is measured using Knoop indenter and its film hardness is separated using a mathematical model based on area-law of mixture. It is then compared with values obtained using nanoindentation method. Film hardness of the ceramic coating is found to be high compared to the substrates. Corrosion behavior of substrates after ceramic coating is studied in 3.5% NaCl solution by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The Nyquist and the Bode plots obtained from the EIS data are fitted by appropriate equivalent circuits. The pore resistance, the charge transfer resistance, the coating capacitance and the double layer capacitance of the coatings are obtained from the equivalent circuit. Experimental results show an increase in corrosion resistance of Inconel after ceramic coating. Alumina coated Inconel showed higher corrosion resistance than silicon carbide coated Inconel. After the corrosion testing, the surface topography of the uncoated and the coated systems are examined by scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Stainless steel 301 and Inconel 718 hydrogen embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, R. K.; Forman, R.

    1970-01-01

    Conditions and results of tensile tests of 26 Inconel 718 and four cryoformed stainless steel specimens are presented. Conclusions determine maximum safe hydrogen operating pressure for cryogenic pressure vessels and provide definitive information concerning flaw growth characteristics under the most severe temperature and pressure conditions

  1. Precipitation Study in Inconel 625 Alloy by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Ahmad; W. Ahmad; M.A.Shaikh; Mahmud Ahmad; M.U. Rajput

    2003-01-01

    Precipitation in Inconel 625 alloy has been studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The observeddependence of annihilation characteristics on aging time is attributed to the change of the positron state due to the increaseand decrease of the density and size of the γ″ precipitates. Hardness measurements and lifetime measurements are in goodagreement.

  2. Microstructure and oxidation behaviour of aluminized coating of inconel 625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructural and oxidation characteristics of aluminized coated Inconel 625 have been examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fine-probe spot and linescan EDS microanalysis techniques. The formation of slowly growing adherent metallic coatings is essential for protection against the severe environments. Aluminising of the superalloy samples was carried out by pack cementation process at 900 deg. C. in an argon atmosphere. The samples were subsequently oxidized in air at various temperatures to examine performance of the pack aluminized coated alloy. The microstructural changes that occurred in the aluminized layer at various exposure temperature and time were examined to study the oxidation behavior and formation of different phases in the aluminized coating deposited on Inconel 625. (author)

  3. Creep-rupture tests of internally pressurized Inconel 702 tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumto, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Seamless Inconel 702 tubes with 0.375-in. outside diameter and 0.025-in. wall thickness were tested to failure at temperatures from 1390 to 1575 F and internal helium pressures from 700 to 1800 psi. Lifetimes ranged from 29 to 1561 hr. The creep-rupture strength of the tubes was about 70 percent lower than that of sheet specimens. Larson-Miller correlations and photomicrographs of some specimens are presented.

  4. Stress corrosion cracking of Inconel in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some Inconel samples were subjected to hot water corrosion testing (350 deg. C), under stress slightly above the elastic limit. It has been observed that different types of alloys - with or without titanium - could suffer serious intergranular damage, including a complete rupture, within a three months period. In one case, we observed an unusual intergranular phenomenon which appeared quite different from common intergranular corrosion. (author)

  5. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2012-07-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950°C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm)—three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  6. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2011-09-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950 C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm) - three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  7. Thermal stability and environmental compatibility of Inconel 617

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal stability and environmental compatibility of Inconel 617, a prime nuclear process heat steam reformer candidate alloy, are described in this paper. This commercially available wrought nickel-base alloy has excellent high-temperature strength but is subject to loss of toughness and ductility due to thermal instability. Work done to improve the thermal stability of this alloy is discussed. Room-temperature tensile and toughness data and microstructural information for Inconel 617 specimens exposed at elevated temperatures are presented. Preliminary data indicate that controlling the chemistry of Inconel 617 can provide a substantial improvement in thermal stability. Preliminary work to define the range of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) primary coolant compositions within which minimal deleterious gas/metal reactions occur with Inconel 617 is described. Within this gas chemistry range a stable surface oxide forms and only slight carburization occurs. In other gas chemistry ranges, rapid carburization or decarburization can occur. The gas corrosion experiments discussed are part of a series of relatively short-term exposures to HTGR helium in which the effects of different H2O concentrations (0.01 to 1.0 Pa) were determined as a function of the systematic variation of a second constituent (CO and CH4 for this work) in the test gas. The composition of the basic HTGR helium was 40 Pa H2, 4 Pa CO, 0.02 Pa CO2, 2 Pa CH4 in helium at 0.2 MPa. Two other CO levels (1 and 12 Pa) and one additional CH4 level (0.63 Pa) were used in these experiments. Experimental exposure methods are discussed and the results of gas-metal interaction studies are presented. These results include carbon analyses and optical and scanning electron microscopy to determine the morphology and type of surface and subsurface microstructures. (author). 15 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Effects of pre-deformation in topological characterization of inconel 600 submitted to isothermal treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INCONEL 600 samples were performed at thermal treatment between 5500C and 7900C during 3 hours after uniaxial tension testing. At each pair hardening-temperature were determined the microhardness and microstrostructure. With the objetive of to determine the influence of the hardening up to INCONEL's mechanical behavior, were plotted microhardness X temperature. (Author)

  9. Mechanical properties and microstructure evaluation of powder bed fused inconel 625 nickel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    The objectives of this report were to optimize and fabricate full density Inconel 625 samples using direct metal laser fusion, an additive manufacturing process; and to compare and evaluate precipitation and solid solution strengthening of Inconel 625 produced by PBF to conventional processed material.

  10. Characterization of Strain-Induced Precipitation in Inconel 718 Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Jessica; Penalva, Mariluz; Cabrera, José María

    2016-06-01

    Inconel 718 presents excellent mechanical properties at high temperatures, as well as good corrosion resistance and weldability. These properties, oriented to satisfy the design requirements of gas turbine components, depend on microstructural features such as grain size and precipitation. In this work, precipitation-temperature-time diagrams have been derived based on a stress relaxation technique and the characterization of precipitates by scanning electron microscopy. By using this methodology, the effect of strain accumulation during processing on the precipitation kinetics can be determined. The results show that the characteristics of precipitation are significantly modified when plastic deformation is applied, and the kinetics are slightly affected by the amount of total plastic deformation.

  11. Solidification paths in modified Inconel 625 weld overlay material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrasekaran, Karthik; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hald, John

    2009-01-01

    . Metallographic analysis of solidified samples of Inconel 625 with addition of selected elements is compared with thermodynamic modelling of segregation during solidification. The influence of changes in the melt chemistry on the formation of intermetallic phases during solidification is shown. In particular......, focus is put on how the composition of the dendrite core is affected by modifications to the alloy. It has previously been shown that when the overlay material corrodes, the corrosion take place in the dendrite core. Therefore, the discussion will be directed towards explaining the extent to which the...

  12. Tribological behavior of inconel 718 in sodium cooled reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the present study on the tribological behavior of Inconel 718 in a sodium environment are summarized as follows: (a) Stroke lengths less than or equal to one-half the test pin diameter result in higher friction coefficients. (b) At elevated temperatures, the formation of a lubricative surface film can significantly influence the frictional behavior. (c) Tangential forces present during static dwell periods result in greater bonding tendencies. (d) Increasing contact pressure during static dwell periods results in lower breakaway friction coefficients

  13. Grain size refinement of inconel 718 thermomechanical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel 718 is a Ni-Fe precipitation treated superalloy. It presents good thermal fatigue properties when the material has small grain size. The aim of this work is to study the grain size refinement by thermomechanical processing, through observations of the microstructural evolution and the influence of some of the process variables in the final grain size. The results have shown that this refinement occured by static recrystallization. The presence of precipitates have influenced the final grain size if the deformations are below 60%. For greater deformations the grain size is independent of the precipitate distribution in the matrix and tends to a limit size of 5 μm. (author)

  14. Material properties of a dissimilar metal weld Inconel 600/ Inconel 82 weld filler/ Carbon Steel (Gr.106 B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel 600 pipes welded to Carbon-Steel are used in CANDU nuclear reactors. Fracture of these welded pipes has important consequences in term of safety, and therefore their mechanical properties need to be better understood. In this study, the weld region was analyzed at various length-scales using optical microscopy, micro hardness testing, small and large scale tensile testing, and Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Micro-hardness profiles showed variations across the weld and through thickness and were justified in terms of residual stresses. Local stress-strain curves were built using DIC and showed good agreement with stress-strain curves obtained from miniature tensile samples. (author)

  15. Surface Integrity of Inconel 718 by Ball Burnishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequera, A.; Fu, C. H.; Guo, Y. B.; Wei, X. T.

    2014-09-01

    Inconel 718 has wide applications in manufacturing mechanical components such as turbine blades, turbocharger rotors, and nuclear reactors. Since these components are subject to harsh environments such as high temperature, pressure, and corrosion, it is critical to improve the functionality to prevent catastrophic failure due to fatigue or corrosion. Ball burnishing as a low plastic deformation process is a promising technique to enhance surface integrity for increasing component fatigue and corrosion resistance in service. This study focuses on the experimental study on surface integrity of burnished Inconel 718. The effects of burnishing ball size and pressure on surface integrity factors such as surface topography, roughness, and hardness are investigated. The burnished surfaces are smoother than the as-machined ones. Surface hardness after burnishing is higher than the as-machined surfaces, but become stable over a certain burnishing pressure. There exists an optimal process space of ball sized and burnishing pressure for surface finish. In addition, surface hardness after burnishing is higher than the as-machined surfaces, which is confirmed by statistical analysis.

  16. Signals produced by inconel mineral insulated coaxial cables in neutron and gamma ray fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral insulated (MI) cables used with self-powered flux detectors in CANDU reactors employ Inconel 600 as the sheath and core-wire material, and MgO as the insulation. A study was undertaken to obtain a more fundamental understanding of the current producing processes in such MI cables and to determine how these processes are related to cable geometries. A number of Inconel-Inconel cables were irradiated in the NRU, ZED-2, and Pool Test reactors at CRNL and a Gammacel-220 60Co irradiator. Additional data were obtained from the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station-A. (auth)

  17. The effect of laser pulse tailored welding of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccay, T. Dwayne; Mccay, Mary Helen; Sharp, C. Michael; Womack, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    Pulse tailored laser welding has been applied to wrought, wrought grain grown, and cast Inconel 718 using a CO2 laser. Prior to welding, the material was characterized metallographically and the solid state transformation regions were identified using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. Bead on plate welds (restrained and unrestrained) were then produced using a matrix of pulse duty cycles and pulsed average power. Subsequent characterization included heat affected zone width, penetration and underbead width, the presence of cracks, microfissures and porosity, fusion zone curvature, and precipitation and liquated region width. Pedigree welding on three selected processing conditions was shown by microstructural and dye penetrant analysis to produce no microfissures, a result which strongly indicates the viability of pulse tailored welding for microfissure free IN 718.

  18. Corrosion of Inconel X750 in simulated BWR core environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion tests of Inconel X750 in the simulated core environment by using an irradiated test loop were performed. From the experiments, the followings were clarified; 1. corrosion rate was proportional to minus cubic root of the time and the value was evaluated to be 19±4 mdm after one year, 2. the value was markedly high compared to other reported experimental data, but it had a good coincidence with the value evaluated from activity balance data in actual BWR plants, 3. the most important chemical specie which affected the corrosion behavior was identified to be hydrogen peroxide, and 4. the rate of specimens pre-filmed in the high temperature atmosphere at 700deg C for 5 hrs was reduced to be one third or less than that of specimens pre-oxidized in steam at 390deg C for 13 hrs which was the same condition for actual BWR fuel springs. (author)

  19. Thermal fatigue behavior of cast superalloy Inconel 713LC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansuri, Mohammadreza; Hadavi, Seyed Mohammadmehdi; Zangeneh-Madar, Karim; Abaszade, Hasan; Zare, Esmail; Hejazi, Seyed Amir [MA University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2014-11-15

    The thermal fatigue behavior of superalloy Inconel 713LC was investigated at peak temperatures of 900, 1 000 and 1 100 C. Thermal fatigue tests were performed on self-constraint single-edge V-type notch specimens. The effect of the maximum temperature, T{sub max} in the thermal cycles on the crack characteristics was studied. Under identical test conditions a comparable crack propagation rate was observed for all three peak temperatures. The results showed that cycle numbers for crack initiation decreased while crack propagation rate increased with the increase in peak temperature. Therefore, it was concluded that in the current experimental conditions, thermal fatigue resistance reduced dramatically with the rise of upper temperature. Through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observation, it was found that the primary cracks generally propagated along a preferential direction. Microstructure changes after thermal fatigue are also discussed on the basis of scanning electron microscopy observation.

  20. RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY IN FINISH TURNING INCONEL 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aruna,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Machining of hard materials used in aerospace applications require hard and tough cutting tools. Ceramic tools and cermets are used in machining of nickel alloys for such applications. In this study finish turning of Inconel 718 is carried out with cermet tools. Cutting parameters are designed using Taguchi’s DOE and the experiments are conducted for the designed parameters. The surface finish measurement is carried for the various conditions and data obtained are used to build up the mathematical surface model using response surface methodology. The adequacy of the developed mathematical model is proved by ANOVA. The findings of this study show new results and the second order model was quite adequate.

  1. Microstructure of irradiated inconel 706 fuel pin cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel pin from the HEDL-P-60 experiment with a cladding of solutionannealed Inconel 706 breached in an apparently brittle manner at a position 12.7 cm above the bottom of the fuel column with a crack of 5.72 cm in length after 5.0 atomic percent burnup in Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). Temperatures (time-averaged midwall) and fast fluences for the fractured area range from 4470C and 5.5 X 1022 neutrons (n)/cm2 to 5260C and 6.1 X 1022 n/cm2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Specimens of the fractured fuel pin section were successfully prepared and examined in both a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The fracture surfaces of the breached section showed brittle intergranular fracture characteristics for both the axial and circumferential cracks. Formation of γ in the matrix near the breach confirmed that the irradiation temperature at the breached area was below 5000C, in agreement with other estimates of the temperature for the area, 447 to 5260C. A hexagonal /eta/-phase, Ni3 (titanium, niobium), precipitated at boundaries near the breach. A more extensive /eta/-phase coating at grain boundaries was found in a section irradiated at 6500C. The /eta/-phase plates at grain boundaries are expected to have a detrimental effect on alloy ductility. A plane of weakness in this region along the (111) slip planes will develop in Inconel 706 because the /eta/-plates have a (111) habit relationship with the matrix

  2. Mechanical properties of hot deformed Inconel 718 and X750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nowotnik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Variations of a flow stress vs. true strain illustrate behavior of material during plastic deformation. Stress-strain relationship is generally evaluated by a torsion, compression and tensile tests.Design/methodology/approach: Compression tests were carried out on precipitations hardenable nickel based superalloys of Inconel 718 and X750 at constant true strain rates of 10-4, 4x10-4s-1 within temperature through which precipitation hardening phases process occurred (720-1150°C using thermomechanical simulator Gleeble and dilatometer Baehr 850D/L equipped with compression unit. True stress-true strain curves analysis of hot deformed alloys were described.Findings: On the basis of received flow stress values activation energy of a high-temperature deformation process was estimated. Mathematical dependences (σpl -T i σpl - ε and compression data were used to determine material’s constants. These constants allow to derive a formula that describes the relationship between strain rate (ε, deformation temperature (T and flow stress σpl.Research limitations/implications: Study the flow stress will be continued on the samples after the aging process.Practical implications: The results of high-temperature deformation of the examined Inconel alloys may possibly find some practical use in the workshop practice to predict a flow stress values, but only within particular temperature and strain rate ranges. The results of the study can be used in the aerospace industry to produce blades for jet engines.Originality/value: The results of the study can be used in the aerospace industry to produce blades for jet engines.

  3. Application of eddy current inspection to the Inconel weld of BWR internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to definite the basic specifications of application of ECT (Eddy Current Test) to Inconel weld of BWR internals, the inspection and numerical analysis were carried out. The characteristics of the existing ECT probe were studied by making sample as same as CRD stud tube, measuring the relative permeability and electric conductivity of Inconel and alloy and evaluating ECT probe. On the basis of the results obtained, the basic specifications were determined and a new eddy current probe for inspection was designed and produced. The new ECT probe was able to detect small notch in Inconel weld, to classify the defects by eddy current inspection signal and sizing the length and depth. It is concluded that the new ECT probe is able to apply the Inconel weld of BWR internals. (S.Y.)

  4. Effect of carbide on hydrogen environment embrittlement of Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tensile properties of Inconel 718 Ni-base superalloy were investigated in high-pressure hydrogen and in argon at room temperature. The effect of Nb-Ti carbide on hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) of the superalloy was also examined. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Hydrogen decreased elongation, reduction of area and ultimate tensile strength of the superalloy. HEE increased with decreasing the strain rate. Dimple rupture was mainly observed in argon, but brittle transgranular and intergranular fracture were observed in hydrogen. The crack initiation occurred at carbides both in argon and in hydrogen. Then the crack propagated in the matrix with ductile fracture in argon and with brittle fracture in hydrogen, respectively. (2) The finite element analysis (FEA) was applied to the crack initiation of the superalloy during the monotonic tensile process with the FEA model, which contained one particle at the center surrounded by the matrix. The effect of the shape of the particle on the maximum effective stress in the particle was simulated. The maximum effective stress in the particle increased markedly with increasing the average stress above the proof stress. The increasing order of the maximum effective stress depended on the shape of the particle. It was reasonable that the maximum effective stress in the carbide is high enough to break the carbide itself. It was also expected that the control of the shape of the carbide could improve HEE of the superalloy. (author)

  5. Swelling and microstructure of neutron irradiated Inconel 706

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The swelling behaviour and the related microstructure evolution of SA INCONEL 706 irradiated up to 100dpa in Phenix as stressed tube samples and fuel pins are described. The TEM observations of the irradiated samples and corresponding unirradiated specimens annealed at the same irradiation temperature show that neutron irradiation induces the intragranular nucleation of a high density of Ni3 Ti-η platelets and small cavities which do not grow up to 100dpa. At higher temperature, it is shown that the swelling is responsible of the major part of the deformation. TEM examinations of thin foils prepared from pins areas irradiated at 5900C confirm that substantial void swelling can occur in the regions where the high density of finely distributed η platelets give place to a cellular η phase which tends to spread over the grains. At least we discuss about the correlation between the microstructure evolution under irradiation and the swelling resistance and the mechanical properties observed on this irradiated material

  6. Barium silicate glass/Inconel X-750 interaction. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, Jr., P. V.; Siegel, W. T.; Miley, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    Water reactor safety programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have required the development of specialized instrumentation. An example is the electrical conductivity-sensitive liquid level transducer developed for use in pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) in which the operation of the sensing probe relies upon the passage of current through the water between the center pin of the electrode and its shell such that when water is present the resulting voltage is low, and conversely, when water is absent the voltage is high. The transducer's ceramic seal is a hot-pressed glass ceramic; its metal housing is Inconel X-750. The ceramic material provides an essential dielectric barrier between the center pin and the outer housing. The operation of the probe as well as the integrity of the PWR environment requires a hermetically-bonded seal between the ceramic and the metal. However, during testing, an increasing number of probe assemblies failed owing to poor glass-to-metal seals as well as void formation within the ceramic. Therefore, a program was initiated to characterize the metallic surface with respect to pre-oxidation treatment and determine optimum conditions for wetting and bonding of the metal by the glass to obtain baseline data relevant to production of acceptable transducer seals.

  7. Counter permeation of deuterium and hydrogen through Inconel 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permeation of hydrogen isotopes through a high-temperature alloy used for heat exchanger and reformer tubes is an important problem in the hydrogen production system connected to the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). An objective of this study is to investigate an effect of existence of hydrogen (H2) in a tube outside on the amount of permeated deuterium (D2) through the tube. It was found that the amount of permeated D2 decrease with increasing the partial pressure of H2 in the tube outside when the partial pressure of D2 in the tube is lower than 100 Pa and that of H2 in the tube outside is larger than 10 kPa. The amount of permeated D2 on counter permeation process was predicted quantitatively by using the effectiveness factor for diffusivity of deuterium in Inconel 600 and by taking into account of the equilibrium state for the hydrogen isotopes including HD molecules on the surface. From the results obtained in this study, it is supposed that the amount of tritium permeated from the primary circuit of the HTTR to the utilization system will be reduced by the existence of high pressure H2 in the steam reformer tube in the HTTR hydrogen production system. (author)

  8. Barium silicate glass/Inconel X-750 interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water reactor safety programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have required the development of specialized instrumentation. An example is the electrical conductivity-sensitive liquid level transducer developed for use in pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) in which the operation of the sensing probe relies upon the passage of current through the water between the center pin of the electrode and its shell such that when water is present the resulting voltage is low, and conversely, when water is absent the voltage is high. The transducer's ceramic seal is a hot-pressed glass ceramic; its metal housing is Inconel X-750. The ceramic material provides an essential dielectric barrier between the center pin and the outer housing. The operation of the probe as well as the integrity of the PWR environment requires a hermetically-bonded seal between the ceramic and the metal. However, during testing, an increasing number of probe assemblies failed owing to poor glass-to-metal seals as well as void formation within the ceramic. Therefore, a program was initiated to characterize the metallic surface with respect to pre-oxidation treatment and determine optimum conditions for wetting and bonding of the metal by the glass to obtain baseline data relevant to production of acceptable transducer seals

  9. Friction Freeform Fabrication of Superalloy Inconel 718: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilip, J. J. S.; Janaki Ram, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    Friction Freeform Fabrication is a new solid-state additive manufacturing process. The present investigation reports a detailed study on the prospects of this process for additive part fabrication in superalloy Inconel 718. Using a rotary friction welding machine and employing alloy 718 consumable rods in solution treated condition, cylindrical-shaped multi-layer friction deposits (10 mm diameter) were successfully produced. In the as-deposited condition, the deposits showed very fine grain size with no grain boundary δ phase. The deposits responded well to direct aging and showed satisfactory room-temperature tensile properties. However, their stress rupture performance was unsatisfactory because of their layered microstructure with very fine grain size and no grain boundary δ phase. The problem was overcome by heat treating the deposits first at 1353 K (1080 °C) (for increasing the grain size) and then at 1223 K (950 °C) (for precipitating the δ phase). Overall, the current study shows that Friction Freeform Fabrication is a very useful process for additive part fabrication in alloy 718.

  10. [INVITED] Laser treatment of Inconel 718 alloy and surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser surface texturing of Inconel 718 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface is achieved by controlling the laser scanning speed and the laser output power. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated surface are analyzed using the analytical tools including optical, electron scanning, and atomic force microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardnes and friction coefficient of the laser treated surface are measured. Residual stress formed in the surface region is determined from the X-ray diffraction data. Surface hydrophobicity of the laser treated layer is assessed incorporating the sessile drop method. It is found that laser treated surface is free from large size asperities including cracks and the voids. Surface microhardness increases significantly after the laser treatment process, which is attributed to the dense layer formation at the surface under the high cooling rates, dissolution of Laves phase in the surface region, and formation of nitride species at the surface. Residual stress formed is compressive in the laser treated surface and friction coefficient reduces at the surface after the laser treatment process. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface results in surface texture composes of micro/nano-poles and pillars, which enhance the surface hydrophobicity.

  11. Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

  12. Experimental Investigations during Dry EDM of Inconel - 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    BHANDARE, A. S.; DABADE, U. A.

    2016-02-01

    Dry EDM is a modification of the conventional EDM process in which the liquid dielectric is replaced by a gaseous medium. Tubular tool electrodes are used and as the tool rotates, high velocity gas is supplied through it into the discharge gap. The flow of high velocity gas into the gap facilitates removal of debris and prevents excessive heating of the tool and work piece at the discharge spots. It is now known that apart from being an environment- friendly process, other advantages of the dry EDM process are low tool wear, lower discharge gap, lower residual stresses, smaller white layer and smaller heat affected zone. Keeping literature review into consideration, in this paper, an attempt has been made by selecting compressed air as a dielectric medium, with Inconel - 718 as a work piece material and copper as a tool electrode. Experiments are performed using Taguchi DoE orthogonal array to observe and analyze the effects of different process parameters to optimize the response variables such as material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (Ra) and tool wear rate (TWR). In the current work, a unit has been developed to implement dry EDM process on existing oil based EDM machine.

  13. Low-temperature embrittlement of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel-718 by high pressure hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, W. T.; Walter, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Notched specimens of titanium alloy and Inconel-718 exhibit little reduction of notch strength at certain low temperatures under 2000 lb/sq in. hydrogen, unnotched specimens are not embrittled at these temperatures. The degree of Inconel-718 embrittlement is lower than earlier observations under 1000 lb/sq in. hydrogen.

  14. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  15. Oxide films in laser additive manufactured Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous-wave 5 kW fiber laser welding system was used in conduction mode to deposit Inconel® alloy 718 (IN718) by employing filler wire on as-serviced IN718 parent material (PM) substrates. The direct laser deposited (DLD) coupons and as-serviced IN718 PM were then evaluated through tensile testing. To understand the failure mechanisms, the tensile fracture surfaces of the as-serviced IN718 PM, DLD and DLD-PM samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The fracture surfaces revealed the presence of both Al2O3 and Cr2O3 films, although the latter was reasoned to be the main oxide in IN718. Both the experimental observations and thermodynamic analysis indicated that oxidation of some alloying elements in IN718 cannot be completely avoided during manufacturing, whether in the liquid state under vacuum (for casting, the electron beam melting, welding and/or deposition) or with inert gas protection (for welding or laser deposition). The exposed surface of the oxide film on the fracture surface has poor wetting with the metal and thus can constitute a lack of bonding or a crack with either the metal and/or another non-wetted side of the oxide film. On the other hand, the wetted face of the oxide film has good atom-to-atom contact with the metal and may nucleate some intermetallic compounds, such as Laves, Ni3Nb-δ, Nb-rich MC and γ′ compounds. The potential of their nucleation on Cr2O3 was assessed using planar disregistry. Coherent planes were found between these intermetallics and Cr2O3

  16. Characterization of serrated yielding in service exposed Inconel 625 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alloy-625 is an austentic alloy which is being used for a variety of components in the aerospace, marine, chemical and nuclear industries. Tensile tests have been carried out on service exposed Inconel 625 ammonia cracker tube used at heavy water production plant to study the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties of the material. Owing to temperature gradient during in service condition the microstructure was different in top (T), middle (M) and bottom (B) sections of the tube. The stress-strain curve obtained from conventional tensile test was found to exhibit serrated yielding with in an intermediate temperature regime of 250-600 °C. Both normal and inverse Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect could be identified at lower and higher temperature regime respectively. The normal behavior was associated with type (A+B) serrations and interstitial atom C was held responsible for the aging of dislocations in this region. On the contrary, the serrations were of type C in nature in inverse PLC regime and were attributed to the locking of dislocations by substitutional Mo atoms. Further analyses of activation energy and transition temperature for normal to inverse PLC dynamics, supported with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observation revealed that the basic deformation mechanism was different in M and B samples than that in the T samples. While the deformation in T samples were achieved by usual dislocation migration, in M and B samples it was through the propagation of stacking faults in large γ” precipitates. The transition temperature from normal to inverse PLC dynamics also varied appreciably in T samples than that of the M and B ones which could be explained in terms of the delayed depletion of Mo solutes in solution for T samples. (author)

  17. Formation of the oxide films on Inconel 718 for the IVHM grapple assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this test was to determine conditions for producing an iridescent colored oxide on Inconel 718 parts within a very limited schedule. The goal was to develop a process that would be compatible with the normal precipitation hardening treatment and, at the same time, produce a satisfactory film on surfaces that have been machined after precipitation hardening. Conditions for producing the film could not degrade the hardness of the Inconel 718. The purpose of the oxide was to reduce the possibility of wear and galling on bearing surfaces of the In-Vessel Handling Machine (IVHM) grapple mechanism during its pre-operational acceptance test

  18. Identification of dynamically precipitated phases in hot-working Inconel 718 alloy

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nowotnik; J. Sieniawski; G. Mrówka-Nowotnik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze how localized flow/structural inhomogeneties that may develop during hot deformation can affect a precipitated phases and to determine what kind of particles are present in the microstructure of hot-worked Inconel 718 superalloy.Design/methodology/approach: Compression tests were carried out on precipitations hardenable nickel based superalloy of Inconel 718 at constant true strain rates of 10-4 and 4x10-4s-1 at temperature of 720 and 850...

  19. Inconel alloy 625 clad steel for application in wet scrubber systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test panels from INCONEL 625 clad plate were successfully installed in two wet flue gas scrubber systems. In one system INCONEL 625 clad plate was located in the roof section of the absorber just ahead of the outlet ducting. The test plates, including weld seams, showed no signs to corrosion after six months of exposure. In the other scrubber test plates located in the outlet duct of an I.D. fan house, in the stack lining, and in the absorber quench area were unattacked after nine months

  20. Metallurgical and mechanical properties of Inconel 600 and stellite; Estudio del comportamiento mecanico-metalurgico de alceacion inconel 600 y estelita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cstillo, Martin; Villa, Gabriel; Vite, Manuel [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Palacios, Francisco [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Nuclear (ININ), Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Luis H; Urriolagoita, Guillermo [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    The present work studies the metallurgical and mechanical properties of two alloys, Inconel 600 and stellite, which are within the group of high hardness alloys or superalloys, which are deposited through the electrical weld process to the metallic arc with coated electrode (SMAW) and thereinafter analyzed through electron microscopy, diffractometry and abrasion, Impact and hardness test. The relationship between the microstructure and the final properties of the coating (hardness and abrasion wear resistance) was observed. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta el estudio sobre las propiedades metalurgicas y mecanicas de dos aleaciones, inconel 600 y estelita, clasificadas dentro del grupo de aleaciones de alta dureza o superaleaciones; las cuales fueron depositadas mediante el proceso de soldadura electrica al arco metalico con electrodo revestido (SMAW) y fueron analizadas mediante microscopia electronica (SEM), difractometria pruebas de abrasion, impacto y dureza. Se observo la relacion entre la microstructura y las propiedades del recubrimiento, como son: dureza, resistencia a la abrasion, resistencia al impacto, ente otras.

  1. An assessment of microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of dissimilar welds between Inconel 718 and 310S austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, dissimilar welding between Inconel 718 nickel-base superalloy and 310S austenitic stainless steel using gas tungsten arc welding process was performed to determine the relationship between the microstructure of the welds and the resultant mechanical and corrosion properties. For this purpose, three filler metals including Inconel 625, Inconel 82 and 310 stainless steel were used. Microstructural observations showed that weld microstructures for all filler metals were fully austenitic. In tension tests, welds produced by Inconel 625 and 310 filler metals displayed the highest and the lowest ultimate tensile strength, respectively. The results of Charpy impact tests indicated that the maximum fracture energy was related to Inconel 82 weld metal. According to the potentiodynamic polarization test results, Inconel 82 exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all tested filler metals. Finally, it was concluded that for the dissimilar welding between Inconel 718 and 310S, Inconel 82 filler metal offers the optimum properties at room temperature. - Highlights: • Three filler metals including Inconel 625, Inconel 82 and 310 SS were used. • A columnar to equiaxed dendritic structure was seen for IN-625 weld metal. • A granular austenitic microstructure obtained for Inconel 82 weld metal. • Microstructure of 310 weld metal includes solidification cracks along SSGB. • IN-82 weld metal showed the highest corrosion potential

  2. Laser aided direct metal deposition of Inconel 625 superalloy: Microstructural evolution and thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct metal deposition technology is an emerging laser aided manufacturing technology based on a new additive manufacturing principle, which combines laser cladding with rapid prototyping into a solid freeform fabrication process that can be used to manufacture near net shape components from their CAD files. In the present study, direct metal deposition technology was successfully used to fabricate a series of samples of the Ni-based superalloy Inconel 625. A high power CO2 laser was used to create a molten pool on the Inconel 625 substrate into which an Inconel 625 powder stream was delivered to create a 3D object. The structure and properties of the deposits were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microhardness test. The microstructure has been found to be columnar dendritic in nature, which grew epitaxially from the substrate. The thermal stability of the dendritic morphology was investigated in the temperature range 800-1200 deg. C. These studies demonstrate that Inconel 625 is an attractive material for laser deposition as all samples produced in this study are free from relevant defects such as cracks, bonding error and porosity.

  3. The study of welding residual stress test technology on inconel 690 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence factors in measuring residual stress of Inconel 690 alloy with blind hole method. The fit between hole, strain gauge, and drilling depth were studied. The coefficients of A and B were determined. The satisfactory data were obtained in measuring residual stress of butt weld by above research results. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion in the nickel base alloy inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of the Inconel 718 relating to the intergranular corrosion resistance in asreceived condition and in two states of sensitization is studied. The recommendation insert inn the ASTM G-28 and DIN 50.914 has been followed. (E.G.)

  5. Effect of reduction of strategic columbium additions in Inconel 718 alloy on the structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of columbium which can be removed from Inconel alloy 718 without degrading its high temperature properties was determined. The elements that are substituted are: vanadium and tungsten together and separately increasing the molybdenum level from 3.0% to 5.8% and increasing the boron to 0.04%

  6. Incompatibility between Zircaloy-2 and Inconel X-750 during Temperature Transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, M. R.; Rørbo, Kaj; Adolph, Eivind

    1975-01-01

    The incompatibility of Zircaloy-2 and Inconel X-750 has been investigated between 1000°C and 1200°C (1200°C being the currently allowable maximum temperature in the acceptance criteria for ECCS for water reactors). It has been found for the temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C that oxide thicknesses...

  7. Comparison of corrosion behavior between fusion cladded and explosive cladded Inconel 625/plain carbon steel bimetal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Both explosive and fusion cladding aggravate the corrosion resistance of Inconel 625. ► Fusion cladding is more detrimental to nonuniform corrosion resistance. ► Single-layered fusion coat does not show any repassivation ability. ► Adding more layers enhance the corrosion resistance of fusion cladding Inconel 625. ► High impact energy spoils the corrosion resistance of explosive cladding Inconel 625. -- Abstract: One of the main concerns in cladding Inconel 625 superalloy on desired substrates is deterioration of corrosion resistance due to cladding process. The present study aims to compare the effect of fusion cladding and explosive cladding procedures on corrosion behavior of Inconel 625 cladding on plain carbon steel as substrate. Also, an attempt has been made to investigate the role of load ratio and numbers of fusion layers in corrosion behavior of explosive and fusion cladding Inconel 625 respectively. In all cases, the cyclic polarization as an electrochemical method has been applied to assess the corrosion behavior. According to the obtained results, both cladding methods aggravate the corrosion resistance of Inconel 625. However, the fusion cladding process is more detrimental to nonuniform corrosion resistance, where the chemical nonuniformity of fusion cladding superalloy issuing from microsegregation, development of secondary phases and contamination of clad through dilution hinders formation of a stable passive layer. Moreover, it is observed that adding more fusion layers can enhance the nonuniform corrosion resistance of fusion cladding Inconel 625, though this resistance still remains weaker than explosive cladding superalloy. Also, the results indicate that raising the impact energy in explosive cladding procedure drops the corrosion resistance of Inconel 625.

  8. Contribution of the low cycle fatigue on ultra high purity Ni-Cr-Fe alloys and on Ni monocrystals to the understanding of the hydrogen role in stress corrosion cracking for the alloys 600 and 690; Apport de la fatigue oligocyclique sur alliages Ni-Cr-Fe d'ultra haute purete et sur monocristaux de Ni a la comprehension sous contrainte des alliages 600 et 69O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaudot, N

    1999-06-01

    We discuss the role of hydrogen in cracking of Ni base alloys used for pressurised water reactor (PWR) primary tubes (alloy 600 and 690). Cracking can be explained by a Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) phenomenon. For this purpose, Low cycle fatigue (R = - 1) under cathodic charging at room temperature is conducted to study hydrogen effects on propagation of cracks mechanically initiated by the formation of Persistent Slip Bands (PSB). Low cycle fatigue on Ultra High Purity specimens (Ni, alloy 600 and 690) reveals the very important hydrogen effect on crack propagation rate, whatever the Cr content in the Ni base alloy. If Cr seems to have an effect over-hydrogen penetration in specimens (by a protective film formation), it have no beneficial effect when hydrogen have diffused ahead of a crack tip. Propagation rates (transgranular or intergranular) are highly increased, no matter of the absence of impurities like sulphur. Then, in PWR, the difference in the behaviour of alloy 600 and 690 could be due to a slower microcrack propagation rate for alloy 690. Protective films could play an important role in this difference, which is to study. Low cycle fatigue on Ni single crystals oriented for single slip shows, for the first time on bulk specimen, a macroscopic softening which can be explained. by hydrogen-dislocation interactions. Moreover, a simple quantitative model based on these interactions results in the same softening as the one observed experimentally. These results allow to validate experimentally one of the most important steps in the 'Corrosion Enhanced Plasticity (CEP) model', i.e. the softening ahead of a stress corrosion crack tip by hydrogen dislocation interactions. This is of importance because this model can explain cracking in numerous FCC materials-environment couple. (author)

  9. Hydrogen Permeability of Incoloy 800H, Inconel 617, and Haynes 230 Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A potential issue in the design of the NGNP reactor and high-temperature components is the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product from downstream hydrogen generation through high-temperature components. Such permeation can result in the loss of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system. The issue will be addressed in the engineering design phase, and requires knowledge of permeation characteristics of the candidate alloys. Of three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, the hydrogen permeability has been documented well only for Incoloy 800H, but at relatively high partial pressures of hydrogen. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. The hydrogen permeability of Haynes 230 has not been published. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the hydrogen permeability of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 were determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory. The performance of the system was validated using Incoloy 800H as reference material, for which the permeability has been published in several journal articles. The permeability of Incoloy 800H, Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950 C and at hydrogen partial pressures of 10-3 and 10-2 atm, substantially lower pressures than used in the published reports. The measured hydrogen permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 were in good agreement with published values obtained at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The hydrogen permeability of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 were similar, about 50% greater than for Incoloy 800H and with similar temperature dependence.

  10. Identification of dynamically precipitated phases in hot-working Inconel 718 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nowotnik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze how localized flow/structural inhomogeneties that may develop during hot deformation can affect a precipitated phases and to determine what kind of particles are present in the microstructure of hot-worked Inconel 718 superalloy.Design/methodology/approach: Compression tests were carried out on precipitations hardenable nickel based superalloy of Inconel 718 at constant true strain rates of 10-4 and 4x10-4s-1 at temperature of 720 and 850°C. The dynamic behaviour were explained through observation of the microstructure using standard optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Precipitated phases were identified using EDS technique and based on selected area diffraction pattern.Findings: Microstructural observations of deformed at high temperatures, previously solution treated Inconel superalloy revealed non uniform deformation effects. Distribution of molybdenum- and niobium-rich carbides affected by localized flow was found. Microstructural examination of the alloy also shown shear banding penetrating through the whole grains.Practical implications: The experiments on hot deformation of age hardenable Inconel 718 superalloy and the analysis of dynamic precipitation process have a practical aspect. This interaction could become an important feature of high temperature performance and may also influence the production of specific structures of this material.Originality/value: Even though the number of research has focused on the hot deformation behaviour of Inconel 718, there is still scarcity of data referring to the analysis of dynamic structural processes which operate during hot deformation of this precipitation hardenable alloy: in particular dynamic precipitation and dynamic particles coarsening.

  11. Fretting wear behavior of Inconel 690 in hydrazine environments%Inconel 690在联氨溶液中的磨损行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓宇; 任平弟; 彭金方; 朱旻昊

    2014-01-01

    The friction and wear behaviors of Inconel 690 flat against Si3Ni4 ball were investigated using a hydraulic fretting test rig equipped with a liquid container device. The loads of 20-80 N, reciprocating amplitudes of 80-200 μm and two different environments (distilled water and hydrazine solution at temperatures from 25 to 90 °C) were selected. The results show that the ratio of Ft/Fn is lower in distilled water than that in hydrazine solution at the same temperature in the slip regime. Both the ratio of Ft/Fn and wear volume gradually increase with increasing medium temperature under the given normal load and displacement amplitude. Besides the displacement amplitude and load, temperature also plays an important role for wear behavior of Inconel 690 material. The increase of temperature could reduce the concentration of dissolved oxygen, and promote the absorption reaction of hydrazine and dissolved oxygen. As a result, the oxidative corrosion rate is obviously lowered. Abrasive wear and delamination wear are the main mechanisms of Inconel 690 in distilled water. However, in hydrazine solution the cracks accompanied by abrasive wear and delamination wear are the main mechanisms.%在控制法向载荷分别为20、50和80 N,位移幅值分别为80、150和200μm的两种不同环境下,以Si3N4陶瓷球/Inconel690平面接触的方式,在PLINT高温微动试验机上进行微动腐蚀试验,循环次数为2×104。结果表明:在滑移区,当载荷、位移幅值一定时,相同温度联氨溶液中的稳态摩擦因数比其在蒸馏水中高;稳态摩擦因数随溶液的温度增加而增加;磨损体积随溶液温度增加而增加。Inconel 690在联氨溶液摩擦过程中,磨损程度除受到位移幅值、荷载影响以外,温度对磨损体积有显著影响。温度的增加即降低溶液的溶解氧又促进联胺与溶解氧的吸收反应,起到降低氧化腐蚀的作用。在蒸馏水中Inconel 690合金材料的磨损

  12. Effect of Orientation on Tensile Properties of Inconel 718 Block Fabricated with Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Atherton, Todd S.

    2010-01-01

    Electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) direct metal deposition processing was used to fabricate an Inconel 718 bulk block deposit. Room temperature tensile properties were measured as a function of orientation and location within the block build. This study is a follow-on activity to previous work on Inconel 718 EBF3 deposits that were too narrow to allow properties to be measured in more than one orientation

  13. Mode conversion of guided waves in Inconel tubes with Ni coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrosleeving is one of the promising methods to repair a defective steam generator tubing in the nuclear power plant. It requires a nondestructive inspection in order to verify the structural Integrity in the coated region. In this study, a feasibility of ultrasonic guided wave for Inconel tube with Ni coating was investigated. Phase and group velocity dispersion curves for Inconel tube with Ni coating were calculated to get an optimum condition of guided wave propagation. An eight-segments ultrasonic transducer was designed and fabricated to generate L(0,2) mode, and receive signals around circumference. The received signal from the beginning of Ni coating showed almost similar amplitude along the angular circumference and matched to longitudinal L(0,2) mode. However, the received signals from the end of Ni coating were different along the angular circumferences. It seems that the longitudinal mode be converted to flexural mode at the end of Ni coating.

  14. Laser Additive Melting and Solidification of Inconel 718: Finite Element Simulation and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John; Ladani, Leila; Sadowski, Magda

    2016-03-01

    The field of powdered metal additive manufacturing is experiencing a surge in public interest finding uses in aerospace, defense, and biomedical industries. The relative youth of the technology coupled with public interest makes the field a vibrant research topic. The authors have expanded upon previously published finite element models used to analyze the processing of novel engineering materials through the use of laser- and electron beam-based additive manufacturing. In this work, the authors present a model for simulating fabrication of Inconel 718 using laser melting processes. Thermal transport phenomena and melt pool geometries are discussed and validation against experimental findings is presented. After comparing experimental and simulation results, the authors present two correction correlations to transform the modeling results into meaningful predictions of actual laser melting melt pool geometries in Inconel 718.

  15. Role of refractory elements in modifying the service life of Inconel 625 ammonia cracker tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel 625 is the preferred material of cracker tube/components for cracking of enriched ammonia in NH3-H2 Mono-thermal Chemical Exchange Process based heavy water production plants in India.These tubes are designed for a service life of 100,000 h at operating temperatures between 550 to 650 °C. Refractory elements play important roles in imparting the necessary service life to Inconel 625. Under operating conditions, they undergo precipitation reactions which significantly undermines the service life of these tubes due to precipitation induced hardening and embrittlement. This paper present how the service life of cracker tubes is affected by the precipitation of phases bearing refractory elements, and also the necessary heat treatment required to rejuvenate the alloy. (author)

  16. Effect of δ Phase on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Inconel 718 by Notch Tensile Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liufa LIU; Chen LU; Wenjiang DING; Akio Hirose; Kojiro F.Kobayashi

    2005-01-01

    The effect of δ phase on the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) sensitivity of Inconel 718 was investigated by conducting notch tensile tests. Notch tensile specimens with various precipitation morphologies of δ phase were prepared with different heat treatments, and hydrogen was charged into the tensile specimens before tensile tests via a cathodic charging process. The loss of notch tensile strength (NTS) due to the charged hydrogen was used to evaluate the hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity. The results show that δ phase has deleterious effect on NTSs, and the fracture of hydrogen-charged specimens initiated near the notch surfaces. The loss of NTS caused by precharged hydrogen can be greatly decreased by dissolving δ phase. δ-free Inconel 718 alloy is proposed for the applications in hydrogen environments.

  17. Nondestructive inspection assessment of eddy current and electrochemical analysis to separate inconel and stainless steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a nondestructive inspection assessment of eddy current and electrochemical analysis to separate inconel alloys from stainless steel alloys as well as an evaluation of cleaning techniques to remove a thermal oxide layer on aircraft exhaust components. The results of this assessment are presented in terms of how effective each technique classifies a known exhaust material. Results indicate that either inspection technique can separate inconel and stainless steel alloys. Based on the experiments conducted, the electrochemical spot test is the optimum for use by airframe and powerplant mechanics. A spot test procedure is proposed for incorporation into the Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 65-9A Airframe & Powerplant Mechanic - General Handbook. 3 refs., 70 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 617 degraded at high temperature with atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Inconel 617 is a candidate tube material of intermediate heat-exchanger and hot gas duct for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) for hydrogen production. The microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 617 were investigated after exposure at 1050 deg C in air and helium. Oxide layers were observed by cross-section image. The de-lamination of oxide layer occurs because of the difference of thermal expansion coefficient between oxide layer and matrix. The depth of Cr-depleted zone and internal oxide increased with exposure time. It was observed that the carbide phase was changed on grain boundary during exposure. These carbides were coarsened increasing exposure time. High temperature compression test and hardness test were carried out after aging at 1050 deg C. The changes of yield strength and hardness were observed with increasing aging time. (authors)

  19. Solute redistribution and Rayleigh number in the mushy zone during directional solidification of Inconel 718

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ling; Dong Jianxin; Liu Lin; Zhang Lei

    2009-01-01

    The interdendritic segregation along the mushy zone of directionally solidified superalloy Inconel 718has been measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersion analysis spectrometry (EDAX)techniques and the corresponding liquid composition profile was presented. The liquid density and Rayleigh number (Ra) profiles along the mushy zone were calculated as well. It was found that the liquid density difference increased from top to bottom in the mushy zone and there was no density inversion due to the segregation of Nb and Mo. However carbide formation in the freezing range and the preferred angle of the odentated dendrite array could prompt the fluid flow in the mushy zone although there was no liquid density inversion. The largest relative Rayleigh number appeared at 1,326℃ for Inconel 718 where the fluid flow most easily occurred.

  20. Microsegregation and Rayleigh number variation during the solidification of superalloy Inconel 718

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Wang; Jianxin Dong; Yuliang Tian; Lei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and composition of the residual liquid at different temperatures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) associated with the Thermo-calc software calculation of the equilibrium phase diagrams of Inconel 718 and segregated liquid. The liquid density difference and Rayleigh number variation dur-ing solidification were estimated as well. It is found that the heavy segregation of Nb in liquid prompts the precipitation of δ and Laves phase directly from liquid and the resultant quenched liquid microstructure consists of pro-eutectic γ+eutectic, or complete eutectic according to the content of Nb from low to high. The liquid density increases with decreasing temperature during the solidi-fication of Inconel 718 and the liquid density difference is positive. The largest relative Rayleigh number occurs at 1320℃ when the liquid fraction is about 40vol%.

  1. Effect of thermal stabilization on the low-temperature stress-corrosion cracking of Inconel 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propensity to low-temperature stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of thermally stabilized Inconel 600 in sulfur-bearing environments has been investigated using U-bends and slow-strain-rate testing. The results have been compared with those of sensitized Inconel 600. The potential dependence of crack-propagation rate has been established in a single test by using several U-bends held at different potentials, by choosing an appropriate electrical circuitry. The difference in SCC susceptibility of the sensitized and stabilized materials is discussed in terms of the grain-boundary chromium depletion and resulting intergranular attack in boiling ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid tests, and electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) tests. 10 figures

  2. Effect of thermal stabilization on the low-temperature stress-corrosion cracking of Inconel 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1983-01-01

    The propensity to low-temperature stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of thermally stabilized Inconel 600 in sulfur-bearing environments has been investigated using U-bends and slow-strain-rate testing. The results have been compared with those of sensitized Inconel 600. The potential dependence of crack-propagation rate has been established in a single test by using several U-bends held at different potentials, by choosing an appropriate electrical circuitry. The difference in SCC susceptibility of the sensitized and stabilized materials is discussed in terms of the grain-boundary chromium depletion and resulting intergranular attack in boiling ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid tests, and electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) tests. 10 figures.

  3. Studies on the weldability, microstructure and mechanical properties of activated flux TIG weldments of Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research article addresses the joining of 5 mm thick plates of Inconel 718 by activated flux tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding process using SiO2 and TiO2 fluxes. Microstructure studies inferred the presence of Nb rich eutectics and/or laves phase in the fusion zone of the A-TIG weldments. Tensile studies corroborated that the ultimate tensile strength of TiO2 flux assisted weldments (885 MPa) was better compared to SiO2 flux assisted weldments (815 MPa) and the failure was observed in the parent metal for both the cases. Impact test results portrayed that both the weldments were inferior in toughness as compared to the parent metal, which was due to the presence of oxide inclusions. Also, the study investigated the structure–property relationships of the A-TIG weldments of Inconel 718

  4. Precipitation and Cr depletion profiles of Inconel 182 during heat treatments and laser surface melting

    OpenAIRE

    Baoa, Gang; Yamamoto, Motomichi; Shinozaki, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling was conducted to simulate Cr depletion profiles near grain boundaries in Inconel 182 during heat treatments and laser surface melting (LSM) using Thermo-Calc and DICTRA code. The effect of Nb addition was also considered in the modeling. Based on the good agreement with Cr concentration distributions during the heat treatments measured experimentally, Cr depletion profiles adjacent to grain boundaries during the heat treatments and the LSM process were model...

  5. High temperature environmental interactions of Inconel 617: A paper study for the TEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.S.

    2000-06-16

    Inconel alloy 617 has been selected as the material of choice for the retort of the furnace for the Tritium Extraction Facility. To monitor retort performance and suitability for continued service, representative sample coupons should be suspended on the inside (process side) and outside (annulus side) of the retort for periodic metallographic analysis or hardness testing. Surface dealloying and hardness could be used to monitor the ``health'' of the retort in this surveillance program.

  6. Effect of heat treatment on fatigue crack growth rate of inconel 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of heat treatment on fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) of Inconel 690 have been investigated in terms of carbide morphology and grain size. Cycling tests in air at room temperature have shown that FCGR in low stress intensity factor range (ΔK) region can be effectively reduced by increasing the grain boundary carbide precipitate size and grain size. Decrease in FCGR is attributed to the crack tip blunting at the precipitates of grain boundary chromium carbides

  7. Mechanical Behaviour of Inconel 718 Thin-Walled Laser Welded Components for Aircraft Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Lertora; Chiara Mandolfino; Carla Gambaro

    2014-01-01

    Nickel alloys are very important in many aerospace applications, especially to manufacture gas turbines and aero engine components, where high strength and temperature resistance are necessary. These kinds of alloys have to be welded with high energy density processes, in order to preserve their high mechanical properties. In this work, CO2 laser overlap joints between Inconel 718 sheets of limited thickness in the absence of postweld heat treatment were made. The main application of this kin...

  8. Mechanical and electrochemical properties of inconel alloy 617 after refurbishment through heat treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kawthar-Ali, Mahmoud H.

    2002-01-01

    The transition piece in gas turbine is an important component, which joins the combustion chamber to the turbine nozzles. These pieces are made from an alloy that resist high temperature and thermal loading and being considerably expensive. The high operating temperature and thermal fatigue limit the lifetime of such component Consequently, the life extension of the alloy through sound refurbishment process is in demand. The refurbishment of Inconel 617 alloy after 37000 hours of operation in...

  9. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF DYNAMIC RECRYSTALLIZATION AND GRAIN GROWTH DURING HOT WORKING OF INCONEL 783 SUPERALLOY

    OpenAIRE

    JONG-TAEK YEOM; EUN JEOUNG JUNG; JEE HOON KIM; JEOUNG HAN KIM; JAE-KEUN HONG; NHO-KWANG PARK; KOOK-JOO KIM; SEUNG-SIK CHOI

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the modeling of recrystallization and grain growth was investigated to predict the microstructure evolution during hot working of INCONEL 783 superalloy (Alloy 783). The recrystallization model was constructed on the basis of the Avrami formation. A least-square optimization technique was used to determine several important parameters within the model from isothermal heat treatment and hot compression test results. High temperature compression tests were carried out under diffe...

  10. Increase in structural stability by control of precipitation in alloys derived from Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alloys studied are derived from Inconel 718 by increasing the ratio R=(Ti+Al)/Nb, which favor precipitation of the γ'-Ni3(Ti,Al) phase during aging at the expense of the metastable γ''-Ni3Nb phase responsible for considerable hardening of the reference alloy. It was possible in this way to define a region of the composition space R and S (S=Ti+Al+Nb) such that any alloy of this region gives rise to an original precipitation where the particles consist of γ' phase cubes plated on all six faces with the γ'' phase. These compact morphology precipitates show great stability of nature, size and shape at steady temperatures up to around 700 deg C, unlike Inconel 718 where the growth of the γ'' plates and their subsequent conversion to the stable β-Ni3Nb phase cause the alloy to age rapidly above 600 deg C. A comparison of the mechanical properties of Inconel 718 and one of the compact morphology precipitation alloys shows that for the derived alloy these properties can be as good or better after the aging treatment (hardness, tensile strength, short-term creep, low-cycle fatigue) and distinctly improved after long maintenance at temperatures of 700 deg C or above (hardness, long-term creep)

  11. The Evaluation of Crevice Corrosion of Inconel-600 and 304 Stainless Steel in Reductive Decontamination Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this sturdy, we investigated the characteristics of corrosion to Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel which are mainly used for the steam generator and primary system of PWR reactor respectively. We conducted the corrosion test for the HYBRID (HYdrazine Based metal Ion Reductive decontamination) which was developed in KAERI, Citrox and Oxalic acid solutions used in reductive decontamination of the inner surface of PWR. Since Citrox and oxalic acid solution were well-known conventional decontamination solutions, it is meaningful to compare the corrosion result of HYBRID with those solutions to confirm the corrosion compatibility. In order to obtain visible results in a limited time, we conducted the crevice corrosion tests under harsh condition. According to the results of crevice corrosion tests, we can conclude that metals such as type 304 stainless steel and Inconel-600 in HYBRID are very stable against crevice corrosion. On the other hand, those metals in Citrox and oxalic acid solutions were very susceptible to the crevice corrosion. Especially when using the oxalic acid solution, severe corrosion was observed not only Inconel-600 but also 304 stainless steel. The degree of corrosion can be expressed as; HYBRID << Citrox < OA. Conclusively, our results support that the HYBRID is more stable to the corrosion of structural materials in primary system than other Citrox and oxalic acid solutions. This finding will appoint the HYBRID solution as a candidate to solve the corrosion problem which is often issued by existing chemical decontamination processes

  12. The Evaluation of Crevice Corrosion of Inconel-600 and 304 Stainless Steel in Reductive Decontamination Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Junyoung; Park, Sangyoon; Won, Huijun; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sojin [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this sturdy, we investigated the characteristics of corrosion to Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel which are mainly used for the steam generator and primary system of PWR reactor respectively. We conducted the corrosion test for the HYBRID (HYdrazine Based metal Ion Reductive decontamination) which was developed in KAERI, Citrox and Oxalic acid solutions used in reductive decontamination of the inner surface of PWR. Since Citrox and oxalic acid solution were well-known conventional decontamination solutions, it is meaningful to compare the corrosion result of HYBRID with those solutions to confirm the corrosion compatibility. In order to obtain visible results in a limited time, we conducted the crevice corrosion tests under harsh condition. According to the results of crevice corrosion tests, we can conclude that metals such as type 304 stainless steel and Inconel-600 in HYBRID are very stable against crevice corrosion. On the other hand, those metals in Citrox and oxalic acid solutions were very susceptible to the crevice corrosion. Especially when using the oxalic acid solution, severe corrosion was observed not only Inconel-600 but also 304 stainless steel. The degree of corrosion can be expressed as; HYBRID << Citrox < OA. Conclusively, our results support that the HYBRID is more stable to the corrosion of structural materials in primary system than other Citrox and oxalic acid solutions. This finding will appoint the HYBRID solution as a candidate to solve the corrosion problem which is often issued by existing chemical decontamination processes.

  13. Impact of shelf life on measured prompt fraction of spare Inconel in-core flux detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt fraction measurements associated with spare self-powered Inconel In-Core Flux Detectors (ICFDs) carried out a few years after installation on Shut Down System number 1 (SDS1) and Reactor Regulating System (RRS) at Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS), were found to be lower than those of the original detectors. These detectors, spares and originals, were manufactured in the late 80s, however, the former were kept at manufacturer's warehouse and latter were installed in the reactor core within a few years after manufacturing. Although the prompt fractions of the spare detectors were relatively low, the electronic/electrical behavior of the spare detectors was intact. The first batch of the original detectors performed as per the design requirements. Therefore, it is suspected that during shelf life, spare Inconel in-core flux detectors underwent changes that lowered their measured values of prompt fraction, which were taken within a few years after installation in the reactor. Detailed study of detectors' material composition and impurity concentrations revealed no association with the lower prompt fraction measurements. The evaluation of the limited data of the original and spare Inconel ICFDs installed at Darlington showed: 1. The reduction in prompt fraction was roughly proportional to the shelf life of the detectors; and 2. The rate of reduction in prompt fraction during storage was about double the rate of reduction during operation in the reactor. Above observations were based on the data provided by DNGS for a few detectors. The purpose of this paper is two fold, firstly to present the results of the complete study carried out to investigate the cause of relatively low prompt fractions measured on spare SDS1 and RRS Inconel ICFDs at DNGS, and secondly to generate interest/awareness within other CANDU utilities to add to the database of prompt fractions of spare Inconel ICFDs measured after installation. The data will help to improve statistical

  14. Porosity reduction in Nd-YAG laser welding of stainless steel and inconel alloy by using a pulsed wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the influence of the Nd-YAG laser power wave mode on the porosity and mechanical properties of SUS 304L and inconel 690 weldments. Initially, a rectangular laser power waveform is specified. The output is then progressively changed from a pulsed wave mode to a continuous wave mode by reducing the value of ΔP (ΔP = Pp-Pb, where Pp is the peak power and Pb is the base power) to zero. Bead-on-plate (BOP) and butt welding are performed at a constant mean output power (1.7 kW). The BOP results demonstrate that the depth/width (D/W) ratio of both materials increases with ΔP and attains a maximum value when full penetration just occurs. The D/W ratio and the travel speed for full penetration are higher for SUS 304L than for inconel 690. In butt-welds of inconel 690 and SUS 304L, the porosity ratio decreases from 7.1% to 0.5% and from 2.1% to 0.5%, respectively, as ΔP increases from 0 to 2780 W. Therefore, the tensile strength and percentage elongation are enhanced significantly in inconel 690. The degree of porosity reduction in inconel 690 exceeds that of SUS 304L. This suggests that the viscosity of the molten inconel 690 metal is higher than that of SUS 304L. Consequently, the effect of porosity reduction due to the increase in molten metal fluidity caused by increasing ΔP is greater for inconel 690 than for SUS 304L

  15. Surface Roughness and Tool Wear on Cryogenic Treated CBN Insert on Titanium and Inconel 718 Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamizhmanii, S.; Mohideen, R.; Zaidi, A. M. A.; Hasan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Machining of materials by super hard tools like cubic boron nitride (cbn) and poly cubic boron nitride (pcbn) is to reduce tool wear to obtain dimensional accuracy, smooth surface and more number of parts per cutting edge. wear of tools is inevitable due to rubbing action between work material and tool edge. however, the tool wear can be minimized by using super hard tools by enhancing the strength of the cutting inserts. one such process is cryogenic process. this process is used in all materials and cutting inserts which requires wear resistance. the cryogenic process is executed under subzero temperature -186° celsius for longer period of time in a closed chamber which contains liquid nitrogen. in this research, cbn inserts with cryogenically treated was used to turn difficult to cut metals like titanium, inconel 718 etc. the turning parameters used is different cutting speeds, feed rates and depth of cut. in this research, titanium and inconel 718 material were used. the results obtained are surface roughness, flank wear and crater wear. the surface roughness obtained on titanium was lower at high cutting speed compared with inconel 718. the flank wear was low while turning titanium than inconel 718. crater wear is less on inconel 718 than titanium alloy. all the two materials produced saw tooth chips.

  16. Reaction of Inconel 690 and 693 in Iron Phosphate Melts: Alternative Glasses for Waste Vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion resistance of candidate materials used for the electrodes (Inconel 690 and 693) and the melt contact refractory (Monofrax K-3) in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM) has been investigated at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) during the period from June 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (DE-FG02-04ER63831). The unusual properties and characteristics of iron phosphate glasses, as viewed from the standpoint of alternative glasses for vitrifying nuclear and hazardous wastes which contain components that make them poorly suited for vitrification in borosilicate glass, were recently discovered at UMR. The expanding national and international interest in iron phosphate glasses for waste vitrification stems from their rapid melting and chemical homogenization which results in higher furnace output, their high waste loading that varies from 32 wt% up to 75 wt% for the Hanford LAW and HLW, respectively, and the outstanding chemical durability of the iron phosphate wasteforms which meets all present DOE requirements (PCT and VHT). The higher waste loading in iron phosphate glasses, compared to the baseline borosilicate glass, can reduce the time and cost of vitrification considerably since a much smaller mass of glass will be produced, for example, about 43% less glass when the LAW at Hanford is vitrified in an iron phosphate glass according to PNNL estimates. In view of the promising performance of iron phosphate glasses, information is needed for how to best melt these glasses on the scale needed for practical use. Melting iron phosphate glasses in a JHM is considered the preferred method at this time because its design could be nearly identical to the JHM now used to melt borosilicate glasses at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Westinghouse Savannah River Co. Therefore, it is important to have information for the corrosion of candidate electrode

  17. Microstructures and microhardness at fusion boundary of 316 stainless steel/Inconel 182 dissimilar welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructures and microhardness at fusion boundary of a weld joint were investigated in a 316 stainless steel/Inconel 182 dissimilar weldment. The results showed that there were two alternately distributed typical fusion boundaries, a narrow random boundary (possessed 15% in length) with a clear sharp interface and an epitaxial fusion one with (100)BM//(100)WM at the joint interface. The composition transition, microstructure and hardness across the fusion boundary strongly depended on the type of the fusion boundary. For the random boundary, there was a clear sharp interface and the composition transition with a width of 100 μm took place symmetrically across the grain boundary. For the epitaxial fusion one, however, there were Type-I and Type-II grain boundaries perpendicular and parallel to the epitaxial fusion boundary, respectively. The composition transition took place in the Inconel 182 weld side. Σ3 boundaries in the HAZ of 316SS side and Σ5 grain boundaries in weld metal were usually observed, despite the type of fusion boundary, however the former was much more in epitaxial fusion boundary. Microhardness was continuously decreased across the random fusion boundary from the side of Inconel 182 to 316SS, but a hardening phenomenon appeared in the epitaxial fusion boundary zone because of its fine cellular microstructure. - Highlights: • Two typical fusion boundaries alternately distributed in the fusion interface • The microstructure, composition and hardness across fusion boundary depended on its type. • Different regions in welded joint have different special CSL value boundaries. • Hardening phenomenon only appeared in the epitaxial fusion boundary

  18. Normal spectral emittance of Inconel 718 aeronautical alloy coated with yttria stabilized zirconia films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Planta de Zamudio, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Campo, L. del [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Perez-Saez, R.B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Tello, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2012-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emittance of Inconel 718 coated with plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating is opaque for {lambda} > 9 {mu}m and semi-transparent for {lambda} < 9 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the semi-transparent region the emittance decreases with coating thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 300 {mu}m thick coatings are still semi-transparent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the opaque region the surface roughness determines the emittance level. - Abstract: Knowledge of the radiative behaviour of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is needed to perform radiative heat transfer calculations in industrial applications. In this paper, normal spectral emittance experimental data of atmospheric plasma sprayed (PS) YSZ films layered on Inconel 718 substrates are shown. The spectral emittance was measured between 2.5 and 22 {mu}m on samples with film thicknesses ranging from 20 to 280 {mu}m. The samples were heated in a controlled environment, and the emittance was measured for several temperatures between 330 and 730 Degree-Sign C. The dependence of the spectral emittance with film thickness, surface roughness and temperature has been studied and compared with the available results for YSZ TBCs obtained by electron-beam physical vapour deposition. The PS-TBC samples show a Christiansen point at {lambda} = 12.8 {mu}m. The films are semi-transparent for {lambda} < 9 {mu}m, and opaque for {lambda} > 9 {mu}m. In the semi-transparent region, the contribution of the radiation emitted by the Inconel 718 substrate to the global emittance of the samples is analysed. In addition, the influence of the roughness in the emittance values in the opaque spectral region is discussed. Finally, the total normal emittance is obtained as a function of the TBC thickness.

  19. Microstructures and microhardness at fusion boundary of 316 stainless steel/Inconel 182 dissimilar welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei, E-mail: wang_wei_310@163.com [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Lu, Yonghao, E-mail: lu_yonghao@mater.ustb.edu.cn [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ding, Xianfei, E-mail: xfding@ustb.edu.cn [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shoji, Tetsuo, E-mail: tshoji@fri.niche.tohoku.ac.jp [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Fracture and Reliability Research Institute, Tohoku University, 6-6-01, Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai City 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Microstructures and microhardness at fusion boundary of a weld joint were investigated in a 316 stainless steel/Inconel 182 dissimilar weldment. The results showed that there were two alternately distributed typical fusion boundaries, a narrow random boundary (possessed 15% in length) with a clear sharp interface and an epitaxial fusion one with (100){sub BM}//(100){sub WM} at the joint interface. The composition transition, microstructure and hardness across the fusion boundary strongly depended on the type of the fusion boundary. For the random boundary, there was a clear sharp interface and the composition transition with a width of 100 μm took place symmetrically across the grain boundary. For the epitaxial fusion one, however, there were Type-I and Type-II grain boundaries perpendicular and parallel to the epitaxial fusion boundary, respectively. The composition transition took place in the Inconel 182 weld side. Σ3 boundaries in the HAZ of 316SS side and Σ5 grain boundaries in weld metal were usually observed, despite the type of fusion boundary, however the former was much more in epitaxial fusion boundary. Microhardness was continuously decreased across the random fusion boundary from the side of Inconel 182 to 316SS, but a hardening phenomenon appeared in the epitaxial fusion boundary zone because of its fine cellular microstructure. - Highlights: • Two typical fusion boundaries alternately distributed in the fusion interface • The microstructure, composition and hardness across fusion boundary depended on its type. • Different regions in welded joint have different special CSL value boundaries. • Hardening phenomenon only appeared in the epitaxial fusion boundary.

  20. Segregation behaviour and phase developments during solidification of Inconel 625; effect of iron and carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Tiedje, Niels; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    The key to improve the performance of Inconel 625 weld overlays applied for corrosion resistance in waste incinerator plants is to understand the solidification process: At present, enhanced resistance against fireside corrosion in waste incinerator boilers is commonly achieved by overlay welding...... performed on representative samples of the weld overlay using a combination of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the concentration of niobium and molybdenum was larger in the interdendritic matrix (denoted ƒ×ID) compared to the dendrite core (ƒ×DC). In addition, both...

  1. Prediction of Solidification and Microstructure of Inconel Alloy Using Numerical Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test castings of Inconel 713LC nickel alloy were prepared by pouring into shell molds in vacuum furnace. The temperature was experimentally measured in the course of solidification and cooling, and the structure was evaluated in as-cast condition. Applying thermal insulation of shells, the dependence of the structure of castings on cooling rate was monitored on test castings. The solidification pattern was solved numerically, using the ProCAST simulation program. Parameters for the simulation of as-cast structure were sought using the CAFÉ module of the ProCAST program. Calculation parameters were established with the experimentally determined temperature curves and structure.

  2. Influence of Overloads on Dwell Time Fatigue Crack Growth in Inconel 718

    OpenAIRE

    Saarimäki, Jonas; Moverare, Johan; Eriksson, Robert; Johansson, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Inconel 718 is one of the most commonly used superalloys for high temperature applications in gasturbines and aeroengines and is for example used for components such as turbine discs. Turbine discs can be subjected to temperatures up to ~700 °C towards the outer radius of the disc. During service, the discs might start to develop cracks due to fatigue and long dwell times. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which c...

  3. Modelling of high temperature fatigue crack growth in Inconel 718 under hold time conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, David; Lundström, Erik; Simonsson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    Inconel 718 is a frequently used material for gas turbine applications at temperatures up to 650 °C. The main load cycle for such components is typically defined by the start-up and shut-down of the engine. It generally includes hold times at high temperatures, which have been found to have a potential for greatly increasing the fatigue crack growth rate with respect to the number of load cycles. However, these effects may be totally or partly cancelled by other load features, such as overloa...

  4. Summary of Studies of Aging and Environmental Effects on Inconel 617 and Haynes 230

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of very high temperature helium-cooled reactors have been built and operated for extended periods. The helium coolant in the primary circuit has been found to contain low levels of impurities after steady-state operation that can lead to an environmental degradation of the high temperature alloys used for internals and heat exchangers. Depending on the impurity concentration and the temperature, high temperature alloys can undergo oxidation, carburization, or decarburization. The concentration of H2O and CO is of particular interest because they essentially control the oxygen partial pressure and carbon activity, respectively. The optimum coolant chemistry for long-term stability of high temperature alloys is slightly oxidizing and results in formation of a tenacious and protective Cr2O3 scale. The most critical metallic component of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is the heat exchanger. Inconel 617 is the primary candidate alloy for this application because of its superior creep resistance. The mechanisms of environmental interaction between this alloy and prototype Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) helium chemistries have been extensively studied. A modified type of Ellingham diagram that maps the ranges of carbon activity and oxygen partial pressure that result in each of the degradation mechanisms has been developed. The NGNP materials program has designed and built three test loops to extend previous studies on environmental effects of prototype impure helium on Inconel 617 by increasing temperatures and using test coupons that incorporate fusion welds in controlled impurity experiments. In addition, parallel studies have been initiated with a less well-characterized alloy, Haynes 230. The goal of this work is to determine the range of gas chemistries that give rise to stable oxide formation for these alloys at temperatures up to 1000 C. Stability of the microstructure and properties of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 after extended exposure to

  5. THERMODYNAMIC MODELING OF THE SURFACE LAYER STRUCTURE ON INCONEL 600 OXIDIZED IN A CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Haouam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Inconel 600 were isothermally oxidized in a controlled atmosphere with a special mounting at high-temperature oxidation. Along with this experimental study, a simulation of thermodynamic behavior of the material in the same oxidation conditions was carried out using the Thermo-Calc code. The thermodynamic modeling is able to predict the phase nature and its distribution in the structure of the surface layer resulting from the corrosion of the material in thermodynamic equilibrium in the absence of mechanical stress. The results of this simulation are supplemented to results obtained from the analysis by glow discharge spectrometry (GDS which is performed on the samples tested.

  6. Spectral Emittance of Uncoated and Ceramic-Coated Inconel and Type 321 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Joseph C.; Stewart, James E.

    1959-01-01

    The normal spectral emittance of Inconel and type 321 stainless steel with different surface treatments was measured at temperatures of 900, 1,200, 1,500, and 1,800 F over a wavelength range of 1.5 to 15 microns. The measurements involved comparison of the radiant energy emitted by the heated specimen with that emitted by a comparison standard at the same temperature by means of a recording double-beam infrared spectrophotometer. The silicon carbide comparison standard had previously been calibrated against a laboratory black-body furnace. Surface treatments included electropolishing, sandblasting, electro-polishing followed by oxidation in air for 1/2 hour at 1,800 F, sandblasting followed by oxidation in air for 1/2 hour at 1,800 F, application of National Bureau of Standards coating A-418, and application of NBS ceramic coating N-143. The normal spectral emittance of both alloys in the electropolished condition was low and decreased very slightly with increasing wavelength while in the sandblasted condition it was somewhat higher and did not vary appreciably with wavelength. The oxidation treatment greatly increased the normal spectral emittance of both the electropolished and sandblasted type 321 stainless steel specimens and of the electropolished Inconel specimens and introduced some spectral selectivity into the curves. The oxidation increased the normal spectral emittance of the sandblasted Inconel specimens only moderately. Of the specimens to which a coating about 0.002 inch thick was applied, those coated with A-418 had higher emittance at all wavelengths than did those coated with N-143, and the coated specimens of Inconel had higher spectral emittance at all wavelengths than did the corresponding specimens of type 321 stainless steel. Both coatings were found to be partially transparent to the emitted energy at this thickness but essentially opaque at a thickness of 0.005 inch. Coated specimens with 0.005 inch or more of coating did not show the effect

  7. Management perspective of the Alloy 600 issue at Calvert Cliffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the question posed in the agenda regarding this presentation, let it be known at the onset that the impact of the pressurizer nozzle primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) on Calvert Cliffs was gigantic. It reached all levels of the Company management, including the Board of Directors. The investigation and repair cost over $20 million without any consideration for replacement power or consequential lost work by those who were involved in the repairs to the pressurizer. It occupied the attention of management and was a major ingredient to most decision processes for about eight months. It caused organizational modifications, capital commitments, and major resource reallocation. It became the focal point around which much of the site work revolved for approximately 6 months (until the repair process was well in hand and other issues prevailed). I will try and describe the impact it had on management, the ingredients used to reach certain important decisions and the concerns that influenced the decisions

  8. Influence of microstructure in corrosion behavior of an Inconel 600 commercial alloy in 0.1 M sodium thiosulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Inconel 600 is used in diverse components of BWR and PWR type reactors, where diverse cases of intergranular stress corrosion have been presented. It has been reported susceptibility to the corrosion of this alloy, in presence of thiosulfates, which come from the degradation of the ion exchange resins of water treatments that use the reactors. The objective of this work is to study the influence of metallurgical condition in the corrosion velocity of Inconel 600 commercial alloy, in a 0.1 M thiosulfates solution. (Author)

  9. Exfoliation on stainless steel and inconel produced by 0.8-4 MeV helium iom bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to try and outline the energy dependence of surface deformations such as exfoliation and flaking on candidate CTR first-wall materials, stainless steel and two types of inconels were bombarded by 0.8, 1 and 4 MeV helium ions. All the bombarded spots could be characterized by large exfoliations covering almost the total implanted area. No spontaneous rupture was observed except on one type of inconel where flaking took place right after reaching the critical dose. After mechanical opening of the formations, similar inner morphology was found as in our previous studies on gold. (orig.)

  10. Exfoliation on stainless steel and inconel produced by 0.8-4 MeV helium ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trying to outline the energy dependence of surface deformations such as exfoliation and flaking on candidate CTR first-wall materials, stainless steel and two types of inconels were bombarded by 0.8, 1 and 4 MeV helium ions. All the bombarded spots could be characterized by by large exfoliations covering almost the total implanted area. No spontaneous rupture was observed except on one type of inconel where flaking took place right after reaching the critical dose. After mechanical opening of the formations, similar inner morphology was found as in our previous studies on gold. (author)

  11. Surface Integrity and Structural Stability of Broached Inconel 718 at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Peng, R. Lin; Moverare, J.; Avdovic, P.; Zhou, J. M.; Johansson, S.

    2016-04-01

    The current study focused on the surface integrity issues associated with broaching of Inconel 718 and the structural stability of the broached specimen at high temperatures, mainly involving the microstructural changes and residual stress relaxation. The broaching operation was performed using similar cutting conditions as that used in turbo machinery industries for machining fir-tree root fixings on turbine disks. Thermal exposure was conducted at 723 K, 823 K, and 923 K (450 °C, 550 °C, and 650 °C) for 30, 300, and 3000 hours, respectively. Surface cavities and debris dragging, sub-surface cracks, high intensity of plastic deformation, as well as the generation of tensile residual stresses were identified to be the main issues in surface integrity for the broached Inconel 718. When a subsequent heating was applied, surface recrystallization and α-Cr precipitation occurred beneath the broached surface depending on the applied temperature and exposure time. The plastic deformation induced by the broaching is responsible for these microstructural changes. The surface tension was completely relaxed in a short time at the temperature where surface recrystallization occurred. The tensile layer on the sub-surface, however, exhibited a much higher resistance to the stress relief annealing. Oxidation is inevitable at high temperatures. The study found that the surface recrystallization could promote the local Cr diffusion on the broached surface.

  12. KWU experience with Inconel X-750 and today's philosophy for high strength materials selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KWU uses Inconel-X-750 in BWR and PWR in structural components both for reactor pressure vessel internals and for fuel assembly and control assembly. Operating experience has been gained over more than 15 years. Common mode damage due to intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) did not occur. The components can be divided into two categories: fasteners and guides such as bolts, nuts and centering fixtures, and springs in the form of helical-, disc- and leaf-springs. With respect to fasteners and guides, only singular cases of damages have occurred. The cause of the damage can be narrowed down and tracked back to unsuitable heat treatment of the material (anneal at 885 degree C) combined with design-related individual peak stresses, or to high secondary stresses due to thermal expansion in localized areas. With respect to spring assemblies, with one exception, no IGSCC damage has yet been observed. This is true despite the fact that, in particular, helical-springs are used in large numbers in a wide variety of components. The present procedure for selecting materials for use in high-strength components is primarily based on internationally-published experience and more important on our own investigations and operating experience. According to this experience, Inconel-X-750 is susceptible to IGSCC (even in favorable heat-treated conditions) only is sufficiently high tensile stresses are present

  13. Effect of thermal exposure on microstructure and nano-hardness of broached Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 is a high strength, heat resistant superalloy that is used extensively for components in hot sections of gas turbine engines. This paper presents an experimental study on the thermal stability of broached Inconel 718 in terms of microstructure and nano-hardness. The broaching process used in this study is similar to that used in gas turbine industries for machining fir-tree root fixings on turbine discs. Severe plastic deformation was found under the broached surface. The plastic deformation induces a work-hardened layer in the subsurface region with a thickness of ∼50 μm. Thermal exposure was conducted at two temperatures, 550 ∘C and 650 ∘C respectively, for 300 h. Recrystallization occurs in the surface layer during thermal exposure at 550 ∘C and α-Cr precipitates as a consequence of the growth of recrystallized δ phases. More recrystallized grains with a larger size form in the surface layer and the α-Cr not only precipitates in the surface layer, but also in the sub-surface region when the thermal exposure temperature goes up to 650 ∘C. The thermal exposure leads to an increase in nano-hardness both in the work-hardened layer and in the bulk material due to the coarsening of the main strengthening phase γ′′.

  14. Analysis of Deformation in Inconel 718 When the Stress Anomaly and Dynamic Strain Aging Coexist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follansbee, Paul S.

    2016-09-01

    Deformation in Inconel 718 in the presence of combined effects of the stress anomaly and dynamic strain aging is analyzed according to an internal state variable model formulation. The analysis relies on the availability of experimental data in regimes of behavior where both the stress anomaly and dynamic strain aging are absent. A model that introduces two internal state variables—one characterizing interactions of dislocations with solute atoms and one characterizing interaction of dislocations with precipitates—is shown to adequately describe the temperature and strain-rate dependence of the yield stress in several superalloy systems. Strain hardening is then added with a third internal state variable to enable description of the full stress-strain curve. These equations are extrapolated into regimes where the stress anomaly and dynamic strain aging are present to identify signatures of their effects and to compare to similar analyses in a variety of metal systems. Dynamic strain aging in Inconel 718 follows similar trends to those observed previously. The magnitude of the stress anomaly tracks measurements of stress vs test temperature in pure Ni3Al. Several trends in the strain-rate sensitivity of elevated temperature deformation in superalloys are identified based on limited availability of measurements over a wide range of strain rates or tests using strain-rate changes.

  15. Control of the kerf size and microstructure in Inconel 738 superalloy by femtosecond laser beam cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Ye, Y.; Sun, Z.; Liu, L.; Zou, G.

    2016-05-01

    Femtosecond laser beam cutting is becoming widely used to meet demands for increasing accuracy in micro-machining. In this paper, the effects of processing parameters in femtosecond laser beam cutting on the kerf size and microstructure in Inconel 738 have been investigated. The defocus, pulse width and scanning speed were selected to study the controllability of the cutting process. Adjusting and matching the processing parameters was a basic enhancement method to acquire well defined kerf size and the high-quality ablation of microstructures, which has contributed to the intensity clamping effect. The morphology and chemical compositions of these microstructures on the cut surface have been characterized by a scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additionally, the material removal mechanism and oxidation mechanism on the Inconel 738 cut surface have also been discussed on the basis of the femtosecond laser induced normal vaporization or phase explosion, and trapping effect of the dangling bonds.

  16. Surface Integrity and Structural Stability of Broached Inconel 718 at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Peng, R. Lin; Moverare, J.; Avdovic, P.; Zhou, J. M.; Johansson, S.

    2016-07-01

    The current study focused on the surface integrity issues associated with broaching of Inconel 718 and the structural stability of the broached specimen at high temperatures, mainly involving the microstructural changes and residual stress relaxation. The broaching operation was performed using similar cutting conditions as that used in turbo machinery industries for machining fir-tree root fixings on turbine disks. Thermal exposure was conducted at 723 K, 823 K, and 923 K (450 °C, 550 °C, and 650 °C) for 30, 300, and 3000 hours, respectively. Surface cavities and debris dragging, sub-surface cracks, high intensity of plastic deformation, as well as the generation of tensile residual stresses were identified to be the main issues in surface integrity for the broached Inconel 718. When a subsequent heating was applied, surface recrystallization and α-Cr precipitation occurred beneath the broached surface depending on the applied temperature and exposure time. The plastic deformation induced by the broaching is responsible for these microstructural changes. The surface tension was completely relaxed in a short time at the temperature where surface recrystallization occurred. The tensile layer on the sub-surface, however, exhibited a much higher resistance to the stress relief annealing. Oxidation is inevitable at high temperatures. The study found that the surface recrystallization could promote the local Cr diffusion on the broached surface.

  17. Effect of temperature on fatigue crack growth rate in inconel 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of temperature on fatigue crack growth rate in Inconel 690 steam generator tube was investigated at room temperature, 150 .deg. C, 300 .deg. C and 400 .deg. C in air environment. Fatigue tests was performed on compact tension(CT) specimens made to thickness 8mm. Heat treatment was performed to obtain various microstructures. Tests was conducted at load ratio 0.1, at frequency 10Hz using sinusoidal waveform. Crack length was monitored by compliance method using sensor probe. Tensile tests was performed to obtain yield strength for fatigue test at each testing temperature. Fracture modes were studied using scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Tensile properties of Inconel 690 were dependent on grain size and testing temperature. As temperature and grain size increased, yield strength decreased. At temperature above 300 .deg. C, the serrations which were an evidence of dynamic strain aging (DSA) were observed for all cases of materials. Fatigue crack growth rate decreased with increasing grain size. At low Δ K, grain size effect was significant at room temperature, which was due to roughness induced crack closure. With increasing temperature, fatigue crack growth rate increased and grain size effect decreased. Chormium carbides which have large size and semi-continuous distribution in the grain boundaries decreased fatigue crack growth rate

  18. Effect of Powder-Suspended Dielectric on the EDM Characteristics of Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla, Gangadharudu; Gangopadhyay, S.; Biswas, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    The current work attempts to establish the criteria for powder material selection by investigating the influence of various powder-suspended dielectrics and machining parameters on various EDM characteristics of Inconel 625 (a nickel-based super alloy) which is nowadays regularly used in aerospace, chemical, and marine industries. The powders include aluminum (Al), graphite, and silicon (Si) that have significant variation in their thermo-physical characteristics. Results showed that powder properties like electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, density, and hardness play a significant role in changing the machining performance and the quality of the machined surface. Among the three powders, highest material removal rate was observed for graphite powder due to its high electrical and thermal conductivities. Best surface finish and least radial overcut (ROC) were attained using Si powder. Maximum microhardness was found for Si due to its low thermal conductivity and high hardness. It is followed by graphite and aluminum powders. Addition of powder to the dielectric has increased the crater diameter due to expansion of plasma channel. Powder-mixed EDM (PMEDM) was also effective in lowering the density of surface cracks with least number of cracks obtained with graphite powder. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated possible formation of metal carbides along with grain growth phenomenon of Inconel 625 after PMEDM.

  19. Structural characteristics of nickel super alloy INCONEL 713LC after heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aircraft industry often uses nickel super-alloys for blades of jet engine turbines. This paper summarises analysis of influence of heat treatment on structural characteristics of nickel super-alloy INCONEL 713LC.Design/methodology/approach: Experimental investigation castings made of commercially produced nickel super-alloy INCONEL 713LC. Material was after heat treatment subjected to detailed structural analysis with use of methods of light microscopy (LM, or scanning electron microscopy (SEM on microscopes OLYMPUS IX71 and JEOL JSM 50A.Findings: Mode of optimum heat treatment was proposed. On the basis of obtained results it is possible to recommend a heat treatment, which would consist of heating and dwell at the temperature exceeding 1240°C (min. 1260°C, so that precipitates at the grain boundaries dissolve completely, with subsequent slow cooling down to the temperature of approx. 940-950°C, so that there occurs intensive intra-granular precipitation of inter-metallic phase γ’.Research limitations/implications: The experiment was limited by occurrence a void in cast alloys.Practical implications: Aircraft industry often uses nickel super-alloys for blades of jet engine turbines.Originality/value: On the basis of obtained results it is possible to recommend the most suitable heat treatment, which produce intensive intra-granular precipitation of inter-metallic phase γ’. It was received a new know-how in this field.

  20. Microstructures and mechanical behavior of Inconel 718 fabricated by selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study Inconel 718 cylinders were fabricated by selective laser melting in either argon or nitrogen gas from a pre-alloyed powder. As-fabricated cylinders oriented in the build direction (z-axis) and perpendicular to the build direction (x-axis) exhibited columnar grains and arrays of γ″ (body-centered tetragonal) Ni3Nb oblate ellipsoidal precipitates oriented in a strong [2 0 0] texture determined by combined optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Fabricated and hot isostatic pressed (HIP) components exhibited a more pronounced [2 0 0] columnar γ″ phase precipitate architecture parallel to the laser beam or build direction (spaced at ∼0.8 μm), and a partially recrystallized fcc grain structure. Fabricated and annealed (1160 °C for 4 h) components were ∼50% recrystallized and the recrystallized regions contained spheroidal γ′ precipitates distributed in a dense field of fine γ″ precipitates. The γ″ precipitates were always observed to be coincident with {1 0 0} planes of the γ-fcc NiCr matrix. Some δ phase precipitates in the unrecrystallized/recrystallized interfaces and recrystallized grain boundaries were also observed in the annealed samples. The microindentation (Vickers) hardness was 3.9 GPa for the as-fabricated materials, 5.7 GPa for the HIP material, and 4.6 GPa for the annealed material. Corresponding tensile properties were comparable with wrought Inconel 718 alloy.

  1. Laser post-processing of Inconel 625 made by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, David; Helvajian, Henry; Steffeney, Lee; Hansen, William

    2016-04-01

    The effect of laser remelting of surfaces of as-built Selective Laser Melted (SLM) Inconel 625 was evaluated for its potential to improve the surface roughness of SLM parts. Many alloys made by SLM have properties similar to their wrought counterparts, but surface roughness of SLM-made parts is much higher than found in standard machine shop operations. This has implications for mechanical properties of SLM materials, such as a large debit in fatigue properties, and in applications of SLM, where surface roughness can alter fluid flow characteristics. Because complexity and netshape fabrication are fundamental advantages of Additive Manufacturing (AM), post-processing by mechanical means to reduce surface roughness detracts from the potential utility of AM. Use of a laser to improve surface roughness by targeted remelting or annealing offers the possibility of in-situ surface polishing of AM surfaces- the same laser used to melt the powder could be amplitude modulated to smooth the part during the build. The effects of remelting the surfaces of SLM Inconel 625 were demonstrated using a CW fiber laser (IPG: 1064 nm, 2-50 W) that is amplitude modulated with a pulse profile to induce remelting without spallation or ablation. The process achieved uniform depth of melting and improved surface roughness. The results show that with an appropriate pulse profile that meters the heat-load, surface features such as partially sintered powder particles and surface connected porosity can be mitigated via a secondary remelting/annealing event.

  2. Mechanical Behaviour of Inconel 718 Thin-Walled Laser Welded Components for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Lertora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel alloys are very important in many aerospace applications, especially to manufacture gas turbines and aero engine components, where high strength and temperature resistance are necessary. These kinds of alloys have to be welded with high energy density processes, in order to preserve their high mechanical properties. In this work, CO2 laser overlap joints between Inconel 718 sheets of limited thickness in the absence of postweld heat treatment were made. The main application of this kind of joint is the manufacturing of a helicopter engine component. In particular the aim was to obtain a specific cross section geometry, necessary to overcome the mechanical stresses found in these working conditions without failure. Static and dynamic tests were performed to assess the welds and the parent material fatigue life behaviour. Furthermore, the life trend was identified. This research pointed out that a full joint shape control is possible by choosing proper welding parameters and that the laser beam process allows the maintenance of high tensile strength and ductility of Inconel 718 but caused many liquation microcracks in the heat affected zone (HAZ. In spite of these microcracks, the fatigue behaviour of the overlap welds complies with the technical specifications required by the application.

  3. A Study on Fretting Behavior in Room Temperature for Inconel Alloy 690

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Chai, Young Suck; Bae, Yong Tak; Choi, Sung Jong

    The initial crack under fretting condition occurs at lower stress amplitude and lower cycles of cyclic loading than that under plain fatigue condition. The fretting damage, for example, can be observed in fossil and nuclear power plant, aircraft, automobile and petroleum chemical plants etc. INCONEL alloy 690 is a high-chromium nickel alloy having excellent resistance to many corrosive aqueous media and high-temperature atmospheres. This alloy is used extensively in the industries of nuclear power, chemicals, heat-treatment and electronics. In this paper, the effect of fretting damage on fatigue behavior for INCONEL alloy 690 was studied. Also, various kinds of tests on mechanical properties such as hardness, tension and plain fatigue tests are performed. Fretting fatigue tests were carried out with flat-flat contact configuration using a bridge type contact pad and plate type specimen. Through these experiments, it is found that the fretting fatigue strength decreased about 43% compared to the plain fatigue strength. In fretting fatigue, the wear debris is observed on the contact surface, and the oblique micro-cracks are initiated at an earlier stage. These results can be used as the basic data in a structural integrity evaluation of heat and corrosion resistant alloy considering fretting damages.

  4. Effect of service exposure on fatigue crack propagation of Inconel 718 turbine disc material at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Inconel 718 turbine disc with different service times from 0 to 4229 h was investigated at 738 and 823 K. No notable change in microstructural features, other than the increase in grain size, was observed with increasing service time. With increasing service time from 0 to 4229 h, the fatigue crack propagation rates tended to increase, while the ΔKth value decreased, in low ΔK regime and lower Paris' regime at both testing temperatures. The fractographic observation using a scanning electron microscope suggested that the elevated temperature fatigue crack propagation mechanism of Inconel 718 changed from crystallographic cleavage mechanism to striation mechanism in the low ΔK regime, depending on the grain size. The fatigue crack propagation mechanism is proposed for the crack propagating through small and large grains in the low ΔK regime, and the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Inconel 718 with different service times at elevated temperatures is discussed. - Highlights: • The specimens were prepared from the Inconel 718 turbine disc used for 0 to 4229 h. • FCP rates were measured at 738 and 823 K. • The ΔKth values decreased with increasing service time. • The FCP behavior showed a strong correlation with the grain size of used turbine disc

  5. Effect of Double Aging Heat Treatment on the Short-Term Creep Behavior of the Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliari, Felipe Rocha; Candioto, Kátia Cristiane Gandolpho; Couto, Antônio Augusto; Nunes, Carlos Ângelo; Reis, Danieli Aparecida Pereira

    2016-04-01

    This research studies the effect of double aging heat treatment on the short-term creep behavior of the superalloy Inconel 718. The superalloy, received in the solution treated state, was subjected to an aging treatment which comprises a solid solution at 1095 °C for 1 h, a first aging step of 955 °C for 1 h, then aged at 720 and 620 °C, 8 h each step. Creep tests at constant load mode, under temperatures of 650, 675, 700 °C and stress of 510, 625 and 700 MPa, were performed before and after heat treatment. The results indicate that after the double aging heat treatment creep resistance is increased, influenced by the presence of precipitates γ' and γ″ and its interaction with the dislocations, by grain size growth (from 8.20 to 7.23 ASTM) and the increase of hardness by approximately 98%. Creep parameters of primary and secondary stages have been determined. There is a breakdown relationship between dot{\\upvarepsilon }_{s} and stress at 650 °C of Inconel 718 as received, around 600 MPa. By considering the internal stress values, effective stress exponent, effective activation energy, and TEM images of Inconel 718 double aged, it is suggested that the creep mechanism is controlled by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates. The fracture mechanism of Inconel 718 as received is transgranular (coalescence of dimples) and mixed (transgranular-intergranular), whereas the Inconel 718 double aged condition crept surfaces evidenced the intergranular fracture mechanism.

  6. Effect of Double Aging Heat Treatment on the Short-Term Creep Behavior of the Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliari, Felipe Rocha; Candioto, Kátia Cristiane Gandolpho; Couto, Antônio Augusto; Nunes, Carlos Ângelo; Reis, Danieli Aparecida Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This research studies the effect of double aging heat treatment on the short-term creep behavior of the superalloy Inconel 718. The superalloy, received in the solution treated state, was subjected to an aging treatment which comprises a solid solution at 1095 °C for 1 h, a first aging step of 955 °C for 1 h, then aged at 720 and 620 °C, 8 h each step. Creep tests at constant load mode, under temperatures of 650, 675, 700 °C and stress of 510, 625 and 700 MPa, were performed before and after heat treatment. The results indicate that after the double aging heat treatment creep resistance is increased, influenced by the presence of precipitates γ' and γ″ and its interaction with the dislocations, by grain size growth (from 8.20 to 7.23 ASTM) and the increase of hardness by approximately 98%. Creep parameters of primary and secondary stages have been determined. There is a breakdown relationship between dot{\\upvarepsilon }_{{s}} and stress at 650 °C of Inconel 718 as received, around 600 MPa. By considering the internal stress values, effective stress exponent, effective activation energy, and TEM images of Inconel 718 double aged, it is suggested that the creep mechanism is controlled by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates. The fracture mechanism of Inconel 718 as received is transgranular (coalescence of dimples) and mixed (transgranular-intergranular), whereas the Inconel 718 double aged condition crept surfaces evidenced the intergranular fracture mechanism.

  7. Modeling of precipitation and Cr depletion profiles of Inconel 600 during heat treatments and LSM procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model based on the thermodynamic and kinetic was conducted to simulate the Cr depletion profiles near the grain boundary in Inconel 600 during the heat treatments and laser surface melting (LSM) process using Thermo-Calc and Dictra code. Based on the good agreement of Cr concentration distribution during heat treatments measured by experiments, the microsegregation of Cr induced by cellular microstructure formed during the LSM process was also modeled. The Cr depletion profile was evaluated using the Cr depletion area below the critical Cr concentration for intergranular cracking/intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGC/IGSCC) susceptibility (8 mass%). Comparing with the result of Streicher test, the Cr depletion area calculated showed good coherence with the IGC/IGSCC susceptibility. The sample after SR + LTS treatment with the largest Cr depletion area showed the worst IGC/IGSCC resistance, while, the sample after LSM process with the smaller Cr depletion area showed the excellent IGC/IGSCC resistance

  8. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND THERMODYNAMIC CALCULATION ON PHASE PRECIPITATION OF INCONEL 740

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Q. Zhao; Y. Jiang; J.X. Dong; X.S. Xie

    2006-01-01

    A novel nickel-based superalloy INCONEL 740 was under development for application in ultra-supercritical superheater tubers above 750℃. The precipitation behaviors of η phase andγ′ particles of the alloy were investigated through experimental study and phase computation.Experimental results showed that η phase formed a Widmanst(a)tten pattern structure following long-term exposure at elevated temperatures and that the coarsening of γ′ particle follows a cube rate law: (r)3 ∝t. Thermodynamic calculation results showed that Al and Ti had an important effect on the precipitation behavior of γ′ and η phases. Two suggested novel modified alloys, wherein the Al and Ti contents were modified, were designed and melted for the experimental study. The preliminary results indicated that the modified alloys exhibited higher structural stability following long-term exposure at 750℃ till 5000h.

  9. Properties of Inconel 625 mesh structures grown by electron beam additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relationships between electron beam parameters (beam current, beam speed, and beam focus) and physical properties (mass, diameter, elastic modulus, and yield strength) have been investigated for Inconel 625 mesh cubes fabricated using an additive manufacturing technology based on electron beam melting. The elastic modulus and yield strength of the mesh cubes have been systematically varied by approximately a factor of ten by changing the electron beam parameters. Simple models have been used to understand these relationships. Structural anisotropies of the mesh associated with the layered build architecture have been observed and may contribute, along with microstructural anisotropies, to the anisotropic mechanical properties of the mesh. Knowledge of this kind is likely applicable to other metal and alloy systems and is essential to rapidly realize the full potential of this burgeoning technology

  10. MICROSTRUCTURES AND THE STRUCTURE STABILITY OF INCONEL 725, A NEW AGE-HARDENABLE CORROSION RESISTANT SUPERALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.X. Dong; M.C. Zhang; S.K. Mannan

    2003-01-01

    INCONEL725 is a highly corrosion resistant nickel based alloy capable of being age-hardened to high strength levels. The microstructure observations and the phase iden-tification after a standard heat treatment were investigated. The results show thatmary carbide phase TiC, as well as M6C carbide and a little extent MC (mainly TiC)precipitates which nucleate mainly at grain boundaries. An isothermal aging studywas carried out on this alloy for up to 10 000 hours at 593℃. This additional agingdid not affect the tensile strength. However, microstructures show that the thermalexposure has a little additional effect. With increasing the exposure time, the size ofcipitated at grain boundaries have an increased and complex tendency on a few grainboundaries. The experimental results illustrate the excellent structure stability of theage-hardenable IN725 at 593℃.

  11. Thermal expansion studies on Inconel-600[reg] by high temperature X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, S. E-mail: sraju@igcar.ernet.in; Sivasubramanian, K.; Divakar, R.; Panneerselvam, G.; Banerjee, A.; Mohandas, E.; Antony, M.P

    2004-02-01

    The lattice thermal expansion characteristics of Inconel-600[reg] have been studied by high temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) technique in the temperature range 298-1200 K. Altogether four experimental runs were conducted on thin foils of about 75-100 {mu}m thickness. The diffraction profiles have been accurately calibrated to offset the shift in 2{theta} values introduced by sample buckling at elevated temperatures. The corrected lattice parameter data have been used to estimate the instantaneous and mean linear thermal expansion coefficients as a function of temperature. The thermal expansion values estimated in the present study show a fair degree of agreement with other existing dilatometer based bulk thermal expansion estimates. The lattice parameter for this alloy at 300 K is found to be 0.3549(1) nm. The mean linear thermal expansivity is found to be 11.4 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}.

  12. Processing and Microstructural Evolution of Superalloy Inconel 718 during Hot Tube Extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihong ZHANG; Zhongtang WANG; Bing QIAO; Yi XU; Tingfeng XU

    2005-01-01

    The processing parameters of tube extrusion for superalloy Inconel 718 (IN 718), such as slug temperature, tools temperature, choice of lubricant, extrusion ratio and extrusion speed, were determined by experiment in this paper. An appropriate temperature range recommended for the slug is 1080~1120℃, and the temperature range recommended for the tools is 350~500℃. The microstructural evolution of superalloy IN 718 during tube extrusion was analyzed.With the increase of the deformation the cross crystal grains were slightly refined. While the vertical crystal grain is elongated evidently and the tensile strength increased along the axial rake. Glass lubricants have to be spread on the slug surface after being heated to 150~200℃, vegetable oil or animal oil can be used as the lubricant on the surface of the tools to reduce the extrusion force remarkably.

  13. Intercrystalline Stress Corrosion of Inconel 600 Inspection Tubes in the Aagesta Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking has occurred in the Aagesta reactor in three so-called inspection tubes made of Inconel 600. The tubes had been exposed to 217 deg C light water, containing 1-4 ppm LiOH (later KOH) but only small amounts of oxygen, chloride and other impurities. Some of the circumferential cracks developed in or at crevices on the outside surface. At these positions constituents dissolved in the water may have concentrated. The crevices are likely to have contained a gas phase, mainly nitrogen. Local boiling in the crevices may also have occurred. Some few cracks were also found outside the crevice region. Irradiation effects can be neglected. No surface contamination could be detected except for a very minor fluoride content (1 μg/cm2). The failed tubes had been subjected to high stresses, partly remaining from milling, partly induced by welding operations. The possibility that stresses slightly above the 0.2 per cent offset yield strength have occurred at the operating temperature cannot be excluded. The cracked tube material contained a large amount of carbide particles and other precipitates, both at grain boundaries and in the interior of grains. The particles appeared as stringers in circumferential zones. Zones depleted in precipitates were found along grain boundaries. The failed tube turned out to have an unusually high mechanical strength, likely due to a combination of some kind of ageing process and cold work (1.0 - 1.3 per cent plastic strain). Laboratory exposures of stressed surplus material in high purity water and in 1 M LiOH at 220 deg C showed some pitting but no cracking after 6800 h and 5900 h respectively. Though the encountered failures may have developed because of influence of some few or several of the above-mentioned detrimental factors, the actual cause cannot be stated with certainty. In the literature information is given concerning intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking of Inconel 600 both in caustic

  14. Supplementary Microstructural Features Induced During Laser Surface Melting of Thermally Sprayed Inconel 625 Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nauman; Voisey, K. T.; McCartney, D. G.

    2014-02-01

    Laser surface melting of thermally sprayed coatings has the potential to enhance their corrosion properties by incorporating favorable microstructural changes. Besides homogenizing the as-sprayed structure, laser melting may induce certain microstructural modifications (i.e., supplementary features) in addition to those that directly improve the corrosion performance. Such features, being a direct result of the laser treatment process, are described in this paper which is part of a broader study in which high velocity oxy-fuel sprayed Inconel 625 coatings on mild-steel substrates were treated with a diode laser and the modified microstructure characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The laser treated coating features several different zones, including a region with a microstructure in which there is a continuous columnar dendritic structure through a network of retained oxide stringers.

  15. Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y., E-mail: haiyanzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, S.H., E-mail: shzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cheng, M. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Z.X. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautica1 Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  16. Gas carburization of Inconel 617. Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor Materials Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the progress in the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor Materials Program on efforts to produce uniformly carburized specimens of Inconel 617 with different carbon levels. This material will be used to determine the effect of carbon content on the mechanical properties and physical properties important for design and use of components in the primary circuit of an advanced HTGR system. The results of gas carburization and high temperature homogenization heat treatments are discussed. Also described are electron microprobe analysis methods for measuring the carbon gradients in the carburized and homogenized material. Recommendations are given for additional work needed to increase the homogeneity of carburized material and for producing material with uniform carbon concentration. Recommendations for improving the accuracy of the EPMA carbon gradient analyses also are included

  17. Texture-Induced Anisotropy in an Inconel 718 Alloy Deposited Using Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayon, W.; Shenoy, R.; Bird, R.; Hafley, R.; Redding, M.

    2014-01-01

    A test block of Inconel (IN) 718 was fabricated using electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) to examine how the EBF(sup 3) deposition process affects the microstructure, crystallographic texture, and mechanical properties of IN 718. Tests revealed significant anisotropy in the elastic modulus for the as-deposited IN 718. Subsequent tests were conducted on specimens subjected to a heat treatment designed to decrease the level of anisotropy. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to characterize crystallographic texture in the as-deposited and heat treated conditions. The anisotropy in the as-deposited condition was strongly affected by texture as evidenced by its dependence on orientation relative to the deposition direction. Heat treatment resulted in a significant improvement in modulus of the EBF(sup 3) product to a level nearly equivalent to that for wrought IN 718 with reduced anisotropy; reduction in texture through recrystallization; and production of a more homogeneous microstructure.

  18. Deformation characteristics of δ phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot working characteristics of δ phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s-1, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like δ phase and the precipitation of spherical δ phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of δ phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like δ phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical δ phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like δ phase disappeared and spherical δ phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF INCONEL 718 DURING DIE-SINKING ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUSHPENDRA S BHARTI,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the machining characteristics of Inconel 718 during die-sinking electric discharge machining process with copper as tool electrode. Experiments have been carried out to see the effects of input parameters like shape factor, pulse-on-time, discharge current, duty cycle, gap voltage, flushing pressure and tool electrode lift time on performance measures like material removal rate, surface roughness and tool wear rate. Taguchi’s method has been used as Design of Experiments technique for experimental investigation. Experiments have been designed as per Taguchi’s L36 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is employed to indicate the level of significance of machining parameters. Discharge current and pulse-on time are found the most influential common input parameter on each performance measure. Duty cycle and tool electrode lift time are found the least influential parameters.

  20. An experimental study on fretting wear behavior of cross-contacting Inconel 690 tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ilsup, E-mail: ilchung@yu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1 Daedong, Kyungsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myungho [R and D Institute, STX Metal, 67-14 Sinchon-dong, Changwon 642-370 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > A fretting wear tester employing a piezoelectric actuator has been developed. > Inconel 690 tubes were tested in RT ambient and 80 deg. C in-water conditions. > The dependence of the wear rate on the work rate is in bilinear fashion. > SEM photos show the transition is due to the change of the fretting wear regime. > Easier debris discharge and the extensive abrasion yields higher wear rate in water. - Abstract: A fretting wear test rig employing a piezoelectric actuator has been developed, which is equipped with a heating and water circulation system. The fretting wear tests of cross-contacting Inconel 690 tubes, which is widely used for power plant steam generator, have been carried out in room temperature ambient and 80 deg. C in-water conditions. Maximum normal load was 55 N, and the sliding amplitude was below 50 {mu}m. Scars of the mixed-slip and the gross-slip fretting wear have been measured in terms of scar diameter and wear volume. From the relationship between the work rate and the wear rate, a threshold of work rate has been defined, and this is found to be closely related with fretting wear regimes. The wear coefficients have been evaluated in the gross-slip regime. Distinct fretting wear mechanisms have been observed for the two different test conditions from SEM microphotographs. The crack formation, large particle separation and resulting third body effect were significant in room temperature ambient condition. The protective nature of the tribologically transformed layers coupled with non-uniform contact results in the lower wear coefficient while smooth wear scar and extensive abrasion produces higher wear volume in the other condition.

  1. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of Inconel 740H during aging at 750 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chong, E-mail: chongyan871210@sina.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhengdong, Liu [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100084 (China); Godfrey, Andy; Wei, Liu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yuqing, Weng [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of Inconel 740H during aging at 750 °C for up to 3000 h was investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) analysis and micro-phase analysis. The mechanical properties of samples after aging were also studied. The grain size increased substantially during the whole aging period. Two different types of grain boundary carbides were observed; block-shaped and needle-shaped. Both were identified to be M{sub 23}C{sub 6} by selected area diffraction measurements. The grain boundary carbides did not coarsen significantly during aging, with the weight fraction increasing only from 0.20% to 0.28%. In contrast, a much higher coarsening rate of γ′ precipitates was observed, as evidenced from both TEM observations and SAXS analysis. 3DAP was used to study the elemental partitioning behavior between γ′ precipitates and γ matrix as well as the evolution in width of the γ/γ′ interface. A large increase in the width of γ/γ′ interfaces was seen between 1000 h and 3000 h aging. In addition, for the sample aged at 750 °C for 3000 h, Cr enrichment on the γ matrix side of the γ/γ′ interface was found. Tensile tests at 750 °C of the aged samples showed a gradual decrease in elevated-temperature yield strength after 500 h, when this alloy was over-aged. The critical precipitate size for the transition from precipitate cutting by weakly coupled dislocations to strongly coupled dislocations for Inconel 740H was calculated to be approximately 50 nm, which agrees well with the experiment measurements of elevated-temperature yield strength. The room temperature impact toughness of all samples decreased during aging as the grain size kept growing.

  2. Effect of cold drawing ratio on γ′ precipitation in Inconel X-750

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeong Won [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Research and Development Center, KOS Limited, Yangsan 626-230 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Baek Seok [Neutron Science Division, HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hi Won; Yoo, Young Soo [Advanced Metallic Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon Suk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Namhyun, E-mail: nhkang@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Inconel X-750 is a Ni-based precipitation-hardened superalloy having large tensile and fracture strengths. In the study, X-750 wires were cold drawn to different extents. Small angle neutron scattering was employed to quantitatively measure the size and volume fraction of the γ′ phase as a function of the cold drawing ratio (DR) and aging temperature. The presence and size of γ′ precipitates were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The drawing ratio had an important effect on the volume fraction of the γ′ precipitates. However, the size of the precipitates was independent on the drawing ratio. The specimen with the minimum drawing ratio (DR0) produced the largest volume fraction of γ′ as compared with large drawing ratio (DR) specimens such as DR17 and DR42. The small volume fraction of the γ′ phase for a sizeable drawing ratio was associated with the large amount of nucleation sites for secondary carbides, M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, and the fast diffusion path, i.e., dislocation, needed to form M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. A Cr depletion zone around the secondary carbides raised the solubility of γ′. Therefore, the significant drawing ratio contributing to the large volume fraction of the secondary carbides decreased the volume fraction of the γ′ precipitates in Inconel X-750. - Highlights: • The volume fraction of secondary carbides increased with the drawing ratio. • The volume fraction of γ′ decreased as the drawing ratio increased. • The drawing ratio affected the γ′ volume fraction with no variation of the γ' size. • The volume fraction of γ′ was affected by the secondary carbide volume fraction.

  3. Effect of cold drawing ratio on γ′ precipitation in Inconel X-750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel X-750 is a Ni-based precipitation-hardened superalloy having large tensile and fracture strengths. In the study, X-750 wires were cold drawn to different extents. Small angle neutron scattering was employed to quantitatively measure the size and volume fraction of the γ′ phase as a function of the cold drawing ratio (DR) and aging temperature. The presence and size of γ′ precipitates were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The drawing ratio had an important effect on the volume fraction of the γ′ precipitates. However, the size of the precipitates was independent on the drawing ratio. The specimen with the minimum drawing ratio (DR0) produced the largest volume fraction of γ′ as compared with large drawing ratio (DR) specimens such as DR17 and DR42. The small volume fraction of the γ′ phase for a sizeable drawing ratio was associated with the large amount of nucleation sites for secondary carbides, M23C6, and the fast diffusion path, i.e., dislocation, needed to form M23C6. A Cr depletion zone around the secondary carbides raised the solubility of γ′. Therefore, the significant drawing ratio contributing to the large volume fraction of the secondary carbides decreased the volume fraction of the γ′ precipitates in Inconel X-750. - Highlights: • The volume fraction of secondary carbides increased with the drawing ratio. • The volume fraction of γ′ decreased as the drawing ratio increased. • The drawing ratio affected the γ′ volume fraction with no variation of the γ' size. • The volume fraction of γ′ was affected by the secondary carbide volume fraction

  4. Recyclability Study on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V Powders for Use in Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandwana, Peeyush; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Lowe, Larry E.; Kirka, Michael M.; Medina, Francisco; Babu, Sudarsanam S.

    2016-02-01

    Powder bed-based additive manufacturing technologies offer a big advantage in terms of reusability of the powders over multiple cycles that result in cost savings. However, currently there are no standards to determine the factors that govern the powder reuse times. This work presents the results from a recyclability study conducted on Inconel 718 and Ti-6Al-4V powders. It has been found that the Inconel 718 powders are chemically stable over a large number of cycles and their reuse time is limited by physical characteristics of powders such as flowability. Ti-6Al-4V, on the other hand, finds its reuse time governed by the oxygen pick up that occurs during and in between build cycles. The detailed results have been presented.

  5. A study on the thermal expansion characteristics of Inconel-82 filler wire by high temperature X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panneerselvam, G.; Antony, M.P. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603 102 (India); Raju, S.; Jose, R.; Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E. [Materials Characterization Group, Physical Metallurgy Section, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603 102 (India); Sivasubramanian, K. [Safety Engineering Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603 102 (India)

    2004-01-01

    The lattice parameter (a) change with respect to temperature (T) has been measured by high temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) technique for Inconel-82 filler wire used in the TIG welding of a dissimilar joint involving Inconel-600 and commercially pure iron. By taking proper precautions to minimise the temperature gradient across the sample thickness, and by suitably calibrating the shift in 2{theta} produced as a result of sample buckling at high temperatures, we could obtain fairly reliable estimates of lattice parameter in the temperature range 300-1200 K. The lattice parameter and the coefficient of mean linear thermal expansion at 300 K, have been found to be 3.546(2)x10{sup -10} m and 11.03x10{sup -6} K{sup -1}, respectively.

  6. Ultrasonic measurements for in-service assessment of wrought Inconel 625 cracker tubes of heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation in mechanical properties of Inconel 625 ammonia cracker tubes occurs during the service for long duration in heavy water plants. The present study brings out the possibility of using Poisson's ratio (derived from measurement of time of flight of ultrasonic waves) in combination with hardness measurements, as an effective non-destructive tool for assessment of in-service degradation of Inconel 625 cracker tubes and qualification of re-solution annealing heat treatment for their rejuvenation. Further, the study also indicates the feasibility of extending the life of some of the tubes beyond the presently followed 120 000 h, before they are taken up for re-solution annealing, without affecting their serviceability. However, further studies are required to identify quantitative criterion for Poisson's ratio and hardness values, for deciding on the basis for removal of the tubes for rejuvenation

  7. Experimental Study of Direct Laser Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 by Using Pulsed Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser direct metal deposition (LDMD has developed from a prototyping to a single metal manufacturing tool. Its potential for creating multimaterial and functionally graded structures is now beginning to be explored. This work is a first part of a study in which a single layer of Inconel 718 is deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Single layer tracks were built at a range of powder mass flow rates using a coaxial nozzle and 1.5 kW diode laser operating in both continuous and pulsed beam modes. This part of the study focused on the experimental findings during the deposition of Inconel 718 powder on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed for characterization and phase identification. Residual stress measurement had been carried out to ascertain the effects of laser pulse parameters on the crack development during the deposition process.

  8. Determination of Constitutive Equation for Thermo-mechanical Processing of INCONEL 718 Through Double Multivariate Nonlinear Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mirza Zahid; Li, Fuguo; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Zhanwei; Li, Pan; Wu, Tao

    2015-07-01

    The present study comprises the determination of constitutive relationship for thermo-mechanical processing of INCONEL 718 through double multivariate nonlinear regression, a newly developed approach which not only considers the effect of strain, strain rate, and temperature on flow stress but also explains the interaction effect of these thermo-mechanical parameters on flow behavior of the alloy. Hot isothermal compression experiments were performed on Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical testing machine in the temperature range of 1153 to 1333 K within the strain rate range of 0.001 to 10 s-1. The deformation behavior of INCONEL 718 is analyzed and summarized by establishing the high temperature deformation constitutive equation. The calculated correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error ( AARE) underline the precision of proposed constitutive model.

  9. Determination of mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for Inconel 738 alloy for different energies obtained from Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Mass attenuation coefficient of Inconel 738 superalloy was measured. ► Gamma-ray energies were changed by Compton scattering technique. ► Effective atomic number and electron density are also calculated. ► All parameters decrease with increased energy. ► The experimental values are in good agreement with theoretical ones. - Abstract: The mass attenuation coefficient of Inconel 738 superalloy has been measured at different gamma ray energies by using the Compton scattering technique. The theoretical values of mass attenuation coefficient of a glass sample were calculated using WinXCom program. The effective atomic number and electron density are also calculated. The results showed that the mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number and electron density increase with the decrease in gamma ray energies which is in good agreement with theoretical values (less than 2% error)

  10. Fatigue behaviour of a cast nickel-based superalloy Inconel 792-5A at 700 degree C:

    OpenAIRE

    Kruml, Tomáš; Obrtlík, Karel; Petrenec, Martin; POLÁK, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Cylindrical specimens of a cast polycrystalline superalloy, Inconel 792-5A, were cyclically strained under total strain control at 700 compositumC up to the point of fracture. Cyclic hardening curves, the cyclic stress-strain curve and the fatigue-life curve were recorded. The dislocation recorded structure was studied using the technique of oriented foils in a transmission electron microscope. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the surface relief. High amplitude straining i...

  11. Investigation of surface integrity in high-speed ball end milling of cantilever shaped thin plate of Inconel 718

    OpenAIRE

    N.N. Bhopale; R.S. Pawade

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses the effects of cutting speed and feed on the work piece deflection and surface integrity during milling of cantilever shaped Inconel 718 plate under different cutter orientations. The experiments were conducted on a CNC vertical milling machine using 10 mm diameter TiAlN coated solid carbide ball end milling cutter. Surface integrity is assessed in terms of micro hardness beneath the machined surface. The micro-hardness profile shows different patterns at various cutting p...

  12. Experimental and modeling results of creep-fatigue life of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Sokolov, Mikhail A.; Sham, Sam; Erdman, Donald L., III; Busby, Jeremy T.; Mo, Kun; Stubbins, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Creep-fatigue testing of Ni-based superalloy Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 were conducted in the air at 850 °C. Tests were performed with fully reversed axial strain control at a total strain range of 0.5%, 1.0% or 1.5% and hold time at maximum tensile strain for 3, 10 or 30 min. In addition, two creep-fatigue life prediction methods, i.e. linear damage summation and frequency-modified tensile hysteresis energy modeling, were evaluated and compared with experimental results. Under all creep-fatigue tests, Haynes 230 performed better than Inconel 617. Compared to the low cycle fatigue life, the cycles to failure for both materials decreased under creep-fatigue test conditions. Longer hold time at maximum tensile strain would cause a further reduction in both material creep-fatigue life. The linear damage summation could predict the creep-fatigue life of Inconel 617 for limited test conditions, but considerably underestimated the creep-fatigue life of Haynes 230. In contrast, frequency-modified tensile hysteresis energy modeling showed promising creep-fatigue life prediction results for both materials.

  13. Experimental and modeling results of creep–fatigue life of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep–fatigue testing of Ni-based superalloy Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 were conducted in the air at 850 °C. Tests were performed with fully reversed axial strain control at a total strain range of 0.5%, 1.0% or 1.5% and hold time at maximum tensile strain for 3, 10 or 30 min. In addition, two creep–fatigue life prediction methods, i.e. linear damage summation and frequency-modified tensile hysteresis energy modeling, were evaluated and compared with experimental results. Under all creep–fatigue tests, Haynes 230 performed better than Inconel 617. Compared to the low cycle fatigue life, the cycles to failure for both materials decreased under creep–fatigue test conditions. Longer hold time at maximum tensile strain would cause a further reduction in both material creep–fatigue life. The linear damage summation could predict the creep–fatigue life of Inconel 617 for limited test conditions, but considerably underestimated the creep–fatigue life of Haynes 230. In contrast, frequency-modified tensile hysteresis energy modeling showed promising creep–fatigue life prediction results for both materials.

  14. Experimental and modeling results of creep fatigue life of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep fatigue testing of Ni-based superalloy Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 were conducted in the air at 850 C. Tests were performed with fully reversed axial strain control at a total strain range of 0.5%, 1.0% or 1.5% and hold time at maximum tensile strain for 3, 10 or 30 min. In addition, two creep fatigue life prediction methods, i.e. linear damage summation and frequency-modified tensile hysteresis energy modeling, were evaluated and compared with experimental results. Under all creep fatigue tests, Haynes 230 performed better than Inconel 617. Compared to the low cycle fatigue life, the cycles to failure for both materials decreased under creep fatigue test conditions. Longer hold time at maximum tensile strain would cause a further reduction in both material creep fatigue life. The linear damage summation could predict the creep fatigue life of Inconel 617 for limited test conditions, but considerably underestimated the creep fatigue life of Haynes 230. In contrast, frequency-modified tensile hysteresis energy modeling showed promising creep fatigue life prediction results for both materials.

  15. Pitting resistance of TiN deposited on Inconel 600 by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiN films were deposited on Inconel 600 by PACVD using the gaseous mixture of TiCl4, N2, H2, and Ar in order to increase the pitting resistance of Inconel 600. The pitting resistance was examined using a potentiodynamic polarization technique with a chloride solution. The effect of chloride concentration in the electrolyte on the pitting potential was also investigated. Inconel 600 coated with TiN film shows a superior pitting resistance to that without TiN film in condition that the thickness of the film is greater than a certain critical value. As the deposition temperature as well as the RF power increases, the residual Cl concentration in the film decreases, resulting in the improvement of the pitting resistance. However, the TiN films deposited at too high RF powers, even though the Cl concentration in TiN film is very small, show inferior pitting resistance, which is due to the formation of the network type microvoids structure. ((orig.))

  16. Novel microstructural growth in the surface of Inconel 625 by the addition of SiC under electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam melting is being used to modify the microstructure of the surfaces of materials due to its ability to cause localized melting and supercooling of the melt. This article presents an experimental study on the surface modification of Ni-based superalloy (Inconel 625) reinforced with SiC ceramic particles under electron beam melting. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques have been applied to characterize the resulted microstructure. The results revealed growth of novel structures like wire, rod, tubular, pyramid, bamboo and tweezers type morphologies in the modified surface. In addition to that fibrous like structure was also observed. Formation of thin carbon sheet has been found at the regions of decomposed SiC. Electron beam modified surface of Inconel 625 alloy has been hardened twice as compared to the as-received samples. Surface hardening effect may be attributed to both the formation of the novel structures as well as the introduction of Si and C atom in the lattice of Inconel 625 alloy.

  17. Probabilistic Material Strength Degradation Model for Inconel 718 Components Subjected to High Temperature, Mechanical Fatigue, Creep and Thermal Fatigue Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Callie Corinne Scheidt

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents the on-going development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation model. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes four effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue. Statistical analysis was conducted on experimental Inconel 718 data obtained from the open literature. This analysis provided regression parameters for use as the model's empirical material constants, thus calibrating the model specifically for Inconel 718. Model calibration was carried out for four variables, namely, high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue. Methodology to estimate standard deviations of these material constants for input into the probabilistic material strength model was developed. Using the current version of PROMISS, entitled PROMISS93, a sensitivity study for the combined effects of mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue was performed. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing a combination of mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects by model to the combination by experiment were conducted. Thus, for Inconel 718, the basic model assumption of independence between effects was evaluated. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported this assumption.

  18. Service experience and stress corrosion of Inconel 600 bellows expansion joints in turbine-steam environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 100 Inconel 600 single and 2-ply expansion joints exposed to less than 3800C high purity water for times up to 12 years at 100 to 250 psig have experienced failures in only 7 cases. Mill annealed sheets are gas tungsten welded and may or may not be stress relieved. Design and structural details are given; statistics on number of joints and service times are listed. Details of 7 failures include pressures, boiler type, water treatment, turbine inlet conditions, temperatures and other parameters. Steam was greater than 3150C and 140 psig. Deposits from failed joints showed magnetite, various carbonates, calcium, silicates, and sodium orthophosphate. The sulfate anion was found also in some locations. Microscopic examination of failed zones showed carbide aggregations. Hydroxide and sodium ions were found in cracks. Failures were attributed to caustic stress corrosion cracking resulting from excursions of water treatment chemicals. Laboratory tests were made of stressed samples in high purity, low oxygen water, boiling ferric sulfate, inhibited sulfuric acid, potassium-sodium hydroxide; in 2700C air with fused caustic-steam environments was 25 ksi. Silicon dioxide promoted cracking in K-NaOH. Annealed specimens did not crack in 3300C high purity water even after pickling in nitric-hydrofluoric acid. Caustic concentrations over 50 percent were necessary for cracking

  19. Lattice strain development in Inconel-690 under bi-axial compression and tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Rebecca Midori

    Nuclear reactor steam generator tubes, manufactured from Nickel alloys such as Inconel 690 (INC690), are potentially susceptible to failure by Stress Corrosion Cracking where crack initiation may be exacerbated by internal stress fields. A more comprehensive understanding of this potential failure mechanism was gained via an exploration of a model of INC690.s behaviour under Constrained loading conditions in compression and tension. An Elasto-Plastic Self-Consistent (EPSC) model was used to predict the lattice stresses and strains resulting from Constrained loading in INC690 for four crystallographic planes. The internal strain fields generated under such conditions were shown to be markedly different from those developed under Uniaxial loading. Finite Element Modeling was used to design tensile and compression samples as well as a testing rig that would allow the application of a compressive load along one axis of the specimen with simultaneous constraint along another and free-deformation along the third. Lattice strain measurements were done for both compressive and tensile loading using Time-Of-Flight neutron diffraction. The predicted and experimental values showed reasonable agreement; mainly in terms of crystallographic plane interaction and behaviour. Iterative computer modeling was used to achieve a more realistic depiction of the lattice strains developed. This research allowed for an extension on the Uniaxial findings by examining the material's behaviour under more complex loading that better approximates steam generator tube operating conditions.

  20. Influence of overloads on dwell time fatigue crack growth in Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel 718 is one of the most commonly used superalloys for high temperature applications in gasturbines and aeroengines and is for example used for components such as turbine discs. Turbine discs can be subjected to temperatures up to ∼700 °C towards the outer radius of the disc. During service, the discs might start to develop cracks due to fatigue and long dwell times. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which can lead to overload peaks in the normal dwell time cycle. In this study, tests at 550 °C with an overload prior to the start of each dwell time, have been performed. The aim of the investigation was to get a better understanding of the effects of overloads on the microstructure and crack mechanisms. The microstructure was studied using electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). The image analysis toolbox in Matlab was used on cross sections of the cracks to quantify: crack length, branch length, and the number of branches in each crack. It was found that the amount of crack branching increases with an increasing overload and that the branch length decreases with an increasing overload. When the higher overloads were applied, the dwell time effect was almost cancelled out. There is a strong tendency for an increased roughness of the crack path with an increasing crack growth rate

  1. Examination of inconel X-750 screw of Chooz-A internal components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1984/85 routine shutdown of CHOOZ-A pressurized water reactor, several bolt heads of the core barrel joint were found broken after 100 000 hours of operation. These failures were attributed to intergranular strengths corrosion cracking of the Inconel X-750 bolts. However, to state more precisely the origin of failures, additional mechanical tests (microhardness, tensile tests) and metallurgical examinations (fractography, optical and electron microscopy) have been performed on irradiated bolts. The microhardness measurements reveal a marked hardening which happens between 3.4 and 6.5 104h, then saturates for longer operation time. The tensile tests at room temperature show a decrease in total elongation, yield and ultimate strengths, which seems related with the value of release torque. On the other hand, TEM examinations allow to detect a significant change in Inc. X-750 microstructure after 100000 h operation. This change mainly includes additional precipitation during operation at 2700C and nucleation of defects induced by irradiation at low fluence (dislocation loops and bubbles or microvoids). In conclusion, to explain the observed failures, both thermal ageing and irradiation effects have to be taken in account

  2. Investigation of INCONEL X750 screws from internal structures of Chooz-A reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1984/85 routine shutdown of CHOOZ-A pressurized water reactor, several bolt heads of the core barrel joint were found broken after 100 000 hours of operation. These failures were attributed to intergranular strengths corrosion cracking of the Inconel X-750 bolts. Additional mechanical tests (microhardness, tensile tests) and metallurgical examinations (fractography, optical and electron microscopy) have been performed on irradiated bolts. The microhardness measurements reveal a marked hardening which happens between 3.4 and 6.5 104h, then saturates for longer operation time. The tensile tests at room temperature show a decrease in total elongation, yield and ultimate strengths, which seems related with the value of release torque. TEM examinations allow to detect a significant change in Inc. X-750 microstructure after 100000 h operation. This change mainly includes additional precipitation during operation at 2700C and nucleation of defects induced by irradiation at low fluence (dislocation loops and bubbles or microvoids). In conclusion, both thermal ageing and irradiation effects have to be taken in account

  3. Mechanical Characterization of an Additively Manufactured Inconel 718 Theta-Shaped Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Ercan; Watkins, Thomas R.; Bunn, Jeffrey R.; Cooper, Ryan C.; Cornwell, Paris A.; Wang, Yanli; Sochalski-Kolbus, Lindsay M.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Babu, Sudarsanam S.

    2016-02-01

    Two sets of "theta"-shaped specimens were additively manufactured with Inconel 718 powders using an electron beam melting technique with two distinct scan strategies. Light optical microscopy, mechanical testing coupled with a digital image correlation (DIC) technique, finite element modeling, and neutron diffraction with in situ loading characterizations were conducted. The cross-members of the specimens were the focus. Light optical micrographs revealed that different microstructures were formed with different scan strategies. Ex situ mechanical testing revealed each build to be stable under load until ductility was observed on the cross-members before failure. The elastic moduli were determined by forming a correlation between the elastic tensile stresses determined from FEM, and the elastic strains obtained from DIC. The lattice strains were mapped with neutron diffraction during in situ elastic loading; and a good correlation between the average axial lattice strains on the cross-member and those determined from the DIC analysis was found. The spatially resolved stresses in the elastic deformation regime are derived from the lattice strains and increased with applied load, showing a consistent distribution along the cross-member.

  4. 3D imaging and characterisation of strengthening particles in inconel 718 using FIB tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruk, Adam; Gruszczynski, Adam; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    The Inconel 718 is a commercial nickel-base superalloy, widely used for critical pieces in turbine engines. Its microstructure consists of the {gamma} matrix and strengthening coherent nanoparticles {gamma}' and {gamma}''. In the present work FIB tomography technique was used for imaging and characterisation of strengthening particles. FIB tomography is based on a serial sectioning procedure using a FIB/SEM dual beam workstation. Repeated removal of layers as thin as several nm for some hundred times allows to investigate at total a volume of some {mu}m3 with a voxel size as 2.5 nm x 2.5 nm x 2.5 nm. 3D mapping of nanoparticles with high Z-resolution by serial FIB slicing (in a distance of about 2.5 nm) and SEM imaging was performed. Ga ion beam at 30 kV was used to perform a precise in-situ milling. The SEM images at accelerating voltage 1.5 kV were taken with using ESB detector. The real 3D-data of precipitates obtained by FIB tomography, open a new possibility for microstructure analysis of materials for industrial applications.

  5. Biaxial thermal creep of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biaxial thermal creep behavior of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C was investigated. Biaxial stresses were generated using the pressurized tube technique. The detailed creep deformation and fracture mechanism have been studied. Creep curves for both alloys showed that tertiary creep accounts for a greater portion of the materials’ life, while secondary creep only accounts for a small portion. Fractographic examinations of the two alloys indicated that nucleation, growth, and coalescence of creep voids are the dominant micro-mechanisms for creep fracture. At 850 °C, alloy 230 has better creep resistance than alloy 617. When subjected to the biaxial stress state, the creep rupture life of the two alloys was considerably reduced when compared to the results obtained by uniaxial tensile creep tests. The Monkman–Grant relation proves to be a promising method for estimating the long-term creep life for alloy 617, whereas alloy 230 does not follow the relation. This might be associated with the significant changes in the microstructure of alloy 230 at high temperatures

  6. Biaxial thermal creep of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Hsiao-Ming, E-mail: hmtung2@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China); Mo, Kun; Stubbins, James F. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The biaxial thermal creep behavior of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C was investigated. Biaxial stresses were generated using the pressurized tube technique. The detailed creep deformation and fracture mechanism have been studied. Creep curves for both alloys showed that tertiary creep accounts for a greater portion of the materials’ life, while secondary creep only accounts for a small portion. Fractographic examinations of the two alloys indicated that nucleation, growth, and coalescence of creep voids are the dominant micro-mechanisms for creep fracture. At 850 °C, alloy 230 has better creep resistance than alloy 617. When subjected to the biaxial stress state, the creep rupture life of the two alloys was considerably reduced when compared to the results obtained by uniaxial tensile creep tests. The Monkman–Grant relation proves to be a promising method for estimating the long-term creep life for alloy 617, whereas alloy 230 does not follow the relation. This might be associated with the significant changes in the microstructure of alloy 230 at high temperatures.

  7. Biaxial thermal creep of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hsiao-Ming; Mo, Kun; Stubbins, James F.

    2014-04-01

    The biaxial thermal creep behavior of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C was investigated. Biaxial stresses were generated using the pressurized tube technique. The detailed creep deformation and fracture mechanism have been studied. Creep curves for both alloys showed that tertiary creep accounts for a greater portion of the materials' life, while secondary creep only accounts for a small portion. Fractographic examinations of the two alloys indicated that nucleation, growth, and coalescence of creep voids are the dominant micro-mechanisms for creep fracture. At 850 °C, alloy 230 has better creep resistance than alloy 617. When subjected to the biaxial stress state, the creep rupture life of the two alloys was considerably reduced when compared to the results obtained by uniaxial tensile creep tests. The Monkman-Grant relation proves to be a promising method for estimating the long-term creep life for alloy 617, whereas alloy 230 does not follow the relation. This might be associated with the significant changes in the microstructure of alloy 230 at high temperatures.

  8. Radiation blistering in Inconel-625 due to 100 KeV helium ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the change of angle of incidence of an ion beam impinging on surface blisters during their growth phase (before exfoliation) could influence the blister skin thickness and the blister crater depth. Polished, polycrystalline Inconel-625 samples were irradiated at room temperature and at normal incidence to the major sample surface with 100 keV helium ions to a total dose of 6.24x1018 ions/cm2. The results revealed that many exfoliated blisters leave craters which have two or three concentric pits. The blister skin thickness near the center of the blister was found to agree well with the calculated projected range of 100 keV He ions in nickel. However, the blister skin thickness of some exfoliated blisters along the edge of the fracture surface showed different thicknesses. A model is proposed to explain the observed blister crater/blister fracture features in terms of a change of angle of incidence of the incident ions to the surface during the growth phase of surface blisters. (orig.)

  9. Analisis Kegagalan Retak dan Teknologi Perbaikan Sudu Turbin Jenis Inconel 792 pada Pesawat Terbang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharno .

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian untuk melakukan analisis terhadap kegagalan retak telah dilakukan pada sudu turbin dari Auxiliary Power Unit (APU pesawat terbang. Bahan sudu turbin adalah paduan super  Inconel 792. Pengujian yang dilakukan meliputi inspeksi visual, pengujian komposisi kimia, fractography, pengujian kekerasan, dan metalografi.Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa patah dimulai dari celah dan retak makro dan kemudian menjalar/merambat menjadi retak terbuka di permukaan.Hal ini kemungkinan disebabkan oleh mekanisme retak panas selama perbaikan las sebelumnya. Kandungan Aluminium dan Titanium yang tinggi pada logam las, menjadikan material menjadi rapuh, hal ini ditunjukkan oleh fitur intergranular dibandingkan dengan aspek pembelahan transgranular menunjukkan bahwa keuletan pada lasan rendah. Dibandingkan dengan sudu yang tidak rusak (gagal, ukuran butir dari sudu turbin yang rusak adalah sangat berbeda menunjukkan eksposisi terhadap panas baik dari siklus termal pengelasan atau lingkungan operasi normal pada suhu tinggi.Teknik perbaikan lebih lanjut dikembangkan berdasarkan keberhasilan PQTR yang di uji dengan kekerasan mikro, destructive dan non destructive test.Untuk tujuan ini maka dipilih las GTAW yang diikuti dengan solution dan aging treatment.

  10. Molding Properties of Inconel 718 Feedstocks Used in Low-Pressure Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Fareh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of binders and temperature on the rheological properties of feedstocks used in low-pressure powder injection molding was investigated. Experiments were conducted on different feedstock formulations obtained by mixing Inconel 718 powder with wax-based binder systems. The shear rate sensitivity index and the activation energy were used to study the degree of dependence of shear rate and temperature on the viscosity of the feedstocks. The injection performance of feedstocks was then evaluated using an analytical moldability model. The results indicated that the viscosity profiles of feedstocks depend significantly on the binder constituents, and the secondary binder constituents play an important role in the rheological behavior (pseudoplastic or near-Newtonian exhibited by the feedstock formulations. Viscosity values as low as 0.06 to 2.9 Pa·s were measured at high shear rates and high temperatures. The results indicate that a feedstock containing a surfactant agent exhibits the best moldability characteristics.

  11. Analytical methods to characterize heterogeneous raw material for thermal spray process: cored wire Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, T.; Bonebeau, S.; Drehmann, R.; Grund, T.; Pawlowski, L.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    In wire arc spraying, the raw material needs to exhibit sufficient formability and ductility in order to be processed. By using an electrically conductive, metallic sheath, it is also possible to handle non-conductive and/or brittle materials such as ceramics. In comparison to massive wire, a cored wire has a heterogeneous material distribution. Due to this fact and the complex thermodynamic processes during wire arc spraying, it is very difficult to predict the resulting chemical composition in the coating with sufficient accuracy. An Inconel 625 cored wire was used to investigate this issue. In a comparative study, the analytical results of the raw material were compared to arc sprayed coatings and droplets, which were remelted in an arc furnace under argon atmosphere. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis were used to determine the chemical composition. The phase determination was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results were related to the manufacturer specifications and evaluated in respect to differences in the chemical composition. The comparison between the feedstock powder, the remelted droplets and the thermally sprayed coatings allows to evaluate the influence of the processing methods on the resulting chemical and phase composition.

  12. Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Response Variables in WEDM of Inconel - 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karidkar, S. S.; Dabade, U. A.

    2016-02-01

    Effective utilisation of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) technology is challenge for modern manufacturing industries. Day by day new materials with high strengths and capabilities are being developed to fulfil the customers need. Inconel - 718 is similar kind of material which is extensively used in aerospace applications, such as gas turbine, rocket motors, and spacecraft as well as in nuclear reactors and pumps etc. This paper deals with the experimental investigation of optimal machining parameters in WEDM for Surface Roughness, Kerf Width and Dimensional Deviation using DoE such as Taguchi methodology, L9 orthogonal array. By keeping peak current constant at 70 A, the effect of other process parameters on above response variables were analysed. Obtained experimental results were statistically analysed using Minitab-16 software. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) shows pulse on time as the most influential parameter followed by wire tension whereas spark gap set voltage is observed to be non-influencing parameter. Multi-objective optimization technique, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA), shows optimal machining parameters such as pulse on time 108 Machine unit, spark gap set voltage 50 V and wire tension 12 gm for optimal response variables considered for the experimental analysis.

  13. Influence of the Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Oxidation of Inconel 617 Alloy at High Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni-based superalloy Inconel 617 (IN617) is one of the main candidate structural materials for high temperature components (heat exchanger) of the gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), a possible candidate for generation IV nuclear reactor. The material in operating conditions will be exposed to impure He at a temperature of around 850 C. The impurities are expected to be oxidizing (such as O2, H2O) but since no feedback experience is available for this type of reactor, the level of impurities is completely unknown. Hence, an attempt has been made to understand the influence of oxygen partial pressure on oxide composition and on the oxidation mechanisms of IN617 at 850 C. To achieve this, oxidation tests were performed at 3 different range of partial pressure: 10-5, 0. 2 and 200 mbar. Tests were performed from 1 h to 28 days and the obtained oxide layers were characterized using MEB, EDX, XPS, XRD and GD-OES. The oxide layers were mainly composed of chromia containing TiO2 and thickening with time. Aluminium oxide formed internally. Other oxides were detected in the scale, such as NiO, CoO, MoO3 and MnO2, except for the lowest oxygen partial pressure experiments, where a selective oxidation took place. The scale-growth mechanism was cationic for low and medium oxygen partial pressure conditions. A growth following a transient oxidation mechanism was observed for high oxygen partial pressure. (authors)

  14. Effect of Grain Size Distribution on Processing Maps for Isothermal Compression of Inconel 718 Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Dong; Hu, Yang; Yang, Yanhui; Zhu, Xinglin

    2016-02-01

    Cylindrical specimens of Inconel 718 alloys with three types of grain size distribution were used in the compression tests and processing maps were developed in 940-1040 °C and 0.001-10 s-1. The equiaxed fine grain is more effective on the dynamic softening behavior. For partial recrystallized microstructure, the peak efficiency of power dissipation occurs at the strain rate of 0.001 s-1, and the temperature range of 1000-1020 °C. In order to obtain homogeneous microstructure with fine grains, the partial recrystallized microstructure should be deformed at the low temperature and slow strain rates. The area fraction of instability domains decreases with strain increasing. The peak efficiency of power dissipation increases with average grain size decreasing. The efficiency of power dissipation will be stimulated by the precipitation of δ phase at slow strain rate of 0.001-0.01 s-1, and the initial deformed substructure at the strain rate of 0.1-1 s-1. Equiaxed fine grain is the optimum state for forging process and dynamic recrystallization. The grain size distribution has slight influence on the microstructure evolution at high temperatures.

  15. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Inconel 718 after thermal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel 718 was subjected to various heat treatments, i.e., solution heat treatment, standard ageing treatment and standard ageing plus 700 °C thermal exposure. The mechanical properties of the alloys were determined using tensile tests and Charpy pendulum impact tests at 650 °C and room temperature, respectively. The highest yield strength of 988 MPa was attained in the standard aged specimen, whereas a maximum impact toughness of 217 J cm−2 was attained in the solution-treated specimen. After thermal exposure, the mechanical properties of the specimens degrade. Both the yield strength and impact toughness decreased monotonically with increasing thermal exposure time. Subjected to a 10000-h long-term thermal exposure, the yield strength dramatically decreased to 475 MPa (almost 50% of the maximum strength), and the impact toughness reduced to only 18 J cm−2. The microstructures of the specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Coarsening of γ′ and γ″ and the transformation of γ″ to δ-Ni3Nb was observed after thermal exposure. However, a complete transformation from metastable γ″ to δ-Ni3Nb was never accomplished, even after the 10000-h long-term thermal exposure. Based on the obtained experimental results, the effects of the microstructural evolution on the mechanical properties are discussed

  16. A comparative study on fiber laser and CO2 laser welding of Inconel 617

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The difference change of weld bead geometry occurs in fiber and CO2 laser welding. • The melting efficiency in fiber laser and CO2 laser welding is analyzed. • Secondary dendrite arm spacing and cooling rate in two laser weldings is studied. • The second phase in two laser welding with different heat input is investigated. - Abstract: A comparative study on the influence of fiber laser welding (FLW) and CO2 laser welding (CLW) on the weld bead geometry and the microstructure of fusion zone (FZ) of Inconel 617 was investigated. In CLW joints, the weld bead geometry is Y-type shape. In FLW joints, the weld bead geometry transforms from Y-type to I-type with the decrease of the heat input. The minimum heat input required to achieve the full penetration of the weldment in FLW is lower than the CLW. The melting efficiency in FLW is higher than that in CLW. From the top to the root regions, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) in fiber laser welded FZ undergoes a smaller change than that in CO2 laser welded FZ. The elements of Ti, Mo, Cr and Co segregate into the interdendritic regions both in FLW and CLW process. The second phases in CLW with the highest input of 360 J/mm are much larger and more than ones in FLW with the highest heat input of 210.5 J/mm

  17. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Inconel 718 after thermal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z.S., E-mail: yuzaisong@tpri.com.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xi' an Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., No. 136, Xingqing Road, Xi’an 710032 (China); Zhang, J.X. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi’an 710049 (China); Yuan, Y.; Zhou, R.C.; Zhang, H.J.; Wang, H.Z. [Xi' an Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., No. 136, Xingqing Road, Xi’an 710032 (China)

    2015-05-14

    Inconel 718 was subjected to various heat treatments, i.e., solution heat treatment, standard ageing treatment and standard ageing plus 700 °C thermal exposure. The mechanical properties of the alloys were determined using tensile tests and Charpy pendulum impact tests at 650 °C and room temperature, respectively. The highest yield strength of 988 MPa was attained in the standard aged specimen, whereas a maximum impact toughness of 217 J cm{sup −2} was attained in the solution-treated specimen. After thermal exposure, the mechanical properties of the specimens degrade. Both the yield strength and impact toughness decreased monotonically with increasing thermal exposure time. Subjected to a 10000-h long-term thermal exposure, the yield strength dramatically decreased to 475 MPa (almost 50% of the maximum strength), and the impact toughness reduced to only 18 J cm{sup −2}. The microstructures of the specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Coarsening of γ′ and γ″ and the transformation of γ″ to δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb was observed after thermal exposure. However, a complete transformation from metastable γ″ to δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb was never accomplished, even after the 10000-h long-term thermal exposure. Based on the obtained experimental results, the effects of the microstructural evolution on the mechanical properties are discussed.

  18. Structure and Properties of the Aluminide Coatings on the Inconel 625 Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak, Stanisław; Bochnowski, Wojciech; Dziedzic, Andrzej; Filip, Ryszard; Szeregij, Eugeniusz

    2016-01-01

    The research samples used in this study were based on the Inconel 625 alloy; the examined samples were coated with aluminide films deposited in a low-activity chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The samples' microstructure was investigated with optical and electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Hardness measurements were performed using Vickers and Berkovich test methods. The adhesion of the aluminide coating was determined by fractography. It was shown that the fracture mechanism was different for the respective zones of the aluminide coating and the substrate material. The outer zone of the aluminide coating is characterized by an intercrystalline fracture, with a small contribution of transcrystalline fracture within individual grains (large crystallites in the bottom of the zone, composed of smaller crystallites, also show an intercrystalline fracture). The substrate material exhibited a ductile intercrystalline fracture. Based on this investigation, an increase of the microhardness of the material occurring at loads below 0.2 N was observed. When determining microhardness of aluminide coating it is necessary to take into account the optimal choice of the indentation tip.

  19. Microhardness and microstructure evolution of TiB2 reinforced Inconel 625/TiB2 composite produced by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baicheng; Bi, Guijun; Nai, Sharon; Sun, Chen-nan; Wei, Jun

    2016-06-01

    In this study, micron-size TiB2 particles were utilized to reinforce Inconel 625 produced by selective laser melting. Exceptional microhardness 600-700 HV0.3 of the composite was obtained. In further investigation, the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 625/TiB2 composite can be significantly influenced by addition of TiB2 particles during SLM. It was found that the long directional columnar grains observed from SLM-processed Inconel 625 were totally changed to fine dendritic matrix due to the addition of TiB2 particles. Moreover, with laser energy density (LED) of 1200 J/m, a Ti, Mo rich interface around TiB2 particles with fine thickness can be observed by FESEM and EDS. The microstructure evolution can be determined by different laser energy density (LED): under 1200 J/m, γ phase in dendrite grains; under 600 J/m, γ phase in combination of dendritic and acicular grains; under 400 J/m, γ phase acicular grains. Under optimized LED 1200 J/m, the dynamic nanohardness (8.62 GPa) and elastic modulus (167 GPa) of SLM-processed Inconel 625/TiB2 composite are higher compared with those of SLM-processed Inconel 625 (3.97 GPa and 135 GPa, respectively).

  20. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Inconel Alloy 740H in Pure Steam%Inconel 740H 合金在纯水蒸气环境中的高温氧化行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁金涛; 杨珍; 徐松乾; 赵海平; 赵新宝; 谷月峰

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of Inconel alloy 740 H in dynamic pure steam at 750 ℃ was studied with high temperature oxidation test.The results show that the mass gain of Inconel alloy 740 H during oxidation followed a parabolic law approximately.The oxide products grew coarse with the increase of oxidation time.The scale morphology was significantly different from those after oxidation in dry air.But non obvious cracks and spallation were observed.After oxidation for 100 h,the protective Cr2 O 3 film formed on the surface.The thickness of oxide film increased with time increasing.After oxidation for 1 000 h,the oxide film was composed of Cr2 O 3 and a small amount of (Mn,Ni)Cr2 O 4 spinel.Beneath the oxide scale,chromium depletion region was found and a small amount of inner oxides identified as Al2 O 3 and TiO 2 were observed.%通过高温氧化试验研究了 Inconel 740 H 合金在750℃的动态纯水蒸气环境中的氧化行为。结果表明:Inconel 740 H 合金的氧化增重近似遵循抛物线规律,随氧化时间的延长氧化产物粗大;氧化膜形貌与在干燥空气中氧化的明显不同,但未发现明显的氧化膜开裂和剥落现象;合金氧化100 h 后形成连续的 Cr2 O 3氧化膜,氧化膜厚度随着氧化时间的增加而增大;氧化1000 h后形成的氧化膜主要由 Cr2 O 3和少量的(Mn,Ni)Cr2 O 4尖晶石组成,靠近氧化膜的合金内部出现明显的贫铬区,并伴生少量的 Al2 O 3和 TiO 2内氧化产物。

  1. Influence of Strengthening Elements on Precipitation of Thermodynamic Equilibrium Phases in Inconel Alloy 740H%Inconel 740H主要强化元素对热力学平衡相析出行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符锐; 林富生; 赵双群; 迟成宇

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculation was carried out on the Ni-based Inconel alloy 740H for 700 ℃ advanced ultra supercritical (A-USC) superheaters and reheaters,so as to study the influence of the main strengthening elements on precipitation of the equilibrium phases.Results show that both γ' and M23C6 in the alloy have a good stability in a wide temperature range.Elements Al,Ti and Nb affect much but element Co influences little on the precipitation of phases γ',ηand σ,in which Al promotes the precipitation and stabilization of γ' and σ,but suppresses the precipitation of η,while Ti and Nb promote precipitation of all the phases γ',ηand σ.Elements C and Cr respectively affect much on the precipitation quantity and temperature of M23C6.The composition of Inconel alloy 740H can be optimized by reasonably control the mass fractions of elements Al,Ti,Nb,C,Cr and Co.%对700℃等级超超临界电站过热器/再热器管材所用镍基高温合金Inconel 740H进行热力学相计算并研究了主要析出强化元素对其平衡析出相析出行为的影响.结果表明:合金中γ '相和M23C6碳化物稳定温度范围较宽;Al、Ti和Nb3种元素对γ'相、η相和σ相的析出行为影响较大,而Co元素对其影响不大,其中Al对γ'相和σ相的析出和稳定有促进作用,对η相却有抑制作用,Ti和Nb对γ'相、η相和σ相均有促进作用;C对M23C6碳化物析出量的影响显著,而Cr对M23C6的析出温度影响显著.将Al、Ti、Nb、C和Cr的质量分数控制在一定范围内并适当减小Co的质量分数,可以使Inconel 740H合金的成分范围得到一定的优化.

  2. Liquid Oxygen Rotating Friction Ignition Testing of Aluminum and Titanium with Monel and Inconel for Rocket Engine Propulsion System Contamination Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, S.; Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    Metallic contaminant was found in the liquid oxygen (LOX) pre-valve screen of the shuttle main engine propulsion system on two orbiter vehicles. To investigate the potential for an ignition, NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility performed (modified) rotating friction ignition testing in LOX. This testing simulated a contaminant particle in the low-pressure oxygen turbo pump (LPOTP) and the high-pressure oxygen turbo pump (HPOTP) of the shuttle main propulsion system. Monel(R) K-500 and Inconel(R) 718 samples represented the LPOTP and HPOTP materials. Aluminum foil tape and titanium foil represented the contaminant particles. In both the Monel(R) and Inconel(R) material configurations, the aluminum foil tape samples did not ignite after 30 s of rubbing. In contrast, all of the titanium foil samples ignited regardless of the rubbing duration or material configuration. However, the titanium foil ignitions did not propagate to the Monel and Inconel materials.

  3. Effect of specimen geometry on low-cycle fatigue property of Inconel 617 at HTGR temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to select a suitable specimen geometry for the evaluation of environment effect on fatigue property at HTGR temperatures, comparison was made between low-cycle fatigue strengths obtained for two types of specimens, solid cylindrical and hourglass specimens. A set of low-cycle fatigue tests were carried out on Ni-base wrought alloy Inconel 617 at 800 deg C and 1000 deg C in air and helium 4-nine purity. Strain was measured by two types of extensometers; (1) Hourglass specimen with a diametral extensometer, (2) Solid cylindrical specimen with a diametral extensometer, and (3) Solid cylindrical specimen with an axial extensometer. In all cases, the axial strain was controlled. The life of the hourglass specimens was consistently longer than that of the solid cylindrical specimens in both environments. The life of test type (2) was nearly equal to that of type (1) in air, but in helium the life of type (2) was between those (1) and (3). The effects of segregation and grain size on the specimen geometry were discussed. In the cases of the specimens machined at right angle to the segregation layer and those with fine grains, the difference of the lives obtained for two types of specimens increased. Furthermore, the difference of crack initiation behaviors in air and helium was discussed. The internal oxidation layer and the decarburized zone were observed near the specimen surface in helium, and more surface cracks occured in helium than in air. These may be related to the larger difference in lives of two types of specimens in helium, compared to in air. (author)

  4. Parametric modeling and optimization of laser scanning parameters during laser assisted machining of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, K.; Ramanujam, R.; Kuppan, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a parametric effect, microstructure, micro-hardness and optimization of laser scanning parameters (LSP) on heating experiments during laser assisted machining of Inconel 718 alloy. The laser source used for experiments is a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser with maximum power of 2 kW. The experimental parameters in the present study are cutting speed in the range of 50-100 m/min, feed rate of 0.05-0.1 mm/rev, laser power of 1.25-1.75 kW and approach angle of 60-90°of laser beam axis to tool. The plan of experiments are based on central composite rotatable design L31 (43) orthogonal array. The surface temperature is measured via on-line measurement using infrared pyrometer. Parametric significance on surface temperature is analysed using response surface methodology (RSM), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and 3D surface graphs. The structural change of the material surface is observed using optical microscope and quantitative measurement of heat affected depth that are analysed by Vicker's hardness test. The results indicate that the laser power and approach angle are the most significant parameters to affect the surface temperature. The optimum ranges of laser power and approach angle was identified as 1.25-1.5 kW and 60-65° using overlaid contour plot. The developed second order regression model is found to be in good agreement with experimental values with R2 values of 0.96 and 0.94 respectively for surface temperature and heat affected depth.

  5. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 625 Alloy during Pulsed Plasma Arc Deposition Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fujia Xu; Yaohui Lv; Yuxin Liu; Fengyuan Shu; Peng He; Binshi Xu

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed plasma arc deposition (PPAD),which combines pulsed plasma cladding with rapid prototyping,is a promising technology for manufacturing near net shape components due to its superiority in cost and convenience of processing.In the present research,PPAD was successfully used to fabricate the Ni-based superalloy Inconel 625 components.The microstructures and mechanical properties of deposits were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),optical microscopy (OM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS),microhardness and tensile testers.It was found that the as-deposited structure exhibited homogenous columnar dendrite structure,which grew epitaxially along the deposition direction.Moreover,some intermetallic phases such as Laves phase,minor MC (NbC,TiC) carbides and needle-like δ-Ni3Nb were observed in γ-Ni matrix.Precipitation mechanism and distribution characteristics of these intermetallic phases in the as-deposited 625 alloy sample were analyzed.In order to evaluate the mechanical properties of the deposits,microhardness was measured at various location (including transverse plane and longitudinal plane).The results revealed hardness was in the range of 260-285 HVo.2.In particular,microhardness at the interface region between two adjacent deposited layers was slightly higher than that at other regions due to highly refined structure and the disperse distribution of Laves particles.Finally,the influence of precipitation phases and fabrication strategies on the tensile properties of the as-deposited samples was investigated.The failure modes of the tensile specimens were analyzed with fractography.

  6. Probabilistic and microstructural aspects of fatigue cracks initiation in Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermomechanical treatments have been recently developed to produce Inconel 718DA (Direct Aged). This alloy optimisation leads to an increase of the fatigue life but also the scatter. The aim of this study is on the one hand the understanding of the fatigue crack initiation mechanisms and on the other hand the modelling of the fatigue life and the scatter. An experimental study showed that the fatigue cracks were initiated from carbide particles in fine grain alloy. Interrupted tensile tests show that the particles cracking occurred at the first quarter of the fatigue cycle. Fatigue behaviour tests were also performed on various grain size 718 alloys. The last experimental part was devoted to measurements of the low cycle fatigue crack growth rates using a high focal distance microscope. For these tests, EDM micro-defects were used for the fatigue crack initiation sites. This method was also used to observe the small fatigue crack coalescence. A fatigue life model is proposed. It is based on the three fatigue crack initiation mechanisms competition: particle crack initiation on the surface, internal particle crack initiation and Stade I crack initiation. The particle fatigue crack initiation is supposed instantaneous at a critical stress level. The Tanaka and Mura model is used for analysing the Stage I crack initiation number of cycles. The fatigue crack growth rate was analysed using the Tomkins model identified on the small fatigue crack growth rate measurements. The proposed fatigue life model decomposed in three levels: a deterministic one and two probabilistic with and without crack coalescence. (author)

  7. Identifying and Understanding Environment-Induced Crack propagation Behavior in Ni-based Superalloy INCONEL 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Longzhou

    2012-11-30

    The nickel-based superalloy INCONEL 617 is a candidate material for heat exchanger applications in the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) system. This project will study the crack propagation process of alloy 617 at temperatures of 650°C-950°C in air under static/cyclic loading conditions. The goal is to identify the environmental and mechanical damage components and to understand in-depth the failure mechanism. Researchers will measure the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate (da/dn) under cyclic and hold-time fatigue conditions, and sustained crack growth rates (da/dt) at elevated temperatures. The independent FCP process will be identified and the rate-controlled sustained loading crack process will be correlated with the thermal activation equation to estimate the oxygen thermal activation energy. The FCP-dependent model indicates that if the sustained loading crack growth rate, da/dt, can be correlated with the FCP rate, da/dn, at the full time dependent stage, researchers can confirm stress-accelerated grain-boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) as a predominate effect. Following the crack propagation tests, the research team will examine the fracture surface of materials in various cracking stages using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an optical microscope. In particular, the microstructure of the crack tip region will be analyzed in depth using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) mapping techniques to identify oxygen penetration along the grain boundary and to examine the diffused oxygen distribution profile around the crack tip. The cracked sample will be prepared by focused ion beam nanofabrication technology, allowing researchers to accurately fabricate the TEM samples from the crack tip while minimizing artifacts. Researchers will use these microscopic and spectroscopic results to interpret the crack propagation process, as well as distinguish and understand the environment or

  8. Neutron Imaging for Selective Laser Melting Inconel Hardware with Internal Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Bilheux, Hassina

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing is showing great promise for the development of new innovative designs and large potential life cycle cost reduction for the Aerospace Industry. However, more development work is required to move this technology into space flight hardware production. With selective laser melting (SLM), hardware that once consisted of multiple, carefully machined and inspected pieces, joined together can be made in one part. However standard inspection techniques cannot be used to verify that the internal passages are within dimensional tolerances or surface finish requirements. NASA/MSFC traveled to Oak Ridge National Lab's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source to perform some non-destructive, proof of concept imaging measurements to assess the capabilities to understand internal dimensional tolerances and internal passages surface roughness. This presentation will describe 1) the goals of this proof of concept testing, 2) the lessons learned when designing and building these Inconel 718 test specimens to minimize beam time, 3) the neutron imaging test setup and test procedure to get the images, 4) the initial results in images, volume and a video, 4) the assessment of using this imaging technique to gather real data for designing internal flow passages in SLM manufacturing aerospace hardware, and lastly 5) how proper cleaning of the internal passages is critically important. In summary, the initial results are very promising and continued development of a technique to assist in SLM development for aerospace components is desired by both NASA and ORNL. A plan forward that benefits both ORNL and NASA will also be presented, based on the promising initial results. The initial images and volume reconstruction showed that clean, clear images of the internal passages geometry are obtainable. These clear images of the internal passages of simple geometries will be compared to the build model to determine any differences. One surprising result was that a new cleaning

  9. Effects of solution heat treatment on the microstructure and hardness of Inconel 740 superalloy prepared by electron beam smelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electron beam smelting, a new method, was used to prepare the Inconel 740 superalloy. • The effect of solution heat treatment on electron beam smelting 740 was investigated. • TiNiSi phase’s content changes exponentially with solution temperature increasing. • γ′ precipitates coarsening occurs at 1150 °C, higher temperature cause their solution. • γ″ phase transformed into Nb0.03Ni3Ti0.97 phase at 1210 °C. - Abstract: Electron beam smelting (EBS) was used to prepare the Inconel 740 superalloy. The microstructure and hardness of Inconel 740 were investigated both under hot working condition and followed by solution heat treatment under high temperature ranging from 1120 to 1210 °C for 30 min. The results show that fine γ′ nucleus and primary MC carbides exist in the hot working superalloy. With increasing temperature of solution treatment, TiNiSi phase is gradually solutionized into the matrix, whose volume fraction decreases exponentially. γ′ precipitates coarsening occurs at 1150 °C, while higher temperature solution treatment leads to the solution of γ′ precipitates. γ″ phase has been found keeping a stringent coherent relationship with Nb0.03Ni3Ti0.97 phase at 1180 °C, and utterly transformed into Nb0.03Ni3Ti0.97 phase at 1210 °C. The hardness of the solution-treated superalloy is lower than that of hot working, the value decreases at first and then increases with increasing of solution temperature, which is attributed to dislocations interaction and localized shear stress caused by γ′ precipitates and local stress fields

  10. Effects of solution heat treatment on the microstructure and hardness of Inconel 740 superalloy prepared by electron beam smelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Xiaogang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Key Laboratory for Solar Energy Photovoltaic System of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116023 (China); Tan, Yi, E-mail: tanyi@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Key Laboratory for Solar Energy Photovoltaic System of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Jiayan; Li, Pengting [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Key Laboratory for Solar Energy Photovoltaic System of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116023 (China); Dong, Chuang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Dalian 116023 (China); Shi, Shuang; Liao, Jiao; Qin, Shiqiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Key Laboratory for Solar Energy Photovoltaic System of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • Electron beam smelting, a new method, was used to prepare the Inconel 740 superalloy. • The effect of solution heat treatment on electron beam smelting 740 was investigated. • TiNiSi phase’s content changes exponentially with solution temperature increasing. • γ′ precipitates coarsening occurs at 1150 °C, higher temperature cause their solution. • γ″ phase transformed into Nb{sub 0.03}Ni{sub 3}Ti{sub 0.97} phase at 1210 °C. - Abstract: Electron beam smelting (EBS) was used to prepare the Inconel 740 superalloy. The microstructure and hardness of Inconel 740 were investigated both under hot working condition and followed by solution heat treatment under high temperature ranging from 1120 to 1210 °C for 30 min. The results show that fine γ′ nucleus and primary MC carbides exist in the hot working superalloy. With increasing temperature of solution treatment, TiNiSi phase is gradually solutionized into the matrix, whose volume fraction decreases exponentially. γ′ precipitates coarsening occurs at 1150 °C, while higher temperature solution treatment leads to the solution of γ′ precipitates. γ″ phase has been found keeping a stringent coherent relationship with Nb{sub 0.03}Ni{sub 3}Ti{sub 0.97} phase at 1180 °C, and utterly transformed into Nb{sub 0.03}Ni{sub 3}Ti{sub 0.97} phase at 1210 °C. The hardness of the solution-treated superalloy is lower than that of hot working, the value decreases at first and then increases with increasing of solution temperature, which is attributed to dislocations interaction and localized shear stress caused by γ′ precipitates and local stress fields.

  11. Influence of a treatment of age hardening on the mechanical properties of Inconel 625 in the presence of hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inconel 625 presents good mechanical properties and has excellent corrosion behaviour with temperatures being able to reach 1000oC. These mechanical properties are obtained by a heat treatment of structural hardening. Utilization of this super alloy for hydrogen gas must be preceded by a study of its embrittlement. The method of rupture of the discs, under hydrogen pressure or helium pressure has to undertake this study at ambient temperature. We show that for this material, obtaining the mechanical characteristics, by the heat treatment of hyper-hardening and by application of structural hardening, the ambient temperature of a catastrophic embrittlement vis-a-vis hydrogen gas

  12. Effect of thermal barrier coating on low cycle fatigue behavior of cast Inconel 713LC at 900 °C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obrtlík, Karel; Hutařová, S.; Čelko, L.; Juliš, M.; Podrábský, T.; Šulák, Ivo

    Zurich : Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Clark, G.; Wang, C.), s. 848-853 ISBN 978-3-03835-008-8. ISSN 1022-6680. - (Advanced Materials Research. 891-892). [Fatigue 2014 - International Fatigue Congress /11./. Melbourne (AU), 02.03.2014-07.03.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/2065; GA MPO FR-TI4/030 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : High temperature fatigue * TBC * Inconel 713LC * Fatigue life Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  13. Low Cycle Fatigue and Analysis of the Cyclic Stress-strain Response in Superalloy Inconel 738LC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tobiáš, Jiří; Chlupová, Alice; Petrenec, Martin; Polák, Jaroslav

    Praha: Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2012 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.), s. 1407-1411 ISBN 978-80-86246-40-6. [Engineering Mechanics 2012 /18./. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2012-17.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1453 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : low cycle fatigue * Inconel 738LC * hardening/softening curves * cyclic stress-strain curve * fatigue life curve Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://www.engmech.cz/2012/proceedings/

  14. Surface residual stress distributions in as-bent Inconel 600 U-bend and Incoloy 800 90-degree bend tubing samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected data showing typical macroscopic residual stress distributions in U-bent Inconel 600 and 90 degrees bends in Incoloy 800 are presented. The results indicate regions of both high magnitude tension and compression in the longitudinal direction around the circumference of the bends at the apex. The microscopic residual stress, or percent plastic strain and macroscopic residual distributions in the surface of cross-roll straightened and ground Inconel 600 tubing are described. The results indicate a compressive surface layer accompanied by a yield strength gradient from 90 ksi at the surface to 30 ksi at a depth of 0.003 in

  15. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the passive films formed on thermally sprayed and wrought Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, M. S.; Voisey, K. T.; Roe, M. J.; McCartney, D. G.

    2010-11-01

    There is a well known performance gap in corrosion resistance between thermally sprayed corrosion resistant coatings and the equivalent bulk materials. Interconnected porosity has an important and well known effect, however there are additional relevant microstructural effects. Previous work has shown that a compositional difference exists between the regions of resolidified and non-melted material that exist in the as-sprayed coatings. The resolidified regions are depleted in oxide forming elements due to formation of oxides during coating deposition. Formation of galvanic cells between these different regions is believed to decrease the corrosion resistance of the coating. In order to increase understanding of the details of this effect, this work uses X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study the passive films formed on thermally sprayed coatings (HVOF) and bulk Inconel 625, a commercially available corrosion resistant Ni-Cr-Mo-Nb alloy. Passive films produced by potentiodynamic scanning to 400 mV in 0.5 M sulphuric acid were compared with air-formed films. The poorer corrosion performance of the thermally sprayed coatings was attributed to Ni(OH) 2, which forms a loose, non-adherent and therefore non-protective film. The good corrosion resistance of wrought Inconel 625 is due to formation of Cr, Mo and Nb oxides.

  16. Catalyst-assisted vertical growth of carbon nanotubes on Inconel coated commercial copper foil substrates versus sputtered copper films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have compared the growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on two types of substrates, copper foils and sputtered copper films. In both cases an initial 12 nm thin film of Inconel is first deposited on the Cu before growing the nanotubes. The Inconel thin film can act as both a catalyst for nanotube growth as well as a support for the additional Fe catalyst that is supplied in the form of ferrocene during CVD growth. The surfaces of the underlying copper substrates are very different and play a role in the resulting carbon nanotube density. A quantitative analysis of the density and alignment of the resulting carbon nanotubes using scanning electron microscopy shows that the smooth surface of the sputtered copper substrate leads to improvement in vertical growth and density of nanotubes as opposed to the much rougher electropolished Cu foil. We show that this is related to the differences in catalyst islands distributions and graphitic crystallinity seen on the surfaces of the two types of substrates after heating the samples in the CVD chamber. This demonstrates that the surface of the starting substrate plays an important role in the subsequent catalyst surface distribution and therefore the resulting nanotube density.

  17. Effect of Wire Material on Productivity and Surface Integrity of WEDM-Processed Inconel 706 for Aircraft Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyaranjan; Chakradhar, D.; Narendranath, S.

    2016-07-01

    Inconel 706 is a recently developed superalloy for aircraft application, particularly in turbine disk which is among the most critical components in the gas turbine engines. Recently, wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) attained success in machining of gas turbine components which require complex shape profiles with high precision. To achieve the feasibility in machining of these components, the research work has been conducted on Inconel 706 superalloy using WEDM process. And, the effect of different wire materials (i.e., hard brass wire, diffused wire, and zinc-coated wire) on WEDM performance characteristics such as cutting speed, surface topography, surface roughness, recast layer formation, residual stresses, and microstructural and metallurgical alterations have been investigated. Even though, zinc-coated wire exhibits improved productivity, hard brass wire was found to be beneficial in terms of improved surface quality of the machined parts. Additionally, lower tensile residual stresses were obtained with hard brass wire. However, diffused wire has a moderate effect on productivity and surface quality. Under high discharge energy, higher elemental changes were observed and also the white layer was detected.

  18. Ultrasonic Sensor Signals and Optimum Path Forest Classifier for the Microstructural Characterization of Thermally-Aged Inconel 625 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Secondary phases, such as laves and carbides, are formed during the final solidification stages of nickel-based superalloy coatings deposited during the gas tungsten arc welding cold wire process. However, when aged at high temperatures, other phases can precipitate in the microstructure, like the γ'' and δ phases. This work presents an evaluation of the powerful optimum path forest (OPF classifier configured with six distance functions to classify background echo and backscattered ultrasonic signals from samples of the inconel 625 superalloy thermally aged at 650 and 950 \\(^\\circ\\C for 10, 100 and 200 h. The background echo and backscattered ultrasonic signals were acquired using transducers with frequencies of 4 and 5 MHz. The potentiality of ultrasonic sensor signals combined with the OPF to characterize the microstructures of an inconel 625 thermally aged and in the as-welded condition were confirmed by the results. The experimental results revealed that the OPF classifier is sufficiently fast (classification total time of 0.316 ms and accurate (accuracy of 88.75% and harmonic mean of 89.52 for the application proposed.

  19. Study on the microstructure, mechanical property and residual stress of SLM Inconel-718 alloy manufactured by differing island scanning strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Gan, Yiliang; Huang, Tingting; Yang, Chuanguang; Junjie, Lin; Lin, Jinxin

    2015-12-01

    Inconel-718 has received an extensive using in mold industry. The selective laser melting (SLM) is providing an ideal means for manufacturing mold insert with complex geometrical features and internal architecture. During the manufacturing of high quality mold inserts with conformal cooling channel, the parameters play a vital role in the SLM process. In the study, the Inconel-718 alloys were manufactured by SLM with 2×2 mm2, 3×3 mm2, 5×5 mm2, and 7×7 mm2 island scanning strategies. The microstructure, mechanical property, and residual stress were investigated by optical microscope, tensile test and Vickers micro-indentation, respectively. It can be found that the relative density increased with enlarging the island size; the results on the microstructure indicated that the cracks and more pores were detected in the 22-specimen; whilst the microstructures of all specimens were composed of fine dendritic grains, cellular, and columnar structures; the tensile testing suggested that the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of all samples was similar; while the outcome of the residual stress showed that the value of residual stress was ranked in the following sequence: 22-specimenprocessing application in SLM. Through integrated into account, the 55-scanning strategy is a promising candidate for manufacturing of mold inserts.

  20. Influence of INCONEL 625 composition on the activation characteristics of the vacuum vessel of experimental fusion tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive inventory, the decay heat and the contact dose rate of permanent components such as the vacuum vessel of two experimental fusion tokamaks, the compact IGNITOR-ULT and the ITER-EDA fusion machines, are evaluated by using the ENEA-Bologna integrated methodology. The vacuum vessel material considered is the INCONEL 625. The neutron flux is calculated using the VITAMIN-C 171-group library, based on EFF-2 data and the 1-D transport code XSDRNPM in the S8-P3 approximation. The ANITA-2 code, using updated cross sections and decay data libraries based on EAF-3 and IRDF90 evaluation files is used for activation calculations. The fusion neutron source has been normalised to a neutron first wall load of 2 MW/m2 and 1 MW/m2 for IGNITOR-ULT and ITER, respectively. The material irradiation have been described by multistep time histories, resulting in the designed total fluence. Variations in the composition of INCONEL 625 have been assessed and their impact on the activation characteristics are discussed, also from the point of view of waste disposal. (orig.)

  1. Spectral effects on stress relaxation of Inconel X-750 springs in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, M.; Butcher, F.J.; Ariani, I.; Douglas, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Garner, F.A.; Greenwood, L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2008-07-01

    CANDU reactors have been operating for periods up to about 25 years. During this time there are changes to the nuclear reactor core components that are a function of operating environment and time. It is important to know how the properties of critical core components are likely to change over the life of a reactor and therefore their behaviours are characterised long before the end of the reactor design life. Tests are typically conducted in materials test reactors. The behaviour of a material is often characterised as a function of fast neutron fluence and the expected effect of operating time is established by simply extrapolating as a function of fluence. This may be appropriate when the neutron energy spectrum for the materials test reactor matches closely the neutron spectrum where the component resides in the power reactor. However, in cases where the spectrum is very different one has to convert the accumulated dose into a unit that is common in its effect on the material properties. For many property changes in nuclear reactor cores this unit is displacements per atom (dpa). There are different processes that cause atomic displacements and the main ones have to be included in any dpa calculation in order to accurately predict how a given component will perform. One property that is significantly affected by irradiation is stress. Irradiation-induced stress relaxation is a phenomenon that has been used as a method for studying in-reactor creep. Stress relaxation also results in a loss of tension in springs if these springs are in a reactor core environment. This paper describes the stress relaxation of Inconel X-750 in the National Research Universal (NRU) materials test reactor and relates this to the expected relaxation of springs that are installed in the periphery of CANDU reactors. The results show that spectral effects are particularly significant for certain components at the edge of the CANDU reactor core where the neutron spectrum is changing

  2. Metallographic study of cracks formation factors in Inconel 718 and waspaloy during welding by electron beam and the tungsten inert gas process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of physico-chemical aspects of cracks formation during welding of Inconel 718 and waspaloy. In both alloys cracks are caused by an intergranular or interdendritic decohesion at the level of liquid films under stress produced by the welding thermal cycle. Constraints repartition, liquation and external sollicitations influence are studied

  3. INCONEL 690 CORROSION IN WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT) HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS MELTS RICH IN ALUMINUM & BISMUTH & CHROMIUM OR ALUMINUM/SODIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; FENG Z; GAN H; PEGG IL

    2009-11-05

    Metal corrosion tests were conducted with four high waste loading non-Fe-limited HLW glass compositions. The results at 1150 C (the WTP nominal melter operating temperature) show corrosion performance for all four glasses that is comparable to that of other typical borosilicate waste glasses, including HLW glass compositions that have been developed for iron-limited WTP streams. Of the four glasses tested, the Bi-limited composition shows the greatest extent of corrosion, which may be related to its higher phosphorus content. Tests at higher suggest that a moderate elevation of the melter operating temperature (up to 1200 C) should not result in any significant increase in Inconel corrosion. However, corrosion rates did increase significantly at yet higher temperatures (1230 C). Very little difference was observed with and without the presence of an electric current density of 6 A/inch{sup 2}, which is the typical upper design limit for Inconel electrodes. The data show a roughly linear relationship between the thickness of the oxide scale on the coupon and the Cr-depletion depth, which is consistent with the chromium depletion providing the material source for scale growth. Analysis of the time dependence of the Cr depletion profiles measured at 1200 C suggests that diffusion of Cr in the Ni-based Inconel alloy controls the depletion depth of Cr inside the alloy. The diffusion coefficient derived from the experimental data agrees within one order of magnitude with the published diffusion coefficient data for Cr in Ni matrices; the difference is likely due to the contribution from faster grain boundary diffusion in the tested Inconel alloy. A simple diffusion model based on these data predicts that Inconel 690 alloy will suffer Cr depletion damage to a depth of about 1 cm over a five year service life at 1200 C in these glasses.

  4. Chromium Activity Measurements in Nickel Based Alloys for Very High Temperature Reactors: Inconel 617, Haynes 230, and Model Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alloys Haynes 230 and Inconel 617 are potential candidates for the intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) of (very) high temperature reactors ((V)-HTRs). The behavior under corrosion of these alloys by the (V)-HTR coolant (impure helium) is an important selection criterion because it defines the service life of these components. At high temperature, the Haynes 230 is likely to develop a chromium oxide on the surface. This layer protects from the exchanges with the surrounding medium and thus confers certain passivity on metal. At very high temperature, the initial microstructure made up of austenitic grains and coarse intra- and intergranular M6C carbide grains rich in W will evolve. The M6C carbides remain and some M23C6 richer in Cr appear. Then, carbon can reduce the protective oxide layer. The alloy loses its protective coating and can corrode quickly. Experimental investigations were performed on these nickel based alloys under an impure helium flow (Rouillard, F., 2007, 'Mecanismes de formation et de destruction de la couche d'oxyde sur un alliage chrominoformeur en milieu HTR, Ph.D. thesis, Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, France). To predict the surface reactivity of chromium under impure helium, it is necessary to determine its chemical activity in a temperature range close to the operating conditions of the heat exchangers (T approximate to 1273 K). For that, high temperature mass spectrometry measurements coupled to multiple effusion Knudsen cells are carried out on several samples: Haynes 230, Inconel 617, and model alloys 1178, 1181, and 1201. This coupling makes it possible for the thermodynamic equilibrium to be obtained between the vapor phase and the condensed phase of the sample. The measurement of the chromium ionic intensity (I) of the molecular beam resulting from a cell containing an alloy provides the values of partial pressure according to the temperature. This value is compared with that of the pure substance (Cr) at the same temperature

  5. Modification of Johnson-Cook Model for Hot Deformation Behavior of Inconel 625 Alloy%Inconel625合金Johnson-Cook本构模型的一种改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞秋景; 刘军和; 张伟红; 于连旭; 刘芳; 孙文儒; 胡壮麒

    2013-01-01

    The hot deformation behavior of Inconel 625 alloy was investigated by compression tests.The results show that the slope of the true stress-true strain curve increases with the drop of the temperature and the rise of strain rate,indicating a complex interactive influence of temperature,strain and strain rate on the strain hardening and recrystallization.However,the constitutive equation built by Johnson-Cook model fails to predict precisely the stress-strain relation of Inconel 625 alloy due to the ignorance of the interaction.Accordingly,the JC model was modified by taking into account of the interactive effects of temperature,strain and strain rate.The comparison between the experimental data and the predicting value shows that the modified JC model fits accurately.%通过热压缩试验对Incone1625合金的热变形行为进行了测试.结果显示真应力-真应变曲线的斜率随着温度的降低和应变速率的升高而增大.这表明温度,应变和应变速率之间通过一种复杂的交互作用共同对应变硬化和再结晶产生影响.用Johnson-Cook模型建立的本构方程由于忽略了这个交互作用而不能很好地预测此合金的应力-应变关系.为此对Johnson-Cook模型做了改进.新的模型考虑了温度,应变和应变速率的交互作用.对比结果表明:修改的Johnson-Cook模型的预测值和实验值符合得很好.

  6. Gamma Prime Precipitation, Dislocation Densities, and TiN in Creep-Exposed Inconel 617 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Ram; Atkinson, Helen V.; Hainsworth, Sarah V.; Gill, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Inconel 617 is a solid-solution-strengthened Ni-based superalloy with a small amount of gamma prime (γ') present. Here, samples are examined in the as-received condition and after creep exposure at 923 K (650 °C) for 574 hours and 45,000 hours and at 973 K (700 °C) for 4000 hours. The stress levels are intermediate (estimated, respectively, as of the order of 350, 275, and 200 MPa) and at levels of interest for the future operation of power plant. The hardness of the specimens has been measured in the gage length and the head. TEM thin foils have been obtained to quantify dislocation densities (3.5 × 1013 for the as-received, 5.0 × 1014, 5.9 × 1014, and 3.5 × 1014 lines/m2 for the creep-exposed specimens, respectively). There are no previous data in the literature for dislocation densities in this alloy after creep exposure. There is some evidence from the dislocation densities that for the creep-exposed samples, the higher hardness in the gage length in comparison with the creep test specimen head is due to work hardening rather than any other effect. Carbon replicas have been used to extract gamma prime precipitates. The morphology of γ' precipitates in the `as-received' condition was spheroidal with an average diameter of 18 nm. The morphology of these particles does not change with creep exposure but the size increases to 30 nm after 574 hours at 923 K (650 °C) but with little coarsening in 45,000 hours. At 973 K (700 °C) 4000 hours, the average gamma prime size is 32 nm. In the TEM images of the replicas, the particles overlap, and therefore, a methodology has been developed to estimate the volume fraction of gamma prime in the alloy given the carbon replica film thickness. The results are 5.8 vol pct in the as-received and then 2.9, 3.2, and 3.4 vol pct, respectively, for the creep-exposed specimens. The results are compared with predictions from thermodynamic analysis given the alloy compositions. Thermodynamic prediction shows that nitrogen

  7. Influence of sulfur on the passivity of inconel 600 in aqueous environment at 3000C. Relationship with stress corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolution kinetics and repassivation of inconel 600 in simulated primary coolant circuits of PWR is studied by fast traction experiment under potentiostatic control. The notion of elementary electrochemical transient is introduced. The model of anodic dissolution - film rupture allows the calculation of crack growth in constant deformation rate tests. When sulfur concentration is smaller than 100 micrograms/g the current is low, above the current is high. Calculation of crack growth from high level current are consistent with experimental data. Influence of pH, temperature, solution composition are determined. A Comparative study with nickel, incoloy 690 and a 19% chromium alloy was carried out to understand fast traction phenomena. Chromium plays an important part without pollution a protecting chromium oxide is formed. In polluted environment sulfur prevent nucleation of this compound and chromium hydroxides are precipitated on the surface. With pure nickel there is no passivity in presence of sulfur

  8. Stress corrosion cracking of Inconel 600 tubing: Influence of thermal treatment, NaOH concentration and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been performed concerning the role of thermal treatments on the SCC behaviour of Inconel 600 tubing in NaOH solutions in the temperature range 315-3600C. An additional investigation was undertaken to establish the effect of the NaOH concentration built-up under magnetite deposits. The changes in the microstructural variables in the four metallurgical conditions studied were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). C-ring and slow strain rate tests (10-6 s-1) yielded identical results. SEM fractographs were additionally taken to reveal the cracking mode. It has been found that thermal treatment improves the SCC resistance in hot caustic solutions; particularly annealing at 6500C for 50 h appeared to impart the maximum improvement of SCC resistance. (orig.)

  9. Influence of temperature, environment, and thermal aging on the continuous cycle fatigue behavior of Hastelloy X and Inconel 617

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for strain-controlled fatigue and tensile tests for two nickel-base, solution-hardened reference structural alloys for use in several High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts. These alloys, Hastelloy X and Inconel 617, were tested from room temperature to 8710C in air and impure helium. Materials were tested in both the solution-annealed and the preaged conditios, in which aging consisted of isothermal exposure at one of several temperatures for periods of up to 20,000 h. Comparisons are given between the strain-controlled fatigue lives of these and several other commonly used alloys, all tested at 5380C. An analysis is also presented of the continuous cycle fatigue data obtained from room temperature to 4270C for Hastelloy G, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy C-276, and Hastelloy C-4, an effort undertaken in support of ASME code development

  10. Stress corrosion cracking of Inconel 600 tubing: Influence of thermal treatment, NaOH concentration and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borello, A.; Masci, D.; Mignone, A.

    1988-09-01

    A study has been performed concerning the role of thermal treatments on the SCC behaviour of Inconel 600 tubing in NaOH solutions in the temperature range 315-360/sup 0/C. An additional investigation was undertaken to establish the effect of the NaOH concentration built-up under magnetite deposits. The changes in the microstructural variables in the four metallurgical conditions studied were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). C-ring and slow strain rate tests (10/sup -6/ s/sup -1/) yielded identical results. SEM fractographs were additionally taken to reveal the cracking mode. It has been found that thermal treatment improves the SCC resistance in hot caustic solutions; particularly annealing at 650/sup 0/C for 50 h appeared to impart the maximum improvement of SCC resistance.

  11. The effect of grain size on the corrosion behaviour of Inconel 600 in high-temperature steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of grain size on the corrosion behaviour of Inconel 600 has been studied in steam of 40 atm pressure at 8000C. A protective Cr2O3-rich scale is formed initially. After this introductory stage, nodular oxides nucleate at the positions where cracks have occurred in the Cr2O3-rich scale. The weight gain due to steam corrosion has a tendency to decrease with increasing grain size in the stage where the Cr2O3-rich scale is formed. This tendency is reversed in the nodular oxide-forming stage, where the weight gain increases with increasing grain size. The effect of grain size on the corrosion behaviour in the two stages is discussed. (author)

  12. TEM, HRTEM, electron holography and electron tomography studies of gamma' and gamma'' nanoparticles in Inconel 718 superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, B; Kruk, A; Stepniowska, E; Cempura, G; Geiger, D; Formanek, P; Hernandez, J; Midgley, P; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was the identification of gamma' and gamma'' strengthening precipitates in a commercial nickel-base superalloy Inconel 718 (Ni-19Fe-18Cr-5Nb-3Mo-1Ti-0.5Al-0.04C, wt %) using TEM dark-field, HRTEM, electron holography and electron tomography imaging. To identify gamma' and gamma'' nanoparticles unambiguously, a systematic analysis of experimental and theoretical diffraction patterns were performed. Using HRTEM method it was possible to analyse small areas of precipitates appearance. Electron holography and electron tomography techniques show new possibilities of visualization of gamma' and gamma'' nanoparticles. The analysis by means of different complementary TEM methods showed that gamma'' particles exhibit a shape of thin plates, while gamma' phase precipitates are almost spherical. PMID:19903242

  13. Microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interface forming during directional solidification of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ling

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The solidification microstructure and fractal characteristics of the solid-liquid interfaces of Inconel 718, under different cooling rates during directional solidification, were investigated by using SEM. Results showed that 5 μm/s was the cellular-dendrite transient rate. The prime dendrite arm spacing (PDAS was measured by Image Tool and it decreased with the cooling rate increased. The fractal dimension of the interfaces was calculated and it changes from 1.204310 to 1.517265 with the withdrawal rate ranging from 10 to 100 μm/s. The physical significance of the fractal dimension was analyzed by using fractal theory. It was found that the fractal dimension of the dendrites can be used to describe the solidification microstructure and parameters at low cooling rate, but both the fractal dimension and the dendrite arm spacing are needed in order to integrally describe the evaluation of the solidification microstructure completely.

  14. Investigation of surface integrity in high-speed ball end milling of cantilever shaped thin plate of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Bhopale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the effects of cutting speed and feed on the work piece deflection and surface integrity during milling of cantilever shaped Inconel 718 plate under different cutter orientations. The experiments were conducted on a CNC vertical milling machine using 10 mm diameter TiAlN coated solid carbide ball end milling cutter. Surface integrity is assessed in terms of micro hardness beneath the machined surface. The micro-hardness profile shows different patterns at various cutting parameters. It is observed that at large cutting speed as well as feeds, thicker work piece with larger work piece inclination shows higher micro hardness as compared to the other machining conditions.

  15. Microstructural evolution during transient liquid phase bonding of Inconel 617 using Ni-Si-B filler metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of process parameters on microstructural characteristics of transient liquid phase (TLP) bonded Inconel 617 alloy was investigated. Experiments were carried out at 1065 deg. C using nickel based filler metal (Ni-4.5% Si-3% B) with B as the melting point depressant (MPD) element. Two different thickness of interlayer and various holding times were employed. The influence of these processing parameters on the characteristics of the joint area particularly size, morphology and composition of precipitates was investigated. The presence of MoB, Mo2B, M23C6, TiC, M23(B, C)6 and Ni3B precipitates in the diffusion layer and Ni3B, Ni3Si and Ni5Si2 precipitates in the interlayer at the interface between the base metal and interlayer were demonstrated using electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and TEM

  16. Stability of machining induced residual stresses in Inconel 718 under quasi-static loading at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tensile residual stresses are very often generated on the surface when machining nickel alloys. In order to determine their influence on the final mechanical behaviour of the component residual stress stability should be considered. In the present work the evolution of surface residual stresses induced by machining in Inconel 718 under static loading at room temperature was studied experimentally and numerically. An Inconel 718 disc was face turned employing industrial working conditions and specimens for tensile tests were extracted from the disc. Surface residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction for initial state and after applying different loads over the material's yield stress. Then, a finite element model based on the surface–core approach was fitted to experimental results and the study was extended to analyse the influence of load level, degree of work-hardening and initial surface conditions. For the studied case, initial tensile surface residual stress (776 MPa) became even more tensile when applying loads higher than the material yield stress, but a shift was observed at the highest applied load (1350 MPa) and initial residual stress was relaxed about 170 MPa. This particular behaviour is associated to the modified stress–strain properties of the machined affected surface layer which was strongly work-hardened. Moreover, if the work-hardened properties are not considered in the finite element model results differ substantially from experiments. Surface residual stress stability also depends on the initial surface residual stress, but the degree of work-hardening induced by the machining process must be considered as well. If the difference between the yield stress of the surface and the yield stress of the core is lower than the initial surface residual stress, the surface begins yielding first and consequently the surface residual stress is decreased. In contrast, if the difference between the yield stress of the surface and the

  17. Study of liquid phase formation kinetics due to solid/solid chemical interaction and its model. Application to the Zircaloy/Inconel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is made of the chemical interaction between Inconel spacing grids and the Zircaloy of the sheaths. Experiments performed at 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C with base Zircaloy and with a previously formed layer of ZrO2, show that the kinetics is parabolic. The difference between both types of experiments is that the oxide layer delays the initiation of the Inconel-Zry interaction. A model is presented, for the description of the solid/solid interaction, which leads to the formation of eutectic that is liquid at the experiment temperature. Also a model, which represents the oxide layer dissolution and predicts the instant in which it disappears completely, is presented. (Author)

  18. Time-Dependent Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of Two Solid-Solution-Strengthened Ni-Based Superalloys—INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longzhou; Roy, Shawoon K.; Hasan, Muhammad H.; Pal, Joydeep; Chatterjee, Sudin

    2012-02-01

    The fatigue crack propagation (FCP) as well as the sustained loading crack growth (SLCG) behavior of two solid-solution-strengthened Ni-based superalloys, INCONEL 617 (Special Metals Corporation Family of Companies) and HAYNES 230 (Haynes International, Inc., Kokomo, IN), were studied at increased temperatures in laboratory air under a constant stress-intensity-factor ( K) condition. The crack propagation tests were conducted using a baseline cyclic triangular waveform with a frequency of 1/3 Hz. Various hold times were imposed at the maximum load of a fatigue cycle to study the hold time effect. The results show that a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter, stress intensity factor ( K), is sufficient to describe the FCP and SLCG behavior at the testing temperatures ranging from 873 K to 1073 K (600 °C to 800 °C). As observed in the precipitation-strengthened superalloys, both INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230 exhibited the time-dependent FCP, steady SLCG behavior, and existence of a damage zone ahead of crack tip. A thermodynamic equation was adapted to correlate the SLCG rates to determine thermal activation energy. The fracture modes associated with crack propagation behavior were discussed, and the mechanism of time-dependent FCP as well as SLCG was identified. Compared with INCONEL 617, the lower crack propagation rates of HAYNES 230 under the time-dependent condition were ascribed to the different fracture mode and the presence of numerous W-rich M6C-type and Cr-rich M23C6-type carbides. Toward the end, a phenomenological model was employed to correlate the FCP rates at cycle/time-dependent FCP domain. All the results suggest that an environmental factor, the stress assisted grain boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) mechanism, is mainly responsible for the accelerated time-dependent FCP rates of INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230.

  19. Study on laser beam welding/superplastic forming technology of multi-sheet cylinder sandwich structure for Inconel718 superalloy with ultra-fine grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► In this study, we design the inner diameter variation of fixture for the structure. ► The welding problem of structure is solved by changing the diameter of the fixture. ► The multi-sheet cylinder sandwich structure is manufactured by LBW/SPF technology. ► Through SPF process, most Laves precipitated phase turns into δ precipitated phase. ► Nb concentration in the dendritics was improved greatly. -- Abstract: Multi-sheet cylinder sandwich structure of Inconel718 superalloy will be widely used in aerospace as heat resisting and heat shielding structure due to its lightweight, high strength and stiffness. Superplasticity of Inconel718 superalloy was investigated. Under T = 950 °C and initial strain rate with ε.=1.6×10-4s-1, the elongation of Inconel718 superalloy is 483.6%. The perfect superplastic forming temperature for Inconel718 superalloy is at 950 °C. The laser penetration welding parameters are as follows: power 1200 W, welding speed 1200 mm/min, defocusing amount −1 mm, shield gas flow 0.6 L/min, and the parameters for superplastic forming are as follows: temperature Tf = 950 °C, pressure Pf = 4.2 MPa, time tf = 130 min. The multi-sheet cylinder sandwich structure manufactured by laser beam welding/superplastic forming (LBW/SPF) technology has good shape, uniform wall thickness distribution, high symmetry in internal structure. Laves phase, harmful to the materials, translates to the δ phase which will help improve the performance of the material after SPF process. The hardness of laser welding joints is improved from 331.63 HV to 391.74 HV after the SPF process. The tensile strength of base material of multi-sheet cylinder sandwich structure has been increased about 261 MPa after the SPF process.

  20. Crack growth threshold under hold time conditions in DA Inconel 718 – A transition in the crack growth mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fessler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeroengine manufacturers have to demonstrate that critical components such as turbine disks, made of DA Inconel 718, meet the certification requirements in term of fatigue crack growth. In order to be more representative of the in service loading conditions, crack growth under hold time conditions is studied. Modelling crack growth under these conditions is challenging due to the combined effect of fatigue, creep and environment. Under these conditions, established models are often conservative but the degree of conservatism can be reduced by introducing the crack growth threshold in models. Here, the emphasis is laid on the characterization of crack growth rates in the low ΔK regime under hold time conditions and in particular, on the involved crack growth mechanism. Crack growth tests were carried out at high temperature (550 °C to 650 °C under hold time conditions (up to 1200 s in the low ΔK regime using a K-decreasing procedure. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify the fracture mode involved in the low ΔK regime. EBSD analyses and BSE imaging were also carried out along the crack path for a more accurate identification of the fracture mode. A transition from intergranular to transgranular fracture was evidenced in the low ΔK regime and slip bands have also been observed at the tip of an arrested crack at low ΔK. Transgranular fracture and slip bands are usually observed under pure fatigue loading conditions. At low ΔK, hold time cycles are believed to act as equivalent pure fatigue cycles. This change in the crack growth mechanism under hold time conditions at low ΔK is discussed regarding results related to intergranular crack tip oxidation and its effect on the crack growth behaviour of Inconel 718 alloy. A concept based on an “effective oxygen partial pressure” at the crack tip is proposed to explain the transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture in the low ΔK regime.

  1. Effects of the aging temperature and stress relaxation conditions on γ′ precipitation in Inconel X-750

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeong Won [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Research and Development Center, KOS Limited, Yangsan 626-230 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Baek Seok [Neutron Science Division, HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hi Won [Advanced Metallic Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon Suk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Namhyun, E-mail: nhkang@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Stress relaxation after aging 620 °C increased carbides and maintained γ′ fraction. • Aging temperature increase to 732 °C raised the γ′ increment after stress relaxation. • Small increase of carbides induced the large increase of γ′ after stress relaxation. • Loading for stress relaxation raised γ′ increment due to dislocation multiplication. - Abstract: Inconel X-750 is a Ni-based precipitation-hardened superalloy typically used in springs designed for high-temperature applications such as the hold-down springs in nuclear power plants. γ′ is a major precipitate in X-750 alloys which affects the strength, creep resistance, and stress relaxation properties of the spring. In this study, a solution-treated X-750 wire coiled into a spring was used that was aged at various temperatures and submitted to stress relaxation tests with and without loading. Small angle neutron scattering was employed to quantify the size and volume fraction of γ′ phase in the springs as a function of the aging temperature and the application of a load during stress relaxation. The volume fraction of γ′ precipitates increased in the specimen aged at 732 °C following stress relaxation at 500 °C for 300 h. However, the mean size of the precipitates in the samples was not affected by stress relaxation. The specimen aged at the lower temperature (620 °C) contained a smaller γ′ volume fraction and gained a smaller fraction of γ′ during stress relaxation compared with the sample aged at the higher temperature (732 °C). The smaller increase in the γ′ volume fraction for the sample aged at 620 °C was associated with a larger increase in the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} secondary carbide content during relaxation. The Cr depletion zone around the secondary carbides raises the solubility of γ′ thereby decreasing the volume fraction of γ′ precipitates in Inconel X-750. In terms of stress relaxation, a larger increase in the γ′ volume fraction was

  2. Estimate of thermal fatigue lifetime for the INCONEL 625lCF plate while exposed to concentrated solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Morín, A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A system for testing the thermal cycling of materials and components has been developed and installed at the DISTAL-I parabolic dish facility located at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA in Spain. This system allows us to perform abrupt heating/cooling tests by exposing central solar receiver materials to concentrated solar radiation. These tests are performed to simulate both the normal and critical operational conditions of the central solar receiver. The thermal fatigue life for the INCONEL 625LCF® plate when subjected to concentrated solar radiation has been estimated with this system. We have also developed a numerical model that evaluates the thermal behavior of the plate material; additionally, the model yields the tensile-compressive stresses on the plate, which allow the estimation of the Stress-Life (S-N fatigue curves. These curves show that the lifetime of the plate is within the High Cycle Fatigue (HCF region at the operational temperatures of both 650 °C and 900 °C.

    En el concentrador solar de disco parabólico DISTAL-I, situado en la Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA, en España, se ha instalado un sistema para pruebas de ciclado térmico de materiales. Este sistema permite realizar pruebas abruptas de calentamiento y enfriamiento, en materiales para receptores solares de torre central, al exponerlos a radiación solar concentrada. Estas pruebas se realizan para simular las condiciones de operación de un receptor solar, las condiciones críticas y las condiciones normales. Con este sistema se ha estimado el tiempo de vida bajo fatiga térmica, en una placa de INCONEL 626LCF®, cuando es sometida a radiación solar concentrada. Asimismo, hemos desarrollado un modelo numérico que evalúa el desarrollo térmico en el material de la placa: adicionalmente, el modelo obtiene los esfuerzos de tensión-compresión en la placa, los cuales permiten la estimaciónde las curvas de fatiga vidaesfuerzo (S-N. Estas curvas

  3. Corrosion Resistance of Inconel 740H in Simulated Coal-ash/Flue-gas Environments%Inconel 740H合金在模拟煤灰/烟气中的抗腐蚀性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯世香; 吴正发; 袁晓娜; 刘东雨

    2016-01-01

    针对用于超超临界锅炉过热器管的镍基高温合金Inconel 740H,在750℃及合成烟气的条件下,研究了涂刷合成煤灰试样和无涂刷试样累计3000 h的腐蚀情况.利用XRD、EDS和SEM对试样的表面和截面进行了分析.结果表明,涂刷合成煤灰试样的腐蚀分为两个阶段,开始在表面生成Cr2O3保护膜,随时间的延长氧化膜被硫酸盐溶解,腐蚀程度较重.无涂刷试样的腐蚀为一个阶段,即氧化和硫化腐蚀.

  4. Effect of argon injection on the high Z impurity generation from the poloidal inconel limiter in FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argon injection experiment on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) plasma has been utilised to clarify the physical mechanism responsible for impurity production. A simple O-D model for the SOL (scrape off layer), coupled with sputtering by the main deuteron flux and self-sputtering can reproduce the variation of impurity concentration, Ni in the case of inconel limiter in FTU, when Argon is puffed into the plasma. The increase of radiation power losses leads to a decrease of the SOL temperature, and therefore to a decrease of the sputtering yield. Since Zeff remains essentially unchanged by Ar puffing, a fraction of high Z impurity is substituted by Ar ions. As a consequence both the line radiation emission profile and the total radiation losses are modified, while all the other plasma parameters (temperature and density profiles, ohmic power and energy confinement time) remain unchanged. Radiation losses increase up to 80% of the input power, at relatively high densities, with a corresponding decrease of the heat load on the limiter surface

  5. Thermal outgassing properties of mechanically polished and of sand- and bead-blasted Inconel 600 surfaces up to 5000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, two different types of Inconel 600 samples have been investigated. The first one was mechanically polished and chemically cleaned in several steps and had a total hemispherical emissivity at 750C of epsilon1 = 0.146 and a surface roughness of CLA1 = 0.08 μm, while the second sample was sand- and bead-blasted with epsilon2 = 0.382 and CLA2 = 1.2 μm. The experimental studies were composed of the determination of desorption spectra from 200C up to 5500C at different heating rates, the investigation of the decrease of thermal outgassing rates during a longer heating interval at about 5000C and the measurement of equilibrium outgassing rates at higher temperatures of samples which have been heated several days at about 5000C. The total outgassing rates and the partial outgassing rates of the main components H2, H2O, CO and CO2 have been determined in these studies. Activation energies of desorption, rate constants and equilibrium surface coverages have been calculated from the experimental data using the theory of Redhead. (author)

  6. High-temperature-oxidation-induced ordered structure in Inconel 939 superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Wise, Adam; Nuhfer, Thomas; Holcomb, Gordon R; Jablonski, Paul D; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Laughlin, David E

    2013-04-20

    In the integrated oxy-fuel combustion and turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO2 and O2. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation that results in the loss of the strengthening precipitates. In an earlier study of the oxidation of Inconel 939 Ni-based superalloy exposed to oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 hours, a high-temperature-oxidation-induced phase transformation in the sub-surface region was noticed and a two-phase region formed at the expense of strengthening γ' phase. While one of the two phases was identified as the Ni-matrix (γ solid solution, face-center-cubic) phase, the other product phase remained unidentified. In this study, the crystal structure of the unknown phase and its orientation relationship with the parent Ni-matrix phase was investigated through electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that the crystal structure of the unknown phase could be modeled as a ternary derivative of the ordered η-Ni3Ti phase (D024) structure with lattice parameters of a = 0.5092 nm and c = 0.8336 nm, α = 90º, β = 90º and γ = 120º.

  7. Cracking in fusion zone and heat affected zone of electron beam welded Inconel-713LC gas turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamanfar, A., E-mail: achamanfar@gmail.com [Département de Génie Mécanique, École de Technologie Supérieure, 1100 rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 1K3 (Canada); Jahazi, M. [Département de Génie Mécanique, École de Technologie Supérieure, 1100 rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 1K3 (Canada); Bonakdar, A.; Morin, E. [Siemens Canada Limited, 9545 Côte-de-Liesse, Dorval, Québec, Canada H9P 1A5 (Canada); Firoozrai, A. [Département de Génie Mécanique, École de Technologie Supérieure, 1100 rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 1K3 (Canada)

    2015-08-26

    Electron beam welding (EBW) of shrouds in Inconel-713LC low pressure gas turbine blades was associated with cracking in fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) leading to a high scrap rate in manufacturing of gas turbine blades. In this study, in order to develop a detailed map of cracks and understand the root cause of cracking, a comprehensive microstructural and numerical analysis was performed. The elemental mapping in scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive spectral analysis revealed segregation of alloying elements in the cracked area of FZ and HAZ. In other words, one of the cracking mechanisms in FZ and HAZ was found to be segregation induced liquation and subsequent cracking due to thermal and mechanical tensile stresses generated during EBW. Cracking in FZ also occurred because of low strength of the solidifying weld metal as well as solidification contraction. As well, γ′ dissolution and reprecipitation in HAZ leading to decreased ductility and generation of contraction stresses was another mechanism for cracking in HAZ. The numerical model was capable to predict the cracking location as well as cracking orientation with respect to the weld line.

  8. Cracking in fusion zone and heat affected zone of electron beam welded Inconel-713LC gas turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam welding (EBW) of shrouds in Inconel-713LC low pressure gas turbine blades was associated with cracking in fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) leading to a high scrap rate in manufacturing of gas turbine blades. In this study, in order to develop a detailed map of cracks and understand the root cause of cracking, a comprehensive microstructural and numerical analysis was performed. The elemental mapping in scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive spectral analysis revealed segregation of alloying elements in the cracked area of FZ and HAZ. In other words, one of the cracking mechanisms in FZ and HAZ was found to be segregation induced liquation and subsequent cracking due to thermal and mechanical tensile stresses generated during EBW. Cracking in FZ also occurred because of low strength of the solidifying weld metal as well as solidification contraction. As well, γ′ dissolution and reprecipitation in HAZ leading to decreased ductility and generation of contraction stresses was another mechanism for cracking in HAZ. The numerical model was capable to predict the cracking location as well as cracking orientation with respect to the weld line

  9. Creep behaviour of as received, aged and cold worked INCONEL 617 at 850 deg. C and 950 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of initial microstructure on alloy 617 creep behaviour has been investigated at 850 deg. C and 950 deg. C. The solution treated material shows non-classical creep behaviour at both temperatures with a strain rate drop at the beginning of the tests followed by a creep rate increase to a plateau before the onset of the tertiary creep. The intragranular secondary carbides which precipitate early at test temperature are responsible of the strong initial hardening effect by pinning the dislocations. This effect is overpassed during the thermo mechanical ageing of the alloy which induces growth of these carbides. Prior 1000 h thermal ageing at the temperature test totally removes the strain rate drop and reduces the lifetime. The intragranular microstructure has evolved thanks to the prior thermal ageing before the creep tests. Microstructural examinations also show the presence of grain boundary migration and recrystallization in the material during creep tests of the as received and aged materials. Preliminary cold work treatment highly reduces the strain rate of Inconel 617 and enhances the lifetime at 850 deg. C while the opposite is observed at 950 deg. C.

  10. Estimate of thermal fatigue lifetime for the INCONEL 625lCF plate while exposed to concentrated solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for testing the thermal cycling of materials and components has been developed and installed at the DISTAL-I parabolic dish facility located at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. This system allows us to perform abrupt heating/cooling tests by exposing central solar receiver materials to concentrated solar radiation. These tests are performed to simulate both the normal and critical operational conditions of the central solar receiver. The thermal fatigue life for the INCONEL 625LCF plate when subjected to concentrated solar radiation has been estimated with this system. We have also developed a numerical model that evaluates the thermal behavior of the plate material; additionally, the model yields the tensile-compressive stresses on the plate, which allow the estimation of the Stress-Life (S-N) fatigue curves. These curves show that the lifetime of the plate is within the High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) region at the operational temperatures of both 650 degree centigrade and 900 degree centigrade. (Author) 20 refs.

  11. Corrosion Characteristics of Inconel-600 at the NP(Cu)-HYBRID Decontamination Demonstration Test with HANARO FTL Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Young; Park, Sang Yoon; Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Seon Byeong; Choi, Wang Kyu; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    An alkaline permanganate (AP) or nitric permanganate (NP) oxidative phase has been generally used to dissolve the chromium-rich oxide. AP is advantageous for the corrosion resistance, but increases the volume of secondary waste during the decontamination procedure. On the other hand, NP has a high corrosion rate but reduces secondary waste. For the safe use of an oxidative decontamination solution with high corrosive resistance and less amount of secondary waste are required. In this study, we modified NP oxidative decontamination solution by adding Cu{sup 2+} to reduce the corrosion rate. To evaluate the general corrosion characteristics, we measured the weight losses of selected specimens in an NP(Cu) and other solutions. The localized corrosion was observed using an optical microscope (OM). To compare the decontamination performance, we measured the contact dose rate of specimens treated in NP-HYBRID and NP(Cu)-HYBRID systems. The reduced corrosion characteristics of the Inconel-600 specimen in a NP(Cu) oxidative solution was observed in terms of generalized corrosion as well as localized corrosion. Less corrosion characteristics do not affect the performance of the overall decontamination compared to the NP-HYBRID process. Therefore, our results support that the NP(Cu)-HYBRID decontamination process is appropriate for the decontamination of the primary coolant system in a nuclear reactor.

  12. Flank wear and I-kaz 3D correlation in ball end milling process of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S.M. Tahir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tool wear may deteriorate the machine product quality due to high surface roughness, dimension exceeding tolerance and also to machine tool itself. Tool wear monitoring system is vital to be used in machining process to achieve high quality of the machined product and at the same time improve the productivity. Nowadays, many monitoring system developed using various sensor and statistical technique to analyze the signals being used. In this paper, I-kaz 3D method is used to analyze cutting force signal in milling process of Inconel 718 for monitoring the status of tool wear in milling process. The results from analyzing cutting force show that I-kaz 3D coefficient has a correlation with cutting tool condition. Tool wear will generate high value of I-kaz 3D coefficient than the sharp cutting tool. Furthermore, the three dimension graphical representation of I-kaz 3D for all cutting condition shown that the degree of scattering data increases with tool wear progression.

  13. Research and Improvement on structure stability and corrosion resistance of nickel-base superalloy INCONEL alloy 740

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INCONEL alloy 740 is a newly developed Ni-Cr-Co-Mo-Nb-Ti-Al superalloy in the application to ultra-supercritical boilers with steam temperatures up to 700 deg. C. By means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-chemical phase analyses, and corrosion-resisting test, this paper investigates the structure stability of the alloy at elevated temperature and concentrates on coal ash corrosion performance of the alloy under the simulated coal ash/flue gas condition. Experimental results show that the most important structure instabilities of the alloy during prolonged aging are γ' coarsening, γ' to η transformation and G phase formation at grain boundary. The performance of corrosion resistance of the alloy would meet the requirement of ultra-supercritical boiler tubes. The phase computation by means of Thermo-Calc has been adopted in chemical composition modification for structure stability improvement. Two suggested new modified alloys in adjustment of the Al and Ti contents and in control of Si level, and also in maintenance of Cr content of the alloy were designed and melted for experimental investigation. These two modified alloys exhibit more stable microstructure during 760 deg. C long time aging

  14. Influence of humidity on high temperature oxidation of Inconel 600 alloy: Oxide layers and residual stress study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the influence of humidity on high temperature oxidation of Inconel 600 alloy, in this work, water vapour (absolute humidity varying from 0% to 19%) was introduced in the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) system under artificial air between 600 °C and 900 °C. The oxides identification and the residual stress in the oxide layers have been studied by X-ray diffraction method in each of two oxide phases, simultaneously. The oxide surface morphology, cross-section microstructure and the chemical composition of the oxide layers were determined by FEG-SEM (Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope) observation and FEG-SEM EDS (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis. Depending on the oxidation temperature, the humidity and the oxidation duration, the oxide layer differed significantly. The residual stress levels in the different oxide layers (NiO-type layer and Cr2O3-type layer) have also been affected by the introduction of the water vapour. According to the analysis results, the residual stresses on oxide mainly came from the growth stress and thermomechanical stress; and the oxide growth stress was especially affected by humidity at high temperature.

  15. Diffusion of Cr, Fe, and Ti ions from Ni-base alloy Inconel-718 into a transition alumina coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat treating metals at high temperatures trigger diffusion processes which may lead to the formation of oxide layers. In this work the diffusion of Cr, Fe and Ti into an alumina coating applied to Inconel-718 is being investigated. Mass gain measurements, UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied in order to study the evolution of the diffusion process. It was found that mainly Cr as well as minor amounts of Fe and Ti are being incorporated into the alumina coating upon prolonged heat treatment at 700 °C. It could be shown that alumina coatings being void of Cr have the same oxidation related mass gain as uncoated samples. However, incorporation of Cr into the alumina coating decreased their mass gain below that of uncoated substrates forming a Cr oxide scale only. - Highlights: ► We investigated the diffusion of Cr into alumina coatings applied on IN-718. ► The ingress of Cr led to the formation of mixed alumina/chromium coatings. ► The mass gain of mixed alumina/chromium coatings was compared to uncoated IN-718. ► The mixed alumina/chromium coatings improved the oxidation resistance of IN-718.

  16. Control of interfacial reactions during liquid phase processing of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with INCONEL 601 fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, F.; Colin, C.; Delannay, F.

    1998-06-01

    A comprehensive investigation is made of the parameters affecting the extent of interface reactions during squeeze casting of composites consisting of a matrix of either pure Al or alloy AS13 reinforced with fibers of INCONEL 601. The process parameters are the preform thickness and temperature, the fiber volume fraction, the temperature and mass of the liquid metal, and the temperature of the die. Adjustment of these process parameters made possible the full control of reactions. It is found that reactions proceed mainly in the solid state after decomposition of the oxide barrier layer covering the fibers. A simple kinetic model is developed that enlightens the role of this barrier layer. No trace of reaction could be detected in composites processed using preoxidized preforms. Alloying Al with Si also induces a drastic reduction of reactivity. The high ductility of the composites attests to the processing quality. An original procedure is proposed for measuring the activation energy for initiation of reactions by differential thermal analysis.

  17. Aspectos metalúrgicos de revestimentos dissimilares com a superliga à base de níquel inconel 625 Metallurgical aspects of dissimilar weld overlays of inconel 625 nickel based superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Carvalho Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolongar a vida útil e aumentar a confiabilidade de equipamentos e tubulações de plantas de produção e processamento de petróleo é uma busca constante no setor de petróleo e gás. Tais aspectos dependem essencialmente do uso de ligas resistentes à corrosão. Neste contexto, a soldagem de revestimento com superligas à base de níquel tem sido uma alternativa interessante, pois confere aos equipamentos uma alta resistência à corrosão com um custo inferior, se comparado à fabricação de componentes ou tubulações maciças com superligas. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o comportamento metalúrgico de revestimento de superliga à base de níquel do tipo Inconel 625 depositados pelo processo TIG com alimentação de arame frio. As soldagens foram realizadas em uma bancada robotizada, empregando uma fonte eletrônica de soldagem com sistema de aquisição de dados para o monitoramento dos sinais de corrente e tensão. A caracterização microestrutural foi realizada através das técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e transmissão (MET, espectroscopia de energia dispersiva de raios-X (EDS. Os resultados mostraram que a microestrutura do metal de solda foi constituída por uma matriz γ com fases secundárias ricas em Nb. Foi encontrada a formação de precipitados complexos de carbonetos/nitretos de Ti e Nb.To extend the life and reliability of pipes and equipment in oil & gas production and processing settings is a continuous demand. These aspects are essentially dependent on corrosion resistant alloys used. In this context, the weld overlay with Ni-based superalloys is a great interesting alternative, since improve the corrosion resistance without increase the cost of manufacture when compared to massive equipment. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the metallurgical aspects of Inconel 625 weld overlays deposited by GTAW cold wire feed process. The welds were performed using a

  18. Solidificação da zona de fusão na soldagem do AISI 304 com inconel 600 por laser de Nd: YAG Microstructure development in Nd: YAG laser welding of AISI 304 and Inconel 600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício David M. das Neves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se a morfologia de solidificação da zona de fusão, numa junta formada a partir de materiais dissimilares, composta por aço inoxidável austenítico AISI 304 e por liga de níquel Inconel 600, soldada com laser pulsado de Nd:YAG. Os parâmetros do feixe laser e do sistema óptico foram selecionados, visando obter uma solda com penetração total e bom acabamento superficial. A caracterização microestrutural foi realizada por microscopia ótica, onde se observou uma zona de fusão com penetração total do tipo keyhole, a presença de pequenos poros e a ausência de trincas. As juntas soldadas foram caracterizadas também, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Medidas realizadas por espectrometria de raios X por dispersão de energia na zona de fusão indicaram uma distribuição levemente heterogênea de níquel e ferro. Observou-se que o início de solidificação da zona de fusão ocorreu por meio de crescimento epitaxial. A morfologia de solidificação da ZF foi basicamente dendrítica e celular sendo, influenciada pelo gradiente de temperatura, velocidade de solidificação e composição química. As variações de composição química e da morfologia de solidificação não alteraram significativamente os valores de microdureza Vickers na zona de fusão. Resultados obtidos nos ensaios de tração indicaram valores de eficiência de soldagem adequados.An autogenous laser welding of dissimilar materials involving AISI 304 austenitic stainless steels and Inconel 600 nickel alloy was investigated in this study. Hence, the aim of this investigation was to study the solidification and microstructure of fusion zone when using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The laser and optical beam parameters were chosen to achieve a good weld with total penetration. Optical microscopy pictures showed a typical keyhole weld with total penetration, small pores and free of cracks. The x-ray spectrometry by energy dispersion

  19. Study on LBW/SPF Technology of Multi-sheet Cylinder Sandwich Structure for Inconel718 Superalloy%Inconel718合金多层夹芯筒结构LBW/SPF技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲凤盛; 卢振; 刑飞; 张凯锋

    2012-01-01

    The high temperature plasticity of the laser butt welding plate and LBW/SPF technology for Inconel718 superalloy with ultrafine grain were investigated. The results showed that when the tensile direction is vertical to laser welding seam, the maximum elonga- tion is 400.6% at temperature of 950 ℃ with initial strain rate of 3.1 ×10 -4 s -1. When the tensile direction is parallel to laser welding seam, the maximum elongation is 164.0% at temperature of 965 ℃ with initial strain rate of 6.2 × 10 -4 s -1. At the temperature of 950 ~ 980 ℃, the laser butt welding plate has good plasticity in free bulging state. The relative bulging height is higher than 1. 0. The laser welding problem of multi-sheet cylinder sandwich structure is settled through clamp apparatus which has internal stay of diametral varia- tion. The laser penetration welding parameters are the power of 1 200 W, welding speed of 1 200 mm/min, defocusing amount of - 1 mm, shield gas flow rate of 0.6 L/min. The parameters for superplastic forming are the temperature of 965 ℃, pressure of 4.2 MPa, time of 130 min. The multi-sheet cylinder sandwich structure by LBW/SPF composite technology has good shape, uniform wall thickness distribution, the high symmetry of internal structure.%研究了超细晶Inconel718合金激光对接板高温塑性及多层夹芯筒结构的LBW/SPF成形技术。结果表明:垂直焊缝拉伸时最大延伸率发生在温度为950℃、应变速率为3.1×10-4s-1条件下,为400.6%,平行焊缝拉伸时最大延伸率发生在温度为965℃,应变速率为6.2×10-4s-1条件下,为164.0%。对接板在950~980℃相对胀形高度均高于1.0。通过设计直径可变的卡具以及采取点焊加固等措施,解决了多层夹芯结构的激光焊接难题。激光穿透焊参数:功率1 200 W,焊速1 200 mm/min,离焦量-1 mm,保护气体流量0.6 L/min,超塑成形参数:温度Tf=965℃,压力Pf=4.2 MPa,时间tf=130 min。采用LBW/SPF技术制造的多层夹

  20. 激光选区熔化Inconel625合金开裂行为及抑制研究%Cracking Behavior and Inhibiting Process of Inconel 625 Alloy Formed by Selective Laser Melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 李帅; 魏青松; 史玉升; 王联凤; 郭立杰

    2015-01-01

    裂纹是激光选区熔化(SLM,selective laser melting)镍基高温合金最严重的缺陷之一,严重削弱了材料的力学性能.采用逐行扫描策略制备了Inconel 625合金试样,利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、电子背散射衍射(EBSD)等检测方法研究了裂纹微观形貌、周边元素和晶粒分布等.SEM结果显示在常温下成形件内部形成大量缅小裂纹,裂纹长度约100μm.裂纹形成的内因是在快速凝固的过程中,由于Nb,Mo元素的局部偏析,形成(γ +Laves)共晶凝固.同时在脆性相Laves周围形成应力集中,导致沿着晶界开裂,SLM高凝固速率产生的残余应力是微裂纹产生的直接原因.通过基板加热工艺减小热残余应力,利用X射线测定了不同预热温度(150和300℃)下的残余应力值.结果显示基板预热降低了热残余应力,并最终抑制了裂纹的产生,随着温度的升高,裂纹数量逐渐减少,在预热温度300℃时裂纹数量最少.

  1. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Ballistic Impact Properties of Inconel 718 for Jet Engine Fan Containment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of heat treating Inconel 718 on the ballistic impact response and failure mechanisms were studied. Two different annealing conditions and an aged condition were considered. Large differences in the static properties were found between the annealed and the aged material, with the annealed condition having lower strength and hardness and greater elongation than the aged. High strain rate tests show similar results. Correspondingly large differences were found in the velocity required to penetrate material in the two conditions in impact tests involving 12.5 mm diameter, 25.4 mm long cylindrical Ti-6-4 projectiles impacting flat plates at velocities in the range of 150 to 300 m/sec. The annealed material was able to absorb over 25 percent more energy than the aged. This is contrary to results observed for ballistic impact response for higher velocity impacts typically encountered in military applications where it has been shown that there exists a correlation between target hardness and ballistic impact strength. Metallographic examination of impacted plates showed strong indication of failure due to adiabatic shear. In both materials localized bands of large shear deformation were apparent, and microhardness measurements indicated an increase in hardness in these bands compared to the surrounding material. These bands were more localized in the aged material than in the annealed material. In addition the annealed material underwent significantly greater overall deformation before failure. The results indicate that lower elongation and reduced strain hardening behavior lead to a transition from shear to adiabatic shear failure, while high elongation and better strain hardening capabilities reduce the tendency for shear to localize and result in an unstable adiabatic shear failure. This supports empirical containment design methods that relate containment thickness to the static toughness.

  2. Brazing of inconel 600 and SUS304 stainless steel with used of rapidly solidified nickel-base brazing foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, Yasuyuki; Ariga, Tadashi (Tokai Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    In this study, the clad material which have been brazed with the nickel-base heat resistant alloy; Inconel 600 on AISI304 stainless steel has been produced by the brazing using three types of nickel-base brazing foils. The three types of nickel-base brazing foils are 7Cr(4.5Si-7.0Cr-3.0B-3.0Fe-Ni bal.), 5Cr(4.5Si-5.0Cr-3.0B-3.0Fe-Ni bal.) and 10Cr(4.5Si-10.0Cr-3.0B-3.0Fe-Ni bal.). Brazing was done in an electrical resistant furnace in an argon gas atmosphere. The brazing temperatures employed in this study were 1050, 1100, 1150, 1200 and 1250degC and the brazing times were 10, 30, 60 and 120 min for all types of brazing foils. The property of the joint was estimated by the mechanical properties, microstructures and distributions of the elements which were investigated by SEM and EPMA. The brazed joint was obtained for all of brazing conditions in this study. The shear strength of the specimen increased with increasing brazing time except at 1050degC. At 1050degC, the shear strength of the specimen was not influenced by brazing time. In this case, the break of the specimen during the shear test occurred in the brazed layer. At 1250degC, the value of 450 MPa was obtained as the maximum shear strength in this study; the break of the specimen occurred in the base metal. The shear strength of the specimen increased with increasing brazing temperature. The shear strength of the specimen increased with increasing chromium content in the brazing foil to 7 mass%. (J.P.N.).

  3. Brazing of inconel 600 and SUS304 stainless steel with used of rapidly solidified nickel-base brazing foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the clad material which have been brazed with the nickel-base heat resistant alloy; Inconel 600 on AISI304 stainless steel has been produced by the brazing using three types of nickel-base brazing foils. The three types of nickel-base brazing foils are 7Cr(4.5Si-7.0Cr-3.0B-3.0Fe-Ni bal.), 5Cr(4.5Si-5.0Cr-3.0B-3.0Fe-Ni bal.) and 10Cr(4.5Si-10.0Cr-3.0B-3.0Fe-Ni bal.). Brazing was done in an electrical resistant furnace in an argon gas atmosphere. The brazing temperatures employed in this study were 1050, 1100, 1150, 1200 and 1250degC and the brazing times were 10, 30, 60 and 120 min for all types of brazing foils. The property of the joint was estimated by the mechanical properties, microstructures and distributions of the elements which were investigated by SEM and EPMA. The brazed joint was obtained for all of brazing conditions in this study. The shear strength of the specimen increased with increasing brazing time except at 1050degC. At 1050degC, the shear strength of the specimen was not influenced by brazing time. In this case, the break of the specimen during the shear test occurred in the brazed layer. At 1250degC, the value of 450 MPa was obtained as the maximum shear strength in this study; the break of the specimen occurred in the base metal. The shear strength of the specimen increased with increasing brazing temperature. The shear strength of the specimen increased with increasing chromium content in the brazing foil to 7 mass%. (J.P.N.)

  4. Understanding the Role of Hot Isostatic Pressing Parameters on the Microstructural Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, William H [ORNL; Nandwana, Peeyush [ORNL; Kirka, Michael M [ORNL; Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Sames, William [Texas A& M University; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL; Eklund, Anders [Avure Technologies, Inc.; Howard, Ron [Avure Technologies, Inc.

    2015-04-01

    In this project, Avure and ORNL evaluated the influence of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and thermal cycling as standalone post processing techniques on the microstructure of electron beam powder bed deposited Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 alloys. Electron beam powder bed deposition is an effective technology for fabricating complex net shape components that cannot be manufactured with conventional processes. However, material deposited by this technology results in columnar grain growth which is detrimental for many applications. For Ti-6Al-4V, it has been found that thermal cycling alone is not sufficient to breakdown the columnar microstructure that is typical of electron beam powder bed technology. HIP, on the other hand, has the potential to be an effective technique to break down the columnar microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V into a more equiaxed and refined β grain structure, and provide a more homogeneous microstructure compared to the thermally cycled samples. Overall, the project showed that hot isostatic pressing reduced/eliminated porosity in both Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 However, based on the unique thermal cycle and the application of pressure in the HIP vessel, Ti-6Al-4V e-beam deposited microstructures were modified from columnar grain growth to equiaxed microstructures; a significant outcome to this collaboration. Inconel 718, on the other hand, shows no change in the macrostructure as a result of the current HIP cycle based on the thermal history, and would require further investigation. Though the results of HIP cycle were very good at changing the microstructure, further development in optimizing the post heat treatments and HIP cycles is required to improve mechanical properties.

  5. 700℃超超临界锅炉过热器管材Inconel 740H合金冷变形行为研究%Cold Deformation Behavior of Inconel 740H Alloy for 700 ℃ Ultra-supercritical Boiler Superheater Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江河; 董建新; 张麦仓; 姚志浩

    2015-01-01

    Inconel 740H合金荒管进行了不同变形量的冷轧实验,分析了其冷变形特性.通过冷变形后不同制度的退火处理,对Inconel 740H合金组织演变规律进行研究,建立了退火过程中再结晶晶粒长大方程.同时引入不均匀因子Z对组织均匀性进行评定.研究表明,Inconel 740H合金中间退火处理中的静态再结晶过程主要受退火温度和保温时间影响,所构建的再结晶晶粒长大方程与实验值吻合度较好.冷轧变形量为20%,中间退火制度为1100℃/5 min时得到的组织最为均匀.

  6. Influence of the Overlapping Factor and Welding Speed on T-Joint Welding of Ti6Al4V and Inconel 600 Using Low-Power Fiber Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Shamini Janasekaran; Ai Wen Tan; Farazila Yusof; Mohd Hamdi Abdul Shukor

    2016-01-01

    Double-sided laser beam welding of skin-stringer joints is an established method for many applications. However, in certain cases with limited accessibility, single-sided laser beam joining is considered. In the present study, single-sided welding of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and nickel-based alloy Inconel 600 in a T-joint configuration was carried out using continuous-wave (CW), low-power Ytterbium (Yb)-fiber laser. The influence of the overlapping factor and welding speed of the laser beam on ...

  7. Impact of hydrogen on the high cycle fatigue behaviour of Inconel 718 in asymmetric push-pull mode at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Bruchhausen, Matthias; Fischer, Burkhard; Ruiz, A.; Gonzalez Sanchez, Sergio; Hähner, Peter; Soller, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The influence of hydrogen on the high cycle fatigue (HCF) behaviour of Inconel 718 has been studied at room temperature in asymmetric push–pull mode using an ultrasonic HCF test rig. Fatigue tests have been carried out in gaseous hydrogen (GH2) and in Ar at a pressure of 30 MPa. Oscillating stresses with amplitudes (σa) up to 450 MPa and mean stresses (σm) up to 600 MPa have been applied. For a given σa and σm, the lifetime in Ar is generally longer than in GH2, which is explained by a hydrog...

  8. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using 316L steel, hastelloy, maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel, TiN and NiCr. Simulation in tritiated water. 2 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the slow and fast kinetics (voltammetry) of different stainless steel alloys. These corrosion kinetics, the actual or simulated tritiated water redox potentials, and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: 316L, Hastelloy, Maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel and TiN and NiCr deposits. From the results it can be concluded that Hastelloy and Elgiloy have the best corrosion resistance. (author). 49 refs., 695 figs., tabs

  9. Influence of Hold Times on Fatigue Life and Fracture Behavior of Cast Superalloy INCONEL 713LC at 700°C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obrtlík, Karel; Man, Jiří; Petrenec, Martin; Polák, Jaroslav; Podrábský, T.

    Ottawa : NRCan - CANMET, 2009, s. 1-9. ISBN N. [International Conference on Fracture /12./. Ottawa (CA), 12.07.2009-17.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200410502; GA ČR GA106/08/1631; GA ČR GA106/07/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fatigue life * Hold times * High temperature * Inconel 713LC Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://www.icf12.org/

  10. Improvement of Surface Properties of Inconel718 by HVOF Coating with WC-Metal Powder and by Laser Heat Treatment of the Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Gon Chun; Tong Yul Cho; Jae Hong Yoon; Gun Hwan Lee

    2015-01-01

    High-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating with WC-metal powder was carried out by using optimal coating process on an Inconel718 surface for improvement of the surface properties, friction, wear, and corrosion resistance. Binder metals such as Cr and Ni were completely melted and WC was decomposed partially to W2C and graphite during the high temperature (up to 3500°C) thermal spraying. The melted metals were bonded with WC and other carbides and were formed as WC-metal coating. ...

  11. Comparative Analysis of Properties and Microstructure of the Plastically Deformed Alloy Inconel®718, Manufactured by Plastic Working and Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaba K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel superalloys as Inconel® are materials widely used in the aerospace industry among others for diffusers, combustion chamber, shells of gas generators and other. In most cases, manufacturing process of those parts are used metal strips, produced by conventional plastic processing techniques, and thus by hot or cold rolling. An alternative technology allowing for manufacturing components for jet engines is the technique of 3D printing (additive manufacturing, and most of all Direct Metal Laser Sintering, which is one of the latest achievement in field of additive technologies.

  12. Heat treatment of NiCrFe alloy 600 to optimize resistance to intergranular stress corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, A.F.; Bibb, A.E.

    A process of producing a NiCrFe alloy having a high resistance to stress corrosion cracking comprises heating a NiCrFe alloy to a temperature sufficient to enable the carbon present in the alloy body in the form of carbide deposits to enter into solution, rapidly cooling the alloy body, and heating the cooled body to a temperature between 1100 to 1500/sup 0/F for about 1 to 30 hours.

  13. Role of processing on the development of Alloy 600 tubing microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants have operated for as long as nine years with no experience of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of steam generator tubing. This experience represents the exposure of approximately 130,000 tubes to the primary water of nine separate plants. One of the factors presented to explain the favorable performance of C-E type steam generator tubing is the higher annealing temperature than that used for Westinghouse-type tubing. C-E tubing was produced to give average yield strengths around 41 ksi compared to 55 ksi or greater for Westinghouse-type tubing. The 41 ksi average yield strengths was achieved by using a 18750F tube temperature. An exception to the favorable performance of C-E type tubing was a case of some tubing which went into service without receiving a proper annealing treatment. An adjacent section which had recrystallized during the furnace annealing treatment still had copious quantities of undissolved intragranular carbides. The undissolved carbide phase indicated that the actual tube temperature was below the maximum carbon solubility temperature. An ideal microstructure is developed when the tube temperature is high enough to dissolve the carbide phase. With a metal temperature of 18750F, typical of C-E tubing, all material with carbon contents of 0.01 to 0.038 percent should receive an appropriate solution anneal

  14. Study on Localized Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 using EN-DCPD Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work is to establish an electrochemical noise(EN) measurement technique combined with a direct current potential drop(DCPD) method for monitoring of localized corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy, and to analyze its mechanism. The electrochemical current and potential noises were measured under various conditions of applied stress to a compact tension specimen in a simulated primary water chemistry of a pressurized water reactor. The amplitude and frequency of the EN signals were evaluated in both time and frequency domains based on a shot noise theory, and then quantitatively analyzed using statistical Weibull distribution function. From the spectral analysis, the effect of the current application in DCPD was found to be effectively excluded from the EN signals generated from the localized corrosion cracking. With the aid of a microstructural analysis, the relationship between EN signals and the localized corrosion cracking mechanism was investigated by comparing the shape parameter of Weibull distribution of a mean time-to-failure

  15. The Effect of Cu on the Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 MA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the unscheduled outage to repair steam generator(S/G) tube leakage in 1994, a defective S/G tube was removed from Kori Unit 1 for a detailed examination. The results of destructive examinations confirmed the presence of Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking(ODSCC) at locations indicated by in-service Eddy Current Testing(ECT). The maximum depth of any of defects was 95% of the wall thickness, as determined by metallography. Defects were located primarily in the sludge pile and appeared to be associated with crevice regions formed at Top of Tube Sheet(TTS) sludge pile. Caustic environment could be obtained through crevice boiling process. During crevice boiling process, cations such as sodium could be accumulated, and anion species could be evaporated. These resulted in a high molar ratio of [Na+/Cl-] and high pH. Corrosion potential could also be elevated due to Cu oxide formation from the metallic copper deposit on tubing. The pure Cu deposited on tube surface might be oxidized by dissolved oxygen during start-up

  16. The effect of Cu on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 MA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the unscheduled outage to repair steam generator(S/G) tube leakage in 1994, a defective S/G tube was removed from Kori unit 1 for a detailed examination. The results of destructive examination confirmed the presence of Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking(ODSCC) at locations indicated by in-service Eddy Current Testing(ECT). The maximum depth of any of defects was 95% of the wall thickness, as determined by metallography. Defects were located primarily in the sludge pile and appeared to be associated with crevice regions formed at Top of Tube Sheet(TTS) sludge pile. Caustic environment could be obtained through crevice boiling process. During crevice boiling process, cations such as sodium could be accumulated, and anion species could be evaporated. These resulted in a high molar ratio of [Na+/Cl-] and high pH. Corrosion potential could also be elevated due to Cu oxide formation from the metallic copper deposit on tubing. The pure Cu deposited on tube surface might be oxidized by dissolved oxygen during start-up. (author)

  17. Proceedings: EPRI MRP Alloy 600 Industry Workshop: June 12-14, 2001, Atlanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent instances of significant cracking in Alloy 82/182 welds have occurred in commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, including (1) cracking found in the hot leg nozzle weld at the V. C. Summer Nuclear Station and at a foreign plant, and (2) circumferential cracking found in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles at Oconee Nuclear Station

  18. Influence of cutting parameters on surface characteristics of cut section in cutting of Inconel 718 sheet using CW Nd:YAG laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Gyu AHN; Kyung-Won BYUN

    2009-01-01

    Recently, laser cutting technologies begin to use for manufacturing mechanical parts of lnconel super-alloy sheet due to difficulties of machining of the Inconel material as a results of its extremely tough nature. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of cutting parameters on surface characteristics of the cut section in the cutting of Inconel 718 super-alloy sheet using CW Nd:YAG laser through laser cutting experiments. Normal cutting experiments were performed using a laser cutting system with six-axis controlled automatic robot and auto-tracking system of the focal distance. From the results of the experiments, the effects of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness, the striation formation and the microstructure of the cut section were examined. In addition, an optimal cutting condition, at which the surface roughness is minimized and both the delayed cutting phenomenon and the micro-cracking are not initiated, is estimated to improve both the part quality and the cutting efficiency.

  19. Inconel 939 processed by selective laser melting: Effect of microstructure and temperature on the mechanical properties under static and cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel-based superalloys, such as Inconel 939, are a long-established construction material for high-temperature applications and profound knowledge of the mechanical properties for this alloy produced by conventional techniques exists. However, many applications demand for highly complex geometries, e.g. in order to optimize the cooling capability of thermally loaded parts. Thus, additive manufacturing (AM) techniques have recently attracted substantial interest as they provide for an increased freedom of design. However, the microstructural features after AM processing are different from those after conventional processing. Thus, further research is vital for understanding the microstructure-processing relationship and its impact on the resulting mechanical properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate Inconel 939 processed by selective laser melting (SLM) and to reveal the differences to the conventional cast alloy. Thorough examinations were conducted using electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy and mechanical testing. It is demonstrated that the microstructure of the SLM-material is highly influenced by the heat flux during layer-wise manufacturing and consequently anisotropic microstructural features prevail. An epitaxial grain growth accounts for strong bonding between the single layers resulting in good mechanical properties already in the as-built condition. A heat treatment following SLM leads to microstructural features different to those obtained after the same heat treatment of the cast alloy. Still, the mechanical performance of the latter is met underlining the potential of this technique for producing complex parts for high temperature applications

  20. Analysis and modelling of the chemical interactions between Inconel grid spacers and Zircaloy cladding of LWR fuel rods; formation of liquid phases due to chemical interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results show that the interactions obey parabolic rate laws at the examined temperatures of 1000, 1100 and 1200degC, with or without preoxidized Zircaloy. The fundamental difference of the experiments with preoxidized Zircaloy (oxide layer thickness ≤ 100μm) compared to as-received Zircaloy is the time delay of the start of the interaction between Inconel and Zircaloy. Two models will be presented to describe the experimental results: a) the DISOL code, which is able to simulate the oxidation of Zircaloy up to a given oxide layer thickness and then the dissolution of the ZrO2 layer by the Zircaloy, and b) the solid/solid interaction model that is able to describe the kinetics of the Inconel/Zircaloy interaction. The simple relations obtained as a result of this work can be introduced as modules in SFD code systems to describe the behavior of the core with increasing temperature. Comparison between the experimental results and the code predictions shows a good agreement. (orig.)

  1. Friction and wear behavior of Inconel 625 with Ni3Ti, TiN, TiC-CVD coatings in an HTGR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following conclusions apply to Inconel 625 with Ni3Ti, TiN, TiC-CVD coatings, tested in an HTGR environment in a temperature range between 500 and 9000C at a contact pressure of 3.45 MPa. The average wear rate is very small varying between 0.0 and 1.7 x 10-4 g/m. The wear rate shows little dependence on temperature and sliding velocity, increasing slightly as the temperature increases or as the sliding velocity decreases. Damage experienced by wear areas is minimal. Stick-slip friction was observed at low sliding velocity, however the friction coefficient is low (maximum 0.63) with an average value of about 0.44. The friction coefficient shows little dependence on temperature and sliding velocity, increasing slightly as the temperature increases, or as the sliding velocity decreases. Ni3Ti, TiN, TiC-CVD coatings, are considered effective in minimizing friction and wear damage of Inconel 625 in an HTGR environment

  2. Galvanic coupling between D6AC steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, Inconel 718 and graphite-epoxy composite material: Corrosion occurrence and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Higgins, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of galvanic coupling between D6AC steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, Inconel 718, and graphite-epoxy composite material (G/E) in 3.5% NaCl were studied. Measurements of corrosion potentials, galvanic currents and corrosion rates of the bare metals using weight-loss methods served to establish the need for corrosion protection in cases where D6AC steel and 6061-T6 aluminum are galvanically coupled to G/E in salt water while Inconel 718 was shown to be compatible with G/E. Six tests were made to study corrosion protective methods for eliminating galvanic corrosion in the cases of D6AC steel and 6061-T6 aluminum coupled to G/E. These results indicate that, when the G/E is completely coated with paint or a paint/polyurethane resin combination, satisfactory protection of the D6AC steel is achieved with either a coat of zinc-rich primer or a primer/topcoat combination. Likewise, satisfactory corrosion protection of the aluminum is achieved by coating it with an epoxy coating system.

  3. Combined strengthening of multi-phase and graded interface in laser additive manufactured TiC/Inconel 718 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) additive manufacturing of TiC particle reinforced Inconel 718 composite parts was performed. The influence of laser energy density (LED) on densification, microstructures and wear behaviour of LMD-processed composites was studied. It showed that using a LED of 280 J mm−3 produced ∼5% porosity in LMD-processed composites, caused by the aggregation of reinforcing particles. A further increase in LED above 350 J mm−3 yielded near-full densification. Two categories of reinforcing phases, i.e. the substoichiometric TiCx particles and the in situ (Ti,M)C (M = Mo, Nb and Cr) carbide having 7–10 at% Nb and Mo contents, were formed in the matrix of LMD-processed composites. The TiCx reinforcing particles changed from an irregular poly-angular shape to a smoothened and refined structure as the LED increased. An increase in LED resulted in a larger amount of phase formation and an enhanced degree of crystal growth of the in situ (Ti,M)C reinforcement. The interfacial graded layer with thickness of 0.2–1.2 µm, which was identified as (Ti,M)C (M = Mo, Nb and Cr) carbide with 5–6 at% Mo and Nb contents, was tailored between the TiCx particles and the matrix. At an optimal LED of 420 J mm−3, a considerably low coefficient of friction of 0.38 and resultant low wear rate of 1.8 × 10−4 mm3 N−1 m−1 were obtained in sliding tests, due to the combined strengthening of the interfacial graded layer and the multiple reinforcing phases. The wear resistance decreased at an excessive LED because of the coarsening of reinforcement crystals and the decrease in microstructural uniformity of composites. (paper)

  4. 300℃氮气中交变载荷条件下Inconel 690合金的微动磨损特性%Fretting wear behavior of Inconel 690 alloy under alternating load conditions at 300℃ in nitrogen environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓宇; 任平弟; 蔡振兵; 彭金方; 刘建华; 朱旻昊

    2016-01-01

    The fretting wear mechanisms and kinetic behaviours of Inconel690 alloy were investigated on the improved PLINT fretting rig under alternating loads conditions in high-temperature controlled-atmosphere environments. The results show that the fretting running behaviors are closely related to the normal excitation frequency. In parallelogram shapedFt−D curves, the friction fluctuates periodically, and accordingly the fretting runs in the slip regime (SR). Five stages of friction force curves can be observed at 300℃ in nitrogen environment, including initial stage, ascending stage, peak value stage descending stage and steady stage. The fretting wear behaviors for Inconel 690 alloy strongly depend on the normal load, displacement amplitude, temperature, atmosphere, excitation frequency and other test conditions. The super position effect of fretting wear behavior due to the combined effect of alternating normal force and tangential force is produced, so that delamination phenomenon becomes much more prominent. The abrasive wear and delamination are the major mechanisms of Inconel 690 at 300℃ in nitrogen environment.%采用改进后的PLINT高温可控气氛的微动磨损试验机,研究Inconel 690合金在300℃氮气及法向交变载荷条件下的微动磨损机制和动力学特性。结果表明:微动运行行为与激振频率密切相关,微动的Ft−D曲线呈现摩擦力周期波动的平行四边形型特征,微动运行于滑移区。在300℃氮气环境中,摩擦力的动态变化可以分为5个阶段,即跑合阶段、上升阶段、峰值阶段、下降阶段和稳定阶段。Inconel 690合金的微动损伤行为强烈地依赖于载荷、位移幅值、环境温度、气氛及激振频率等试验条件。从表面损伤形貌看,损伤微结构与试验参数密切相关;由于交变法向力和切向力共同作用,微动产生叠加效应,使剥层现象更加突出。在300℃氮气环境下,Inconel 690合金的损

  5. ASTM 4130自动氩弧焊堆焊 Inconel 625焊接工艺%Procedure of 625 Overlay Weld on ASTM 4130 75K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭必永

    2014-01-01

    通过理论分析及试验结合的方法,确认ASTM 413075K调质钢自动氩弧焊堆焊Inconel 625的工艺确认,根据API 6A Ed 20th和ASME IX-2010的要求进行评定,此结果可为生产提供一定的指导。%T hrough the combination of theoretical analysis and test ,the procedure of 625 overlay weld on ASTM 4130 75K which was quenched and tempered steel ,by automatic argon tungsten arc welding ,was evaluated according to API 6A Ed 20th and ASME IX-2010 requirements ,and provides guidance for production .

  6. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using Inconel 690, zircaloy 4, 316Ti steel, 17-4-PH, UR52N et URSB8. Simulation in tritiated water. Tome 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redox potential of 3 H2O, as well as the corrosion potentials in this medium are found, abnormally, in the trans-passive region. This is completely different from behavior in the chemical industry or in the water in nuclear powers. With such behavior, there will be breakdowns of the protective oxide layers, and in the presence of chloride there will be immediate pitting. Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the kinetics of different stainless steel alloys. These corrosion kinetics and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: Inconel 690, zircaloy 4, 316 Ti steel, 17-4-PH, UR52N et URSB8. From the results it can be concluded that URSB8 has the best corrosion resistance. (author). 13 refs., 522 figs., tabs

  7. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using Inconel 690, zircaloy 4, 316Ti steel, 17-4-PH, UR52N et URSB8. Simulation in tritiated water. Tome 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redox potential of 3 H2O, as well as the corrosion potentials in this medium are found, abnormally, in the trans-passive region. This is completely different from the behavior in the chemical industry or in the water in nuclear powers. With such behavior, there will be breakdowns of the protective oxide layers, and in the presence of chloride there will be immediate pitting. Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the kinetics of different stainless alloys. These corrosion kinetics and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: Inconel 690, zircaloy 4, 316 Ti steel, 17-4-PH, UR52N et URSB8. From the results it can be concluded that URSB8 has the best corrosion resistance. (author). 279 figs., tabs

  8. Effect of the Fine-Grained Structure on the Fatigue Properties of the Heat-Resistant Nickel-Iron Alloy Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtarov, Sh. Kh.; Shakhov, R. V.

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that ultrafine-grained nickel alloys with average grain sizes d = 0.1-1 μm possess improved hot workability and can be used for superplastic forming or rolling. However, microstructure refinement can worsen some performance characteristics of the alloy, for example, heat-resistant or fatigue properties. In the present work, fatigue characteristics of the fine-grained alloy Inconel 718 are investigated. Ultrafine-grained alloys with average grain sizes d = 0.1-1 μm were manufactured by multiple forging with stage-by-stage deformation temperature decrease. During standard heat treatment of the alloy performed to obtain the desired properties, the γ-grain size was controlled by precipitations of δ-phase particles along the boundaries. Results of low-cycle fatigue tests of the fine-grained alloy at room and elevated temperatures are compared with the properties of the coarse-grained alloy.

  9. Tensile properties of haynes alloy 230 and inconel 617 after long exposures to LiF-22CaF2 and vacuum at 1093 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1994-12-01

    As a part of a study of a space-based thermal energy storage system utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the eutectic salt LiF-20CaF2 (mole%), the two wrought Ni-base superalloys Haynes alloy 230 and Inconel 617 were subjected to molten salt, its vapor, and vacuum for periods as long as 10,000 h at 1093 K. Following exposure, the microstructures were characterized, and samples from each superalloy were tensile tested between 77 and 1200 K. Neither the structure nor mechanical properties revealed evidence for additional degradation due to exposures to the salt. Although some loss in tensile properties was noted, particularly at 77 K, this reduction could be ascribed to the influence of simple aging at 1093 K.

  10. A preliminary mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of VIM-VAR work strengthened and direct aged Inconel 718 bar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of double melted (vacuum induction melted (VIM), and vacuum arc remelted (VAR)), solution treated, work strengthened and direct aged Inconel 718 alloy bar (5.50 in. (13.97 cm) diameter). Two sets of tensile specimens, one direct single aged and the other direct double aged, were tested at ambient temperature in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Longitudinal tensile and yield strengths in excess of 200 ksi (1378.96 MPa) and 168 ksi (1158.33 MPa), respectively, were realized at ambient temperature, for the direct double aged specimen. No failures occurred in the single or double edged longitudinal and transverse tensile specimens stressed to 75 and 100 percent of their respective yield strengths and exposed to a salt fog environment for 180 days. Tensile tests performed after the stress corrosion test showed no mechanical property degradation.

  11. Chromium activity measurements in nickel based alloys for very high temperature reactors: Inconel 617, haynes 230 and model alloys - HTR2008-58147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alloys Haynes 230 and Inconel 617 are potential candidates for the intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) of (V)-HTR reactors. The behaviour under corrosion of these alloys by the (V)-HTR coolant (impure helium) is an important selection criterion because it defines the service life of these components. At high temperature, the Haynes 230 is likely to develop a chromium oxide on the surface. This layer protects from the exchanges with the surrounding medium and thus confers certain passivity on metal. At very high temperature, the initial microstructure made up of austenitic grains and coarse intra and intergranular M6C carbide grains rich in W will evolve. The M6C carbides remain and some M23C6 richer in Cr appear. Then, carbon can reduce the protective oxide layer Then, the alloy loses its protective coating and can corrode quickly. Experimental investigations were performed on these nickel based alloys under an impure helium flow [1]. To predict the surface reactivity of chromium under impure helium, it is necessary to determine its chemical activity in a temperature range close to the operating conditions of the heat exchangers (T∼1273 K). For that, high temperature mass spectrometry measurements coupled to multiple effusion Knudsen cells are carried out on several samples: Haynes 230, Inconel 617 and model alloys 1178, 1181, 1201. This coupling makes it possible thermodynamic equilibrium to be obtained between the vapour phase and the condensed phase of the sample. The measurement of the chromium ionic intensity (/) of the molecular beam resulting from a cell containing an alloy provides the values of partial pressure according to the temperature. This value is compared to that of the pure substance (Cr) at the same temperature. These calculations provide thermodynamic data characteristic of the chromium behaviour in these alloys. These activity results call into question those previously measured by Hilpert [2], largely used in the literature. (authors)

  12. Inconel740H主要强化元素对热力学平衡相析出行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符锐; 林富生; 赵双群; 迟成宇

    2013-01-01

    对700℃等级超超临界电站过热器/再热器管材所用镍基高温合金Inconel740H进行热力学相计算并研究了主要析出强化元素对其平衡析出相析出行为的影响.结果表明:合金中),’相和M:。C。碳化物稳定温度范围较宽;Al、Ti和Nb3种元素对y1目、77相和口相的析出行为影响较大,而co元素对其影响不大,其中Al对7’相和d相的析出和稳定有促进作用,对刀相却有抑制作用,Ti和Nb对7’相、即相和口相均有促进作用;C对M。。c。碳化物析出量的影响显著,而Cr对M2。C。的析出温度影响显著.将Al、Ti、Nb、C和Cr的质量分数控制在一定范围内并适当减小Co的质量分数,可以使Inconel740H合金的成分范围得到一定的优化.

  13. Assessing the kinetics of high temperature oxidation of Inconel 617 in a dedicated HTR impure helium facility coupling thermogravimetry and gas phase chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •New facility coupling thermogravimetry (TGA) with gas phase chromatography (GPC). •Dedicated for HT oxidation study in VHTR impure helium containing CO, H2O and H2. •The oxidation kinetics obeys a complete parabolic law due to a mixed kinetic regime. •CO contributes during initial stage of oxidation only for very low H2O partial pressure. •Long-term oxidation of Inconel 617 by H2O is diffusion controlled with constant kp. -- Abstract: A new facility coupling thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with gas phase chromatography (GPC) has been developed. This facility is dedicated for studying high temperature oxidation of Inconel 617 in impure helium environment containing H2O, H2 and CO at very low partial pressures (in the Pa range), which is representative of the high temperature reactor (HTR) concept developed within the Generation IV Forum. Simultaneous acquisition of mass gain and gas composition has allowed the influence of carbon monoxide and water vapour on the kinetics of oxidation to be studied. GPC measurements of gas consumption have allowed the plotting of individual mass gain curves for oxidation by H2O and CO. During isothermal exposure at 1123 K for 20 h, the oxidation was mainly due to water vapour with a minor contribution of carbon monoxide during the first hours. The contribution of water vapour to the oxidation kinetics was extracted. It was shown to obey a complete parabolic law and to be limited by an interfacial reaction during the first few hours of oxidation and to be controlled by a mixed interfacial and diffusion process, diffusion becoming the rate-determining step for long term oxidation. There was very good agreement between GPC measurements and the experimental TGA results

  14. Assessing the kinetics of high temperature oxidation of Inconel 617 in a dedicated HTR impure helium facility coupling thermogravimetry and gas phase chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapovaloff, J., E-mail: chpvlff@aol.com [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, Département Corrosion-Chimie, 30 Bd de l’industrie, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, SMS-EMSE, CNRS: UMR5146, LCG, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Rouillard, F., E-mail: fabien.rouillard@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d’Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Combrade, P., E-mail: pierre.combrade@orange.fr [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, Département Corrosion-Chimie, 30 Bd de l’industrie, 71200 Le Creusot (France); ACXCOR, 63, chemin de l’Arnica, 42660 Le Bessat (France); Pijolat, M., E-mail: mpijolat@emse.fr [Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, SPIN-EMSE, CNRS: UMR5148, LCG, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Wolski, K., E-mail: wolski@emse.fr [Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, SMS-EMSE, CNRS: UMR5146, LCG, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •New facility coupling thermogravimetry (TGA) with gas phase chromatography (GPC). •Dedicated for HT oxidation study in VHTR impure helium containing CO, H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}. •The oxidation kinetics obeys a complete parabolic law due to a mixed kinetic regime. •CO contributes during initial stage of oxidation only for very low H{sub 2}O partial pressure. •Long-term oxidation of Inconel 617 by H{sub 2}O is diffusion controlled with constant kp. -- Abstract: A new facility coupling thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with gas phase chromatography (GPC) has been developed. This facility is dedicated for studying high temperature oxidation of Inconel 617 in impure helium environment containing H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2} and CO at very low partial pressures (in the Pa range), which is representative of the high temperature reactor (HTR) concept developed within the Generation IV Forum. Simultaneous acquisition of mass gain and gas composition has allowed the influence of carbon monoxide and water vapour on the kinetics of oxidation to be studied. GPC measurements of gas consumption have allowed the plotting of individual mass gain curves for oxidation by H{sub 2}O and CO. During isothermal exposure at 1123 K for 20 h, the oxidation was mainly due to water vapour with a minor contribution of carbon monoxide during the first hours. The contribution of water vapour to the oxidation kinetics was extracted. It was shown to obey a complete parabolic law and to be limited by an interfacial reaction during the first few hours of oxidation and to be controlled by a mixed interfacial and diffusion process, diffusion becoming the rate-determining step for long term oxidation. There was very good agreement between GPC measurements and the experimental TGA results.

  15. Study on Selective Laser Melting Additive Manufacturing Process of INCONEL Ni-based Superalloy%INCONEL系镍基高温合金选区激光熔化增材制造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 顾冬冬; 沈理达; 田宗军

    2014-01-01

    Influence of the process parameters on densification behavior ,microstructure characteristics,microhardness and wear performance of SLM-processed Inconel 718 alloy samples was studied comprehensively. The result shows that at a lower laser linear energy density (η),the balling effect caused a low densification level. At a higher value of laser energy density with reasonable process parameters,nearly full dense Inconel 718 part was obtained. Besides,as laser energy density increased,microstructures of Inconel 718 parts experienced such changes:coarsened columnar dendrites,clustered dendrites,slender and uniformly distributed columnar dendrites. Samples manufactured at optimized process parameters exhibited high microhardness of 397.8 HV0.2,low mean COF value of 0.40 and low wear rate of 4.78 ×10-4 mm3/Nm. The formation of fine microstructure and the protective tribolayer gave the sample good wear performance.%研究了激光加工工艺参数对选区激光熔化工艺成形的Inconel 718合金试样的致密化行为、显微组织特征、硬度及摩擦磨损性能的影响。结果表明:当激光线能量密度(η)较低时,球化效应的出现使试样的致密度水平较低;在较高的线能量密度与合适的加工参数下,可获得接近完全致密的Inconel 718合金试样。同时,随着激光线能量密度的增加,SLM成形Inconel 718合金试样的显微组织经历了粗大的柱状树枝晶、聚集的枝晶、细长而均匀分布的柱状枝晶等变化过程。在优化工艺参数下,成形试样的显微硬度高达397.8 HV0.2;摩擦系数和磨损率较低,分别为0.40和4.78×10-4 mm3/Nm;且试样内部显微组织均匀细小,摩擦试样的表面形成摩擦保护层,使试样的摩擦磨损性能较好。

  16. DESGASTE POR ABRASIÓN DEL ACERO API 5L X65 REVESTIDO CON NIOBIO POR ASPERSIÓN TÉRMICA A PLASMA Y CON INCONEL 625 POR SOLDADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE MATOS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar y caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico en desgaste del acero API 5L X65, revestido con niobio en comparación al desempeño del revestimiento de la aleación de inconel 625 empleados en la industria de petróleo y gas. El revestimiento de niobio fue obtenido por el proceso de aspersión térmica a plasma de arco no transferido y el revestimiento inconel 625 por soldadura con electrodo revestido. La resistencia al desgaste por abrasión fue evaluada según la norma Petrobras N-2568, en un tribómetro CTER, la rugosidad y el volumen de material desgastado se determinó a través de perfilometría y la dureza de los revestimientos por microscopia Vickers. Los revestimientos obtenidos fueron caracterizados respecto a su morfología por microscopia electrónica de barrido (MEB y microscopía óptica (MO. La mayor dureza del revestimiento con niobio obtenido puede haber contribuido a reducir la tasa de desgaste en comparación con el revestimiento de inconel 625.

  17. Inconel 740H主要强化元素对热力学平衡相析出行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符锐; 林富生; 赵双群; 迟成宇

    2013-01-01

    针对700℃先进超超临界电站过热器/4g热器管用镍基高温合金Inconel 740H,通过热力学相计算研究了主要析出强化元素对其平衡析出相析出行为的影响.结果表明:合金中7’相和M23C6碳化物稳定温度范围宽,稳定性好;A1、Ti和Nb3种合金成分对y相、叩相和dr相的析出和稳定性影响大,而Co的影响不大,其中A1对’,’相和d相的析出和稳定起促进作用,对7/相起抑制作用,Ti和Nb对y’相、∞相和口相均起促进作用;C显著影响M23C6碳化物的析出量,Cr显著影响M23C6碳化物的析出温度.Al、Ti和Nb的质量分数分别控制在1.2V0~1.4%、1%~1.5%和1%~1.6%为宜;同时,c的质量分数保持在0.05%左右,Cr的质量分数也应保持25%左右,Co的质量分数有所减小,不会影响y’相和M:。c。碳化物等强化相的析出量,从而对Inconel 740H合金的成分范围进行了一定的优化.

  18. Influence of the Overlapping Factor and Welding Speed on T-Joint Welding of Ti6Al4V and Inconel 600 Using Low-Power Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamini Janasekaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Double-sided laser beam welding of skin-stringer joints is an established method for many applications. However, in certain cases with limited accessibility, single-sided laser beam joining is considered. In the present study, single-sided welding of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and nickel-based alloy Inconel 600 in a T-joint configuration was carried out using continuous-wave (CW, low-power Ytterbium (Yb-fiber laser. The influence of the overlapping factor and welding speed of the laser beam on weld morphology and properties was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. XRD analysis revealed the presence of intermetallic layers containing NiTi and NiTi2 at the skin-stringer joint. The strength of the joints was evaluated using pull testing, while the hardness of the joints was analyzed using Vickers hardness measurement at the base metal (BM, fusion zone (FZ and heat-affected zone (HAZ. The results showed that the highest force needed to break the samples apart was approximately 150 N at a laser welding power of 250 W, welding speed of 40 mm/s and overlapping factor of 50%. During low-power single-sided laser welding, the properties of the T-joints were affected by the overlapping factor and laser welding speed.

  19. Improvement of Surface Properties of Inconel718 by HVOF Coating with WC-Metal Powder and by Laser Heat Treatment of the Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gon Chun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF thermal spray coating with WC-metal powder was carried out by using optimal coating process on an Inconel718 surface for improvement of the surface properties, friction, wear, and corrosion resistance. Binder metals such as Cr and Ni were completely melted and WC was decomposed partially to W2C and graphite during the high temperature (up to 3500°C thermal spraying. The melted metals were bonded with WC and other carbides and were formed as WC-metal coating. The graphite and excessively sprayed oxygen formed carbon oxide gases, and these gases formed porous coating by evolution of the gases. The surface properties were improved by HVOF coating and were improved further by CO2 laser heat treatment (LH. Wear resistance of In718 surface was improved by coating and LH at 25°C and an elevated temperature of 450°C, resulting in reduction of wear trace traces, and was further improved by LH of the coating in reducing wear depth. Corrosion resistance due to coating in sea water was improved by LH. HVOF coating of WC-metal powder on a metal surface and a LH of the coating were highly recommended for the improvement of In718 surface properties, the friction behavior, and wear resistance.

  20. A mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of VIM-ESR-VAR work strengthened and direct double aged Inconel 718 bar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presented are the mechanical properties and the stress corrosion resistance of triple melted vacuum induction melted (VIM), electro-slag remelted (ESR), and vacuum arc remelted (VAR), solution treated, work strengthened and direct double aged Inconel 718 alloy bars 4.00 in. (10.16) and 5.75 in. (14.60 cm) diameter. Tensile, charpy v-notched impact, and compact tension specimens were tested at ambient temperature in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Longitudinal tensile and yield strengths in excess of 220 ksi (1516.85 MPa) and 200 ksi (1378.00 MPa) respectively, were realized at ambient temperature. Additional charpy impact and compact tension tests were performed at -100 F (-73 C). Longitudinal charpy impact strength equalled or exceeded 12.0 ft-lbs (16.3 Joules) at ambient and at -100 F(-73 C) while longitudinal compact (LC) tension fracture toughness strength remained above 79 ksi (86.80 MPa) at ambient and at -100 F(-73 C) temperatures. No failures occurred in the longitudinal or transverse tensile specimens stressed to 75 and 100 percent of their respective yield strengths and exposed to a salt fog environment for 180 days. Tensile tests performed after the stress corrosion test indicated no mechanical property degradation.

  1. Imaging and characterization of γ′ and γ″ nanoparticles in Inconel 718 by EDX elemental mapping and FIB–SEM tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulawik, K., E-mail: kulawik@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, International Centre of Electron Microscopy for Materials Science, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Buffat, P.A., E-mail: philippe.buffat@epfl.ch [AGH University of Science and Technology, International Centre of Electron Microscopy for Materials Science, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CIME, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne Switzerland (Switzerland); Kruk, A., E-mail: kruczek@uci.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, International Centre of Electron Microscopy for Materials Science, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Wusatowska-Sarnek, A.M., E-mail: agnieszka.wusatowska-sarnek@pw.utc.com [Pratt & Whitney, 400 Main Street, East Hartford, CT 06108 (United States); Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A., E-mail: czyrska@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, International Centre of Electron Microscopy for Materials Science, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-02-15

    Microstructural characterization of Inconel 718 superalloy after three different heat treatment variants was performed by electron microscopy and electron tomography techniques, taking advantage of recent development in quantitative electron microscopy. Distribution maps of the chemical elements, collected by ChemiSTEM™ EDX system, offer a clear contrast between γ′, γ″, and the γ matrix. It was found that the γ′ phase contains mainly Ni, Al, and Ti, while the γ″ phase contains Ni, Nb, and Ti. Thus application of the Al and Nb STEM–EDX elemental maps enables identification and size measurements of γ′ and γ″ nanoparticles. 3D morphology of γ′ and γ″ precipitates was examined by electron microscopy and FIB–SEM tomography. Employed methods revealed that in all three heat treatment variants the γ′ particles are almost spheroidal while the γ″ precipitates are mainly elongated-disc shaped. However, the precipitate sizes differed for each variant contributing to differences in the yield strength. Tomographic images were used for estimation of the volume fraction of the both strengthening phases. - Highlights: • ChemiSTEM™ EDX elemental maps bring a fast mean to differentiate γ′ and γ″ particles. • Such maps enable for the explicit size measurements of γ′ and γ″ nanoparticles. • Explicit γ′ and γ″ phases total volume fraction was measured employing FIB–SEM. • γ′/γ″ co-precipitates and sandwich-like γ′/γ″/γ′ particles were present. • HRSTEM-HAADF imaging revealed atomic columns of the γ′/γ″ co-precipitates.

  2. Imaging and characterization of γ′ and γ″ nanoparticles in Inconel 718 by EDX elemental mapping and FIB–SEM tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructural characterization of Inconel 718 superalloy after three different heat treatment variants was performed by electron microscopy and electron tomography techniques, taking advantage of recent development in quantitative electron microscopy. Distribution maps of the chemical elements, collected by ChemiSTEM™ EDX system, offer a clear contrast between γ′, γ″, and the γ matrix. It was found that the γ′ phase contains mainly Ni, Al, and Ti, while the γ″ phase contains Ni, Nb, and Ti. Thus application of the Al and Nb STEM–EDX elemental maps enables identification and size measurements of γ′ and γ″ nanoparticles. 3D morphology of γ′ and γ″ precipitates was examined by electron microscopy and FIB–SEM tomography. Employed methods revealed that in all three heat treatment variants the γ′ particles are almost spheroidal while the γ″ precipitates are mainly elongated-disc shaped. However, the precipitate sizes differed for each variant contributing to differences in the yield strength. Tomographic images were used for estimation of the volume fraction of the both strengthening phases. - Highlights: • ChemiSTEM™ EDX elemental maps bring a fast mean to differentiate γ′ and γ″ particles. • Such maps enable for the explicit size measurements of γ′ and γ″ nanoparticles. • Explicit γ′ and γ″ phases total volume fraction was measured employing FIB–SEM. • γ′/γ″ co-precipitates and sandwich-like γ′/γ″/γ′ particles were present. • HRSTEM-HAADF imaging revealed atomic columns of the γ′/γ″ co-precipitates

  3. Surface state of Inconel 718 ultrasonic shot peened: Effect of processing time, material and quantity of shot balls and distance from radiating surface to sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → As USP processing time increases more compressive surface stresses are induced until a saturation level is reached. → The distance between part and radiating surface notably influences the surface state. → A greater number of shot balls leads to less impacts of lower energy on the part surface. → Surface nanocrystallization can only be achieved with large impacting energies of the balls. -- Abstract: Plates of Inconel 718 in precipitated state have been subjected to ultrasonic shot peening (USP), varying the distance from the radiating surface of the booster to the sample, the processing time and the material (WC/Co and steel) and number of shot balls, in order to study the effect of these parameters on the final state generated by the USP process. A change to more compressive residual stresses at the surface of the treated parts has been measured in all cases. For higher USP processing times and/or lower booster-sample distances, the degree of plastic deformation in the treated material increases, leading to a change to more compressive surface stresses and a higher density of impact marks in the treated surface. The same occurs when WC/Co balls are used instead of steel balls. The tendency to more compressive stresses reaches a saturation level after a certain processing time, when the system is not able to force the material to continue with more plastic deformation. If a higher quantity of balls is used, there will be less impacts of the shots with the surface and their energy will be lower (due to losses of energy after inelastic collisions). This diminishes the effect of the impacts in introducing compressive stresses and leads to less and shallower impact marks in the treated surface.

  4. The corrosion behaviour (stress corrosion and intergranular corrosion) of the tube materials inconel 600 and incoloy 800 for nuclear steam generators in treated secondary cycle water during tube burst tests in the temperature range from 270 to 3500C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface removal, intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion of the materials No. 2.4640 (Inconel 600) and No. 1.4558 (Incoloy 800) were investigated in solutions of NaOH, Na2HPO4 and Na3PO4 whose concentrations were about 10,000 higher than those given in the guidelines. The test parameters varied were the alkalising agent and the pH value and, in addition, temperature (270, 310 and 3500C); the possible influence of low temperature sensitation (for 1000 and 10,000 hours) was also investigated. (orig.)

  5. Statistical evaluation of the effects of shot-peening on stress corrosion of alloy 600 in PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a statistical analysis of the effects of shot-peening on the risk of longitudinal stress corrosion cracking of 900-MW steam generator tubes, full depth rolled with ''kiss rolls'' and not thermally treated. The principal aim has been to determine whether this stress-relieving operation has a significant effect on the risk and whether such parameters as the age of the bundle or its degree of degradation at the time of the treatment have an influence. A possible effect of the origin of the tubes and the durability of the effect of the treatment were also investigated. (authors). 3 figs., 6 tabs., 4 refs

  6. Research on Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Welded Joints of X65/316L and AISI4130/Inconel625 Clad Pipe%X65/316L与AISI4130/Inconel625复合管焊接接头力学性能及腐蚀行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴星东; 谢树军

    2014-01-01

    X65/316L and AISI4130/Inconel625 clad pipe were successfully welded with ERNiCrMo-3 filler metal, and the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the welded joints were studied in this paper. Tensile test, all-weld metal tensile test, impact test, as well as hardness test were performed to characterize the mechanical properties of the joints. The CO2 stress corrosion test and electrochemical corrosion test were conducted on clad pipe joints according to the corresponding standards of ASTM G39 and ASTM G5. The results showed that tensile strength of the joint achieved 583 MPa and crack propagated along X65/316L base metal; however, the yield strength, tensile strength and elongation of the weld metal reached to 441.4 MPa, 725.9 MPa, 37.67%, respectively. The absorbed impact energy of the weld metal at-10℃was 157 J, and the hardness value of joint presented gradient transition. After CO2 stress corrosion test, the weightlessness of clad pipe welded sample reached the standard, and no crack was observed in base metal and weld; the corrosion resistance of weld and HAZ is was equal to that of base metal after electrochemical corrosion test.%采用ERNiCrMo-3焊丝成功焊接X65/316L与AISI4130/Inconel625复合管,研究了复合管焊接接头的力学性能和腐蚀行为。采用拉伸试验、全焊缝拉伸试验、冲击试验、硬度测试表征了焊接接头的力学性能。参照ASTM G39和ASTM G5的相应标准对复合管焊接接头进行了CO2应力腐蚀和电化学腐蚀性能测试。结果表明,复合管焊接接头的抗拉强度达到583 MPa,断裂发生在 X65/316L 母材处;焊缝屈服强度为441.4 MPa,抗拉强度为725.9 MPa,延伸率达到37.67%;在-10℃试验条件下,焊缝的冲击吸收功为157 J,接头硬度值呈现梯度过渡。复合管焊接试样经过CO2应力腐蚀试验后失重达标,在母材和焊缝处没有观察到裂纹;电化学腐蚀试验后焊缝和热影响区的耐蚀性与母材相当。

  7. Materials corrosion and mitigation strategies for APT, end of FY `97 report: Inconel 718 in-beam corrosion rates from the `97 A6 irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillard, R.S.; Pile, D.L.; Butt, D.P.

    1998-08-01

    This report summarizes the results from the 1997 irradiation of the corrosion insert at the LANSCE A6 Target Station. It addresses the corrosion measurements made on the in-beam Inconel 718 probe only. To simulate the environment that materials may be exposed to in a spallation neutron target/blanket cooling loops, samples were irradiated by the proton beam at the A6 Target Station of the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE). EIS measurements have demonstrated that the polarization resistance of IN718 decreases from approximately 3 x 10{sup 5} ohms prior to irradiation to approximately 1,000 ohms during irradiation at a proton beam current of 400 {micro}A. From the polarization resistance measurements, corrosion rate as a function of beam current was calculated for several different scenarios of beam/sample interaction. As the beam spot was small relative to the size of the IN718 corrosion probe (2{sigma} = 3 cm vs. 1.3 cm diam. x 15.9 cm length respectively), The first method for calculating corrosion rate used beam profile as a criterion for the area of highest damage. The beam spot intensity profile at LANSCE has been characterized and found to be a Gaussian distribution rotated about a central axis. From this relationship, and R{sub p} as a function of beam current, corrosion rate as a function of radial distance from the center of the beam was calculated for each beam current. Physical evidence from change in thickness measurements made on tungsten rods irradiated at 1 mA during the FY 96 irradiation period suggest that this Gaussian damage profile is an accurate depiction of beam/sample interaction. From this method the corrosion rate of IN718 during irradiation at a beam current of 1.0 mA is calculated to be approximately 0.002 inches per yr (2 mpy). The second method assumed that the predominant contributor to the corrosion current comes from an area defined by 2{sigma}. Further, the method assumed that the corrosion rate was uniform over this area

  8. The Study Of The Impact Of Surface Preparation Methods Of Inconel 625 And 718 Nickel-Base Alloys On Wettability By BNi-2 And BNi-3 Brazing Filler Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lankiewicz K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of surface preparation method of Inconel 625 and 718 nickel-base alloys in the form of sheets on wettability of the surface. The results of the investigations of surface preparation method (such as nicro-blasting, nickel plating, etching, degreasing, abrasive blasting with grit 120 and 220 and manually grinding with grit 120 and 240 on spreading of BNi-2 and BNi-3 brazing filler metals, widely used in the aerospace industry in high temperature vacuum brazing processes, are presented. Technological parameters of vacuum brazing process are shown. The macro- and microscopic analysis have shown that nicro-blasting does not bring any benefits of wettability of the alloys investigated.

  9. Interactions in Zircaloy/UO2 fuel rod bundles with Inconel spacers at temperatures above 1200deg C (posttest results of severe fuel damage experiments CORA-2 and CORA-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the CORA experiments test bundles of usually 16 electrically heated fuel rod simulators and nine unheated rods are subjected to temperature transients of a slow heatup rate in a steam environment. Thus, an accident sequence is simulated, which may develop from a small-break loss-of-coolant accident of an LWR. An aim of CORA-2, as a first test of its kind, was also to gain experience in the test conduct and posttest handling of UO2 specimens. CORA-3 was performed as a high-temperature test. The transient phases of CORA-2 and CORA-3 were initiated with a temperature ramp rate of 1 K/s. The temperature escalation due to the exothermal zircaloy(Zry)-steam reaction started at about 1000deg C, leading the bundles to maximum temperatures of 2000deg C and 2400deg C for tests CORA-2 and CORA-3, respectively. The test bundles resulted in severe oxidation and partial melting of the cladding, fuel dissolution by Zry/UO2 interaction, complete Inconel spacer destruction, and relocation of melts and fragments to lower elevations in the bundle, where extended blockages have formed. In both tests the fuel rod destruction set in together with the formation of initial melts from the Inconel/Zry interaction. The lower Zry spacer acted as a catcher for relocated material. In test CORA-2 the UO2 pellets partially disintegrated into fine particles. This powdering occurred during cooldown. There was no physical disintegration of fuel in test CORA-3. (orig./MM)

  10. Operation experiences of the steam generator repair technique by means of weldless sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field performances of the weldless PLUSS sleeve up to these days establishes it as a reliable technique for use as tube-in-tube repair of damaged tubing of steam generators customarily served by nuclear reactors. For the functioning of the weldless PLUSS Sleeve the proper combination of tube and sleeve material is decisive. It turned out that for steam generator tubing of Inconel Alloy 600 and Inconel Alloy 690 the sleeve out of Incoloy Alloy 800 serves this purpose perfectly. Via hydraulic expansion the weldless sleeve of Incoloy Alloy 800 is permanently fixed against the parent tube of Inconel Alloys 600/690. Upon relieving the exerted hydraulic pressure, the tube springs back more than the sleeve does, the net effect being that there materializes an interference at the interface between sleeve and tube. The PLUSS sleeve, while spanning the defective zone of the tube, takes the advantage of this phenomenon to secure the sleeve within the tube at ambient temperature. Emergence of the unique expansion joint of the PLUSS sleeve is the result. At higher operating temperatures associated with higher system pressures the expansion joint gets even tighter as the interference between the joint members increases owing to the fact that Inconel Alloys 600/690 and Incoloy Alloy 800 possess different coefficients of thermal expansion. The weldless sleeving technique with favourable stress situation and reduced installation steps compared to other kind of sleeving techniques offers a significant improvement in the field application. At present it is probably the most efficient and cost-effective repair technique of all. The paper discusses the working principle of the product and its successful installation in various nuclear power plants worldwide. It further discusses the field application with respect to a particular utility and operational experiences gained so far. Furthermore, the plant performance is dealt with briefly. (author)

  11. Probabilistic and microstructural aspects of fatigue cracks initiation in Inconel 718; Aspects probabilistes et microstructuraux de l'amorcage des fissures de fatigue dans l'alliage INCO 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandre, F

    2004-03-15

    Thermomechanical treatments have been recently developed to produce Inconel 718DA (Direct Aged). This alloy optimisation leads to an increase of the fatigue life but also the scatter. The aim of this study is on the one hand the understanding of the fatigue crack initiation mechanisms and on the other hand the modelling of the fatigue life and the scatter. An experimental study showed that the fatigue cracks were initiated from carbide particles in fine grain alloy. Interrupted tensile tests show that the particles cracking occurred at the first quarter of the fatigue cycle. Fatigue behaviour tests were also performed on various grain size 718 alloys. The last experimental part was devoted to measurements of the low cycle fatigue crack growth rates using a high focal distance microscope. For these tests, EDM micro-defects were used for the fatigue crack initiation sites. This method was also used to observe the small fatigue crack coalescence. A fatigue life model is proposed. It is based on the three fatigue crack initiation mechanisms competition: particle crack initiation on the surface, internal particle crack initiation and Stade I crack initiation. The particle fatigue crack initiation is supposed instantaneous at a critical stress level. The Tanaka and Mura model is used for analysing the Stage I crack initiation number of cycles. The fatigue crack growth rate was analysed using the Tomkins model identified on the small fatigue crack growth rate measurements. The proposed fatigue life model decomposed in three levels: a deterministic one and two probabilistic with and without crack coalescence. (author)

  12. Material tests in deaerated 20 % NaOH and 20 % NaOH+5% NaCl solutions at 325 degC. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In SVF Project 30: 'Comparative corrosion tests of different tube materials for PWR steam generators' the materials AISI 321, alloy 800, alloy 600, Inconel 690 and Nickel 201 have been autoclave tested in deaerated 20% NaOH and 20% NaOH+5% NaCl solutions at 325 deg C as to stress corrosion cracking resistance. In all 374 single and double U-bends from 15 different heats in at least one and up to as many as five different material conditions have been exposed up to 2000 h in both environments (2500 h regarding shot-peened U-bends from four heats). Nickel 201 was found to be entirely resistant to stress corrosion cracking in both environments. All the remaining materials showed on the contrary cracking to a varying degree. Thus alloy 800 showed better resistance to stress corrosion cracking than alloy 600 in both environments and was found to be the most resistant alloy next to Nickel 201. Shot--peening was found to be very effective in checking stress corrosion cracking in these environments, without causing any appreciable deterioration of the general corrosion resistance of the materials. (author)

  13. Self-repairing technology by electrophoresis of nano- particles for heat exchanger tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Jin Ju; Lee, Eun Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Since the discovery of pitting corrosion and stress cracking corrosion in heat exchanger tubes of Inconel alloy 600, a number of methods to solve the problems arising from the corrosion of heat exchanger tubes have been developed. Among those, recently, the electrophoretic deposition method has attracted considerable attention in repairing the pit or crack due to the rapid and low-cost process. The electrophoretic deposition consists of two processes: the movement of the charged powder particles in a suspension under the applied electric field between the working electrode and the counter electrode, i.e., electrophoresis followed by the deposition of these particles on the working electrode. For the damaged electrode specimen, since the current value is higher for the pit or crack rather than the outer surfaces of the specimen, the more charged particles notably move to the pit or crack, leading to the self-repairing of the pit or crack

  14. Composite spacer with inconel grid and zircaloy band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E.B.; Matzner, B.; Latter, G.M.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a spacer for use in a nuclear fuel bundle having a plurality of fuel rods. It includes spring metal spacer cells, each cell having: at least one spring leg, the spring leg inwardly deflected at the medial portion thereof for spring contact with a fuel rod within the spacer cell; at least two rod encircling arms affixed at remote ends of the spring legs; each rod encircling arm defining stops for abutting a fuel rod whereby the spring leg can bias an encircled fuel rod within the cells into the stops; the rod encircling arms having differential length including a first portion of the arms having a relatively longer length and a second portion of the arms having a relatively shorter length; the cells confronted into cell pairs with the spring legs remote from one another.

  15. Real structure of milled inconel 738LC turbine blades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pala, Z.; Kolařík, K.; Beránek, L.; Čapek, J.; Kyncl, J.; Mušálek, Radek; Ganev, N.

    Vol. 996. Zürich: Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (François, M.; Montay, G.; Panicaud, B.; Retraint, D.; Rouhaud, E.), s. 646-651. (996). ISSN 1662-8985. [European Conference on Residual Stresses, ECRS 2014/9./. Troyes (FR), 07.07.2014-10.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Milling * Nickel super-alloys * Turbine blades Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials http://www.scientific.net/AMR.996.646

  16. Research on applicability of oxygenated water treatment to PWR secondary water (Pt. 1). The effect of dissolved oxygen on the crevice corrosion between SG tube and tube support plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to apply Oxygenated Water Treatment (OWT) to the feedwater of a PWR's secondary side. The suitability of this method must be confirmed. That is, it is necessary to determine, under OWT conditions, whether crevice corrosion will occur on the heat transfer tubes currently employed in steam generators (SG). The crevice corrosion means that the metal surface at a narrower crevice is corroded selectively due to impurities in the water. There are many such crevices between the heat transfer tubes and the tube-supporting plates of a SG. The impurities dissolved in boiling feedwater will be concentrated in the crevices, and the concentrated salts may cause crevice corrosion, resulting in latent damage to atomic power stations. In this study, under a condition of 200 ppb (pH 9.5, 270degC) of the dissolved oxygen, we conducted research on the above-mentioned crevice corrosion and on noncrevice corrosion for comparison. We examined crevice and noncrevice corrosions for Inconel alloys 600TT and 690TT, used as the heat transfer tuber of SG, and calculated the corrosion amount (mg/cm2) in the crevice and noncrevice areas from the data obtained after defilming using an oxidation-reduction method. Consequently, the following conclusions were obtained: (1) For alloys 600TT and 690TT under the experimental conditions there is only the uniform corrosion and no the local corrosion in the crevice and noncrevice areas; (2) Corrosion rate in the crevice for alloys 600TT and 690TT as well as stainless 304 is lower than that in the noncrevice areas. Therefore, all three materials are suitable for use in a SG; (3) Formation of protective oxide film on 690TT is slower than that on 600TT that is, 690TT exhibits poorer anticorrosivity than 600TT; (4) Corrosion products formed on the surface of the alloys 600TT and 690TT are mainly compounds constituted by NiFe2O4 and NiO. (author)

  17. Research on the applicability of the oxygenated water treatment method to PWR's secondary water. Pt. 2. Effect of dissolved oxygen on the uniform corrosion of metal materials used for heat-transfer tubes and tube-support plates in steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted research to confirm the suitability of applying Oxygenated Water Treatment (OWT) to the feedwater of a PWR's secondary side. In this study, under conditions of 0 ppb, 50 ppb and 200 ppb (pH 9.5, 270degC) of dissolved oxygen, we examined uniform corrosion for Inconel alloys 600TT and 690TT, which are used for the heat transfer tube of a Steam Generator (SG). We calculated the surface corrosion amounts (mg/cm2) and corrosion rates (mg/cm2/h) from the data obtained after defilming using an oxidation-reduction method. The results suggest the following: (1) After exposure testing of the alloy 690TT under the condition of 0 ppb, 50 ppb and 200 ppb of dissolved oxygen, we found that the corrosion amount is smallest and the corrosion rate is lowest when the concentration of dissolved oxygen is 50 ppb. Therefore, it can be assumed that 50 ppb of dissolved oxygen should be the optimum concentration for use with the alloy 690TT in Combined Water Treatment (CWT); (2) The corrosion rate on the surface of alloy 690TT is slower than that on 600TT, that is 600TT exhibits poorer anticorrosion characteristics than 690TT under the experimental condition of 50 ppb of dissolved oxygen; (3) Under the condition of 50 ppb and 200 ppb of dissolved oxygen, the corrosion products formed on the surface of the alloy 690TT are mainly constituted of NiFe2O4 and NiCr2O4, and that formed on the surface of the alloy 600TT are mainly constituted of NiFe2O4 and NiO. Under the condition of 0 ppb of dissolved oxygen, the corrosion products formed on the surface of the alloy 690TT are mainly constituted of NiFe2O4. (author)

  18. Why incoloy 800 was selected as tube material for the new steam generators of Doel 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incoloy 800 or Inconel 690. This was the basic question for the SG of DOEL 3, to be replaced in 1993. A comparative evaluation was made, focused on the service behaviour, more particularly the corrosion resistance. It was concluded that both materials may be considered for SG replacement. They are indeed substantially superior to alloy 600, but none of them is really better than the other one: - they are both nearly completely immune to primary water stress corrosion cracking; - they are both susceptible to some types of attack from the secondary side. To the 690 credit are the globally better performances in the secondary side corrosion tests. However if the aggressive environments which are unlikely to occur at DOEL 3 are discarded, it appears that the margin between 690 and 800 is small. To the 800 credit is the favourable service experience except the secondary side wastage due to phosphate conditioning. 800 was finally selected not only because of favourable economic arguments, but also because of the important weight attributed to the service behaviour by the Belgian Utilities

  19. Design of heat exchanger for heating UF6 feed in nuclear fuel element plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of conversion of UF6 to UO2 through Integrated Dry Route (IDR) is done in a rotary kiln reactor. There are two stages of initial treatment / conditioning before inserting the UF6 in to the reactor: changing UF6 solid into the gas phase at a temperature of 60°C in an evaporator, and then, raising the temperature of UF6 gas from 60°C to 290°C in a Heat Exchanger (HE). Therefore it is necessary to design a HE for heating UF6 gas by determination / calculation of HE specifications as a heater. The steps activities of determining the specifications of HE in the Following sequence: determining the value of the heat load Q, determining the approximate dimensions of the Heat Exchanger, determining the dimensions / specifications corrected Heat Exchanger, HE pressure drop calculation. The result of this design specification is a type of hairpin double pipe HE with a length of 12 ft, 2 x 1 ¼. IPS. Pipe material is Inconel (alloy -600) that is resistant to UF6, HF, and Steam. Annulus material is carbon steel. Pressure drop in annulus is 0.0004 psi, and in inner pipe is 0.042 psi. Heat Exchanger with specs like this can function as UF6 gas heater so that the temperature be 290°C. (author)

  20. The effect of alternative amines on the rate of boiler tube fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Brideau, M.G

    1997-10-01

    Rates for the deposition of magnetite and hematite particles onto Alloy 600 surfaces, and for magnetite particles depositing onto surfaces prefouled with sintered porous magnetite deposits were measured. The measurements were made in a high-temperature loop, under typical steam generator operating conditions, with pH controlled using morpholine, ethanolamine, ammonia, dimethylamine, or potassium hydroxide. Deposition rates were compared as a function of the nature of the particle, tube surface morphology, and the reagent used for pH control for steam qualities ranging up to 50%. Conclusions drawn from this work are: the particle deposition rate of hematite is about an order of magnitude greater than the rate for magnetite on bare Inconel 600 surfaces; the nature of the amine used for pH control affects the magnetite deposition rate. The lowest deposition rate for magnetite is obtained when dimethylamine is used for pH control; the deposition rate of magnetite increases with increasing concentration of amine (at constant pH); under reducing conditions with no detectable oxygen and with free hydrazine, the deposition rate of hematite decreases towards the value for magnetite; the particle deposition rate can be affected by the tube surface morphology; the deposition rate is significantly higher on surfaces covered with porous deposits; the heat transfer mechanism and steam quality strongly affect the deposition rate. The deposition rate increases abruptly at high steam qualities; and here is no evidence that the volatility of the amine affects the deposition behaviour. (author)

  1. The effect of alternative amines on the rate of boiler tube fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rates for the deposition of magnetite and hematite particles onto Alloy 600 surfaces, and for magnetite particles depositing onto surfaces prefouled with sintered porous magnetite deposits were measured. The measurements were made in a high-temperature loop, under typical steam generator operating conditions, with pH controlled using morpholine, ethanolamine, ammonia, dimethylamine, or potassium hydroxide. Deposition rates were compared as a function of the nature of the particle, tube surface morphology, and the reagent used for pH control for steam qualities ranging up to 50%. Conclusions drawn from this work are: the particle deposition rate of hematite is about an order of magnitude greater than the rate for magnetite on bare Inconel 600 surfaces; the nature of the amine used for pH control affects the magnetite deposition rate. The lowest deposition rate for magnetite is obtained when dimethylamine is used for pH control; the deposition rate of magnetite increases with increasing concentration of amine (at constant pH); under reducing conditions with no detectable oxygen and with free hydrazine, the deposition rate of hematite decreases towards the value for magnetite; the particle deposition rate can be affected by the tube surface morphology; the deposition rate is significantly higher on surfaces covered with porous deposits; the heat transfer mechanism and steam quality strongly affect the deposition rate. The deposition rate increases abruptly at high steam qualities; and here is no evidence that the volatility of the amine affects the deposition behaviour. (author)

  2. Positron annihilation study of ageing and creep on inconel X750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation of positron annihilation characteristics with microstructrual changes occurring in a Ni-base alloy is experimentally studied using lifetime and angular-correlation methods. The samples are examined at room temperature after various ageing phases and after creep rupture; their structure is also investigated by differential chemical analysis, by electron microscopy and by small-angle neutron scattering. The comparison of the results obtained with the various techniques shows the field of applicability of the positron annihilation technique for material testing in cases of technological interest. (author)

  3. Influence of composition on precipitation behavior and stress rupture properties in INCONEL RTM740 series superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casias, Andrea M.

    Increasing demands for energy efficiency and reduction in CO2 emissions have led to the development of advanced ultra-supercritical (AUSC) boilers. These boilers operate at temperatures of 760 °C and pressures of 35 MPa, providing efficiencies close to 50 pct. However, austenitic stainless steels typically used in boiler applications do not have sufficient creep or oxidation resistance. For this reason, nickel (Ni)-based superalloys, such as IN740, have been identified as potential materials for AUSC boiler tube components. However, IN740 is susceptible to heat-affected-zone liquation cracking in the base metal of heavy section weldments. To improve weldability, IN740H was developed. However, IN740H has lower stress rupture ductility compared to IN740. For this reason, two IN740H modifications have been produced by lowering carbon content and increasing boron content. In this study, IN740, IN740H, and the two modified IN740H alloys (modified 1 and 2) were produced with equiaxed grain sizes of 90 ìm (alloys IN740, IN740H, and IN740H modified 1 alloys) and 112 µm (IN740H modified 2 alloy). An aging study was performed at 800 °C on all alloys for 1, 3, 10, and 30 hours to assess precipitation behavior. Stress rupture tests were performed at 760 °C with the goal of attaining stress levels that would yield rupture at 1000 hours. The percent reduction in area was measured after failure as a measure of creep ductility. Light optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy were used in conjunction with X-ray diffraction to examine precipitation behavior of annealed, aged, and stress rupture tested samples. The amount and type of precipitation that occurred during aging prior to stress rupture testing or in-situ during stress rupture testing influenced damage development, stress rupture life, and ductility. In terms of stress rupture life, IN740H modified 2 performed the best followed by IN740H modified 1 and IN740, which performed similarly, and IN740H. In terms of stress rupture ductility, IN740H modified 1 performed the best, followed by IN740H modified 2, IN740, and IN740H. G-phase, η, M23C 6, and MX precipitated in IN740 during stress rupture testing. IN740H and the two modified alloys displayed M23C6 precipitates that were often in lamellar form and blocky MX precipitates. However, IN740H displayed more extensive formation of lamellar precipitates along grain boundaries after both aging and during stress rupture testing, which negatively influenced stress rupture life and ductility. Grain size was also shown to influence stress rupture life and ductility; a larger grain size increased stress rupture life, but decreased ductility as shown by the IN740H modified 1 and 2 alloy results. Transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed to assess the lamellar precipitation in IN740H. These precipitates were identified to be Cr-rich M23C6 that form by discontinuous cellular precipitation (DCP). The M23C6 precipitates were found to adopt different {111} habit planes based on the conditions of DCP boundary migration. Discontinuous precipitation of lamellar M23C6 is harmful to stress rupture life and ductility.

  4. Effect of Temperature on cyclic stress components of Inconel 738LC superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrenec, Martin; Šmíd, Miroslav; Obrtlík, Karel; Polák, Jaroslav

    Brno: VUTIUM Brno, 2008 - (Pokluda, J.; Lukáš, P.; Šandera, P.; Dlouhý, I.), s. 1358-1365 ISBN 978-80-214-3692-3. [ECF17 - European Conference on Fracture /17./. Brno (CZ), 02.09.2008-05.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1631; GA ČR GA106/07/1507; GA AV ČR IAA100480704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Low cycle fatigue * High temperatrures * superalloy * internal and effective stresses Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  5. Oxidation assisted intergranular cracking under loading at dynamic strain aging temperatures in Inconel 718 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mechanical properties are controlled by DSA, precipitation hardening and OAIC. • Between 600 and 700 °C the critical strain for serrations increases with temperature. • This is related to the consumption of matrix elements (especially Nb: for γ′ and γ″). • A reduction in ductility occurs (related to the OAIC) when the DSA is no longer effective. • This reduction is accompanied by an increase in intergranular brittle fracture. - Abstract: It is well established that 718 superalloy exhibits brittle intergranular cracking when deformed under tension at temperatures above 600 °C. This embrittlement effect is related with grain boundary penetration by oxygen (Oxygen Assisted Intergranular Cracking – OAIC). Simultaneously, impacting on its mechanical properties, the precipitation of coherent γ′ and γ″ phases occur above 650 °C and Dynamic Strain Aging (DSA) occurs in the temperature range between 200 and 800 °C. Although literature indicates that OAIC is the mechanism that controls mechanical properties at high temperatures, its interactions with DSA and precipitation are still under discussion. The objective of this work is to investigate the interactions between the embrittlement phenomena (OAIC and DSA) and the hardening mechanism of γ′ and γ″ precipitation on the mechanical properties of an annealed 718 superalloy. Tensile tests were performed at a strain rate of 3.2 × 10−4 s−1 under secondary vacuum, in temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 °C. Fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and precipitation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of DSA and precipitation on the strength and of OAIC on the ductility was verified

  6. A study on the deformation mechanism of inconel alloys for steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Ahn, Y. C.; Lee, H. S.; Sohn, W. H.; Cha, S. I.; Bae, Y. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The microstructure and the mechanical properties of lnconel 600 and 690 steam generator tube were investigated to develop the lnconel steam generator tube for nuclear power plant. The grain size and shape of lnconel 690 alloy were dependent on Mill Annealing temperature. It is shown that the smaller grain and the more serrated grain boundary, the higher tensile strength and creep resistance. The carbides were analyzed by using SEM and TEM after Thermal Treatment. Also, the quantitative analysis of carbide precipitation with Thermal Treatment was conducted by SPEED method. Thermal Treatment temperature was 705 deg C for lnconel 600 alloy and 720 deg C for lnconel 690 alloy. It is observed by XRD that the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} type and M{sub 7}C{sub 3}-type carbides were simultaneously precipitated in lnconel 600 alloy and only M{sub 23}C{sub 6}-type carbides were precipitated in lnconel 690 alloy. While the carbide length and thickness increased with increasing Thermal Treatment time, the growth rate of carbide length was higher than that of carbide thickness. The distance between carbides decreased for the first 15 hour Thermal Treatment for lnconel 600 alloy and 10 hour for lnconel 690 alloy, respectively, and then increased again. The distance between carbides decreased until the carbide precipitation reached at 90% of maximum precipitation because the carbides were precipitated and grown simultaneously. After 90% precipitation time, the precipitation ceased and only growth of the carbides took place, so the distance between carbides decreased. The serrations in stress-strain curves of in lnconel 690 could be interpreted in the temperature range from 200 deg C to 600 deg C. The phenomena and controlling mechanism of serrations were analyzed by investigating the critical strains for the onset of the serrations. The controlling mechanism for A1 serration was generation of vacancy by deformation, and those for A2 serration and B serrations were diffusion of substitutional alloying element, lattice diffusion of carbons, respectively. Besides, the C serration was formed above the temperature of 5OO deg C with irregular periods. It was shown through the creep test for lnconel 690 alloy that stress exponent, n, was 5, and activation energy for creep was about 265 k]/mol. An activation energy value for creep was similar to that for self diffusion of Ni, which is 250 k]/mol. It perhaps indicates that the controlled mechanism for high temperature deformation of lnconel 690 alloy was dislocation climb. 65 refs., 51 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  7. Development and Characterization of a Metal Injection Molding Bio Sourced Inconel 718 Feedstock Based on Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Royer; Thierry Barrière; Jean-Claude Gelin

    2016-01-01

    The binder plays the most important role in the metal injection molding (MIM) process. It provides fluidity of the feedstock mixture and adhesion of the powder to keep the molded shape during injection molding. The binder must provide strength and cohesion for the molded part and must be easy to remove from the molded part. Moreover, it must be recyclable, environmentally friendly and economical. Also, the miscibility between polymers affects the homogeneity of the injected parts. The goal of...

  8. Laser deposition of Inconel 625/tungsten carbide composite coatings by powder and wire feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    Abioye, Taiwo E.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing global demand to extend the life span of down-hole drilling tools in order to improve operation effectiveness and efficiency of oil and gas production. Laser cladding of tungsten carbide/Ni-based alloy metal matrix composite (MMC) coatings is currently being utilised for this purpose. However, the effect of tungsten carbide dissolution on the corrosion performance of the MMC coatings has not been completely understood. In this work, a study was carried out in which lase...

  9. The influence of testing conditions on burst pressure assessment for inconel tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because at the lack of normalization for burst testing of tubes with TWD flaws, large divergences are observed between laboratory results. This could result in either unsafe or unduly penalizing consequences. Testing flawed tubes under representative conditions (high leak rate without any sealing provision) yielded results matching previous laboratory data that were obtained with a locally reinforced bladder. This should not be construed to validate any similar laboratory technique, as the particular combination of materials (plastic and metal) strength and thickness, together with other testing details (such as load rate) may affect the results. (author)

  10. Characterization of Machine Variability and Progressive Heat Treatment in Selective Laser Melting of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, T.; Tilson, W.; Jones, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The absence of an economy of scale in spaceflight hardware makes additive manufacturing an immensely attractive option for propulsion components. As additive manufacturing techniques are increasingly adopted by government and industry to produce propulsion hardware in human-rated systems, significant development efforts are needed to establish these methods as reliable alternatives to conventional subtractive manufacturing. One of the critical challenges facing powder bed fusion techniques in this application is variability between machines used to perform builds. Even with implementation of robust process controls, it is possible for two machines operating at identical parameters with equivalent base materials to produce specimens with slightly different material properties. The machine variability study presented here evaluates 60 specimens of identical geometry built using the same parameters. 30 samples were produced on machine 1 (M1) and the other 30 samples were built on machine 2 (M2). Each of the 30-sample sets were further subdivided into three subsets (with 10 specimens in each subset) to assess the effect of progressive heat treatment on machine variability. The three categories for post-processing were: stress relief, stress relief followed by hot isostatic press (HIP), and stress relief followed by HIP followed by heat treatment per AMS 5664. Each specimen (a round, smooth tensile) was mechanically tested per ASTM E8. Two formal statistical techniques, hypothesis testing for equivalency of means and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), were applied to characterize the impact of machine variability and heat treatment on six material properties: tensile stress, yield stress, modulus of elasticity, fracture elongation, and reduction of area. This work represents the type of development effort that is critical as NASA, academia, and the industrial base work collaboratively to establish a path to certification for additively manufactured parts. For future flight programs, NASA and its commercial partners will procure parts from vendors who will use a diverse range of machines to produce parts and, as such, it is essential that the AM community develop a sound understanding of the degree to which machine variability impacts material properties.

  11. Microstructural response to heat affected zone cracking of prewelding heat-treated Inconel 939 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructural response to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a nickel-based IN 939 superalloy after prewelding heat treatments (PWHT) was investigated. The PWHT specimens showed two different microstructures: 1) spherical ordered γ′ precipitates (357–442 nm), with blocky MC and discreet M23C6 carbides dispersed within the coarse dendrites and in the interdendritic regions; and 2) ordered γ′ precipitates in “ogdoadically” diced cube shapes and coarse MC carbides within the dendrites and in the interdendritic regions. After being tungsten inert gas welded (TIG) applying low heat input, welding speed and using a more ductile filler alloy, specimens with microstructures consisting of spherical γ′ precipitate particles and dispersed discreet MC carbides along the grain boundaries, displayed a considerably improved weldability due to a strong reduction of the intergranular HAZ cracking associated with the liquation microfissuring phenomena. - Highlights: ► Homogeneous microstructures of γ′ spheroids and discreet MC carbides of Ni base superalloys through preweld heat treatments. ► γ′ spheroids and discreet MC carbides reduce the intergranular HAZ liquation and microfissuring of Nickel base superalloys. ► Microstructure γ′ spheroids and discreet blocky type MC carbides, capable to relax the stress generated during weld cooling. ► Low welding heat input welding speeds and ductile filler alloys reduce the HAZ cracking susceptibility.

  12. Inducement of IGA/SCC in Inconel 600 steam generator tubing during unit outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of Unit 4 SG tubing by IGA/SCC has limited both the operating period and end of life predictions for Unit 4 since restart in late 2003. The circumferential IGA/SCC has been most significant in SG4 with substantial increases in both initiation and growth rates from 2005 through the spring of 2007. A detailed review of the occurrence of circumferential OD IGA/SCC at the RTZ in the HL TTS region of Bruce 4 steam generator tubes has led a conclusion that it is probable that the IGA/SCC has been the result of attack by partially reduced sulfur species such as tetrathionates and thiosulfates during periods of low temperature exposure. It is believed that attack of this type has mostly likely occurred during startup evolutions following outages as the result the development of aggressive reduced sulfur species in the TTS region during periods when the boilers were fully drained for maintenance activities. The modification of outage practices to limit secondary side oxygen ingress in the spring of 2007 has apparently arrested the degradation and has had significant affects on the allowable operating interval and end of life predictions for the entire unit. (author)

  13. Microstructural response to heat affected zone cracking of prewelding heat-treated Inconel 939 superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.A., E-mail: mgonzalez@comimsa.com.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Martinez, D.I., E-mail: dorairma@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Perez, A., E-mail: betinperez@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Guajardo, H., E-mail: hguajardo@frisa.com [FRISA Aerospace, S.A. de C.V., Valentin G. Rivero No. 200, Col. Los Trevino, C.P. 66150, Santa Caterina N.L. (Mexico); Garza, A., E-mail: agarza@comimsa.com [Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V. (COMIMSA), Ciencia y Tecnologia No.790, Saltillo 400, C.P. 25295 Saltillo Coah. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    The microstructural response to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a nickel-based IN 939 superalloy after prewelding heat treatments (PWHT) was investigated. The PWHT specimens showed two different microstructures: 1) spherical ordered {gamma} Prime precipitates (357-442 nm), with blocky MC and discreet M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides dispersed within the coarse dendrites and in the interdendritic regions; and 2) ordered {gamma} Prime precipitates in 'ogdoadically' diced cube shapes and coarse MC carbides within the dendrites and in the interdendritic regions. After being tungsten inert gas welded (TIG) applying low heat input, welding speed and using a more ductile filler alloy, specimens with microstructures consisting of spherical {gamma} Prime precipitate particles and dispersed discreet MC carbides along the grain boundaries, displayed a considerably improved weldability due to a strong reduction of the intergranular HAZ cracking associated with the liquation microfissuring phenomena. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous microstructures of {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet MC carbides of Ni base superalloys through preweld heat treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet MC carbides reduce the intergranular HAZ liquation and microfissuring of Nickel base superalloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet blocky type MC carbides, capable to relax the stress generated during weld cooling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low welding heat input welding speeds and ductile filler alloys reduce the HAZ cracking susceptibility.

  14. Microstructural study and wear behavior of ductile iron surface alloyed by Inconel 617

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Ni-base alloy was deposited on the surface of ductile iron by TIG welding process. • Microstructure of alloyed layer consisted of carbides embedded in Ni-rich dendrite. • Hardness and wear resistance of coated sample greatly improved. • The formation of oxide layer and delamination were dominant mechanisms of wear. - Abstract: In this research, microstructure and wear behavior of Ni-based alloy is discussed in detail. Using tungsten inert gas welding process, coating of nearly 1–2 mm thickness was deposited on ductile iron. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe microanalysis were used to characterize the microstructure of the surface alloyed layer. Micro-hardness and wear resistance of the alloyed layer was also studied. Results showed that the microstructure of the alloyed layer consisted of M23C6 carbides embedded in Ni-rich solid solution dendrites. The partial melted zone (PMZ) had eutectic ledeburit plus martensite microstructure, while the heat affected zone (HAZ) had only a martensite structure. It was also noticed that hardness and wear resistance of the alloyed layer was considerably higher than that of the substrate. Improvement of wear resistance is attributed to the solution strengthening effect of alloying elements and also the presence of hard carbides such as M23C6. Based on worn surface analysis, the dominant wear mechanisms of alloyed layer were found to be oxidation and delamination

  15. Grinding performance evaluation of porous composite-bonded CBN wheels for Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhenzhen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available For high-efficiency grinding of difficult-to-cut materials such as titanium and nickel alloys, a high porosity is expected and also a sufficient mechanical strength to satisfy the function. However, the porosity increase is a disadvantage to the mechanical strength. As a promising pore forming agent, alumina bubbles are firstly induced into the abrasive layer to fabricate porous cubic boron nitride (CBN wheels. When the wheel porosity reaches 45%, the bending strength is still high up to 50 MPa with modified orderly pore distribution. A porous CBN wheel was fabricated with a total porosity around 30%. The grinding performance of the porous composite-bonded CBN wheel was evaluated in terms of specific force, specific grinding energy, and grinding temperature, which were better than those of the vitrified one under the same grinding conditions. Compared to the vitrified CBN wheel, clear straight cutting grooves and less chip adhesion are observed on the ground surface and there is also no extensive loading on the wheel surface after grinding.

  16. High-cycle fatigue of Ni-base superalloy Inconel 713LC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Konečná, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 6 (2010), s. 908-913. ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/023; GA MŠk MEB080812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : IN 713LC * High-cycle fatigue * Effect of mean stress * Fractography * Casting defetcts * Extreme value statistics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.799, year: 2010

  17. Microstructural Evolution and Creep Rupture Behavior of INCONEL RTM Alloy 740H Fusion Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechetti, Daniel H., Jr.

    Electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate the causes of reduced creep-rupture life in INCONEL® alloy 740H ® fusion welds with a specific focus on understanding the formation and evolution of γ'-free zones along grain boundaries. Investigation of creep-rupture specimens revealed four operational factors that influence the formation of these precipitate-free zones, and the identity of large second phase particles typically found within them has been determined. A stress-free aging has demonstrated the influence of stress on the formation of the precipitate-free regions and has illustrated what appear to be the initial stages of their development. It is concluded that the mechanism of precipitate-free zone formation in alloy 740H is moderate discontinuous precipitation accompanied by significant discontinuous growth of the γ' phase. These discontinuous reactions are likely exacerbated by microsegregation within the welded microstructure and by the mechanical deformation associated with grain boundary sliding during creep. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling were used to determine appropriate heat treatment schedules for homogenization and second phase dissolution of welds in alloy 740H. Following these simulations, a two-step heat treatment process was applied to specimens from a single pass gas tungsten arc weld (GTAW). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used to assess the changes in the distribution of alloying elements as well as changes in the fraction of second phase particles within the fusion zone. Experimental results demonstrate that homogenization of alloy 740H weld metal can be achieved by an 1100°C/4hr treatment. Complete dissolution of second phase particles could not be completely achieved, even at exposure to temperatures near the alloy's solidus temperature. These results are in good agreement with thermodynamic and kinetic predictions.

  18. Optimizing the Machining Parameters of Micro-EDM for Inconel 718

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, R; Manikandan, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to study on the feasibility of micron size hole manufacturing using micro Electric Discharge Machining (Micro-EDM). Main and auxiliary unit of the micro-EDM machine tool and their functions are described in some detail. The technological and electrical parameters that are effective in Micro-EDM are stated explicitly. Geometry of the machined micro-holes and resolidified material around the hole entrance are observed. Several descriptive pictures, obtained by Scanning Ele...

  19. Grinding performance evaluation of porous composite-bonded CBN wheels for Inconel 718

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhenzhen; Xu Jiuhua; Ding Wenfeng; Ma Changyu

    2014-01-01

    For high-efficiency grinding of difficult-to-cut materials such as titanium and nickel alloys, a high porosity is expected and also a sufficient mechanical strength to satisfy the function. However, the porosity increase is a disadvantage to the mechanical strength. As a promising pore forming agent, alumina bubbles are firstly induced into the abrasive layer to fabricate porous cubic boron nitride (CBN) wheels. When the wheel porosity reaches 45%, the bending strength is still high up to 50 MPa with modified orderly pore distribution. A porous CBN wheel was fabricated with a total porosity around 30%. The grinding performance of the porous composite-bonded CBN wheel was evaluated in terms of specific force, specific grinding energy, and grinding temper-ature, which were better than those of the vitrified one under the same grinding conditions. Com-pared to the vitrified CBN wheel, clear straight cutting grooves and less chip adhesion are observed on the ground surface and there is also no extensive loading on the wheel surface after grinding.

  20. Micromechanisms of fatigue crack growth in a forged Inconel 718 nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The micromechanisms of fatigue crack propagation in a forged, polycrystalline IN 718 nickel-based superalloy are evaluated. Fracture modes under cyclic loading were established by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The results of the fractographic analysis are presented on a fracture mechanism map that shows the dependence of fracture modes on the maximum stress intensity factor, Kmax, and the stress intensity factor range, ΔK. Plastic deformation associated with fatigue crack growth was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The effects of ΔK and Kmax on the mechanisms of fatigue crack growth in this alloy are discussed within the context of a two-parameter crack growth law. Possible extensions to the Paris law are also proposed for crack growth in the near-threshold and high ΔK regimes. (orig.)

  1. Nickel super alloy INCONEL 713LC - structural characteristics after heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nickel super alloy’s products are mainly using for construction parts of jet engines, gas turbines and turbo-blowers.Design/methodology/approach: Super alloy was commercially produced and was investigated by using the light microscopy (OLYMPUS IX 71 and local chemical microanalysis and by the scanning electron microscopy (JEOL JSM 50AFindings: We found a mode of optimum heat treatment. On the basis of obtained results it is possible to recommend a following regime of heat treatment: heating and dwell at the temperature exceeding 1240 °C (min. 1260 °C, so that precipitates at the grain boundaries dissolve completely, with subsequent slow cooling down to the temperature of approx. 940-950 °C, so that there occurs intensive intra-granular precipitation of intermetallic phase γ’.Research limitations/implications: The experiment was limited by occurrence a void in cast alloys.Practical implications: Nickel super alloy’s products are mainly using for construction parts of jet engines, gas turbines and turbo-blowers.Originality/value: Mode of optimum heat treatment was proposed. On the basis of obtained results it is possible to recommend the most suitable heat treatment, which produce intensive intra-granular precipitation of inter-metallic phase γ’. It was received a new know-how in this field.

  2. Study of Material Consolidation at Higher Throughput Parameters in Selective Laser Melting of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie

    2016-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process used increasingly in the aerospace industry to reduce the cost, weight, and fabrication time for complex propulsion components. SLM stands poised to revolutionize propulsion manufacturing, but there are a number of technical questions that must be addressed in order to achieve rapid, efficient fabrication and ensure adequate performance of parts manufactured using this process in safety-critical flight applications. Previous optimization studies for SLM using the Concept Laser M1 and M2 machines at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have centered on machine default parameters. The objective of this work is to characterize the impact of higher throughput parameters (a previously unexplored region of the manufacturing operating envelope for this application) on material consolidation. In phase I of this work, density blocks were analyzed to explore the relationship between build parameters (laser power, scan speed, hatch spacing, and layer thickness) and material consolidation (assessed in terms of as-built density and porosity). Phase II additionally considers the impact of post-processing, specifically hot isostatic pressing and heat treatment, as well as deposition pattern on material consolidation in the same higher energy parameter regime considered in the phase I work. Density and microstructure represent the "first-gate" metrics for determining the adequacy of the SLM process in this parameter range and, as a critical initial indicator of material quality, will factor into a follow-on DOE that assesses the impact of these parameters on mechanical properties. This work will contribute to creating a knowledge base (understanding material behavior in all ranges of the AM equipment operating envelope) that is critical to transitioning AM from the custom low rate production sphere it currently occupies to the world of mass high rate production, where parts are fabricated at a rapid rate with confidence that they will meet or exceed all stringent functional requirements for spaceflight hardware. These studies will also provide important data on the sensitivity of material consolidation to process parameters that will inform the design and development of future flight articles using SLM.

  3. A Study on the High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Hastelloy X and Inconel 713C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to preserve surface stability and mechanical properties of the substrate materials, coatings are applied to the alloy surfaces for the high temperature applications. Even with the application of coating, the substrate materials must also have its own resistance to the high temperature oxidation because the substrate may be catastrophically degraded when coatings are failed. In this research, Ni-base superalloys, IN 713C and Hastelloy X for the substrate materials of coatings, were examined by the isothermal and cyclic oxidation experiments. In the isothermal oxidation experiments, the dominant protective oxide scale of Hastelloy X was Cr2O3 and that of IN 713C was the Al-rich oxide scale. Both alloys formed protective oxide scales, and showed good isothermal oxidation resistance but IN 713C showed better oxidation resistance than Hastelloy X owing to the formation of Al-rich oxide scales. Also for cyclic oxidation experiments, due to the favorable adhesion between the substrate and oxide scales, IN 713C having thin Al-rich oxide scales showed better oxidation resistance than Hastelloy X throughout the temperature ranges tested. Comparing these two alloys IN 713C had better oxidation resistance but both alloys showed good oxidation resistance up to 1000 .deg. C

  4. Analysis of material response to ultrasonic vibration loading in turning Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is focused on the analysis of the surface layer formed on a workpiece treated with ultrasonically assisted turning (UAT) in comparison to conventional turning (CT). Various experimental methods are used to study the difference between the two machining techniques: nanoindentation, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental part of the paper studies the material response to CT and UAT in terms of material's hardness, residual stresses, and changes in the microstructure. The difference in the distribution of residual stresses in the machined surface layer is further studied by means of numerical (finite element) simulations. A three-dimensional thermomechanically coupled finite element (FE) model of both UAT and CT is used to study temperature distributions in the process zone and thermally induced stresses. Numerical results are compared with the obtained experimental data

  5. Analysis of Effective and Internal Cyclic Stress Components in the Inconel Superalloy Fatigued at Elevated Temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Miroslav; Petrenec, Martin; Polák, Jaroslav; Obrtlík, Karel; Chlupová, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 278, 4 July (2011), s. 393-398. ISSN 1022-6680. [European Symposium on Superalloys and their Application. Wildbad Kreuth, 25.5.2010-28.5.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : low cycle fatigue * superalloys * high temperature * hysteresis loop * effective and internal stresses Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics; JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics (UFM-A)

  6. Alloy 690 in PWR type reactors; Aleaciones base niquel en condiciones de primario de los reactores tipo PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Serrano, M.

    2005-07-01

    Alloy 690, used as replacement of Alloy 600 for vessel head penetration (VHP) nozzles in PWR, coexists in the primary loop with other components of Alloy 600. Alloy 690 shows an excellent resistance to primary water stress corrosion cracking, while Alloy 600 is very susceptible to this degradation mechanisms. This article analyse comparatively the PWSCC behaviour of both Ni-based alloys and associated weld metals 52/152 and 82/182. (Author)

  7. Low cycle fatigue with hold times of cast superalloy Inconel 792-5A at 800 °C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Miroslav; Obrtlík, Karel; Petrenec, Martin; Polák, Jaroslav

    Žilina: Žilinská univerzita, 2012, s. 65-68. ISBN 978-80-554-0477-6. [International of PhD. students´ seminar SEMDOK 2012 /17./. Terchová (SK), 25.01.2012-27.01.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1453; GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/2065 Keywords : low cycle fatigue * superalloy * hold time * high temperatures * surface relief Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  8. Dwell effect on low cycle fatigue behaviour of cast superalloy Inconel 792-5A at 800 °C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Miroslav; Obrtlík, Karel; Polák, Jaroslav

    Berlín: DMV, 2013, s. 113-118. ISBN 978-3-9814516-2-7. [LCF7 - International Conference on Low Cycle Fatigue /7./. Aachen (DE), 09.09.2013-11.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1453; GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/2065; GA MPO FR-TI4/030 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : nickel base superalloy * low cycle fatigue * dwell * high temperature fatigue * surface relief * dislocation structure Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  9. Multiaxial creep of tubes from Incoloy 800 H and Inconel 617 under static and cyclic loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At temperatures above 8000C the material behaviour under mechanical load is determined by creep. The service of heat exchanging components leads to multiaxial loading conditions. For design and inelastic analysis of the component behaviour time dependent design values and suitable constitutive equations are necessary. The present report gives a survey of the approaches to describing creep under multiaxial loading. Norton's law and v. Mises' theory are applied. The load combinations of internal pressure, tensile and torsional stress are studied more closely, cyclic stress superposition in the tensile-pulsating range is discussed and cases of partial relaxation are examined. Experimental results are presented for the loading conditions discussed, and satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment has been found up to now for these results. Regarding lifetime determination under multiaxial creep load, a more precise analysis of creep damage is presented suggesting a suitable deviatoric stress for evaluation in the long-time range. (orig.)

  10. Determination of Yield and Flow Surfaces for Inconel 718 Under Axial-Torsional Loading at Temperatures Up to 649 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Christopher M.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental program to determine flow surfaces has been established and implemented for solution annealed and aged IN718. The procedure involved subjecting tubular specimens to various ratios of axial-torsional stress at temperatures between 23 and 649 C and measuring strain with a biaxial extensometer. Each stress probe corresponds to a different direction in stress space, and unloading occurs when a 30 microstrain (1 micro eplison = 10(exp -6) mm/mm) offset is detected. This technique was used to map out yield loci in axial-torsional stress space. Flow surfaces were determined by post-processing the experimental data to determine the inelastic strain rate components. Surfaces of constant inelastic strain rate (SCISRS) and surfaces of constant inelastic power (SCIPS) were mapped out in the axial-shear stress plane. The von Mises yield criterion appeared to closely fit the initial loci for solutioned IN718 at 23 C. However, the initial loci for solutioned IN718 at 371 and 454 C, and all of the initial loci for aged IN718 were offset in the compression direction. Subsequent loci showed translation, distortion, and for the case of solutioned IN718, a slight cross effect. Aged IN718 showed significantly more hardening behavior than solutioned IN718.

  11. Modelling of fatigue crack growth in Inconel 718 under hold time conditions - application to a flight spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, Erik; Simonsson, Kjell; Månsson, Tomas; Gustafsson, David

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine operating cycles at high temperatures often consist of load reversals mixed with hold times; the latter occurring either as cruise for aero engines or at continuous power output for land based turbines, but also at low frequency loading conditions, e.g. slow “ramp up” of engine thrust. The hold time conditions cause the crack to grow by intergranular fracture due to material damage near the crack tip, thus rapidly increasing the crack growth rate. Since the damaged zone will affec...

  12. Effect of grit blasting surface treatment on high temperature low cycle fatigue life of Inconel 713LC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulák, Ivo; Obrtlík, Karel; Čelko, L.; Gejdoš, P.

    Brno: Brno University of Technology, 2015 - (Dlouhý, I.; Jan, V.; Maca, K.; Válka, L.), s. 139-144 ISBN 978-80-214-5146-9. [Multi Scale Design of Advanced Materials. Velké Bílovice (CZ), 28.05.2015-29.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20991S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Grit blasting * Surface relief * Surface microhardnes * High temperature fatigue life * Inocel 713LC Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  13. Multi-objective optimization of surface roughness, cutting forces, productivity and Power consumption when turning of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tebassi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based super alloys are excellent for several applications and mainly in structural components submitted to high temperatures owing to their high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and metallurgical stability such as in cases of jet engine and gas turbine components. The current work presents the experimental investigations of the cutting parameters effects (cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate on the surface roughness, cutting force components, productivity and power consumption during dry conditions in straight turning using coated carbide tool. The mathematical models for output parameters have been developed using Box-Behnken design with 15 runs and Box-Cox transformation was used for improving normality. The results of the analysis have shown that the surface finish was statistically sensitive to the feed rate and cutting speed with the contribution of 43.58% and 23.85% respectively, while depth of cut had the greatest effect on the evolution of cutting force components with the contribution of 79.87% for feed force, 66.92% for radial force and 66.26% for tangential force. Multi-objective optimization procedure allowed minimizing roughness Ra, cutting forces and power consumption and maximizing material removal rate using desirability approach.

  14. Estimate of thermal fatigue lifetime for the INCONEL 625lCF plate while exposed to concentrated solar radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas-Morín, A.; Fernández-Reche, J.

    2011-01-01

    A system for testing the thermal cycling of materials and components has been developed and installed at the DISTAL-I parabolic dish facility located at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in Spain. This system allows us to perform abrupt heating/cooling tests by exposing central solar receiver materials to concentrated solar radiation. These tests are performed to simulate both the normal and critical operational conditions of the central solar receiver. The thermal fatigue life for the IN...

  15. Preliminary stress corrosion cracking modeling study of a dissimilar material weld of alloy (INCONEL) 182 with Stainless Steel 316

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissimilar welds (DW) are normally used in many components junctions in structural project of PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors) in Nuclear Plants. One had been departed of a DW of a nozzle located at a Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) of a PWR reactor, that joins the structural vessel material with an A316 stainless steel safe end. This weld is basically done with Alloy 182 with a weld buttering of Alloy 82. It had been prepared some axial cylindrical specimens retired from the Alloy 182/A316 weld end to be tested in the slow strain rate test machine located at CDTN laboratory. Based in these stress corrosion susceptibility results, it was done a preliminary semi-empirical modeling application to study the failure initiation time evolution of these specimens. The used model is composed by a deterministic part, and a probabilistic part according to the Weibull distribution. It had been constructed a specific Microsoft Excel worksheet to do the model application of input data. The obtained results had been discussed according with literature and also the model application limits. (author)

  16. Gas-turbine HTGR materials screening test program. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1976--September 30, 1976. [IN 100; IN 713; MM004; M21; IN 738; RENE 100; MoTZM; Hastelloy X; Inconel 617; MA 753; IN 519, Inconel 706; Inconel 718; A286; 316 SS; Incoloy 800

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenwasser, S.N.; Johnson, W.R.

    1976-09-30

    The duration of controlled-impurity creep-screening tests and unstressed aging tests has reached 10,000 hr. Creep and weight change data from testing up to 9,000 hr and results from post-test metallurgical evaluations of several recently returned 3,000-hr specimens, including alloys IN519 and MoTZM, are presented. Preliminary materials requirements for key GT-HTGR 850/sup 0/C (1562/sup 0/F) reactor outlet temperature reference design components are documented.

  17. The mode of stress corrosion cracking in Ni-base alloys in high temperature water containing lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mode of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Ni-base alloys in high temperature aqueous solutions containing lead was studied using C-rings and slow strain rate testing (SSRT). The lead concentration, pH and the heat treatment condition of the materials were varied. TEM work was carried out to observe the dislocation behavior in thermally treated (TT) and mill annealed (MA) materials. As a result of the C-ring test in 1M NaOH+5000 ppm lead solution, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) was found in Alloy 600MA, whereas transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) was found in Alloy 600TT and Alloy 690TT. In most solutions used, the SCC resistance increased in the sequence Alloy 600MA, Alloy 600TT and Alloy 690TT. The number of cracks that was observed in alloy 690TT was less than in Alloy 600TT. However, the maximum crack length in Alloy 690TT was much longer than in Alloy 600TT. As a result of the SSRT, at a nominal strain rate of 1 x 10-7/s, it was found that 100 ppm lead accelerated the SCC in Alloy 600MA (0.01%C) in pH 10 at 340 C. IGSCC was found in a 100 ppm lead condition, and some TGSCC was detected on the fracture surface of Alloy 600MA cracked in the 10000 ppm lead solution. The mode of cracking for Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 changed from IGSCC to TGSCC with increasing grain boundary carbide content in the material and lead concentration in the solution. IGSCC seemed to be retarded by stress relaxation around the grain boundaries, and TGSCC in the TT materials seemed to be a result of the crack blunting at grain boundary carbides and the enhanced Ni dissolution with an increase of the lead concentration. (orig.)

  18. Pitting of steam-generator tubing alloys in solutions containing thiosulfate and sulfate or chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William; Carcea, Anatolie G; Newman, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    The pitting of nuclear steam generator tubing alloys 600, 690 and 800 was studied at 60 °C using dilute thiosulfate solutions containing excess sulfate or (for Alloy 600) chloride. A potentiostatic scratch method was used. In sulfate solutions, all alloys pitted at low potentials, reflecting their lack of protective Mo. The alloys demonstrated the most severe pitting at a sulfate : thiosulfate concentration ratio of ∼40. Alloy 600 pitted worst at a chloride : thiosulfate ratio of ∼2000. The results are interpreted through the mutual electromigration of differently charged anions into a pit nucleus, and differences in the major alloy component. PMID:25898311

  19. Crevice corrosion properties and chemical thermodynamic evaluation of the corrosion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevice corrosion properties of 304 Stainless Steel (304SS) and Alloy 600 in aqueous oxalic acid solution were evaluated and the results were analyzed by chemical thermodynamic calculation. The corrosion rate of 304SS in the low pH region was highly accelerated, however that of Alloy 600 was not. Crevice corrosion resistance of those alloys critically relies on the formation of protective layer (NiC2O4) which was formed on the surface of Alloy 600 only. FeC2O4 did not contribute to corrosion resistance which was formed on the surface of 304SS at the low pH region. (author)

  20. Improvement factors for steam generator tubing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictions of reliability gains associated with the use of advanced alloys have been made in the past through the use of improvement factors. Improvement factors for thermally treated Alloy 600 (Alloy 600TT) and thermally treated Alloy 690 (Alloy 690TT) steam generator tubing were previously developed and have been used in the most recent revision of the EPRI Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines. However, due to the long expected failure times relative to field experience, field-experience-based estimates of these improvement factors continue to be overly conservative (as shown by the absence of wide spread in-service cracking of these materials). A recent study updated the previously developed improvement factors associated with the use of advanced alloys. This paper will discuss the development of relative improvement factors for Alloy 600TT, Alloy 690TT, and Alloy 800 nuclear grade (Alloy 800NG) with respect to mill annealed Alloy 600 (Alloy 600MA) steam generator tubing. The various uses which are appropriate for these improvement factors will be discussed. This presentation focuses on primary side tube degradation (PWSCC), although this project also addressed secondary side tube degradation (ODSCC). The following four techniques were used to assess the performance of the Alloy 600TT, Alloy 690TT, and Alloy 800NG relative to that of Alloy 600MA: Field data on tube degradation were evaluated using statistical techniques, based on plant population Weibull/Weibayes analyses, similar to those employed in the past and reviewed by industry experts as part of the EPRI guidelines revision process. This paper presents updated improvement factors based on further accumulation of operating experience with Alloy 600TT, Alloy 800NG, and Alloy 690TT; Field data on tube degradation were evaluated using alternative statistical techniques which are not as overly conservative as those used in the past; Field data on tube plug cracking were evaluated to compare the performance

  1. Effect of cold working and applied stress on the stress corrosion cracking resistance of nickel-chromium-iron alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to grasp the stress corrosion cracking quantitative resistance of Alloys 600 and 690 in PWR primary water, the authors have studied the effect of cold working and applied stress on the stress corrosion cracking resistance of Alloys 600 and 690, in high temperature water. Stress corrosion cracking tests were conducted at 360 degrees C (633K) in a simulated PWR primary water for about 12,000 hours or 24,000 hours. From the test results, it is concluded that the stress corrosion cracking resistance in the cold worked Alloy 600 at the same applied stress level increases with an increase in cold working ratio, and the cold worked Alloys of thermally treated 690 have the excellent stress corrosion cracking resistance. Further, in this paper, the planning of stress corrosion cracking test for weld joints and weld metal of Alloy 600 is described

  2. Effect of applied potential on stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of applied potential on stress corrosion cracking(SCC) of alloy 600 and alloy 690 used as steam generator tubing materials have been studied in deaerated 40% NaOH at 315 deg C using C-ring specimen. Corrosion oxides formed at the potentials where SCC tests had been performed were analyzed with X-ray diffraction. Current transient at various potential and polarization curves of alloy 600, alloy 690 and Pure Ni were obtained. Polarization curves on alloy 600 and alloy 690 showed second peak at 270mV above OCP, while polarization curve on pure Ni had no second peak at that potential. X-ray diffraction patterns of corrosion oxides of alloy 600 which had been formed at 150 and 200mV above OCP coincided with NiO, while those formed at 250mV and 330mV showed slight shift in 2 of NiO, meaning change in lattice parameter of NiO. Corrosion oxide of alloy 690 which had been formed at 150mV above OCP were NiO while those at 200, 250 and 330mV above OCP were mixed oxides of NiO and spinel structure(M3O4) of Ni, Cr and Ni. Almost through wall cracks were observed for alloy 600 held at 150 and 200mV above OCP while no cracks were observed for alloy 600 held at 250 and 330mV. These results imply that SCC of alloy 600 might proceed in the range of potential from passivation potential to second peak where NiO were produced. Alloy 690 were more resistant to SCC than alloy 600

  3. Scratch type repassivation technique at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) developed a repassivation rate test system which can be operated at 300 .deg. C. It consists of an autoclave, three electrodes for an electrochemical test and a scratch tip. Good repassivation curves of alloy 600 at 300 .deg. C were obtained. The system would be a good tool to evaluate a SCC susceptibility of alloy 600 at high temperature

  4. Effect of chromium content on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of shielded metal arc weld metals for 600 type alloy in high temperature pressurized pure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of the SMAW metals for Inconel alloy 600 to which Cr was added to 14.8-21.4mass% has been investigated on the basis of CBB test in the pressurized hot water (corresponding to the service condition of BWR nuclear power plant), since the TIG weld metal of alloy 82 involving 18-22mass% Cr possesses much better resistance to SCC than the SMAW metal of alloy 182 (Cr content=13-17mass%). When their Cr contents were increased to the same level as those of the alloy 82, the weld metals of alloy 182 sustained only slight SCCs in the as-welded state, and no crack was detected after the post weld heat treatment (SR+LTA) of stress relief annealing at 893 K followed by aging at 673 K. These results suggest that the higher Cr content of the alloy 82 is responsible for its higher resistance to SCC than that of the alloy 182. The Cr carbides precipitated at the grain boundary during the welding and the SR+LTA treatment were also changed from M7C3 type to M23C6 type with the increase in the Cr content. Though the Cr content at the grain boundary in weld metal containing 14.8mass%Cr subjected to the SR+LTA treatment was 3mass%, the Cr content of weld metal containing 18.5mass%Cr was not less than 10mass%. The addition of the Cr to the alloy 182 increased the Cr content in the grain boundary region, suggesting that the intergranular SCC can be suppressed when the Cr content at the grain boundary is not less than 10mass%. In addition to the carbide, Ni16(Mn, Cr)6Si7 (G phase) was precipitated at the grain boundary in the alloy 182 containing 18.5mass% Cr when the SR+LTA treatment was applied. TEM-EDS analyses suggested that the G phase was enriched in P, and so could decrease the P content in the grain boundary region. Probably, the decreased P content at the grain boundary due to the precipitation of G phase contributed to the enhancement of the SCC resistance of the Cr-added alloy 182 by the SR+LTA treatment. (author)

  5. Effect of tensile dwell on low cycle fatigue of cast superalloy Inconel 792-5A at 800°C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Miroslav; Obrtlík, Karel; Petrenec, Martin; Polák, Jaroslav

    488-489, - (2012) s. 735-738. ISSN 1013-9826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/2065; GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : nickle base superalloy * elevated temperatures * low cycle fatigue * dwells Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  6. The application of photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of corrosion and oxidation mechanisms of alloys: Inconel 182, Fe/Cu(100 and U-Zr-Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In. this work a study of the oxidation/corrosion process of three systems of metallic materials by Photoemission Spectroscopy is presented. In the first system, it was investigated the corrosion of Ineonel 182 at simulated Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) environment. Samples with and without surface chemical treatment were exposed to the simulated environment for until 18 weeks. The oxide layer formed on the surfaces of the samples at different conditions was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and XPS coupled with argon ion sputtering. The comparison between the oxide films grown on the samples showed that the oxide layer formed on the chemically treated sample is thinner and relatively Cr-rich. In second system it was studied the initial oxidation at room temperature of epitaxial films of Fe evapored on Cu (100). The films were deposited with two different thicknesses in order to get tbe fcc Fe (100) and bcc Fe (110) surfaces. The results, obtained by photoemission spectroscopy at the TEMPO beamline of the Synchrotron Soleil, showed the formation of distinct oxides films. The surfaces also presented different kinetics of oxidation and the (110) Fe-bcc showed highest reactivity. The analysis of the data indicated the Fe1-xO formation on fcc Fe (100) and suggested the Fe1-xO and FC304 formation on (110) Fe-bcc surface. In the last system, it was investigated the initial oxidation of U-Zr-Nb alloys at room temperature. For this experiment, the alloys were exposed to oxygen in ultra high vacuum. The analysis of the U 4f peak showed the fast formation of U)2 on the surfaces and similar kinetics of oxidation between the U and the U-Zr-Nb alloy. The alloying elements showed slower oxidation. The Zr 3d peak suggested the zr02 formation while the Nb 3d peak showed a remarkable enlargement that became necessary a deconvolution which indicated the formation ofNhO, Nb02 and N205. (author)

  7. Stress corrosion cracking of pressurized boundary materials of 600 MW nuclear power plant. The critical potential for SCC of SG tubing alloy inconel-690 in simulated secondary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental method of slow strain rate tests (SSRTs) with constant applied electrochemical potential (ECP) was applied first time on steam generator (SG) tubing alloy In-690 to investigate the relations between stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior and ECP in simulated secondary water chemistry condition: 260 degree C, 1 x 10-6 Cl- un-deaerated water. The critical potentials (Ec) for SCC have been determined finally. SSRTs with constant ECP experiments were performed on SERT-5000 dP 9H tension tester, in all tests the nominal strain rate was 4.2 x 10-6/s. Anodic polarization was conducted on high temperature electrochemistry testing autoclave with a model 350A corrosion measurement system, with potential scanning rate 0.3 mV/s. The experimental materials were alloy In-690 provided by Sumitomo of Japan and Vallurac of France

  8. Probabilistic Material Strength Degradation Model for Inconel 718 Components Subjected to High Temperature, High-Cycle and Low-Cycle Mechanical Fatigue, Creep and Thermal Fatigue Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Callie C.; Boyce, Lola

    1995-01-01

    The development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation is described. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes five effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, high-cycle mechanical fatigue, low-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing predictions of high-cycle mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects with experiments are presented. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported that material degradation can be represented by randomized multifactor interaction models.

  9. Effect of Al-Si Pack Cementation Diffusion Coating on High-Temperature Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Inconel 713LC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Mohammadreza; Hadavi, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Zare, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an Al-Si protective coating was applied on the surface of an IN713LC specimen using pack cementation method. Surface-treated and untreated specimens were exposed to low-cycle fatigue by tension-tension loading under total strain control at 1173 K (900 °C) in air. Based on the obtained results, the hardening/softening, cyclic stress-strain, and fatigue life curves were plotted and analyzed. The results showed that both the single-stage and two-stage coatings improved the fatigue life of the substrate. However, owing to more silicon content of single-stage coating compared to that of two-stage coating, the effect of single-stage coating was superior. The stress response of the treated material was lower compared with the untreated one. Observations of the specimen section and fracture surface examinations were used to analyze fatigue behavior of both coated and uncoated materials.

  10. High spatial resolution, high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction characterization of residual strains and stresses in laser shock peened Inconel 718SPF alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Amrinder S.; Zhou, Zhong; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jonathan; Lahrman, David F.; Mannava, S. R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Laser shock peening (LSP) is an advanced surface enhancement technique used to enhance the fatigue strength of metal parts by imparting deep compressive residual stresses. In the present study, LSP was performed on IN718 SPF alloy, a fine grained nickel-based superalloy, with three different power densities and depth resolved residual strain and stress characterization was conducted using high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction in beam line 1-ID-C at the Advanced Photon Source at the Argonne National laboratory. A fine probe size and conical slits were used to non-destructively obtain data from specific gauge volumes in the samples, allowing for high-resolution strain measurements. The results show that LSP introduces deep compressive residual stresses and the magnitude and depth of these stresses depend on the energy density of the laser. The LSP induced residual stresses were also simulated using three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis, with employment of the Johnson-Cook model for describing the nonlinear materials constitutive behavior. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated data was obtained. These various results are presented and discussed.

  11. Mechanistic study on SCC propagation of welded nickel based alloy. Evaluation of material characteristics on corrosion and stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of nickel based alloy has been reported in pressurized water reactors. To increase reliability of components, mechanistic studies for primary water SCC on Alloy 600 and their weld were carried out. In this study, characteristic of corrosion, internal oxidation, creep and hydrogen embrittlement phenomena, which might have correlate to SCC were examined to clarify their mechanism. As a result: (1) it was shown that the inner oxide film on both metals were less than 10nm. And the grain boundary precipitates that mainly Cr7C3 in Alloy 600 were insoluble to high temperature water. (2) Internal oxidation along grain boundaries were observed in several micro meters on both Alloy 600 and 132. (3) Grain boundary creep of Alloy 600 at 475degC in air and creep deformation on both Alloy 600 and 132 at 360degC were observed although in condition without water. Furthermore, (4) increasing of hydrogen concentration near a fracture region was confirmed by slow strain rate technique test. It was assumed that these four characteristic might influence the SCC propagation mutually. (author)

  12. Stress corrosion cracking properties of alloy 182 weld metal in PWR primary water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress corrosion cracking tests using small U-bend specimens of an Alloy 600/182 weld were performed at 325 C. degrees in a simulated primary water environment of a pressurized water reactor. The precipitates in the matrix of Alloy 600 were identified as Cr7C3, irrespective of the intergranular and intragranular ones. The microstructure of the Alloy 182 weld metal consisted of cellular dendrites in the grains epitaxially solidified from the heat affected zone. Contrary to the Alloy 600 base metal, most of the grain boundaries of the Alloy 182 weld metal were low angle and random high angle grain boundaries, with a negligible fraction of coincidence site lattice boundaries. The stress corrosion cracks were found only in the regions of the Alloy 182 weld metal of Alloy 600/182 weldment, which suggests that the PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking) susceptibility of Alloy 182 weld metal can be higher than that of Alloy 600 base metal. The cracks were initiated at the grain boundaries on the surface, and also propagated along the random high angle grain boundaries in Alloy 182 weld metal. (authors)

  13. Underwater laser beam welding of Alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress Corrosion Clacking (SCC) has been reported at Alloy 600 welds between nozzles and safe-end in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. Alloy 690, which has higher chromium content than Alloy 600, has been applied for cladding on Alloy 600 welds for repairing damaged SCC area. Toshiba has developed Underwater Laser Beam Welding technique. This method can be conducted without draining, so that the repairing period and the radiation exposure during the repair can be dramatically decreased. In some old PWRs, high-sulfur stainless steel is used as the materials for this section. It has a high susceptibility of weld cracks. Therefore, the optimum welding condition of Alloy 690 on the high-sulfur stainless steel was investigated with our Underwater Laser Beam Welding unit. Good cladding layer, without any crack, porosity or lack of fusion, could be obtained. (author)

  14. Technical basis for reexamination interval for alloy 690 PWR reactor vessel top head penetration nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the 65 currently operating PWRs in the U.S., reactor vessel (RV) heads at 40 of these units have been replaced with heads having Alloy 690 nozzles. This study combines Alloy 600/82/182 and Alloy 690/52/152 plant experience and laboratory data for the development and application of deterministic and probabilistic models used in predicting risks associated with PWSCC degradation in RV heads having Alloy 600 or Alloy 690 nozzles. The objective is to propose an inspection regime for RV heads with Alloy 690 nozzles based on absolute and relative risk assessment, the latter in comparison to risks in RV heads having Alloy 600 nozzles with inspection internals simulated in accordance with current requirements in the U.S. Because of its chromium content of approximately 30%, Alloy 690 has greatly improved resistance to PWSCC in comparison to that for Alloy 600. The PWSCC resistance of Alloy 690 has been demonstrated through no observed plant PWSCC despite over 24 calendar years of service in steam generator tube and thick-walled component applications. To incorporate this resistance, the model for RV heads with Alloy 690 nozzles is founded on a factor of improvement approximation, which relates well-established initiation and growth prediction for Alloy 600 materials to Alloy 690 materials through a simple scaling transformation. To support this approximation, the authors applied existing laboratory data and operating experience with Alloy 690 and its weld metals Alloys 52 and 152, and compared them to that of Alloy 600 and Alloys 82 and 182. Application of factors of improvement on a conservative basis shows that it is appropriate that the current interval for volumetric or surface examination of the Alloy 690 RV head nozzles in U.S. PWRs be extended to a nominal 20 calendar years. (authors)

  15. Characterization of microstructure, local deformation and microchemistry in Alloy 690 heat-affected zone and stress corrosion cracking in high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhanpeng; Chen, Junjie; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takeda, Yoichi; Yamazaki, Seiya

    2015-10-01

    With increasing the distance from the weld fusion line in an Alloy 690 heat-affected zone, micro-hardness decreases, kernel average misorientation decreases and the fraction of Σ3 boundaries increases. Chromium depletion at grain boundaries in the Alloy 690 heat-affected zone is less significant than that in an Alloy 600 heat-affected zone. Alloy 690 heat-affected zone exhibits much higher IGSCC resistance than Alloy 600 heat-affected zone in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water. Heavily cold worked Alloy 690 exhibits localized intergranular stress corrosion cracking. The effects of metallurgical and mechanical properties on stress corrosion cracking in Alloy 690 are discussed.

  16. Degradation of a Ni-Cr-Fe alloy in a pressurised-water nuclear power plant: Degradacija zlitin Ni-Cr-Fe v tlačnovodnih jedrskih elektrarnah:

    OpenAIRE

    Celin, Roman; Tehovnik, Franc

    2011-01-01

    In the early days of pressurized-water nuclear-power-plant design Ni-based alloys were selected because of their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Alloy 600 was used for some reactor-coolant pressure-boundary components and Alloy 82/182 was used for welds. Industrial experience in the past three decades has shown that Alloy 600 components and Alloy 82/182 welds are susceptible to primary-water stress-corrosion cracking (PWSCC). PWSCC is the intergranular or transgranular cr...

  17. Fatigue and creep cracking of nickel alloys for 700 C steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four materials of the types Inconel 706 (two heat treatment states), Inconel 617, and Waspaloy were tested as shaft materials for 700 to 720 C steam turbines. At an extrapolation time ratio of 10, Waspaloy was expected to have the highest creep strength (about 270 MPa at 700 C), with values of about 140 MPa at 700 C for Inconel 617. A preliminary evaluation of the 700 C creep rupture tests showed the highest creep rupture resistance for Inconel 617, followed by Waspaloy and Inconel 706

  18. The French regulatory experience and views on nickel-base alloy PWSCC prevention and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the experience feedback and views of the French Regulatory Authority (ASN) and of the technical support institute (IRSN) on PWSCC prevention since the initiation in 1989 of the 'Inconel Zones Review' requested by ASN to Electricite de France (EDF), the national operator of a fleet of 58 PWRs. This proactive requirement, launched before the discovery, in September 1991, of the only CRDM nozzle leak in France, on Bugey unit 3, was then triggered by the recurrence of many alloy 600 rapid degradations and leaks, world wide, and also in France in the late 1980's, particularly on steam generator tubes and on some pressurizer penetrations. Thus, the ASN requested that EDF, perform a comprehensive (generic) proactive assessment on all the nickel-base alloy components and parts of the main primary circuits, which of course included vessel head penetrations and bottom vessel head penetrations, and some other zones as a first priority. This proactive 'review' did, a minima, include the following tasks and actions: - Update and complete, by an extensive R and D program, the understanding and characterization of the Ni base alloys prone to PWSCC, - Analyze the various materials, metallurgical features, mechanical stresses, and physicochemical conditions of the parts exposed to primary water, in order to predict the occurrence of PWSCC initiation and propagation, - Provide a prioritization of the zones to be inspected, - Implement by improved NDE techniques a practical inspection program on the 58 PWRs, - Prepare and implement any needed mitigation actions as a result of the components conditions assessment. The present paper relates the main features of the French regulatory experience over more than 13 years and recalls the main principles of the assessment, which were applied by ASN. These principles, which are formalized in the current regulation rules revised in 1999, are briefly listed hereunder: - It is based on avoiding and preventing any leaking on

  19. Stress relief of transition zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment

  20. Recommendations of the MRP-139: Inspection of Welds dissimilar in Nozzles PWR reactor vessel in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide EPRI MRP-139, which provides the way forward for the inspection and evaluation of dissimilar butt welds, the primary system of PWR reactors, indicating the type of nondestructive testing to be done in these areas, based on discovered several cases of default in lnconel alloys 600 and 182 in American and European plants. The phenomenon of cracking.

  1. Application Feasibility of PRE 50 grade Super Austenitic Stainless Steel as a Steam Generator Tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taek Jun; Kim, Sun Tae; Park, Hui Sang [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the properties of the super austenitic stainless steel, SR-50A for application as steam generator tubing material. The microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion properties, were analyzed and the results were compared between super austenitic stainless steel and Alloy 600 and Alloy 690. Super austenitic stainless steel, SR-50A is superior to Alloy 600, Alloy 690 and Alloy 800 in the mechanical properties(tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation). It was investigated that thermal conductivity of SR-50A was higher than Alloy 600. As a result of thermal treatment on super stainless steel, SR-50A, caustic SCC resistance was increased and its resistance was as much as Alloy 600TT and Alloy 690TT. In this study, optimum thermal treatment condition to improve the caustic corrosion properties was considered as 650 deg C or 550 deg C 15 hours. However, it is necessary to verify the corrosion mechanism and to prove the above results in the various corrosive environments. 27 refs., 6 tabs., 59 figs. (author)

  2. Examination of a steam generator tube removed from Maine Yankee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive and destructive examinations performed on an Alloy 600 steam generator tube with a circumferential indication confirmed that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) had occurred in high temperature final mill annealled material. The tube material generally has low susceptibility to PWSCC. Additional PWSCC in this material is expected but would not by itself lead to steam generator replacement

  3. Corrosion evaluation of alternate nuclear steam generator tubing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several materials were evaluated for use in nuclear steam generators (NSG). These materials were exposed to corrosive conditions representative of those found in nuclear steam generators. The materials evaluated were gold, titanium, tantalum, niobium, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy G. Nickel 200, nickel-base Alloy 625, and heat-tracked nickel-base Alloy 600. The test environments simulated acid pitting attack, caustic stress corrosion cracking and reduced sulfur attack. In the pitting environment, the monolithic materials did well, however Nickel 200, nickel-base Alloy 600 and Hastelloy G3 did poorly. The remaining alloys, nickel-base Alloy 625 and Hastelloy C-276 were relatively unaffected in the pitting environment. Tantalum, titanium, niobium, nickel-base Alloy 625 performed poorly in the environment designed to evaluate resistance to caustic cracking. Nickel-base Alloy 600 (stress-relieved), Hastelloy C-276, Hasteloy G-3 and Nickel 200 compared fair to good in the caustic sodium. The gold was unaffected in the hot caustic solution. In the environment selected to represent a reduced sulfur environment, nickel-base Alloy 625 and Hastelloy C-276 exhibited considerable resistance. The nickel-base Alloy 600 was attacked within a relatively short period of time

  4. The use of finite element analysis and notch tensile testing to determine the cryogenic fracture toughness of thick section weldment in forged CSUS-JN1 plate with Inconel 625 type filler metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the notch tensile test to estimate the elastic-plastic fracture toughness (JIC) of structural alloys and weldments for superconducting magnets in fusion energy systems was studied. Notch tensile tests were performed with small round bar specimens containing an electro discharge machined (EDM) notch at liquid helium temperature (4 K) using crosshead rates of 3.3 x 10-3 and 20 mm/s. Notch tensile test specimens were 5 mm in diameter with a 30-mm reduced section. In the mid section of the specimen a 1 mm deep EDM notch of 0.2 mm width was machined around the girth, thus maintaining a starting diameter of 3 mm. Correlations between notch tensile strength, failure energy absorption, and JIC were assessed. A finite element analysis was also performed to compute directly the J-values. Comparisons of the predicted JIC with results obtained from conventional JIS Z 2284 standard tests were made. (author)

  5. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of austenitic alloys, cobalt or nickel based super alloys, structurally hardened martensitic, Inconel, zircaloy, super austenitic, duplex and of Ni-Cr or NTi deposits in tritiated water. 3 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redox potential of 3 H2O, as well as the corrosion potentials in this medium are found, abnormally, in the trans-passive region. This is completely different from the behavior in the chemical industry or in the water in nuclear powers. With such behavior, there will be breakdowns of the protective oxide layers, and in the presence of chloride there will be immediate pitting. The steels that are most resistant to this behavior are the super austenitic and super Duplex. To avoid corrosion, another solution is to decompose the radiolytic products by imposing a slight reducing potential. Corrosion inhibitors, which are stable in tritiated water, can be used. (author). 69 refs., 421 figs., tabs

  6. Stress corrosion cracking of iron-nickel-chromium alloys in primary circuit environment of PWR-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing is a great concern for pressurized water reactors. The mechanism that controls intergranular stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in primary water (lithiated-borated water) has yet to be clearly identified. A study of stress corrosion cracking behaviour, which can identify the main parameters that control the cracking phenomenon, was so necessary to understand the stress corrosion cracking process. Constant extension rate tests, and constant load tests have evidenced that Alloy 600 stress corrosion cracking involves firstly an initiation period, then a slow propagation stage with crack less than 50 to 80 micrometers, and finally a rapid propagation stage leading to failure. The influence of mechanical parameters have shown the next points: - superficial strain hardening and cold work have a strong effect of stress corrosion cracking resistance (decrease of initiation time and increase of crack growth rate), - strain rate was the most suitable parameter for describing the different stage of propagation. The creep behaviour of alloy 600 has shown an increase of creep rate in primary water compared to air, which implies a local interaction plasticity/corrosion. An assessment of the durations of the initiation and the propagation stages was attempted for the whole uniaxial tensile tests, using the macroscopic strain rate: - the initiation time is less than 100 hours and seems to be an electrochemical process, - the durations of the propagation stage are strongly dependent on the strain rate. The behaviour in high primary water temperature of Alloys 690 and 800, which replace Alloy 600, was studied to appraise their margin, and validate their choice. Then the last chapter has to objective to evaluate the crack tip strain rate, in order to better describe the evolution of the different stages of cracking. (author)

  7. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of austenitic alloys, cobalt or nickel based super alloys, structurally hardened martensitic, Inconel, zircaloy, super austenitic, duplex and of Ni-Cr or NTi deposits in tritiated water. 3 volumes; Comportement electrochimique a la corrosion d`alliages austenitiques, superalliages base cobalt ou nickel, martensitiques a durcissement structural, inconel, zircaloy, superaustenitiques et duplex, de depots Ni-Cr et NTi en eau tritiee. 3 volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-12-31

    The redox potential of {sup 3} H{sub 2}O, as well as the corrosion potentials in this medium are found, abnormally, in the trans-passive region. This is completely different from the behavior in the chemical industry or in the water in nuclear powers. With such behavior, there will be breakdowns of the protective oxide layers, and in the presence of chloride there will be immediate pitting. The steels that are most resistant to this behavior are the super austenitic and super Duplex. To avoid corrosion, another solution is to decompose the radiolytic products by imposing a slight reducing potential. Corrosion inhibitors, which are stable in tritiated water, can be used. (author). 69 refs., 421 figs., tabs.

  8. 78 FR 42584 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation: Report to Congress Pursuant to Section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... infiltrated tungsten; copper- beryllium; graphite; hastelloy; inconel; magnesium; molybdenum; nickel; niobium...); titanium; titanium diboride; tungsten; tungsten carbide; and zirconium. Dated: July 1, 2013. Thomas...

  9. Fracture assessment of a BWR pump nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracture mechanics calculations are performed to support the non-destructive testing (NDT) qualification programs for pump nozzle investigations of boiling water reactor (BWR) nozzles of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs), with the aim of the determination of qualification defects, which are located in the Inconel 182 weld of the pump nozzle at the bottom of the RPV. The ferritic nozzle and housing have an Inconel buttering and each part is cladded with Inconel 182 before it is mounted. All theses weldments are heat treated after welding; only the connecting weldment between pump housing and nozzle, which is also an Inconel 182 weld, performed on site, is in the as welded condition. (author)

  10. The French safety authority's view on stress corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of some nickel-based alloys to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been known for several years: experiments conducted in 1959 at CEA (French atomic research centre) showed that SCC can appear in alloy 600 under primary water chemical conditions. In nuclear power plants (NPPs), stress corrosion induced cracks have been detected since 1971 in steam generator (SG) tubes. In France, they were first detected in 1980. This made it clear that SCC of alloy 600 was also possible out of laboratories and led to an important inservice inspection and maintenance programme, including the replacement of some SGs, and to many research studies. Though, till the late 1980's, SCC had only been detected on SG tubes. In France, the detection of SCC on pressurizer nozzles in 1989 and on reactor pressure vessel heads in 1991 demonstrated that all alloy 600 components could be concerned. Following the request of the French safety authority and under its control, the French utility EDF started a comprehensive review of all components of the main primary system (MPS) made with alloy 600. For each, the risk of SCC was evaluated and taken into account in the definition of in-service inspection programmes.This article aims at presenting the situation about fifteen years later. The paper has the following contents: The French regulatory approach; Review of alloy 600 components in French NPPs; The situation in 2005; Future issues. One concludes that the alloy 600 issues have been teaching many things to the French safety authority for fifteen years. First, material degradations exist and even good design and good manufacturing are not guarantees that nothing will happen during operation. The only way to detect those degradations is to have an adequate in-service inspection programme. This programme can rely on scientific analyses. But it must also include sample checks otherwise unknown phenomena have little chance to be detected before they lead to an incident. The hydraulic

  11. Study of the initial stages of oxidation of stainless steels in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam Generator tubes (alloys 600, 690 and 800) are protected against corrosion by an oxide layer. The release of corrosion products into the primary water of the Pressurised Water Reactor is limited by this layer. Activation of these products increases the radioactivity. Breakdown of the passive film can lead to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). The aim of this study is to understand the early stages of passivation of these alloys, in high temperature and high pressure water. A new micro-autoclave was developed to achieve short time exposures (from several seconds to 10 minutes). The surfaces were characterised by XPS, NRA, STM and SEM and a kinetic model is proposed for the alloy 600. Longer oxidation times were studied (up to 400 hours). The kinetics obtained for short time oxidations were used to fit the long oxidation time behaviour. This reveals that the initial stages of oxidation are essential in the passive films growth in such conditions. (author)

  12. Steam generator tube integrity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  13. Effect of cold working on the stress corrosion cracking resistance of nickel-chromium-iron alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to grasp the stress corrosion cracking resistance of cold worked nickel base alloys in PWR primary water, the effect of cold working on the stress corrosion cracking resistance of alloys 600, X-750 and 690, in high temperature water, have been studied. Stress corrosion cracking tests were conducted at 3600C (633K) in a simulated PWR primary water for about 12,000 hours (43.2Ms). From the test results, it is concluded that the stress corrosion cracking resistance in the cold worked Alloy 600 at the same applied stress level increases with an increase in cold working ratio, and the cold worked alloys of thermally treated 690 and X-750 have excellent stress corrosion cracking resistance. (Author)

  14. Oxidation and reduction of copper and iron species in steam generator deposits - Effects of hydrazine, carbohydrazide and catalyzed hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has long been suspected that oxidation and reduction of secondary side deposits in PWR steam generators have a significant influence on the onset of intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) of mill annealed Alloy 600 steam generator tubes. It is believed that these same processes could affect the possible future occurrence of IGA/SCC of thermally treated Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 tubes that are in newer steam generators. The working hypothesis for describing the influence of oxides on accelerated tube degradation is that deposits formed during normal operation are oxidized during lay-up. During subsequent operation, these oxidized species accelerate tube degradation by raising the electrochemical potential. (authors)

  15. Residual stress improved by water jet peening using cavitation for small-diameter pipe inner surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of degradation conditions on components used in water, the overlapping effect of environment, material and stress might cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Especially, for the tensile residual stress produced by welding, it is particularly effective to reduce the tensile residual stress on the material surface to prevent SCC. In this paper, the residual stress improvement method using cavitation impact generated by a water jet, called Water Jet Peening (WJP), has been developed as the maintenance technology for the inner surfaces of small-diameter Ni-Cr-Fe alloy (Alloy 600) pipes. As the results, by WJP for the inner surface of Alloy 600 pipe (inner diameter; approximately 10-15 mm), we confirmed that the compressive stress generated within the range from the surface to the inner part about 0.5 mm deep and took a maximum value about 350 MPa on the surface. (author)

  16. Residual stress improved by water jet peening using cavitation for small-diameter pipe inner surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuo, Nakamura; Toshizo, Ohya; Koji, Okimura [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works, Kobe (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    As one of degradation conditions on components used in water, the overlapping effect of environment, material and stress might cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Especially, for the tensile residual stress produced by welding, it is particularly effective to reduce the tensile residual stress on the material surface to prevent SCC. In this paper, the residual stress improvement method using cavitation impact generated by a water jet, called Water Jet Peening (WJP), has been developed as the maintenance technology for the inner surfaces of small-diameter Ni-Cr-Fe alloy (Alloy 600) pipes. As the results, by WJP for the inner surface of Alloy 600 pipe (inner diameter; approximately 10-15 mm), we confirmed that the compressive stress generated within the range from the surface to the inner part about 0.5 mm deep and took a maximum value about 350 MPa on the surface. (author)

  17. Denting of steam generator tubes in PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactions of 12 Cr and carbon steels in approximately 300 C deoxygenated water containing various concentrations of metal chlorides while adjacent to or connected to Alloy 600 are reported. The tests were designed to determine the extent to which the 12 Cr (AISI 405) steel accumulated corrosion products similar to those found on carbon steel which have caused crevice denting of Alloy 600 tubes in steam generators. Static isothermal autoclave and capsule tests were made in Na, Mg, Fe, and Ni and the corrosion products analyzed. 12 Cr steel's resistance was superior to C steel by factors ranging from 1.5 to 80. 12 Cr steel corrosion showed little temperature dependence in the range 232 to 316 C and zero volume change resulting from oxides. 11 refs

  18. Shippingport Atomic Power Station steam generator tube damage and water chemistry control (1965--1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four stainless steel tubed steam generators in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station were replaced in 1964 with larger, horizontal, NiCrFe Alloy 600 tubed units consistent with a power uprating of the plant. Each of the four Alloy 600 tubed units experienced tube leakage attributed to corrosion by water treatment chemicals (sodium phosphates) which concentrated locally on the tubes in inadequately flushed crevices. Corrective and preventive actions include tube plugging, flow blockage, conversion to all-volatile (hydrazine-morpholine) chemistry and replacement of the two steam generators with the straight tube design. Eddy current inspection after four years of all-volatile chemistry use showed a diminished rate of crevice corrosion and no tube denting

  19. The effect of sulfate on environmental cracking in BWRS under constant load or fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports low frequency fatigue tests at load ratios 0.8 and 0.9 and constant load tests run on sensitized Type 304 stainless steel (SS), Type 316 nuclear grade SS (316 NG) and the nickel-base Alloy 600 in simulated BWR environments. The environments simulated normal water chemistry (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) with 15 or 5 ppb O2, clean or with sulfate. Oxygen enhanced cracking of Type 304 SS and Alloy 600 but not Type 316 NG under fatigue load conditions. Under constant load conditions crack propagation was always very low in clean environments. Sulfate enhanced cracking in all three materials, most in Type 304 SS and least in Type 316 NG. Crack enhancement due to 0.1 ppm sulfate was worse under constant load than under fatigue load conditions, for Type 304 SS in NWC up to a factor of 100 in constant load and up to a factor of 10 in fatigue

  20. Comparison of laboratory and field experience of PWSCC in Alloy 182 weld metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Meunier, M.-C.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, Paris La Defense (France); Calonne, O.; Foucault, M. [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, Le Creusot Cedex (France); Combrade, P. [ACXCOR, Saint Etienne (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF, SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory studies of stress corrosion cracking of the nickel base weld metal, Alloy 182, in simulated PWR primary water suggest similar resistance to crack initiation and somewhat enhanced propagation rates relative to wrought Alloy 600. By contrast, field experience of cracking in the primary circuits of PWRs shows in general much better performance for Alloy 182 relative to Alloy 600 than would be anticipated from laboratory studies. This paper endeavours to resolve this apparent conundrum. It draws on the conclusions of recent research that has focussed on the role of surface finish, particularly cold work and residual stresses resulting from different fabrication processes, on the risk of initiating IGSCC in nickel base alloys in PWR primary water. It also draws on field experience of stress corrosion cracking that highlights the important role of surface finish for crack initiation. (author)