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Sample records for alloy system materials

  1. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  2. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-04

    The Committee`s evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is United and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical worlding experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, h is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium allay option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan.

  3. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Committee's evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is United and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical worlding experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, h is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium allay option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan

  4. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...... of the novel catalyst material for synthesising hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water....

  5. Wettability in the liquid Cu-Ag alloy – fireproof material – gas phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siwiec

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, results of wettability studies on the liquid metal – fireproof material – gas phase system using copper and Cu-Ag alloys as well as typical fireproof materials, i.e. aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide and graphite, are presented. Contact angle measurements were conducted at 1 373–1 573 K by means of a high-temperature microscope coupled with a camera and a computer equipped with a program for recording and analysing images. For the measurements, the sessile drop method was used.

  6. Development of Advanced Wear and Corrosion Resistant Systems Through Laser Surface Alloying and Materials Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Martukanitz and S. Babu

    2007-05-03

    precipitation of titanium carbonitrides during laser surface alloying provided there was sufficient amount of dissolved titanium, carbon, and nitrogen in the liquid steel. This was confirmed experimentally by using a powder mixture of 431-martensitic steel, titanium carbide powder, and nitrogen shielding, during laser deposition to produce deposits exhibiting relatively high hardness (average surface hardness of 724 HV). The same approach was extended to direct diode laser processing and similar microstructures were attained. The above analysis was extended to develop an in-situ precipitation of Ti(CN) during laser deposition. The Ti addition was achieving by mixing the 431 martensitic steel powders with ferro-titanium. The dissolution of nitrogen was achieved by using 100% nitrogen shielding gas, which was indicated by thermodynamic analysis. Demonstrations were also conducted utilizing the tools developed during the program and resulted in several viable composite coating systems being identified. This included the use of TiC and ferro-titanium in martensitic-grade stainless steel matrix material with and without the use of active N2 shielding gas, WC hard particles in a martensitic-grade stainless steel matrix material, WC and BN in a nickel-based matrix material, and WC in highly alloyed iron-based matrix. Although these demonstrations indicated the potential of forming composite coatings, in certain instances, the intended industrial applications involved unique requirements, such as coating of internal surfaces, which hindered the full development of the improved coating technology. However, it is believed that the addition of common hard particles, such as WC or TiC, to matrix material representing martensitic grades of stainless steel offer opportunities for improved performance at relatively low material cost.

  7. Phase formation in alloy-type anode materials in the quaternary system Li-Sn-Si-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druee, Martin; Seyring, Martin [Jena Univ. (Germany). Otto Schott Inst. of Materials Research; Liang, Song-Mao; Kozlov, Artem; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Metallurgy; Song, Xiaoyan [Beijing Univ. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Advanced Functional Materials; Rettenmayr, Markus [Jena Univ. (Germany). Otto Schott Inst. of Materials Research; Jena Univ. (Germany). Center for Energy and Environmental

    2017-11-15

    Investigations on the thermodynamics of alloy-type anode materials have been carried out for the quaternary Li-C-Si-Sn system. Phase equilibria and phase stabilities were characterized in the binary subsystems Li-C, Li-Si, Li-Sn. The Calphad method was first used to optimize or completely re-establish all binary subsystems containing Li. For reasons of consistency, the binary subsystem Si-C had to be revisited and its Calphad description was modified. The ternary phase diagrams were then tentatively calculated by extrapolation from the binary subsystems and confirmed by key experiments. No ternary compounds were found. In order to verify the applicability of the anode materials in real batteries, some of the materials were nanostructured by ball milling and spark plasma sintering, the corresponding nanostructures were characterized. Theoretical predictions that nanograined Li{sub 2}C{sub 2} can also be used as cathode material were verified experimentally. The methodologies worked out in the present project (e.g. nanoscale structure transmission electron microscopy analysis, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy) were also employed in other projects and led to publications concerning other materials such as Mg alloys, carbon nanofibers and an Mn-based antiperovskite.

  8. Hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.

    2015-08-18

    The present disclosure relates generally to hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to hardface coatings that include a network of titanium monoboride (TiB) needles or whiskers in a matrix, which are formed from titanium (Ti) and titanium diboride (TiB.sub.2) precursors by reactions enabled by the inherent energy provided by the process heat associated with coating deposition and, optionally, coating post-heat treatment. These hardface coatings are pyrophoric, thereby generating further reaction energy internally, and may be applied in a functionally graded manner. The hardface coatings may be deposited in the presence of a number of fluxing agents, beta stabilizers, densification aids, diffusional aids, and multimode particle size distributions to further enhance their performance characteristics.

  9. Dependency of single-phase FAC of carbon and low-alloy steels for NPP system piping on pH, orifice distance and material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jeong Ho; Chung, Hung Ho; Sung, Ki Woung; Kim, Uh Chul; Rho, Jae Seong

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) dependency of carbon steel (A106 Gr. B) and low-alloy steels (1Cr-1/2Mo, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo) on pH, orifice distance, and material, experiments were carried out. These experiments were performed using a flow velocity of 4 m/sec (partly 9 m/sec) at pH 8.0∼10.0 in an oxygen-free aqueous solution re-circulated in an Erosion-Corrosion Test Loop at 130 .deg. ... for 500 hours. The weight loss of the carbon steel specimens appeared to be positively dependent on the flow velocity. That of the carbon and low-alloy steel specimens also showed to be distinguishably dependent on the pH. At pH levels of 8.0∼9.5 it decreased, but increased from 9.5 to 10.0. Utility water chemistry personnel should carefully consider this kind of pH dependency to control the water system pH to mitigate FAC of the piping system material. The weight loss of the specimens located further from the orifice in the distance range of 6.8∼27.2 mm was shown to be greater, except for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo, which showed no orifice distance dependency. Low alloy steel specimens exhibited a factor of two times better resistance to FAC than that of the carbon steel. Based on this kind of FAC dependency of the carbon and low-alloy steels on the orifice distance and material, we conclude that it is necessary to alternate the composition of the secondary piping system material of NPPs, using low-alloy steels, such as 2 1/4Cr-1Mo, particularly when the system piping has to be replaced

  10. A Study of the effect of gamma radiation on some alloy materials for use as dosimetry systems and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-kader, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Alloys are metallic materials consisting of two or more elements combined in such a way that they cannot be readily separated by physical means. More than 90% of metals used are in the form of alloys. Alloys can be divided into two types: ferrous and non- ferrous. In metallurgy, a nonferrous metal is any metal that is not ferrous, including alloys, that does not contain iron in appreciable amounts. Groups of inorganic glassy materials which always contain one or more of the chalcogen elements S, Se or Te, in conjunction with more electropositive elements as As, Sb and Bi, are recognized as chalcogenide glasses but Ferroalloy refers to various alloys of iron with a high proportion of one or more other elements, for example ferrotitanium alloy. Chalcogenide glasses are generally less robust, more weakly bonded materials than oxide glasses. Glasses were prepared from Ge, Se, As and Te elements with purity 99.999%.These glasses are reactive at high temperature with oxygen. Therefore, synthesis was accomplished in evacuated clean silica tubes. The tubes were washed by distilled water, and then dried in a furnace whose temperature was about 100 degree C. The weighted materials were introduced into the cleaned silica tubes and then evacuated to about 10 -4 torr and sealed. The sealed tubes were placed inside the furnace and the temperature of the furnace was raised gradually up to 900 degree C within 1 hour and kept constant for 10 hours. Moreover, shaking of the constituent materials inside the tube in the furnace was necessary for realizing the homogeneity of the composition. After synthesis, the tube was quenched into ice water. The glassy ingots could be obtained by drastic quenching. Then materials were removed from the tubes and kept in dry atmosphere. Thin films of the selected compositions were prepared by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum 10 -4 torr with constant thickness 100 nm. Ferrotitanium alloy is prepared by the reduction of rutile and ilmenite

  11. Metals and Alloys Material Stabilization Process Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RISENMAY, H.R.; BURK, R.A.

    2000-05-18

    This Plan outlines the process for brushing metal and alloys in accordance with the path forward discussed in the Integrated Project Management Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617, and requirements set forth in the Project Management Plan for Materials Stabilization, HNF-3605. This plan provides the basis for selection of the location to process, the processes involved, equipment to be used, and the characterization of the contents of the can. The scope of the process is from retrieval of metals and alloys from storage to transfer back to storage in a repackaged configuration.

  12. Metals and Alloys Material Stabilization Process Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RISENMAY, H.R.; BURK, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This Plan outlines the process for brushing metal and alloys in accordance with the path forward discussed in the Integrated Project Management Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617, and requirements set forth in the Project Management Plan for Materials Stabilization, HNF-3605. This plan provides the basis for selection of the location to process, the processes involved, equipment to be used, and the characterization of the contents of the can. The scope of the process is from retrieval of metals and alloys from storage to transfer back to storage in a repackaged configuration

  13. Material synthesis and hydrogen storage of palladium-rhodium alloy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, Enrique J. (University of California, Davis); Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Ong, Markus D. (Whithworth University, Spokane, WA)

    2011-08-01

    Pd and Pd alloys are candidate material systems for Tr or H storage. We have actively engaged in material synthesis and studied the material science of hydrogen storage for Pd-Rh alloys. In collaboration with UC Davis, we successfully developed/optimized a supersonic gas atomization system, including its processing parameters, for Pd-Rh-based alloy powders. This optimized system and processing enable us to produce {le} 50-{mu}m powders with suitable metallurgical properties for H-storage R&D. In addition, we studied hydrogen absorption-desorption pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior using these gas-atomized Pd-Rh alloy powders. The study shows that the pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) behavior of Pd-Rh alloys is strongly influenced by its metallurgy. The plateau pressure, slope, and H/metal capacity are highly dependent on alloy composition and its chemical distribution. For the gas-atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh, the absorption plateau pressure is relatively high and consistent. However, the absorption-desorption PCT exhibits a significant hysteresis loop that is not seen from the 30-nm nanopowders produced by chemical precipitation. In addition, we observed that the presence of hydrogen introduces strong lattice strain, plastic deformation, and dislocation networking that lead to material hardening, lattice distortions, and volume expansion. The above observations suggest that the H-induced dislocation networking is responsible for the hysteresis loop seen in the current atomized Pd-10 wt% Rh powders. This conclusion is consistent with the hypothesis suggested by Flanagan and others (Ref 1) that plastic deformation or dislocations control the hysteresis loop.

  14. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  15. Mechanical alloying in the Fe-Cu system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gente, C.; Bormann, R.

    1998-01-01

    The studies of mechanical alloying on the Fe-Cu system, as a model system for those with positive heats of mixing, are reviewed. Several problems involved in the mechanical alloying process are discussed. For example, (1) whether alloying occurs on an atomic level; (2) what the solid solubility...... in the Fe-Cu system is; (3) where the positive energy is stored in the alloys; (4) what the decomposition process of the supersaturated alloys is; and (5) what type of magnetic properties the new materials have. The elucidation of these problems will shed light on the understanding of the mechanisms...... for the preparation of materials under highly non-equilibrium conditions in systems with positive heats of mixing by mechanical alloying....

  16. Materials developed by mechanical alloying and melt spinning

    OpenAIRE

    Suñol Martínez, Joan Josep; Fort, Joaquim

    2008-01-01

    Materials science is a multidisciplinary research topic related to the development of physics and technology. Mechanical alloying of ribbon flakes is a two steps route to develop advanced materials. In this work, a Fe based alloy was obtained using three pathways: mechanical alloying, melt-spinning and mechanical alloying of previously melt-spun samples. Processing conditions allow us to obtain amorphous or nanocrystalline structures. Furthermore, a bibliographic revision of mechanical al...

  17. Combinatorial thin film materials science: From alloy discovery and optimization to alloy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, Thomas; Music, Denis; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of modern alloy development, from discovery and optimization towards alloy design, based on combinatorial thin film materials science. The combinatorial approach, combining combinatorial materials synthesis of thin film composition-spreads with high-throughput property characterization has proven to be a powerful tool to delineate composition–structure–property relationships, and hence to efficiently identify composition windows with enhanced properties. Furthermore, and most importantly for alloy design, theoretical models and hypotheses can be critically appraised. Examples for alloy discovery, optimization, and alloy design of functional as well as structural materials are presented. Using Fe-Mn based alloys as an example, we show that the combination of modern electronic-structure calculations with the highly efficient combinatorial thin film composition-spread method constitutes an effective tool for knowledge-based alloy design.

  18. Shape memory alloys as damping materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbeeck, J. van

    2000-01-01

    Shape memory alloys are gaining an increased interest as passive as well as active damping materials. This damping ability when applied in structural elements can lead to a better noise control, improved life time and even better performance of the envisaged tools. By passive damping, it is understood that the material converts a significant part of unwanted mechanical energy into heat. This mechanical energy can be a (resonance) vibration, impact loading or shock waves. This high damping capacity finds its origin in the thermoelastic martensitic phase due to the hysteretic mobility of martensite-variants or different phase interfaces. The damping capacity increases with increasing amplitude of the applied vibration or impact and is almost frequency independent. Special interest exists moreover for damping extreme large displacements by applying the mechanical hysteresis performed during pseudoelastic loading. This aspect is nowadays very strongly studied as a tool for protecting buildings against earthquakes in seismic active regions. Active damping can be obtained in hybrid composites by controlling the recovery stresses or strains of embedded shape memory alloy wires. This controls the internal energy fo a structure which allows controlled modal modification and tuning of the dynamical properties of structural elements. But also impact damage, acoustic radiation, dynamic shape control can be actively controlled. As a consequence improved fatigue-resistance, better performance and a longer lifetime of the structural elements can be obtained. (orig.)

  19. PERSPECTIVES OF MOLIBDENUM CONTAINING MATERIALS APPLICATION FOR ALLOYING OF IRONCARBON ALLOYS DURING MANUFACTURING OF CRITICAL CASTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Slutsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor is one of most important part of automobile determine its economical effectiveness of usage. On the other hand, sleeves, pistons and rings are crucible parts as they determine the service life of a motor. These parts are producing in big scale – dozens of millions pieces. Increase of cylinder sleeves physical-mechanical properties results in prolongation of motor service life and improvement of motor’s characteristics. Nowadays low alloyed cast irons with perlite structure are used to manufacture motor’s sleeves. For alloying purposes such traditional elements as Cr, Ni, Cu, and V are applied. But it is interesting to use molybdenum for cast iron alloying. It is known that alloying of alloys allows considerable increasing of consumption properties of castings. But in spite of advantages of alloys alloying the increase of molybdenum containing iron-carbon alloys production is restricted by economical reasons – high cost of alloying additions. Expenditures on alloying additions can be reduced by the application cheap secondary alloys in the charge. So, the present paper is devoted to investigation of alloying peculiarities during the treatment of ferrous alloys with molybdenum applying different initial materials.

  20. Silicon carbide alloys: Research reports in materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The book draws from work done on other silicon materials, silicon nitrides and sialons, to emphasize the importance of the SiC system. A comprehensive treatment of non-oxide silicon ceramics, this work is of special interest to researchers involved in ceramics, materials science, and high-temperature technology. This book covers the alloys of silicon carbide with aluminum nitride. Crystallography and experimental methods including sample preparation, furnace methods, X-ray and electron diffraction, optical and electron microscopy and chemical analysis are covered.

  1. Fe-Cr-Ni system alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Phase diagram of Fe-Cr-Ni system, which is the basic one for production of corrosion resistant alloys, is considered. Data on corrosion resistance of such alloys are correlated depending on a number of factors: quality and composition of modifying elements, corrosion medium, temperature, alloy structure, mechanical and thermal treatment. Grades of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys are presented, and fields of their application are pointed out

  2. Equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloys: A material perspective for spintronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainsla, Lakhan, E-mail: lakhanbainsla@gmail.com, E-mail: suresh@phy.iitb.ac.in; Suresh, K. G., E-mail: lakhanbainsla@gmail.com, E-mail: suresh@phy.iitb.ac.in [Magnetic Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-09-15

    found to be in agreement with those estimated using the Slater-Pauling rule in most of the cases. Electrical resistivity and Hall measurements are being used to distinguish between SGS and HMF nature in detail. The current spin polarization value, P = 0.70 ± 0.01, for CoFeMnGe is found to be highest among the EQHAs. CoFeMnSi and CoFeCrGa are found to show SGS behavior with high Curie temperatures, thus making them suitable substitutes for diluted magnetic semiconductors. CoRuFeSi is found to have the highest T{sub C} among EQHAs. Theoretical prediction of magnetic properties on the basis of electronic structure calculations has also been reported in a few systems, which are also discussed in this review. Thus, this review presents a consolidated picture of the magnetic and spintronic properties of this important, but relatively new class of Heusler alloys. It is expected that this will stimulate further interest in these alloys, thereby paving the way for the identification of more HMF and SGS materials. As a result of this, it is expected that more efficient spintronic devices using these alloys would emerge in the near future.

  3. Electrodeposition of zinc antimony alloy thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairin, A. L. N.; Romainor, M. N.; Othman, R.; Daud, F. D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Zinc antimonite, Zn4Sb3 is a promising thermoelectric material because of its high thermoelectric performance and abundance of Zn and Sb in nature. Thus, in this study, samples of Zn-Sb alloy were prepared using electrodeposition method because of its simple experimental set-up, which also carried out in the room temperature. From the XRD results, all samples deposited exhibit Zn-Sb alloy compositions. The best results were S1 and S3 as they had dominant peaks that showed the crystal lattice of Zn4Sb3. From the SEM images, the surface morphology of Zn-Sb alloy deposited samples showed were all-irregular, course and rough structures. While, the atoms arrangement of the deposited samples were all flowery-like. Based on physical properties characterization, the best samples; S1 (0.1M ZnCl2-0.1M SbCl3, 100mA, 120min) and S3 (0.1M ZnCl2-0.1M SbCl3, 50mA, 120min), were selected and investigated their thermoelectric performances; electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, to determine their power factor, PF. Heat capacity of the samples was also examined to relate it with thermal conductivity of Zn-Sb deposited samples. For thermoelectric performance, S1 obtained power factor of 1.37x10-7V/K. Ω.cm at 102°C with the Seebeck coefficient of 181μV/K. While as for S3, the power factor was 1.58x10-7V/K. Ω.cm with Seebeck coefficient of 113μV/K at 101°C. From DSC analysis, it showed that S3 obtained higher Cp than S1. Cp for S3 was 46.8093mJ/°C while S1 was 38.3722mJ/°C.

  4. Cast bulk metallic glass alloys: prospects as wear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Shiflet, Gary J. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA)

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are single phase materials with unusual physical and mechanical properties. One intriguing area of possible use is as a wear material. Usually, pure metals and single phase dilute alloys do not perform well in tribological conditions. When the metal or alloy is lightweight, it is usually soft leading to galling in sliding situations. For the harder metals and alloys, their density is usually high, so there is an energy penalty when using these materials in wear situations. However, bulk metallic glasses at the same density are usually harder than corresponding metals and dilute single phase alloys, and so could offer better wear resistance. This work will discuss preliminary wear results for metallic glasses with densities in the range of 4.5 to 7.9 g/cc. The wear behavior of these materials will be compared to similar metals and alloys.

  5. Switchable Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) Thermal Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Materials and systems are being designed and developed to meet complex operational requirements while being kept lightweight, efficient, and robust. Multifunctional...

  6. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-12-16

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors.

  7. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors

  8. Competition between elements during mechanical alloying in an octonary multi-principal-element alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-L.; Hu, Y.-H.; Hsieh, C.-A.; Yeh, J.-W.; Chen, S.-K.

    2009-01-01

    The competition between the constituent elements of the Cu 0.5 NiAlCoCrFeTiMo alloy system during mechanical alloying was investigated and ranked with their alloying rates in getting alloyed in the mixture. By using XRD analysis, EDS mapping, extended X-ray absorption fine structure technique, and synchrotron radiation diffraction, the alloying sequence for the present alloy system is determined as Al → Cu → Co → Ni → Fe → Ti → Cr → Mo in the order of decreasing alloying rate. The alloying rate is found to correlate best with the melting point of the elements among metallurgical factors. The mechanism for this correlation is explained through the effect of melting point on solid-state diffusion and mechanical disintegration which are critical for the final alloying. This finding is valuable in predicting the alloying sequence of elements, and thus the phase evolution in multi-component alloys during mechanical alloying.

  9. Contact materials for thermostable resistors on the base of Ni-Re alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusipov, H.Yu.; Glasman, L.I.; Arskaya, E.P.; Lazarev, Eh.M.; Korotkov, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    Given are the electron diffraction analysis results and the operational characteristics of the contact materials, used in the heat-resistant thin-filmed resistors (TFR), made on the basis of the Ni-Re system alloy. The results are compared with the pure nickel. Operational tests of the thin-filmed resistors, having (NR10-VP) alloy contacts, showed that the departure of the resistors nominals is almost twice as small as that for the resistors, having pure nickel contacts. The use of this alloy permits to increase the thermal stability and durability of the TFRs, if they are used under extreme conditions

  10. Laser-assisted development of titanium alloys: the search for new biomedical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Amelia; Gupta, Dheeraj; Vilar, Rui

    2011-02-01

    Ti-alloys used in prosthetic applications are mostly alloys initially developed for aeronautical applications, so their behavior was not optimized for medical use. A need remains to design new alloys for biomedical applications, where requirements such as biocompatibility, in-body durability, specific manufacturing ability, and cost effectiveness are considered. Materials for this application must present excellent biocompatibility, ductility, toughness and wear and corrosion resistance, a large laser processing window and low sensitivity to changes in the processing parameters. Laser deposition has been investigated in order to access its applicability to laser based manufactured implants. In this study, variable powder feed rate laser cladding has been used as a method for the combinatorial investigation of new alloy systems that offers a unique possibility for the rapid and exhaustive preparation of a whole range of alloys with compositions variable along a single clad track. This method was used as to produce composition gradient Ti-Mo alloys. Mo has been used since it is among the few elements biocompatible, non-toxic β-Ti phase stabilizers. Alloy tracks with compositions in the range 0-19 wt.%Mo were produced and characterized in detail as a function of composition using microscale testing procedures for screening of compositions with promising properties. Microstructural analysis showed that alloys with Mo content above 8% are fully formed of β phase grains. However, these β grains present a cellular substructure that is associated to a Ti and Mo segregation pattern that occurs during solidification. Ultramicroindentation tests carried out to evaluate the alloys' hardness and Young's modulus showed that Ti-13%Mo alloys presented the lowest hardness and Young's modulus (70 GPa) closer to that of bone than common Ti alloys, thus showing great potential for implant applications.

  11. Oxidation behaviour of silicon-free tungsten alloys for use as the first wall material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, F.; Brinkmann, J.; Lindig, S.; Mishra, T. P.; Linsmeier, Ch

    2011-12-01

    The use of self-passivating tungsten alloys as armour material of the first wall of a fusion power reactor may be advantageous concerning safety issues. In earlier studies good performance of the system W-Cr-Si was demonstrated. Thin films of such alloys showed a strongly reduced oxidation rate compared to pure tungsten. However, the formation of brittle tungsten silicides may be disadvantageous for the powder metallurgical production of bulk W-Cr-Si alloys if a good workability is needed. This paper shows the results of screening tests to identify suitable silicon-free alloys with distinguished self-passivation and a potentially good workability. Of all the tested systems W-Cr-Ti alloys showed the most promising results. The oxidation rate was even lower than the one of W-Cr-Si alloys, the reduction factor was about four orders of magnitude compared to pure tungsten. This performance could be conserved even if the content of alloying elements was reduced.

  12. Oxidation behaviour of silicon-free tungsten alloys for use as the first wall material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F; Brinkmann, J; Lindig, S; Mishra, T P; Linsmeier, Ch

    2011-01-01

    The use of self-passivating tungsten alloys as armour material of the first wall of a fusion power reactor may be advantageous concerning safety issues. In earlier studies good performance of the system W-Cr-Si was demonstrated. Thin films of such alloys showed a strongly reduced oxidation rate compared to pure tungsten. However, the formation of brittle tungsten silicides may be disadvantageous for the powder metallurgical production of bulk W-Cr-Si alloys if a good workability is needed. This paper shows the results of screening tests to identify suitable silicon-free alloys with distinguished self-passivation and a potentially good workability. Of all the tested systems W-Cr-Ti alloys showed the most promising results. The oxidation rate was even lower than the one of W-Cr-Si alloys, the reduction factor was about four orders of magnitude compared to pure tungsten. This performance could be conserved even if the content of alloying elements was reduced.

  13. Material characteristic of Ti alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoshima, Noboru

    1997-03-01

    In regard to material characteristic of Ti alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), the following matters are provided by experiments. 1) In high temperature permeation behavior of implanted deuterium ion (0.5keV, 6.4 x 10 18 D + ions/m 2 s, ∼760deg K), the ratio of permeation flux to incident flux ranges from 3.3 x 10 -3 at 633deg K to 4.8 x 10 -3 at 753deg K. The activation energy of permeation is 0.12eV in this temperature region above 600deg K. At temperatures below 600deg K, the permeation flux of deuterium decreases drastically and the implanted ions remain in the alloy. 2) Radioactivation analysis using 14MeV fast neutron shows that Ti-6Al-4V alloy contains higher values of principal ingredients, Al, V, Fe, than that recorded at the chemical composition of Ti alloy, and also, contains impurities with Ni, Co and Mn. 3) Fraction of about 0.095wt% H 2 were absorbed in the test specimens, and tensile strength test was carried out. Under the condition of the hydrogen pressure 50 torr and temperature ∼500degC. The results show that there is no degradation in mechanical properties for absorption of with less than 0.04wt% H 2 . The tensile strength of wilding specimens have almost the same as that without wilding. Ti alloy, as a material of vacuum vessel of nuclear fusion device, must be selected to that with less impurities, particularly Co, by radioactivation analysis, and must be used under the temperature of 200-300degC, where hydrogen absorption does not make too progress. It is considered that Ti alloy can be used with less than 0.04wt% H 2 absorption in viewpoint of material mechanical strength. (author)

  14. Intermetallic alloys - overview on new materials developments for structural applications in West Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthoff, G.

    1990-01-01

    As a result of recent research on intermetallics for high-temperature applications several alloy systems which are based on intermetallics are regarded as promising for new materials developments, and respective developments have been initiated in West Germany. The present work is aimed a lightweight materials on one hand and at high-temperature high-strength materials on the other hand. The overview surveys the work in West Germany on γ-TiAl, Ti 5 Si 3 -based alloys, Mg 2 Si-Al, NiAl-Cr, Al 3 Nb-NiAl and Laves phase-based alloys, and the mechanical properties - strength, ductility and/or toughness - are described. (orig.) [de

  15. Computational dynamics of laser alloyed metallic materials for improved corrosion performance: computational dynamics of laser alloyed metallic materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fatoba, OS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser alloying is a material processing method which utilizes the high power density available from defocused laser beam to melt both metal coatings and a part of the underlying substrate. Since melting occur solitary at the surface, large...

  16. Fundamentals of radiation materials science metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Was, Gary S

    2017-01-01

    The revised second edition of this established text offers readers a significantly expanded introduction to the effects of radiation on metals and alloys. It describes the various processes that occur when energetic particles strike a solid, inducing changes to the physical and mechanical properties of the material. Specifically it covers particle interaction with the metals and alloys used in nuclear reactor cores and hence subject to intense radiation fields. It describes the basics of particle-atom interaction for a range of particle types, the amount and spatial extent of the resulting radiation damage, the physical effects of irradiation and the changes in mechanical behavior of irradiated metals and alloys. Updated throughout, some major enhancements for the new edition include improved treatment of low- and intermediate-energy elastic collisions and stopping power, expanded sections on molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methodologies describing collision cascade evolution, new treatment of t...

  17. Problems of the supply of raw materials for steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferkamp, H.

    1975-01-01

    A survey is given on the supply of raw metals, of the alloy elements Mn, Cr, Ni, Mo, W, Co, V, which play an important part as 'steel-refining elements' in the steel-producing industry, and of the special metals Nb and Te. This information is followed by a comparison of the supply situation for crude oil and for the basic material iron are, an assessment on the future development of demand and production with an assumed shortage of raw materials, the solutions to the supply problems of the steel industry, and the national raw materials policy. (HK/AK) [de

  18. Smart tungsten alloys as a material for the first wall of a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Unterberg, B.; Coenen, J. W.; Du, H.; Mayer, J.; Garcia-Rosales, C.; Calvo, A.; Ordas, N.

    2017-06-01

    Tungsten is currently deemed as a promising plasma-facing material (PFM) for the future power plant DEMO. In the case of an accident, air can get into contact with PFMs during the air ingress. The temperature of PFMs can rise up to 1200 °C due to nuclear decay heat in the case of damaged coolant supply. Heated neutron-activated tungsten forms a volatile radioactive oxide which can be mobilized into the atmosphere. New self-passivating ‘smart’ alloys can adjust their properties to the environment. During plasma operation the preferential sputtering of lighter alloying elements will leave an almost pure tungsten surface facing the plasma. During an accident the alloying elements in the bulk are forming oxides thus protecting tungsten from mobilization. Good plasma performance and the suppression of oxidation are required for smart alloys. Bulk tungsten (W)-chroimum (Cr)-titanium (Ti) alloys were exposed together with pure tungsten (W) samples to the steady-state deuterium plasma under identical conditions in the linear plasma device PSI 2. The temperature of the samples was ~576 °C-715 °C, the energy of impinging ions was 210 eV matching well the conditions expected at the first wall of DEMO. Weight loss measurements demonstrated similar mass decrease of smart alloys and pure tungsten samples. The oxidation of exposed samples has proven no effect of plasma exposure on the oxidation resistance. The W-Cr-Ti alloy demonstrated advantageous 3-fold lower mass gain due to oxidation than that of pure tungsten. New yttrium (Y)-containing thin film systems are demonstrating superior performance in comparison to that of W-Cr-Ti systems and of pure W. The oxidation rate constant of W-Cr-Y thin film is 105 times less than that of pure tungsten. However, the detected reactivity of the bulk smart alloy in humid atmosphere is calling for a further improvement.

  19. Assessment Of Usability Of Molten Salt Mixtures In Metallurgy Of Aluminum Alloys And Recycling Of Composite Materials Based On The Matrix Of Al Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackowski J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of the slags used in metallurgy of aluminum alloys and in recycling of composite materials containing these alloys depends on their surface properties at the phase boundaries they are in contact with. An index of surface properties of molten mixtures of slag-forming salts has been formulated. Its calculated values are compared with measured results of surface tension (liquid – atmosphere and interfacial tension (liquid – liquid in the considered systems. It was found that the index can be helpful for purposes of proper choice of the mixtures of slag-forming salts used both in Al alloys metallurgy and in recycling of composite materials based on the matrix of Al alloys.

  20. A new class of natural magnetic materials - The ordering alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, Peter

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that tetrataenite (approximately FeNi), found in many meteorites, and Josephinite (approximately FeNi3), found in many serpentinized peridotites and possibly in Allende, are atomically ordered alloys. Data are presented, showing magnetic hysteresis loops, coercivity-temperature behavior at cryogenic temperatures, and thermomagnetic curves, that show that these ordered magnetic materials have unique magnetic properties and do not fit the conventional rock magnetism paradigms represented by Fe3O4 serpentinites. The ordered state is characterized by induced magnetic anisotropy, reaching the extreme for the tetragonal truly uniaxial anisotropy in FeNi. It is suggested that these ordered magnetic alloys should be considered a new class of natural magnetic materials.

  1. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Selection of candidate alloys. Vol. 1. Advanced gas cooled reactor systems definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin, M.D.

    1978-10-31

    Candidate alloys for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heal (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications in terms of the effect of the primary coolant exposure and thermal exposure were evaluated. (FS)

  2. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Selection of candidate alloys. Vol. 1. Advanced gas cooled reactor systems definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvin, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    Candidate alloys for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heal (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications in terms of the effect of the primary coolant exposure and thermal exposure were evaluated

  3. Spin injection from Heusler alloys into semiconductors: A materials perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, R.; Ramsteiner, M.

    2013-05-01

    The notion of using electron spins as bits for highly efficient computation coupled with non-volatile data storage has driven an intense international research effort over the past decade. Such an approach, known as spin-based electronics or spintronics, is considered to be a promising alternative to charge-based electronics in future integrated circuit technologies. Many proposed spin-based devices, such as the well-known spin-transistor, require injection of spin polarized currents from ferromagnetic layers into semiconductor channels, where the degree of injected spin polarization is crucial to the overall device performance. Several ferromagnetic Heusler alloys are predicted to be half-metallic, meaning 100% spin-polarized at the Fermi level, and hence considered to be excellent candidates for electrical spin injection. Furthermore, they exhibit high Curie temperatures and close lattice matching to III-V semiconductors. Despite their promise, Heusler alloy/semiconductor heterostructures investigated in the past decade have failed to fulfill the expectation of near perfect spin injection and in certain cases have even demonstrated inferior behavior compared to their elemental ferromagnetic counterparts. To address this problem, a slew of theoretical and experimental work has emerged studying Heusler alloy/semiconductor interface properties. Here, we review the dominant prohibitive materials challenges that have been identified, namely atomic disorder in the Heusler alloy and in-diffusion of magnetic impurities into the semiconductor, and their ensuing detrimental effects on spin injection. To mitigate these effects, we propose the incorporation of half-metallic Heusler alloys grown at high temperatures (>200 °C) along with insertion of a MgO tunnel barrier at the ferromagnet/semiconductor interface to minimize magnetic impurity in-diffusion and potentially act as a spin-filter. By considering evidence from a variety of structural, optical, and electrical

  4. Mechanical alloying of the FeNi-Ag system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Ibarra, D.; Ochoa, J.; Villalba, R.; Sagarzazu, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Fe-Ni-Ag system is of particular interest for its potential applications as soft magnetic granular material with small magnetic grains embedded in a non-magnetic metal matrix. Under equilibrium conditions: Fe-Ag and Ni-Ag are immiscible and Fe-Ni shows complete solubility. These materials are particularly important for magnetoresistivity properties. The properties of these alloys are closely related to their microstructure; therefore, a detailed study of the transformations occurring during milling was undertaken using pre-alloyed Fe x Ni 100-x (x = 30, 50 and 70) further milled with different Ag content to give the following alloys compositions (Fe x -Ni 100-x ) 100-y Ag y (y = 5, 20, 60). Consolidation of the mechanically alloyed powders by sintering at 950 o C was performed. Morphological and structural characterization of the sintered powders was carried out by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Fe 30 Ni 70 and Fe 50 Ni 50 formed ordered FeNi 3 compound. Fe 70 Ni 30 showed the formation of a mixture of γ-(Fe,Ni) and α-Fe(Ni) solid solutions. The mixture of these systems with Ag showed the metal solid solutions surrounded by Ag islands of Fe x Ni y -Ag, There was also evidence of Ag diffusing into the γ-(Fe,Ni). High Ag content (60%) shows formation of islands of FeNi surrounded by Ag. Sintering is always improved with the Ag content

  5. Passivation and corrosion of the high performance materials alloy 33, alloy 31 and nickel in LiBr solution at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igual Munoz, A.; Garcia Anton, J.; Guinon, J.L.; Perez Herranz, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. E.T.S. Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of Lithium Bromide are employed as absorbent solutions for almost all types of heating and refrigerating absorption systems that use natural gas or steam as energy sources. LiBr solutions can cause serious corrosion problems in common metallic components. The objective of the present work was to study the corrosion resistance of new high alloyed materials in commercial LiBr heavy brine solution (which contains chromate as inhibitor), at different temperatures (25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 deg. C). The materials tested were stainless steels Alloy 33 (UNS R20033), a new corrosion resistant austenitic material alloyed with nominally (wt%) 33 Cr, 32 Fe, 31 Ni; Nicrofer 3127 hMo-alloy 31 (UNS N08031), an iron-nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with nitrogen; and pure Nickel. Corrosion resistance was estimated from the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves, comparing OCP values, calculating corrosion potentials and current rates from Tafel analysis; in order to characterize the passivating behaviour of the alloys the study was completed with the analysis of the pitting potentials, passivating current and re-passivating properties at the temperatures under study. Passivating properties are well observed in all the samples in commercial LiBr solution at all temperatures. In these cases, passivation properties decrease with temperature. (authors)

  6. Smart materials based on shape memory alloys: examples from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotthardt, R.; Scherrer, P.

    2000-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have become increasingly attractive as embedded actuators in polymers yielding adaptive composite structures. In particular, SMA-elements have been used to actively or passively control shape, elastic modules, internal stress level and damping capacity of such smart composites. In the passive approach, copper-base SMA-plates can be used as temperature-sensitive damping elements, an interesting solution to improve the vibrational behaviour of alpine skis for example. Active materials are obtained by the integration of pre-strained Ni-Ti-base thin wires in polymer matrix composites enabling control of the vibrational behaviour through the recovery-stress tuning technique. In this paper, some results of national research programmes in Belgium and Switzerland, mainly concerning the damping capacity, are shown and a new European project entitled ''adaptive composites with embedded shape memory alloy wires'' is presented in which partners from Belgium, Germany, Greece, Great Britain and Switzerland are collaborating. (orig.)

  7. Replacement of Co-base alloy for radiation exposure reduction in the primary system of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeong Ho; Nyo, Kye Ho; Lee, Deok Hyun; Lim, Deok Jae; Ahn, Jin Keun; Kim, Sun Jin

    1996-01-01

    Of numerous Co-free alloys developed to replace Co-base stellite used in valve hardfacing material, two iron-base alloys of Armacor M and Tristelle 5183 and one nickel-base alloy of Nucalloy 488 were selected as candidate Co-free alloys, and Stellite 6 was also selected as a standard hardfacing material. These four alloys were welded on 316SS substrate using TIG welding method. The first corrosion test loop of KAERI simulating the water chemistry and operation condition of the primary system of PWR was designed and fabricated. Corrosion behaviors of the above four kinds of alloys were evaluated using this test loop under the condition of 300 deg C, 1500 psi. Microstructures of weldment of these alloys were observed to identify both matrix and secondary phase in each weldment. Hardnesses of weld deposit layer including HAZ and substrate were measured using micro-Vickers hardness tester. The status on the technology of Co-base alloy replacement in valve components was reviewed with respect to the classification of valves to be replaced, the development of Co-free alloys, the application of Co-free alloys and its experiences in foreign NPPs, and the Co reduction program in domestic NPPs and industries. 18 tabs., 20 figs., 22 refs. (Author)

  8. NiTi Alloys: New Materials that enable Shockproof, Corrosion Immune Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Though steel is the dominant material of choice for mechanical components (bearings and gears) it has intrinsic limitations related to corrosion and plastic deformation. In contrast, dimensionally stable nickel-rich Ni-Ti alloys, such as Nitinol 60, are intrinsically rustproof and can withstand high contact loads without damage (denting). Over the last decade, focused RD to exploit these alloys for new applications has revealed the science behind NiTi's remarkable properties. In this presentation, the state-of-the-art of nickel-rich NiTi alloys will be introduced along with a discussion of how NASA is adopting this new technology inside the space station water recycling system as a pathfinder for more down-to-earth tribological challenges.

  9. New materials options for nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Garner, F.A.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gelles, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Development of new materials for nuclear reactor systems is continuing to produce options for improved reactor designs. Materials with reduced environment-induced crack growth is a key materials issue for the light water reactor (LWR) industry while the development of low activation ferritic, austenitic and vanadium alloys has been an active area for materials development for fusion reactor structural applications. Development of advanced materials such as metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites for reactor systems have received a limited amount of attention. (author)

  10. Thermodynamic considerations for the use of vanadium alloys with ceramic breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.E.; Johnson, I.; Kopasz, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Fusion energy is considered to be an attractive energy form because of its minimal environmental impact. In order to maintain this favorable status, every effort needs to be made to use low activation materials wherever possible. The tritium breeder blanket is a focal point of system design engineers who must design environmentally attractive blankets through the use of low activation materials. Of the several candidate lithium-containing ceramics being considered for use in the breeder blanket, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, are attractive choices because of their low activation. Also, low activation materials like the vanadium alloys are being considered for use as structural materials in the blanket. The suitability of vanadium alloys for containment of lithium ceramics is the subject of this study. Thermodynamic evaluations are being used to estimate the compatibility and stability of candidate ceramic breeder materials (Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) with vanadium and vanadium alloys. This thermodynamic evaluation will focus first on solid-solid interactions. As a tritium breeding blanket will use a purge gas for tritium recovery, gas-solid systems will also receive attention.

  11. Thermodynamic considerations for the use of vanadium alloys with ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.; Johnson, I.; Kopasz, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Fusion energy is considered to be an attractive energy form because of its minimal environmental impact. In order to maintain this favorable status, every effort needs to be made to use low activation materials wherever possible. The tritium breeder blanket is a focal point of system design engineers who must design environmentally attractive blankets through the use of low activation materials. Of the several candidate lithium-containing ceramics being considered for use in the breeder blanket, Li 2 O, Li 2 TiO 3 , are attractive choices because of their low activation. Also, low activation materials like the vanadium alloys are being considered for use as structural materials in the blanket. The suitability of vanadium alloys for containment of lithium ceramics is the subject of this study. Thermodynamic evaluations are being used to estimate the compatibility and stability of candidate ceramic breeder materials (Li 2 O, Li 2 TiO 3 , and Li 2 ZrO 3 ) with vanadium and vanadium alloys. This thermodynamic evaluation will focus first on solid-solid interactions. As a tritium breeding blanket will use a purge gas for tritium recovery, gas-solid systems will also receive attention

  12. Mechanical alloying of powder materials by ultrasonic milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordyuk, B N; Prokopenko, G I

    2004-04-01

    An ultrasonic grinding mill was designed. It permits to carry out simultaneously intensive ultrasonic, mechanical and cavitation treatments of powder materials that in turn leads to sharp acceleration of diffusion, mass-transfer processes and solid phase reactions due to crystallite size and structure changing. It was shown that meta-stable non-equilibrium solid solution (Cu+Ni+Fe, Fe+C), and crystalline structure transformed (Fe(4)N: fcc-hcp transformation) powders could be obtained for the much shorter time in compare with traditional mechanical alloying in planetary ball mill.

  13. Bismuth Telluride and Its Alloys as Materials for Thermoelectric Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Julian Goldsmid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth telluride and its alloys are widely used as materials for thermoelectric refrigeration. They are also the best materials for use in thermoelectric generators when the temperature of the heat source is moderate. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, usually rises with temperature, as long as there is only one type of charge carrier. Eventually, though, minority carrier conduction becomes significant and ZT decreases above a certain temperature. There is also the possibility of chemical decomposition due to the vaporization of tellurium. Here we discuss the likely temperature dependence of the thermoelectric parameters and the means by which the composition may be optimized for applications above room temperature. The results of these theoretical predictions are compared with the observed properties of bismuth telluride-based thermoelements at elevated temperatures. Compositional changes are suggested for materials that are destined for generator modules.

  14. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center); Ellis, D.L. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  15. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications

  16. Design of Radiation-Tolerant Structural Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, T.R.; Was, G.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Ukai, S.

    2005-12-28

    The objective of this program is to improve the radiation tolerance of both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys projected for use in Generation IV systems. The expected materials limitations of Generation IV components include: creep strength, dimensional stability, and corrosion/stress corrosion compatibility. The material design strategies to be tested fall into three main categories: (1) engineering grain boundaries; (2) alloying, by adding oversized elements to the matrix; and (3) microstructural/nanostructural design, such as adding matrix precipitates. These three design strategies were tested across both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloy classes

  17. Squeeze Casting Method Of AI-Si Alloy For Piston Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagiyo, H.; Dani, Muhammad; Sulistioso, G.S.; Pardede, Elman; Handayani, Ari; Teguh, Yulius S.P.P.

    2001-01-01

    The AI-Si alloy is an alloy used as piston material. This alloys could be as AI-Si hypereutectic alloy (Si content more than 12.5 % wt.), as AI-Si eutectic alloy (Si cuntent 12.5 % wt, and as AI-Si hypoeutectic alloy (Si content less than 12.5 % wt.). The synthesize of AI-Si alloy piston generally using the technique of gravity casting in a dies. This method is causing high porousity. By using the squeeze technique, amount ofporousity in AI-Si alloy is possibly reduced and the density of this alloy should be higher. The other factors such as alloying elements of AI-Si alloy (Mg. Cu, Zn) would increase the mechanical properties especially the hardness. The focuses of this research are the microstructure and the maximum hardness during the heat treatment of AI-Si alloy which was added by alloying elments. The result of hardness at test shows the maximum hardness at 94.7 kg/mm 2 obtained at aging temperature of 210 o C for hours with homogenous dendritic microstructure

  18. Optical and electronic properties of GaInNP alloys - a new material system for lattice matching to GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyanova, I.A.; Chen, W.M.; Tu, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we review our recent results from optical characterization studies of GaInNP. We show that N incorporation in these alloys affects their structural and defect properties, as well as the electronic structure. The main structural changes include (i) increasing carrier localization due to strong compositional fluctuations, which is typical for all dilute nitrides, and (ii) N-induced long range ordering effects, specific for GaInNP. The observed degradation of radiative efficiency of the alloys upon increasing N content is attributed to formation of several defects acting as centres of efficient non-radiative recombination. One of the defects is identified as a complex involving a Ga interstitial atom. N incorporation is also found to change the band line up from the type I in the GaInP/GaAs structures to the type II in the GaInNP/GaAs heterojunctions with [N]>0.5%. For the range of N compositions studied ([N]≤2%), a conduction band offset at the GaInNP/GaAs interface is found to nearly linearly depend on [N] at -0.10 eV/%, whereas the valence band offset remains unaffected. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Strength and fracture of two-phase alloys: a comparison of two alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurland, J.

    1978-01-01

    The functional roles of the hard and soft constituents in the deformation and fracture of two-phase alloys are discussed on the basis of two commercially important alloy systems, namely spheroidized carbon steels and cemented carbides, WC-Co. A modified rule of mixtures provides a structural approach to the yield and flow strength. Consideration of the fracture toughness is attempted by means of a phenomenological modelling of the fracture process on the microscale. While there are large differences in properties between the two alloys, the deformation and fracture processes show broad smilarities which are associated with the features of the interaction between constituents common to both alloys

  20. Resources and recycling of secondary raw materials as basis for aluminum alloys production

    OpenAIRE

    Aćimović-Pavlović, Zagorka; Simović, Đuro; Andrić, Ljubiša

    2012-01-01

    Raw materials which represent basis for 'secondary' aluminum alloys are waste and scrap of pure aluminum and its alloys, as well as waste and scrap of various materials which contain aluminum or its alloys. Hence aluminum residues are numerous and they appear on various places, there is alerting open question considering necessity of collecting, preparing and processing, i.e. returning aluminum waste into the recycling process. Aluminum recycling can be considered from different point of view...

  1. Novel phase diagram behavior and materials design in heterostructural semiconductor alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Holder, Aaron M.; Siol, Sebastian; Ndione, Paul F.; Peng, Haowei; Deml, Ann M.; Matthews, Bethany E.; Schelhas, Laura T.; Toney, Michael F.; Gordon, Roy G.; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D.; Ginley, David S.; Gorman, Brian P.; Tate, Janet; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2017-01-01

    Structure and composition control the behavior of materials. Isostructural alloying is historically an extremely successful approach for tuning materials properties, but it is often limited by binodal and spinodal decomposition, which correspond to the thermodynamic solubility limit and the stability against composition fluctuations, respectively. We show that heterostructural alloys can exhibit a markedly increased range of metastable alloy compositions between the binodal and spinodal lines...

  2. The Examination of the Aluminum Alloy 7017 as a Replacement for the Aluminum Alloy 7039 in Lightweight Armor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Alloy 7039 in Lightweight Armor Systems by Tyrone L Jones and Brian E Placzankis Approved for public release...2016 US Army Research Laboratory The Examination of the Aluminum Alloy 7017 as a Replacement for the Aluminum Alloy 7039 in Lightweight Armor ...Aluminum Alloy 7017 as a Replacement for the Aluminum Alloy 7039 in Lightweight Armor Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  3. Unravelling the materials genome: Symmetry relationships in alloy properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda-Caraballo, Isaac [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Galindo-Nava, Enrique I. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, Delft 2628 CD (Netherlands); Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E.J., E-mail: pejr2@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-25

    Highlights: ► Research strategy for Accelerated Metallurgy project is outlined. ► Surprising symmetry among atomic, nanoscale and mechanical properties. ► Generalisation of Ashby diagrams via principal component analysis. ► Atomic-related properties can be described with linear regression. ► Mechanical properties modelled via Kocks–Mecking-type physical method. -- Abstract: Metals and alloys have been indispensable for technological progress, but only a fraction of the possible ternary systems (combinations of three elements) is known. Statistical inference methods combined with physical models are presented to discover new systems of enhanced properties. It is demonstrated that properties originating from atomic-level interactions can be described employing a linear regression analysis, but properties incorporating microstructural and thermal history effects require a balance between physical and statistical modelling. In spite of this, there is a remarkable degree of symmetry among all properties, and by employing a principal components analysis it is shown that ten properties essential to engineering can be described well in a three dimensional space. This will aid in the discovery of novel alloying systems.

  4. Nanostructured Platinum Alloys for Use as Catalyst Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor); Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A series of binary and ternary Pt-alloys, that promote the important reactions for catalysis at an alloy surface; oxygen reduction, hydrogen oxidation, and hydrogen and oxygen evolution. The first two of these reactions are essential when applying the alloy for use in a PEMFC.

  5. Mapping Chemical Selection Pathways for Designing Multicomponent Alloys: an informatics framework for materials design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srikant; Broderick, Scott R.; Zhang, Ruifeng; Mishra, Amrita; Sinnott, Susan B.; Saxena, Surendra K.; Lebeau, James M.; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-12-01

    A data driven methodology is developed for tracking the collective influence of the multiple attributes of alloying elements on both thermodynamic and mechanical properties of metal alloys. Cobalt-based superalloys are used as a template to demonstrate the approach. By mapping the high dimensional nature of the systematics of elemental data embedded in the periodic table into the form of a network graph, one can guide targeted first principles calculations that identify the influence of specific elements on phase stability, crystal structure and elastic properties. This provides a fundamentally new means to rapidly identify new stable alloy chemistries with enhanced high temperature properties. The resulting visualization scheme exhibits the grouping and proximity of elements based on their impact on the properties of intermetallic alloys. Unlike the periodic table however, the distance between neighboring elements uncovers relationships in a complex high dimensional information space that would not have been easily seen otherwise. The predictions of the methodology are found to be consistent with reported experimental and theoretical studies. The informatics based methodology presented in this study can be generalized to a framework for data analysis and knowledge discovery that can be applied to many material systems and recreated for different design objectives.

  6. Mapping Chemical Selection Pathways for Designing Multicomponent Alloys: an informatics framework for materials design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srikant; Broderick, Scott R; Zhang, Ruifeng; Mishra, Amrita; Sinnott, Susan B; Saxena, Surendra K; LeBeau, James M; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-12-18

    A data driven methodology is developed for tracking the collective influence of the multiple attributes of alloying elements on both thermodynamic and mechanical properties of metal alloys. Cobalt-based superalloys are used as a template to demonstrate the approach. By mapping the high dimensional nature of the systematics of elemental data embedded in the periodic table into the form of a network graph, one can guide targeted first principles calculations that identify the influence of specific elements on phase stability, crystal structure and elastic properties. This provides a fundamentally new means to rapidly identify new stable alloy chemistries with enhanced high temperature properties. The resulting visualization scheme exhibits the grouping and proximity of elements based on their impact on the properties of intermetallic alloys. Unlike the periodic table however, the distance between neighboring elements uncovers relationships in a complex high dimensional information space that would not have been easily seen otherwise. The predictions of the methodology are found to be consistent with reported experimental and theoretical studies. The informatics based methodology presented in this study can be generalized to a framework for data analysis and knowledge discovery that can be applied to many material systems and recreated for different design objectives.

  7. Development of a new β Ti alloy with low modulus and favorable plasticity for implant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, S.X., E-mail: liangshx@hebeu.edu.cn [College of Equipment Manufacture, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, Hebei (China); Feng, X.J.; Yin, L.X.; Liu, X.Y. [College of Equipment Manufacture, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, Hebei (China); Ma, M.Z., E-mail: mz550509@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important development directions of the Ti and its alloys is the applications in medical field. Development of new Ti alloys with low elastic modulus and/or favorable biocompatibility plays an important role for promoting its application in medical field. In this work, a new β Ti alloy (Ti–31Nb–6Zr–5Mo, wt.%) was designed for implant material using d-electron alloy design method. Microstructure and tensile properties of the designed alloy after hot rolling (HR) and solution followed by aging treatments (SA) were investigated. Results show that the designed alloy is composed of single β phase. However, microstructural analysis shows that the β phase in the designed alloy separates into Nb-rich and Nb-poor phase regions. The Nb-rich regions in HR specimen are typical elongated fiber texture, but are equiaxed particles with several micrometers in SA specimen. Tensile results show that the designed alloy has low Young's modulus of 44 GPa for HR specimen and 48 GPa for SA specimen which are very close to the extreme of Young's modulus of bulk titanium alloys. At the same time, the designed alloy has favorable plasticity in term of elongation of 26.7% for HR specimen and 20.6% for SA specimen, and appropriate tensile strength over 700 MPa. In short, the designed alloy has low elastic modulus close to that of bone and favorable plasticity and strength which can be a potential candidate for hard tissue replacements. - Highlights: • A new Ti alloy was designed and prepared using electron alloy design method. • The alloy has low elastic modulus of 44 GPa, favorable plasticity and strength. • The new designed Ti alloy is fully composed of β phase. • Phase separation occurs in the new designed Ti alloy.

  8. Defining a Materials Database for the Design of Copper Binary Alloy Catalysts for Electrochemical CO2Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Woo; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Dae-Hyun; Jang, Jun Ho; Cho, Nam Heon; Im, Sang Won; Nam, Ki Tae

    2018-01-24

    While Cu electrodes are a versatile material in the electrochemical production of desired hydrocarbon fuels, Cu binary alloy electrodes are recently proposed to further tune reaction directionality and, more importantly, overcome the intrinsic limitation of scaling relations. Despite encouraging empirical demonstrations of various Cu-based metal alloy systems, the underlying principles of their outstanding performance are not fully addressed. In particular, possible phase segregation with concurrent composition changes, which is widely observed in the field of metallurgy, is not at all considered. Moreover, surface-exposed metals can easily form oxide species, which is another pivotal factor that determines overall catalytic properties. Here, the understanding of Cu binary alloy catalysts for CO 2 reduction and recent progress in this field are discussed. From the viewpoint of the thermodynamic stability of the alloy system and elemental mixing, possible microstructures and naturally generated surface oxide species are proposed. These basic principles of material science can help to predict and understand metal alloy structure and, moreover, act as an inspiration for the development of new binary alloy catalysts to further improve CO 2 conversion and, ultimately, achieve a carbon-neutral cycle. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Evaluation of the Control Rod Super Alloy Material of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengjun; Yan He; Diao Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    The control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) system is served as the first reactivity control and shutdown system for the high temperature reactor pebble-bed module (HTR-PM) in Shandong, China. And the control rod, which is pulled up and down by a chain sprocket mechanism of CRDM to realize reactivity control, compensation and shutdown, has to be durable under temperature as high as 550℃ for a long time. Thus the material persistent strength under high temperature is quite important for the reliability of the CRDM. In this paper, a review on material selection of control rod of high temperature gas cooled reactors, including AVR and THTR-300 in Germany, HTTR in Japan, PBMR in South Africa and Dragon in Britain, was summarized. The major parameters of two kinds of high temperature alloy, incoloy 800H and alloy 625, were compared and discussed. According to the ASME NH volume, a design criterion for the control rod was established and applied in the analysis of the chain by using finite element method. The numerical simulations showed that the chain made of alloy 625 could meet the condition and work for a long time under high temperature. (author)

  10. Corrosion of copper alloys in sulphide containing district heting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    Copper and some copper alloys are prone to corrosion in sulphide containing geothermal water analogous to corrosion observed in district heating systems containing sulphide due to sulphate reducing bacteria. In order to study the corrosion of copper alloys under practical conditions a test...... was carried out at four sites in the Reykjavik District Heating System. The geothermal water chemistry is different at each site. The corrosion rate and the amount and chemical composition of deposits on weight loss coupons of six different copper alloys are described after exposure of 12 and 18 months......, respectively. Some major differences in scaling composition and the degree of corrosion attack are observed between alloys and water types....

  11. Biodegradability and platelets adhesion assessment of magnesium-based alloys using a microfluidic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumei Liu

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg-based stents are extensively explored to alleviate atherosclerosis due to their biodegradability and relative hemocompatibility. To ensure the quality, safety and cost-efficacy of bioresorbable scaffolds and full utilization of the material tunability afforded by alloying, it is critical to access degradability and thrombosis potential of Mg-based alloys using improved in vitro models that mimic as closely as possible the in vivo microenvironment. In this study, we investigated biodegradation and initial thrombogenic behavior of Mg-based alloys at the interface between Mg alloys' surface and simulated physiological environment using a microfluidic system. The degradation properties of Mg-based alloys WE43, AZ31, ZWEK-L, and ZWEK-C were evaluated in complete culture medium and their thrombosis potentials in platelet rich plasma, respectively. The results show that 1 physiological shear stress increased the corrosion rate and decreased platelets adhesion rate as compared to static immersion; 2 secondary phases and impurities in material composition induced galvanic corrosion, resulting in higher corrosion resistance and platelet adhesion rate; 3 Mg-based alloys with higher corrosion rate showed higher platelets adhesion rate. We conclude that a microfluidic-based in vitro system allows evaluation of biodegradation behaviors and platelets responses of Mg-based alloys under specific shear stress, and degradability is related to platelets adhesion.

  12. Microstructure, cytotoxicity and corrosion of powder-metallurgical iron alloys for biodegradable bone replacement materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Bernd; Sievers, Birte; Utzschneider, Sandra; Mueller, Peter; Jansson, Volkmar [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Muenchen (Germany); Roessler, Sophie; Nies, Berthold [InnoTERE GmbH, Tatzberg 47, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Stephani, Guenter; Kieback, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden Branch Lab, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Quadbeck, Peter, E-mail: peter.quadbeck@ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden Branch Lab, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Up to now biodegradable bone implants with the ability of bearing high loads for the temporary replacement of bones or as osteosynthesis material are not available. Iron and iron based alloys have been identified as appropriate materials, since they combine high strength at medium corrosion rates. Thus, the aim of the present study is the development of a degradable iron based alloy with the perspective of using them as matrix material of cellular structures with biomechanical tailored properties. A powder metallurgical approach has been used to manufacture Fe-C, Fe-0.6P, Fe-1.6P, Fe-B and Fe-Ag samples, which have been tested with respect to their microstructure, their cytotoxicity, and their degradation rate. In order to determine the cytotoxicity of the material a monolayer culture of fibroblast and a perfusion chamber system has been chosen, which was recommended by the ISO 10993-5:1999 for biological testing of medical devices. It has been found, that in particular phosphorus features beneficial properties, since density and thus the strength of the material are increased. No corrosion inhibiting effects of phosphorus on the degradation rate have been found.

  13. Fretting wear behavior of TA 16 alloy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yafei; Zhang Xiaoyu; Zhu Minhao; Ren Pingdi; Li Changxiang

    2011-01-01

    The fretting wear behavior tests on cylinder contacts of TA16/0Cr18Ni9 have been carried out under the normal load (50 N and 80 N), frequency (2 Hz) and displacement amplitude (from 80 μm to 200 μm) using the hydraulic fretting test machine with a high precision. Experimental results showed that the normal loads and displacement amplitudes may have remarkable influence on the damage degree and injury mechanism of materials. Degree of injury of material increases with the increasing displacement amplitude and normal loads, however, the friction coefficients decrease. Three-body layer consists of two parts: plastic deformation layer and debris layer that has effect on the restriction and control in the fretting wear. The analysis found that there are some micro-crack and delamination in the plastic deformation layer, and the abrasive dust have based mainly on the oxide of titanium and titanium alloys, and attached on the surface of wear. Adhesive wear, abrasive wear and friction oxidation are the main fretting wear mechanism. (authors)

  14. Flexible Material Systems Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John K.; Shook, Lauren S.; Ware, Joanne S.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken to better characterize the stress-strain characteristics of flexible material systems to support a NASA ground test program for inflatable decelerator material technology. A goal of the current study is to investigate experimental methods for the characterization of coated woven material stiffness. This type of experimental mechanics data would eventually be used to define the material inputs of fluid-structure interaction simulation models. The test methodologies chosen for this stress-strain characterization are presented along with the experimental results.

  15. Report on investigations and studies on development of materials for hydrogen absorbing alloys; Suiso kyuzo gokin no zairyo no kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes investigations and studies on hydrogen absorbing alloy materials and the technologies to utilize them. In the investigations and studies, literatures were collected and put into order, questionnaire surveys were performed and analyzed, lecture meetings and panel discussions were held, and the discussion results were summarized. In the present status of developing hydrogen absorbing alloys, the current status of and problems in developing such hydrogen absorbing alloys as Ti-based, Mg-based, and rare earth-based alloys were put into order. Discussions were given on prospects of possibilities of developing new alloys, making them amorphous, and putting them into mass production. In the current status of developing the utilizing technologies, such technologies as hydrogen storage systems and heat pumps were put into order and discussed. With regard to problems in hydrogen absorbing alloys, discussions were given on alloy weight, pulverization, activation, heat conductivity, and alloy costs. In discussing the safety, discussions were given on the safety and compliance with related laws and regulations relative to hydrogen transportation using a great amount of hydrogen absorbing alloys, their storage, and heat storage systems. In addition, questionnaire surveys were carried out with an objective to identify the status of developing hydrogen absorbing alloys and needs from the industries. (NEDO)

  16. [Progress of in vivo study on degradable magnesium alloys application as bone-implant materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhengrong; Zhang, Qiang; Yin, Yi; Wang, Yan

    2012-11-01

    To review the progress of in vivo study on degradable magnesium alloys application as bone-implant materials. Recent literature was extensively reviewed and summarized, concerning the in vivo study on degradable magnesium alloys as orthopaedic implants. Magnesium alloys possess a natural ability to degrade via corrosion in vivo, which is promising candidate material for orthopaedic medical device applications. A great progress has been made to improve in vivo performance and integration with bone tissue. However, the degradation mechanism of magnesium-based materials in the physiological environment and long-term effect on body are not available. The modulation of the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys must also be accomplished. Magnesium alloys have the potential to serve as degradable implants for orthopaedic applications, but a great deal of further investigation is still necessary.

  17. Zr-alloys, the nuclear material for water reactor fuel. A survey and update with focus on fuel for pressurized water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidinger, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a solid overview on the development of the requirements and the respective answers found as far as water cooled fuel rods and assemblies are concerned. It shall be a help as well for designers and manufacturers as also for users of this fuel, because only a broad and consistent knowledge on all aspects of the application of this material in nuclear fuel can guarantee a successful operation under the still increasing requirements in water cooled reactor cores

  18. A Review of TiNiPdCu Alloy System for High Temperature Shape Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Imran; Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    High temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) are important smart materials and possess a significant potential to improve many engineering systems. Many TiNi-based high temperature ternary alloy systems have been reported in literature including TiNiPd, TiNiPt, TiNiZr, TiNiAu, TiNiHf, etc. Some quaternary additions of certain elements in the above systems have been successful to further improve many important shape memory and mechanical properties. The success criteria for an HTSMA become strict in terms of its cyclic stability, maximum recoverable strain, creep resistance, and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. TiNiPdCu alloy system has been recently proposed as a promising HTSMA. Unique nanoscaled precipitates formed in TiNiPdCu-based HTSMAs are found to be stable at temperatures above 773 K, while keeping the benefits of ease of fabrication. It is expected that this alloy system possesses significant potential especially for the high temperature shape memory applications. Till now many research reports have been published on this alloy system. In the present work, a comprehensive review of the TiNiPdCu system is presented in terms of thermomechanical behavior, nanoscale precipitation mechanism, microstructural features, high temperature shape memory and mechanical properties, and the important parameters to control the high temperature performance of these alloys.

  19. [Systemic reactions to orally applied metal alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilzer, A J; Kleverlaan, C J; Prahl, C; Muris, J

    2013-06-01

    Orally applied metal alloys can cause undesirable physical effects. A distinction needs to be made in this respect between local and systemic reactions and toxic and immunological reactions. A case is presented which illustrates this problem. In this case, the application of orthodontic appliances was probably the trigger for an exacerbation of nickel allergy. The oral exposure to nickel resulted in hand eczema. The patient was also exposed to nickel by single-unit fixed dental prostheses, a removable dental prosthesis, and food, as a result of which removal of the orthodontic appliances did not result in complete healing. Therefore, the single-unit fixed dental prostheses also had to be removed and food had to be prepared henceforward in nickel free pans.

  20. AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy as future material for castings of pistons for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents chosen properties and microstructure of AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy as future material for casting pistons in automotive industry. Tests were conducted to elaborate technology of preparation, assessment of crystallisation parameters and shaping the primary structure of the silumin with the aim to improve the working parameters and the functioning efficiency in cylinder-piston system. Refinement of Si crystals, achieved due to overheating above the temperature Tliq. causes that the alloy reaches satisfactory properties in working chamber of the engine are optimised. Such condition of material characteristics causes that hypereutectic silumins, for chosen applications in transport, may serve as an alternative to Al - Si alloys of hypoeutectic and near - eutectic type.

  1. XHM-1 alloy as a promising structural material for water-cooled fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.; Alekseev, A.B.; Kazennov, Yu.I.; Khramtsov, V.F.; Kondrat'ev, V.P.; Krasina, T.A.; Rechitsky, V.N.; Stepankov, V.N.; Votinov, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    Experience gained in utilizing austenitic stainless steel components in water-cooled power reactors indicates that the main cause of their failure is the steel's propensity for corrosion cracking. In search of a material immune to this type of corrosion, different types of austenitic steels and chromium-nickel alloys were investigated and tested at VNIINM. This paper presents the results of studying physical and mechanical properties, irradiation and corrosion resistance in a water coolant at <350 C of the alloy XHM-1 as compared with austenitic stainless steels 00Cr16Ni15Mo3Nb, 00Cr20Ni25Nb and alloy 00Cr20Ni40Mo5Nb. Analysis of the results shows that, as distinct from the stainless steels studied, the XHM-1 alloy is completely immune to corrosion cracking (CC). Not a single induced damage was encountered within 50 to 350 C in water containing different amounts of chlorides and oxygen under tensile stresses up to the yield strength of the material. One more distinctive feature of the alloy compared to steels is that no change in the strength or total elongation is encountered in the alloy specimens irradiated to 32 dpa at 350 C. The XHM-1 alloy has adequate fabricability and high weldability characteristics. As far as its properties are concerned, the XHM-1 alloy is very promising as a material for water-cooled fusion reactor components. (orig.)

  2. Corrosion properties of cladding materials from Zr1Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloc, K.; Kosler, S.

    1975-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour was observed of the Zr1Nb alloy in hot water and superheated steam and the effects of impurity content, of the purity of the corrosion environment and of the heat treatment of the alloy were studied on the alloy corrosion resistance. Also studied were the absorption of hydrogen by the alloy and its behaviour in reactor situations. It was ascertained that the alloy has a good corrosion resistance up to a temperature of 350 degC. The corrosion resistance is reduced by the presence of nitrogen above 50 to 70 ppm and of carbon above 50 to 90 ppm. A graphic representation is given of the dependence of corrosion resistance on the temperature of annealing, the nitrogen content of the alloy and the time of the action of hot water or steam, as well as the dependence of the hydrogen content in the alloy on the peripheral tension of the cladding in hot water both in non-active environment and at irradiation with a neutron flux of approximately 10 20 n/cm 2 . (J.B.)

  3. Radioactive material package closures with the use of shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1997-11-01

    When heated from room temperature to 165 C, some shape memory metal alloys such as titanium-nickel alloys have the ability to return to a previously defined shape or size with dimensional changes up to 7%. In contrast, the thermal expansion of most metals over this temperature range is about 0.1 to 0.2%. The dimension change of shape memory alloys, which occurs during a martensite to austenite phase transition, can generate stresses as high as 700 MPa (100 kspi). These properties can be used to create a closure for radioactive materials packages that provides for easy robotic or manual operations and results in reproducible, tamper-proof seals. This paper describes some proposed closure methods with shape memory alloys for radioactive material packages. Properties of the shape memory alloys are first summarized, then some possible alternative sealing methods discussed, and, finally, results from an initial proof-of-concept experiment described

  4. Corrosion of Aluminum Alloys in the Presence of Fire-Retardant Aircraft Interior Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This research project was to evaluate the potential for fire-retardant materials used in aircraft interiors to cause corrosion of aluminum structural alloys. Service Difficulty Reports (SDR's) were reviewed for several aircraft types, and the most fr...

  5. Nanostructured Shape Memory Alloys: Adaptive Composite Materials and Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crone, Wendy C; Ellis, Arthur B; Perepezko, John H

    2007-01-01

    .... Both SMA-polymer and SMA-metal composites were created, as well as new fabrication strategies for producing NiTi and CuAlNi shape memory alloy particles with refined size which still display shape...

  6. Properties of Mechanically Alloyed W-Ti Materials with Dual Phase Particle Dispersion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáč, František; Vilémová, Monika; Nevrlá, Barbara; Klečka, Jakub; Chráska, Tomáš; Molnárová, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 3. ISSN 2075-4701 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15609S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tungsten-titanium alloys * mechanical alloying * particle dispersion * pulsed electric current sintering * thermal conductivity * bending strength Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 1.984, year: 2016

  7. Small-angle scattering in materials science - a short review of applications in alloys, ceramics and composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratzl, P. [Erich-Schmid-Inst. of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Univ. of Leoben, Leoben (Austria); Materials Center Leoben GmbH and the Ludwig-Boltzmann-Inst. of Osteology, Wien (Austria)

    2003-06-01

    Since the early days of small-angle scattering (SAS), this technique has been used to characterize the structure of solid materials on the nanometer scale. Some recent developments in this field will be reviewed, focusing on alloys, ceramics and (nano-) composite materials. The large field of SAS from polymeric systems will not be covered. Classical applications of SAS are the characterization of pores or precipitates in alloys, for instance. In more recent years, a range of new applications for X-ray SAS has emerged owing to the availability of more and more brilliant (synchrotron) X-ray sources. Examples include grazing-incidence SAXS, used increasingly to characterize nano-structured surfaces on semiconductors and also on other materials. The use of a narrow X-ray beam also allows the investigation of extremely inhomogeneous or hierarchically structured materials by scanning SAXS. In this approach, the specimen is moved step by step across an X-ray beam with a diameter of a few micrometers (or even less), collecting a SAXS pattern at each step. In neutron SAS, the systematic use of magnetic cross-sections has brought considerable progress in the study of magnetic nano-particles or nano-composites. Single crystalline or textured materials are being studied under several orientations with respect to the primary beam to yield three-dimensional (neutron or X-ray) SAS patterns. In many cases, SAS is combined with other techniques, such as electron microscopy, spectroscopy or mechanical characterization, the most elegant being an in-situ combination. A number of recent examples for the above-mentioned approaches will be given. (orig.)

  8. Novel metallic alloys as phase change materials for heat storage in direct steam generation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Maestre, J.; Iparraguirre-Torres, I.; Velasco, Z. Amondarain; Kaltzakorta, I.; Zubieta, M. Merchan

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is one of the key electricity production renewable energy technologies with a clear distinguishing advantage: the possibility to store the heat generated during the sunny periods, turning it into a dispatchable technology. Current CSP Plants use an intermediate Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF), thermal oil or inorganic salt, to transfer heat from the Solar Field (SF) either to the heat exchanger (HX) unit to produce high pressure steam that can be leaded to a turbine for electricity production, or to the Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. In recent years, a novel CSP technology is attracting great interest: Direct Steam Generation (DSG). The direct use of water/steam as HTF would lead to lower investment costs for CSP Plants by the suppression of the HX unit. Moreover, water is more environmentally friendly than thermal oils or salts, not flammable and compatible with container materials (pipes, tanks). However, this technology also has some important challenges, being one of the major the need for optimized TES systems. In DSG, from the exergy point of view, optimized TES systems based on two sensible heat TES systems (for preheating of water and superheating vapour) and a latent heat TES system for the evaporation of water (around the 70% of energy) is the preferred solution. This concept has been extensively tested [1, 2, 3] using mainly NaNO3 as latent heat storage medium. Its interesting melting temperature (Tm) of 306°C, considering a driving temperature difference of 10°C, means TES charging steam conditions of 107 bar at 316°C and discharging conditions of 81bar at 296°C. The average value for the heat of fusion (ΔHf) of NaNO3 from literature data is 178 J/g [4]. The main disadvantage of inorganic salts is their very low thermal conductivity (0.5 W/m.K) requiring sophisticated heat exchanging designs. The use of high thermal conductivity eutectic metal alloys has been recently proposed [5, 6, 7] as a feasible alternative. Tms

  9. Handbook of the Materials Properties of FeCrAl Alloys For Nuclear Power Production Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Mary A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    FeCrAl alloys are a class of alloys that have seen increased interest for nuclear power applications including as accident tolerant fuel cladding, structural components for fast fission reactors, and as first wall and blanket structures for fusion reactors. FeCrAl alloys are under consideration for these applications due to their inherent corrosion resistance, stress corrosion cracking resistance, radiation-induced swelling resistance, and high temperature oxidation resistance. A substantial amount of research effort has been completed to design, develop, and begin commercial scaling of FeCrAl alloys for nuclear power applications over the past half a century. These efforts have led to the development of an extensive database on material properties and process knowledge for FeCrAl alloys but not within a consolidated format. The following report is the first edition of a materials handbook to consolidate the state-of-the-art on FeCrAl alloys for nuclear power applications. This centralized database focuses solely on wrought FeCrAl alloys, oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, although discussed in brief, are not covered. Where appropriate, recommendations for applications of the data is provided and current knowledge gaps are identified.

  10. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  11. A Review of Alloy 800H for Applications in the Gen IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Weiju; Swindeman, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Alloy 800H is currently under consideration for applications in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant at operational temperatures above 750 C. To provide supporting information in this paper at the attempt to facilitate the consideration, service requirements of the nuclear system for structural materials is first described; and then an extensive review of Alloy 800H is given on its codification with respect to development and research history, mechanical behavior and design allowables, metallurgical aging resistance, environmental effect considerations, data requirements and availability, weldments, as well as many other aspects relevant to the intended nuclear application; an finally further research and development activities to support the materials qualification are suggested.

  12. Advanced methods for preparation and characterization of infrared detector materials. [mercury cadmium telluride alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1981-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis data were obtained on mercury cadmium telluride alloys in order to establish the liquidus temperatures for the various alloy compositions. Preliminary theoretical analyses was performed to establish the ternary phase equilibrium parameters for the metal rich region of the phase diagram. Liquid-solid equilibrium parameters were determined for the pseudobinary alloy system. Phase equilibrium was calculated and Hg(l-x) Cd(x) Te alloys were directionally solidified from pseudobinary melts. Electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements were obtained.

  13. Integrated material accountancy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabozo, M.; Buiza, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present the system that we are actually using for Nuclear Material Accounting and Manufacturing Management in our UO 2 Fuel Fabrication Plant located at Juzbado, Salamanca, Spain. The system is based mainly on a real time data base which gather data for all the operations performed in our factory from UO 2 powder reception to fuel assemblies shipment to the customers. The accountancy is just an important part of the whole integrated system covering all the aspects related to manufacturing: planning, traceability, Q.C. analysis, production control and accounting data

  14. Novel phase diagram behavior and materials design in heterostructural semiconductor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Aaron M.; Siol, Sebastian; Ndione, Paul F.; Peng, Haowei; Deml, Ann M.; Matthews, Bethany E.; Schelhas, Laura T.; Toney, Michael F.; Gordon, Roy G.; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D.; Ginley, David S.; Gorman, Brian P.; Tate, Janet; Zakutayev, Andriy; Lany, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Structure and composition control the behavior of materials. Isostructural alloying is historically an extremely successful approach for tuning materials properties, but it is often limited by binodal and spinodal decomposition, which correspond to the thermodynamic solubility limit and the stability against composition fluctuations, respectively. We show that heterostructural alloys can exhibit a markedly increased range of metastable alloy compositions between the binodal and spinodal lines, thereby opening up a vast phase space for novel homogeneous single-phase alloys. We distinguish two types of heterostructural alloys, that is, those between commensurate and incommensurate phases. Because of the structural transition around the critical composition, the properties change in a highly nonlinear or even discontinuous fashion, providing a mechanism for materials design that does not exist in conventional isostructural alloys. The novel phase diagram behavior follows from standard alloy models using mixing enthalpies from first-principles calculations. Thin-film deposition demonstrates the viability of the synthesis of these metastable single-phase domains and validates the computationally predicted phase separation mechanism above the upper temperature bound of the nonequilibrium single-phase region. PMID:28630928

  15. Novel phase diagram behavior and materials design in heterostructural semiconductor alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Aaron M; Siol, Sebastian; Ndione, Paul F; Peng, Haowei; Deml, Ann M; Matthews, Bethany E; Schelhas, Laura T; Toney, Michael F; Gordon, Roy G; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D; Ginley, David S; Gorman, Brian P; Tate, Janet; Zakutayev, Andriy; Lany, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    Structure and composition control the behavior of materials. Isostructural alloying is historically an extremely successful approach for tuning materials properties, but it is often limited by binodal and spinodal decomposition, which correspond to the thermodynamic solubility limit and the stability against composition fluctuations, respectively. We show that heterostructural alloys can exhibit a markedly increased range of metastable alloy compositions between the binodal and spinodal lines, thereby opening up a vast phase space for novel homogeneous single-phase alloys. We distinguish two types of heterostructural alloys, that is, those between commensurate and incommensurate phases. Because of the structural transition around the critical composition, the properties change in a highly nonlinear or even discontinuous fashion, providing a mechanism for materials design that does not exist in conventional isostructural alloys. The novel phase diagram behavior follows from standard alloy models using mixing enthalpies from first-principles calculations. Thin-film deposition demonstrates the viability of the synthesis of these metastable single-phase domains and validates the computationally predicted phase separation mechanism above the upper temperature bound of the nonequilibrium single-phase region.

  16. Technical outline of none chrome treatment system (Ca-Mn phosphating) for magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, T.; Namba, S. [Million Chemical Co., Ltd. Technical Dept., Osaka (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    It began to have the notebook personal computer and the cellular phone used extensively for the electronic machine body, and the Mg-Al alloy material which was put to practical use and that it was represented by AZ91D suffered footlights. Though there is demand which became stable after that at present for the electronic machine body. It has proceeded with the development of None Chrome treatment to this magnesium alloy for about ten years, and it applies for the patent as a Ca-Mn phosphating in our company. It tried it, and December, 1999 could have line-ization as to the establishment of the low electrical resistance film of None Chrome treatment line system for the notebook personal computer body. The technological outline about treatment system by this Ca-Mn phosphorus is reported by this paper. A result of a surface management examination about New material of magnesium alloy. (orig.)

  17. Safety of some fuel cladding materials, alternative to Zr-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hache, Georges; Clement, Bernard; Barrachin, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima accident underlined the impact of hydrogen production on LWR core melt accident behaviour. New fuel cladding and structural materials are under development by the industry. IRSN performed a bibliographic study on the behaviour of these materials during LWR core melt accidents. Method This presentation is focused on cladding oxidation by steam and more precisely on: - number of H 2 moles produced per cladding length unit at thermochemical equilibrium; - oxidation kinetics; - heat of reaction; - physic-chemical interactions between material or oxidation products and fuel. Silicon carbide (SiC) - During SiC oxidation by steam, nearly 3 times more explosive gases (CO+H 2 ) moles are produced per cladding length unit at thermochemical equilibrium than for Zr-alloys. - SiC oxidation kinetics below 1700 deg. C: According to early tests performed by NASA and ORNL, the oxidation is linear but slow, there is an effective protection by a thin vitreous SiO 2 layer; these tests underlined the importance of the steam pressure and flow rate. Recently, published MIT and ORNL tests confirm that under large break LOCA conditions (∼5 bars) and up to 1200 deg. C, SiC recession is much slower than for Zr-alloys. Tests under small break conditions (3 inches LOCA: ∼40 bars) were not performed or not published. - SiC oxidation kinetics above 1700 deg. C (melting point of SiO 2 ): Molten SiO 2 loses its protective effect; this is known in the literature as 'catastrophic oxidation by molten oxides'. There will be a cliff-edge effect. For un-inerted containments, H 2 recombiners will be saturated, leading to a risk of CO+H 2 explosion in these containments. - During SiC oxidation by steam, the heat of reaction produced per cladding length unit at thermochemical equilibrium is of the same order of magnitude as for Zr alloys. Molten SiO 2 will interact with UO 2 to form molten mixtures at temperatures well below UO 2 melting temperature. - Calculations were

  18. Mechanical alloying nanotechnology, materials science and powder metallurgy

    CERN Document Server

    El-Eskandarany, M Sherif

    2015-01-01

    This book is a detailed introduction to mechanical alloying, offering guidelines on the necessary equipment and facilities needed to carry out the process and giving a fundamental background to the reactions taking place. El-Eskandarany, a leading authority on mechanical alloying, discusses the mechanism of powder consolidations using different powder compaction processes. A new chapter will also be included on thermal, mechanically-induced and electrical discharge-assisted mechanical milling. Fully updated to cover recent developments in the field, this second edition also introduces new a

  19. The Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanism of Alloy 600 Steam Generator Tubes: Materials Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngsuk; Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Daewhan

    2013-01-01

    The problem is that intergranular (IG) cracking of austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys occurs even in Ar with no corrosion or oxidation of grain boundaries being accompanied. This fact suggests that IG cracking has nothing to do with grain boundary (GB) corrosion or oxidation. This fact cast a doubt about the current notion that applied stresses are required to initiate IG cracking or PWSCC. These facts indicate that PWSCC is closely related to internal factors of materials, not to external factors such as grain boundary oxidation or corrosion or applied stresses. Given that austenitic alloys including Alloy 600 are a kind of solid solution alloys with alloying elements dissolved in the matrix as solutes, ordering of alloying elements of Fe, Cr and Ni occur in Alloy 600 during exposure to reactor operating condition. We suggest that atomic ordering is the main internal factor to govern PWSCC or IG cracking of austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys because lattice contraction due to atomic ordering induces internal stresses which are large enough to cause GB cracking. The aim of this work is to provide experimental evidence for our suggestion. To this end, water quenching (WQ) or air cooling (AC) or furnace cooling (FC) was applied respectively to Alloy 600 after solution treatment at 1095 .deg. C for 0.5h to make Alloy 600 with either disorder (DO) or different degrees of short range order, respectively. Alloy 600 showed lattice contraction upon aging at 400 .deg. C whose extent increased with increasing cooling rate: the water-quenched (WQ) Alloy 600 exhibited the largest amount of lattice contraction than the furnace-cooled (FC) or air-cooled (AC) one. Yonezawa's experiments have indeed shown that the WQ-Alloy 600 with the largest amount of lattice contraction upon aging at 400 .deg. C is the most susceptible to PWSCC when compared to the AC- or FC-Alloy 600 with the lesser amount of lattice contraction. These observations demonstrate, for the first time, that PWSCC of Alloy 600 is

  20. Design study of fuel circulating system using Pd alloy membrane isotope separation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Yamada, T.; Aizawa, T.; Kasahara, T.; Yamanaka, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is expected that the method of permeating through Pd-alloy membrances is effective for isotope separation and the refining of fuel gas. In this paper, the design study of the Fuel Circulating System (FCS) using Pb-alloy membranes is described. The study is mainly focused on the main vacuum, fuel gas refining, isotope separating, and tritium containment systems. In the fuel gas refining system, impurities are effectively removed by using Pd-alloy membranes. For the isotope separation system, the diffusion method through Pd-alloy membranes was adopted. From the standpoint of the safety and economy, a three-stage tritium containment system was adopted to control tritium release to the environment as low as possible. The principal conclusion drawn from the design study was as follows. In the FCS, while cryogenic distillation method appears to be practicable, Pd-alloy membrane method is attractive for isotope separation and the refining of fuel gas. For a large amount of tritium inventory, handling and control technologies should be completed by the experimental evaluation and development of the components and materials used for the FCS. A three-stage containment system was adopted to control tritium release to environment as low as possible. Consideration to prevent tritium escape will be necessary for fuel gas refiners and isotope separators. (Kato, T.)

  1. Reversible motion of twin boundaries in AZ31 alloy and new design of magnesium alloys as smart materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, Peter; Ostapovets, Andriy; Jäger, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, APR (2014), s. 509-516 ISSN 0261-3069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GPP108/12/P054 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnesium alloy * twinning * texture * smart material Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.501, year: 2014

  2. Superconductivity in the lanthanum-yttrium-manganese alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stierman, R.J.

    1980-03-01

    An empirical approach involving lattice instabilities was investigated in the search for new superconducting materials. Pseudo-lanthanide compounds using La and Y were prepared for the system La/sub 1-x/Y/sub x/Mn 2 by arc melting and subsequent heat treatment. Low temperature magnetic susceptibility and low temperature heat capacity measurements were made. The unit cell lattice parameters were determined from x-ray powder patterns taken on most samples and metallographic examination was carried out on selected samples. Alloys with low La concentrations (x greater than or equal to 0.6) showed RMn 2 in the cubic C15 Laves phase as the major component with second phase material present. The magnetic susceptibility and x-ray data indicated a superconducting phase which seemed to be the RMn 2 phase, but heat capacity measurements showed the second phase material was the superconductor, while the RMn 2 was not. Failure to form compounds with higher La content was experienced and may be due to the lattice instability expected at x = 0.56. This indicates that perhaps more stingent conditions are required to form pseudo-lanthanide compounds than were previously considered. More systems should be investigated to see if this is true, and to determine the possibilities of this approach

  3. PWSCC crack growth rate of alloy 690 to simulate actual plant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Takuya; Totsuka, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the PWSCC crack growth rate of domestically produced alloy 690, alloy 690 materials were obtained from two companies which supply materials that are used in actual plants. PWSCC crack growth rates of cold worked alloy TT690 were measured under simulated PWR primary water conditions. The crack growth rates of 20% cold-worked alloy TT690 from both companies were less than 5×10 -11 m/s, and the crack growth rates were not as fast as reported from Bettis. Also it was observed that there was up to about 2.5 times difference in the crack growth rates of TT690 of the two companies. (author)

  4. A Computational Investigation of Precipitates in Mg-RE Alloys With Applications To Mg-X Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Ahmed

    Increasing fuel efficiency in transportation vehicles is a major policy goal for both government and auto and aerospace manufacturers. Lightweight structural materials, such as magnesium alloys, hold great promise in enabling such fuel efficiency gains. Understanding the controlling factors in Mg alloy strengthening is crucial for the rational design of structurally strong and inexpensive Mg alloys. In this work, we seek to understand the energetic underpinnings giving rise to a class of remarkably strong Mg alloys: Mg-RE systems. We use first-principles methods to efficiently explore seventeen Mg-RE systems, drawing out broad patterns and distilling our knowledge into simple design rules for Mg alloys. We begin by investigating the controlling factors for the Mg-strengthening prismatic plate precipitates in Mg-RE systems, discovering the critical role of strain in such systems. We then proceed to investigate the surprising role of interfacial energies in determining the course of the Mg-RE precipitation reactions. Using strain and interfacial energies, we construct a phase-field model which accurately depicts the precipitate morphology as a function of time and size in a Mg-Nd system. Finally, we combine our gained insights to implement a computational alloy design scheme on a large portion of the periodic table where we seek Mg-strengthening solutes. Our work advances the understanding of strengthening in Mg alloys and lays the groundwork for full scale computational alloy design.

  5. Interrelation of material microstructure, ultrasonic factors, and fracture toughness of two phase titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.; Hull, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The pivotal role of an alpha-beta phase microstructure in governing fracture toughness in a titanium alloy, Ti-662, is demonstrated. The interrelation of microstructure and fracture toughness is demonstrated using ultrasonic measurement techniques originally developed for nondestructive evaluation and material property characterization. It is shown that the findings determined from ultrasonic measurements agree with conclusions based on metallurgical, metallographic, and fractographic observations concerning the importance of alpha-beta morphology in controlling fracture toughness in two phase titanium alloys.

  6. Bulk material handling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  7. Structure and corrosion resistance of Co-Cr-Mo alloy used in Birmingham Hip Resurfacing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobruchowska, Ewa; Paziewska, Monika; Przybyl, Krzysztof; Reszka, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    The endoprostheses made of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloys belong to the group of the most popular metallic implants used for reconstruction of hip joints. For such biomaterials, the primary goal is a correct and long-term functioning in the aggressive environment of body fluids. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine both the morphology and the corrosion resistance of implants made of the cobalt alloy used in Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR) system (Smith & Nephew). For comparative purposes, the electrochemical studies were done for the nitrided stainless steel - Orthinox. Observations of the microstructure of the material under investigation were performed by means of the optical metallographic microscope and the scanning electron microscope. Furthermore, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy was used to analyse the chemical composition of the endoprosthesis. Characterisation and evaluation of electrochemical corrosion resistance of the selected alloys were performed by potentiodynamic polarisation tests. The structural studies confirmed that Co-Cr-Mo (BHR system) is characterised by a typical dendritic microstructure with carbide precipitates, mainly M23C6, within the interdendritic areas. The results of the polarisation measurements showed that the cobalt alloy investigated exhibits lower corrosion potential than Orthinox in the utilised environments (3% NaCl, simulated body fluid - Hank's Body Fluid). However, the high passivation ability of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy, as well as its resistance to the initiation and propagation of localised corrosion processes, indicate that this material is significantly more appropriate for long-term implants.

  8. Progress with alloy 33 (UNS R20033), a new corrosion resistant chromium-based austenitic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, M.; Heubner, U.; Eichenhofer, K.W.; Renner, M.

    1996-01-01

    Alloy 33 (UNS R20033), a new chromium-based corrosion resistant austenitic material with nominally (wt. %) 33 Cr, 32 Fe, 31 Ni, 1.6 Mo, 0.6 Cu, 0.4 N has been introduced to the market in 1995. This paper provides new data on this alloy with respect to mechanical properties, formability, weldability, sensitization characteristics and corrosion behavior. Mechanical properties of weldments including ductility have been established, and match well with those of wrought plate material, without any degradation of ISO V-notch impact toughness in the heat affected zone. When aged up to 8 hours between 600 C and 1,000 C the alloy is not sensitized when tested in boiling azeotropic nitric acid (Huey test). Under field test conditions alloy 33 shows excellent resistance to corrosion in flowing 96--98.5% H 2 SO 4 at 135 C--140 C and flowing 99.1% H 2 SO 4 at 150 C. Alloy 33 has also been tested with some success in 96% H 2 SO 4 with nitrosyl additions at 240 C. In nitric acid alloy 33 is corrosion resistant up to 85% HNO 3 and 75 C or even more. Alloy 33 is also corrosion resistant in 1 mol. HCl at 40 C and in NaOH/NaOCl-solutions. In artificial seawater the pitting potential remains unchanged up to 75 C and is still well above the seawater's redox potential at 95 C. Alloy 33 can be easily manufactured into all product forms required. The new data provided support the multipurpose character of alloy 33 to cope successfully with many requirements of the Chemical Process Industry, the Oil and Gas Industry and the Refinery Industry

  9. Mechanical and electrochemical characteristics with welding materials in robotic MIG welding of dissimilar Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jong; Han, Min Su; Woo, Yong Bin [Mokpo Maritime Univ., Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In this study, mechanical and electrochemical characteristics with welding material in MIG welded with ROBOT for dissimilar Al alloys were investigated using various experiment methods. The MIG welding by ROBOT with ER5183 and ER5556 for the 5456-H116 and 6061-T6 Al alloy were carried out. The hardness of welding zone was lower than that of base metal. In electrochemical experiment, ER5183 welding material presented excellent characteristics. The yield strength and maximum tensile strength in welding with welding material of ER5183 presented lower value than those of ER5556. The elongation and time-to-fracture showed the opposite results.

  10. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented

  11. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  12. Tribological properties of amorphous alloys and the role of surfaces in abrasive wear of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The research approach undertaken by the authors relative to the subject, and examples of results from the authors are reviewed. The studies include programs in adhesion, friction, and various wear mechanisms (adhesive and abrasive wear). The materials which have been studied include such ceramic and metallic materials as silicon carbide, ferrites, diamond, and amorphous alloys.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-15Zr alloy used as dental implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Alexander E; Molotnikov, Andrey; Lapovok, Rimma; Zeller, Rolf; Berner, Simon; Habersetzer, Philippe; Dalla Torre, Florian

    2016-09-01

    Ti-Zr alloys have recently started to receive a considerable amount of attention as promising materials for dental applications. This work compares mechanical properties of a new Ti-15Zr alloy to those of commercially pure titanium Grade4 in two surface conditions - machined and modified by sand-blasting and etching (SLA). As a result of significantly smaller grain size in the initial condition (1-2µm), the strength of Ti-15Zr alloy was found to be 10-15% higher than that of Grade4 titanium without reduction in the tensile elongation or compromising the fracture toughness. The fatigue endurance limit of the alloy was increased by around 30% (560MPa vs. 435MPa and 500MPa vs. 380MPa for machined and SLA-treated surfaces, respectively). Additional implant fatigue tests showed enhanced fatigue performance of Ti-15Zr over Ti-Grade4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbiologically induced corrosion of aluminum alloys in fuel-oil/aqueous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S S; Lin, J Y; Lin, Y T

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the microbiologically induced corrosion of aluminum alloys in fuel-oil/aqueous system, aluminum alloys A356, AA 5052, AA 5083 and AA 6061 were chosen as the test alloys and Cladosporium and several fuel-oil contaminated microbes isolated in Taiwan were used as test organisms. Aluminum alloy AA 5083 in fuel-oil/aqueous system was the most susceptible material for microbial corrosion, then followed by aluminum alloys AA 5052 and A356, and AA 6061 was more resistant to microbial aggression. Mixed culture had high capability of corrosion, then followed by Penicillium sp. AM-F5, Fusarium sp. AM-F1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AM-B5, Ps. fluorescens AM-B9, C. resinae ATCC 22712, Penicillium sp. AM-F2, Candida sp. AM-Y1 and Ps. aeruginosa AM-B11. From energy dispersive spectrometer analysis, aluminum and magnesium contents decreased in the corrosion area, while chlorine and sulfur contents increased. The major organic acid produced in fuel-oil/aqueous system was acetic acid, and the total organic acids content had a positive correlation with the degree of microbial corrosion.

  15. Titanium–35niobium alloy as a potential material for biomedical implants: In vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez de Andrade, Dennia; Marotta Reis de Vasconcellos, Luana; Chaves Silva Carvalho, Isabel; Ferraz de Brito Penna Forte, Lilibeth; Souza Santos, Evelyn Luzia de [Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, UNESP — Univ Estadual Paulista, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Av. Engenheiro Francisco José Longo, 777, São José dos Campos 12245-000, SP (Brazil); Falchete do Prado, Renata, E-mail: renatafalchete@hotmail.com [Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, UNESP — Univ Estadual Paulista, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Av. Engenheiro Francisco José Longo, 777, São José dos Campos 12245-000, SP (Brazil); Santos, Dalcy Roberto dos; Alves Cairo, Carlos Alberto [Division of Materials, Air and Space Institute, CTA, Praça Mal. do Ar Eduardo Gomes, 14, São José dos Campos 12904-000, SP (Brazil); Rodarte Carvalho, Yasmin [Department of Bioscience and Oral Diagnosis, Institute of Science and Technology, UNESP — Univ Estadual Paulista, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Av. Engenheiro Francisco José Longo, 777, São José dos Campos 12245-000, SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    Research on new titanium alloys and different surface topographies aims to improve osseointegration. The objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of osteogenic cells cultivated on porous and dense samples of titanium–niobium alloys, and to compare them with the behavior of such type of cells on commercial pure titanium. Samples prepared using powder metallurgy were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and metallographic and profilometer analyses. Osteogenic cells from newborn rat calvaria were plated over different groups: dense or porous samples composed of Ti or Ti–35niobium (Nb). Cell adhesion, cell proliferation, MTT assay, cell morphology, protein total content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization nodules were assessed. Results from XRD and EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Ti and Nb in the test alloy. Metallographic analysis revealed interconnected pores, with pore size ranging from 138 to 150 μm. The profilometer analysis detected the greatest rugosity within the dense alloy samples. In vitro tests revealed similar biocompatibility between Ti–35Nb and Ti; furthermore, it was possible to verify that the association of porous surface topography and the Ti–35Nb alloy positively influenced mineralized matrix formation. We propose that the Ti–35Nb alloy with porous topography constitutes a biocompatible material with great potential for use in biomedical implants. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy is effective in producing porous biomaterials. • Ti–35Nb alloy improved mineralized matrix formation. • Porous surface favored a multidirectional pattern of cell spreading. • Porous surface Ti–35Nb alloy appears to be more favorable to bone formation than existing alloys.

  16. Titanium–35niobium alloy as a potential material for biomedical implants: In vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez de Andrade, Dennia; Marotta Reis de Vasconcellos, Luana; Chaves Silva Carvalho, Isabel; Ferraz de Brito Penna Forte, Lilibeth; Souza Santos, Evelyn Luzia de; Falchete do Prado, Renata; Santos, Dalcy Roberto dos; Alves Cairo, Carlos Alberto; Rodarte Carvalho, Yasmin

    2015-01-01

    Research on new titanium alloys and different surface topographies aims to improve osseointegration. The objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of osteogenic cells cultivated on porous and dense samples of titanium–niobium alloys, and to compare them with the behavior of such type of cells on commercial pure titanium. Samples prepared using powder metallurgy were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and metallographic and profilometer analyses. Osteogenic cells from newborn rat calvaria were plated over different groups: dense or porous samples composed of Ti or Ti–35niobium (Nb). Cell adhesion, cell proliferation, MTT assay, cell morphology, protein total content, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization nodules were assessed. Results from XRD and EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Ti and Nb in the test alloy. Metallographic analysis revealed interconnected pores, with pore size ranging from 138 to 150 μm. The profilometer analysis detected the greatest rugosity within the dense alloy samples. In vitro tests revealed similar biocompatibility between Ti–35Nb and Ti; furthermore, it was possible to verify that the association of porous surface topography and the Ti–35Nb alloy positively influenced mineralized matrix formation. We propose that the Ti–35Nb alloy with porous topography constitutes a biocompatible material with great potential for use in biomedical implants. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy is effective in producing porous biomaterials. • Ti–35Nb alloy improved mineralized matrix formation. • Porous surface favored a multidirectional pattern of cell spreading. • Porous surface Ti–35Nb alloy appears to be more favorable to bone formation than existing alloys

  17. Study of a chromia-forming alloy behavior as interconnect material for High Temperature Vapor Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, S.

    2011-01-01

    In High Temperature Vapor Electrolysis (HTVE) system, the materials chosen for the inter-connectors should have a good corrosion behaviour in air and in H 2 -H 2 O mixtures at 800 C, and keep a high electronic conductivity over long durations as well. In this context, the first goal of this study was to evaluate a commercial ferritic alloy (the K41X alloy) as interconnect for HTVE application. Oxidation tests in furnace and in microbalance have therefore been carried out in order to determine oxidation kinetics. Meanwhile, the Area Specific Resistance (ASR) was evaluated by Contact Resistance measurements performed at 800 C. The second objective was to improve our comprehension of chromia-forming alloys oxidation mechanism, in particular in H 2 /H 2 O mixtures. For that purpose, some specific tests have been conducted: tracer experiments, coupled with the characterization of the oxide scale by PEC (Photo-Electro-Chemistry). This approach has also been applied to the study of a LaCrO 3 perovskite oxide coating on the K41X alloy. This phase is indeed of high interest for HTVE applications due to its high conductivity properties. This latter study leads to further understanding on the role of lanthanum as reactive element, which effect is still under discussion in literature.In both media at 800 C, the scale is composed of a Cr 2 O 3 /(Mn,Cr) 3 O 4 duplex scale, covered in the case of H 2 -H 2 O mixture by a thin scale made of Mn 2 TiO 4 spinel. In air, the growth mechanism is found to be cationic, in agreement with literature. The LaCrO 3 coating does not modify the direction of scale growth but lowers the growth kinetics during the first hundreds hours. Moreover, with the coating, the scale adherence is favored and the conductivity appears to be slightly higher. In the H 2 -H 2 O mixture, the growth mechanism is found to be anionic. The LaCrO 3 coating diminishes the oxidation kinetics. Although the scale thickness is about the same in both media, the ASR parameter

  18. Surface alloys as interfacial layers between quasicrystalline and periodic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguet, T.; Ledieu, J.; Dubois, J. M.; Fournée, V.

    2008-08-01

    Low adhesion with normal metals is an intrinsic property of many quasicrystalline surfaces. Although this property could be useful to develop low friction or non-stick coatings, it is also responsible for the poor adhesion of quasicrystalline coatings on metal substrates. Here we investigate the possibility of using complex metallic surface alloys as interface layers to enhance the adhesion between quasicrystals and simple metal substrates. We first review some examples where such complex phases are formed as an overlayer. Then we study the formation of such surface alloys in a controlled way by annealing a thin film deposited on a quasicrystalline substrate. We demonstrate that a coherent buffer layer consisting of the γ-Al4Cu9 approximant can be grown between pure Al and the i-Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal. The interfacial relationships between the different layers are defined by [111]_{\\mathrm {Al}}\\parallel [110]_{\\mathrm {Al_4Cu_9}}\\parallel [5\\mathrm {f}]_{i\\mbox {-}\\mathrm {Al\\mbox {--}Cu \\mbox {--}Fe}} .

  19. Surface alloys as interfacial layers between quasicrystalline and periodic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duguet, T; Ledieu, J; Dubois, J M; Fournee, V [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux et de Metallurgie, UMR 7584 CNRS-Nancy Universite, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy (France)], E-mail: fournee@lsg2m.org

    2008-08-06

    Low adhesion with normal metals is an intrinsic property of many quasicrystalline surfaces. Although this property could be useful to develop low friction or non-stick coatings, it is also responsible for the poor adhesion of quasicrystalline coatings on metal substrates. Here we investigate the possibility of using complex metallic surface alloys as interface layers to enhance the adhesion between quasicrystals and simple metal substrates. We first review some examples where such complex phases are formed as an overlayer. Then we study the formation of such surface alloys in a controlled way by annealing a thin film deposited on a quasicrystalline substrate. We demonstrate that a coherent buffer layer consisting of the {gamma}-Al{sub 4}Cu{sub 9} approximant can be grown between pure Al and the i-Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal. The interfacial relationships between the different layers are defined by [111]{sub Al} parallel [110]{sub Al4Cu9} parallel [5f]{sub i-Al-}C{sub u-Fe}.

  20. Effect of substitutional element in the microstructure and hardness of Ti-Zr system alloys used as biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, D.R.N.; Vicente, F.B.; Grandini, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    New titanium alloys had been developed with the aim of obtaining materials with improved properties for application as biomaterial, and alloys of the Ti-Zr system are among those most promising. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of the zirconium concentration on microstructure and hardness of the Ti-5Zr, Ti-10Zr and Ti-15Zr alloys. After arc-melting melting, the samples were analyzed by chemical and gas composition, and characterized by density measurements, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction and hardness. The results showed a microstructure formed by alpha phase (hexagonal close-packed structure) and increased of hardness. (author)

  1. The Effect of Novel Mercapto Silane Systems on Resin Bond Strength to Dental Noble Metal Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangho; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kim, Young Kyung; Son, Jun Sik; Lee, Eunkyung; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-07-01

    Self-assembled monolayers of thiols (RSH), which are key elements in nanoscience and nanotechnology, have been used to link a range of materials to planar gold surfaces or gold nanoparticles. In this study, the adhesive performance of mercapto silane systems to dental noble metal alloys was evaluated in vitro and compared with that of commercial dental primers. Dental gold-palladium-platinum (Au-Pd-Pt), gold-palladium-silver (Au-Pd-Ag), and palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) alloys were used as the bonding substrates after air-abrasion (sandblasting). One of the following primers was applied to each alloy: (1) no primer treatment (control), (2) three commer- cial primers: V-Primer, Metal Primer II, and M.L. Primer, and (3) two experimental silane primer systems: 2-step application with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (SPS) (1.0 wt%) and then 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) (1.0 wt%), and a silane blend consisting of SPS and MPS (both 1.0 wt%). Composite resin cylinders with a diameter of 2.38 mm were bonded to the surfaces and irradiated for 40 sec using a curing light. After storage in water at 37 °C for 24 h, all the bonded specimens were thermocycled 5000 times before the shear bond strength test. Regardless of the alloy type, the mercapto silane systems (both the 2-step and blend systems) consistently showed superior bonding performance than the commercial primers. Contact angle analysis of the primed surfaces indicated that higher resin bond strengths were produced on more hydrophilic alloy surfaces. These novel mercapto silane systems are a promising alternative for improving resin bonding to dental noble metal alloys.

  2. Standard Test Method for Stress-Corrosion of Titanium Alloys by Aircraft Engine Cleaning Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a test procedure for determining the propensity of aircraft turbine engine cleaning and maintenance materials for causing stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloy parts. 1.2 The evaluation is conducted on representative titanium alloys by determining the effect of contact with cleaning and maintenance materials on tendency of prestressed titanium alloys to crack when subsequently heated to elevated temperatures. 1.3 Test conditions are based upon manufacturer's maximum recommended operating solution concentration. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see and .

  3. A survey of the properties of copper alloys for use as fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, G.J.; Forty, C.B.A.

    1992-01-01

    Pure copper and some selected dilute alloys are widely utilised in experimental plasma confinement devices and have also been proposed for various applications in fusion power reactors where a high thermal or electrical conductivity in the material is required. Available data on physical mechanical properties of a number of commercial coppers and alloys at elevated temperatures are collated and reviewed as an aid to materials selection and component design. Properties examined include the thermal and electrical conductivities, thermal fatigue resistance, softening behaviour, and creep and fatigue strengths. The effects of neutron irradiation on copper alloys are briefly discussed in terms of radiation damage and its influence on conductivity and mechanical properties, the compositional changes occurring through transmutation and the induced activity and associated γ-dose rate and biological hazard potential. Data emerging from recent fission reactor irradiation programmes on void swelling and changes in electrical conductivity and mechanical properties are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  4. Ferritic Alloys as Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Material for Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebak, Raul B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the GE project is to demonstrate that advanced steels such as iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys could be used as accident tolerant fuel cladding material in commercial light water reactors. The GE project does not include fuel development. Current findings support the concept that a FeCrAl alloy could be used for the cladding of commercial nuclear fuel. The use of this alloy will benefit the public since it is going to make the power generating light water reactors safer. In the Phase 1A of this cost shared project, GE (GRC + GNF) teamed with the University of Michigan, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the environmental and mechanical behavior of more than eight candidate cladding materials both under normal operation conditions of commercial nuclear reactors and under accident conditions in superheated steam (loss of coolant condition). The main findings are as follows: (1) Under normal operation conditions the candidate alloys (e.g. APMT, Alloy 33) showed excellent resistance to general corrosion, shadow corrosion and to environmentally assisted cracking. APMT also showed resistance to proton irradiation up to 5 dpa. (2) Under accident conditions the selected candidate materials showed several orders of magnitude improvement in the reaction with superheated steam as compared with the current zirconium based alloys. (3) Tube fabrication feasibility studies of FeCrAl alloys are underway. The aim is to obtain a wall thickness that is below 400 µm. (4) A strategy is outlined for the regulatory path approval and for the insertion of a lead fuel assembly in a commercial reactor by 2022. (5) The GE team worked closely with INL to have four rodlets tested in the ATR. GE provided the raw stock for the alloys, the fuel for the rodlets and the cost for fabrication/welding of the rodlets. INL fabricated the rodlets and the caps and welded them to

  5. Ferritic Alloys as Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Material for Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, Raul B. [General Electric Global Research, Schnectady, NY (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The objective of the GE project is to demonstrate that advanced steels such as iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys could be used as accident tolerant fuel cladding material in commercial light water reactors. The GE project does not include fuel development. Current findings support the concept that a FeCrAl alloy could be used for the cladding of commercial nuclear fuel. The use of this alloy will benefit the public since it is going to make the power generating light water reactors safer. In the Phase 1A of this cost shared project, GE (GRC + GNF) teamed with the University of Michigan, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the environmental and mechanical behavior of more than eight candidate cladding materials both under normal operation conditions of commercial nuclear reactors and under accident conditions in superheated steam (loss of coolant condition). The main findings are as follows: (1) Under normal operation conditions the candidate alloys (e.g. APMT, Alloy 33) showed excellent resistance to general corrosion, shadow corrosion and to environmentally assisted cracking. APMT also showed resistance to proton irradiation up to 5 dpa. (2) Under accident conditions the selected candidate materials showed several orders of magnitude improvement in the reaction with superheated steam as compared with the current zirconium based alloys. (3) Tube fabrication feasibility studies of FeCrAl alloys are underway. The aim is to obtain a wall thickness that is below 400 µm. (4) A strategy is outlined for the regulatory path approval and for the insertion of a lead fuel assembly in a commercial reactor by 2022. (5) The GE team worked closely with INL to have four rodlets tested in the ATR. GE provided the raw stock for the alloys, the fuel for the rodlets and the cost for fabrication/welding of the rodlets. INL fabricated the rodlets and the caps and welded them to

  6. Properties of Mechanically Alloyed W-Ti Materials with Dual Phase Particle Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Lukáč

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available W alloys are currently widely studied materials for their potential application in future fusion reactors. In the presented study, we report on the preparation and properties of mechanically alloyed W-Ti powders compacted by pulsed electric current sintering. Four different powder compositions of W-(3%–7%Ti with Hf or HfC were prepared. The alloys’ structure contains only high-melting-point phases, namely the W-Ti matrix, complex carbide (Ti,W,HfC and HfO2 particle dispersion; Ti in the form of a separate phase is not present. The bending strength of the alloys depends on the amount of Ti added. The addition of 3 wt. % Ti led to an increase whereas 7 wt. % Ti led to a major decrease in strength when compared to unalloyed tungsten sintered at similar conditions. The addition of Ti significantly lowered the room-temperature thermal conductivity of all prepared materials. However, unlike pure tungsten, the conductivity of the prepared alloys increased with the temperature. Thus, the thermal conductivity of the alloys at 1300 °C approached the value of the unalloyed tungsten.

  7. Lessons learned from small space systems development using magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matunaga, S.; Sawada, H. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Furuya, H. [Dept. of Built Environment, Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Kanagawa (Japan); Kogiso, N. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Osaka Prefecture Univ. (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the effectiveness of magnesium alloys through practical space applications in which we have developed a few small-sized space systems and have used magnesium alloys in order to reduce the total mass of the systems. We introduce three examples of our developed systems. The first one is a CanSat whose is a pico-satellite sized of 350 ml can, less than 350 g in mass, and the second one is a small docking mechanism in order to grasp and guide a micro satellite for a small mothership-daughtership satellites formation flying in orbit. The last one is a CubeSat whose is a pico-satellite sized of 10 cm{sup *}10 cm{sup *}10 cm, less than 1 kg in mass and is planned to launch into a Low Earth orbit. Outline description of the systems is given, and design restrictions against magnesium alloys and the mass reduction effect compared with aluminum alloys are discussed. Also, issues of manufacturing, processing and surface treatment for the elaborate magnesium parts are explored. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of thiouracil-based adhesive systems for bonding cast silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Miyuki; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Ishii, Takaya; Furuchi, Mika; Matsumura, Hideo

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adhesive systems based on a thiouracil monomer on bonding to silver-palladium-copper-gold (Ag-Pd-Cu-Au) alloy (Castwell M.C.12). Disk specimens were cast from the alloy and then air-abraded with alumina. The disks were bonded using six bonding systems selected from four primers and three luting materials. Shear bond strengths were determined both before and after thermocycling. Bond strength varied from 2.7 MPa to 32.0 MPa. Three systems based on a thiouracil monomer (MTU-6) showed durable bonding to the alloy, with post-thermocycling bond strengths of 22.4 MPa for the Metaltite (MTU-6) primer and Super-Bond, a tri-n-butylborane (TBB) initiated resin, 9.0 MPa for the Multi-Bond II resin, and 8.1 MPa for the Metaltite and Bistite II system. It can be concluded that a combination of thiouracil-based primer and TBB initiated resin is effective for bonding Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

  9. Application of Synthetic Mineral Alloys as Materials for Bulletproof Vests and Products for Different Objects Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ignatova.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Authors study ballistic properties of the material which has never been used for impact protection and the presented results prove that synthetic mineral alloys belong to the field of bulletproof ballistic protection and particularly to the means of objects’ protection from kinetic threats. Although the material has been described in connection with such specific embodiments as SVD and a cumulative jet, it is evident that many alternatives and modifications of their application for various protective articles are possible.

  10. Design and fabrication of a mechanical alloying system for preparing intermetallic, nanocrystalline, amorphous and quasicrystalline compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio M, J.; Iturbe G, J.L.; Castaneda J, G.

    2002-01-01

    In this work a grinding system was designed and fabricated which allowed to improve the operation conditions in time, frequency, temperature and selection of the grinding media and that allow the contamination decrease of the compounds. By means of this method of mechanical alloying new metallic compounds can be produced, starting from elemental powders, with fine and controlled microstructures. These compounds prepared by this method are going to be used as materials for the hydrogen storage. (Author)

  11. High temperature construction materials for systems to the environmentally friendly power transformation based on the NiAl-basic alloy. Subproject: development of the MIM-technology for the production of NiAl components. Final report; Intermetallische NiAl-Komponenten fuer Systeme zur umweltfreundlichen Energieumwandlung. Teilprojekt: Entwicklung der MIM-Technologie zur Herstellung von Profilteilen aus NiAl-Basislegierung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristofaro, N. de

    2002-06-01

    Aim of this project was the development of high temperature construction materials for systems to the environmentally friendly power transformation based on the NiAl-Alloy IP 75, as well as the production methods for thin walled profile parts by Metal-Injection-Moulding (MIM). Starting from the powder specification a method should be worked out to sinter injected parts according to the requested properties, reached densities, shrinkage and behaviour. The advantages of NiAl-Alloys lie in the high melting point as well as the oxidation resistance, caused by passivating oxide layer. From production point of view these characteristic represent obstacles which had to be overcome. Further advantages of the materials lie in the chemical resistance and in the good mechanical properties at high temperature which permits special application under extreme conditions e.g. Stirling engine. Components of this materials were produced which a density of ca. 99% of the theoretical density. A fundamental feasibility regarding the production of components on NiAl-base by the MIM-Technology is given. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieses Projektes war die Entwicklung von Hochtemperaturkonstruktionswerkstoffen fuer Systeme zur umweltfreundlichen Energieumwandlung aus NiAl-Basislegierung IP 75 (45 at.% Ni, 45 at.% Al, 7,5 at.% Cr und 2,5 at.% Ta) sowie deren Herstellungsmethoden fuer duennwandige (bis zu groesseren Abmessungen) Profilteile mittels der Metal-Injection-Moulding-Technologie (MIM). Ausgehend von der Pulverspezifikation sollte im Projekt ein Verfahren erarbeitet werden, um spritzgegossene Bauteile den Anforderungen entsprechend zu sintern. Hierbei ging es vor allen Dingen um Werkstoffeigenschaften, erreichte Dichten und Schwinungsverhalten. Die anwendungstechnischen Vorteile des NiAl-Systems liegen in dem hohen Schmelzpunkt sowie dem stabilen Oxidationsverhalten, das seinerseits durch die Bildung stabiler Oxidschichten begruendet ist. Aus Fertigungsgesichtspunkten jedoch stellten

  12. Review of PWSCC and mitigation management strategies of Alloy 600 materials of PWRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seong Sik

    2013-11-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM), pressurizer instrumentation, and pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of the steam generators (SGs) in Korea. PWSCC crack indication in CRDM was also detected in a Korea plant. It is necessary to set up a rigid maintenance and inspection guidelines for the components. The PWSCC history of Alloy 600 penetration nozzles of PWRs and maintenance strategies are reviewed based upon the open literature and some experiences in Korea. The inspection requirements, repair techniques such as material changes, the isolation, weld overlays, stress improvements, water chemistry changes are reviewed. Management strategies for the Alloy 600 nozzles are also described.

  13. High Performance MG-System Alloys For Weight Saving Applications: First Year Results From The Green Metallurgy EU Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Fabrizio; Plaza, Gerardo Garces; Hofer, Markus; Kim, Shae K.

    The GREEN METALLURGY Project, a LIFE+ project co-financed by the EU Commission, has just concluded its first year. The Project seeks to set manufacturing processes at a pre-industrial scale for nanostructured-based high-performance Mg-Zn(Y) magnesium alloys. The Project's goal is the reduction of specific energy consumed and the overall carbon-footprint produced in the cradle-to-exit gate phases. Preliminary results addressed potentialities of the upstream manufacturing process pathway. Two Mg-Zn(Y) system alloys with rapid solidifying powders have been produced and directly extruded for 100% densification. Examination of the mechanical properties showed that such materials exhibit strength and elongation comparable to several high performing aluminum alloys; 390 MPa and 440 MPa for the average UTS for two different system alloys, and 10% and 15% elongations for two system alloys. These results, together with the low-environmental impact targeted, make these novel Mg alloys competitive as lightweight high-performance materials for automotive components.

  14. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

  15. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1997-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute {alpha} grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase ({alpha} and {beta}) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase {alpha} and near-{alpha} (Ti Gr 12) alloys.

  16. Solid state amorphisation in binary systems prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Sagarzazu, A.; Bonyuet, D.; D'Angelo, L.; Villalba, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work a detailed study of amorphisation in different systems prepared by mechanical alloying under the same experimental conditions was carried out, milling up to 50 and 100 h in some cases. The systems studied were: AlTi, AlNi, AlFe, FeNi, FeCo, NiMo, NiW, NiCo, MoW, CoMo. These systems were chosen to study the effect of Al-transition metal, transition metal-transition metal and also systems with large and small negative heat of mixing, different and similar crystal structures, atomic sizes and diffusion coefficients. Calculations based on the Miedema model for alloy formation and amorphisation on all the alloys studied were performed. The experimental results from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the systems based on Fe (FeNi, FeCo and FeAl) did not amorphised, even after milling for 100 h, and formed a stable solid solution with a nanometric grain size of 7 nm. The systems NiMo, NiW, MoW and CoMo (systems with small negative heat of mixing), showed amorphisation after 50 h of milling. NiAl and TiAl form an intermediate amorphous phase after around 20 h of milling and with further milling they recrystallize into a fcc solid solution. Agreement between the theoretical calculations based on the Miedema model and the experimental results was found in most of the systems.

  17. Neutron irradiation test of copper alloy/stainless steel joint materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hirokazu; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    As a study about the joint technology of copper alloy and stainless steel for utilization as cooling piping in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Al 2 O 3 -dispersed strengthened copper or CuCrZr was jointed to stainless steel by three kinds of joint methods (casting joint, brazing joint and friction welding method) for the evaluation of the neutron irradiation effect on joints. A neutron irradiation test was performed to three types of joints and each copper alloy. The average value of fast neutron fluence in this irradiation test was about 2 x 10 24 n/m 2 (E>1 MeV), and the irradiation temperature was about 130degC. As post-irradiation examinations, tensile tests, hardness tests and observation of fracture surface after the tensile tests were performed. All type joints changed to be brittle by the neutron irradiation effect like each copper alloy material, and no particular neutron irradiation effect due to the effect of joint process was observed. On the casting and friction welding, hardness of copper alloy near the joint boundary changed to be lower than that of each copper alloy by the effect of joint procedure. However, tensile strength of joints was almost the same as that of each copper alloy before/after neutron irradiation. On the other hand, tensile strength of joints by brazing changed to be much lower than CuAl-25 base material by the effect of joint process before/after neutron irradiation. Results in this study showed that the friction welding method and the casting would be able to apply to the joint method of piping in ITER. This report is based on the final report of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA). (author)

  18. Status Report on Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.R.; Balbaud-Celerier, F.; Asayama, T.; Pouchon, M.; Busby, J.T.; Maloy, S.; Park, J.Y.; Fazio, C.; Dai, Y.; Agostini, P.; Chevalier, J.P.; Marrow, J.

    2013-01-01

    Materials performance is critical to the safe and economic operation of any nuclear system. As the international community pursues the development of Generation IV reactor concepts and accelerator-driven transmutation systems, it will be increasingly necessary to develop advanced materials capable of tolerating the more challenging environments of these new systems. The international community supports numerous materials research programmes, with each country determining its individual focus on a case-by-case basis. In many instances, similar alloys of materials systems are being studied in several countries, providing the opportunity for collaborative and cross-cutting research that benefits different systems. This report is a snapshot of the current materials programmes supporting the development of advanced concepts. The descriptions of the research are grouped by concept, and national programmes are described within each concept. The report provides an overall sense of the importance of materials research worldwide and the opportunities for synergy among the countries represented in this overview. (authors)

  19. Nanostructured Shape Memory Alloys: Adaptive Composite Materials and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    fracture behavior. Similar loading conditions for multilayer material have been reported in the literature for both composite materials and geologic...8 5. Bordeaux F., Yavari, R. Multiple Necking and Deformation Behavior of Multilayer Composites Prepared by Cold Rolling. Zeitschrift f’r Metallkunde...Stiffness Greater Than Diamond. Science 315: 620-622, 2007 13. ASTM D 1238-01, Standard Method for Melt Flow Rates of Thermoplastics by Extrusion Plastometer

  20. Mold Materials For Permanent Molding of Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F Wallace; David Schwam; Wen Hong dxs11@po.cwru.edu

    2001-09-14

    A test that involves immersion of the potential mod materials for permanent molds has been developed that provides a thermal cycle that is similar to the experienced during casting of aluminum in permanent molds. This test has been employed to determine the relative thermal fatigue resistance of several different types of mold materials. Four commercial mold coatings have been evaluated for their insulating ability, wear resistance and roughness. The results indicate that composition and structure of the mold materials have considerable effect on their thermal fatigue cracking behavior. Irons with a gray iron structure are the most prone to thermal fatigue cracking followed by compacted graphite irons with the least thermal fatigue cracking of the cast irons experienced by ductile iron. The composition of these various irons affects their behavior.

  1. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T.

    1994-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of uranium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed

  2. Cu-Pb rheocast alloy as joining material for CFC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvo, M.

    1995-01-01

    High heat flux components for future use in thermonuclear fusion reactors are designed as layered structures. The assembling of the different parts (armour, heat sink and external structure) requires a joint which could withstand large heat loads and thermal stresses. In this paper we examined a 50 wt% Pb-Cu rheocast alloy (RCA) as joining material for the armour/heat sink joint. The alloy was prepared in vacuum in a rotational furnace and was characterized by SEM-EDS analysis and heating microscopy. The obtained microstructure was globular as foreseen and it remained after prolonged heating at 650 C. The alloy showed very good ductility: sheets of about 200 μm were rolled starting from about 1x1x1 cm 3 cubes. The alloy was successful in joining both the armour and the heat sink materials, respectively, carbon fibre reinforced composites and copper. Initial mechanical testing shows that the technique is viable for the foreseen applications in the field of thermonuclear fusion reactors. (orig.)

  3. A survey on the corrosion susceptibility of Alloy 800 CANDU steam generator tubing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.C.; Dupuis, M.; Burns, D.

    2008-01-01

    To provide support for a proactive steam generator (SG) aging management strategy, a survey on the corrosion susceptibility of the archived Alloy 800 tubing from CANDU SGs under plausible crevice chemistry conditions was conducted to assess the potential material degradation issues in CANDU SGs. Archived Alloy 800 samples were collected from four CANDU utilities. High-temperature electrochemical analysis was carried out to assess the corrosion susceptibility of the archived SG tubing under simulated CANDU crevice chemistry conditions at both 150 o C and 300 o C. The potentiodynamic polarization results obtained from the archived CANDU SG tubes were compared to the data from ex-service tubes removed from Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) SGs and a reference nuclear grade Alloy 800 tubing. It was found that the removed Darlington SG tubes, with signs of in-service degradation, were more susceptible to pitting corrosion than the reference nuclear grade Alloy 800 tubing. At 150 o C, under the same neutral crevice chemistry conditions, the potentiodynamic polarization curve of the ex-service Darlington SG tubing has an active peak, which is a sign of propensity to crevice/underdeposit corrosion. This active peak was not observed in any of the potentiodynamic polarization curves of all archived Alloy 800 CANDU SG tubing indicating that archived CANDU SG tubes are less susceptible to the underdeposit corrosion under SG startup conditions. The corrosion behaviour of the archived Alloy 800 tubes from CANDU SG was similar to that of the reference nuclear grade Alloy 800 tubing. The results of this survey suggest that the Alloy 800 tubing materials used in the existing CANDU utilities (other than ex-service DNGS tubing) will continue to have reliable performance under specified CANDU operating conditions. Ex-service SG tubing from DNGS, although showing lower than average corrosion resistance, still has a wide acceptable operating margin and the in

  4. Natural Materials and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    Black Widow MA Gland 500 MHz 800 MHz τc = 7.06 x 10-10 s τc = 1.25 x 10-9 s [m m 2 /s ] Diffusion Weighted Image of Black Widow & 1H...distribution is unlimited 19 H/D Amide Exchange: Black Widow Major Glands NH/ND Black Widow Major Glands 90:10 H2O:D2O 99.9% D2O (5 mins.) Gly Hα...Narrowing silk focus to Spider and Silkworm only. Reducing cellulose footprint. • Biomolecular assembly/Programmable Materials – BRI program,

  5. Refractory metal alloys and composites for space nuclear power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, Robert H.; Stephens, Joseph R.; Petrasek, Donald W.

    1988-01-01

    Space power requirements for future NASA and other U.S. missions will range from a few kilowatts to megawatts of electricity. Maximum efficiency is a key goal of any power system in order to minimize weight and size so that the Space Shuttle may be used a minimum number of times to put the power supply into orbit. Nuclear power has been identified as the primary power source to meet these high levels of electrical demand. One method to achieve maximum efficiency is to operate the power supply, energy conservation system, and related components at relatively high temperatures. For systems now in the planning stages, design temperatures range from 1300 K for the immediate future to as high as 1700 K for the advanced systems. NASA Lewis Research Center has undertaken a research program on advanced technology of refractory metal alloys and composites that will provide baseline information for space power systems in the 1900's and the 21st century. Special emphasis is focused on the refractory metal alloys of niobium and on the refractory metal composites which utilize tungsten alloy wires for reinforcement. Basic research on the creep and creep-rupture properties of wires, matrices, and composites are discussed.

  6. Powder Metallurgy Processing of a WxTaTiVCr High-Entropy Alloy and Its Derivative Alloys for Fusion Material Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Owais Ahmed; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2017-05-16

    The W x TaTiVCr high-entropy alloy with 32at.% of tungsten (W) and its derivative alloys with 42 to 90at.% of W with in-situ TiC were prepared via the mixing of elemental W, Ta, Ti, V and Cr powders followed by spark plasma sintering for the development of reduced-activation alloys for fusion plasma-facing materials. Characterization of the sintered samples revealed a BCC lattice and a multi-phase structure. The selected-area diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of TiC in the high-entropy alloy and its derivative alloys. It revealed the development of C15 (cubic) Laves phases as well in alloys with 71 to 90at.% W. A mechanical examination of the samples revealed a more than twofold improvement in the hardness and strength due to solid-solution strengthening and dispersion strengthening. This study explored the potential of powder metallurgy processing for the fabrication of a high-entropy alloy and other derived compositions with enhanced hardness and strength.

  7. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  8. Light alloys as substrate material for bipolar plates; Leichtmetall-Legierungen als Substrat fuer Bipolarplatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicke, R. [PSFU GmbH, Wernigerode (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Light alloys as substrate material for bipolar plates in fuel cells offer a number of advantages compared to stainless steel sheets. First, the specific weight is smaller, costs are lower, but also bulk properties like thermal and electric conductivities are much better than in the case of stainless steel. Regarding graphite polymer composite materials, the electric conductivity of light alloys again is much higher leading to a considerably lower internal resistance of the cells. Metal sheets, in general, are more attractive with respect to building up compact stacks with high power densities since metal sheets can be produced easily down to thicknesses of around 0.1 mm, whereby graphite composite materials most often have a thickness of at least around 2 mm. In addition, the economics of using light alloys as bipolar plate material is advantageous also for small and medium quantities of production (for instance making use of photochemical etching), but also for high volume production where both conventional techniques like stamping and also more advanced processes like hydroforming can be employed. A major challenge is the identification and technological control and improvement of surface modification / coating processes which lead to low ohmic contact resistances and a good corrosion protection under the electrochemical conditions within a fuel cell environment. Different coating technologies and the characteristics of several coatings will be discussed. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic properties of three pseudobinary RCo5 alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The field dependence of the magnetization was measured in the magnetically easy and hard directions as a function of composition and temperature in the pseudobinary systems Pr/sub x-/ Sm/sub 1-x/Co 5 , Y/sub x/Nd/sub 1-x/Co 5 , and Gd/sub x/Nd/sub 1-x/Co 5 . The saturation magnetization was determined and the anisotropy constants K 1 and K 2 were calculated from hard direction magnetization data. It was assumed that the net magnetization and anisotropy of the alloys could be divided into components representing the cobalt-cobalt, rare earth-cobalt, and rare earth-rare earth interactions. Data on YCo 5 was employed to account for the effect of the first interaction and the remaining two interactions were separated by means of some simple and physically reasonable assumptions. The resulting rare earth-rare earth magnetization and anisotropy data was then tested to see if it could be described by the single ion model. It was concluded that the single ion model did not describe the rare earth-rare earth interaction well in these alloys. This conclusion is in agreement with published results on light rare earth metals and alloys. It was further observed that some of the characteristics of the rare earth-rare earth interaction could be accounted for by assuming the existence of a band-type interaction between the rare earth atoms. All the alloys which contained Nd were found to exhibit low-temperature magnetization anomalies which were thought to be due to the existence of relatively strong basal plane anisotropy in these alloys

  10. Preparation, microstructure and thermal properties of Mg−Bi alloys as phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Dong; Sun, Zheng; Li, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure and thermal properties of Mg−Bi alloys are determined. • The relationship between melting enthalpies and phase composition are studied. • The activation energy of Mg−54%Bi alloy is calculated by multiple DSC technology. • Mg−54%Bi alloy is proposed as a phase change material at high (>420 °C) temperature. - Abstract: Comparing with Al-based phase change material, Mg-based phase change material is getting more and more attention due to its high corrosion resistance with encapsulation materials based on iron. This study focuses on the characterization of Mg−36%Bi, Mg−54%Bi and Mg−60%Bi (wt. %) alloys as phase change materials for thermal energy storage at high temperature. The phase compositions, microstructure and phase change temperatures were investigated by X-ray diffusion (XRD), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis, respectively. The results indicates that the microstructure of Mg−36%Bi and Mg−54%Bi alloys are mainly composed of α-Mg matrix and α-Mg + Mg 3 Bi 2 eutectic phases, Mg−60%Bi alloy are mainly composed of the Mg 3 Bi 2 phase and α-MgMg 3 Bi 2 eutectic phases. The melting enthalpies of Mg−36%Bi, Mg−54%Bi and Mg−60%Bi alloys are 138.2, 180.5 and 48.7 J/g, with the phase change temperatures of 547.6, 546.3 and 548.1 °C, respectively. The Mg−54%Bi alloy has the highest melting enthalpy in three alloys. The main reason may be that it has more proportion of α-Mg + Mg 3 Bi 2 eutectic phases. The thermal expansion of three alloys increases with increasing temperature. The values of the thermal conductivity decrease with increasing Bi content. Besides, the activation energy of Mg−54%Bi was calculated by multiple DSC technology.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metal injection molded Ti-Nb binary alloys as biomedical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Chang, Keke; Ebel, Thomas; Qian, Ma; Willumeit, Regine; Yan, Ming; Pyczak, Florian

    2013-12-01

    The application of titanium (Ti) based biomedical materials which are widely used at present, such as commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V, are limited by the mismatch of Young's modulus between the implant and the bones, the high costs of products, and the difficulty of producing complex shapes of materials by conventional methods. Niobium (Nb) is a non-toxic element with strong β stabilizing effect in Ti alloys, which makes Ti-Nb based alloys attractive for implant application. Metal injection molding (MIM) is a cost-efficient near-net shape process. Thus, it attracts growing interest for the processing of Ti and Ti alloys as biomaterial. In this investigation, metal injection molding was applied to the fabrication of a series of Ti-Nb binary alloys with niobium content ranging from 10wt% to 22wt%, and CP-Ti for comparison. Specimens were characterized by melt extraction, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Titanium carbide formation was observed in all the as-sintered Ti-Nb binary alloys but not in the as-sintered CP-Ti. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns revealed that the carbides are Ti2C. It was found that with increasing niobium content from 0% to 22%, the porosity increased from about 1.6% to 5.8%, and the carbide area fraction increased from 0% to about 1.8% in the as-sintered samples. The effects of niobium content, porosity and titanium carbides on mechanical properties have been discussed. The as-sintered Ti-Nb specimens exhibited an excellent combination of high tensile strength and low Young's modulus, but relatively low ductility. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel coping metal material CoCrCu alloy fabricated by selective laser melting with antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ling [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Memarzadeh, Kaveh [Institute of Dentistry, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Newark Street, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Zhang, Shuyuan; Sun, Ziqing; Yang, Chunguang [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Ren, Guogang [University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Allaker, Robert P., E-mail: r.p.allaker@qmul.ac.uk [Institute of Dentistry, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Newark Street, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel coping metal CoCrCu alloy using a selective laser melting (SLM) technique with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and to investigate its microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Methods: Novel CoCrCu alloy was fabricated using SLM from a mixture of commercial CoCr based alloy and elemental Cu powders. SLM CoCr without Cu served as control. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using standard antimicrobial tests, and antibiofilm properties were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscope. Cu distribution and microstructure were determined using scanning electron microscope, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by potential dynamic polarization and biocompatibility measured using an MTT assay. Results: SLM CoCrCu alloys were found to be bactericidal and able to inhibit biofilm formation. Other factors such as microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility were similar to those of SLM CoCr alloys. Significance: The addition of appropriate amounts of Cu not only maintains normal beneficial properties of CoCr based alloys, but also provides SLM CoCrCu alloys with excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm capabilities. This material has the potential to be used as a coping metal for dental applications. - Highlights: • Novel CoCrCu alloys were fabricated by using selective laser melting (SLM). • SLM CoCrCu alloys showed satisfied antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. • SLM CoCrCu alloys have no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. • Other properties of SLM CoCrCu alloys were similar to SLM CoCr alloys. • SLM CoCrCu alloys have the potential to be used as coping metals.

  13. A novel coping metal material CoCrCu alloy fabricated by selective laser melting with antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Ling; Memarzadeh, Kaveh; Zhang, Shuyuan; Sun, Ziqing; Yang, Chunguang; Ren, Guogang; Allaker, Robert P.; Yang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel coping metal CoCrCu alloy using a selective laser melting (SLM) technique with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and to investigate its microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Methods: Novel CoCrCu alloy was fabricated using SLM from a mixture of commercial CoCr based alloy and elemental Cu powders. SLM CoCr without Cu served as control. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using standard antimicrobial tests, and antibiofilm properties were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscope. Cu distribution and microstructure were determined using scanning electron microscope, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by potential dynamic polarization and biocompatibility measured using an MTT assay. Results: SLM CoCrCu alloys were found to be bactericidal and able to inhibit biofilm formation. Other factors such as microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility were similar to those of SLM CoCr alloys. Significance: The addition of appropriate amounts of Cu not only maintains normal beneficial properties of CoCr based alloys, but also provides SLM CoCrCu alloys with excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm capabilities. This material has the potential to be used as a coping metal for dental applications. - Highlights: • Novel CoCrCu alloys were fabricated by using selective laser melting (SLM). • SLM CoCrCu alloys showed satisfied antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. • SLM CoCrCu alloys have no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. • Other properties of SLM CoCrCu alloys were similar to SLM CoCr alloys. • SLM CoCrCu alloys have the potential to be used as coping metals.

  14. MODELLING OF MATERIAL FLOW SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    PÉTER TELEK

    2012-01-01

    Material flow systems are in generally very complex processes. During design, building and operation of complex systems there are many different problems. If these complex processes can be described in a simple model, the tasks will be clearer, better adaptable and easier solvable. As the material flow systems are very different, so using models is a very important aid to create uniform methods and solutions. This paper shows the details of the application possibilities of modelling in the ma...

  15. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason A.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0

  16. Production of titanium alloys for advanced aerospace systems by powder metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Vinicius André Rodrigues; Campos, Pedro Paulo de; Cairo, Carlos Alberto Alves; Bressiani, José Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Titanium alloys parts are ideally suited for advanced aerospace systems because of their unique combination of high specific strength at both room temperature and moderately elevated temperature, in addition to excellent corrosion resistance. Despite these features, use of titanium alloys in engines and airframes is limited by cost. The alloys processing by powder metallurgy eases the obtainment of parts with complex geometry. In this work, results of the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys pro...

  17. Investigation of Material Performance Degradation for High-Strength Aluminum Alloy Using Acoustic Emission Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Ai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural materials damages are always in the form of micro-defects or cracks. Traditional or conventional methods such as micro and macro examination, tensile, bend, impact and hardness tests can be used to detect the micro damage or defects. However, these tests are destructive in nature and not in real-time, thus a non-destructive and real-time monitoring and characterization of the material damage is needed. This study is focused on the application of a non-destructive and real-time acoustic emission (AE method to study material performance degradation of a high-strength aluminum alloy of high-speed train gearbox shell. By applying data relative analysis and interpretation of AE signals, the characteristic parameters of materials performance were achieved and the failure criteria of the characteristic parameters for the material tensile damage process were established. The results show that the AE method and signal analysis can be used to accomplish the non-destructive and real-time detection of the material performance degradation process of the high-strength aluminum alloy. This technique can be extended to other engineering materials.

  18. Refractory metal alloys and composites for space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, R.; Petrasek, D. W.; Titran, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on recent studies of refractory-metal-alloy and refractory-metal-composite technologies for space power systems, with emphasis on work performed at the Lewis Research Center in support of the Ground Engineering System (GES) for the SP-100 reactor. Special attention is given to the mechanical properties of alloys with compositions Nb-1Zr and Nb-0.1Zr-0.1C (the PWC-11 alloy) and to advanced fiber-reinforced composites. The results to date indicate that, for the GES at a power level of about 100 kWe, the PWC-11 has attractive creep properties that will extend the capabilities of the SP-100 reactor compared to a similar system fabricated from Nb-1Zr. On the other hand, tungsten-reinforced Nb-1Zr composites were found to provide a ten-fold and four-fold creep strength over Nb-1Zr and PWC-11, respectively, at 1400 to 1500 K.

  19. The characteristics of laser welded magnesium alloy using silver nanoparticles as insert material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, M.; Maekawa, K.; Yamasaki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ag nanoparticles are used as insert material for welding Mg alloy with laser. ► We examine the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded Mg alloys. ► Nananoparticle promote grain refinement to the weld structure. ► Finer nanoparticle produces high weld efficiency and mechanical properties. - Abstract: This paper describes the characteristics of the laser welding of thin-sheet magnesium alloys using silver (Ag) nanoparticles as an insert material. The experiment was conducted using nanoparticles with 5 nm and 100 nm diameters that were welded with a Nd:YAG laser. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the specimens welded using inserts with different sizes of nanoparticles and without an insert material, were examined. Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) analysis was conducted to confirm the existence of Ag in the welded area. The introduction of the Ag nanoparticle insert promoted large area of fine grain and broadened the acceptable range of scanning speed parameters compared to welds without an insert. Welds with 5 nm nanoparticles yielded the highest fracture load of up to 818 N while the lowest fracture load was found for weld specimens with 100 nm nanoparticles. This lower fracture load was due to larger voids and a smaller throat length, which contributed to a lower fracture load when using larger nanoparticles.

  20. Handbook on Lead-bismuth Eutectic Alloy and Lead Properties, Materials Compatibility, Thermal-hydraulics and Technologies - 2015 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, Concetta; Sobolev, V.P.; Aerts, A.; Gavrilov, S.; Lambrinou, K.; Schuurmans, P.; Gessi, A.; Agostini, P.; Ciampichetti, A.; Martinelli, L.; Gosse, S.; Balbaud-Celerier, F.; Courouau, J.L.; Terlain, A.; Li, N.; Glasbrenner, H.; Neuhausen, J.; Heinitz, S.; Zanini, L.; Dai, Y.; Jolkkonen, M.; Kurata, Y.; Obara, T.; Thiolliere, N.; Martin-Munoz, F.J.; Heinzel, A.; Weisenburger, A.; Mueller, G.; Schumacher, G.; Jianu, A.; Pacio, J.; Marocco, L.; Stieglitz, R.; Wetzel, T.; Daubner, M.; Litfin, K.; Vogt, J.B.; Proriol-Serre, I.; Gorse, D.; Eckert, S.; Stefani, F.; Buchenau, D.; Wondrak, T.; Hwang, I.S.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy liquid metals such as lead or lead-bismuth have been proposed and investigated as coolants for fast reactors since the 1950's. More recently, there has been renewed interest worldwide in the use of these materials to support the development of systems for the transmutation of radioactive waste. Heavy liquid metals are also under evaluation as a reactor core coolant and accelerator-driven system neutron spallation source. Several national and international R and D programmes are ongoing for the development of liquid lead-alloy technology and the design of liquid lead-alloy-cooled reactor systems. In 2007, a first edition of the handbook was published to provide deeper insight into the properties and experimental results in relation to lead and lead-bismuth eutectic technology and to establish a common database. This handbook remains a reference in the field and is a valuable tool for designers and researchers with an interest in heavy liquid metals. The 2015 edition includes updated data resulting from various national and international R and D programmes and contains new experimental data to help understand some important phenomena such as liquid metal embrittlement and turbulent heat transfer in a fuel bundle. The handbook provides an overview of liquid lead and lead-bismuth eutectic properties, materials compatibility and testing issues, key aspects of thermal-hydraulics and existing facilities, as well as perspectives for future R and D. (authors)

  1. Corrosion resistance of materials of construction for high temperature sulfuric acid service in thermochemical IS process. Alloy 800, Alloy 600, SUSXM15J1 and SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Onuki, Kaoru; Shimizu, Saburo; Yamaguchi, Akihisa

    2006-01-01

    Exposure tests of candidate materials were carried out up to 1000 hr in the sulfuric acid environments of thermochemical hydrogen production IS process, focusing on the corrosion of welded portion and of crevice area. In the gas phase sulfuric acid decomposition condition at 850degC, welded samples of Alloy 800 and of Alloy 600 showed the same good corrosion resistance as the base materials. In the boiling condition of 95 wt% sulfuric acid solution, test sample of SiC showed the same good corrosion resistance. Also negligible corrosion was observed in crevice corrosion. (author)

  2. Controllable Catalysis with Nanoparticles: Bimetallic Alloy Systems and Surface Adsorbates

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tianyou

    2016-05-16

    Transition metal nanoparticles are privileged materials in catalysis due to their high specific surface areas and abundance of active catalytic sites. While many of these catalysts are quite useful, we are only beginning to understand the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Opening the “black box” of nanoparticle catalysis is essential to achieve the ultimate goal of catalysis by design. In this Perspective we highlight recent work addressing the topic of controlled catalysis with bimetallic alloy and “designer” adsorbate-stabilized metal nanoparticles.

  3. Design, processing and characterization of mechanically alloyed galfenol & lightly rare-earth doped FeGa alloys as smart materials for actuators and transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Parisa

    Smart materials find a wide range of application areas due to their varied response to external stimuli. The different areas of application can be in our day to day life, aerospace, civil engineering applications, and mechatronics to name a few. Magnetostrictive materials are a class of smart materials that can convert energy between the magnetic and elastic states. Galfenol is a magnetostrictive alloy comprised primarily of the elements iron (Fe) and gallium (Ga). Galfenol exhibits a unique combination of mechanical and magnetostrictive (magnetic) properties that legacy smart materials do not. Galfenol's ability to function while in tension, mechanical robustness and high Curie temperature (600 °C) is attracting interest for the alloy's use in mechanically harsh and elevated temperature environments. Applications actively being investigated include transducers for down-hole use, next-generation fuel injectors, sensing, and energy harvesting devices. Understanding correlations between microstructure, electronic structure, and functional response is key to developing novel magnetostrictive materials for sensor and actuator technologies. To this end, in the first part of this thesis we report successful fabrication and investigation of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of mechanically alloyed Fe81Ga19 compounds. For the first time, we could measure magnetostrictive properties of mechanically alloyed FeGa compounds. A maximum saturation magnetostriction of 41 ppm was achieved which is comparable to those measured from polycrystalline FeGa alloys prepared by other processing techniques, namely gas atomization and cold rolling. Overall, this study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale production of FeGa polycrystalline alloys powders by a simple and cost-effective mechanical alloying technique. In the second part of this work, we report for the first time, experimental results pertaining to successful fabrication and advanced characterization of a series

  4. Information system revives materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, T.

    1995-01-01

    Through a change in philosophy and the development of a new, more efficient information management system, Arizona Public Service Co. (APSW) has, in less than two years, reduced material and service costs by 10 percent. The utility plans to cut these costs form 1993 figures by 25 percent before 2000. The utility is breaking new ground with ongoing implementation of new business processes and the new Materials Logistics Information System (MLIS), which has been co-developed with Texas Instruments Software Division (TISD)

  5. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2006-10-03

    An alloy made of heat treated material represented by Gd.sub.5(Si.sub.xGe.sub.1-x).sub.4 where 0.47.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.56 that exhibits a magnetic entropy change (-.DELTA.S.sub.m) of at least 16 J/kg K, a magnetostriction of at least 2000 parts per million, and a magnetoresistance of at least 5 percent at a temperature of about 300K and below, and method of heat treating the material between 800 to 1600 degrees C. for a time to this end.

  6. Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminum Alloy to Steel with Transition Material - From Process to Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Shao, H; Kimchi, Menachem; Menachem Kimchi and Wanda Newman

    2004-05-11

    This paper summarizes work to date on resistance spot welding (RSW) of aluminum alloy to mild steel from process development to performance evaluation. A cold-rolled strip material is introduced as a transition material to aid the resistance welding process. The optimal welding parameters and electrode selections were established using a combination of experimental and analytical approaches. The mechanical behaviors of welded samples was evaluated using static and dynamic strength tests and cyclic fatigue tests. A statistical analysis was also performed to analyze the effect of different failure modes on the sample's peak load and energy absorption.

  7. Lost foam casting of aluminum alloy-SiC{sub p} composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baalasuburamaniam, R.; Cvetnic, C.; Ravindran, C. [Ryerson Univ., Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Industrial Engineering, Centre for the Near-Net-Shape Processing of Materials, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: rbalasub@ryerson.ca; ccvetnic@ryerson.ca; rravindr@ryerson.ca

    2002-07-01

    Metal matrix composites are a viable alternative to cast irons in automotive components with possible increase in strength-to-weight ratio. Lost foam casting of aluminum alloy matrix composite containing 20 volume percent SiC was carried out at 690, 730, and 770{sup o}C with a view to determining the effects of cooling rate on microstructure, particle distribution, microporosity and mechanical properties. These results were compared with those for the matrix material cast under similar conditions. The results and the correlations are of particular interest as there is no published literature on lost foam casting of composite materials. (author)

  8. Development of antiferromagnetic Heusler alloys for the replacement of iridium as a critically raw material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Huminiuc, Teodor; Sinclair, John; Wu, Haokaifeng; Samiepour, Marjan; Vallejo-Fernandez, Gonzalo; O'Grady, Kevin; Balluf, Jan; Meinert, Markus; Reiss, Günter; Simon, Eszter; Khmelevskyi, Sergii; Szunyogh, Laszlo; Yanes Díaz, Rocio; Nowak, Ulrich; Tsuchiya, Tomoki; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Kubota, Takahide; Takanashi, Koki; Inami, Nobuhito; Ono, Kanta

    2017-11-01

    As a platinum group metal, iridium (Ir) is the scarcest element on the earth but it has been widely used as an antiferromagnetic layer in magnetic recording, crucibles and spark plugs due to its high melting point. In magnetic recording, antiferromagnetic layers have been used to pin its neighbouring ferromagnetic layer in a spin-valve read head in a hard disk drive for example. Recently, antiferromagnetic layers have also been found to induce a spin-polarised electrical current. In these devices, the most commonly used antiferromagnet is an Ir-Mn alloy because of its corrosion resistance and the reliable magnetic pinning of adjacent ferromagnetic layers. It is therefore crucial to explore new antiferromagnetic materials without critical raw materials. In this review, recent research on new antiferromagnetic Heusler alloys and their exchange interactions along the plane normal is discussed. These new antiferromagnets are characterised by very sensitive magnetic and electrical measurement techniques recently developed to determine their characteristic temperatures together with atomic structural analysis. Mn-based alloys and compounds are found to be most promising based on their robustness against atomic disordering and large pinning strength up to 1.4 kOe, which is comparable with that for Ir-Mn. The search for new antiferromagnetic films and their characterisation are useful for further miniaturisation and development of spintronic devices in a sustainable manner.

  9. Ternary alloy material prediction using genetic algorithm and cluster expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This thesis summarizes our study on the crystal structures prediction of Fe-V-Si system using genetic algorithm and cluster expansion. Our goal is to explore and look for new stable compounds. We started from the current ten known experimental phases, and calculated formation energies of those compounds using density functional theory (DFT) package, namely, VASP. The convex hull was generated based on the DFT calculations of the experimental known phases. Then we did random search on some metal rich (Fe and V) compositions and found that the lowest energy structures were body centered cube (bcc) underlying lattice, under which we did our computational systematic searches using genetic algorithm and cluster expansion. Among hundreds of the searched compositions, thirteen were selected and DFT formation energies were obtained by VASP. The stability checking of those thirteen compounds was done in reference to the experimental convex hull. We found that the composition, 24-8-16, i.e., Fe3VSi2 is a new stable phase and it can be very inspiring to the future experiments.

  10. An Experimental Evaluation of Electron Beam Welded Thixoformed 7075 Aluminum Alloy Plate Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Azadi Chegeni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two plates of thixoformed 7075 aluminum alloy were joined using Electron Beam Welding (EBW. A post-welding-heat treatment (PWHT was performed within the semi-solid temperature range of this alloy at three temperatures, 610, 617 and 628 °C, for 3 min. The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of EB welded plates, as well as the heat-treated specimens, were investigated in the Base Metal (BM, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ, and Fusion Zone (FZ, using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, and Vickers hardness test. Results indicated that after EBW, the grain size substantially decreased from 67 µm in both BM and HAZ to 7 µm in the FZ, and a hardness increment was observed in the FZ as compared to the BM and HAZ. Furthermore, the PWHT led to grain coarsening throughout the material, along with a further increase in hardness in the FZ.

  11. Alloys in energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, B.R.T.

    1984-02-01

    The development of new and advanced energy systems often requires the tailoring of new alloys or alloy combinations to meet the novel and often stringent requirements of those systems. Longer life at higher temperatures and stresses in aggressive environments is the most common goal. Alloy theory helps in achieving this goal by suggesting uses of multiphase systems and intermediate phases, where solid solutions were traditionally used. However, the use of materials under non-equilibrium conditions is now quite common - as with rapidly solidified metals - and the application of alloy theory must be modified accordingly. Under certain conditions, as in a reactor core, the rate of approach to equilibrium will be modified; sometimes a quasi-equilibrium is established. Thus an alloy may exhibit enhanced general diffusion at the same time as precipitate particles are being dispersed and solute atoms are being carried to vacancy sinks. We are approaching an understanding of these processes and can begin to model these complex systems.

  12. Experimental analyses of dynamical systems involving shape memory alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Savi, Marcelo A.; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in dynamical systems has an increasing importance in engineering especially due to their capacity to provide vibration reductions. In this regard, experimental tests are essential in order to show all potentialities of this kind of systems. In this work, SMA...... springs are incorporated in a dynamical system that consists of a one degree of freedom oscillator connected to a linear spring and a mass, which is also connected to the SMA spring. Two types of springs are investigated defming two distinct systems: a pseudoelastic and a shape memory system....... The characterisation of the springs is evaluated by considering differential calorimetry scanning tests and also force-displacement tests at different temperatures. Free and forced vibration experiments are made in order to investigate the dynamical behaviour of the systems. For both systems, it is observed...

  13. Cytocompatibility of pure metals and experimental binary titanium alloys for implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeong-Joon; Song, Yo-Han; An, Ji-Hae; Song, Ho-Jun; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of nine types of pure metal ingots (Ag, Al, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Nb, V, Zr) and 36 experimental titanium (Ti) alloys containing 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% of each alloying element. The cell viabilities for each test group were compared with that of CP-Ti using the WST-1 test and agar overlay test. The ranking of pure metal cytotoxicity from most potent to least potent was as follows: Cu>Al>Ag>V>Mn>Cr>Zr>Nb>Mo>CP-Ti. The mean cell viabilities for pure Cu, Al, Ag, V, and Mn were 21.6%, 25.3%, 31.7%, 31.7%, and 32.7%, respectively, which were significantly lower than that for the control group (pcytotoxic', whereas the rest of the tested pure metals and all Ti alloys, except Ti-10 V (mild cytotoxicity), were ranked as 'noncytotoxic'. The results obtained in this study can serve as a guide for the development of new Ti-based alloy implant systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling of Stress Development During Thermal Damage Healing in Fiber-reinforced Composite Materials Containing Embedded Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; de Boer, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite materials are susceptible to damage development through matrix cracking and delamination. This article concerns the use of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires embedded in a composite material to support healing of damage through a local heat treatment. The composite material

  15. Nuclear material statistical accountancy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentest, F.; Casilli, T.; Franklin, M.

    1979-01-01

    The statistical accountancy system developed at JRC Ispra is refered as 'NUMSAS', ie Nuclear Material Statistical Accountancy System. The principal feature of NUMSAS is that in addition to an ordinary material balance calcultation, NUMSAS can calculate an estimate of the standard deviation of the measurement error accumulated in the material balance calculation. The purpose of the report is to describe in detail, the statistical model on wich the standard deviation calculation is based; the computational formula which is used by NUMSAS in calculating the standard deviation and the information about nuclear material measurements and the plant measurement system which are required as data for NUMSAS. The material balance records require processing and interpretation before the material balance calculation is begun. The material balance calculation is the last of four phases of data processing undertaken by NUMSAS. Each of these phases is implemented by a different computer program. The activities which are carried out in each phase can be summarised as follows; the pre-processing phase; the selection and up-date phase; the transformation phase, and the computation phase

  16. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant, colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistive materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2003-07-08

    Method of making an active magnetic refrigerant represented by Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4 alloy for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.0 comprising placing amounts of the commercially pure Gd, Si, and Ge charge components in a crucible, heating the charge contents under subambient pressure to a melting temperature of the alloy for a time sufficient to homogenize the alloy and oxidize carbon with oxygen present in the Gd charge component to reduce carbon, rapidly solidifying the alloy in the crucible, and heat treating the solidified alloy at a temperature below the melting temperature for a time effective to homogenize a microstructure of the solidified material, and then cooling sufficiently fast to prevent the eutectoid decomposition and improve magnetocaloric and/or the magnetostrictive and/or the magnetoresistive properties thereof.

  17. Mechatronic systems and materials III

    CERN Document Server

    Gosiewski, Zdzislaw

    2009-01-01

    This very interesting volume is divided into 24 sections; each of which covers, in detail, one aspect of the subject-matter: I. Industrial robots; II. Microrobotics; III. Mobile robots; IV. Teleoperation, telerobotics, teleoperated semi-autonomous systems; V. Sensors and actuators in mechatronics; VI. Control of mechatronic systems; VII. Analysis of vibration and deformation; VIII. Optimization, optimal design; IX. Integrated diagnostics; X. Failure analysis; XI. Tribology in mechatronic systems; XII. Analysis of signals; XIII. Measurement techniques; XIV. Multifunctional and smart materials;

  18. Imaging systems and materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murr, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad background for the historical development and modern applications of light optical metallography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, field-ion microscopy and several forms of scanning probe microscopes. Numerous case examples illustrating especially synergistic applications of these imaging systems are provided to demonstrate materials characterization especially in the context of structure-property-performance issues which define materials science and engineering

  19. Material properties of Al-Si-Cu aluminium alloy produced by the rotational cast technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syahid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to explore microstructural and mechanical properties of cast Al-Si-Cu aluminum alloy (ADC12. To obtain excellent material properties, the cast Al alloys were produced by an originally developed mold rotational machine, namely liquid aluminum alloy is solidified during high speed rotating. The casting process was conducted under various casting conditions, in which the following factors were altered, e.g., melt temperature, metal mold temperature and different rotational speed. Microstructural characteristics were examined by direct observation using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM, and the secondary dendrite arm spacing of alpha-Al phase (SDAS and the size of Si eutectic phase were identified. Mechanical properties were investigated by micro-hardness and tensile tests. Rotation speed and melt temperature were directly attributed to the SDAS, and severe shear stress arising from the rotation made fine and complicated grain structure, leading to the high mechanical properties. The extent of the shear stress was altered depending on the area of the sample due to the different shear stress. Furthermore, high melt temperature and high rotational speed decrease the size of Si eutectic phases. The high mechanical properties were detected for the cast samples produced by the casting condition as follows: melt temperature 700oC, mold temperature 400oC and rotation speed 400 rpm

  20. Yield asymmetry design of magnesium alloys by integrated computational materials engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongsheng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Khaleel, Mohammad [Qatar Foundation Research adn Development (Qatar); Ahzi, Said [Univ. of Strasbourg (France)

    2013-11-01

    Deformation asymmetry of magnesium alloys is an important factor on machine design in the automobile industry. Represented by the ratio of compressive yield stress (CYS) against tensile yield stress (TYS), deformation asymmetry is strongly related to texture and grain size. A polycrystalline viscoplasticity model, modified intermediate Φ-model, is used to predict the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys with different grain sizes. Validated with experimental results, integrated computational materials engineering is applied to find out the route in achieving desired asymmetry via thermomechanical processing. For example, CYS/TYS in rolled texture is smaller than 1 under different loading directions. In other textures, such as extruded texture, CYS/TYS is large along the normal direction. Starting from rolled texture, asymmetry will increase to close to 1 along the rolling direction after being compressed to a strain of 0.2. Our modified Φ-model also shows that grain refinement increases CYS/TYS. Along with texture control, grain refinement also can optimize the yield asymmetry. After the grain size decreases to a critical value, CYS/TYS reaches to 1 because CYS increases much faster than TYS. By tailoring the microstructure using texture control and grain refinement, it is achievable to optimize yield asymmetry in wrought magnesium alloys.

  1. On the use of tin-lithium alloys as breeder material for blankets of fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuetterer, M.A.; Aiello, G.; Barbier, F.; Giancarli, L.; Poitevin, Y.; Sardain, P.; Szczepanski, J.; Li Puma, A.; Ruvutuso, G.; Vella, G.

    2000-01-01

    Tin-lithium alloys have several attractive thermo-physical properties, in particular high thermal conductivity and heat capacity, that make them potentially interesting candidates for use in liquid metal blankets. This paper presents an evaluation of the advantages and drawbacks caused by the substitution of the currently employed alloy lead-lithium (Pb-17Li) by a suitable tin-lithium alloy: (i) for the European water-cooled Pb-17Li (WCLL) blanket concept with reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel as the structural material; (ii) for the European self-cooled TAURO blanket with SiC f /SiC as the structural material. It was found that in none of these blankets Sn-Li alloys would lead to significant advantages, in particular due to the low tritium breeding capability. Only in forced convection cooled divertors with W-alloy structure, Sn-Li alloys would be slightly more favorable. It is concluded that Sn-Li alloys are only advantageous in free surface cooled reactor internals, as this would make maximum use of the principal advantage of Sn-Li, i.e., the low vapor pressure

  2. Evaluation of effect of recasting of nickel-chromium alloy on its castability using different investment materials: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that there was no significant difference found in castability of different percentage combinations of new and once casted alloy using two investment materials. The addition of new alloy during recasting to maintain the castability of nickel-chromium alloy may therefore not be required.

  3. Testing metals and alloys for use in oxygen systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    1986-01-01

    When oxygen is present in high concentrations or large quantities, as in oxygen-based life-support systems, the likelihood of combustion and the probable intensity of a conflagration increase, together with the severity of the damage caused. Even stainless steel will burn vigorously when ignited in a 1000-psi oxygen environment. The hazards involved in the use of oxygen increase with system operation at the elevated temperatures typical of propulsion systems. Fires in oxygen systems are generally catastrophic, causing a threat to life in manned vehicles. When mechanical components of a mechanism generate friction heat in the presence of oxygen, many commonly used metal alloys ignite and burn. Attention is presently given to frictional heating, particle impact, and flame propagation tests conducted in oxygen environments.

  4. Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys as smart materials for micro-positioning devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hubert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the field of microrobotics, actuators based on smart materials are predominant because of very good precision, integration capabilities and high compactness. This paper presents the main characteristics of Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys as new candidates for the design of micromechatronic devices. The thermo-magneto-mechanical energy conversion process is first presented followed by the adequate modeling procedure required to design actuators. Finally, some actuators prototypes realized at the Femto-ST institute are presented, including a push-pull bidirectional actuator. Some results on the control and performances of these devices conclude the paper.

  5. Crevice corrosion resistance of high alloyed materials in 3.5 % NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alar, Vesna; Stojanovic, Ivan; Simunovic, Vinko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of applied torque on the corrosion behaviour of W.-Nr. 1.4404 and 1.4462 stainless steels and W.-Nr. 2.4605 and 2.4858 nickel alloys with crevices were investigated using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization method. Crevice corrosion (material-to-polytetrafluoroethylene) was tested in 3.5 % NaCl solution at 22 C. The corroded surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate similar trends in susceptibility to crevice corrosion with increasing torque. Among the four specimens, the W.-Nr. 1.4404 is the most susceptible to crevice corrosion. (orig.)

  6. Influence of Material Microstructures in Micromilling of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Giardini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the most recent decades the introduction of unconventional machining processes allowed the development of micromachining techniques. In this work, the influence of material microstructures on the micromilling process was investigated. Ti6Al4V alloy was selected as workpiece material since it is a very common material for micro applications and because its duplex microstructure can be easily changed by proper thermal treatments. Four different microstructures (namely bimodal, fully equiaxed, fully lamellar and mill annealed were obtained through recrystallization annealing treatments carried out at different times and temperatures. The mechanical properties of the samples were assessed by microhardness measurements. Nano-indentations were also performed on single grains to understand how the different hardness of phases and structures present in the Ti6Al4V alloy can affect the micromilling process. Microchannels using two flute flat end mills with a diameter equal to 200 µm were realized on the treated samples. Two different feed-per-tooth values were used during the tests. Cutting force, channel shape and burr dimension were investigated. Morphological and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS analyses were performed on tools by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM: in this way the phenomena mainly influencing the tool status were also identified. Lower cutting forces and reduced tool wear were observed when working fully lamellar microstructures compared to the other ones.

  7. Bone Cell–materials Interactions and Ni Ion Release of Anodized Equiatomic NiTi Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Sheldon A.; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Davies, Neal M.; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Laser processed NiTi alloy was anodized for different durations in H2SO4 electrolyte with varying pH to create biocompatible surfaces with low Ni ion release as well as bioactive surfaces to enhance biocompatibility and bone cell-materials interactions. The anodized surfaces were assessed for their in vitro cell-materials interactions using human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells for 3, 7 and 11 days, and Ni ion release up to 8 weeks in simulated body fluids. The results were correlated with surface morphologies of anodized surfaces characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results show that the anodization creates a surface with nano/micro roughness depending on anodization conditions. The hydrophilicity of NiTi surface was found to improve after anodization due to lower contact angles in cell media, which dropped from 32° to NiTi surfaces after anodization. This work indicates that anodization of NiTi alloy has a positive influence on the surface energy and surface morphology, which in turn improve bone cell-materials interactions and reduce Ni ion release in vitro. PMID:21232641

  8. Obtaining Material Data for Heat Treatment Simulation of Casr Alloy Parts with Unified Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    subjected to high temperature. In this paper a two-state variables unified model is applied in order to simulate creep behavior and time-dependent metallurgical changes. The fundamental assumption of the unified theory is that creep and viscoplasticity, which are both irreversible strains developed because...... of dislocations motion in the material structure, can be modelled through the implementation of a similar plastic strain velocity law, generally called flow rule. The paper shows how to obtain the material data needed for the simulation of the stress-strain behavior of aluminum at high temperature. As an example......, the analysis of several tests performed at various temperatures and strain rates on a particular aluminum alloy, is presented as well. Furthermore, the one dimensional code developed during this project is illustrated and a simulation is run using the material data obtained through the mentioned experimental...

  9. Processing and properties of Titanium alloy based materials with tailored porosity and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Villa, Jose Luis; Olmos, Luis; Lemus-Ruiz, Jose; Bouvard, Didier; Chavez, Jorge; Jimenez, Omar; Manuel Solorio, Victor

    2017-06-01

    This paper deals with powder processing of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy based materials with tailored porosity and composition. Ti6Al4V powder was mixed either with salt particles acting as space holder, so as to provide two-scale porosity, or with hard TiN particles that significantly modified the microstructure of the material and increased its hardness. Finally an original three-layer component was produced. Sample microstructure was observed by SEM and micro-tomography with special interest in pore size and shape, inclusion distribution and connectivity. Compression tests provided elastic modulus and yield stress as functions of density. These materials are representative of bone implants subjected to complex biological and mechanical conditions. These results thus open avenues for processing personalized implants by powder metallurgy.

  10. Materials Properties Database for Selection of High-Temperature Alloys and Concepts of Alloy Design for SOFC Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z Gary; Paxton, Dean M.; Weil, K. Scott; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2002-11-24

    To serve as an interconnect / gas separator in an SOFC stack, an alloy should demonstrate the ability to provide (i) bulk and surface stability against oxidation and corrosion during prolonged exposure to the fuel cell environment, (ii) thermal expansion compatibility with the other stack components, (iii) chemical compatibility with adjacent stack components, (iv) high electrical conductivity of the surface reaction products, (v) mechanical reliability and durability at cell exposure conditions, (vii) good manufacturability, processability and fabricability, and (viii) cost effectiveness. As the first step of this approach, a composition and property database was compiled for high temperature alloys in order to assist in determining which alloys offer the most promise for SOFC interconnect applications in terms of oxidation and corrosion resistance. The high temperature alloys of interest included Ni-, Fe-, Co-base superal

  11. Effect of thione primers on adhesive bonding between an indirect composite material and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hideyuki; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Shimoe, Saiji; Hirata, Isao; Matsumura, Hideo; Nikawa, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of primers on the shear bond strength of an indirect composite material joined to a silverpalladium-copper-gold (Ag-Pd-Cu-Au) alloy (Castwell). Disk specimens were cast from the alloy and were air-abraded with alumina. Eight metal primers were applied to the alloy surface. A light-polymerized indirect composite material (Solidex) was bonded to the alloy. Shear bond strength was determined both before and after the application of thermocycling. Two groups primed with Metaltite (thione) and M. L. Primer (sulfide) showed the greatest post-thermocycling bond strength (8.8 and 6.5 MPa). The results of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis suggested that the thione monomer (MTU-6) in the Metaltite primer was strongly adsorbed onto the Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy surface even after repeated cleaning with acetone. The application of either the thione (MTU-6) or sulfide primer is effective for enhancing the bonding between a composite material and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

  12. An investigation on the effects of phase change material on material components used for high temperature thermal energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeil; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan; Yua, Wenhua; France, David M.

    2016-05-01

    The latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants with advanced power cycle require high temperature phase change materials (PCMs), Graphite foams with high thermal conductivity to enhance the poor thermal conductivity of PCMs. Brazing of the graphite foams to the structural metals of the LHTES system could be a method to assemble the system and a method to protect the structural metals from the molten salts. In the present study, the LHTES prototype capsules using MgCl2-graphite foam composites were assembled by brazing and welding, and tested to investigate the corrosion attack of the PCM salt on the BNi-4 braze. The microstructural analysis showed that the BNi-4 braze alloy can be used not only for the joining of structure alloy to graphite foams but also for the protecting of structure alloy from the corrosion by PCM.

  13. Down-selection of candidate alloys for further testing of advanced replacement materials for LWR core internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, Gary [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Applied Physics Program; Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Life extension of the existing nuclear reactors imposes irradiation of high fluences to structural materials, resulting in significant challenges to the traditional reactor materials such as type 304 and 316 stainless steels. Advanced alloys with superior radiation resistance will increase safety margins, design flexibility, and economics for not only the life extension of the existing fleet but also new builds with advanced reactor designs. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) teamed up with Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program to initiate the Advanced Radiation Resistant Materials (ARRM) program, aiming to identify and develop advanced alloys with superior degradation resistance in light water reactor (LWR)-relevant environments by 2024.

  14. High-Throughput Study of Diffusion and Phase Transformation Kinetics of Magnesium-Based Systems for Automotive Cast Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Alan A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhao, Ji-Cheng [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Riggi, Adrienne [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Joost, William [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The objective of the proposed study is to establish a scientific foundation on kinetic modeling of diffusion, phase precipitation, and casting/solidification, in order to accelerate the design and optimization of cast magnesium (Mg) alloys for weight reduction of U.S. automotive fleet. The team has performed the following tasks: 1) study diffusion kinetics of various Mg-containing binary systems using high-throughput diffusion multiples to establish reliable diffusivity and mobility databases for the Mg-aluminum (Al)-zinc (Zn)-tin (Sn)-calcium (Ca)-strontium (Sr)-manganese (Mn) systems; 2) study the precipitation kinetics (nucleation, growth and coarsening) using both innovative dual-anneal diffusion multiples and cast model alloys to provide large amounts of kinetic data (including interfacial energy) and microstructure atlases to enable implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner numerical model to simulate phase transformation kinetics of non-spherical/non-cuboidal precipitates in Mg alloys; 3) implement a micromodel to take into account back diffusion in the solid phase in order to predict microstructure and microsegregation in multicomponent Mg alloys during dendritic solidification especially under high pressure die-casting (HPDC) conditions; and, 4) widely disseminate the data, knowledge and information using the Materials Genome Initiative infrastructure (http://www.mgidata.org) as well as publications and digital data sharing to enable researchers to identify new pathways/routes to better cast Mg alloys.

  15. Material and energy flows in rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting of ferronickel alloy with energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Baokuan; Cheung, Sherman C.P.; Wu, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Establish the synergy relationship of material and energy in key RKEF processes. • Develop an analysis model to study energy saving with internal cycling of energy. • Analyze material and energy flow parameters and assess its associated synergy effect. • A methodology to evaluate the synergy and design indices of RKEF processes. - Abstract: An energy saving strategy with two energy saving measures has been proposed for reducing energy loss in the rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) for the smelting of ferronickel alloy. One of the measures is to recover the waste heat of exhaust gas from the rotary kiln for preheating and dehydrating the wet laterite ores in the rotary dryer. Another measure is to recycle the furnace gas from the electric furnace into the rotary kiln as fuel. Based on the mass conservation and energy conservation laws, an analysis model of material and energy flows has been developed to understand the potential energy saving with the internal cycling of material and energy in the RKEF process. The analysis model not only considers the energy efficiency but also assess the synergy degree of system. Furthermore, the model also predicts the ratio of raw materials and the energy flow distribution to investigate residual heat and energy and analyze the effects of nickel content on energy flow. Finally, the evaluation methodology of synergy and the technic indices are also presented. Through the investigation of the synergy effect, the performance of the RKEF process can be evaluated and quantified for performance optimization in future.

  16. A novel coping metal material CoCrCu alloy fabricated by selective laser melting with antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ling; Memarzadeh, Kaveh; Zhang, Shuyuan; Sun, Ziqing; Yang, Chunguang; Ren, Guogang; Allaker, Robert P; Yang, Ke

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel coping metal CoCrCu alloy using a selective laser melting (SLM) technique with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and to investigate its microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Novel CoCrCu alloy was fabricated using SLM from a mixture of commercial CoCr based alloy and elemental Cu powders. SLM CoCr without Cu served as control. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using standard antimicrobial tests, and antibiofilm properties were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscope. Cu distribution and microstructure were determined using scanning electron microscope, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by potential dynamic polarization and biocompatibility measured using an MTT assay. SLM CoCrCu alloys were found to be bactericidal and able to inhibit biofilm formation. Other factors such as microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility were similar to those of SLM CoCr alloys. The addition of appropriate amounts of Cu not only maintains normal beneficial properties of CoCr based alloys, but also provides SLM CoCrCu alloys with excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm capabilities. This material has the potential to be used as a coping metal for dental applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the Influence of Starting Materials and Processing Conditions on the Properties of W/Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre-Meléndez, Isabel; Arévalo, Cristina; Perez-Soriano, Eva M.; Neubauer, Erich; Rubio-Escudero, Cristina; Kitzmantel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a study of the influence of the starting materials and the processing time used to develop W/Cu alloys is carried out. Regarding powder metallurgy as a promising fabrication route, the difficulties in producing W/Cu alloys motivated us to investigate the influential factors on the final properties of the most industrially demanding alloys: 85-W/15-Cu, 80-W/20-Cu, and 75-W/25-Cu alloys. Two different tungsten powders with large variation among their particle size—fine (Wf) and coarse (Wc) powders—were used for the preparation of W/Cu alloys. Three weight ratios of fine and coarse (Wf:Wc) tungsten particles were analyzed. These powders were labelled as “tungsten bimodal powders”. The powder blends were consolidated by rapid sinter pressing (RSP) at 900 °C and 150 MPa, and were thus sintered and compacted simultaneously. The elemental powders and W/Cu alloys were studied by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal conductivity, hardness, and densification were measured. Results showed that the synthesis of W/Cu using bimodal tungsten powders significantly affects the final alloy properties. The higher the tungsten content, the more noticeable the effect of the bimodal powder. The best bimodal W powder was the blend with 10 wt % of fine tungsten particles (10-Wf:90-Wc). These specimens present good values of densification and hardness, and higher values of thermal conductivity than other bimodal mixtures. PMID:28772502

  18. The Suitability of Zn–1.3%Fe Alloy as a Biodegradable Implant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Kafri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop metallic zinc for biodegradable implants have significantly advanced following an earlier focus on magnesium (Mg and iron (Fe. Mg and Fe base alloys experience an accelerated corrosion rate and harmful corrosion products, respectively. The corrosion rate of pure Zn, however, may need to be modified from its reported ~20 µm/year penetration rate, depending upon the intended application. The present study aimed at evaluating the possibility of using Fe as a relatively cathodic biocompatible alloying element in zinc that can tune the implant degradation rate via microgalvanic effects. The selected Zn–1.3wt %Fe alloy composition produced by gravity casting was examined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro examination included immersion tests, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy, all in a simulated physiological environment (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS at 37 °C. For the in vivo study, two cylindrical disks (seven millimeters diameter and two millimeters height were implanted into the back midline of male Wister rats. The rats were examined post implantation in terms of weight gain and hematological characteristics, including red blood cell (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB and white blood cell (WBC levels. Following retrieval, specimens were examined for corrosion rate measurements and histological analysis of subcutaneous tissue in the implant vicinity. In vivo analysis demonstrated that the Zn–1.3%Fe implant avoided harmful systemic effects. The in vivo and in vitro results indicate that the Zn–1.3%Fe alloy corrosion rate is significantly increased compared to pure zinc. The relatively increased degradation of Zn–1.3%Fe was mainly related to microgalvanic effects produced by a secondary Zn11Fe phase.

  19. Heavy ion irradiation effects in Zr excel alloy pressure tube material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, Y.; Yao, Z.; Sattari, M.; Daymond, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Zirconium Excel alloy (Zr-3.5wt.%Sn-0.8%Nb-0.8%Mo) is the candidate material for pressure tubes in the Generation-IV CANDU® Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) design. Changes in microstructure induced by neutron irradiation are known to have important consequences on the in-reactor deformation behavior. The in-situ ion irradiation technique has been employed to elucidate the irradiation damage in dual phase Zr-excel alloy (~60% hcp alpha and ~40% bcc beta). 1 MeV Kr ion irradiation experiments were conducted at different temperatures ranging from 100 o C-400 o C. Damage microstructures have been characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy in both the alpha and beta phases at different temperatures after a maximum dose of 10 dpa. Several new observations including irradiation induced omega (ω) phase precipitation have been reported. The ω/β orientation relationship was determined by the detailed analysis of selected area diffraction patterns. In-situ irradiation provided an opportunity to observe the nucleation and growth of basal plane c-component loops. It has been shown that under Kr ion irradiation the c-loops start to nucleate and grow above a threshold dose, as has been observed for neutron irradiation. Furthermore, the role of temperature, material composition and pre-irradiation microstructure has been discussed in detail. (author)

  20. NdFeB alloy as a magnetic electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Shui, J.L.; Zhang, S.L.; Wei, X.; Xiang, Y.J.; Xie, S.; Zhu, C.F.; Chen, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The search for a reliable indicator of state of charge and even the remaining energy of a lithium-ion cell is of great importance for various applications. This study was an exploratory effort to use magnetic susceptibility as the indicator. In this work, for the first time the change of ac susceptibility of cells was in situ monitored during charge-discharge process. A strong permanent magnetic material, NdFeB alloy, was investigated as an anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Both original and partially oxidized NdFeB powders were made into electrodes. Structural characterization was performed on the NdFeB electrodes by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. An alloy (core)-oxide (shell) structure was found for those partially oxidized samples. The electrochemical cycling of cells made of the NdFeB electrodes against lithium was measured. The first lithium intercalation capacity of a treated NdFeB can be up to about 831 mAh/g, while a rather reversible capacity of up to 352 mAh/g can be obtained. With a specially designed cell, we were able to monitor in situ the change of relative ac susceptibility during charge and/or discharge steps. A clearly monotonous relationship is found between the ac susceptibility of a cell and its depth-of-discharge (DOD). A mechanism based on skin effect and eddy current change is proposed to explain this susceptibility versus DOD relationship

  1. NdFeB alloy as a magnetic electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Shui, J.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, S.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Wei, X. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Xiang, Y.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Xie, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Zhu, C.F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Chen, C.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: cchchen@ustc.edu.cn

    2005-04-05

    The search for a reliable indicator of state of charge and even the remaining energy of a lithium-ion cell is of great importance for various applications. This study was an exploratory effort to use magnetic susceptibility as the indicator. In this work, for the first time the change of ac susceptibility of cells was in situ monitored during charge-discharge process. A strong permanent magnetic material, NdFeB alloy, was investigated as an anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Both original and partially oxidized NdFeB powders were made into electrodes. Structural characterization was performed on the NdFeB electrodes by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. An alloy (core)-oxide (shell) structure was found for those partially oxidized samples. The electrochemical cycling of cells made of the NdFeB electrodes against lithium was measured. The first lithium intercalation capacity of a treated NdFeB can be up to about 831 mAh/g, while a rather reversible capacity of up to 352 mAh/g can be obtained. With a specially designed cell, we were able to monitor in situ the change of relative ac susceptibility during charge and/or discharge steps. A clearly monotonous relationship is found between the ac susceptibility of a cell and its depth-of-discharge (DOD). A mechanism based on skin effect and eddy current change is proposed to explain this susceptibility versus DOD relationship.

  2. Solid-state reactions during mechanical alloying of ternary Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadef, Fatma, E-mail: hadef77@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, LRPCSI, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria)

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research in the field of nanocrystalline materials due to their enhanced properties. A lot of processing techniques were developed in order to synthesis these novel materials, among them mechanical alloying or high-energy ball milling. In fact, mechanical alloying is one of the most common operations in the processing of solids. It can be used to quickly and easily synthesize a variety of technologically useful materials which are very difficult to manufacture by other techniques. One advantage of MA over many other techniques is that is a solid state technique and consequently problems associated with melting and solidification are bypassed. Special attention is being paid to the synthesis of alloys through reactions mainly occurring in solid state in many metallic ternary Fe–Al–X systems, in order to improve mainly Fe–Al structural and mechanical properties. The results show that nanocrystallization is the common result occurring in all systems during MA process. The aim of this work is to illustrate the uniqueness of MA process to induce phase transformation in metallic Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems. - Highlights: • A review of state of the art on binary Fe–Al alloys was presented. • Structural and microstructural properties of MA ternary Fe–Al–X alloys were summerized. • MA process is a powerful tool for producing metallic alloys at the nanometer scale.

  3. Evaluation of High-temperature Physicochemical Interactions Between the H282Alloy Melt and Ceramic Material of the Crucible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirowski Z.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel alloys belong to the group of most resistant materials when used under the extreme operating conditions, including chemically aggressive environment, high temperature, and high loads applied over a long period of time. Although in the global technology market one can find several standard cast nickel alloys, the vast majority of components operating in machines and equipment are made from alloys processed by the costly metalworking operations. Analysis of the available literature and own studies have shown that the use of casting technology in the manufacture of components from nickel alloys poses a lot of difficulty. This is due to the adverse technological properties of these alloys, like poor fluidity, high casting shrinkage, and above all, high reactivity of liquid metal with the atmospheric air over the bath and with the ceramic material of both the crucible and foundry mold. The scale of these problems increases with the expected growth of performance properties which these alloys should offer to the user.

  4. Simultaneous material flow analysis of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum used in alloy steel by means of input-output analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Ohno, Hajime; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Takeda, Osamu; Miki, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2013-05-07

    Steel is not elemental iron but rather a group of iron-based alloys containing many elements, especially chromium, nickel, and molybdenum. Steel recycling is expected to promote efficient resource use. However, open-loop recycling of steel could result in quality loss of nickel and molybdenum and/or material loss of chromium. Knowledge about alloying element substance flow is needed to avoid such losses. Material flow analyses (MFAs) indicate the importance of steel recycling to recovery of alloying elements. Flows of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum are interconnected, but MFAs have paid little attention to the interconnected flow of materials/substances in supply chains. This study combined a waste input-output material flow model and physical unit input-output analysis to perform a simultaneous MFA for nickel, chromium, and molybdenum in the Japanese economy in 2000. Results indicated the importance of recovery of these elements in recycling policies for end-of-life (EoL) vehicles and constructions. Improvement in EoL sorting technologies and implementation of designs for recycling/disassembly at the manufacturing phase are needed. Possible solutions include development of sorting processes for steel scrap and introduction of easier methods for identifying the composition of secondary resources. Recovery of steel scrap with a high alloy content will reduce primary inputs of alloying elements and contribute to more efficient resource use.

  5. Ageing and memory effects in a mechanically alloyed nanoparticle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osth, Michael; Herisson, Didier; Nordblad, Per; De Toro, Jose A.; Riveiro, Jose M.

    2007-01-01

    Ageing and memory experiments have been performed to explore the non-equilibrium dynamics of the mechanically alloyed nanoparticle system Fe 30 Ag 40 W 30 , which comprises a heterogeneous ensemble of magnetic particles with average moment ∼ 10 2 μ B dispersed in a metallic non-magnetic matrix. This system has earlier, from critical slowing down analysis, been reported to enter a spin glass like state at low temperatures [J. A. de Toro et al., Phys. Rev. B 69, (2004) 224407]. The wait time dependence of the magnetic relaxation observed after the application of a weak magnetic field and the memory of the thermal history in the low temperature phase recorded on continuous heating in a weak applied field show similar features as observed in corresponding experiments on canonical spin glasses

  6. Recent research and developments on wrought magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihang You

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wrought magnesium alloys attract special interests as lightweight structural material due to their homogeneous microstructure and enhanced mechanical properties compared to as-cast alloys. In this contribution, recent research and developments on wrought magnesium alloys are reviewed from the viewpoint of the alloy design, focusing on Mg-Al, Mg-Zn and Mg-rare earth (RE systems. The effects of different alloying elements on the microstructure and mechanical properties are described considering their strengthening mechanisms, e.g. grain refinement, precipitation and texture hardening effect. Finally, the new alloy design and also the future research of wrought magnesium alloys to improve their mechanical properties are discussed.

  7. Biomechanical study of posterior wall acetabular fracture fixation using acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-wei, Liu; Shuo-gui, Xu; Chun-cai, Zhang; Qing-ge, Fu; Pan-feng, Wang

    2010-05-01

    We developed the acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS), which is made of NiTi shape memory alloy, according to the specific mechanical properties of biological memory material, nitinol alloy and measured distribution of contact area and pressure between the acetabulum and the femoral head of cadaveric pelvis. Six formalin-preserved cadaveric pelvis were used for this investigation. Pressure-sensitive film was used to measure contact area and pressure within the anterior, superior, and posterior regions of the acetabulum. The pelvis were loaded under the following four conditions: (1) intact; (2) following a creation posterior wall fracture defect; (3) following reduction and standard internal fixation with reconstruction plate; (4) following reduction and internal fixation with a new shape memory alloy device named ATMFS. A posterior wall fracture was created along an arc of 40-90 degrees about the acetabular rim. Creation of a posterior wall defect resulted in increased load in the superior acetabulum (1422N) as compared to the intact condition (762N, P=0.007). Following reduction and internal fixation, the load distributed to the superior acetabulum (1486N) was not statistically different from the defect condition. Following the fixation with ATMFS, the load seen at the superior region of the actabulum (936N) was less than fixation with reconstruction plate and was not different from intact state (P=0.4). These data indicate that the use of ATMFS as a fracture internal fixation device resulted a partial restoration of joint loading parameters toward the intact state. ATMFS fixation may result in a clinical benefit. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel tribological systems using shape memory alloys and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijun

    Shape memory alloys and thin films are shown to have robust indentation-induced shape memory and superelastic effects. Loading conditions that are similar to indentations are very common in tribological systems. Therefore novel tribological systems that have better wear resistance and stronger coating to substrate adhesion can be engineered using indentation-induced shape memory and superelastic effects. By incorporating superelastic NiTi thin films as interlayers between chromium nitride (CrN) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) hard coatings and aluminum substrates, it is shown that the superelasticity can improve tribological performance and increase interfacial adhesion. The NiTi interlayers were sputter deposited onto 6061 T6 aluminum and M2 steel substrates. CrN and DLC coatings were deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition. Temperature scanning X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation were used to characterize NiTi interlayers. Temperature scanning wear and scratch tests showed that superelastic NiTi interlayers improved tribological performance on aluminum substrates significantly. The two-way shape memory effect under contact loading conditions is demonstrated for the first time, which could be used to make novel tribological systems. Spherical indents in NiTi shape memory alloys and thin films had reversible depth changes that were driven by temperature cycling, after thermomechanical cycling, or one-cycle slip-plasticity deformation training. Reversible surface topography was realized after the indents were planarized. Micro- and nano- scale circular surface protrusions arose from planarized spherical indents in bulk and thin film NiTi alloy; line surface protrusions appeared from planarized scratch tracks. Functional surfaces with reversible surface topography can potentially result in novel tribological systems with reversible friction coefficient. A three dimensional constitutive model was developed to describe shape memory effects with slip

  9. The Production of Material with Ultrafine Grain Structure in Al-Zn Alloy in the Process of Rapid Solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymaneka M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the aluminium alloy family, Al-Zn materials with non-standard chemical composition containing Mg and Cu are a new group of alloys, mainly owing to their high strength properties. Proper choice of alloying elements, and of the method of molten metal treatment and casting enable further shaping of the properties. One of the modern methods to produce materials with submicron structure is a method of Rapid Solidification. The ribbon cast in a melt spinning device is an intermediate product for further plastic working. Using the technique of Rapid Solidification it is not possible to directly produce a solid structural material of the required shape and length. Therefore, the ribbon of an ultrafine grain or nanometric structure must be subjected to the operations of fragmentation, compaction, consolidation and hot extrusion.

  10. Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen; Gary Was

    2002-12-27

    The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of Hf. Pt additions reduced the impact of radiation on grain boundary segregation but did not alter its effect on microstructural damage development or cracking. Because cracking susceptibility is associated with several material characteristics, separate effect experiments exploring strength effects using non-irradiated stainless steels were conducted. These crack growth tests suggest that irradiation strength by itself can promote environmental cracking. The second concept for developing damage resistant alloys is the use of metastable precipitates to stabilize the microstructure during irradiation. Three alloys have been tailored for evaluation of precipitate stability influences on damage evolution. The first alloy is a Ni-base alloy (alloy 718) that has been characterized at low neutron irradiation doses but has not been characterized at high irradiation doses. The other two alloys are Fe-base alloys (PH 17-7 and PH 17-4) that have similar precipitate structures as alloy 718 but is more practical in nuclear structures because of the lower Ni content and hence lesser transmutation to He.

  11. Identification of material flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, G; Deistler, M; Gleiss, A; Glenck, E; Matyus, T

    1997-01-01

    Material Flow Analysis (MFA) has become an important instrument in environmental science and pollution research. In this paper, we look at the MFA problem as a particularly structured system identification problem. Special emphasis is given to the linear, static case, where we describe a procedure for reconciliating the flow measurements and for estimating the unmeasured flows and the transfer coefficients by taking into account a priori restrictions such as balance equations.

  12. The effect of the solute on the structure, selected mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of Ti–Zr system alloys for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, D.R.N.; Vicente, F.B. [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Laboratório de Anelasticidade e Biomateriais, 17.033-360, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Donato, T.A.G.; Arana-Chavez, V.E. [USP — Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Odontologia, Departamento de Biologia Oral e Biomateriais, 05.508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Buzalaf, M.A.R. [USP — Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, 17.012-901, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Grandini, C.R., E-mail: betog@fc.unesp.br [UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Laboratório de Anelasticidade e Biomateriais, 17.033-360, Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    New titanium alloys have been developed with the aim of utilizing materials with better properties for application as biomaterials, and Ti–Zr system alloys are among the more promising of these. In this paper, the influence of zirconium concentrations on the structure, microstructure, and selected mechanical properties of Ti–Zr alloys is analyzed. After melting and swaging, the samples were characterized through chemical analysis, density measurements, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, Vickers microhardness, and elasticity modulus. In-vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed on cultured osteogenic cells. The results showed the formation essentially of the α′ phase (with hcp structure) and microhardness values greater than cp-Ti. The elasticity modulus of the alloys was sensitive to the zirconium concentrations while remaining within the range of values of conventional titanium alloys. The alloys presented no cytotoxic effects on osteoblastic cells in the studied conditions. - Highlights: • Ti–Zr alloys for biomedical applications were developed. • Only α′ phase was observed. • Influence of zirconium concentrations on the properties of Ti–Zr alloys was analyzed. • No cytotoxic effects were observed.

  13. The effect of the solute on the structure, selected mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of Ti–Zr system alloys for dental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, D.R.N.; Vicente, F.B.; Donato, T.A.G.; Arana-Chavez, V.E.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.; Grandini, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    New titanium alloys have been developed with the aim of utilizing materials with better properties for application as biomaterials, and Ti–Zr system alloys are among the more promising of these. In this paper, the influence of zirconium concentrations on the structure, microstructure, and selected mechanical properties of Ti–Zr alloys is analyzed. After melting and swaging, the samples were characterized through chemical analysis, density measurements, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, Vickers microhardness, and elasticity modulus. In-vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed on cultured osteogenic cells. The results showed the formation essentially of the α′ phase (with hcp structure) and microhardness values greater than cp-Ti. The elasticity modulus of the alloys was sensitive to the zirconium concentrations while remaining within the range of values of conventional titanium alloys. The alloys presented no cytotoxic effects on osteoblastic cells in the studied conditions. - Highlights: • Ti–Zr alloys for biomedical applications were developed. • Only α′ phase was observed. • Influence of zirconium concentrations on the properties of Ti–Zr alloys was analyzed. • No cytotoxic effects were observed

  14. Supercapacitors materials, systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Max; Frackowiak, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Written by an international group of leading experts from both academia and industry, this is the first comprehensive book on the topic for 10 years. Taking into account the commercial interest in these systems and the scientific and technological developments over the past decade, all important materials and systems are covered, with several chapters devoted to topics of direct industrial relevance.The book starts by providing an introduction to the general principles of electrochemistry, the properties of electrochemical capacitors, and electrochemical characterization techniques. There

  15. Material flow and microstructural evolution during friction stir spot welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, W.; Mishra, R.S.; Carlson, B.; Verma, R.; Mishra, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Material flow and local texture evolution during friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of AZ31 magnesium alloy was characterized by varying tool rotation rates. Texture at various locations of the welded region was measured using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Material flow is significantly influenced by tool rotation rate with a conical step spiral pin tool, and FSSW introduces a unique basal fiber texture in the welded region. Results indicate that local texture evolution is dominated by shear deformation through material flow. The tool shoulder applies both shear and compressive deformation to the upper region material; however, the rotating pin introduces only shear deformation to the adjacent material. As the tool rotation rate increases, the effect of both tool shoulder and pin becomes more prominent by introducing a higher degree of basal pole tilt with respect to the initial rolling texture at the periphery of the pin, but less tilt in the upper region beneath the tool shoulder undersurface. The equiaxed fine grain structure in the stir zone appears to result from the twinning-induced dynamic recrystallization and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization.

  16. Alkali metal compatibility testing of candidate heater head materials for a Stirling engine heat transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jack E.; Hickman, Gary L.; Grobstein, Toni

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe work performed as part of the 25-kWe advanced Stirling conversion system project. Liquid alkali metal compatibility is being assessed in an ongoing test program to evaluate candidate heater head materials and fabrication processes at the temperatures and operating conditions required for Stirling engines. Specific materials under evaluation are alloy 713LC, alloy 713LC coated with nickel aluminide, and Udimet 720, each in combination with Waspaloy. The tests were run at a constant 700 C. A eutectic alloy of sodium and potassium (NaK) was the working fluid. Titanium sheet in the system was shown to be an effective oxygen getter. Metallographic and microchemical examination of material surfaces, joints, and their interfaces revealed little or no corrosion after 1000 h. Tests are in progress, with up to 10,000 h exposure.

  17. Magnetism and high magnetic-field-induced stability of alloy carbides in Fe-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T P; Wu, K M; Liu, W M; Peet, M J; Hulme-Smith, C N; Guo, L; Zhuang, L

    2018-02-14

    Understanding the nature of the magnetic-field-induced precipitation behaviors represents a major step forward towards unravelling the real nature of interesting phenomena in Fe-based alloys and especially towards solving the key materials problem for the development of fusion energy. Experimental results indicate that the applied high magnetic field effectively promotes the precipitation of M 23 C 6 carbides. We build an integrated method, which breaks through the limitations of zero temperature and zero external field, to concentrate on the dependence of the stability induced by the magnetic effect, excluding the thermal effect. We investigate the intimate relationship between the external field and the origins of various magnetics structural characteristics, which are derived from the interactions among the various Wyckoff sites of iron atoms, antiparallel spin of chromium and Fe-C bond distances. The high-magnetic-field-induced exchange coupling increases with the strength of the external field, which then causes an increase in the parallel magnetic moment. The stability of the alloy carbide M 23 C 6 is more dependent on external field effects than thermal effects, whereas that of M 2 C, M 3 C and M 7 C 3 is mainly determined by thermal effects.

  18. Characteristics of Al Alloy as a Material for Hydrolysis Reactor of NaBH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyeon-Seong; Oh, Sung-June; Jeong, Jae-Jin; Na, Il-Chai; Chu, Cheun-Ho; Park, Kwon-Pil; Chu, Cheun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum alloy was examined as a material of low weight reactor for hydrolysis of NaBH 4 . Aluminum is dissolved with alkali, but there is NaOH as a stabilizer in NaBH 4 solution. To decrease corrosion rate of aluminum, decrease NaOH concentration and this result in loss of NaBH 4 during storage of NaBH 4 solution. Therefore stability of NaBH 4 and corrosion of aluminum should be considered in determining the optimum NaOH concentration. NaBH 4 stability and corrosion rate of aluminum were measured by hydrogen evolution rate. NaBH 4 stability was tested at 20-50 .deg. C and aluminum corrosion was measured at 60-90 .deg. C. The optimum concentration of NaOH was 0.3 wt%, considering both NaBH 4 stability and aluminun corrosion. NaBH 4 hydrolysis reaction continued 200min in aluminum No 6061 alloy reactor with 0.3 wt% NaOH at 80-90 .deg. C.

  19. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences

  20. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  1. Study on microstructure and properties of extruded Mg-2Nd-0.2Zn alloy as potential biodegradable implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junlei; Tan, Lili; Wan, Peng; Yu, Xiaoming; Yang, Ke

    2015-04-01

    Mg-2Nd-0.2Zn (NZ20) alloy was prepared for the application as biodegradable implant material in this study. The effects of the extrusion process on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of the alloy were investigated. The as-cast alloy was composed of α-Mg matrix and Mg12Nd eutectic compound. The solution treatment could lead to the Mg12Nd phase dissolution and the grain coarsening. The alloy (E1) preheated at 380°C for 1h and extruded at 390°C presents fine grains with amounts of tiny Mg12Nd particles uniformly dispersed throughout the boundaries and the interior of the grains. The alloy (E2) preheated at 480°C for 1h and extruded at 500°C exhibits relatively larger grains with few nano-scale Mg12Nd phase particles dispersed. The alloy of E1, compared with E2, showed relatively lower corrosion rate, higher yield strength and slightly lower elongation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a high gradient rf system using a nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Ohmori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The future high intensity upgrade project of the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex MR (Main Ring includes developments of high gradient rf cavities and magnet power supplies for high repetition rate. The scenario describing the cavity replacements is reported. By the replacement plan, the total acceleration voltage will be almost doubled, while the number of rf stations remains the same. The key issue is the development of a high gradient rf system using high impedance magnetic alloy, FT3L. The FT3L is produced by the transverse magnetic field annealing although the present cavity for the J-PARC adopts the magnetic alloy, FT3M, which is annealed without magnetic field. After the test production using a large spectrometer magnet in 2011, a dedicated production system for the FT3L cores was assembled in 2012. This setup demonstrated that we can produce material with 2 times higher μ_{p}^{′}Qf product compared to the cores used for present cavities. In this summer, the production system was moved to the company from J-PARC and is used for mass production of 280 FT3L cores for the J-PARC MR. The cores produced in the first test production are already used for standard machine operation. The operation experience shows that the power loss in the cores was reduced significantly as expected.

  3. Material Characterization of Dissimilar Friction Stir Spot Welded Aluminium and Copper Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi, K. O.; Akinlabi, E. T.

    2017-08-01

    In this research study, material characterization of dissimilar friction stir spot welded Aluminium and Copper was evaluated. Rotational speeds of 800 rpm and transverse speeds of 50 mm/min, 150 mm/min and 250 mm/min were used. The total numbers of samples evaluated were nine altogether. The spot welds were characterised by microstructure characterization using optical microscope (OEM) and scanning electron microscopy technique (SEM) by observing the evolution of the microstructure across the weld’s cross-section. lap-shear test of the of the spot weld specimens were also done. From the results, it shows that welding of metals and alloys using Friction stir spot welding is appropriate and can be use in industrial applications.

  4. Fabrication of Mg2Si thermoelectric materials by mechanical alloying and spark-plasma sintering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hyo; Lee, Seong-Hee; Chun, Sung-Yong; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2006-11-01

    A mixture of pure Mg and Si powders with an atomic ratio 2:1 has been subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) at room temperature to prepare the Mg2Si thermoelectric material. Mg2Si intermetallic compound with a grain size of 50 nm can be obtained by MA of Mg66.7Si33.3 powders for 60 hours and subsequently annealed at 620 degrees C. Consolidation of the MA powders was performed in a spark plasma sintering (SPS) machine using graphite dies up to 800-900 degrees C under 50 MPa. The shrinkage of consolidated samples during SPS was significant at about 250 degrees and 620 degrees C. X-ray diffraction data shows that the SPS compact from 60 h MA powders consolidated up to 800 degrees C consists of only nanocrystalline Mg2Si compound with a grain size of 100 nm.

  5. Germanium Silicon Alloy Anode Material Capable of Tunable Overpotential by Nanoscale Si Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungki; Son, Yoonkook; Park, Chibeom; Lee, Min-Joon; Hong, Misun; Kim, Jungah; Lee, Minkyung; Cho, Jaephil; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2015-06-10

    We developed the novel electrode that enables fine control of overpotential by exploiting surface segregation that is the enrichment of one component at the surface of binary alloy. To realize this approach, we controlled the proportion of Si with low Li diffusivity at the surface by annealing the SiGe nanowire in H2 environment at various temperatures. The resulting SiGe nanowires annealed at 850 °C exhibited high reversible capacity (>1031 mA·h·g(-1)), and long cycle life (400 cycles) with high capacity retention (89.0%) at 0.2 C. This superior battery performance is attributed to the remaining unlithiated part acting as support frame to prevent pulverization of anode material, which results from the fine-tuning of overpotential by controlling the degree of Si segregation.

  6. Preliminary materials assessment in solar demonstration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C. F.

    1978-11-01

    A preliminary assessment of materials performance in solar demonstration system are reviewed from published literature and limited service experience. The review is a summary of the solar demonstration systems and the materials used in the collector and transport systems.

  7. Effect of materials and temperature on the forward extrusion of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, Margam; John, Yong Ming Shyan

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are being extensively used in weight-saving applications and as a potential replacement for plastics in electronic and computer applications. However, processing of magnesium has always been a challenge for manufacturing industries owing to their high brittleness despite their good EMI shielding property and high specific strength. Despite these advantages, they are limited by their processability. The present work aims to evaluate lower temperature formability of magnesium alloys. Three different materials were selected for axisymmetric extrusion tests, namely AZ31, AZ61 and the forging alloy, ZK 60. To establish the size and capacity of the press required to perform these forming trials and to know the formability, simulation using finite element analysis was carried on a representative material AZ31 using the properties established based on earlier work. A die set with a die shoe was designed to perform the forward extrusion trials. The area reduction ratio for forward extrusion was fixed at 41% for the die design and simulation. The maximum strain is given as ln(A o /A f ) ∼ 0.88 in the case of forward extrusion. The temperature was varied with a temperature controller built in-house from room temperature (RT) to 300 deg.C. However, the results provided below only include the tests carried out at RT, 100, 150, 175 and 200 deg.C. Although the forming trials were successful above 200 deg.C, there was difficulty in removing the specimens from the die cavity. Secondly, the process of removing the samples in the case of AZ31 and ZK 60 resulted in cracking, so it was difficult to evaluate the samples and the process. However, AZ61 samples did not show any evidence of crack formation during ejection of the formed sample. Simulation results and experimental trials showed that magnesium (AZ31) could be easily formed at elevated temperatures of 300 deg.C. Though there was a good correlation on the yield point prediction between simulation and

  8. Mechanical Characteristics, In Vitro Degradation, Cytotoxicity, and Antibacterial Evaluation of Zn-4.0Ag Alloy as a Biodegradable Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zn-based biodegradable metallic materials have been regarded as new potential biomaterials for use as biodegradable implants, mainly because of the ideal degradation rate compared with those of Mg-based alloys and Fe-based alloys. In this study, we developed and investigated a novel Zn-4 wt % Ag alloy as a potential biodegradable metal. A thermomechanical treatment was applied to refine the microstructure and, consequently, to improve the mechanical properties, compared to pure Zn. The yield strength (YS, ultimate tensile strength (UTS and elongation of the Zn-4Ag alloy are 157 MPa, 261 MPa, and 37%, respectively. The corrosion rate of Zn-4Ag calculated from released Zn ions in DMEM extracts is approximately 0.75 ± 0.16 μg cm–2 day–1, which is higher than that of pure Zn. In vitro cytotoxicity tests showed that the Zn-4Ag alloy exhibits acceptable toxicity to L929 and Saos-2 cells, and could effectively inhibit initial bacteria adhesion. This study shows that the Zn-4Ag exhibits excellent mechanical properties, predictable degradation behavior, acceptable biocompatibility, and effective antibacterial properties, which make it a candidate biodegradable material.

  9. Advances in Materials and System Technology for Portable Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the materials and systems engineering used for portable fuel cells. The contents include: 1) Portable Power; 2) Technology Solution; 3) Portable Hydrogen Systems; 4) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell; 5) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell System Concept; 6) Overview of DMFC R&D at JPL; 7) 300-Watt Portable Fuel Cell for Army Applications; 8) DMFC units from Smart Fuel Cell Inc, Germany; 9) DMFC Status and Prospects; 10) Challenges; 11) Rapid Screening of Well-Controlled Catalyst Compositions; 12) Screening of Ni-Zr-Pt-Ru alloys; 13) Issues with New Membranes; 14) Membranes With Reduced Methanol Crossover; 15) Stacks; 16) Hybrid DMFC System; 17) Small Compact Systems; 18) Durability; and 19) Stack and System Parameters for Various Applications.

  10. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF ALLOYING COMPONENTS AND BASE COMPOSITIONS FOR MANUFACTURING OF MECHANICALLY ALLOYED DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED MATERIALS ON THE BASIS OF METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Lovshenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the investigations pertaining to creation of scientifically substantiated criteria for selection of alloying components and base compositions for manufacturing of mechanically alloyed dispersion-strengthened metallic materials. An analysis of dispersion strengthening mechanisms and regularities in mechanically activated phase and structural transformations serve as a reliable basis for solution of the assigned mission. Foer efficient strengthening at low and high temperatures as well materials must have fragmented and polygonized structure with maximum developed surface of grain and sub-grain boundaries which are stabilized by nano-sized inclusions of strengthening phases. Experimental investigations have shown that an optimum complex of mechanical properties is obtained in the case when nano-sized strengthening phase is equal to 3–5 % (volume. The phases applied for dispersion strengthening must have high value of shear modulus that determines their hardness and strength. Critical compressive stress should not cause deformation and destruction of disperse particles. Furthermore, they must have high stability in contact with a matrix. The substances applied as alloying components for realization of the developed technology on obtaining dispersion-strengthening materials must firstly meet the following requirements: they must be cheap, accessible and ecologically safety; they must interact with the basis or inter se at temperatures which are lower of material melting temperature; one of the phases which is formed in the process of the technology realization must have rather high thermodynamic stability and high value of the shear modulus; other formed phases must improve or, at the least, not reduce physical and mechanical properties of the materials

  11. Corrosion of alloys of the niobium--titanium--aluminium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, V.V.; Alekseeva, E.L.; Dontsov, S.N.; Moiseeva, I.S.

    The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of niobium--titanium--aluminum alloys in 20 percent HCl and 40--75 percent H 2 SO 4 at 40 and 100 0 C are considered. Current density vs potential and corrosion rate vs potential potentiostatic curves plotted in 75 percent H 2 SO 4 at 140 0 C for the alloys with different titanium contents at a constant content of aluminum and also for alloys with a constant titanium content at different contents of aluminum are given. It was shown that the corrosion resistance of the alloys in 75 percent H 2 SO 4 at 140 0 C is an exponential function of the atomic content of the alloying components (Ti, Al) in them; aluminum vitiates the corrosion resistance very strongly

  12. Nuclear fuel element containing strips of an alloyed Zr, Ti, and Ni getter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Packard, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of strips and preferably the strips are positioned inside a helical member in the plenum. The position of the alloy strips permits gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact and react with the alloy strips. (U.S.)

  13. A novel approach for an automated liquid/liquid extraction system--principle and application for the determination of several trace contaminants in highly alloyed steels and base alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltsche, Helmar; Prattes, Karl; Knapp, Günter

    2011-06-01

    A novel automated liquid/liquid extraction system was developed for the determination of trace contaminants in unalloyed, alloyed and highly alloyed steels and super alloys. In the presented batch extraction system the aqueous phase and the non-water miscible organic phase were brought into close phase contact by high-speed stirring with a magnetic stir bar. Iodide complexes of Ag, Bi, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, and Zn were extracted from aqueous steel digests into 4-methylpentan-2-one (MIBK) containing 20 g L(-1) trioctylphosphine oxide. Ag, Bi, Cd, Pb, and Tl were extracted quantitatively whereas the extraction yields of Sb, Sn, and Zn were 83%, 61% and 75% respectively. Using high resolution continuum source flame AAS (HR-CS-FAAS) for analyte quantification the method was validated using 21 certified steel reference materials (CRMs).

  14. Mechanisms Governing the Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Vijay [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Carroll, Laura [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sham, Sam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-06

    This research project, which includes collaborators from INL and ORNL, focuses on the study of alloy 617 and alloy 800H that are candidates for applications as intermediate heat exchangers in GEN IV nuclear reactors, with an emphasis on the effects of grain size, grain boundaries and second phases on the creep properties; the mechanisms of dislocation creep, diffusional creep and cavitation; the onset of tertiary creep; and theoretical modeling for long-term predictions of materials behavior and for high temperature alloy design.

  15. Biochemical Contributions to Corrosion of Carbon Steel and Alloy 22 in a Continual Flow System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J.; Martin, S.; Masterson, B.; Lian, T.

    1998-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) may decrease the functional lifetime of nuclear waste packaging materials in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. Biochemical contributions to corrosion of package materials are being determined in reactors containing crushed repository-site rock with the endogenous microbial community, and candidate waste package materials. These systems are being continually supplied with simulated ground water. Periodically, bulk chemistries are analyzed on the system outflow, and surfacial chemistries are assessed on withdrawn material coupons. Both Fe and Mn dissolved from C1020 coupons under conditions that included the presence of YM microorganisms. Insoluble corrosion products remained in a reduced state at the coupon surface, indicating at least a localized anoxic condition; soluble reduced Mn and Fe were also detected in solution, while precipitated and spalled products were oxidized. Alloy 22 surfaces showed a layer of chrome oxide, almost certainly in the Cr(III) oxidation state, on microcosm-exposed coupons, while no soluble chrome was detected in solution. The results of these studies will be compared to identical testing on systems containing sterilized rock to generate, and ultimately predict, microbial contributions to waste package corrosion chemistries

  16. Mould filling of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au and Ag-Zn-Sn-In alloy castings made using a rapidly prepared gypsum-bonded investment material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Inoue, Shoko; Miyauchi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2008-12-01

    Mandibular premolar-shaped wax patterns of full crowns with a marginal angle of 300 were prepared. Two semiprecious alloys were cast using a rapidly prepared gypsum-bonded investment material or a conventional gypsum-bonded investment. A precise impression was taken and cut into four segments. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the mould filling of each segment. The mould filling of the silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy was worse than that of the silver-zinc-tin-indium alloy. The mould filling of both alloys cast with the rapidly prepared gypsum-bonded investment material was superior to that using the conventional investment.

  17. Material challenges for the next generation of fission reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckthorpe, Derek

    2010-01-01

    The new generation of fission reactor systems wil require the deployment and construction of a series of advanced water cooled reactors as part of a package of measures to meet UK and European energy needs and to provide a near term non-fossil fuel power solution that addresses CO 2 emission limits. In addition new longer term Generation IV reactor tye systems are being developed and evaluated to enhance safety, reliability, sustainability economics and proliferation resistance requirements and to meet alternative energy applications (outside of electricity generation) such as process heat and large scale hydrogen generation. New fission systems will impose significant challenges on materials supply and development. In the near term, because of the need to 'gear up' to large scale construction after decades of industrial hibernation/contraction and, in the longer term, because of the need for materials to operate under more challenging environments requiring the deployment and development of new alternative materials not yet established to an industrial stage. This paper investigates the materials challenges imposed by the new Generation III+ and Generation IV systems. These include supply and fabrication issues, development of new high temperature alloys and non-metallic materials, the use of new methods of manufacture and the best use of currently available resources and minerals. Recommendations are made as to how these materials challenges might be met and how governments, industry, manufacturers and researchers can all play their part. (orig.)

  18. Material challenges for the next generation of fission reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckthorpe, Derek [AMEC, Knutsford, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The new generation of fission reactor systems wil require the deployment and construction of a series of advanced water cooled reactors as part of a package of measures to meet UK and European energy needs and to provide a near term non-fossil fuel power solution that addresses CO{sub 2} emission limits. In addition new longer term Generation IV reactor tye systems are being developed and evaluated to enhance safety, reliability, sustainability economics and proliferation resistance requirements and to meet alternative energy applications (outside of electricity generation) such as process heat and large scale hydrogen generation. New fission systems will impose significant challenges on materials supply and development. In the near term, because of the need to 'gear up' to large scale construction after decades of industrial hibernation/contraction and, in the longer term, because of the need for materials to operate under more challenging environments requiring the deployment and development of new alternative materials not yet established to an industrial stage. This paper investigates the materials challenges imposed by the new Generation III+ and Generation IV systems. These include supply and fabrication issues, development of new high temperature alloys and non-metallic materials, the use of new methods of manufacture and the best use of currently available resources and minerals. Recommendations are made as to how these materials challenges might be met and how governments, industry, manufacturers and researchers can all play their part. (orig.)

  19. Modeling and Simulating Material Behavior during Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) Stamping of Aluminium Alloy Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Abu-Farha, Fadi

    2016-08-01

    Hot blank - cold die (HB-CD) stamping, non-isothermal hot stamping, of aluminium alloy sheets offers great opportunities for high production rates at low cost, while overcoming limited material formability issues. Yet developing an accurate model that can describe the complex material behavior over the wide ranging conditions of HB-CD stamping (temperatures ranging between 25 and 350 °C) is challenging. Moreover, validation of the developed models under transient conditions is problematic. This work presents he results of a comprehensive characterization, material modeling, FE simulation and experimental validation effort to capture the behavior of an aluminium alloy sheet during HB-CD stamping. In particular, we highlight the integration between temperature measurements (thermography) and strain measurements (digital image correlation) for the accurate validation of model predictions of non-isothermal material deformation.

  20. Shape memory alloys applied to improve rotor-bearing system dynamics - an experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar; Savi, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    hysteretic stress-strain relations which may be utilized for damping purposes. These ideas are tested in this study on a dedicated test-rig, consisting of a rigid shaft and disc held vertically by passive magnetic bearings, where the damping is low. The bearing housings is flexibly supported by shape memory......tor-bearing systems have critical speeds and to pass through them is an ongoing challenge in the field of mechanical engineering. The incorporation of shape memory alloys in rotating systems has an increasing importance to improve system performance and to avoid potential damaging situations when...... passing through critical speeds. In this work, the feasibility of applying shape memory alloys to a rotating system is experimentally investigated. Shape memory alloys can change their stiffness with temperature variations and thus they may change system dynamics. Shape memory alloys also exhibit...

  1. Formation of amorphous alloys by mechanical alloying for platinum group metal-M(M=Zr or Al) system; Mechanical alloying ni yoru kikinzoku (Pd,Pt) to M(Zr aruiwa Al) tono kongo funmatsu no hishoshitsuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuzuki, T.; Arakawa, T. [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-08-15

    The intermetallic compounds containing precious metals such as platinum white gold are widely used in chemistry or industry as catalysts. These alloy catalysts are mainly used in grinding the materials prepared by solidifying liquids. The authors of the paper attempt to prepare alloy powders of precious metal with Zr or Al by mechanical alloying (MA). As an object of applying them on a catalyst, alloy powders of precious metals (Pd and Pt) and M (Zr or Al) are regulated by the mechanical alloying reaction, and the results show that the Pd and Pt show different MA reaction while using Al as the M, the former generates an intermetallic compound as PdAl during the halfway point of the MA reaction, but the later generates amorphous powders. But, each of them generates amorphous alloys only while using Zr and the M. As a result of differential thermal analysis and electrical resistivity measurement investigating the crystalline process of the obtained amorphous alloys, it is clarified that the Pt-Al base alloy shows higher crystalline temperature compared with the other alloys. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Intelligent material systems - The dawn of a new materials age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The intelligent material system solution to such engineering problems as the design of a robotic arm borrows directly from biological analogs; materials that behave much as muscles do during contraction can be employed as induced strain actuators which work against the intrinsic structural impedance of the component. Unlike actual human arms, which are jointed, the intelligent structure may be a continuum. The adaptation of structural impedance may be regarded as the most fundamental and consequential concept in the field of intelligent material systems

  3. Materials for spaceborne laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusarov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced laser systems are attracting a growing interest for space missions, in particular for LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) applications. An important issue for the LIDARs is the very strict requirements on the optical performance and more specifically the need for a high optical output power combined with a nearly perfect output beam quality. These features are traditionally in conflict with each other. Thermally induced phase distortions indeed corrupt the beam quality of high-power solid-state lasers and it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain a good beam quality while increasing the output power. A possible solution of the problem is to use the optical phase conjugation, which provides a method to dynamically correct for those aberrations. A process by which phase-conjugated waves can be generated is the SBS (stimulated Brillouin scattering). SBS mirrors commonly used in terrestrial application are based on liquids or gases, which are not 'space-friendly' and often toxic. The solid-state alternative seems the most appropriate for space. Such PCMs (Phase-Conjugating Mirrors) have been the subject of many research efforts in recent years and a significant progress in improving their characteristics has been achieved. However, the issue of space qualification remains open. To address it, the European Space Agency initiated in 2004 the research project named Solid-State Phase Conjugation, Radiation Testing and Evaluation for Core Laser Technologies with the TRT (Thales Research and Technology), France, as the prime contractor, and the CSL (Centre Spatial de Liege) and SCKCEN as the subcontractors. The project is to be completed in 2006. To qualify a PCM for a spaceborne laser system, one has to address a number of specific issues. Such a component must be mechanically rugged to sustain vibrations during the launch phase, provide a low out-gassing to prevent optical surfaces contamination in vacuum, be highly reliable to operate properly without

  4. New alloying systems for ferrous powder metallurgy precision parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danninger H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the common alloy elements for sintered steels have been Cu and Ni. With increasing requirements towards mechanical properties, and also as a consequence of soaring prices especially for these two metals, other alloy elements have also become more and more attractive for sintered steels, which make the steels however more tricky to process through PM. Here, the chances and risks of using in particular Cr and Mn alloy steels are discussed, considering the different alloying techniques viable in powder metallurgy, and it is shown that there are specific requirements in particular for sintering process. The critical importance of chemical reactions between the metal and the atmosphere is described, and it is shown that not only O2 and H2O but also H2 and even N2 can critically affect sintering and microstructural homogenization.

  5. Market Opportunity of Some Aluminium Silicon Alloys Materials through Changing the Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfim SOARES

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is considered to be the most common mechanism by which engineering components fail, and it accounts for at least 90% of all service failures attributed to mechanical causes. Mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile strain, Young modulus, etc as well as fatigue properties (fatigue life are very dependent on casting method. The most direct effects of casting techniques are on the metallurgical microstructure that bounds the mechanical properties. One of the important variables affected by the casting technique is the cooling rate which is well known to strongly restrict the microstructure. In the present research has been done a comparison of fatigue properties of two aluminum silicon alloys obtained by two casting techniques. It was observed that the fatigue life is increasing with 24% for Al12Si and 31% for AL18Si by using centrifugal casting process instead of gravity casting. This increasing in fatigue life means that a component tailored from materials obtained by centrifugal casting will stay longer in service. It was made an estimation of the time required to recover the costs of technology in order to use the centrifuge process that will allow to obtain materials with improved properties. The amortization can be achieved by using two different marketing techniques: through the release of the product at the old price and with much longer life of the component which means "same price - longer life", or increasing price, by highlighting new product performance which means "higher price - higher properties".

  6. Materials corrosion of high temperature alloys immersed in 600C binary nitrate salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Thirteen high temperature alloys were immersion tested in a 60/40 binary nitrate salt. Samples were interval tested up to 3000 hours at 600ÀC with air as the ullage gas. Chemical analysis of the molten salt indicated lower nitrite concentrations present in the salt, as predicted by the equilibrium equation. Corrosion rates were generally low for all alloys. Corrosion products were identified using x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Fe-Cr based alloys tended to form mixtures of sodium and iron oxides, while Fe-Ni/Cr alloys had similar corrosion products plus oxides of nickel and chromium. Nickel based alloys primarily formed NiO, with chromium oxides near the oxide/base alloy interface. In625 exhibited similar corrosion performance in relation to previous tests, lending confidence in comparisons between past and present experiments. HA230 exhibited internal oxidation that consisted of a nickel/chromium oxide. Alloys with significant aluminum alloying tended to exhibit superior performance, due formation of a thin alumina layer. Soluble corrosion products of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten were also formed and are thought to be a significant factor in alloy performance.

  7. Metallurgically prepared NiCu alloys as cathode materials for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kunchan; Xia, Ming [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xiao, Tao [2nd Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011 (China); Lei, Ting, E-mail: tlei@mail.csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yan, Weishan [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Ni−Cu bimetallic alloys with Cu content of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 wt% are prepared by powder metallurgy method, which consisted of powder mixing, pressing and sintering processes. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement confirms that all the five Ni−Cu alloys possess the f.c.c. structure. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity of the prepared Ni−Cu alloy electrodes was studied in 6 M KOH solution by cathodic current-potential curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. It was found that the electrocatalytic activity for the HER depended on the composition of Ni−Cu alloys, where Ni−10Cu alloy exhibited considerably higher HER activity than Ni plate and other Ni−Cu alloys, indicative of its chemical composition related intrinsic activity. - Highlights: • Ni−Cu alloys with various Cu contents were prepared by powder metallurgy method. • Ni−Cu alloy exhibits chemical composition related synergistic effect for HER activity. • Ni−10Cu alloy electrode presents a most efficient activity for HER. • Two time constants are observed in Nyquist curve and both of them related to the kinetics of HER.

  8. Application of mechanical alloying to synthesis of intermetallic phases based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical alloying is the process of synthesis of powder materials during milling in high energetic mills, usually ball mills. The central event in mechanical alloying is the ball-powder-ball collision. Powder particles are trapped between the colliding balls during milling and undergo deformation and/or fracture. Fractured parts are cold welded. The continued fracture and cold welding results in a uniform size and chemical composition of powder particles. The main applications of mechanical alloying are: processing of ODS alloys, syntheses of intermetallic phases, synthesis of nonequilibrium structures (amorphous alloys, extended solid solutions, nanocrystalline, quasi crystals) and magnetic materials. The present paper deals with application of mechanical alloying to synthesis Ni A l base intermetallic phases as well as phases from the Nb-Al binary system. The alloy were processed from elemental powders. The course of milling was monitored by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. After milling, the collected powders were sieved by 45 μm grid and hot pressed (Nb alloys and NiAl) or hot extruded (NiAl). The resulting material was fully dense and exhibited fine grain (< 1 μm) and uniform distribution of oxide dispersoid. The consolidated material was compression and creep tested. The mechanical properties of mechanically alloys were superior to properties of their cast counterparts both in the room and elevated temperatures. Higher strength of mechanically alloyed materials results from their fine grains and from the presence of dispersoid. At elevated temperatures, the Nb-Al alloys have higher compression strength than NiAl-based alloys processed at the same conditions. The minimum creep rates of mechanically alloyed Nb alloys are an order of magnitude lower than analogously processed NiAl-base alloys. (author)

  9. Gating System Design for Casting thin Aluminium Alloy (Al-Si Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor ANJO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminium oxide films, cuts and washes, low casting yield and entrapped gas. This study describes the design of a gating system to produce thin Aluminium cast alloy plates of different sizes and thicknesses of 4mm, 6mm, 8mm, and 10mm using the non-pressurized gating with ratio of 1:4:4 and green sand moulding technique. The gating design was based on the laws of fluid mechanics and empirical rules of gating for non ferrous metals. The equipments used for this experiment includes; a coal fired crucible furnace and an X-Ray machine. Materials used include; silica sand, clay, wood, glue and Aluminium alloy scraps. The experimental procedure involved: the gating design calculations, construction of wooden pattern and gating; using the wooden pattern and gating to produce the mould cavities and gating; melting, melt treatment and pouring of melt in the sand mould to produce the casting. The plate castings after removal from mould were visually examined for surface defects and after fettling and cleaning X-Ray radiography was used to find the internal soundness of the castings. From the results obtained in the experiment, it was found that there were no internal defects and quality castings were produced.

  10. Study of the structure and development of the set of reference materials of composition and structure of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Chabina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of research: There are two sizes (several microns and nanodimensional of strengthening j'-phase in single-crystal heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys, used for making blades of modern gas turbine engines (GTD. For in-depth study of structural and phase condition of such alloys not only qualitative description of created structure is necessary, but quantitative analysis of alloy components geometrical characteristics. Purpose of the work: Development of reference material sets of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloy composition and structure. Research methods: To address the measurement problem of control of structural and geometrical characteristics of single-crystal heat resisting and intermetallic alloys by analytical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis the research was carried out using certified measurement techniques on facilities, entered in the Register of Measurement Means of the Russian Federation. The research was carried out on microsections, foils and plates, cut in the plane {100}. Results: It is established that key parameters, defining the properties of these alloys are particle size of strengthening j' -phase, the layer thickness of j-phase between them and parameters of phases lattice. Metrological requirements for reference materials of composition and structure of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys are formulated. The necessary and sufficient reference material set providing the possibility to determine the composition and structure parameters of single-crystal heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys is defined. The developed RM sets are certified as in-plant reference materials. Conclusion: The reference materials can be used for graduation of spectral equipment when conducting element analysis of specified class alloys; for calibration of means of measuring alloy structure parameters; for measurement of alloys phases lattice parameters; for structure reference pictures

  11. On the effects of geometry, defects, and material asymmetry on the mechanical response of shape memory alloy cellular lattice structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravari, M R Karamooz; Kadkhodaei, M; Ghaei, A; Esfahani, S Nasr; Andani, M Taheri; Elahinia, M; Karaca, H

    2016-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (such as NiTi) cellular lattice structures are a new class of advanced materials with many potential applications. The cost of fabrication of these structures however is high. It is therefore necessary to develop modeling methods to predict the functional behavior of these alloys before fabrication. The main aim of the present study is to assess the effects of geometry, microstructural imperfections and material asymmetric response of dense shape memory alloys on the mechanical response of cellular structures. To this end, several cellular and dense NiTi samples are fabricated using a selective laser melting process. Both cellular and dense specimens were tested in compression in order to obtain their stress–strain response. For modeling purposes, a three -dimensional (3D) constitutive model based on microplane theory which is able to describe the material asymmetry was employed. Five finite element models based on unit cell and multi-cell methods were generated to predict the mechanical response of cellular lattices. The results show the considerable effects of the microstructural imperfections on the mechanical response of the cellular lattice structures. The asymmetric material response of the bulk material also affects the mechanical response of the corresponding cellular structure. (paper)

  12. Nb-base FS-85 Alloy as a Candidate Structural Material for Space Reactor Applications: Effects of Thermal Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Keith J.; Busby, Jeremy T.; Hoelzer, David T.; Zinkle, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    The proposed use of fission reactors for manned or deep space missions have typically relied on the potential use of refractory metal alloys as structural materials. Throughout the history of these programs, the lead candidate has been Nb-1Zr due to its good fabrication and welding characteristics. However, the less than optimal creep resistance of this alloy has encouraged interest in the more complex FS-85 (Nb-28Ta-10W-1Zr) alloy. Despite this interest, a relatively small database exists for the properties of FS-85. These gaps include potential microstructural instabilities that can lead to mechanical property degradation. In this work, changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of FS-85 were investigated following 1100 h of thermal aging at 1098, 1248 and 1398 K. The changes in electrical resistivity, hardness and tensile properties between the as-annealed and aged materials are compared. Evaluation of the microstructural changes was performed through optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The development of intragranular and grain boundary precipitation of Zr-rich compounds as a function of aging temperature was followed. Brittle tensile behavior was measured in the 1248 K aged material, while ductile behavior occurred in material aged above and below this temperature. The effect of temperature on the under and overaging of the grain boundary particles are believed to have contributed to the mechanical property behavior of the aged material

  13. Designing Biomimetic, Dissipative Material Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, Anna C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Whitesides, George M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Brinker, C. Jeffrey [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology. Center for Micro-Engineered Materials; Aranson, Igor S. [UChicago, LLC., Argonne, IL (United States); Chaikin, Paul [New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dogic, Zvonimir [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Glotzer, Sharon [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. Dept. of Macromolecular Science and Engineering Physics; Hammer, Daniel [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science; Irvine, Darrell [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Biological Engineering; Little, Steven R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Parikh, Atul N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering. Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Stupp, Samuel [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Medicine. Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Szostak, Jack [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2016-01-21

    Throughout human history, new materials have been the foundation of transformative technologies: from bronze, paper, and ceramics to steel, silicon, and polymers, each material has enabled far-reaching advances. Today, another new class of materials is emerging—one with both the potential to provide radically new functions and to challenge our notion of what constitutes a “material”. These materials would harvest, transduce, or dissipate energy to perform autonomous, dynamic functions that mimic the behaviors of living organisms. Herein, we discuss the challenges and benefits of creating “dissipative” materials that can potentially blur the boundaries between living and non-living matter.

  14. Experimental system design of liquid lithium-lead alloy bubbler for DFLL-TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Li Junge; Xu Shaomei; Weng Kuiping

    2011-01-01

    The liquid lithium-lead alloy bubbler is a very important composition in the tritium unit of Chinese Dual-Functional Lithium Lead Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM). In order to complete the construction and run of the bubbler experimental system,overall design of the system, main circuit design and auxiliary system design have been proposed on the basis of theoretical calculations for the interaction of hydrogen isotope with lithium-lead alloy and experiment for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium-lead alloy by bubbling with rotational jet nozzle. The key of this design is gas-liquid exchange packed column, to achieve the measurement and extraction of hydrogen isotopes from liquid lithium-lead alloy. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of coated columbium alloy heat shields for space shuttle thermal protection system application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    A three-phase program to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a metallic heat shield suitable for use on Space Shuttle Orbiter class vehicles at operating surface temperatures of up to 1590 K (2400 F) is summarized. An orderly progression of configuration studies, material screening tests, and subscale structural tests was performed. Scale-up feasibility was demonstrated in the final phase when a sizable nine-panel array was fabricated and successfully tested. The full-scale tests included cyclic testing at reduced air pressure to 1590 K (2400 F) and up to 158 dB overall sound pressure level. The selected structural configuration and design techniques succesfully eliminated thermal induced failures. The thermal/structural performance of the system was repeatedly demonstrated. Practical and effective field repair methods for coated columbium alloys were demonstrated. Major uncertainties of accessibility, refurbishability, and durability were eliminated.

  16. Comparative study of ATW systems using solid alloy fuel and molten salt fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyaman, Maman; Silakhuddin

    2002-01-01

    Burning of radioactive wastes can be carried out by transmutation process using a pressurized water reactor, fast breeder reactor and a high energy particle accelerator system. The transmutation using accelerator system which is known as Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) can be performed in two systems: solid alloy fuel system and molten salt for fuel and cooling system. A comparison of those methods has been assessed. The k e ff values are 0.89 for solid alloy fuel system and 0.92 for molten salt system, with same proton energy of 1.5 GeV

  17. Corrosion Behavior and Strength of Dissimilar Bonding Material between Ti and Mg Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripanapong, Patchara; Kariya, Shota; Luangvaranunt, Tachai; Umeda, Junko; Tsutsumi, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Makoto; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Ti and solution treated Mg alloys such as AZ31B (ST), AZ61 (ST), AZ80 (ST) and AZ91 (ST) were successfully bonded at 475 °C by spark plasma sintering, which is a promising new method in welding field. The formation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound was found to be an important factor in controlling the bonding strength and galvanic corrosion resistance of dissimilar materials. The maximum bonding strength and bonding efficiency at 193 MPa and 96% were obtained from Ti/AZ91 (ST), in which a thick and uniform nano-level Ti3Al layer was observed. This sample also shows the highest galvanic corrosion resistance with a measured galvanic width and depth of 281 and 19 µm, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the matrix on Mg alloy side was controlled by its Al content. AZ91 (ST) exhibited the highest corrosion resistance considered from its corrode surface after corrosion test in Kroll’s etchant. The effect of Al content in Mg alloy on bonding strength and corrosion behavior of Ti/Mg alloy (ST) dissimilar materials is discussed in this work. PMID:28773788

  18. Corrosion Behavior and Strength of Dissimilar Bonding Material between Ti and Mg Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchara Pripanapong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ti and solution treated Mg alloys such as AZ31B (ST, AZ61 (ST, AZ80 (ST and AZ91 (ST were successfully bonded at 475 °C by spark plasma sintering, which is a promising new method in welding field. The formation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound was found to be an important factor in controlling the bonding strength and galvanic corrosion resistance of dissimilar materials. The maximum bonding strength and bonding efficiency at 193 MPa and 96% were obtained from Ti/AZ91 (ST, in which a thick and uniform nano-level Ti3Al layer was observed. This sample also shows the highest galvanic corrosion resistance with a measured galvanic width and depth of 281 and 19 µm, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the matrix on Mg alloy side was controlled by its Al content. AZ91 (ST exhibited the highest corrosion resistance considered from its corrode surface after corrosion test in Kroll’s etchant. The effect of Al content in Mg alloy on bonding strength and corrosion behavior of Ti/Mg alloy (ST dissimilar materials is discussed in this work.

  19. A survey on the effects of three surface treatment methods on bond strength between base-metal alloys and Ceromer material (Targis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rokni. Sh.; Mehdizade. Sh

    2004-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Ceramics and resins belong to the earliest tooth restorative materials. Nowadays new generations of these materials have provided a revolution in cosmetic dentistry. Ceramic Optimized polymer (Ceromer) is a newly made product that the bond between this material and base metal alloys, which are used widely today, is paid too much attention. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of targis (Ceromer) to three types of base metal alloys through thre...

  20. New innovative materials for advanced electrochemical applications in battery and fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, S.; Kollmann, H.; Kollmann, W.

    The advanced material POLYMET is an innovative high tech polymer with a three-dimensional polymeric structure metallized with an enclosing coating of different kinds of metals or alloys. The result is a range of tailor-made, microporous structures on a designable scale. By varying the metals and alloys, it is possible to draw upon extremely diverse areas of applications such as battery systems, fuel cells, filters or efficient catalysts as well as air regeneration systems, e.g. in aerospace. The three-dimensional structure of metallized high tech woven or non-woven materials or foams causes a lot of advantages such as high conductivity, high corrosion resistance, flexibility or mechanical strength. Therefore, POLYMET is suitable for, e.g. current collectors or gas diffusion layers in energy storage systems. They supply an economic and environmental alternative material to improve functional electrochemical systems.

  1. Thermal Systems and Materials Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    During my internship, I was involved in Boeing Thermal System/M&P, which handles maintenance and repairs of shuttle tiles, blankets, gap fillers, etc. One project I took part in was the revision of TPS-227, a repair process to tiles that entailed drilling out tile damage and using a cylindrical insert to fill the hole. The previous specification used minimal adhesive for application and when the adhesive cured, there would be several voids in the adhered material, causing an unsatisfactory bond. The testing compared several new methods and I analyzed the number of voids produced by each method to determine which one was most effective at eliminating void space. We revised the original process to apply a light adhesive coat to the top 25% of the borehole and a heavy coat to 100% of the insert. I was also responsible for maintaining the subnominal bond database, which records all unsatisfactory SIP (Strain Isolator Pad) bonds. I then archived each SIP physically for future referral data and statistics. In addition, I performed post-flight tile inspections for damages and wrote dispositions to have these tiles repaired. This also included writing a post-flight damage report for a section of Atlantis and creating summarized repair process guidelines for orbiter technicians.

  2. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Development of Alternative Cu-Be Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Structure – Property Tools Design Framework: Precipitation- strengthened Copper and Cobalt alloy NGCu-1: Design constraints and associated... superalloys ● Excellent chemical/erosion resistance Binary Co – Cr phase diagram 9 Co-Based Alloys Drivers\\Requirements Precipitation Strengthened...for Cobalt -based designs FCC matrix + L12 strengthening precipitates Risk Factor Mitigation strategy Quench suppressibility • lower solvus of L12

  3. Nanotube formation and morphology change of Ti alloys containing Hf for dental materials use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Kang; Choe, Han-Cheol; Ko, Yeong-Mu; Brantley, William A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Ti-Hf (10, 20, 30 and 40 wt.%) alloys were prepared by arc melting, and subjected to heat treatment for 24 h at 1000 o C in an argon atmosphere. Formation of surface nanotubes was achieved by anodizing a Ti-Hf alloy in 1.0 M H 3 PO 4 electrolytes with small amounts of NaF at room temperature. Microstructures of the alloys and nanotube morphology were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The homogenized Ti-Hf alloys had a needle-like microstructure of α phase, and nanotubes formed on Ti-xHf alloys had the anatase phase after treatment that promoted crystallization. Uniform nanotubes formed for Hf contents up to 20 wt.%. Irregular nanotubes formed on the Ti-30Hf and Ti-40Hf alloys. The structure of the irregular layers on the Ti-30Hf and Ti-40Hf alloys had nanotubes of two sizes. Increasing the Hf content in Ti led to the formation of nanotubes with more narrow size. The pores in the nanotubes typically had a diameter ranging from 80-120 nm and a length of approximately 1.7 μm. It is concluded that nanotube morphology on Ti-Hf alloys can controlled by varying the amount of Hf.

  4. In vitro corrosion properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys as potential biodegradable metallic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henan; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Li, Yan

    2017-02-01

    The in vitro biodegradable properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys including Fe 81 Ga 19 , (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 98 B 2 and (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 99.5 (TaC) 0.5 , and pure Fe were investigated for biomedical applications. The microstructure of the alloys was characterized using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The results showed that A2 and D0 3 phases were detected for the three types of Fe-Ga alloys, and additional Fe 2 B and TaC phases were found in the (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 98 B 2 and (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 99.5 (TaC) 0.5 alloys, respectively. The corrosion rates of the Fe-Ga alloys were higher than that of pure Fe, as demonstrated by both potentiodynamic polarization measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid. The alloying element Ga lowered the corrosion potential of the Fe matrix and made it more susceptible to corrosion. Severe pitting corrosion developed on the surface of the Fe 81 Ga 19 alloy after the addition of ternary B or TaC due to the multi-phase microstructures. The MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited good adhesion and proliferation behavior on the surfaces of the Fe-Ga alloys after culture for 4h and 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microstructure, mechanical behavior and biocompatibility of powder metallurgy Nb-Ti-Ta alloys as biomedical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jue; Chang, Lin; Liu, Hairong; Li, Yongsheng; Yang, Hailin; Ruan, Jianming

    2017-02-01

    Microstructures, mechanical properties, apatite-forming ability and in vitro experiments were studied for Nb-25Ti-xTa (x=10, 15, 20, 25, 35at.%) alloys fabricated by powder metallurgy. It is confirmed that the alloys could achieve a relative density over 80%. Meanwhile, the increase in Ta content enhances the tensile strength, elastic modulus and hardness of the as-sintered alloys. When increasing the sintering temperatures, the microstructure became more homogeneous for β phase, resulting in a decrease in the modulus and strength. Moreover, the alloys showed a good biocompatibility due to the absence of cytotoxic elements, and were suitable for apatite formation and cell adhesion. In conclusion, Nb-25Ti-xTa alloys are potentially useful in biomedical applications with their mechanical and biological properties being evaluated in this work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of salt-alloy combinations for thermal energy storage applications in advanced solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Misra, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations based on the available data for flouride salt systems reveal that a number of congruently melting compositions and eutectics exist which have the potential to meet the lightweight, high energy storage requirements imposed for advanced solar dynamic systems operating between about 1000 and 1400 K. Compatibility studies to determine suitable containment alloys to be used with NaF-22CaF2-13MgF2, NaF-32CaF2, and NaF-23MgF2 have been conducted at the eutectic temperature + 25 K for each system. For these three NaF-based eutectics, none of the common, commercially available high temperature alloys appear to offer adequate corrosion resistance for a long lifetime; however mild steel, pure nickel and Nb-1Zr could prove useful. These latter materials suggest the possibility that a strong, corrosion resistant, nonrefractory, elevated temperature alloy based on the Ni-Ni3Nb system could be developed.

  7. Reference material systems: a sourcebook for material assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, N. (ed.)

    1976-12-01

    A reference set of data related to material systems and a framework for carrying out the material technologies assessment are presented. While the bulk of renewables have been considered in this report, the nonrenewable materials dealt with here include structural materials only, such as steel, aluminum, cement and concrete, and bricks. The complete data set is supposed to include material flows, energy requirements, capital and labor inputs, and environmental effects for each process that a resource must go through to become a useful material for an end use. Although effort has been made to obtain as much information as possible, considerable gaps in data, apparent throughout this report, could not be avoided. A new material technology can be evaluated by substituting that technology for appropriate elements of the reference materials system and calculating the net change in material resource, energy, capital and labor requirements, and environmental impacts. This combination of information thus serves as a means of evaluating the potential benefits to be gained by research in various material technologies.

  8. Nb-Base FS-85 Alloy as a Candidate Structural Material for Space Reactor Applications: Effects of Thermal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Keith J.; Busby, Jeremy T.; Hoelzer, David T.; Zinkle, Steven J.

    2009-04-01

    The proposed uses of fission reactors for manned or deep space missions have typically relied on the potential use of refractory metal alloys as structural materials. Throughout the history of these programs, a leading candidate has been Nb-1Zr, due to its good fabrication and welding characteristics. However, the less-than-optimal creep resistance of this alloy has encouraged interest in the more complex FS-85 (Nb-28Ta-10W-1Zr) alloy. Despite this interest, only a relatively small database exists for the properties of FS-85. Database gaps include the potential microstructural instabilities that can lead to mechanical property degradation. In this work, changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties of FS-85 were investigated following 1100 hours of thermal aging at 1098, 1248, and 1398 K. The changes in electrical resistivity, hardness, and tensile properties between the as-annealed and aged materials are compared. Evaluation of the microstructural changes was performed through optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The development of intragranular and grain-boundary precipitation of Zr-rich compounds as a function of aging temperature was followed. Brittle tensile behavior was measured in the material aged at 1248 K, while ductile behavior occurred in samples aged above and below this temperature. The effect of temperature on the under- and overaging of the grain-boundary particles is believed to have contributed to the mechanical property behavior of the aged materials.

  9. Estimating the Eutectic Composition of Simple Binary Alloy System Using Linear Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple linear equation was developed and applied to a hypothetical binary equilibrium diagram to evaluate the eutectic composition of the binary alloy system. Solution of the equations revealed that the eutectic composition of the case study Pb – Sn, Bi – Cd and Al – Si alloys are 39.89% Pb, 60.11% Sn, 58.01% Bi, 41.99% Cd and 90.94% Al, 9.06% Si respectively. These values are very close to experimental values. The percent deviation of analytical values from experimental values ranged between 2.87 and 5% for the three binary systems considered, except for Si – Al alloy in which the percent deviation for the silicon element was 22%.It is concluded that equation of straight line could be used to predict the eutectic composition of simple binary alloys within tolerable experimental deviation range of 2.5%.

  10. Minicomputer based, controlled materials information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, N.; Jessen, T.; Meadors, O.; Seibel, D.

    1976-01-01

    The LLL, Materials Management Group and Data Processing Services have developed a transaction-oriented, minicomputer system for the management of the Laboratory's controlled materials. The system consists of a multi-vendor hardware system designed for ease of operation, maximum reliability, and quick response and the requirements imposed on the hardware and software systems are discussed

  11. Development of metallic system multi-composite materials for compound environment and corrosion monitoring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    1996-01-01

    For the structural materials used for the pressure boundary of nuclear power plants and others, the long term durability over several decades under the compound environment, in which the action of radiation and the corrosion and erosion in the environment of use are superposed, is demanded. To its controlling factors, the secular change of materials due to irradiation ageing and the chemical and physical properties of extreme compound environment are related complicatedly. In the first period of this research, the development of the corrosion-resistant alloys with the most excellent adaptability to environments was carried out by the combination of new alloy design and alloy manufacturing technology. In the second period, in order to heighten the adaptability as the pressure boundary materials between different compound environments, the creation of metallic system multi-composite materials has been advanced. Also corrosion monitoring technique is being developed. The stainless steel for water-cooled reactors, the wear and corrosion-resistant superalloy for reactor core, the corrosion-resistant alloy and the metallic refractory material for reprocessing nitric acid reaction vessels are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Design study of fuel circulating system using Pd-alloy membrane isotope separation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Yamada, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Aizawa, T.; Kasahara, T.; Nishikawa, M.; Asami, N.

    1980-01-01

    Design study on the fuel circulating system (FCS) for a tokamak experimental fusion reactor (JXFR) has been carried out to establish the system concept, to plan the development program, and to evaluate the feasibility of diffusion system. The FCS consists of main vacuum system, fuel gas refiners, isotope separators, fuel feeders, and auxiliary systems. In the system design, Pd-alloy membrane permeation method is adopted for fuel refining and isotope separating. All impurities are effectively removed and hydrogen isotopes are sufficiently separated by Pd-alloy membrane. The isotope separation system consists of 1st (47 separators) and 2nd (46 separators) cascades for removing protium and separating deuterium, respectively. In the FCS, while cryogenic distillation method appears to be practicable, Pd-alloy membrane diffusion method is attractive for isotope separation and refining of fuel gas. The choice will have to be based on reliability, economic, and safety analyses

  13. Magnetic hysterysis evolution of Ni-Al alloy with Fe and Mn substitution by vacuum arc melting to produce the room temperature magnetocaloric effect material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar [PPS Materials Science, FMIPA-Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Mechanical Engineering Dept., FT-Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon 42435 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Budhy; Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@sci.ui.ac.id [PPS Materials Science, FMIPA-Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Setiawan, Jan [Center for Nuclear Fuel Tecnology-Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional, Tangerang Selatan 15310 (Indonesia)

    2016-06-17

    The development of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) material is done in order to reduce the damage of the ozone layer caused by the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) emitted into the air. The research dealing with synthesis of magnetocaloric materials based of Ni-Al Heusler Alloy structure and by varying substitution some atoms of Ni with Fe and Al with Mn on Ni-Al Heusler Alloy structure to become Ni{sub 44}Fe{sub 6}Mn{sub 32}Al{sub 18}. Vacuum Arc Melting (VAM) equipment is used to form the alloys on vacuum condition and by flowing argon gas atmosphere and then followed by annealing process for 72 hours. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) reveals that crystallite structure of material is observed. We define that Ni{sub 44}Fe{sub 6} as X{sub 2}, Mn{sub 25} as Y, and Al{sub 18}Mn{sub 7} as Z. Based on the XRD result, we observed that the general formula X{sub 2}YZ is not changed. The PERMAGRAF measurement revealed that there exists of magnetic hysterysis. The hysterysis show that the magnetic structures of the system undego evolution from diamagnetic to soft ferromagnetic material which all of the compound have the same crystallite structure. This evolution indicated that the change in the composition has led to changes the magnetic composition. Mn is the major element that gives strong magnetic properties to the sample. When Mn partially replaced position of Al, the sample became dominant to be influenced to improve their magnetic properties. In addition, substitution a part of Ni by Fe in the composition reveals a pinning of the domain walls in the sample.

  14. Systems and methods for treating material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Randall D; McNamara, Bruce K

    2014-10-21

    Systems for treating material are provided that can include a vessel defining a volume, at least one conduit coupled to the vessel and in fluid communication with the vessel, material within the vessel, and NF.sub.3 material within the conduit. Methods for fluorinating material are provided that can include exposing the material to NF.sub.3 to fluorinate at least a portion of the material. Methods for separating components of material are also provided that can include exposing the material to NF.sub.3 to at least partially fluorinate a portion of the material, and separating at least one fluorinated component of the fluorinated portion from the material. The materials exposed to the NF.sub.3 material can include but are not limited to one or more of U, Ru, Rh, Mo, Tc, Np, Pu, Sb, Ag, Am, Sn, Zr, Cs, Th, and/or Rb.

  15. Neuro-fuzzy System Implementation in Multiple Sensor Monitoring for Ni-Ti Alloy Machinability Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Segreto, T.; Caggiano, A.; Teti, R.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys are characterized by unique mechanical properties including superelasticity, high ductility, and severe strain-hardening, that make them extremely difficult to cut. In this paper, in order to realize a reliable and robust classification of process conditions, a multiple sensor monitoring system is employed to acquire cutting force and vibration acceleration sensor signals during experimental turning tests on Ni-Ti alloys. The acquired sensorial data were subject...

  16. Comparison of Microleakage of Composite Resin Veneering Systems at the Alloy Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    technique that there is leakage around resin veneers in gold crowns. Microleakage studies have been used primarily for the evaluation of direct...investigation is to evaluate the bond between veneering composite resin and metal substructure. Measurement of microleakage at the composite resin-alloy...34OVERPRINT" COMPARISON OF MICROLEAKAGE OF COMPOSITE RESIN VENEERING SYSTEMS AT THE ALLOY INTERFACE A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of The University

  17. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1999 through September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks.

  18. COMPLEX DESIGN OF INTEGRATED MATERIAL FLOW SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    PÉTER TELEK; TAMÁS BÁNYAI

    2013-01-01

    Material flow systems have in generally very complex structure and relations. During design, building and operation of complex systems there are many different problems. This paper shows some usable solution for the design and selection process of material flow systems. We give a short overview about the theoretical principles of the design process, then describe the base design tasks, the possibilities of the using of heuristic algorithms and the modelling of material flow systems. At the en...

  19. Nickel and its alloys as perspective materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers operating on proton conducting solid acids as electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Several stainless steels, nickel-based alloys, Ta-coated stainless steel, niobium, nickel, platinum and gold were evaluated as possible materials for use in the intermediate temperature water electrolysers. The corrosion resistance was measured in molten KH2PO4 as simulated conditions corresponding...... plates and cell housing. It was shown, that nickel, high-nickel alloys and austenitic stainless steels containing small amounts of Ti have high corrosion resistance in this media. © The Electrochemical Society....... to protonconducting solid acids or transition metal phosphates as electrolytes. It was shown that Au is subject to corrosion in molten KH 2PO4 during polarisation. However, Ni and Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L) demonstrated high corrosion stability and can be recommended as a construction material for bipolar...

  20. Automated accounting systems for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.

    1994-01-01

    History of the development of nuclear materials accounting systems in USA and their purposes are considered. Many present accounting systems are based on mainframe computers with multiple terminal access. Problems of future improvement accounting systems are discussed

  1. Lunar Materials Handling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in...

  2. Kinetic study of hydrogen-material interactions in nickel base alloy 600 and stainless steel 316L through coupled experimental and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, Caitlin-Mae

    2015-01-01

    defects. Concerning these H-trap site interactions, literature presents very few complete sets of kinetic data; it is therefore necessary to study and characterize these interactions in-depth. This work is composed of two interdependent parts: (i) the development of a calculation code capable to manage these H-material interactions and (ii) to extract the kinetic constants for trapping and detrapping from experimental results in order to fuel the simulation code and create a solid database. Due to the complexity of industrial materials (A600 and SS316L), 'model materials' were elaborated using a series of thermomechanical treatments allowing for the study of simplified systems and the deconvolution of the different possible trapped and interstitial hydrogen contributions. These 'model' specimens were charged with deuterium (an isotopic hydrogen tracer) by cathodic polarization. After charging, specimens were subjected to thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDS) analysis where the deuterium desorption flux is monitored during a temperature ramp or at an isotherm. Interstitial diffusion and kinetic trapping and detrapping constants were extracted from experimental TDS spectra using a numerical fitting routine based upon the numerical resolution of the McNabb and Foster equations. This study allowed for the determination of the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in two alloys, Ni base alloy 600 and stainless steel 316L, and the kinetic trapping and detrapping constants at two trap site types, chromium carbides and dislocations. These constants will be used to construct a kinetic database which will serve as input parameters for a numerical model for the prediction and simulation of SCC in PWRs. (author)

  3. Modular titanium alloy neck adapter failures in hip replacement - failure mode analysis and influence of implant material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloemer Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modular neck adapters for hip arthroplasty stems allow the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intraoperatively. Fretting or crevice corrosion may lead to failure of such a modular device due to high loads or surface contamination inside the modular coupling. Unfortunately we have experienced such a failure of implants and now report our clinical experience with the failures in order to advance orthopaedic material research and joint replacement surgery. The failed neck adapters were implanted between August 2004 and November 2006 a total of about 5000 devices. After this period, the titanium neck adapters were replaced by adapters out of cobalt-chromium. Until the end of 2008 in total 1.4% (n = 68 of the implanted titanium alloy neck adapters failed with an average time of 2.0 years (0.7 to 4.0 years postoperatively. All, but one, patients were male, their average age being 57.4 years (36 to 75 years and the average weight 102.3 kg (75 to 130 kg. The failures of neck adapters were divided into 66% with small CCD of 130° and 60% with head lengths of L or larger. Assuming an average time to failure of 2.8 years, the cumulative failure rate was calculated with 2.4%. Methods A series of adapter failures of titanium alloy modular neck adapters in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem was investigated. For patients having received this particular implant combination risk factors were identified which were associated with the occurence of implant failure. A Kaplan-Meier survival-failure-analysis was conducted. The retrieved implants were analysed using microscopic and chemical methods. Modes of failure were simulated in biomechanical tests. Comparative tests included modular neck adapters made of titanium alloy and cobalt chrome alloy material. Results Retrieval examinations and biomechanical simulation revealed that primary micromotions initiated fretting within the modular tapered neck

  4. Modular titanium alloy neck adapter failures in hip replacement--failure mode analysis and influence of implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, Thomas M; Weik, Thomas; Bloemer, Wilhelm; Knaebel, Hanns-Peter

    2010-01-04

    Modular neck adapters for hip arthroplasty stems allow the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intraoperatively. Fretting or crevice corrosion may lead to failure of such a modular device due to high loads or surface contamination inside the modular coupling. Unfortunately we have experienced such a failure of implants and now report our clinical experience with the failures in order to advance orthopaedic material research and joint replacement surgery.The failed neck adapters were implanted between August 2004 and November 2006 a total of about 5000 devices. After this period, the titanium neck adapters were replaced by adapters out of cobalt-chromium. Until the end of 2008 in total 1.4% (n = 68) of the implanted titanium alloy neck adapters failed with an average time of 2.0 years (0.7 to 4.0 years) postoperatively. All, but one, patients were male, their average age being 57.4 years (36 to 75 years) and the average weight 102.3 kg (75 to 130 kg). The failures of neck adapters were divided into 66% with small CCD of 130 degrees and 60% with head lengths of L or larger. Assuming an average time to failure of 2.8 years, the cumulative failure rate was calculated with 2.4%. A series of adapter failures of titanium alloy modular neck adapters in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem was investigated. For patients having received this particular implant combination risk factors were identified which were associated with the occurRence of implant failure. A Kaplan-Meier survival-failure-analysis was conducted. The retrieved implants were analysed using microscopic and chemical methods. Modes of failure were simulated in biomechanical tests. Comparative tests included modular neck adapters made of titanium alloy and cobalt chrome alloy material. Retrieval examinations and biomechanical simulation revealed that primary micromotions initiated fretting within the modular tapered neck connection. A continuous abrasion and

  5. a-SiGe:H alloy material limitations and device considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortmann, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The electron mobility of intrinsic amorphous SiGe films is found to depend on the hydrogen content. Deposition conditions that influence hydrogen content are discussed. The best C H a-SiGe:H alloys of 1.3 eV band gap are used in solar cells. Solar cell analysis is used to determine both hole and electron transport. The electron mobility is reduced by alloying; however, the hole transport of the alloy is not significantly different from that of device quality a-Si:H. Cell designs that minimize performance loss due to poor electron mobility are considered

  6. Alloy 33: A new material for the handling of HNO3/HF media in reprocessing of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, M.; Heubner, U.; Eichenhofer, K.W.; Renner, M.

    1997-01-01

    Alloy 33, an austenitic 33Cr-32Fe-31Ni-1.6Mo-0.6Cu-0.4N material shows excellent resistance to corrosion when exposed to highly oxidizing media as e.g. HNO 3 and HNO 3 /HF mixtures which are encountered in reprocessing of nuclear fuel. According to the test results available so far, resistance to corrosion in boiling azeotropic (67%) HNO 3 is about 6 and 2 times superior to AISI 304 L and 310 L. In higher concentrated nitric acid it can be considered corrosion resistant up to 95% HNO 3 at 25 C, up to 90% HNO 3 at 50 C and up to somewhat less than 85% HNO 3 at 75 C. In 20% HNO 3 /7% HF at 50 C its resistance to corrosion is superior to AISI 316 Ti and Alloy 28 by factors of about 200 and 2.4. Other media tested with different results include 12% HNO 3 with up to 3.5% HF and 0.4% HF with 32 to 67.5% HNO 3 at 90 C. Alloy 33 is easily fabricated into all product forms required for chemical plants (e.g. plate, sheet, strip, wire, tube and flanges). Components such as dished ends and tube to tube sheet weldments have been successfully fabricated facilitating the use of Alloy 33 for reprocessing of nuclear fuel

  7. Corrosion and Discharge Behaviors of Mg-Al-Zn and Mg-Al-Zn-In Alloys as Anode Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarun Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn and Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-(1%, 1.5%, 2%In alloys were prepared by melting and casting. Their microstructures were investigated via metallographic and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS analysis. Moreover, hydrogen evolution and electrochemical tests were carried out in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution aiming at identifying their corrosion mechanisms and discharge behaviors. The results suggested that indium exerts an improvement on both the corrosion rate and the discharge activity of Mg-Al-Zn alloy via the effects of grain refining, β-Mg17Al12 precipitation, dissolving-reprecipitation, and self-peeling. The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-1.5%In alloy with the highest corrosion rate at free corrosion potential did not perform desirable discharge activity indicating that the barrier effect caused by the β-Mg17Al12 phase would have been enhanced under the conditions of anodic polarization. The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-1.0%In alloy with a relative low corrosion rate and a high discharge activity is a promising anode material for both cathodic protection and chemical power source applications.

  8. Armor systems including coated core materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  9. A study of hydrogen environment effects on microstructure property behavior of NASA-23 alloy and related alloy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.

    1990-01-01

    This work is part of the overall advanced main combustion chamber (AMCC) casting characterization program of the Materials and Processes Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center. The influence of hydrogen on the tensile properties and ductility behavior of NASA-23 alloy were analyzed. NASA-23 and other referenced alloys in cast and hipped conditions were solution treated and aged under selected conditions and characterized using optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis techniques. The yield strength of NASA-23 is not affected much by hydrogen under tensile tests carried at 5000 psig conditions; however, the ultimate strength and ductility properties are degraded. This implies that the physical mechanisms operating would be related to the plastic deformation process. The fracture surfaces characteristics of NASA-23 specimens tensile tested in hydrogen, helium, and air were also analyzed. These revealed surface cracks around specimen periphery with the fracture surface showing a combination of intergranular and transgranular modes of fracture. It is seen that the specimens charged in hydrogen seem to favor a more brittle fracture mode in comparison to air and helium charged specimens. The AMCC casting characterization program is to be analyzed for their hydrogen behavior. As a result of this program, the basic microstructural factors and fracture characteristics in some cases were analyzed.

  10. Interfacial shear bond strength between different base metal alloys and five low fusing feldspathic ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Cumhur; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the bond strength between metal alloys and 5 ceramic systems. Ceramic systems (Vita VMK68, Ivoclar IPSd. SIGN, Ceramco II, Matchmaker and Finesse) were fired onto either Ni-Cr or Co-Cr base metal alloy. Metal-ceramic interfaces were subjected to shear loading until failure. The ceramic type significantly affected the bond strength results (palloy, the results ranged between 15.4-25.3 MPa and for Co-Cr alloy between 13.3-19.0 MPa. The highest mean bond strength value was obtained with the combination of Ni-Cr alloy-Ceramco II (25.3 MPa), the lowest bond strength was received from the combination of Co-Cr alloy-Ivoclar IPS d.SIGN ceramic (13.3 MPa). Adhesive failures between metal and ceramic were significantly more frequent with Ni-Cr alloy (31 out of 50) than with Co-Cr (20 out of 50) (p<0.05). Ceramco II presented the highest bond strength with both Ni-Cr and Co-Cr being significantly different from one another.

  11. Corrosion wear fracture of new {beta} biomedical titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinomi, M.; Fukunaga, K.-I. [Toyohashi Univ. of Technol. (Japan). Dept. of Production Syst. Eng.; Kuroda, D.; Morinaga, M.; Kato, Y.; Yashiro, T.; Suzuki, A.

    1999-05-15

    Metallic materials such as stainless steel, Co-Cr alloy, pure titanium and titanium alloys have been used for surgical implant materials. The {alpha} + {beta} type titanium alloy such as Ti-6Al-4V ELI has been most widely used as an implant material for artificial hip joint and dental implant because of its high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Toxicity of alloying elements in conventional biomedical titanium alloys like Al and V, and the high modulus of elasticity of these alloy as compared to that of bone have been, however, pointed out [1,2]. New {beta} type titanium alloys composed of non-toxic elements like Nb, Ta, Zr, Mo and Sn with lower moduli of elasticity, greater strength and greater corrosion resistance were, therefore, designed in this study. The friction wear properties of titanium alloys are, however, low as compared to those of other conventional metallic implant materials such as stainless steels and Co-Cr alloy. Tensile tests and friction wear tests in Ringer`s solution were conducted in order to investigate the mechanical properties of designed alloys. The friction wear characteristics of designed alloys and typical conventional biomedical titanium alloys were evaluated using a pin-on-disk type friction wear testing system and measuring the weight loss and width of groove of the specimen. (orig.) 8 refs.

  12. The Influence of Marine Microfouling on the Corrosion Behaviour of Passive Materials and Copper Alloys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, Brenda J; Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I

    2008-01-01

    ...) of passive alloys exposed in marine environments. Ennoblement in marine waters has been ascribed to depolarization of the oxygen reduction reaction due to organometallic catalysis, acidification of the electrode surface, the combined effects...

  13. Nuclear fuel element containing particles of an alloyed Zr, Ti, and Ni getter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Levin, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of particles in a hollow gas permeable container having a multiplicity of openings of size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles of alloy. The container is preferably held in the spring in the plenum of the fuel element. (Official Gazette)

  14. Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 2. Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for ... It is to be noted that synthesis of nanocrystallineternary alloys with precise composition is a big challenge which can be overcome by choosing an appropriate microemulsion system. High electrocatalytic activity towards ...

  15. Influences of Alloying Element and Annealing on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Steam Generator Tubing Materials of Nuclear Power Plant (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik; Pari, Yong Soo; Kuk, Il Hiun

    1996-01-01

    Influences of alloying elements and annealing heat treatments on Alloy 690 and Alloy 600 for steam generator tubing materials of nuclear power plants were studied. OM, SEM, TEM, and XRD analyses were used to study the microstructural changes of the alloys. Mechanical properties were investigated by means of tension tests and Rockwell hardness tests, and corrosion resistance was evaluated using the anodic polarization tests and the 65% boiling nitric acid immersion tests. Increasing the carbon content of Alloy 690, the hardness and tensile strength were increased, but the elongation and grain size were decreased. However, increasing the annealing temperature, the tensile strength and hardness were decreased, but the elongation and grain size were increased. Increasing the carbon content of Alloy 690, the results of the anodic polarization tests and the nitric acid immersion tests showed that the annealing temperature to reveal a minimum corrosion rate was increased. This behavior seemed to be due to the combination of the solid solution of carbon in the matrix and grain growth with annealing. In this work, the corrosion properties of Alloy 690 were better than that of Alloy 600, and the range of the optimum annealing temperature of Alloy 690 was from 1100 .deg. C to 1150 .deg. C

  16. Computerized reactor pressure vessel materials information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strosnider, J.; Monserrate, C.; Kenworthy, L.D.; Tether, C.D.

    1980-10-01

    A computerized information system for storage and retrieval of reactor pressure vessel materials data was established, as part of Task Action Plan A-11, Reactor Vessel Materials Toughness. Data stored in the system are necessary for evaluating the resistance of reactor pressure vessels to flaw-induced fracture. This report includes (1) a description of the information system; (2) guidance on accessing the system; and (3) a user's manual for the system

  17. Process of super-black shading material applied to the star sensor based on Ni-P alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengdeng; Xing, Fei; Wu, Yuelong; You, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Super-black materials based on Nanotechnology have very important applications in many science fields. Super-black materials which have been reported currently, although have excellent light-trapping properties, most of them need the use of sophisticated equipment , the long-time synthesis , high temperature environment and release flammable, explosive and other dangerous gases. So many kinds of problems have hindered the application of such super-black material in practice. This project had nano super-black material developed with simple equipment and process, instead of complicated and dangerous process steps in high temperature and high pressure. On the basis of literature research, we successfully worked out a set of large-area Ni-P alloy plating method through a series of experiments exploring and analyze the experimental results. In the condition of the above Ni-P alloy, we took the solution, which anodized the Ni-P alloy immersed in the non-oxidizing acid, instead of conventional blackening process. It`s a big break for changing the situation in which oxidation, corrosion, vigorous evolution of hydrogen gas in the process are performed at the same location. As a result, not only the reaction process decreased sensitivity to time error, but also the position of the bubble layer no longer located in the surface of the workpiece which may impede observing the process of reaction. Consequently, the solution improved the controllability of the blackening process. In addition, we conducted the research of nano super-black material, exploring nano-super-black material in terms of space optical sensor.

  18. Phase equilibria study and characterization of the alloys in the BiCu0.5Ni0.5 section of the Bi-Cu-Ni system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bi-Cu-Ni system is a very significant, because its alloys belong to the group of potential Cu-Ni-based advanced lead-free solder materials for high temperature application. The results of phase equilibria investigation and characterization of the alloys selected in the Bi-Cu0.5Ni0.5 section from bismuth corner with molar ratio Cu:Ni = 1:1, are presented in this paper. The investigations were performed using different experimental methods - DTA, DSC, SEM-EDS, hardness and electrical conductivity measurements, while thermodynamic calculation was done according to the CALPHAD method using PANDAT software.

  19. The effects of welding parameters on the weldability of different materials using brazing alloy fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, Alaa Muhsin; Hussain, Zuhailawati; Badri, Ahmad; Ariga, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the microwelding conditions related to diffusion mechanism and elemental migration metallurgical and microscopy investigation, and to establish the fundamental corrosion mechanism on the properties of small welding and brazing areas that consist different materials. This study focuses on the weldability of Ti /Ni using microspot brazing technology by selection of brazing condition current, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4 kA, voltage 2 V, load 60 N and welding time 25-50 ms, this welding condition effective on brazing temperature optimization this condition. Ti and Ni were selected as base metals. Four types of metal fillers were used as filler foils, sandwiched between Ti/Ni. First type of metal fillers was, 65Ni-35Cu foil, melting point 846 o C; the second was, 71Ag-28Cu-1Mg foil, melting point 775 o C; the third was, 80Ag-18Cu-2Ti foil, melting point 782 o C; and fourthly was, 73Ni-18Cr-9Si foil, melting point 917 o C. The electrode tip face chosen was circuitous in form. All brazed joint were made by microspot brazing method. Brazing was done under normal atmospheric condition. A single lap joint was selected in order to estimation mechanical property of point by tensile shear strength test and micro hardness test. Cross-section of brazed joint was observed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersible X-ray Spectroscopy, Size of nugget formed. It was found that the shear strength of brazed joints strongly depended strongly on the welding current, welding time and kind of filler. Furthermore, the fracture path and value of shear strength significantly changed with the type of filler alloy by microspot brazing and small size of nugget was obtained. Forming of several reaction layers at the interface was observed.

  20. Deuterium absorption and material phase characteristics of SAES St 198 Zr-Fe Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Mosley, W.C.; Holder, J.S.; Brooks, K.N.

    1994-01-01

    This document reports deuterium absorption and material phase characteristics of SAES St 198 Zr-Fe Alloy (76.5% Zr). Scanning electron microscope images of polished surfaces, electron probe microanalysis, and x-ray powder diffractometry indicated the presence of a primary Zr 2 Fe phase with secondary phases of ZrFe 2 , Zr 5 FeSn, α-Zr, and Zr 6 Fe 3 O. A statistically designed experiment to determine the effects of temperature, time, and vacuum quality on activation of St 198 revealed that, when activated at low temperature (350C), deuterium absorption rate was slower when the vacuum quality was poor (2.5 Pa vs. 3 x 10 -4 Pa). However, at higher activation temperature (500C), deuterium absorption rate was fast and was independent of vacuum quality. Deuterium pressure-composition-temperature (P-C-T) data are reported for St 198 in the temperature range 200 to 500C. The P-C-T data over the full range of deuterium loading and at temperatures of 350C and below is described an expression. At higher temperatures, one or more secondary reactions in the solid phase occur that slowly consume D 2 from the gas phase. X-ray diffraction and other data suggest these reactions to be: 2 Zr 2 FeD x → xZrD 2 + x/3 ZrFe 2 + (2 - 2/3x) Zr 2 Fe and Zr 2 FeD x + (2 - 1/2x) D 2 → 2 ZrD 2 + Fe, where 0 2 Fe formed in the first reaction accounts for the observed consumption of deuterium from the gas phase by this reaction

  1. Mg-containing hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy for dental materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Min; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2018-02-01

    In this study, Mg-containing hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti-6A1-4 V alloy for dental materials were researched using various experimental instruments. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was performed in electrolytes containing Mg (symbols of specimens: CaP, 5M%, 10M%, and 20M%) at 280 V for 3 min. The electrolyte used for PEO was produced by mixing Ca(CH3COO)2·H2O, C3H7NaCaO6P, and MgCl2·6H2O. The phases and composition of the oxide films were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The irregularity of the surface, pore size, and number of pores decreased as the Mg concentration increased. The ratio of the areas occupied and not occupied by pores decreased as the Mg concentration increased, with the numbers of both large and small pores decreasing with increasing Mg concentration. The number of particles on the internal surfaces of pores was increased as the Mg content increased. Mg content of all samples containing Mg ions showed higher in the pore outside than that of pore inside, whereas the Ca content was higher inside the pores. The P content of samples with the addition of Mg ions showed higher values inside the pores than outside. The Ca/P and [Mg + Ca]/P molar ratios in the PEO films decreased with Mg content. The crystallite size of anatase was increased with increasing Mg concentration in the solution.

  2. Knowledge based system and decision making methodologies in materials selection for aircraft cabin metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Pashupati Raj

    Materials selection processes have been the most important aspects in product design and development. Knowledge-based system (KBS) and some of the methodologies used in the materials selection for the design of aircraft cabin metallic structures are discussed. Overall aircraft weight reduction means substantially less fuel consumption. Part of the solution to this problem is to find a way to reduce overall weight of metallic structures inside the cabin. Among various methodologies of materials selection using Multi Criterion Decision Making (MCDM) techniques, a few of them are demonstrated with examples and the results are compared with those obtained using Ashby's approach in materials selection. Pre-defined constraint values, mainly mechanical properties, are employed as relevant attributes in the process. Aluminum alloys with high strength-to-weight ratio have been second-to-none in most of the aircraft parts manufacturing. Magnesium alloys that are much lighter in weight as alternatives to the Al-alloys currently in use in the structures are tested using the methodologies and ranked results are compared. Each material attribute considered in the design are categorized as benefit and non-benefit attribute. Using Ashby's approach, material indices that are required to be maximized for an optimum performance are determined, and materials are ranked based on the average of consolidated indices ranking. Ranking results are compared for any disparity among the methodologies.

  3. Structure and Properties of High-Temperature Multilayer Hybrid Material Based on Vanadium Alloy and Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaykina, Tatyana A.; Nikulin, Sergey A.; Rozhnov, Andrey B.; Khatkevich, Vladimir M.; Rogachev, Stanislav O.

    2017-03-01

    The present work is devoted to the development of new structural composite material having the unique complex of properties for operating in ultrahard conditions that combine high temperatures, radiation, and aggressive environments. A new three-layer composite tube material based on vanadium alloy (V-4Ti-4Cr) protected by stainless steel (Fe-0.2C-13Cr) has been obtained by co-extrusion. Mechanism and kinetics of formation as well as structure, composition, and mechanical properties of "transition" area between vanadium alloy and stainless steel have been studied. The transition area (13- to 22- µm thick) of the diffusion interaction between vanadium alloy and steel was formed after co-extrusion. The microstructure in the transition area was rather complicated comprising different grain sizes in components, but having no defects or brittle phases. Tensile strength of the composite was an average 493 ± 22 MPa, and the elongation was 26 ± 3 pct. Annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) increased the thickness of transition area up to 1.2 times, homogenized microstructure, and slightly changed mechanical properties. Annealing at 1273 K (1000 °C) further increased the thickness of transition area and also lead to intensive grain growth in steel and sometimes to separation between composite components during tensile tests. Annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) is proposed as appropriate heat treatment after co-extrusion of composite providing balance between diffusion interaction thickness and microstructure and monolithic-like behavior of composite during tensile tests.

  4. Applications of synchrotron microradiography in materials science-in situ visualization of the growth of metallic alloy crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongmin; Zhu Jing; Cao Fei; Wang Kun; Bao Yongming; Xie Honglan; Huang Wanxia

    2012-01-01

    Metals and their alloys are an important type of structural and functional material and have been widely used in the aerospace, automobile, shipbuilding and other industries. The macro-properties of metallic alloys actually depend on their microstructures. The evolution of their microstructures generally involves a dynamic process of crystal growth on the scale of micrometers. The crystal growth of these alloys is still a puzzle to us due to their opacity. Conventional metallography techniques are limited by the high temperature of the phase changes so it is not possible to perform in situ observation of the evolving crystal morphology. The in situ visualization of the crystal growth has now become possible with the application of synchrotron radiation imaging techniques, which are just the right key to unravel the mystery mentioned above. In this paper, the development and current state-of-the-art of in situ crystal growth visualization are reviewed. Some typical application examples are presented, and promising applications in materials science are further expected. (authors)

  5. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of metal alloys in the space transportation system launch environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz

    1990-01-01

    AC impedance measurements were performed to investigate the corrosion resistance of 18 alloys under conditions similar to the Space Transportation System (STS) launch environment. The alloys were: (1) zirconium 702; (2) Hastelloy C-22, C-276, C-4, and B-2; (3) Inconel 600 and 825; (4) Ferralium 255; (5) Inco Alloy G-3; (6) 20Cb-3; (7) SS 904L, 304LN, 316L, 317L, and 304L; (8) ES 2205; and (9) Monel 400. AC impedance data were gathered for each alloy at various immersion times in 3.55 percent NaCl-0.1N HCl. Polarization resistance values were obtained for the Nyguist plots at each immersion time using the EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT software package available with the 388 electrochemical impedance software. Hastelloy C-22 showed the highest overall values for polarization resistance while Monel 400 and Inconel 600 had the lowest overall values. There was good general correlation between the corrosion performance of the alloys at the beach corrosion testing site, and the expected rate of corrosion as predicted based on the polarization resistance values obtained. The data indicate that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy can be used to predict the corrosion performance of metal alloys.

  6. Material permeance measurement system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-05-08

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  7. Comparative study of two materials for dynamic hip screw during fall and gait loading: titanium alloy and stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Nooshin S; Blicblau, Aaron S; Singh, Manmohan

    2011-11-01

    Internal fixation with dynamic hip screw is a choice of treatment for hip fractures to stabilize a femoral fracture. Choosing the proper implant and its material has a great effect on the healing process and failure prevention. The purpose of this analysis was to assess biomechanical behavior of dynamic hip screw with two different materials implanted in the femur during fall and gait. A 3D finite element model of an intact femur and a 3D implant within the same femur were developed. A finite element analysis was carried out to establish the effect of load conditions and implant material properties on biomechanical behavior of the dynamic hip screw after internal fixation. Two load configurations are chosen: one simulating the stance phase of the normal gait cycle, and the other replicating a low-energy fall. The implanted femur was investigated with two different materials for the dynamic hip screw: stainless steel and titanium alloy. During stance, more stress is placed on the implanted femur compared with the intact femur. During a fall, the implanted femur is in a greater state of stress, which mostly occurs inside the dynamic hip screw. Titanium alloy decreases stress levels by an average of 40% compared with stainless steel. However, deformation is slightly reduced with a stainless steel dynamic hip screw during both load cases. After internal fixation, dynamic hip screw generates greater stresses within the implanted femur compared with the intact femur under the same loading conditions. A titanium alloy implant appears to undergo less stress from a low-energy fall compared with stainless steel and can be considered the preferred implant material. The critical parts of the dynamic hip screw are the forth distal screw and the plate.

  8. Investigation of wetting property between liquid lead lithium alloy and several structural materials for Chinese DEMO reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Wang, Weihua; Jiang, Haiyan; Zuo, Guizhong; Pan, Baoguo; Xu, Wei; Chu, Delin; Hu, Jiansheng; Qi, Junli

    2017-10-01

    The dual-cooled lead lithium (PbLi) blanket is considered as one of the main options for the Chinese demonstration reactor (DEMO). Liquid PbLi alloy is used as the breeder material and coolant. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, stainless steel and the silicon carbide ceramic matrix composite (SiCf) are selected as the substrate materials for different use. To investigate the wetting property and inter-facial interactions of PbLi/RAFM steel, PbLi/SS316L, PbLi/SiC and PbLi/SiCf couples, in this paper, the special vacuum experimental device is built, and the 'dispensed droplet' modification for the classic sessile droplet technique is made. Contact angles are measured between the liquid PbLi and the various candidate materials at blanket working temperature from 260 to 480 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the surface components of PbLi droplets and substrate materials, in order to study the element trans-port and corrosion mechanism. Results show that SiC composite (SiCf) and SiC ceramic show poor wetting properties with the liquid PbLi alloy. Surface roughness and testing temperature only provide tiny improvements on the wetting property below 480 °C. RAFM steel performs better wetting properties and corrosion residence when contacted with molten PbLi, while SS316L shows low corrosion residence above 420 °C for the decomposition of protective surface film mainly consisted of chromic sesquioxide. The results could provide meaningful compatibility database of liquid PbLi alloy and valuable reference in engineering design of candidate structural and functional materials for future fusion blanket.

  9. Corrosion Degradation of Coated Aluminum Alloy Systems through Galvanic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-19

    CLASSIFICATION ... steel  316  fasteners  when  coated  with  either  a  chromated  (chromate  conversion  coating,   chromate-­‐rich  primer...aluminum  alloy   substrates   and   stainless   steel   fasteners   in   the  presence  of  an   intentional

  10. Nanofluid based on self-nanoencapsulated metal/metal alloys phase change materials with tuneable crystallisation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Nuria; Gimeno-Furio, Alexandra; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Cabedo, Luis; Cordoncillo, Eloisa; Julia, J Enrique

    2017-12-14

    Nanofluids using nanoencapsulated Phase Change Materials (nePCM) allow increments in both the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the base fluid. Incremented heat capacity is produced by the melting enthalpy of the nanoparticles core. In this work two important advances in this nanofluid type are proposed and experimentally tested. It is firstly shown that metal and metal alloy nanoparticles can be used as self-encapsulated nePCM using the metal oxide layer that forms naturally in most commercial synthesis processes as encapsulation. In line with this, Sn/SnOx nanoparticles morphology, size and thermal properties were studied by testing the suitability and performance of encapsulation at high temperatures and thermal cycling using a commercial thermal oil (Therminol 66) as the base fluid. Secondly, a mechanism to control the supercooling effect of this nePCM type based on non-eutectic alloys was developed.

  11. Development of nuclear material accountancy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, Naonori; Kashima, Sadamitsu; Akiba, Mitsunori

    1992-01-01

    PNC is developing a wide area of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, much nuclear material with a various form exists at each facility in the Works, and the controls of the inventory changes and the physical inventories of nuclear material are important. Nuclear material accountancy is a basic measure in safeguards system based on Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In the light of such importance of material accountancy, the data base of nuclear material control and the material accountancy report system for all facilities has been developed by using the computer. By this system, accountancy report to STA is being presented certainly and timely. Property management and rapid corresponding to various inquiries can be carried out by the data base system which has free item searching procedure. (author)

  12. Materials Reliability Program Resistance to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloys 690, 52, and 152 in Pressurized Water Reactors (MRP-111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H. [Framatome ANP, Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Fyfitch, S. [Framatome ANP, Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Scott, P. [Framatome ANP, SAS, Paris (France); Foucault, M. [Framatome ANP, SAS, Le Creusot (France); Kilian, R. [Framatome ANP, GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Winters, M. [Framatome ANP, GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    Over the last thirty years, stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water (PWSCC) has been observed in numerous Alloy 600 component items and associated welds, sometimes after relatively long incubation times. Repairs and replacements have generally utilized wrought Alloy 690 material and its compatible weld metals (Alloy 152 and Alloy 52), which have been shown to be very highly resistant to PWSCC in laboratory experiments and have been free from cracking in operating reactors over periods already up to nearly 15 years. It is nevertheless prudent for the PWR industry to attempt to quantify the longevity of these materials with respect to aging degradation by corrosion in order to provide a sound technical basis for the development of future inspection requirements for repaired or replaced component items. This document first reviews numerous laboratory tests, conducted over the last two decades, that were performed with wrought Alloy 690 and Alloy 52 or Alloy 152 weld materials under various test conditions pertinent to corrosion resistance in PWR environments. The main focus of the present review is on PWSCC, but secondary-side conditions are also briefly considered.

  13. Materials Reliability Program Resistance to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloys 690, 52, and 152 in Pressurized Water Reactors (MRP-111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.; Fyfitch, S.; Scott, P.; Foucault, M.; Kilian, R.; Winters, M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water (PWSCC) has been observed in numerous Alloy 600 component items and associated welds, sometimes after relatively long incubation times. Repairs and replacements have generally utilized wrought Alloy 690 material and its compatible weld metals (Alloy 152 and Alloy 52), which have been shown to be very highly resistant to PWSCC in laboratory experiments and have been free from cracking in operating reactors over periods already up to nearly 15 years. It is nevertheless prudent for the PWR industry to attempt to quantify the longevity of these materials with respect to aging degradation by corrosion in order to provide a sound technical basis for the development of future inspection requirements for repaired or replaced component items. This document first reviews numerous laboratory tests, conducted over the last two decades, that were performed with wrought Alloy 690 and Alloy 52 or Alloy 152 weld materials under various test conditions pertinent to corrosion resistance in PWR environments. The main focus of the present review is on PWSCC, but secondary-side conditions are also briefly considered

  14. Shape memory alloy fixator system for suturing tissue in minimal access surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Frank, T G; Stockham, G; Cuschieri, A

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for suturing human tissue is described in which tissue closure is achieved by means of small fixators made from shape memory alloy. The aim of the development is to provide an alternative to thread suturing in minimal access surgery, which is quicker and requires less skill to achieve the required suturing quality. The design of the fixators is described in terms of the thermal shape recovery of shape memory alloy and a novel form of finite element analysis, which uses a nonlinear elastic element for the material property. Thermal analysis of the fixators and surrounding tissue is used to predict the temperature distribution during and after the application of electric current heating. This was checked in an in vitro experiment, which confirmed that deployment caused no detectable collateral damage to surrounding tissue. In vivo animal studies on the use of the shape memory alloy fixator for suturing tissue are ongoing to establish safety and healing effects.

  15. CMB-8 material balance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.; Canada, T.; Ensslin, N.; Atwell, T.; Baxman, H.; Cowder, L.; Speir, L.; Lyssel, T.V.; Sampson, T.

    1980-08-01

    We describe the automated nondestructive assay (NDA) system installed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Group CMB-8 uranium recovery facility. A random driver (RD) is used to measure the 235 U content of various solids while a uranium solution assay system (USAS) measures the 235 U or total uranium content of solutions over a concentration range of a few ppM to 400 g/l. Both instruments are interfaced to and controlled by a single minicomputer. The measurement principles, mechanical specifications, system software description, and operational instructions are described

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of a pseudoelastic shape memory alloy system - theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; A Savi, M.; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a helical spring made from a pseudoelastic shape memory alloy was embedded in a dynamic system also composed of a mass, a linear spring and an excitation system. The mechanical behaviour of shape memory alloys is highly complex, involving hysteresis, which leads to damping...... capabilities and varying stiffness. Besides, these properties depend on the temperature and pretension conditions. Because of these capabilities, shape memory alloys are interesting in relation to engineering design of dynamic systems. A theoretical model based on a modification of the 1D Brinson model...... was established. Basically, the hardening and the sub-loop behaviour were altered. The model parameters were extracted from force–displacement tests of the spring at different constant temperatures as well as from differential scanning calorimetry. Model predictions were compared with experimental results of free...

  17. Operational advanced materials control and accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanify, J.J.; Bearse, R.C.; Christensen, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    An accountancy system based on the Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System has been in operation at the Plutonium Processing Facility at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) since January 1978. This system, now designated the Plutonium Facility/Los Alamos Safeguards System (PF/LASS), has enhanced nuclear material accountability and process control at the LASL facility. The nondestructive assay instruments and the central computer system are operating accurately and reliably. As anticipated, several uses of the system have developed in addition to safeguards, notably scrap control and quality control. The successes of this experiment strongly suggest that implementation of DYMAC-based systems should be attempted at other facilities. 20 refs

  18. Analysis of Creep Crack Growth Behavior of Alloy 617 for Use in a VHTR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo-Gon; Kim, Min-Hwan; Park, Jae-Young; Ekaputra, I. M. W.; Kim, Seon-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Alloy 617 is a major candidate material for the IHX component. The design of the component, which will operate well into the creep range, will require a good understanding of creep crack growth deformation. Efforts are now being undertaken in the Gen-IV program to provide data needed for the design and licensing of the nuclear plants, and with this goal in mind, to meet the needs of the conceptual designers of the VHTR system, 'Gen-IV Materials Handbook' is being established through an international collaboration program of GIF (Gen-IV Forum) countries. To logically obtain the B and q values in the CCGR equation, three methods in terms of LSFM, MVM, and PDM were adopted. The PDM was most useful. Both the B and q coefficients followed a lognormal distribution. Using a lognormal distribution in the PDM, a number of random variables were generated by Monte Carlo Simulation, and the CCGR lines could be successfully predicted from the viewpoint of reliability

  19. Process Simulation Role in the Development of New Alloys Based on Integrated Computational Material Science and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Roy, Shibayan [ORNL; Shyam, Amit [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To accelerate the introduction of new materials and components, the development of metal casting processes requires the teaming between different disciplines, as multi-physical phenomena have to be considered simultaneously for the process design and optimization of mechanical properties. The required models for physical phenomena as well as their validation status for metal casting are reviewed. The data on materials properties, model validation, and relevant microstructure for materials properties are highlighted. One vehicle to accelerate the development of new materials is through combined experimental-computational efforts. Integrated computational/experimental practices are reviewed; strengths and weaknesses are identified with respect to metal casting processes. Specifically, the examples are given for the knowledge base established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and computer models for predicting casting defects and microstructure distribution in aluminum alloy components.

  20. Microstructures and electrochemical properties of Si-Ni-xTi alloys for anode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jong Jin; Kwon, Hye Jin; Ahn, Deuk Kyu; Chu, Yeon Yi; Cho, Jong Soo; Moon, Jeong Tak; Park, Won-Wook; Sohn, Keun Yong

    2013-05-01

    The phase change due to varying content of titanium in Si-Ni-xTi alloys and its effect on the electrochemical behavior has been investigated. Specimens were prepared by melt-spinning to reduce the microstructure scale. Results showed that silicon particles of 50-100 nm diameter and dendrites of somewhat larger scale were formed in the Si-Ni-Ti alloys ribbons. The microstructure of Si70Ni15Ti15 alloy ribbons was composed of silicon particles finely dispersed in Si7Ni4Ti4 phase. The cycle performance was improved by the formation of TiSi2 or NiSi2 phase at the presence of Si7Ni4Ti4 phase, either of which combined with Si7Ni4Ti4 phase effectively accommodated the volume change of silicon particles during cycling. The reduced scale of silicon particles contributed to the enhanced cycle efficiency as well.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of disordered materials from network glasses to phase-change memory alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Massobrio, Carlo; Bernasconi, Marco; Salmon, Philip S

    2015-01-01

    This book is a unique reference work in the area of atomic-scale simulation of glasses. For the first time, a highly selected panel of about 20 researchers provides, in a single book, their views, methodologies and applications on the use of molecular dynamics as a tool to describe glassy materials. The book covers a wide range of systems covering ""traditional"" network glasses, such as chalcogenides and oxides, as well as glasses for applications in the area of phase change materials. The novelty of this work is the interplay between molecular dynamics methods (both at the classical and firs

  2. Experimental determination of systems suitable for study as monotectic binary metallic alloy solidification models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Transparent binary metallic alloy solidification models are important in attempts to understand the processes causing liquid-liquid and solid-liquid phase transformations in metallic alloy systems. These models permit visual observation of the phase transformation and the processes proceding solidification. The number of these transparent monotectic binary models needs to be expanded to distinguish between the unique and general phenomena observed. The expansion of the number of accurately determined monotectic phase diagrams of model systems, and contribution to a data base for eventual use with UNIFAC group contribution methods is examined.

  3. Successes and failures of Ni-Cr-Mo family alloys in FGD systems of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    At first glance, operation of a typical limestone FGD system seems deceptively simple. However, the first generation scrubbers of the early to mid 70's proved to be a financial and operational disaster due to metals corroding in a rather short time period and non-metallic linings failing by blistering, debonding, cracking, flaking and peeling. Extensive research programs at various institutions and utilities to find better construction materials led to higher alloys up the ladder of the Ni-Cr-Mo family, other materials and new non-metallic coatings. This paper describes case histories showing both success and failures of the various alloys in the Ni-Cr-Mo family. This information will not only be useful to the various scrubber system suppliers and A/E's, but should be of value to utility corrosion/scrubber engineers and maintenance personnel who, on a day-to-day basis, are involved in keeping their systems functional in a cost-effective manner

  4. Corrosion behavior of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Down, M.G.; Matlock, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion program consisted of a multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the liquid lithium test resources and capabilities of several laboratories. Specific concerns associated with the overall objective of materials corrosion behavior were evaluated at each laboratory. Testing conditions included: approx. 3700 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230 0 C to 270 0 C and approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at an isothermal temperature of 270 0 C. Principal areas of investigation, to be discussed here briefly, included lithium corrosion effects on the following: (1) types 304 and 304L austenitic stainless steels, which are specified as reference materials for the FMIT lithium system; (2) type 304 stainless steel weldments (w/type 308 stainless steel filler) typical of specified tube and butt welds in the lithium system design; (3) titanium, zirconium and yttrium, which represent potential hot trap getter materials; (4) BNi4 braze alloy, used as a potential attachement method in the plug/seat fabrication of liquid lithium valves; and (5) type 321 stainless steel bellows, typical of bellows used in potential liquid lithium valve designs

  5. Corrosion behavior of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Down, M.G.; Matlock, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion program consisted of a multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the liquid lithium test resources and capabilities of several laboratories. Specific concerns associated with the overall objective of materials corrosion behavior were evaluated at each laboratory. Testing conditions included: approx. 3700 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/C to 270/sup 0/C and approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at an isothermal temperature of 270/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation, to be discussed here briefly, included lithium corrosion effects on the following: (1) types 304 and 304L austenitic stainless steels, which are specified as reference materials for the FMIT lithium system; (2) type 304 stainless steel weldments (w/type 308 stainless steel filler) typical of specified tube and butt welds in the lithium system design; (3) titanium, zirconium and yttrium, which represent potential hot trap getter materials; (4) BNi4 braze alloy, used as a potential attachement method in the plug/seat fabrication of liquid lithium valves; and (5) type 321 stainless steel bellows, typical of bellows used in potential liquid lithium valve designs.

  6. Smart materials activation analysis on example of nickel and titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek Bartosz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on research concerning activation time of elements made of Ni-Ti alloy (55/45% vol. The activation time is a period of time required for alloy to reach it’s austenitic transformation (Af temperature. For examined wire it reached values up to 60 °C. Heating of NiTi wire was conducted by retaining heat. In this paper the influence of wire length and electric current power on heating time is presented. This research allows to determine the correlation between the increase of temperature and time. For given electric current values. This data is useful for effective design of SMA actuators‥

  7. A survey on the effects of three surface treatment methods on bond strength between base-metal alloys and Ceromer material (Targis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokni. Sh.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Ceramics and resins belong to the earliest tooth restorative materials. Nowadays new generations of these materials have provided a revolution in cosmetic dentistry. Ceramic Optimized polymer (Ceromer is a newly made product that the bond between this material and base metal alloys, which are used widely today, is paid too much attention. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of targis (Ceromer to three types of base metal alloys through three different surface treatment methods. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, ninety plates of Rexillium III, Silver cast and super cast alloys (3050.4 were prepared and surface treated through three different methods (air oxidation, vaccum oxidation and sandblast. All samples were then veneered with 1.mm thickness of Targis. After thermocycling, three-point bending test was performed by universal testing machine (Instron to evaluate the amount of forces at crack or fracture times in Targis. The type of failure (cohesive or adhesive was also evaluated microscopically. Statistical analyses were made using 2-factor ANOVA and Duncan tests. Results: The type of surface treatment method caused a statistically significant difference in force rate required for crack and fracture in Targis. Sandblasting was found as the best method. The type of alloys, in all three methods, had a significant effect just on crack creation attributing the largest amount of force to Rexillium III. Adhesive type of failure occurred mostly in super-cast alloys through air-oxidation method, and cohesive type was more among silver cast alloys and sandblast method. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, bond strength between Ceromer materials and base metal alloys is significantly great and Rexillium III alloy associated with sandblast technique the best combination.

  8. Effect of substitutional element in the microstructure and hardness of Ti-Zr system alloys used as biomaterials; Efeito do elemento substitucional na microestrutura e dureza de ligas do sistema Ti-Zr para aplicacao como biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, D.R.N.; Vicente, F.B.; Grandini, C.R., E-mail: diegornc@fc.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Anelasticidade e Biomateriais

    2010-07-01

    New titanium alloys had been developed with the aim of obtaining materials with improved properties for application as biomaterial, and alloys of the Ti-Zr system are among those most promising. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of the zirconium concentration on microstructure and hardness of the Ti-5Zr, Ti-10Zr and Ti-15Zr alloys. After arc-melting melting, the samples were analyzed by chemical and gas composition, and characterized by density measurements, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction and hardness. The results showed a microstructure formed by alpha phase (hexagonal close-packed structure) and increased of hardness. (author)

  9. Investigation of as-cast alloys in the Pt-Al-Cr system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, R.; Cornish, L.A.; Witcomb, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Platinum-based alloys are being developed which have microstructures that are analogous to the γ/γ' microstructure of the nickel-based superalloys. These Pt-based alloys have the potential to be used for high-temperature applications. The ternary Pt-Al-Cr system was investigated as part of the continued development of a thermodynamic database for the Pt-Al-Cr-Ru system. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to obtain phase equilibria data. The alloys were studied in the as-cast condition. A solidification projection was constructed and a liquidus surface derived. It was concluded that all phase regions were identified correctly since the results were self-consistent. Three ternary phases and 21 ternary invariant reactions were identified.

  10. Shape memory alloy heat engines and energy harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alan L; Johnson, Nancy L; Keefe, Andrew C; Alexander, Paul W; Sarosi, Peter Maxwell; Herrera, Guillermo A; Yates, James Ryan

    2013-12-17

    A heat engine includes a first rotatable pulley and a second rotatable pulled spaced from the first rotatable pulley. A shape memory alloy (SMA) element is disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at an SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element includes first spring coil and a first fiber core within the first spring coil. A timing cable is disposed about disposed about respective portions of the pulleys at a timing pulley ratio, which is different than the SMA pulley ratio. The SMA element converts a thermal energy gradient between the hot region and the cold region into mechanical energy.

  11. Y-12 Integrated Materials Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alspaugh, D. H.; Hickerson, T. W.

    2002-01-01

    The Integrated Materials Management System, when fully implemented, will provide the Y-12 National Security Complex with advanced inventory information and analysis capabilities and enable effective assessment, forecasting and management of nuclear materials, critical non-nuclear materials, and certified supplies. These capabilities will facilitate future Y-12 stockpile management work, enhance interfaces to existing National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) corporate-level information systems, and enable interfaces to planned NNSA systems. In the current national nuclear defense environment where, for example, weapons testing is not permitted, material managers need better, faster, more complete information about material properties and characteristics. They now must manage non-special nuclear material at the same high-level they have managed SNM, and information capabilities about both must be improved. The full automation and integration of business activities related to nuclear and non-nuclear materials that will be put into effect by the Integrated Materials Management System (IMMS) will significantly improve and streamline the process of providing vital information to Y-12 and NNSA managers. This overview looks at the kinds of information improvements targeted by the IMMS project, related issues, the proposed information architecture, and the progress to date in implementing the system

  12. Local and systemic changes associated with long-term, percutaneous, static implantation with titanium alloys in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydman, Galit F.; Marini, Robert P.; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Biddle, Kathleen; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Lai, Barry; Bendapudi, Pavan K.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Fox, James G.

    2017-04-01

    Metal alloys are frequently used as implant materials in veterinary medicine. Recent studies suggest that many types of metal alloys may induce both local and systemic inflammatory responses. In this study, 37 rhesus macaques with long-term skull-anchored percutaneous titanium alloy implants (0-14 years duration) were evaluated for changes in their hematology, coagulation and serum chemistry profiles. Negative controls (n=28) did not have implants. All of the implanted animals were on IACUC-approved protocols and were not implanted for the purpose of this study. Animals with implants had significantly higher plasma D-dimer and lower antithrombin III concentrations compared with nonimplanted animals (p-values < 0.05). Additionally, animals with implants had significantly higher globulin, and lower albumin and calcium concentrations compared with nonimplanted animals (p-values < 0.05). Many of these changes were positively correlated with duration of implantation as well as the number of implants. Chronic bacterial infection was observed on the skin around many of the implant sites, and within deeper tissues. Representative histopathology around the implant site of two implanted animals revealed chronic suppurative to pyogranulomatous inflammation extending from the skin to the dura mater. X-ray fluorescence microscopy of tissue biopsies from the implant site of the same two animals revealed significant increases in free metal ions within the tissue, including titanium and iron. Free metal ions persisted in the tissues up to 6 months postexplant. These results suggest that long-term skull-anchored percutaneous titanium alloy implants results in localized inflammation, chronic infection, and leaching of metal ions into local tissues.

  13. On Using Materiality in Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    This research brief presents a discussion on the use of the concept of materiality and material knowing in information systems development (ISD). The discussion addresses some of the practical problems still plaguing ISD, augmenting existing ISD methodologies with contributions from systems theory...... and in particular the idea of inquiring systems. The discussion builds on different contemporary concepts that are rooted in the inquiring systems idea: the notion of stakeholders (designer, client, user and their interchanging roles), the notion boundary object and boundary spanners, and the notion of materiality...... as scaffold of knowledge. Through the example taken from a case study of a complex and innovative systems development we outline two design principles to be embedded in modular fashion in ISD processes: (1) whenever possible start ISD efforts by developing a graphical simulator of the material environment...

  14. Efficiency analysis system of material management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Śliwczyński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Significant scope of enterprise's efficiency management is improving of material management process both the strategic and operational level. The complexity of material flow processes can lead to a threat such as distraction and disintegration of analysis focusing on many different factors influenced on effective sourcing and procurement management, transport and warehousing processes, inventory management, working capital and cash flow management. Material and methods: The presented article focuses on multidimensional and multi-criteria analysis of material management efficiency that is considered as decision support system. Authors have presented results of the research regarding ineffective material management confirm insufficient analytical supporting in various decisions of procurement operations. Results and conclusions: Based on research results authors presented in the article model of efficiency analysis system of material management.

  15. MHSS: a material handling system simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomernacki, L.; Hollstien, R.B.

    1976-04-07

    A Material Handling System Simulator (MHSS) program is described that provides specialized functional blocks for modeling and simulation of nuclear material handling systems. Models of nuclear fuel fabrication plants may be built using functional blocks that simulate material receiving, storage, transport, inventory, processing, and shipping operations as well as the control and reporting tasks of operators or on-line computers. Blocks are also provided that allow the user to observe and gather statistical information on the dynamic behavior of simulated plants over single or replicated runs. Although it is currently being developed for the nuclear materials handling application, MHSS can be adapted to other industries in which material accountability is important. In this paper, emphasis is on the simulation methodology of the MHSS program with application to the nuclear material safeguards problem. (auth)

  16. MHSS: a material handling system simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomernacki, L.; Hollstien, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    A Material Handling System Simulator (MHSS) program is described that provides specialized functional blocks for modeling and simulation of nuclear material handling systems. Models of nuclear fuel fabrication plants may be built using functional blocks that simulate material receiving, storage, transport, inventory, processing, and shipping operations as well as the control and reporting tasks of operators or on-line computers. Blocks are also provided that allow the user to observe and gather statistical information on the dynamic behavior of simulated plants over single or replicated runs. Although it is currently being developed for the nuclear materials handling application, MHSS can be adapted to other industries in which material accountability is important. In this paper, emphasis is on the simulation methodology of the MHSS program with application to the nuclear material safeguards problem

  17. Rapid theory-guided prototyping of ductile Mg alloys: from binary to multi-component materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pei, Z.; Friák, Martin; Sandlöbes, S.; Nazarov, R.; Svendsen, B.; Raabe, D.; Neugebauer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2015), Art. n. 093009 ISSN 1367-2630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : magnesium * alloys * ductile * ternary * rare-earth * ab initio Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.570, year: 2015

  18. Tool material effect on the friction stir butt welding of AA2124-T4 Alloy Matrix MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Bozkurt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to study on the effect of material properties tool on friction stir butt welding of AA2124-T4 alloy matrix MMC. Uncoated tool, coated tool with a CrN, and coated tool with AlTiN were used to weld aluminum MMC plates. Macrostructure and microstructure observations, ultimate tensile strength, wear resistance, and chemical analysis were carried out to determine the appropriate tool for joining these composite plates. Results showed that the good welded joints could be obtained when a tool is coated with AlTiN.

  19. Effects of material and loading variables on fatigue life of carbon and low-alloy steels in LWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J.

    1995-03-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Section III of the Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. While effects of reactor coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the design curves, test data suggest that the Code fatigue curves may not always be adequate in coolant environments. This paper reports the results of recent fatigue tests that examine the effects of steel type, strain rate, dissolved oxygen level, strain range, loading waveform, and surface morphology on the fatigue life of A106-Gr B carbon steel and A533-Gr B low-alloy steel in water

  20. A new material model for 2D numerical simulation of serrated chip formation when machining titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    OpenAIRE

    CALAMAZ , Madalina; COUPARD , Dominique; GIROT , Franck

    2008-01-01

    International audience; A new material constitutive law is implemented in a 2D finite element model to analyse the chip formation and shear localisation when machining titanium alloys. The numerical simulations use a commercial finite element software (FORGE 2005) able to solve complex thermo-mechanical problems. One of the main machining characteristics of titanium alloys is to produce segmented chips for a wide range of cutting speeds and feeds. The present study assumes that the chip segme...

  1. Nuclear Materials Identification System Operational Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, L G

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the operation and setup of the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron source at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The components of the system are described with a description of the setup of the system along with an overview of the NMIS measurements for scanning, calibration, and confirmation of inventory items.

  2. The Teaching Materials System in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Atsumi

    An overview is given of the state of teaching materials and aids used in schools in Japan. In section I, an outline is presented of the Japanese system of providing teaching materials. Several laws and regulations regarding the provision and use of textbooks are described, including: (1) school education law; (2) law concerning the organization…

  3. In vitro and in vivo corrosion, cytocompatibility and mechanical properties of biodegradable Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys as implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Da-Tren; Hong, Daeho; Saha, Partha; Ferrero, Jordan; Lee, Boeun; Tan, Zongqing; Dong, Zhongyun; Kumta, Prashant N

    2013-11-01

    This study introduces a class of biodegradable Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys novel to biological applications and presents evaluations for orthopedic and craniofacial implant applications. Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys were processed using conventional melting and casting techniques. The effects of increasing Y content from 1 to 4 wt.% as well as the effects of T4 solution treatment were assessed. Basic material phase characterization was conducted using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Compressive and tensile tests allowed for the comparison of mechanical properties of the as-cast and T4-treated Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys to pure Mg and as-drawn AZ31. Potentiodynamic polarization tests and mass loss immersion tests were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the alloys. In vitro cytocompatibility tests on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells were also conducted. Finally, alloy pellets were implanted into murine subcutaneous tissue to observe in vivo corrosion as well as local host response through H&E staining. SEM/EDS analysis showed that secondary phase intermetallics rich in yttrium were observed along the grain boundaries, with the T4 solution treatment diffusing the secondary phases into the matrix while increasing the grain size. The alloys demonstrated marked improvement in mechanical properties over pure Mg. Increasing the Y content contributed to improved corrosion resistance, while solution-treated alloys resulted in lower strength and compressive strain compared to as-cast alloys. The Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys demonstrated excellent in vitro cytocompatibility and normal in vivo host response. The mechanical, corrosion and biological evaluations performed in this study demonstrated that Mg-Y-Ca-Zr alloys, especially with the 4 wt.% Y content, would perform well as orthopedic and craniofacial implant biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanical alloying in Fe2O3-MO (M: Zn, Ni, Cu, Mg) systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gerward, Leif; Mørup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical alloying processes in four Fe2O3MO (M: Zn, Ni, Cu, Mg) systems by high-energy ball milling from simple oxide powder mixtures in both open and closed tungsten carbide containers have been investigated by x-ray powder diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Mechanisms for the formation......-energy ball milling under the conditions used here. The dominant alloying mechanism depends on the interdiffusion at relatively low temperatures. The experimental results may also be explained by the crystal structures of the reactants and the ferrites....

  5. Lunar Materials Handling System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of lunar soil into and out of process equipment in support of in situ resource utilization...

  6. Structural materials for high-heat flux applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybin, V.V.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The structural materials for the ITER, (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) divertor must perform reliably under complex and diverse operating requirements. Only a limited number of materials offer a potential for meeting these requirements for the wide temperature range of interest. The candidate materials considered in the ITER design activity include copper, molybdenum, niobium alloys. Molybdenum alloys being considered include dilute alloys of the TZM type and the Mo-Re system. Niobium alloys under consideration include Nb-V-Zr and Nb-Zr systems. Copper alloys being considered include precipitation strengthened alloys of the Glidcop and MAGT type, alloys of Cu-Mo system and dispersion hardened bronzes. The projected operating conditions for the ITER divertor and the criteria for evaluating the candidate materials are reviewed. This paper summarizes the data base and presents recent experimental results on these candidate divertor structural alloys

  7. Structural and magnetic properties of FeCoC system obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincón Soler, A. I. [Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Fac. de Ciencias, Depto. de Física (Colombia); Rodríguez Jacobo, R. R., E-mail: rrrodriguez@uao.edu.co [Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, Fac. de Ciencias Básicas, Depto. de Física (Colombia); Medina Barreto, M. H.; Cruz-Muñoz, B. [Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Fac. de Ciencias, Depto. de Física (Colombia)

    2017-11-15

    Fe{sub 96−X}Co{sub X}C{sub 4} (x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 at. %) alloys were obtained by mechanical alloying of Fe, C and Co powders using high-energy milling. The structural and magnetic properties of the alloy system were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer Spectrometry at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed a BCC-FeCoC structure phase for all samples, as well as a lattice parameter that slightly decreases with Co content. The saturation magnetization and coercive field were analyzed as a function of Co content. The Mössbauer spectra were fitted with a hyperfine magnetic field distribution showing the ferromagnetic behavior and the disordered character of the samples. The mean hyperfine magnetic field remained nearly constant (358 T) with Co content.

  8. Structural and magnetic properties of FeCoC system obtained by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincón Soler, A. I.; Rodríguez Jacobo, R. R.; Medina Barreto, M. H.; Cruz-Muñoz, B.

    2017-01-01

    Fe 96−X Co X C 4 (x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 at. %) alloys were obtained by mechanical alloying of Fe, C and Co powders using high-energy milling. The structural and magnetic properties of the alloy system were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer Spectrometry at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed a BCC-FeCoC structure phase for all samples, as well as a lattice parameter that slightly decreases with Co content. The saturation magnetization and coercive field were analyzed as a function of Co content. The Mössbauer spectra were fitted with a hyperfine magnetic field distribution showing the ferromagnetic behavior and the disordered character of the samples. The mean hyperfine magnetic field remained nearly constant (358 T) with Co content.

  9. Enhancement and Commercialization of the Alloy Selection System for Elevated Temperatures - ASSET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy C. John

    2005-11-05

    A corrosion engineering information system was created to manage, correlate and predict corrosion of alloys and also to use thermochemical calculations to predict the occurrence of dominant corrosion mechanisms in hot gases found in many different chemical processes and other related industrial processes.

  10. Thermodynamic Database for Zirconium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerlerud Perez, Rosa

    2003-05-01

    For many decades zirconium alloys have been commonly used in the nuclear power industry as fuel cladding material. Besides their good corrosion resistance and acceptable mechanical properties the main reason of using these alloys is the low neutron absorption. Zirconium alloys are exposed to a very severe environment during the nuclear fission process and there is a demand for better design of this material. To meet this requirement a thermodynamic database is developed to support material designers. In this thesis some aspects about the development of a thermodynamic database for zirconium alloys are presented. A thermodynamic database represents an important facility in applying thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for a given material providing: 1) relevant information about the thermodynamic properties of the alloys e.g. enthalpies, activities, heat capacity, and 2) significant information for the manufacturing process e.g. heat treatment temperature. The basic information in the database is first the unary data, i.e. pure elements; those are taken from the compilation of the Scientific Group Thermodata Europe (SGTE) and then the binary and ternary systems. All phases present in those binary and ternary systems are described by means of the Gibbs energy dependence on composition and temperature. Many of those binary systems have been taken from published or unpublished works and others have been assessed in the present work. All the calculations have been made using Thermo C alc software and the representation of the Gibbs energy obtained by applying Calphad technique

  11. Performance analysis of nuclear materials accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Shipley, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques for analyzing the level of performance of nuclear materials accounting systems in terms of the four performance measures, total amount of loss, loss-detection time, loss-detection probability, and false-alarm probability, are presented. These techniques are especially useful for analyzing the expected performance of near-real-time (dynamic) accounting systems. A conservative estimate of system performance is provided by the CUSUM (cumulative summation of materials balances) test. Graphical displays, called performance surfaces, are developed as convenient tools for representing systems performance, and examples from a recent safeguards study of a nuclear fuels reprocessing plant are given. 6 refs

  12. Feasibility study of shape memory alloy ring spring systems for self-centring seismic resisting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Cheng; Yam, Michael C H; Zhang, Yanyang; Lam, Angus C C

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have recently emerged as promising material candidates for structural seismic resisting purposes. Most of the existing SMA-based strategies, however, are based on the wire or rod form of SMAs, where issues such as gripping complexity and fracture may exist. This paper presents a proof-of-concept study on an innovative type of SMA-based self-centring system, namely, a superelastic SMA ring spring system. The proposed system includes a series of inner high-strength steel (HSS) rings and outer superelastic SMA rings stacked in alternation with mating taper faces, where the resisting load is provided by the wedging action which tends to expand the outer rings and concurrently to squeeze the inner rings. The superelastic effect of the SMA offers energy dissipation and a driving force for recentring, and the frictional effect over the taper face further contributes to the overall resisting load and energy dissipation. The feasibility of the new system is carefully examined via numerical studies considering the parameters of ring thickness, taper angle, and coefficient of friction. The key hysteretic responses, including resisting load, stiffness, stress distributions, source of residual deformation, energy dissipation, and equivalent viscous damping, are discussed in detail. The behaviour of the SMA ring springs is also studied via analytical models, and the analytical predictions are found to agree well with the numerical results. Finally, two practical applications of the new system, namely self-centring HS-SMA ring spring connections, and self-centring SMA ring spring dampers, are discussed via comprehensive numerical studies. (paper)

  13. Integration of Shape Memory Alloys into Low-Damped Rotor-Bearing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren

    2015-01-01

    to use passive adaptive control through smart materials. Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are interesting candidates in that relation, because of their highly temperature sensitive stiffness and mechanical hysteresis, which can be used for damping purposes. The thesis focuses on three main aspects related...... properties. Different element geometries are investigated with focus on helical springs. Several spring models are presented, which use different levels of approximations to the mechanical stress state. The models are compared to experimental results covering different levels of temperature, deformation...

  14. Systems metabolic engineering for chemicals and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Kim, Tae Yong; Jang, Yu-Sin; Choi, Sol; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-08-01

    Metabolic engineering has contributed significantly to the enhanced production of various value-added and commodity chemicals and materials from renewable resources in the past two decades. Recently, metabolic engineering has been upgraded to the systems level (thus, systems metabolic engineering) by the integrated use of global technologies of systems biology, fine design capabilities of synthetic biology, and rational-random mutagenesis through evolutionary engineering. By systems metabolic engineering, production of natural and unnatural chemicals and materials can be better optimized in a multiplexed way on a genome scale, with reduced time and effort. Here, we review the recent trends in systems metabolic engineering for the production of chemicals and materials by presenting general strategies and showcasing representative examples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. beta Phase Growth and Precipitation in the 5xxx Series Aluminum Alloy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto D'Antuono, Daniel

    The 5xxx series aluminum alloys are commonly used for structural applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and weldability. This material system is a non-heat treatable aluminum and derives its strength from a super saturation of magnesium (3%>), and from cold rolling. While these materials have many admiral properties, they can undergo a process known as sensitization when exposed to elevated temperatures (50-280°C) for extended periods of time. During this process, magnesium segregates toward the grain boundaries and forms the secondary precipitate β phase (Al3Mg2). When exposed to harsh environments such as sea water, a galvanic couple is formed between the Al matrix and the β phase precipitates. The precipitates become anodic to the matrix and preferentially dissolve leaving gaps along the boundary network, ultimately leading to stress corrosion cracking. While this problem has been known to occur for some time now, questions relating to nucleation sites, misorientation dependence, effect of prior strain, and preferred temperature regimes remain unanswered. The work contained in this thesis attempted to better understand the kinetics, growth, and misorientation dependence, of β phase precipitation using in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments which allowed for direct visualization of the precipitation process. Orientation imaging using a Nanomegas/ASTAR system (OIM in TEM) coupled with the in situ experiments, along with elemental STEM EELs mapping were used to better understand the diffusion of Mg and found low angle boundaries as potential sites for nucleation. The resulting STEM EELs experiments also showed that Mg is much more stable at the grain boundaries than previously thought. Concurrent bulk ex-situ studies were used to compare various heat treatments, as well as to failed in service material showing that the low temperature treatments yield the metastable β’ phase more readily than the

  16. Hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking of high alloyed austenitic materials; Wasserstoffversproedung und wasserstoffinduzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion hochlegierter austenitischer Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mummert, K.; Uhlemann, M.; Engelmann, H.J. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The susceptiblity of high alloyed austenitic steels and nickel base alloys to hydrogen-induced cracking is particularly determined by 1. the distribution of hydrogen in the material, and 2. the microstructural deformation behaviour, which last process is determined by the effects of hydrogen with respect to the formation of dislocations and the stacking fault energy. The hydrogen has an influence on the process of slip localization in slip bands, which in turn affects the microstructural deformation behaviour. Slip localization increases with growing Ni contents of the alloys and clearly reduces the ductility of the Ni-base alloy. Although there is a local hydrogen source involved in stress corrosion cracking, emanating from the corrosion process at the cathode, crack growth is observed only in those cases when the hydrogen concentration in a small zone ahead of the crack tip reaches a critical value with respect to the stress conditions. Probability of onset of this process gets lower with growing Ni content of the alloy, due to increasing diffusion velocity of the hydrogen in the austenitic lattice. This is why particularly austenitic steels with low Ni contents are susceptible to transcrystalline stress corrosion cracking. In this case, the microstructural deformation process at the crack tip is also influenced by analogous processes, as could be observed in hydrogen-loaded specimens. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Empfindlichkeit von hochlegierten austentischen Staehlen und Nickelbasislegierungen gegen wasserstoffinduziertes Risswachstum wird im wesentlichen bestimmt durch 1. die Verteilung von Wasserstoff im Werkstoff und 2. das mikrostrukturelle Verformungsverhalten. Das mikrostrukturelle Deformationsverhalten ist wiederum durch den Einfluss von Wasserstoff auf die Versetzungsbildung und die Stapelfehlerenergie charakterisiert. Das mikrostrukturelle Verformungsverhalten wird durch wasserstoffbeeinflusste Gleitlokalisierung in Gleitbaendern bestimmt. Diese nimmt mit

  17. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  18. Surveillance systems for nuclear materials in storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron Hawkins; Tom Williams; Lee ReFalo; Rod Martin

    1999-01-01

    The goal for the use of surveillance systems is the real time event detection and subsequent anomaly identification and investigation. The objective to be addressed by surveillance system include: timely and localized detection of changes in the status of nuclear materials (NM) whether from normal operations, unauthorized and unplanned incidents, or diversion of materials, or providing assurance that no changes have occurred; verifying that operations involving special NM were conducted in accordance with established procedures and assuring the quality of NM accounting and control data. There two general approaches to establishing a monitoring and surveillance system. In one case, containment of the materials is based on boundary and pathway control. The other approach is material and container oriented [ru

  19. Structural materials for innovative nuclear systems (SMINS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Structural materials research is a field of growing relevance in the nuclear sector, especially for the different innovative reactor systems being developed within the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), for critical and subcritical transmutation systems, and of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) the Workshop on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems (SMINS) was organised in collaboration with the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in Germany. The objectives of the workshop were to exchange information on structural materials research issues and to discuss ongoing programmes, both experimental and in the field of advanced modelling. These proceedings include the papers and the poster session materials presented at the workshop, representing the international state of the art in this domain. (author)

  20. Design of lead-free candidate alloys for high-temperature soldering based on the Au–Sn system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hald, John

    2010-01-01

    of the Au–Sn binary system were explored in this work. Furthermore, the effects of thermal aging on the microstructure and microhardness of these promising Au–Sn based ternary alloys were investigated. For this purpose, the candidate alloys were aged at a lower temperature, 150°C for up to 1week...

  1. Aluminum-Scandium Alloys: Material Characterization, Friction Stir Welding, and Compatibility With Hydrogen Peroxide (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Proj. No. 04-14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Chen, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum describes the development of several high-strength aluminum (Al) alloys that are compatible with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) propellant for NASA Hypersonic-X (Hyper-X) vehicles fuel tanks and structures. The yield strengths for some of these Al-magnesium-based alloys are more than 3 times stronger than the conventional 5254-H112 Al alloy, while maintaining excellent H2O2 compatibility similar to class 1 5254 alloy. The alloy development strategy is to add scandium, zirconium, and other transitional metals with unique electrochemical properties, which will not act as catalysts, to decompose the highly concentrated 90 percent H2O2. Test coupons are machined from sheet metals for H2O2 long-term exposure testing and mechanical properties testing. In addition, the ability to weld the new alloys using friction stir welding has also been explored. The new high-strength alloys could represent an enabling material technology for Hyper-X vehicles, where flight weight reduction is a critical requirement.

  2. Development of fabrication technology for low activation vanadium alloys as fusion blanket structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, T.; Muroga, T.; Fukumoto, K.; Watanabe, H.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Chen, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    High purity vanadium alloy products, such as plates, wires and tubes, were fabricated from reference high-purity V-4Cr-4Ti ingots designated as NIFS-HEAT, by using technologies applicable to industrial scale fabrication. Impurity behavior during breakdown, and its effect on mechanical properties were investigated. It was revealed that mechanical properties of the products were significantly improved by the control of Ti-C, N, O precipitation induced during the processes. (author)

  3. Cluster-based bulk metallic glass formation in Fe-Si-B-Nb alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, C L; Wang, Q; Li, F W; Li, Y H; Wang, Y M; Dong, C [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, W; Inoue, A, E-mail: dong@dlut.edu.c [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass formations have been explored in Fe-B-Si-Nb alloy system using the so-called atomic cluster line approach in combination with minor alloying guideline. The atomic cluster line refers to a straight line linking binary cluster to the third element in a ternary system. The basic ternary compositions in Fe-B-Si system are determined by the inetersection points of two cluster lines, namely Fe-B cluster to Si and Fe-Si cluster to B, and then further alloyed with 3-5 at. % Nb for enhancing glass forming abilities. BMG rods with a diameter of 3 mm are formed under the case of minor Nb alloying the basic intersecting compositions of Fe{sub 8}B{sub 3}-Si with Fe{sub 12}Si-B and Fe{sub 8}B{sub 2}-Si with Fe{sub 9}Si-B. The BMGs also exhibit high Vickers hardness (H{sub v}) of 1130-1164 and high Young's modulous (E) of 170-180 GPa

  4. Basic research for alloy design of Nb-base alloys as ultra high temperature structural materials; Chokoon kozoyo niobuki gokin no gokin sekkei no tame no kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, E. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Iron, Steel and Other Metals

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an influence of additional elements on the high temperature deformation behavior of Nb-base solid solution alloys. Highly concentrated solid solution single crystals of Nb-Ta and Nb-Mo alloys were prepared. Compression test and strain rate sudden change test were conducted in the vacuum at temperatures ranging from 77 to 1773 K, to determine the strain rate sensitivity index. Yield stress of the Nb-Ta alloy was similar to that of Nb alloy at temperatures over 0.3{times}T{sub M}, where T{sub M} is fusing point of Nb. While, the yield stress increased with increasing the impurity oxygen concentration at temperatures below 0.3{times}T{sub M}. The yield stress became much higher than that of Nb alloy. The strain rate sensitivity index showed positive values in the whole temperature range. On the other hand, the yield stress of Nb-Mo alloy was higher than that of Nb alloy in the whole temperature range, and increased with increasing the Mo concentration. The strain rate sensitivity index showed negative values at the temperature range from 0.3{times}T{sub M} to 0.4{times}T{sub M}. It was found that serration occurred often for Nb-40Mo alloys. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Wear properties of hybrid ABO+BN+CNT/Al-Sn alloy matrix composites for engine bearing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Dae Hyun; Shin, Sunmi; Park, Jin Young; Park, Ik Min

    2018-01-01

    Engine bearing materials need improved wear resistance to withstand high speeds and heavy loads. To meet the requirements of bearing materials, a new metal matrix composite (MMC) was designed. Here, the hybrid aluminum borate whisker (Al18B4O33, ABO) + hexagonal boron nitride (BN) + carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/Al-5Sn alloy MMCs were fabricated by squeeze infiltration. The wear properties of the hybrid MMCs were evaluated using a ball-on-disk tester. The effect of hybridization of ABO, BN, and CNTs on the wear properties of the Al-Sn MMCs was investigated. The microstructure of the hybrid MMCs showed a uniform distribution of the reinforcements. The wear resistance of the Al-5Sn alloy improved with the addition of ABO. The wear properties of the ABO+BN/ Al-Sn and ABO+CNT/Al-Sn MMCs were considerably enhanced compared to those of the ABO reinforced Al-Sn MMC because of the lubricating characteristic of BN and CNTs, and the CNTs were more effective than BN. The friction coefficient and wear rate of 20ABO+5BN+5CNT/Al-Sn MMC decreased by 1/4 and 1/20, respectively, compared to that of the ABO/Al-Sn MMC.

  6. Active Vibration Reduction of Titanium Alloy Fan Blades (FAN1) Using Piezoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin; Kauffman, Jeffrey; Duffy, Kirsten; Provenza, Andrew; Morrison, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing smart adaptive structures to improve fan blade damping at resonances using piezoelectric (PE) transducers. In this paper, a digital resonant control technique emulating passive shunt circuits is used to demonstrate vibration reduction of FAN1 Ti real fan blade at the several target modes. Single-mode control and multi-mode control using one piezoelectric material are demonstrated. Also a conceptual study of how to implement this digital control system into the rotating fan blade is discussed.

  7. A method for estimation of fatigue properties from hardness of materials through construction of expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Woo Soo; Song, Ji Ho

    2001-01-01

    An expert system for estimation of fatigue properties from simple tensile data of material is developed, considering nearly all important estimation methods proposed so far, i.e., 7 estimation methods. The expert system is developed to utilize for the case of only hardness data available. The knowledge base is constructed with production rules and frames using an expert system shell, UNIK. Forward chaining is employed as a reasoning method. The expert system has three functions including the function to update the knowledge base. The performance of the expert system is tested using the 54 ε-N curves consisting of 381 ε-N data points obtained for 22 materials. It is found that the expert system developed has excellent performance especially for steel materials, and reasonably good for aluminum alloys

  8. Magnesium alloy and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials - Experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, D.; Sanchez-Canet, J.; Muzeau, B.; Monguillon, C.; Stefan, L.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium alloys (Mg-0.8%Zr and Mg-1.2%Mn) and graphite from spent nuclear fuel, that have been used in the former French gas cooled reactors, have been stored together in AREVA La Hague plant. The recovery and packaging of these wastes is currently studied and several solutions are under consideration. One of the developed solutions would be to mix these wastes in a grout composed of industrially available cement, e.g. OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement), OPC blended with blast furnace slag or aluminous cement. Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 , Brucite) resulting in a slow process of corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics of magnesium alloys. This is especially true when magnesium alloys are conditioned together with graphite wastes. Indeed, galvanic coupling phenomena may increase early age corrosion of the mixed waste, as magnesium and graphite will be found in electrical contact in the same electrolyte. Many types of common cements have been tested. All of them have shown strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together into such cement pastes. Corrosion patterns, observed and analyzed by SEM/EDS, at the metal-binder interfaces, reveal important corrosion products layers as well as bubbles and cracks in the binder. Attempts to reduce corrosion by lowering water to cement ratio have been performed. W/C ratios as low as 0.2 have been tested but galvanic corrosion is not significantly reduced at early age when compared to a common ratio of 0.4. Best results were obtained by the use of laboratory synthesized tricalcium silicate (C 3 S) with an ordinary W/C ratio of 0.4 and also with white Portland clinker ground without additives such as gypsum and grinding agent. (authors)

  9. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with

  10. Generic control of material handling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Material handling systems (MHSs) are in general complex installations that raise challenging design and control problems. In the literature, design and control problems have received a lot of attention within distinct business sectors or systems, but primarily from a system’s user perspective. Much

  11. Materials Technology Support for Radioisotope Power Systems Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Barklay, Chadwick D.

    2008-01-01

    Over the period of this sponsored research, UDRI performed a number of materials related tasks that helped to facilitate increased understanding of the properties and applications of a number of candidate program related materials including; effects of neutron irradiation on tantalum alloys using a 500kW reactor, thermodynamic based modeling of the chemical species in weld pools, and the application of candidate coatings for increased oxidation resistance of FWPF (Fine Weave Pierced Fabric) modules

  12. Climate control systems using pozzolan materials

    KAUST Repository

    Almadhoun, Mahmoud Nassar Mahmoud

    2016-02-18

    A system and method for conditioning air is provided that optimizes the use of sustainable and locally sourced materials with agrarian, residential, and industrial applications. The system can be formed with a porous siliceous, or siliceous and aluminous material that is sufficiently porous, to allow conditioning fluid to flow there through. The material can also be formed into a structure that includes one or more passageways configured to allow air to be conditioned to also pass there through. The structure can be configured to cause the conditioning fluid passing through the porous portions of the structure to intersect and mix with air passing there through. The structure may include a plurality of passageways and intersections and may include a plurality of air inlets and outlets for air passage. The system may additionally include a means for storing, collecting, and driving conditioning fluid through the system and a means for collecting solar radiation to drive airflow and regenerate conditioning fluid.

  13. Rapid Prototyping for In Vitro Knee Rig Investigations of Prosthetized Knee Biomechanics: Comparison with Cobalt-Chromium Alloy Implant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schröder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retropatellar complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA such as anterior knee pain and subluxations might be related to altered patellofemoral biomechanics, in particular to trochlear design and femorotibial joint positioning. A method was developed to test femorotibial and patellofemoral joint modifications separately with 3D-rapid prototyped components for in vitro tests, but material differences may further influence results. This pilot study aims at validating the use of prostheses made of photopolymerized rapid prototype material (RPM by measuring the sliding friction with a ring-on-disc setup as well as knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure on a knee rig. Cobalt-chromium alloy (standard prosthesis material, SPM prostheses served as validation standard. Friction coefficients between these materials and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE were additionally tested as this latter material is commonly used to protect pressure sensors in experiments. No statistical differences were found between friction coefficients of both materials to PTFE. UHMWPE shows higher friction coefficient at low axial loads for RPM, a difference that disappears at higher load. No measurable statistical differences were found in knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure distribution. This suggests that using polymer prototypes may be a valid alternative to original components for in vitro TKA studies and future investigations on knee biomechanics.

  14. Rapid Prototyping for In Vitro Knee Rig Investigations of Prosthetized Knee Biomechanics: Comparison with Cobalt-Chromium Alloy Implant Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christian; Steinbrück, Arnd; Müller, Tatjana; Woiczinski, Matthias; Chevalier, Yan; Müller, Peter E.; Jansson, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Retropatellar complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) such as anterior knee pain and subluxations might be related to altered patellofemoral biomechanics, in particular to trochlear design and femorotibial joint positioning. A method was developed to test femorotibial and patellofemoral joint modifications separately with 3D-rapid prototyped components for in vitro tests, but material differences may further influence results. This pilot study aims at validating the use of prostheses made of photopolymerized rapid prototype material (RPM) by measuring the sliding friction with a ring-on-disc setup as well as knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure on a knee rig. Cobalt-chromium alloy (standard prosthesis material, SPM) prostheses served as validation standard. Friction coefficients between these materials and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were additionally tested as this latter material is commonly used to protect pressure sensors in experiments. No statistical differences were found between friction coefficients of both materials to PTFE. UHMWPE shows higher friction coefficient at low axial loads for RPM, a difference that disappears at higher load. No measurable statistical differences were found in knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure distribution. This suggests that using polymer prototypes may be a valid alternative to original components for in vitro TKA studies and future investigations on knee biomechanics. PMID:25879019

  15. Laser surface alloying on aluminum and its alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yiming; Gu, Guochao; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys have been widely used in aerospace, automotive and transportation industries owing to their excellent properties such as high specific strength, good ductility and light weight. Surface modification is of crucial importance to the surface properties of aluminum and its alloys since high coefficient of friction, wear characteristics and low hardness have limited their long term performance. Laser surface alloying is one of the most effective methods of producing proper microstructure by means of non-equilibrium solidification which results from rapid heating and cooling. In this paper, the influence of different processing parameters, such as laser power and scanning velocity is discussed. The developments of various material systems including ceramics, metals or alloys, and metal matrix composites (MMCs) are reviewed. The microstructure, hardness, wear properties and other behaviors of laser treated layer are analyzed. Besides, the existing problems during laser surface treatment and the corresponding solutions are elucidated and the future developments are predicted.

  16. Development of radioactive materials inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lu; Wang Guobao; Chen Yuhua; Li Latu; Zhang Sujing

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive materials inspection system which is applied to inspect the horror activities of radioactive materials and its illegal transfer. The detector sections are made of highly stable and credible material. It has high sensitivity to radioactive materials. The inspect lowest limit of inspection is the 2-3 times to the background, the energy range is 30 keV-2.5 MeV and the response time is 0.5 s. Inspection message can be transmitted through wired or wireless web to implement remote control. The structure of the system is small, light and convenient. It is ideal for protecting society and public from the harm of the radiation. (authors)

  17. Magnesium-titanium alloys for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Ilona

    Magnesium has been identified as a promising biodegradable implant material because it does not cause systemic toxicity and can reduce stress shielding. However, it corrodes too quickly in the body. Titanium, which is already used ubiquitously for implants, was chosen as the alloying element because of its proven biocompatibility and corrosion resistance in physiological environments. Thus, alloying magnesium with titanium is expected to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium. Mg-Ti alloys with a titanium content ranging from 5 to 35 at.-% were successfully synthesized by mechanical alloying. Spark plasma sintering was identified as a processing route to consolidate the alloy powders made by ball-milling into bulk material without destroying the alloy structure. This is an important finding as this metastable Mg-Ti alloy can only be heated up to max. 200C° for a limited time without reaching the stable state of separated magnesium and titanium. The superior corrosion behavior of Mg 80-Ti20 alloy in a simulated physiological environment was shown through hydrogen evolution tests, where the corrosion rate was drastically reduced compared to pure magnesium and electrochemical measurements revealed an increased potential and resistance compared to pure magnesium. Cytotoxicity tests on murine pre-osteoblastic cells in vitro confirmed that supernatants made from Mg-Ti alloy were no more cytotoxic than supernatants prepared with pure magnesium. Mg and Mg-Ti alloys can also be used to make novel polymer-metal composites, e.g., with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to avoid the polymer's detrimental pH drop during degradation and alter its degradation pattern. Thus, Mg-Ti alloys can be fabricated and consolidated while achieving improved corrosion resistance and maintaining cytocompatibility. This work opens up the possibility of using Mg-Ti alloys for fracture fixation implants and other biomedical applications. KEYWORDS: Magnesium, titanium, corrosion

  18. US national material control and accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.N.

    1984-01-01

    The State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) for fuel cycle facilities in the licensed, commercial sector of the US nuclear community, and details of the material control and accounting measures dealing with the national safeguards program are discussed. The concept and role of the Fundamental Nuclear Material Control (FNMC) Plan is discussed. Also, the relationship between the national safeguards program and the international safeguards program of the US SSAC are described

  19. Bioinspired Soft Actuation System Using Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Cianchetti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Soft robotics requires technologies that are capable of generating forces even though the bodies are composed of very light, flexible and soft elements. A soft actuation mechanism was developed in this work, taking inspiration from the arm of the Octopus vulgaris, specifically from the muscular hydrostat which represents its constitutive muscular structure. On the basis of the authors’ previous works on shape memory alloy (SMA springs used as soft actuators, a specific arrangement of such SMA springs is presented, which is combined with a flexible braided sleeve featuring a conical shape and a motor-driven cable. This robot arm is able to perform tasks in water such as grasping, multi-bending gestures, shortening and elongation along its longitudinal axis. The whole structure of the arm is described in detail and experimental results on workspace, bending and grasping capabilities and generated forces are presented. Moreover, this paper demonstrates that it is possible to realize a self-contained octopus-like robotic arm with no rigid parts, highly adaptable and suitable to be mounted on underwater vehicles. Its softness allows interaction with all types of objects with very low risks of damage and limited safety issues, while at the same time producing relatively high forces when necessary.

  20. High temperature oxidation of copper and copper aluminium alloys: Impact on furnace side wall cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia Barrera, Gabriel

    The high temperature oxidation behaviours of copper and dilute Cu-Al alloys were investigated. Experiments were carried out by: (i) Oxidizing under various oxygen potentials at different temperatures using a combined TG-DTA apparatus. (ii) Oxidizing in a muffle furnace (in air) at different temperatures for extended periods of time. The oxidation mechanisms were evaluated based upon the kinetic data obtained as well as by X-ray diffraction and microscopical (SEM and optical) analyses. It was found that oxidation of copper strongly depends on the temperature. Two distinct mechanisms were encountered. Between 300 and 500°C, the oxidation rate is controlled by lateral growth of the oxide on the metal surface, whereas between 600 and 1000°C oxidation is controlled by lattice diffusion of copper ions through the oxide scale. On the other hand, the partial pressure of oxygen only has a small effect on the oxidation of copper. Alloy oxidation is also dependent on the temperature. As temperature increases, more aluminium is required to protect copper from being oxidized. It was shown that if the amount of oxygen that dissolves in the alloy exceeds the solubility limit of oxygen in copper, an internal oxidation layer will develop, leading to the formation of a tarnishing scale. On the other hand if the oxygen content in the alloy lies below the solubility limit of oxygen in copper, no oxidation products will form since a tight protective alumina layer will form on the alloy surface. Surface phenomena may affect the oxidation behaviour of dilute Cu-Al alloys. Immersion tests in molten copper matte and copper converting slag, using laboratory scale cooling elements with various copper based materials, were conducted. Results from these tests showed that alloying copper with 3 to 4 wt% Al decreases the oxidation rate of pure copper by 4 orders of magnitude; however due to a significant drop in thermal conductivity, the ability to extract heat is compromised, leading to

  1. Sensor-based material tagging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercellotti, L.C.; Cox, R.W.; Ravas, R.J.; Schlotterer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic identification tags are being developed for tracking material and personnel. In applying electronic identification tags to radioactive materials safeguards, it is important to measure attributes of the material to ensure that the tag remains with the material. The addition of a microcontroller with an on-board analog-to-digital converter to an electronic identification tag application-specific integrated-circuit has been demonstrated as means to provide the tag with sensor data. Each tag is assembled into a housing, which serves as a scale for measuring the weight of a paint-can-sized container and its contents. Temperature rise of the can above ambient is also measured, and a piezoelectric detector detects disturbances and immediately puts the tag into its alarm and beacon mode. Radiation measurement was also considered, but the background from nearby containers was found to be excessive. The sensor-based tagging system allows tracking of the material in cans as it is stored in vaults or is moved through the manufacturing process. The paper presents details of the sensor-based material tagging system and describes a demonstration system

  2. Investigation of strain heterogeneities by laser scanning extensometry in strain ageing materials: application to zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, S.; Forest, S.; Strudel, J.L. [Centre des Materiaux / UMR 7633, Ecole des Mines de Paris / CNRS, BP 87, 91003 Evry (France); Dierke, H.; Neuhauser, H. [Institut fur Physik der Kondensierten Materie, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prioul, C. [MSSMAT, Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Bechade, J.L. [SRMA, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    Laser scanning extensometry was used to detect and characterize propagating plastic instabilities such as the Luders bands at the millimeter scale. Spatio-temporal plastic heterogeneities are due to either static or dynamic strain ageing (SSA and DSA) phenomena. Regarding zirconium alloys, different type of heterogeneities were observed: their features strongly depended on mechanical test conditions. In one case, they appeared to be non propagating but preserved along the stress-strain curve and were associated with SSA effects such as stress peaks after relaxation periods or after unloading steps with waiting times. In other case, they appeared as non propagating but were not associated with SSA effects. (authors)

  3. Interaction of InGa liquid alloy coolant with gold coated optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    A significant reaction is reported between gold surfaces and an indium-gallium eutectic liquid alloy often used to transfer heat away from optical elements in high power synchrotron radiation beamlines. This reaction proceeds at the slightly elevated temperatures (70 degrees C) typical of conservative bakeouts used to achieve ultrahigh vacuum in the chambers which house these optical elements (mirrors, gratings, and crystals) without damaging their highly precise figure and finish. The nature and extent of this reaction is discussed, based mostly on the experience gained recently during the vacuum commissioning of two mirror chambers for a VUV wiggler-based synchrotron radiation beamline. 2 refs., 5 figs

  4. Induction skull melting facility: an advanced system for electromagnetic processing of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugilal, G.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Induction Skull Melting (ISM) is an advanced technology for processing highly refractory and extremely reactive metals and their alloys to produce ultra-high purity products. In ISM, the metallic charge is melted in a water-cooled, copper crucible. The crucible is segmented so that the magnetic field can penetrate into the metallic charge to be melted. By virtue of the strong electromagnetic stirring, the ISM technology can also be used to homogenize alloys of metals, which are difficult to be combined uniformly in composition due to large difference in specific gravity. In view of various important applications in frontier areas of material research, development and production, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre developed the ISM technology indigenously

  5. Materials handbook for fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Materials Handbook for Fusion Energy Systems (MHFES) is to provide a readily available source of data to those involved in the design and analysis of fusion reactors or their components. Initially the focus of this Handbook will be on materials properties necessary for the design and analysis of the first wall and blanket structure of both near and long term fusion reactor concepts. However, as more data become available, this effort will be expanded to other aspects of fusion energy systems such as magnets and plasma heaters

  6. [A medical consumable material management information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guoping; Hu, Liang

    2014-05-01

    Medical consumables material is essential supplies to carry out medical work, which has a wide range of varieties and a large amount of usage. How to manage it feasibly and efficiently that has been a topic of concern to everyone. This article discussed about how to design a medical consumable material management information system that has a set of standardized processes, bring together medical supplies administrator, suppliers and clinical departments. Advanced management mode, enterprise resource planning (ERP) applied to the whole system design process.

  7. Production of titanium alloys for advanced aerospace systems by powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius André Rodrigues Henriques

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys parts are ideally suited for advanced aerospace systems because of their unique combination of high specific strength at both room temperature and moderately elevated temperature, in addition to excellent corrosion resistance. Despite these features, use of titanium alloys in engines and airframes is limited by cost. The alloys processing by powder metallurgy eases the obtainment of parts with complex geometry. In this work, results of the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys production are presented. Samples were produced by mixing of initial metallic powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by sintering between 900 up to 1500 °C, in vacuum. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. It was shown that the samples were sintered to high densities and presented homogeneous microstructure from the elements dissolution with low interstitial pick-up.

  8. Preliminary design of fusion reactor fuel cleanup system by palladium alloy membrane method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-10-01

    A design of palladium diffuser and Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) for D-T fusion reactor is proposed. Feasibility of palladium alloy membrane method is discussed based on the early studies by the authors. Operating conditions of the palladium diffuser are determined experimentally. Dimensions of the diffuser are estimated from computer simulation. FCU system is designed under the feed conditions of Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The system is composed of Pd-diffusers, catalytic oxidizer, freezer and zink beds, and has some advantages in system layout and operation. This design can readily be extended to other conditions of plasma exhaust gases. (author)

  9. Resin Bonding to Type IV Gold Alloy Conditioned with a Novel Mercapto Silane System: Effect of Incorporation of a Phosphate Monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sung-Min; Min, Bong Ki; Son, Jun Sik; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2018-02-01

    Self-assembled monolayers of thiols have been used to link a range of materials to planar gold surfaces or gold nanoparticles in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Novel mercapto silane systems are a promising alternative to dental noble metal alloys for enhanced resin bonding durability Goldbased alloys for full-cast restorations contain various base metal elements, which may bond to acidic functional monomers chemically, in addition to noble metal elements. This study examined how the additional incorporation of a phosphate monomer (di-2-hydroxyethyl methacryl hydrogenphosphate, DHP) into novel mercapto silane primer systems affected the resin bond strength to a type IV gold alloy pretreated with the primers. One of three commercial primers (Alloy Primer and M. L. Primer) and three experimental primer systems ((1) blend of γ-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (SPS) and γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) (both 1.0 wt%), (2) 1.0 wt% DHP-containing primer, and (3) blend of SPS, MPS, and DHP (each 1.0 wt%)) was applied to the alloy surfaces after sandblasting. Resin cylinders (diameter: 2.38 mm) were bonded to the surfaces and light-cured. All bonded specimens were stored in water at 37 °C for 24 h and then half of them additionally water immersed for 7 days (37 °C) and thermocycled 10,000 times before the shear bond strength test (n = 10). The mercapto silane systems (SPS + MPS) were found to show superior resin bonding durability to the commercial primers and the only DHP-containing primer, regardless of additional incorporation of the phosphate monomer.

  10. Alloy by design : A materials genome approach to advanced high strength stainless steels for low and high temperature applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Q.; Xu, W.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report a computational 'alloy by design' approach which can significantly accelerate the design process and substantially reduce the development costs. This approach allows simultaneously optimization of alloy composition and heat treatment parameters based on the integration of thermodynamic,

  11. HIGH TEMPERATURE BRAZING ALLOY FOR JOINT Fe-Cr-Al MATERIALS AND AUSTENITIC AND FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost, R.C.

    1958-07-15

    A new high temperature brazing alloy is described that is particularly suitable for brazing iron-chromiumaluminum alloys. It consists of approximately 20% Cr, 6% Al, 10% Si, and from 1.5 to 5% phosphorus, the balance being iron.

  12. Corrosion kinetics of alloy Ni-22Cr-13Mo-3W as structural material in high level nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Martin A.

    2004-01-01

    Alloy Ni-22Cr-13Mo-3W (also known as C-22) is one of the candidates to fabricate high level nuclear waste containers. These containers are designed to maintain isolation of the waste for a minimum of 10,000 years. In this period, the material must be resistant to corrosion. If the containers were in contact with water, it is assumed that alloy C-22 may undergo three different corrosion mechanisms: general corrosion, localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. This thesis discusses only the first two types of degradation. Electrochemical techniques such as amperometry, potentiometry, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and non-electrochemical techniques such as microscopic observation, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied to study the corrosion behavior of alloy C-22 in 1 M NaCl, 25 C degrees saturated NaF (approximately 1 M) and 0,5 M NaCl + 0,5 M NaF solutions. Effects of temperature, pH and alloy thermal aging were analyzed. The corrosion rates obtained at 90 C degrees were low ranging from 0.04 μm/year to 0.48 μm /year. They increased with temperature and decreased with solution pH. Most of the impedance measurements showed a simply capacitive behavior. A second high-frequency time constant was detected in some cases. It was attributed to the formation of a nickel oxide and/or hydroxide at potentials near the reversible potential for this reaction. The active/passive transition detected in some potentiodynamic polarization curves was attributed to the same process. The corrosion potential showed an important increase after 24 hours of immersion. This increase in the corrosion potential was associated with an improvement of the passive film. The corrosion potential was always lower than the re-passivation potential for the corresponding media. The trans passive behavior of alloy C-22 was mainly influenced by temperature and solution chemistry. A clear trans passive peak

  13. Nuclear materials management and safeguards system (NMMSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, P.W.; Jacobsen, S.E.; Matthews, W.B. III; Pedigo, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) which is sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The system serves national security and program management interests, and international interests in the programs for the peaceful application of nuclear energy and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. Within the scope of the NMMSS are found all nuclear materials applied and controlled under United States law and related international agreements, including U.S. nuclear materials production programs and U.S. private nuclear industrial activities. In addition, its national and international scope enables it to provide services to other organizations such as the Arms Control and Disarmamanent Agency, the Department of State, and the U.S. Congress

  14. Test System for Thermoelectric Modules and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejtmánek, J.; Knížek, K.; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a design for a complex measuring device that enables its user to assess the parameters of power-generating thermoelectric modules (TEMs) (or bulk thermoelectric materials) under a wide range of temperatures ( T cold = 25°C to 90°C, T hot cooled copper-based cooler, (ii) an electrical load system, (iii) a type K thermocouple array connected to a data acquisition computer, and (iv) a thermostatic water-based cooling system with electronically controlled flow rate and temperature of cooling water. Our testing setup represents a useful tool able to assess, e.g., the thermoelectric parameters of newly developed TEMs and materials or to evaluate the thermoelectric parameters of commercially available modules and materials for comparison with values declared by the manufacturer.

  15. Thermal analysis and microstructural investigation of Cu-rich alloys in the Cu–Al–Ag system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šimšić, Zdenka Stanojević, E-mail: zdenkassh@irmbor.co.rs [Mining and Metallurgy Institute, Bor (Serbia); Živković, Dragana; Manasijević, Dragan [University of Belgrade, Techincal Faculty in Bor, Bor (Serbia); Grgurić, Tamara Holjevac [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Metallurgy, Sisak (Croatia); Du, Yong [Central South University, State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Changsha (China); Gojić, Mirko; Kožuh, Stjepan [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Metallurgy, Sisak (Croatia); Kostov, Ana; Todorović, Radiša [Mining and Metallurgy Institute, Bor (Serbia)

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • Thermodynamics of the metal alloys. • CALPHAD method and optimized thermodynamic parameters for calculation of alloys properties. • Microstructure of Cu-rich region of the Cu–Al–Ag system using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. - Abstract: Copper rich region in shape memory Cu–Al–Ag system was experimentally investigated using DTA and calculated using optimized thermodynamic parameters according to CALPHAD method. Overall composition alloys were chosen along three vertical sections with constant copper content of 70, 80 and 90 at%. Experimentally determined solidus and liquidus temperatures were compared with the results of thermodynamic calculation and good mutual agreement was noticed.

  16. SYSTEM ORGANIZATION OF MATERIAL PROVIDING OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rаdkеvich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of scientific-methodical bases to the design of rational management of material streams in the field of building providing taking into account intersystem connections with the enterprises of building industry. Methodology. The analysis of last few years of functioning of building industry in Ukraine allows distinguishing a number of problems that negatively influence the steady development of building, as the component of the state economics system. Therefore the research of existent organization methods of the system of building objects providing with material resources is extremely necessary. In connection with this the article justifies the use of method of hierarchies analysis (Saati method for finding the optimal task solution of fixing the enterprises of building industry after building objects. Findings. Results give an opportunity to guidance of building organization to estimate and choose advantageous suppliers - enterprises of building industry, to conduct their rating, estimation taking into account basic descriptions, such as: quality, price, reliability of deliveries, specialization, financial status etc. Originality. On the basis of Saati method the methodologies of organization are improved, planning and managements of the reliable system of providing of building necessary material resources that meet the technological requirements of implementation of building and installation works. Practical value. Contribution to the decisions of many intricate organizational problems that are accompanied by the problems of development of building, provided due to organization of the reliable system of purchase of material resources.

  17. Design of POLCA material control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.

    2010-01-01

    POLCA is a material control system designed for make-to-order or engineer-to-order companies. These firms have to cope with a high variety of customised products, and strong pressure to provide short throughput times. POLCA constrains the amount of work in progress on the shop floor in order to

  18. Electrical/Mechanical Monitoring of Shape Memory Alloy Reinforcing Fibers Obtained by Pullout Tests in SMA/Cement Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui-Hyun Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-healing is an essential property of smart concrete structures. In contrast to other structural metals, shape memory alloys (SMAs offer two unique effects: shape memory effects, and superelastic effects. Composites composed of SMA wires and conventional cements can overcome the mechanical weaknesses associated with tensile fractures in conventional concretes. Under specialized environments, the material interface between the cementitious component and the SMA materials plays an important role in achieving the enhanced mechanical performance and robustness of the SMA/cement interface. This material interface is traditionally evaluated in terms of mechanical aspects, i.e., strain–stress characteristics. However, the current work attempts to simultaneously characterize the mechanical load-displacement relationships synchronized with impedance spectroscopy as a function of displacement. Frequency-dependent impedance spectroscopy is tested as an in situ monitoring tool for structural variations in smart composites composed of non-conducting cementitious materials and conducting metals. The artificial geometry change in the SMA wires is associated with an improved anchoring action that is compatible with the smallest variation in resistance compared with prismatic SMA wires embedded into a cement matrix. The significant increase in resistance is interpreted to be associated with the slip of the SMA fibers following the elastic deformation and the debonding of the SMA fiber/matrix.

  19. Microstructure and bio-corrosion behaviour of Mg-5Zn-0.5Ca -xSr alloys as potential biodegradable implant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Zhou, Jiaxing; Sun, Zhenzhou; Yang, Meng; Ma, Liqun

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium alloys are widely studied as biomedical implants owing to their biodegradability. In this work, novel Mg-5Zn-0.5Ca-xSr (x = 0, 0.14, 0.36, 0.50, 0.70 wt%) alloys were prepared as biomedical materials. The influence of strontium (Sr) addition on the microstructure, corrosion properties and corrosion morphology of the as-cast Mg-5Zn-0.5Ca-xSr alloys is investigated by a variety of techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electrochemical measurements. The Sr-free alloy is composed of three phases, namely, α-Mg, CaMg2 and Ca2Mg6Zn3, while the alloys with the Sr addition consist of α-Mg, CaMg2 and Ca2Mg6Zn3 and Mg17Sr2. Corrosion experiments in Hank’s solution show that the addition of a small amount of Sr can improve the corrosion resistance of the Mg-5Zn-0.5Ca alloy. The corrosion products include Mg(OH)2, Zn(OH)2, Ca(OH)2, and HA (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)). Mg-5Zn-0.5Ca-0.36Sr alloy has the minimum weight loss rate (0.68 mm/a), minimal hydrogen evolution (0.08 ml/cm2/d) and minimum corrosion current density (7.4 μA/cm2), indicating that this alloy shows the best corrosion resistance.

  20. Advanced physical protection systems for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1975-10-01

    Because of the increasing incidence of terrorism, there is growing concern that nuclear materials and facilities need improved physical protection against theft, diversion, or sabotage. Physical protection systems for facilities or transportation which have balanced effectiveness include information systems, access denial systems, adequate and timely response, recovery capability, and use denial methods for despoiling special nuclear materials (SNM). The role of these elements in reducing societal risk is described; however, it is noted that, similar to nuclear war, the absolute risks of nuclear theft and sabotage are basically unquantifiable. Sandia Laboratories has a major Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) role in developing advanced physical protection systems for improving the security of both SNM and facilities. These activities are surveyed. A computer simulation model is being developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative physical protection systems under various levels of threat. Improved physical protection equipment such as perimeter and interior alarms, secure portals, and fixed and remotely-activated barriers is being developed and tested. In addition, complete prototype protection systems are being developed for representative nuclear facilities. An example is shown for a plutonium storage vault. The ERDA safe-secure transportation system for highway shipments of all significant quantities of government-owned SNM is described. Adversary simulation as a tool for testing and evaluating physical protection systems is discussed. A list of measures is given for assessing overall physical protection system performance. (auth)

  1. Nanocrystalline formation in immiscible Cu-Mo system subjected to mechanical alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hyo; Lee, Seong-Hee

    2007-11-01

    The mechanical alloying process has been studied on the Cu-Mo system, the atomic pair of which is characterized by a positive heat of mixing of +19 kJ/mol. The EXAFS and X-ray diffraction measurements have been employed to analyze the structural changes taking place during milling. Two phases mixture of nanocrystalline fcc-Cu and bcc-Mo with a grain size of 10 nm has been formed by MA of Cu30Mo70 powders for 200 hours. The structural analysis based on the EXAFS spectra revealed that bcc and fcc crystal structure clearly do not change around Mo and Cu atoms up to 200 h of milling, respectively. Studies of the thermodynamical considerations by DSC analyses confirmed that the alloying does not occur even after 200 hours of MA in Cu-Mo system.

  2. Wear behavior of 2-1/4 Cr-1Mo tubing against alloy 718 tube-support material in sodium-cooled steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.L.

    1983-05-01

    A series of prototypic steam generator 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo tube/alloy 718 tube support plate wear tests were conducted in direct support of the Westinghouse Nuclear Components Division -- Breeder Reactor Components Project Large Scale steam Generator design. The initial objective was to verify the acceptable wear behavior of softer, ''over-aged'' alloy 718 support plate material. For all interfaces under all test conditions, resultant wear damage was adhesive in nature with varying amounts of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo tube material being adhesively transferred to the alloy 718 tube supports. Maximum tube wear depths exceeded the initially established design allowable limit of 127 μm (.005 in.) at 17 of the 18 interfaces tested. A decrease in contact stresses produced acceptable tube wear depths below a readjusted maximum design allowable value of 381 μm (.015 in.). Additional conservatisms associated with the simulation of a 40-year lifetime of rubbing in a one-week laboratory test provided further confidence that the 381 μm maximum tube wear allowance would not be exceeded in service. Softer, ''over-aged'' alloy 718 material was found to produce slightly less wear damage on 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo tubing than fully age hardened material. Also, air formed oxide films on the alloy 718 reduced initial tube wear and delayed the onset of adhesive surface damage. However, at high surface stress levels, these films were not sufficiently stable to provide adequate long term protection from adhesive wear. The results of the present work and those of previous test programs suggest that the successful in-sodium tribological performance of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo/alloy 718 rubbing couples is dependent upon the presence of lubricative surface films, such as oxides and/or surface reaction or deposition products. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  3. The role of transverse speed on deposition height and material efficiency in laser deposited titanium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available measured with Venier Caliper and the material efficiencies were determined using developed equations. The effect of the scanning speed on the material efficiency and deposit height were extensively studied and the results showed that for the set...

  4. Theory-Guided Materials Design of Multi-Phase Ti-Nb Alloys with Bone-Matching Elastic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Neugebauer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a scale-bridging approach for modeling the integral elasticresponse of polycrystalline composite that is based on a multi-disciplinary combination of(i parameter-free first-principles calculations of thermodynamic phase stability andsingle-crystal elastic stiffness; and (ii homogenization schemes developed forpolycrystalline aggregates and composites. The modeling is used as a theory-guidedbottom-up materials design strategy and applied to Ti-Nb alloys as promising candidatesfor biomedical implant applications. The theoretical results (i show an excellent agreementwith experimental data and (ii reveal a decisive influence of the multi-phase character ofthe polycrystalline composites on their integral elastic properties. The study shows thatthe results based on the density functional theory calculations at the atomistic level canbe directly used for predictions at the macroscopic scale, effectively scale-jumping severalorders of magnitude without using any empirical parameters.

  5. Effects of surface chromium depletion on localized corrosion of alloy 825 as a high-level nuclear waste container material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.S.; Sridhar, N.; Cragnolino, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of the chromium-depleted, mill-finished surface on the localized corrosion resistance of alloy 825 (UNS N08825) were investigated. Tests were conducted in solutions based on the ground water at Yucca mountain, Nevada, but with a higher concentration of chloride. Results indicated that breakdown (E p ) and repassivation (E rp ) potentials for mill-finished surfaces were more active than those for polished surfaces. Potentiodynamic polarization tests indicated pits could be initiated on the chromium-depleted surface at potentials of 220 mV SCE in a solution containing 1,000 ppm Cl - at 95 C. Potentiostatic tests identified a similar pit initiation potential for the mill-finished surface. However, under longterm potentiostatic tests, a higher potential of 300 mV SCE was needed to sustain stable pit growth beyond the chromium-depleted layer. An increase in surface roughness also was observed to decrease localized corrosion resistance of the material

  6. Thermodynamic analysis and characterization of alloys in Bi-Cu-Sb system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of thermodynamic analysis and characterization of some alloys in Bi-Cu-Sb lead-free solder system are presented in this paper. Thermodynamic analysis was done using general solution model, while optic microscopy, hardness and electroconductivity measurements were used in order to determine structural, mechanic and electric characteristics of selected samples in section from bismuth corner with molar ratio Cu:Sb=3:7.

  7. Novel bioactive materials developed by simulated body fluid evaluation: Surface-modified Ti metal and its alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2016-10-15

    Until the discovery of the bone-bonding activity of Bioglass by Hench et al. in the early 1970s, it had not been demonstrated that a synthetic material could bond to living bone without eliciting a foreign body reaction. Since then, various kinds of materials based on calcium phosphate, such as sintered hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate have also been shown to bond to living bone. Until the discovery of the bone-bonding activity of Ti metal formed with a sodium titanate surface layer by the present authors in 1996, it had not been shown that a metallic material could bond to living bone. Since then, various kinds of surface-modified Ti metal and its alloys have been found to bond to living bone. Until the discovery of the osteoinduction of porous hydroxyapatite by Yamasaki in 1990, it was unknown whether a synthetic material could induce bone formation even in muscle tissue. Since then, various kinds of porous calcium phosphate ceramics have been shown to induce osteoinduction. Until the discovery of osteoinduction induced by a porous Ti metal formed with a titanium oxide surface layer by Fujibayashi et al. in 2004, it had been unclear whether porous metals would be able to induce osteoinduction. These novel bioactive materials have been developed by systematic research into the apatite formation that occurs on surface-modified Ti metal and its related materials in an acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) having ion concentrations almost equal to those of human blood plasma. Some of the novel bioactive materials based on Ti metal are already in clinical use or clinical trials, such as artificial hip joints and spinal fusion devices. In the present paper, we review how these novel bioactive materials based on Ti metal have been developed based on an evaluation of apatite formation in SBF. Without the SBF evaluation, these novel bioactive materials would most likely never have been developed. On the basis of systematic study of apatite formation on a material

  8. Generating material strength standards of aluminum alloys for research reactors. Pt. 1. Yield strength values Sy and tensile strength values Su

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, H.; Miya, K.

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum alloys are frequently used as structural materials for research reactors. The material strength standards, however, such as the yield strength values (S y ), the tensile strength values (S u ) and the design fatigue curve -which are needed to use aluminum alloys as structural materials in ''design by analysis'' - for those materials have not been determined yet. Hence, a series of material tests was performed and the results were statistically analyzed with the aim of generating these material strength standards. This paper, the first in a series on material strength standards of aluminum alloys, describes the aspects of the tensile properties of the standards. The draft standards were compared with MITI no. 501 as well as with the ASME codes, and the trend of the available data also was examined. It was revealed that the draft proposal could be adopted as the material strength standards, and that the values of the draft standards at and above 150 C for A6061-T6 and A6063-T6 could be applied only to the reactor operating conditions III and IV. Also the draft standards have already been adopted in the Science and Technology Agency regulatory guide (standards for structural design of nuclear research plants). (orig.)

  9. Mutual alloying of XAs (X=Ga, In, Al) materials: Tuning the optoelectronic and thermodynamic properties for solar energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Haq, Bakhtiar Ul

    2014-02-01

    In the present work we did mutual alloying of the versatile XAs (X=Ga, In, Al) materials in order to improve their efficiency and enhance their range of technological applications using state of the art first principles method. We investigate the structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of Ga1-xAlxAs, Ga1-xInxAs and In1-xAlxAs for x=0.25, 0.50, and 0.75. Calculations have been performed using the density functional theory (DFT) as implemented within the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method. For exchange and correlation energy treatment, we employed the local density approximations (LDA) as proposed by Wang and Perdew and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) from Perdew et al. proposed. To calculate the accurate band structure, recently modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) potential was suggested as an alternative. Our calculations show a linear fall in the lattice constant in contrast to linear rise in bulk moduli of Ga1-xAlxAs and In1-xAlxAs with the increase of Al concentration. However the change of indium concentration in Ga1-xInxAs is displaying a reverse effect. The energy band gap of Ga1-xAlxAs and In1-xAlxAs was found to be increased, where a crossover from direct to indirect band gap has been observed with the increase of Al concentration. This direct to indirect crossover was found at 93.4% of Al concentration for Ga1-xAlxAs and at 84.63% of Al concentration for In1-xAlxAs. The effect of the mutual alloying of XAs materials on the thermodynamic properties is comprehensively reported. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Development of fine-grain size titanium 6Al–4V alloy sheet material for low temperature superplastic forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tuoyang [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Sanders, Daniel G. [Boeing Research and Technology, Seattle, WA (United States); Liu, Bin; Zhang, Weidong; Zhou, Canxu [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Fine-grained titanium 6Al–4V alloy, which typically has a grain size of about 1–2 μm, can be made to superplastic form at around 800 °C with special processing. The normal temperature for superplastic forming (SPF) with conventional titanium 6Al–4V sheet material is 900 °C. The lower temperature performance is of interest to the Boeing Company because it can be exploited to achieve significant cost savings in processing by reducing the high-temperature oxidation of the SPF dies, improving the heater rod life for the hot presses, increasing operator safety and replacing the chemical milling operation to remove alpha case contamination with a less intensive nitric hydrofluoric acid etchant (pickle). In this report, room temperature tensile tests and elevated temperature constant strain rate tensile tests of fine-grained Ti–6Al–4V sheets provided by the Baoti Company of Xi'an, China, were conducted according to the test method standards of ASTM-E8 and ASTM-E2448. The relationships among the processing parameters, microstructure and superplastic behavior have been analyzed. The results show that two of the samples produced met the Boeing minimum requirements for low-temperature superplasticity. The successful material was heat-treated at 800 °C subsequent to hot rolling above the beta transus temperature, T{sub β}-(150–250 °C). It was found that the sheet metal microstructure has a significant influence on superplastic formability of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Specifically, fine grains, a narrow grain size distribution, low grain aspect ratio and moderate β phase volume fraction can contribute to higher superplastic elongations.

  11. Development of fine-grain size titanium 6Al–4V alloy sheet material for low temperature superplastic forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tuoyang; Liu, Yong; Sanders, Daniel G.; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Weidong; Zhou, Canxu

    2014-01-01

    Fine-grained titanium 6Al–4V alloy, which typically has a grain size of about 1–2 μm, can be made to superplastic form at around 800 °C with special processing. The normal temperature for superplastic forming (SPF) with conventional titanium 6Al–4V sheet material is 900 °C. The lower temperature performance is of interest to the Boeing Company because it can be exploited to achieve significant cost savings in processing by reducing the high-temperature oxidation of the SPF dies, improving the heater rod life for the hot presses, increasing operator safety and replacing the chemical milling operation to remove alpha case contamination with a less intensive nitric hydrofluoric acid etchant (pickle). In this report, room temperature tensile tests and elevated temperature constant strain rate tensile tests of fine-grained Ti–6Al–4V sheets provided by the Baoti Company of Xi'an, China, were conducted according to the test method standards of ASTM-E8 and ASTM-E2448. The relationships among the processing parameters, microstructure and superplastic behavior have been analyzed. The results show that two of the samples produced met the Boeing minimum requirements for low-temperature superplasticity. The successful material was heat-treated at 800 °C subsequent to hot rolling above the beta transus temperature, T β -(150–250 °C). It was found that the sheet metal microstructure has a significant influence on superplastic formability of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Specifically, fine grains, a narrow grain size distribution, low grain aspect ratio and moderate β phase volume fraction can contribute to higher superplastic elongations

  12. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-01-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y 2 O 3 ) with 6 LiF (95% 6 Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

  13. Microstructural study on gamma phase stability in U-9 wt% Mo alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saify, M.T.; Jha, S.K.; Hussain, M.M.; Singh, R.P.; Neogy, S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium exists in three polymorphic forms viz., orthorhombic α phase - stable up to 667 deg C, tetragonal β phase - stable between 667 deg C and 771 deg C and bcc γ phase - stable above 771 deg C. When alloying of uranium is done, the alloying additions alter the temperature ranges over which the α, β and γ phases are stable. In addition, they frequently retard the rates at which phase transformations occur. As a result, a number of metastable phases can be obtained in uranium alloys. It has been well known among reactor designers that a pure uranium metal is not suitable for power reactor fuel mainly because of (i) phase changes occurring at lower temperatures and (ii) poor irradiation behavior of α phase. γ phase uranium alloys containing small amount of another metal to stabilize the γ-U solid solution provides good prospects in this respect. U-Mo alloy is one of the prospective materials for low enrichment uranium fuel with high U loading because a solid solution of Mo in the γ-U phase possesses acceptable irradiation and mechanical properties and is formed over a wide range of Mo concentration. In the present work vacuum induction melted and cast U-9 wt% Mo alloy was subjected to different thermo mechanical processing to investigate the stability of the γ phase. The as cast alloy was rolled at 550 deg C and then homogenized at 1000 deg C in the γ phase field for 24 hours followed by (i) water quenching and (ii) furnace cooling to generate two different starting conditions. Two of the water-quenched samples were aged at 500 deg C for 5 days and 14 days and one as-rolled sample was aged at 500 deg C for 5 days. The as-cast, as-rolled, homogenized and aged samples were subjected to optical microscopy and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) investigations. All the samples were also subjected to microhardness measurements. The as cast sample contained predominantly the gamma phase along with inclusions. After homogenizing the alloy at 1000 deg C and quenching in

  14. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-05-05

    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  15. Base metal alloys used for dental restorations and implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Michael

    2007-07-01

    One of the primary reasons for the development of base metal alloys for dental applications has been the escalating cost of gold throughout the 20th century. In addition to providing lower cost alternatives, these nonprecious alloys were also found to provide better mechanical properties and aesthetics for some oral applications. Additionally, certain base metal alloy systems are preferred because of their superior mechanical properties, lower density, and in some cases, their capability to osseo-integrate. The base metal alloy systems most commonly used in dentistry today include stainless steels, nickel-chromium, cobalt-chromium, titanium, and nickel-titanium alloys. Combined, these alloy systems provide a wide range of available properties to choose the correct material for both temporary and long-term restoration and implant applications.

  16. Dynamics of Shape Memory Alloy Systems, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    T.A. Netto, Shock and Vibration, v.2015, Article ID 739381, pp.1-15, 2015. ISSN 1070-9622. doi:10.1155/2015/739381. 19. “Analysis of Magneto ...conditions: comparison between elastic (left) and SMA (right) systems. The temperature dependence provides important characteristic to the system. One...smooth SMA system. Figure 11 – Comparison of elastic and SMA response for a non-smooth oscillator. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for

  17. Mechanical alloying of 80Ni-14.7Fe-4.4Mo-0.5Mn-0.3Si soft magnetic material of Permalloy type

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadraba, Hynek; Strečková, M.; Husák, Roman; Roupcová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2014), s. 208-214 ISSN 1335-8987 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25246S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : soft magnetic materials * Permalloy * mechanical alloying Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  18. Experimental Characterization and Material Modelling of an AZ31 Magnesium Sheet Alloy at Elevated Temperatures under Consideration of the Tension-Compression Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Bonk, C.; Dykiert, M.

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium sheet alloys have a great potential as a construction material in the aerospace and automotive industry. However, the current state of research regarding temperature dependent material parameters for the description of the plastic behaviour of magnesium sheet alloys is scarce in literature and accurate statements concerning yield criteria and appropriate characterization tests to describe the plastic behaviour of a magnesium sheet alloy at elevated temperatures in deep drawing processes are to define. Hence, in this paper the plastic behaviour of the well-established magnesium sheet alloy AZ31 has been characterized by means of convenient mechanical tests (e. g. tension, compression and biaxial tests) at temperatures between 180 and 230 °C. In this manner, anisotropic and hardening behaviour as well as differences between the tension-compression asymmetry of the yield locus have been estimated. Furthermore, using the evaluated data from the above mentioned tests, two different yield criteria have been parametrized; the commonly used Hill’48 and an orthotropic yield criterion, CPB2006, which was developed especially for materials with hexagonal close packed lattice structure and is able to describe an asymmetrical yielding behaviour regarding tensile and compressive stress states. Numerical simulations have been finally carried out with both yield functions in order to assess the accuracy of the material models.

  19. Properties and microstructure of composite material alloy 36NKhTYu + steel 12Kh18N10T produced by explosion welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atroshchenko, Eh.S.; Voyachek, E.S.; Los', I.S.; Shorshorov, M.Kh.

    1986-01-01

    Properties and microstructure of composite material 36NKhTYu+12Kh18N10T are studied, and heat treatment conditions are chosen. It is shown that process of precipitation hardening runs more intensively in the 36NKhTYu alloy after explosion welding than in initial state

  20. Study on Tribological Properties of CoCrMo Alloys against Metals and Ceramics as Bearing Materials for Artificial Cervical Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dingding; Song, Jian; Wang, Song; Liao, Zhenhua; Liu, Yuhong; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Liu, Weiqiang

    2018-02-01

    CoCrMo alloys are believed to be a kind of potential material for artificial cervical disc. However, the tribological properties of CoCrMo alloys against different metals and ceramics are not systematically studied. In this study, the tribological behaviors of CoCrMo alloys against metals (316L, Ti6Al4V) and ceramics (Si3N4, ZrO2) were focused under dry friction and 25 wt.% newborn calf serum (NCS)-lubricated conditions using a ball-on-disc apparatus under reciprocating motion. The microstructure, composition and hardness of CoCrMo alloys were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness testers, respectively. The contact angles of the CoCrMo alloys with deionized water and 25 wt.% NCS were measured by the OCA contact angle measuring instrument. The maximum wear width, wear depth and wear volume were measured by three-dimensional white light interference. The morphology and the EDX analysis of the wear marks on CoCrMo alloys were examined by SEM to determine the basic mechanism of friction and wear. The dominant wear mechanism in dry friction for CoCrMo alloys against all pairings was severe abrasive wear, accompanied with a lot of material transfer. Under 25 wt.% NCS-lubricated condition, the wear mechanism for CoCrMo alloys against ceramics (Si3N4, ZrO2) was also mainly severe abrasive wear. However, severe abrasive wear and electrochemical corrosion occurred for the CoCrMo-316L pairing under lubrication. Severe abrasive wear, adhesive wear and electrochemical corrosion occurred for the CoCrMo-Ti6Al4V pairing under lubrication. According to the results, the tribological properties of CoCrMo alloys against ceramics were better than those against metals. The CoCrMo-ZrO2 pairing displayed the best tribological behaviors and could be taken as a potential candidate bearing material for artificial cervical disc.

  1. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM) alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable high-strength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO 2 laser . This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloy, over the last years. (Author) 16 refs

  2. Material and device properties of single-phase Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 alloys prepared by selenization/sulfurization of metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, V.; Titus, J.; Birkmire, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Single-phase Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 alloys have been prepared using a novel two-step selenization/sulfurization growth process to react copper-indium-gallium alloy films. The growth scheme differs critically from standard two-step growth processes and is based on the manipulation of the reaction kinetics in order to inhibit the formation of stable ternary phases. In the first step, the metallic precursors are reacted with H 2 Se/Ar to produce a composite alloy containing a mixture of binary selenides and at least one partially reacted ternary alloy. The film is then exposed to H 2 S/Ar at a defined temperature to produce uniform, single-phase pentenary Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 alloys. Solar cell results for Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 films with the S/(S+Se) ratio from 0.23 to 0.65 at a fixed Ga/(Ga+In) ratio are presented

  3. Materials handbook for fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a consistent and authoritative source of material property data for use by the fusion community in concept evaluation, design, and performance/verification studies of the various fusion energy systems. A second objective is the early identification of areas in the materials data base where insufficient information or voids exist. The effort during this reporting period has focused on two areas: (1) publication of data pages, and (2) automation of the data pages. The data pages contained new engineering information on lithium and stainless steel along with additional Supporting Documentation pages on annealed and cold worked stainless steel. These pages were distributed in May. In the area of automation, work is proceeding on schedule toward the formation of an electronic materials data base for the MFE computer network

  4. Leading research on supermetals. Part 2. Bulky material (Al system); Supermetal no sendo kenkyu. 2. Ogata sozai (aluminium kei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In order to find the higher critical strength, toughness and corrosion resistance of Al system materials than those obtained by conventional methods, crystal grain control was studied in a finer-grain region. The above characteristics of Al materials obtained by conventional technologies such as alloy element addition and heat treatment controlling crystal grains of several tens {mu}m are approaching critical values, resulting in poor characteristics for the latest needs. It has been confirmed experimentally in fundamental studies using small specimens that fine crystal grains of several {mu}m can remarkably enhance the above characteristics. Technology for creating mesoscopic structure-controlled materials was thus studied. In particular, creation of ultra-fine advanced Al alloy bulk materials by cryogenic processing method was selectively studied. The developmental approach and its issue were thus revealed for creating mesoscopic crystal structure by recovery and recrystallization of a highly distorted state obtained by cryogenic processing. 102 refs., 80 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Shape Memory Alloy Rock Splitters (SMARS) - A Non-Explosive Method for Fracturing Planetary Rocklike Materials and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, Othmane; Noebe, Ronald D.; Halsmer, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    A static rock splitter device based on high-force, high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) was developed for space related applications requiring controlled geologic excavation in planetary bodies such as the Moon, Mars, and near-Earth asteroids. The device, hereafter referred to as the shape memory alloy rock splitter (SMARS), consisted of active (expanding) elements made of Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 (at.%) that generate extremely large forces in response to thermal input. The preshaping (training) of these elements was accomplished using isothermal, isobaric and cyclic training methods, which resulted in active components capable of generating stresses in excess of 1.5 GPa. The corresponding strains (or displacements) were also evaluated and were found to be 2 to 3 percent, essential to rock fracturing and/or splitting when placed in a borehole. SMARS performance was evaluated using a test bed consisting of a temperature controller, custom heaters and heater holders, and an enclosure for rock placement and breakage. The SMARS system was evaluated using various rock types including igneous rocks (e.g., basalt, quartz, granite) and sedimentary rocks (e.g., sandstone, limestone).

  6. Data on a new beta titanium alloy system reinforced with superlattice intermetallic precipitates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Knowles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “a new beta titanium alloy system reinforced with superlattice intermetallic precipitates” (Knowles et al., 2018 [1]. This includes data from the as-cast alloy obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD as well as SEM data in the solution heat treated condition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM selected area diffraction patterns (SADPs are included from the alloy in the solution heat treated condition, as well as the aged condition that contained < 100 nm B2 TiFe precipitates [1], the latter of which was found to exhibit double diffraction owing to the precipitate and matrix channels being of a similar width to the foil thickness (Williams and Carter, 2009 [2]. Further details are provided on the macroscopic compression testing of small scale cylinders. Of the micropillar deformation experiment performed in [1], SEM micrographs of focused ion beam (FIB prepared 2 µm micropillars are presented alongside those obtained at the end of the in-situ SEM deformation as well as videos of the in-situ deformation. Further, a table is included that lists the Schmidt factors of all the possible slip systems given the crystal orientations and loading axis of the deformed micropillars in the solution heat treated and aged conditions.

  7. Identification of the material properties of Al 2024 alloy by means of inverse analysis and indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, Charles K.S.; Bocciarelli, Massimiliano; Ringer, Simon P.; Ranzi, Gianluca

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Identification of mechanical properties by indentation test and inverse analysis. → Pile-up height is also considered as experimental information. → Inverse problem results to be well posed also in the case of mystical materials. → 2024 Al alloy samples prepared using different age-hardening treatments are studied. - Abstract: This paper outlines an inverse analysis approach aimed at the identification of the mechanical properties of metallic materials based on the experimental results obtained from indentation tests. Previous work has shown the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem based on the load-penetration curve when dealing with mystical materials, which exhibit identical indentation curves even if possessing different yield and strain-hardening properties. For this reason, an additional measurement is used in the present study as input for the inverse analysis which consists of the maximum pile-up height measured after the indentation test. This approach lends itself for practical applications as the load-penetration curve can be easily obtained from commonly available micro-indenters while the pile-up present at the end of the test can be measured by different instruments depending on the size of the indented area, for example by means of an atomic force microscope or a laser profilometer. The inverse analysis procedure consists of a batch deterministic approach, and conventional optimization algorithms are employed for the minimization of the discrepancy norm. The first part of the paper outlines how the inclusion of both the maximum height of the pile-up and the indentation curve in the input data of the inverse analysis leads to a well-defined inverse problem using parameters of mystical materials. The approach is then applied to real experimental data obtained from three sets of 2024 Al alloy samples prepared using different age-hardening treatments. The accuracy of the identification process is validated against the mechanical

  8. In-service materials support for safety critical applications – A case study of a high strength Ti-alloy using advanced experimental and modelling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugg, D. [Rolls-Royce plc, Derby (United Kingdom); Britton, T.B., E-mail: b.britton@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Gong, J.; Wilkinson, A.J.; Bagot, P.A.J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    This paper introduces motivations and suitability for using advanced characterisation techniques to study industrially relevant materials, such as titanium alloys for the aerospace industry. These advanced research tools each provide unique information in fundamental research, and by designing appropriate datum studies and modelling support they can be combined with powerful effect to tackle ‘real world’ engineering issues. We demonstrate the use of orientation-corrected nanoindentation, micro-cantilever bend testing and 3D atom probe tomography to investigate a high strength, dual phase engineering alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) with a surface gradient of interstitials.

  9. Calculation of phase equilibria in Ti-Al-Cr-Mn quaternary system for developing lower cost titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.G.; Li, C.H.; Chen, L.Y.; Qiu, A.T.; Ding, W.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper is about the concept of designing the lower cost titanium alloy. → The thermodynamic database of Ti-Al-Cr-Mn system is built up by Calphad method. → The pseudobinary sections with Cr: Mn = 3:1 and Al = 3, 4.5 and 6.0 wt% are calculated. → This may provide the theoretical support for designing the lower cost titanium alloy. - Abstract: The Ti-Al-Cr-Mn system is a potentially useful system for lower cost titanium alloy development; however, there are few reports about the experimental phase diagrams and the thermodynamical assessment for this system. In this study, the previous investigations for the thermodynamic descriptions of the sub-systems in the Ti-Al-Cr-Mn system are reviewed, our previous assessment for the related sub-systems in this quaternary system is summarized, the thermodynamical database of this quaternary system is built up by directly extrapolating from all sub-systems assessed by means of the Calphad method, then the pseudobinary sections with Cr:Mn = 3:1 and Al = 0.0, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 wt% are calculated, respectively. These pseudobinary phase diagrams may provide the theoretical support for designing the lower cost titanium alloys with different microstructures (α, α + β, and β titanium alloy).

  10. REFERENCE MATERIALS SYSTEM OF SCIENTIFIC METHODICAL CENTRE OF STATE SERVICE OF REFERENCE MATERIALS FOR COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES AND MATERIALS URAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR METROLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Osinseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960s UNIIM performs research in the field of needs in reference materials of composition and properties of substances and materials (RM as well as develops it. During the research UNIIM has developed 757 types of RMs for metrological measurement assurance of factors of composition and properties of substance and materials for test laboratories of chemical, pharmaceutical, fuel, food industry, agriculture, metallurgy and ecological monitoring laboratories. List ofRMs enlarges thanks to development of UNIIM standards and transmission measurement facility from State standards of units. Taking into account the actual requirements in the field of measurements, the UNIIM's key destination is to assure the accuracy and the metrological traceability of measurements. The present-day system of RMs to be developed in UNIIM includes RMs of composition of inorganic and organic compounds and their solutions, fuels, stable isotopic materials, water, grounds, food products, biomaterials, nanomaterials, metals, alloys and other materials offerrous and non-ferrous industry, RMs of properties (thermodynamic, magnetic, physical-chemical, technical of substances and materials. The present article considers history of RMs list development which were created by UNIIM and the strategy of this direction.

  11. Semi Automated Ferrous Material Scouring System (SAFMSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    During normal activity, the operator needs to interrupt the operation periodically to dump the load of ferrous material. Once the operator...various targets used over the years including scraps from 55 gallon barrels, old cars and trucks as well as unidentifiable sources. Figure 8: Aerial...what the system uncovered the team surmised it was used mostly as a dump site for a mess hall. The Dona Ana range complex has been used by the army

  12. FACADE SYSTEM MADE OF POROUS MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed multi-component façade system is made of porous concretes employed both as bearing structures and for heat insulation and fireproofing purposes. The authors also provide their recommendations in respect of the mounting of the proposed façade system. The façade system considered in the article is composed of wall foam concrete blocks reinforced by basalt fibers (bearing elements of the structure, cellular concrete polystyrene (thermal insulation, and porous concrete (fireproofing and thermal insulation. Retained shuttering (in the fireproofing sections represents chrysolite cement sheets attached to the structures composed of glass-fiber plastic elements. The application of insulating porous concrete as a fireproofing material is based on the principle of adjustable stress-strained states of materials in the environment of variable pressure. This technology was developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, and it was initially designated for the manufacturing of tailor-made products. The above concrete is also designated for retained shuttering and modified cavity masonry walls. Porous concrete that expands inside the fireproofing cavity ensures a tight contact both with the basic material and thermal insulation plates. The use of materials of the same origin (Portland cement means the formation of strong transition zones connecting the system components in the course of its hardening and further operation. The results of the thermotechnical calculation demonstrate that the thermal resistance registered on the surface of the wall that is 3 meters high (that has a 0.4 m fireproofing cavity is equal to 3.98 sq. m. C/Wt. The value of the coefficient of thermotechnical heterogeneity (r is equal to 0.86 with account for the thickness and thermal conductivity of point and linear elements. If the thermotechnical heterogeneity is taken into consideration, the thermal resistance of the proposed wall is equal to 3.42 m2 С/Wt.

  13. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  14. Metal oxides and lithium alloys as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available -generation anode materials for lithium–ion batteries with high prospect of replacing graphite. Most of these anode materials have higher specific capacities between the range of 600-1000 mA h g(sup-1) compared with 340 mA h g(sup-1) of graphite. These high...

  15. Microstructural, mechanical and corrosion characteristics of heat-treated Mg-1.2Zn-0.5Ca (wt%) alloy for use as resorbable bone fixation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hamdy; Klarner, Andrew D; Poorganji, Behrang; Dean, David; Luo, Alan A; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    Mg-Zn-Ca alloys have grabbed most of the recent attention in research attempting to develop an Mg alloy for bone fixation devices due to their superior biocompatibility. However, early resorption and insufficient strength remain the main problems that hinder their use. Heat treatment has previously been thoroughly studied as a post-shaping process, especially after the fabrication of complex parts (e.g. porous structures) by 3D-printing or powder metallurgy. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on Mg-1.2Zn-0.5Ca (wt%) alloy's microstructural, mechanical and corrosion properties was studied. The surface morphology of samples was characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Hardness, compression and tensile tests were conducted, while the in vitro corrosion characteristics of the prepared samples were determined using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and immersion tests. It was found that increasing the age hardening duration up to 2-5h increased the heat-treated Mg-1.2Zn-0.5Ca alloy's mechanical properties. Further increase in the age hardening duration did not result in further enhancement in mechanical properties. Similarly, heat treatment significantly altered the Mg-1.2Zn-0.5Ca alloy's in vitro corrosion properties. The corrosion rate of the Mg-1.2Zn-0.5Ca alloy after the heat treatment process was reduced to half of that for the as-cast alloy. XRD results showed the formation of biocompatible agglomerations of hydroxyapatite (HA) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 ) on the corroded surface of the heat-treated Mg-1.2Zn-0.5Ca alloy samples. The performed heat treatment process had a significant effect on both mechanical and corrosion properties of the prepared Mg-1.2Zn-0.5Ca alloy. The age hardening duration which caused the greatest increase in mechanical and the most slowed corrosion rate for Mg-1.2Zn-0.5Ca alloy material was between 2 and 5h. Copyright © 2017

  16. Current bonding systems for resin-bonded restorations and fixed partial dentures made of silver–palladium–copper–gold alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Matsumura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article describes about the bonding systems for noble metal alloys, bonding techniques of restorations and fixed partial dentures (FPDs made of Ag–Pd–Cu–Au alloys, and their clinical performance. Thione monomers, 6-(4-vinylbenzyl-n-propyl amino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithione (VTD, 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl-2-thiouracil-5-carboxylate (MTU-6, and 10-methacryloxydecyl 6,8-dithiooctanoate (MDDT, has been proved effective for bonding noble metal alloys. An acrylic adhesive consists of the tri-n-butylborane (TBB initiator, methyl methacrylate (MMA monomer liquid with 5% 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META, and poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA, is being used for bonding metallic restorations to abutment surfaces. Clinical performance of restorations and FPDs made of Ag–Pd–Cu–Au alloys is overall excellent when they are seated with the currently available noble metal bonding systems.

  17. Fabrication of MnSi1.73 thermoelectric material by mechanical alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hyo

    2011-02-01

    The effect of mechanical alloying (MA) on the formation of MnSi1.73 thermoelectric compound was investigated. Due to the observed larger loss of Si relative to Mn during MA, the starting composition of Mn-Si was modified to MnSi1.83 and MnSi1.88. Sintering was performed in a spark plasma sintering (SPS) machine up to 600-800 degrees C under 50 MPa. The single phase MnSi1.73 has been obtained by MA of MnSi1.88 mixture powders for 200 h. It is also found that the grain size of MnSi1.73 compound analyzed by Hall plot method is reduced to 40 nm after 200 h of milling. Additionally, X-ray diffraction data shows that the SPS compact from 200 h MA powders consolidated at 600 degrees C consists of only nanocrystalline MnSi1.73 compound with a grain size of 90 nm.

  18. Experimental Study of the Sb-Sn-Zn Alloy System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zobač, O.; Sopoušek, J.; Buršík, Jiří; Zemanová, Adéla; Roupcová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2014), s. 1181-1188 ISSN 1073-5623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Sb-Sn-Zn system * thermal analysis * CALPHAD method Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2014

  19. Molecular alloy with diluted magnetic moments-molecular Kondo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idobata, Yuki; Zhou, Biao; Kobayashi, Akiko; Kobayashi, Hayao

    2012-01-18

    [Ni(1-x)Cu(x)(tmdt)(2)] (tmdt = trimethylenetetrathiafulvalenedithiolate) was prepared for realizing molecular Kondo systems. Magnetic moments (S = (1)/(2)) are considered to exist at the central {CuS(4)} parts of Cu(tmdt)(2) molecules. The χT-versus-T curve of the system with x ≈ 0.15 showed a broad peak at ~10 K. The decrease in the χT value below 10 K is consistent with a singlet ground state, as expected for a Kondo system. However, in the system with x ≈ 0.27, the χT value decreased when the temperature was lowered to 2 K, indicating antiferromagnetic interactions between magnetic moments through π-d interactions. Although the susceptibility anomaly suggested that the π-d interactions become important at T K. However, the differential resistivity Δρ(T) = ρ(obs) - ρ(L)(T) showed a logarithmic resistivity increase at 8-20 K with decreasing temperature, where ρ(L)(T) is a fitted function of ρ(obs) obtained at T > 50 K that is considered to represent approximately the temperature dependence of the resistivity without spin scattering of the conduction electrons. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Characterization of novel heterophasic powdered silicide-type material for high-temperature protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentieva, V.

    2001-01-01

    Novel multicomponent heterophasic powdered material of silicide-type is presented. The powdered material is intended for forming high-temperature protective multifunction coatings able to protect different hot-loaded structural elements of aerospace industry from refractory metals alloys under severe oxidizing conditions in high-enthalpy and super/hypersonic oxygen-containing gas flows. The powdered material base on complexly composition of Si-Ti-Mo system modified with B,Y,W. Technological conception of its obtaining and powder making process are examined. The powders were worked out in accordance with early performed functional structural model of special materials for coatings with the increased self-healing ability. The coatings can be deposited from the specially prepared abovementioned powders by plasma spraying processes or any one of other coating methods ensuring the conservation of morphological peculiarities of microstructure and phase composition of powdered material (detonation spraying technique, from slurry ...). Finally the results of some properties of novel heterophasic silicidetype powders and some properties of protective coating deposited on the niobium base alloys by means of plasma spraying technique are presented. (author)

  1. Extended solid solubility of a Co–Cr system by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt-Cantera, J.A.; Sánchez-De Jesús, F.; Torres-Villaseñor, G.; Bolarín-Miró, A.M.; Cortés-Escobedo, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solubility of the Co–Cr system is modified by means of Mechanical Alloying (MA). ► MA induces the formation of new solid solutions of Co–Cr system in non-equilibrium. ► MA promote the formation of metastable Co–Cr phases with greater solubility. - Abstract: Mechanical alloying, MA, has been successfully used to extend the limits of solid solubility in many commercially important metallic systems. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that MA modifies the solid solubility of the Co–Cr system. Co and Cr elemental powders were used as precursors and mixed in an adequate weight ratio to obtain Co 100−x Cr x (0 ≤ x ≤ 100, Δx = 10) to study the effect of mechanical processing in the solubility of the Co–Cr system. Processing was carried out at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill using vials and balls of hardened steel as milling media with a ball:powder weight ratio of 10:1. Crystalline structure characterization of the milled powders was conducted using X-ray diffraction, and phase transformations as a function of composition were analyzed. Thermal analysis confirmed structural changes occurred in the mechanically alloyed powders. The evolution of the phase transformations with composition is reported for each composition. The results showed that after high energy ball milling for 7 h, the solid solubility between Co and Cr could be evidently extended, despite the low solid solubility at the equilibrium conditions of this system. Additionally, the micrographs of the milled powders showed that increasing composition of chromium changes the shape and size of the particles while simultaneously reducing their agglomeration; this effect is possibly attributed to the brittleness of elemental chrome.

  2. Extended solid solubility of a Co-Cr system by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt-Cantera, J.A. [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Sanchez-De Jesus, F., E-mail: fsanchez@uaeh.edu.mx [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Torres-Villasenor, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales-UNAM, Apdo. Postal 70-360, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Bolarin-Miro, A.M. [Area Academica de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, UAEH Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca, Hidalgo 42184 (Mexico); Cortes-Escobedo, C.A. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica del IPN Cda. CECATI S/N, Col. Sta. Catarina, Azcapotzalco, 02250 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solubility of the Co-Cr system is modified by means of Mechanical Alloying (MA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MA induces the formation of new solid solutions of Co-Cr system in non-equilibrium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MA promote the formation of metastable Co-Cr phases with greater solubility. - Abstract: Mechanical alloying, MA, has been successfully used to extend the limits of solid solubility in many commercially important metallic systems. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that MA modifies the solid solubility of the Co-Cr system. Co and Cr elemental powders were used as precursors and mixed in an adequate weight ratio to obtain Co{sub 100-x}Cr{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 100, {Delta}x = 10) to study the effect of mechanical processing in the solubility of the Co-Cr system. Processing was carried out at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill using vials and balls of hardened steel as milling media with a ball:powder weight ratio of 10:1. Crystalline structure characterization of the milled powders was conducted using X-ray diffraction, and phase transformations as a function of composition were analyzed. Thermal analysis confirmed structural changes occurred in the mechanically alloyed powders. The evolution of the phase transformations with composition is reported for each composition. The results showed that after high energy ball milling for 7 h, the solid solubility between Co and Cr could be evidently extended, despite the low solid solubility at the equilibrium conditions of this system. Additionally, the micrographs of the milled powders showed that increasing composition of chromium changes the shape and size of the particles while simultaneously reducing their agglomeration; this effect is possibly attributed to the brittleness of elemental chrome.

  3. Pulse reversal plating of nickel alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    2007-01-01

    Pulse plating has previously been reported to improve the properties of nickel and nickel alloy deposits. Typically, focus has been on properties such as grain size, hardness and smoothness. When pulse plating is to be utilised for microtechnologies such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS......), internal stress and material distribution are even more important. With baths based upon nickel chloride, and nickel and cobalt chlorides, pulse reversal plating of both pure nickel and nickel-cobalt alloys has been used to fabricate tools for microinjection moulding. Pulse reversal plating of ternary soft...... magnetic alloys, comprising 45-65%Co, 15-35%Fe and 15-35%Ni, is also reported....

  4. The addition of Si to the Ti–35Nb alloy and its effect on the corrosion resistance, when applied to biomedical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Fernandes, B.S.; Souza, S.A.; Batista, W.W.; Cunha, F.G.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Landers, R. [Institute of Physics Gleb Wataghin, State University of Campinas – UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Macedo, M.C.S.S., E-mail: michellecardinales@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-04-05

    Highlights: • An investigation of the corrosion resistance of Ti–Nb–Si was proposed. • The study was based on polarization curves, OCP, electrochemical impedance, XPS. • The addition of Si to 0.35% increased the corrosion resistance of the alloys. • Data suggest that the studied alloys are promising for biomedical applications. -- Abstract: Alloy elements such as niobium and silicon have been added to titanium as an alternative for new materials to be used in orthopedic implants once they present biocompatibility and favor reductions in the elastic modulus. However, these new materials’ behavior, in face of corrosion is still demanding careful investigations because they will be subjected to an aggressive environ, such as the human body. The corrosion resistance of the Ti–35Nb–(0; 0.15; 0.35; 0.55)Si (% in mass) when in physiological medium was assessed by means of polarization curves, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The compositions of the passive films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Outcomes show that the alloys presented good rapid repassivation capacity after film breaking under high potentials. The high values of resistance to polarization – Rp – pinpoint that the formed oxide films are resistive. They work as a protecting barrier against aggressive ions. Data suggest that the studied alloys are promising for orthopedic implant applications.

  5. Hysteretic recurrent neural networks: a tool for modeling hysteretic materials and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeramani, Arun S; Crews, John H; Buckner, Gregory D

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel recurrent neural network, the hysteretic recurrent neural network (HRNN), that is ideally suited to modeling hysteretic materials and systems. This network incorporates a hysteretic neuron consisting of conjoined sigmoid activation functions. Although similar hysteretic neurons have been explored previously, the HRNN is unique in its utilization of simple recurrence to 'self-select' relevant activation functions. Furthermore, training is facilitated by placing the network weights on the output side, allowing standard backpropagation of error training algorithms to be used. We present two- and three-phase versions of the HRNN for modeling hysteretic materials with distinct phases. These models are experimentally validated using data collected from shape memory alloys and ferromagnetic materials. The results demonstrate the HRNN's ability to accurately generalize hysteretic behavior with a relatively small number of neurons. Additional benefits lie in the network's ability to identify statistical information concerning the macroscopic material by analyzing the weights of the individual neurons

  6. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4 and aging (T6 heat treatment.The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH2 and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7, revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269, and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  7. Target system materials and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the common problems of target design. As a model for the discussion, the author considers a spallation source which is fed by a high power proton beam of the order of one megawatt. The materials used for the target station and particularly for the spallation target itself depend on whether the source is built for pulsed, modulated or continuous operation. The difference of materials used is mainly determined by the neutronics considerations. Depending on the choice of materials for the target systems, the characters of material problems met, are of somewhat different nature. It is recognized that for each target version quite specific difficulties have to be overcome. On the other hand, there is a whole set of problems which is common to all target versions. These are: heat load in region of proton beam interactions; thermal stress and cycling; and radiation damage. It is shown that solutions to the whole package of problems up to a beam power of 0 (1MW) have been found. The whole effort concentrates onto the region of the first few centimeters of beam penetration. Two solutions have been proposed: (1) Keep the power of proton beam limited and produce neutrons elsewhere in the target. and (2) Dilute the power by moving mechanically the target and the window. 8 refs., 11 figs

  8. A simplified design of clamping system and fixtures for friction stir welding of aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed. M. Hasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sound friction stir welds could be attained by using an active design of backing/clamping system with a proper selection of the welding parameters. This work presented a simplified design of fixtures and backing plates to be used for friction stir welding of aluminum alloys. The test-rig was constructed to prevent dispersal or lifting of the specimens throughout the joining process and to ensure uniform distribution of temperature along the plates. The workpieces were subjected to uniform lateral and vertical pressures by means of bolts and nuts. Compound backing plates and pressure bars with additional side plates were included to increase the heat sink. Several coupons of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA7075 and AA6061 were joined to inspect the validity of this design. The tests showed promising results with defects-free welds, good strength and smooth surface finish without geometric imperfection and gap creation between the welded specimens. Efficiency of the joint reached its maximum value of about 82% with respect to the ultimate strength of the AA6061 alloy at 1100 rpm rotation speed and 300 mm/min feed. These results encourage using and improving the present design for future studies of friction stir welding.

  9. New method for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems under ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrtens, A.; Moske, M.; Samwer, K.

    1988-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum apparatus is described for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems. Three singly controlled electron beam evaporation sources provide a constant evaporation rate of the different elements. A specially designed rotating mask guarantees a concentration gradient on the substrate according to a ternary phase diagram. The conversion of the actual concentration profile into a standard ternary phase diagram is done by simple computer calculations. They involve corrections for the beam characteristics of the evaporation sources and for the rotating mask. As an example, measurements for the Zr--Cu--Co system are given. The concentration range for the amorphous phase is compared with thermodynamic predictions using Miedema's parameter

  10. The effects of an airborne-particle abrasion and silica-coating on the bond strength between grooved titanium alloy temporary cylinders and provisional veneering materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ann Yu-Chieh; Sharma, Arun B; Watanabe, Larry G; Finzen, Frederick C

    2011-03-01

    Even though mechanical retentive features, such as grooves, are incorporated into the surface of titanium alloy temporary cylinders, a reliable bond to veneering provisional materials is not always achievable for screw-retained provisional implant restorations. There is insufficient information about the effect of tribochemical silica coating on the bond strength between provisional materials and grooved titanium alloy temporary cylinders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of an airborne-particle abrasion and silica-coating technique on the bond strength between grooved titanium alloy temporary cylinders and provisional veneering bisphenol-A glycidyl methacrylate and polymethyl methacrylate materials. Forty grooved titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) internal connection implant temporary cylinders were used. A disc of veneering material (7.1 × 3.4 mm) was created around the midsection of each cylinder. Forty specimens were divided into 4 groups (n=10): group NoTxPMMA, no surface treatment and polymethyl methacrylate veneering material; group NoTxBisGMA, no surface treatment and BisGMA veneering material; group AbPMMA, airborne-particle abrasion, silica-coating surface treatment (Rocatec), and polymethyl methacrylate; and group AbBisGMA, airborne-particle abrasion, silica-coating surface treatment (Rocatec), and BisGMA. Each specimen was subjected to ultimate shear load testing at the interface of the veneering material and the temporary cylinder in a universal testing machine at a constant crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Data were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA (α=.05) followed by post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. Each specimen underwent surface observation with a light microscope at ×40 magnification to compare fracture patterns. Airborne-particle abrasion and silica-coating surface treatment significantly lowered the shear bond strength (Pprovisional material did not significantly affect the shear bond strength, with or without surface

  11. Electron beam-melted, free-form-fabricated titanium alloy implants: Material surface characterization and early bone response in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter; Malmström, Johan; Emanuelsson, Lena; René, Magnus; Snis, Anders

    2009-07-01

    Titanium-6aluminum-4vanadium implants (Ti6Al4V) were prepared by free-form-fabrication (FFF) and were used either as produced or after machining and compared with wrought machined Ti6Al4V. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), depth profiles, and interferometry were used to analyze the surface properties. The tissue response after 6-weeks in rabbit femur and tibia was evaluated using light microscopy and histomorphometry. The results revealed that the bulk chemical and mechanical properties of the reference material and the electron beam-melted (EBM) material were within the ASTM F136 specifications. The as-produced EBM Ti6Al4V implants had increased surface roughness, thicker surface oxide and, with the exception of a higher content of Fe, a similar surface chemical composition compared with machined EBM Ti6Al4V and machined, wrought Ti6Al4V implants. The two latter implants did not differ with respect to surface properties. The general tissue response was similar for all three implant types. Histomorphometry revealed a high degree of bone-to-implant contact (no statistically significant differences) for all the three implant types. The present results show that the surface properties of EBM Ti6Al4V display biological short-term behavior in bone equal to that of conventional wrought titanium alloy. The opportunity to engineer geometric properties provides new and additional benefits which justify further studies. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Collaborative analysis for certification of zirconium and zirconium base alloy reference materials JAERI-Z11 to Z16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    The second Sub-Committee on Zircaloy Analysis was organized in April 1978, under the Committee on Analytical Chemistry on Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Materials, JAERI, for the renewal of zirconium and zirconium base alloy certified reference materials (CRMs). The Sub-Committee carried out collaborative analysis among 13 participating laboratories for the certification of the CRMs, JAERI-Z11 to Z18, after development, improvement and evaluation of analytical methods during the period of May 1978 to June 1982. As the result of the collaborative analysis, the certified value was given for 18 elements (Sn, Fe, Ni, Cr, B, Cd, U, Cu, Co, Mn, Pb, Al, Ti, Si, Mo, W, Hf, C) in the CRMs. The first part of this report includes general discussion, the second part principles of certification, the third part development and verification of analytical methods, and the fourth part evaluation of analytical results on 17 elements. Preparation of Z11 to Z18, and certification for carbon in JAERI-Z17 and Z18 were reported separately in JAERI-M 83-241 and M 83-035, respectively. (author)

  13. Synthesis And Electrochemical Characteristics Of Mechanically Alloyed Anode Materials SnS2 For Li/SnS2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J.H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for efficient and economic energy storage, tin disulfide (SnS2, as one of the most attractive anode candidates for the next generation high-energy rechargeable Li-ion battery, have been paid more and more attention because of its high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. In this study, a new, simple and effective process, mechanical alloying (MA, has been developed for preparing fine anode material tin disulfides, in which ammonium chloride (AC, referred to as process control agents (PCAs, were used to prevent excessive cold-welding and accelerate the synthesis rates to some extent. Meanwhile, in order to decrease the mean size of SnS2 powder particles and improve the contact areas between the active materials, wet milling process was also conducted with normal hexane (NH as a solvent PCA. The prepared powders were both characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field emission-scanning electron microscopeand particle size analyzer. Finally, electrochemical measurements for Li/SnS2 cells were takenat room temperature, using a two-electrode cell assembled in an argon-filled glove box and the electrolyte of 1M LiPF6 in a mixture of ethylene carbonate(EC/dimethylcarbonate (DMC/ethylene methyl carbonate (EMC (volume ratio of 1:1:1.

  14. Critical survey of the neutron-induced creep behaviour of steel alloys for the fusion reactor materials programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausen, H.

    1985-01-01

    The differences between the irradiation environment of a fission reactor and that of a fusion reactor are respectively described in relation to the radiation damage found and expected in the two types of nuclear reactor. It is shown that the microstructure developing for instance in stainless steel alloys is almost invariant to whether the production rate of helium is high or low. The finding is valid up to neutron doses corresponding to about 60 dpa. For this reason, irradiation creep data obtained in fission reactors may be used, with caution, for predicting creep behaviour in fusion reactors.It was further recognized that irradiation creep performed with high energy particles from an accelerator, yields results which are comparable to those obtained in fission reactors. For this reason, simulation creep experiments are found to be valuable for the development of irradiation creep resistant materials using, for example, high energy electrons or protons. Such kind of experiments are performed in many laboratories. For irradiation doses larger than 60 dpa, predictions with respect to creep rates in fission and fusion reactors are difficult. In end-of-life tests, which concern swelling, ductility, tensile properties, rupture, fatigue and embrittlement, the presence of helium, due to its production rate being much higher in most materials exposed to 14 MeV neutrons than to fission neutrons, may be of great importance

  15. Optoelectronic inventory system for special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieradzki, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy's Dismantlement Program, the Optoelectronics Characterization and Sensor Development Department 2231 at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico has developed an in situ nonintrusive Optoelectronic Inventory System (OIS) that has the potential for application wherever periodic inventory of selected material is desired. Using a network of fiber-optic links, the OIS retrieves and stores inventory signatures from data storage devices (which are permanently attached to material storage containers) while inherently providing electromagnetic pulse immunity and electrical noise isolation. Photovoltaic cells (located within the storage facility) convert laser diode optic power from a laser driver to electrical energy. When powered and triggered, the data storage devices sequentially output their digital inventory signatures through light-emitting diode/photo diode data links for retrieval and storage in a mobile data acquisition system. An item's exact location is determined through fiber-optic network and software design. The OIS provides an on-demand method for obtaining acceptable inventory reports while eliminating the need for human presence inside the material storage facility. By using modularization and prefabricated construction with mature technologies and components, an OIS installation with virtually unlimited capacity can be tailored to the customer's requirements

  16. Transformation processes during annealing of Al-amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, N.; Petrescu, M.; Calin, M.; Jianu, A.D.; Fecioru, M.

    1993-01-01

    As the amorphous aluminum alloys represent the newest achievement in rapid solidification of Al-based high strength heat resistent materials, a study was undertaken on the amorphous alloys in the Al-RE-TM system, the rare-earth metal being a lanthanide mixture and the transition metal a Ni-Fe substitution in definite proportions. The decomposition on heating of the most highly alloyed amorphous alloy in the investigated series is characterized by differential thermal analysis, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. (orig.)

  17. Transformation processes during annealing of Al-amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrescu, N. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)); Petrescu, M. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)); Calin, M. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)); Jianu, A.D. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania) IFTM-Bucharest (Romania)); Fecioru, M. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania) DACIA Enterprise-Bucharest (Romania))

    1993-11-01

    As the amorphous aluminum alloys represent the newest achievement in rapid solidification of Al-based high strength heat resistent materials, a study was undertaken on the amorphous alloys in the Al-RE-TM system, the rare-earth metal being a lanthanide mixture and the transition metal a Ni-Fe substitution in definite proportions. The decomposition on heating of the most highly alloyed amorphous alloy in the investigated series is characterized by differential thermal analysis, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. (orig.).

  18. Cytotoxicity of alloying elements and experimental titanium alloys by WST-1 and agar overlay tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yo-Han; Kim, Min-Kang; Park, Eun-Jin; Song, Ho-Jun; Anusavice, Kenneth J; Park, Yeong-Joon

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of nine types of pure metals using 36 experimental prosthetic titanium-based alloys containing 5, 10, 15, and 20wt% of each substituted metal. The cell viabilities for pure metals on Ti alloys that contain these elements were compared with that of commercially pure (CP) Ti using the WST-1 test and agar overlay test. The ranking of pure metal cytotoxicity from most potent to least potent was: Co>Cu>In>Ag>Cr>Sn>Au>Pd>Pt>CP Ti. The cell viability ratios for pure Co, Cu, In, and Ag were 13.9±4.6%, 21.7±10.4%, 24.1±5.7%, and 24.8±6.0%, respectively, which were significantly lower than that for the control group (pcytotoxic', whereas all Ti alloys were ranked as 'noncytotoxic'. The cytotoxicity of pure Ag, Co, Cr, Cu, and In suggests a need for attention in alloy design. The cytotoxicity of alloying elements became more biocompatible when they were alloyed with titanium. However, the cytotoxicity of titanium alloys was observed when the concentration of the alloying element exceeded its respective allowable limit. The results obtained in this study can serve as a guide for the development of new Ti-based alloy systems. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal aging effects in refractory metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1987-01-01

    The alloys of niobium and tantalum are attractive from a strength and compatibility viewpoint for high operating temperatures required in materials for fuel cladding, liquid metal transfer, and heat pipe applications in space power systems that will supply from 100 kWe to multi-megawatts for advanced space systems. To meet the system requirements, operating temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1600 K have been proposed. Expected lives of these space power systems are from 7 to 10 yr. A program is conducted at NASA Lewis to determine the effects of long-term, high-temperature exposure on the microstructural stability of several commercial tantalum and niobium alloys. Variables studied in the investigation include alloy composition, pre-age annealing temperature, aging time, temperature, and environment (lithium or vacuum), welding, and hydrogen doping. Alloys are investigated by means of cryogenic bend tests and tensile tests. Results show that the combination of tungsten and hafnium or zirconium found in commercial alloys such as T-111 and Cb-752 can lead to aging embrittlement and increased susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of ternary and more complex alloys. Modification of alloy composition helps to eliminate the embrittlement problem.

  20. Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xingshuo

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of the leading concepts of the Generation IV nuclear reactor development, which is the core component of Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The major challenge in the research and development of NGNP is the performance and reliability of structure materials at high temperature. Alloy 617, with an exceptional combination of high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, has been selected as a primary candidate material for structural use, particularly in Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) which has an outlet temperature in the range of 850 to 950°C and an inner pressure from 5 to 20MPa. In order to qualify the material to be used at the operation condition for a designed service life of 60 years, a comprehensive scientific understanding of creep behavior at high temperature and low stress regime is necessary. In addition, the creep mechanism and the impact factors such as precipitates, grain size, and grain boundary characters need to be evaluated for the purpose of alloy design and development. In this study, thermomechanically processed specimens of alloy 617 with different grain sizes were fabricated, and creep tests with a systematic test matrix covering the temperatures of 850 to 1050°C and stress levels from 5 to 100MPa were conducted. Creep data was analyzed, and the creep curves were found to be unconventional without a well-defined steady-state creep. Very good linear relationships were determined for minimum creep rate versus stress levels with the stress exponents determined around 3-5 depending on the grain size and test condition. Activation energies were also calculated for different stress levels, and the values are close to 400kJ/mol, which is higher than that for self-diffusion in nickel. Power law dislocation climb-glide mechanism was proposed as the dominant creep mechanism in the test condition regime. Dynamic recrystallization happening at high strain range enhanced dislocation climb and

  1. THE FIRST BULGARIAN STANDARDIZED SERIES FOR EPICUTANEOUS PATCH TESTING FOR ALLERGIES TO DENTAL MATERIALS AND ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dencheva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The teeth and teeth rows restoration in the maxillofacial area is the last stage of the ongoing patient treatment and a basic purpose for the dental doctors. For this purpose a different set of modern and classic contemporary dental materials is used. The choice of each material during the treatment of every patient with proven allergy to different kind of allergens is very specific and strictly individual. In the everyday oral diagnostics a standardized set of allergens for diagnostics is used for proving the allergy to dental materials. The set has been developed on the base of all existing and permitted by the Bulgarian authorities dental materials, as well as professional series.The difference between the developed and standardized allergens for diagnostics used in our country and the existing ready-for-use series is that the first are made of the final product (material in the form introduced to the oral cavity and persisting there for a different period of time, sometimes for tenths of years. This enables the possibility for early or late contact allergic reactions with symptoms in the oral cavity and on the skin, maxillofacial area, head and neck, as well as the entire organism.The current article introduces the readers to the results obtained by the realization of the research project №28/2011 “Research on the type of sensibilisation to contemporary dental materials and development of set of allergens for its diagnosing through epicutaneous patch testing” funded by the Committee of Medical science of MU Sofia (CMC. Through the project became possible the creation and the initial research of the first Bulgarian series for epicutaneous testing whose aim is to prove the allergenic potential of the most frequently used by the dental doctors dental materials.

  2. Divertor Materials Evaluation System (DiMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.; West, W.P.; Whyte, D.G.; Bastasz, R.J.; Brooks, J.; Wampler, W.R.

    1997-11-01

    The mission of the Divertor Materials Evaluation System (DiMES) in DIII-D is to establish an integrated data base from measurements in the divertor of a tokamak in order to address some of the ITER and fusion power reactor plasma material interaction issues. Carbon and metal coatings of Be, W, V, and Mo were exposed to the steady-state outer strike point on DIII-D for 4-18 s. These short exposure times ensure controlled exposure conditions, and the extensive arrays of DIII-D divertor diagnostics provide a well-characterized plasma for modeling efforts. Postexposure analysis provides a direct measure of surface material erosion rates and the amount of retained deuterium. For carbon, these results match closely with the results of accumulated carbon deposition and erosion, and the corresponding deuterium retention of long term exposure tiles in DIII-D. Deuterium retention of different materials was measured using the 3 He(d,p) 4 He nuclear reaction. For carbon, these measurements showed peak deuterium areal density of about 8 x 10 18 D/cm 2 in a co-deposited layer about 6 microm deep, mainly at the usually detached inboard divertor leg. That layer of carbon near the inner divertor strike point has an atomic saturation concentration of D/C ∼ 0.25, which is not significantly lower than the laboratory-measured saturation retention of 0.4. Under the carbon contaminated background plasma of DIII-D, metal coatings of Be, V, Mo, and W were exposed to the steady state outer strike point under ELMing and ELM-free H-mode discharges. The rate of material erosion and tritium retention were measured. As expected, W shows the lowest erosion rate at 0.1 nm/s and the lowest deuterium uptake

  3. Electrolytic polishing system for space age materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coons, W.C.; Iosty, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electrolytic polishing technique was developed for preparing Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Ni, Re, Ti, V, Zr, and their alloys for structural analysis on the optical microscope. The base electrolyte contains 5g ZnCl 2 and 15g AlCl 3 . 6H 2 O in 200 ml methyl alcohol, plus an amount of H 2 SO 4 depending on the metal being polished. Five etchants are listed

  4. Determination of Systems Suitable for Study as Monotectic Binary Metallic Alloy Solidification Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Succinonitrile-water and diethylene glycol-ethyl salicylate are two transparent systems which have been studied as monotectic binary metallic alloy solidification models. Being transparent, these systems allow for the direct observations of phase transformations and solidification reactions. The objective was to develop a screening technique to find systems of interest and then experimentally measure those systems. The succinonitrile-water system was used to check the procedures. To simulate the phase diagram of the system, two computer programs which determine solid-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria were obtained. These programs use the UNIFAC method to determine activity coefficients and together with several other programs were used to predict the phase diagram. An experimental apparatus was developed and the succinonitrile-water phase diagram measured. The diagram was compared to both the simulation and literature data. Substantial differences were found in the comparisons which serve to demonstrate the need for this procedure.

  5. Material Flow Behavior of Refill Friction Stir Spot Welded LY12 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Li, Zhengwei; Wang, Yue; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Liguo

    2017-05-01

    A three-dimensional finite volume model was established by ANSYS FLUENT software to simulate material flow behavior of the refill friction stir spot welding (RFSSW) process. The RFSSW experiment was performed to validate the rationality of the simulation results. Simulation results show that the maximum velocity appears at the sleeve outer wall. The velocity becomes smaller as the increase of the distance to the tool walls. The material flow behaviors are verified by the cross section and microstructure of the RFSSW joint. Low flow velocity in the joint center leads to alclad concentration, which easily results in shear fracture. The sleeve plunge depth must be bigger than the upper sheet thickness in order to obtain joint with large bonding area. Both increasing the rotational speed and refilling speed accelerate the material flow while increasing the rotational speed is a more effective method.

  6. Machinability of an experimental Ti-Ag alloy in terms of tool life in a dental CAD/CAM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Ryoichi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Takada, Yukyo; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Titanium is difficult to machine because of its intrinsic properties. In a previous study, the machinability of titanium was improved by alloying with silver. This study aimed to evaluate the durability of tungsten carbide burs after the fabrication of frameworks using a Ti-20%Ag alloy and titanium with a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing system. There was a significant difference in attrition area ratio between the two metals. Compared with titanium, the ratio of the area of attrition of machining burs was significantly lower for the experimental Ti-20%Ag alloy. The difference in the area of attrition for titanium and Ti-20%Ag became remarkable with increasing number of machining operations. The results show that the same burs can be used for a longer time with Ti-20%Ag than with pure titanium. Therefore, in terms of tool life, the machinability of the Ti-20%Ag alloy is superior to that of titanium.

  7. An automatic system to measure material's resistance to stable crack initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, U.; Bergner, F.; Popp, K.; Schuetzler, H.P.

    1991-06-01

    The unloading compliance technique has become the preferred single specimen method for evaluating the fracture toughness of materials. It involves control of the testing machine as well as data acquisition and analysis using computers. This paper describes in detail the development of a simple experimental system and related software. The method has been applied in order to determine the temperature dependence of fracture toughness of a low-alloy Cr-Mo steel. Results are compared with both measurements at the VTT Espoo and measurements based on a multiple specimen method. (orig.) [de

  8. Quantitative texture determination in pressure tube (Zr-2.5 Wt% Nb alloy) material as a function of cold work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.K.; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; De, P.K.; Banerjee, S.; Kiran Kumar, M.; Samajdar, I.

    2003-06-01

    The texture studies on the pressure tube Zr-2.5 Nb alloy have mainly been confined to the determination of the basal pole distribution along certain direction or the inverse pole presentation in the material. This information though useful does not provide an insight into micro-textural development upon cold working. In the present study, complete bulk as well as micro texture development as a function of cold work has been obtained by determining orientation distribution function. In this work, two distinct starting microstructures of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb have been used -(a) single-phase α(hcp) martensitic structure and (b) two-phase, β(bcc) + α, Widmanstaetten structure. In the second case, the α phase was present in lamellar morphology and β stringers were sandwiched between these a lamella. In some instances single-phase α were present. However, both microstructures had similar starting crystallographic texture. Samples were deformed by unidirectional and cross rolling at room temperature. In the two-phase structure the changes in the bulk texture on cold rolling was found to be insignificant, while in the single-phase material noticeable textural changes were observed. Taylor type deformation texture models predicted textural changes in single-phase structure but failed to predict the observed lack of textural development in the two-phase material. Microtexture observations showed that a plates remained approximately single crystalline after cold rolling, while the β matrix underwent significant orientational changes. Based on microstructural and microtextural observations, a simple model is proposed in which the plastic flow is mainly confined to the β matrix within which the α plates are subjected to in-plane rigid body rotation. The model explains the observed lack of textural developments in the two-phase structure. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the twelfth annual conference on fossil energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: ceramic composites and functional materials; ceramics, new alloys and functional materials; summary report on the workshop on materials for separation process for Vision 21 systems; and new alloys. A list of attendees is included

  10. Using Rose's metal alloy as a pinhole collimator material in preclinical small-animal imaging: a Monte Carlo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mikael; Strand, Sven-Erik; Ljungberg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Pinhole collimation is the most common method of high-resolution preclinical single photon emission computed tomography imaging. The collimators are usually constructed from dense materials with high atomic numbers, such as gold and platinum, which are expensive and not always flexible in the fabrication step. In this work, the authors have investigated the properties of a fusible alloy called Rose's metal and its potential in pinhole preclinical imaging. When compared to current standard pinhole materials such as gold and platinum, Rose's metal has a lower density and a relatively low effective atomic number. However, it is inexpensive, has a low melting point, and does not contract when solidifying. Once cast, the piece can be machined with high precision. The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging properties for Rose's metal and compare them with those of standard materials. After validating their Monte Carlo code by comparing its results with published data and the results from analytical calculations, they investigated different pinhole geometries by varying the collimator material, acceptance angle, aperture diameter, and photon incident angle. The penetration-to-scatter and penetration-to-total component ratios, sensitivity, and the spatial resolution were determined for gold, tungsten, and Rose's metal for two radionuclides, (99)Tc(m) and (125)I. The Rose's metal pinhole-imaging simulations show higher penetration/total and scatter/total ratios. For example, the penetration/total is 50% for gold and 75% for Rose's metal when simulating (99)Tc(m) with a 0.3 mm aperture diameter and a 60° acceptance angle. However, the degradation in spatial resolution remained below 10% relative to the spatial resolution for gold for acceptance angles below 40° and aperture diameters larger than 0.5 mm. Extra penetration and scatter associated with Rose's metal contribute to degradation in the spatial resolution, but this degradation is not always substantial. The

  11. Novel silane encapsulation system for tribochemical resin bonding to a Co-Cr alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilo, Raphael; Dimitriadi, Maria; Silikas, Nick; Eliades, George

    2016-07-01

    Encapsulated silane has been introduced in powders for tribochemical coating (SilJet Plus, SP), eliminating the need for a separate silane primer. The aim of the study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of SP on the surface properties and bond strength of a Co-Cr alloy with a resin composite. Co-Cr cast alloy disks were subjected to tribochemical treatments with CoJet (CJ), SilJet (SJ) and SP. Polished specimens were used as control (CR). The alloy surfaces were studied by optical profilometry (OIP; parameters Sa,Sz,Sdr,Sci), reflection FTIR microscopy (RFTIRM; CR,CJ,SJ silanized with S-Bond), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX; Al+Si coverage), contact angle with water (CW) and shear bond strength with a flowable resin composite (SBS). Statistical analysis for OIP, Al+Si coverage, CW and SBS was performed by one-way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak multiple comparison tests and by Chi-square for the failure mode (α=0.05). CR demonstrated the lowest Sa,Sz,Sdr values from all sandblasted surfaces, excluding Sci of SJ. Among tribochemical treatments, no differences were found in Sa,Sz. CJ showed lower Sdr and SJ higher Sci. The peaks of SiO were very weak on CR, but detectable on CJ, SJ and SP, with no evidence of SiOCH3 groups. The ranking of the statistical significant differences in CW measurements was SP>SJ+silane>CJ+silane>CR+silane. Well-defined Al and diffuse Si distributions were found on the alloy surface following tribochemical treatments. The maximum Al+Si coverage ranged between 50 and 54% (5000×) and the random coverage between 7 and 11% (1000×, p>0.05 for both). Tribochemical treatments showed higher SBS from CR (psilane may be considered an efficient single-step alternative to conventional two-step systems for bonding to Co-Cr alloys, offering a significant reduction in chairside time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor Systems and the Fuels and Materials Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Allen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated developments in the consumer energy market have led developers of nuclear energy concepts to consider how innovations in energy technology can be adapted to meet consumer needs. Properties of molten lead or lead-bismuth alloy coolants in lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR systems offer potential advantages for reactors with passive safety characteristics, modular deployment, and fuel cycle flexibility. In addition to realizing those engineering objectives, the feasibility of such systems will rest on development or selection of fuels and materials suitable for use with corrosive lead or lead-bismuth. Three proposed LFR systems, with varying levels of concept maturity, are described to illustrate their associated fuels and materials challenges. Nitride fuels are generally favored for LFR use over metal or oxide fuels due to their compatibility with molten lead and lead-bismuth, in addition to their high atomic density and thermal conductivity. Ferritic/martensitic stainless steels, perhaps with silicon and/or oxide-dispersion additions for enhanced coolant compatibility and improved high-temperature strength, might prove sufficient for low-to-moderate-temperature LFRs, but it appears that ceramics or refractory metal alloys will be necessary for higher-temperature LFR systems intended for production of hydrogen energy carriers.

  13. Tensile-compressive asymmetry influence on shape memory alloy system dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savi, Marcelo A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE - Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 68.503, 21.941.972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: savi@mecanica.ufrj.br; Sa, Milton A.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE - Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 68.503, 21.941.972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Paiva, Alberto [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgica de Volta Redonda, 27.255.250 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: paiva@lavi.coppe.ufrj.br; Pacheco, Pedro M.C.L. [CEFET/RJ - Department of Mechanical Engineering, 20.271.110 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: calas@cefet-rj.br

    2008-05-15

    The remarkable properties of shape memory alloys (SMAs) are attracting much technological interest in several science and engineering fields, varying from medical to aerospace applications. Hysteretic response of these systems is one of their essential characteristics being related to the martensitic phase transformation. The dynamical response of systems with SMA actuators presents a rich behavior due to their intrinsic nonlinear characteristic. Since experimental results show that SMAs present an asymmetric behavior when subjected to tensile or compressive loads, it is important to evaluate the influence of this kind of behavior in the nonlinear dynamics of mechanical systems with SMA devices. This article discusses the nonlinear dynamics of shape memory alloy systems, considering the influence of tensile-compressive asymmetry in the thermomechanical behavior of SMAs. An iterative numerical procedure based on the operator split technique, the orthogonal projection algorithm and the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is developed to deal with nonlinearities in the formulation. A numerical investigation is carried out showing some qualitative results such as chaotic-like response and multi-stability behavior for a single degree of freedom SMA oscillator.

  14. Integration mockup and process material management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  15. Material Properties of Various Cast Aluminum Alloys Made Using a Heated Mold Continuous Casting Technique with and without Ultrasonic Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to develop high-quality cast aluminum alloys using a new casting technology. For this purpose, commercial Al alloys were created by heated mold continuous casting (HMC with ultrasonic vibration (UV. With the HMC process, the grain size and the crystal orientation of the Al alloys were controlled, i.e., fine grains with a uniformly organized lattice formation. In addition, an attempt was made to modify the microstructural formation by cavitation. These microstructural characteristics made excellent mechanical properties. Using UV in the continuous casting process, more fine and spherical grains were slightly disordered, which was detected using electron backscattered diffraction. The mechanical properties of the UV HMC Al alloys were slightly higher than those for the related cast Al alloys without UV. Moreover, the severe vibration caused higher mechanical properties. The lattice and dislocation characteristics of the cast samples made with and without UV processes were analyzed systematically using electron backscattered diffraction.

  16. Nuclear material safeguards and security system analysis based on measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ign Djoko Irianto

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear material safeguards and security are the important aspect in the nuclear facility management due to the nuclear material could be terrorisms object. The two aspect of nuclear material security are nuclear material safeguards system and physical protection system. The most important in safeguards system is how to report the existence of nuclear material and the quantity of nuclear material. To perform the safeguards system the data of nuclear material are needed. The data of quality and quantity of nuclear material could be found by destructive analysis (DA) technique and non destructive analysis (NDA) technique. The DA technique are used to analysis the nuclear material that forming in powder, the NDA technique are used to analysis the nuclear material in spent fuel. In BATAN, the technique of measurement of nuclear material weight is more dominant than the other technique to be used in nuclear material safeguards and security systems. (author)

  17. Croatian National System of Nuclear Materials Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscan, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the process of economic and technological development of Croatia by using or introducing nuclear power or in the case of international co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including international exchange of nuclear material, Croatia should establish and implement National System of Nuclear Materials Control. Croatian National System of accounting for and control of all nuclear material will be subjected to safeguards under requirements of Agreement and Additional Protocol between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The decision by NPT parties at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference to endorse the Fullscope IAEA Safeguards Standard (FSS) as a necessary precondition of nuclear supply means that states are obliged to ensure that the recipient country has a FSS agreement in place before any nuclear transfer can take place (Ref. 1). The FSS standard of nuclear supply is a central element of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Guidelines which the NSG adopted in 1992 and should be applied to members and non-members of the NSG. The FSS standard of nuclear supply in general allows for NPT parties or countries which have undertaken the same obligations through other treaty arrangements, to receive favourable treatment in nuclear supply arrangements. However, the Iraqi experience demonstrate that trade in nuclear and dual-use items, if not properly monitored, can contribute to a nuclear weapons program in countries acting contrary to their non-proliferation obligation. Multilateral nuclear export control mechanisms, including the FSS supply standard, provide the basis for co-ordination and standardisation of export control measures. (author)

  18. Composite materials for rail transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Guerdal, Zafer; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    The potential is explored for using composite materials in urban mass transit systems. The emphasis was to identify specific advantages of composite materials in order to determine their actual and potential usage for carbody and guideway structure applications. The literature was reviewed, contacts were made with major domestic system operators, designers, and builders, and an analysis was made of potential composite application to railcar construction. Composites were found to be in use throughout the transit industry, usually in secondary or auxiliary applications such as car interior and nonstructural exterior panels. More recently, considerable activity has been initiated in the area of using composites in the load bearing elements of civil engineering structures such as highway bridges. It is believed that new and improved manufacturing refinements in pultrusion and filament winding will permit the production of beam sections which can be used in guideway structures. The inherent corrosion resistance and low maintenance characteristics of composites should result in lowered maintenance costs over a prolonged life of the structure.

  19. Surface mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and cytocompatibility of nitrogen plasma-implanted nickel-titanium alloys: a comparative study with commonly used medical grade materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, K W K; Poon, R W Y; Chu, P K; Chung, C Y; Liu, X Y; Lu, W W; Chan, D; Chan, S C W; Luk, K D K; Cheung, K M C

    2007-08-01

    Stainless steel and titanium alloys are the most common metallic orthopedic materials. Recently, nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys have attracted much attention due to their shape memory effect and super-elasticity. However, this alloy consists of equal amounts of nickel and titanium, and nickel is a well known sensitizer to cause allergy or other deleterious effects in living tissues. Nickel ion leaching is correspondingly worse if the surface corrosion resistance deteriorates. We have therefore modified the NiTi surface by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). The surface chemistry and corrosion resistance of the implanted samples were studied and compared with those of the untreated NiTi alloys, stainless steel, and Ti-6Al-4V alloy serving as controls. Immersion tests were carried out to investigate the extent of nickel leaching under simulated human body conditions and cytocompatibility tests were conducted using enhanced green fluorescent protein mice osteoblasts. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results reveal that a thin titanium nitride (TiN) layer with higher hardness is formed on the surface after nitrogen PIII. The corrosion resistance of the implanted sample is also superior to that of the untreated NiTi and stainless steel and comparable to that of titanium alloy. The release of nickel ions is significantly reduced compared with the untreated NiTi. The sample with surface TiN exhibits the highest amount of cell proliferation whereas stainless steel fares the worst. Compared with coatings, the plasma-implanted structure does not delaminate as easily and nitrogen PIII is a viable way to improve the properties of NiTi orthopedic implants.

  20. Development of Weld Overlay System for Dissimilar Metal Alloy 82/182 Butt Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. S.; Byeon, J. G.; Kim, Y. J. [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    As a result of the alloy 600 PWSCC(Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking), leak in the dissimilar welds in pressurizer nozzle was discovered recently in several US plants and the advanced companies had developed repair techniques. 2 or 3 years from now, more than half of the nuclear power plants in the country will be operated more than 20 years. Therefore, we need to develop repair techniques of dissimilar welds in pressurizer nozzle. With above backgrounds, we have developed a Prototype of Repair System for dissimilar welds in pressurizer nozzle.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Temperature Distribution and Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding 2017A Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimouni Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the use of fluid dynamic code, FLUENT to model the flow of metal in the AA2017A case around the welding tool pin (FSW. A standard threaded tool profile is used for the analysis of phenomena during welding such as heat generation and flow of the material are included. The main objective is to gain a better understanding of the flow of material around a tool. The model showed a large number of phenomena similar to those of the real process. The model has also generated a sufficient amount of heat, which leads to a good estimate of the junction temperature. These results were obtained using a viscosity which is near the solidus softening.

  2. Experimental evaluation of coated carbide insert on alloy of steel materials during high speed turning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Lawal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of coated carbide turning inserts on the surface roughness of AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel, AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel and AISI 1020 low carbon steel workpiece materials. The three steel grade materials were dry-turned using aluminium oxide (Al2O3 duratomic coated inserts at cutting speeds ranging from 1500 – 2000 rpm (229 – 314 m/min, feed rates of 0.25 – 0.75 mm/rev and depth of cut kept constant at 0.5 mm. Surface roughness values at different cutting conditions were measured and analysed. Chips formed at different cutting parameters were collected, classified according to ISO 3685 standards for chip classification and their surface morphology were analysed using optical microscopy. It was observed that feed rate had the greatest influence on surface roughness for the three workpiece materials. Surface finish deteriorated as feed rate increased. The chips formed were generally of the continuous type with built-up-edges.

  3. Theoretical insights into kesterite and stannite phases of Cu2(Sn1–XGeXZnSe4 based alloys: A prospective photovoltaic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of kesterite (KS and stannite (ST phases of Cu2(Sn1−xGexZnSe4 (CTGZSe alloys has been carried out using a hybrid functional within the framework of density functional theory (DFT. Our calculations suggest that KS phase is energetically more stable. We find that the total energy of the KS phase decreases with increasing concentration (x of Ge. The calculated positive binding energies suggest that the alloy systems are stable. The formation enthalpy clearly indicates that CTGZSe alloys are thermodynamically stable and its growth can be achieved by following the route of an exothermic reaction. The calculated energy band gaps of the alloys agree well with the experimental data for the KS phase. The band offsets of KS and ST phases as a function of Ge concentration (x can be explained on the basis of the calculated energy band gaps. We find a slight upshift in the conduction band edges while the valence band edges remain almost the same on varying the concentration (x of Ge. Our results could be useful for the development of CTGZSe alloys based solar cells.

  4. Ni ion release, osteoblast-material interactions, and hemocompatibility of hafnium-implanted NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Li, Yan; Zhao, Xinqing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Tao

    2012-04-01

    Hafnium ion implantation was applied to NiTi alloy to suppress Ni ion release and enhance osteoblast-material interactions and hemocompatibility. The auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscope results showed that a composite TiO(2)/HfO(2) nanofilm with increased surface roughness was formed on the surface of NiTi, and Ni concentration was reduced in the superficial surface layer. Potentiodynamic polarization tests displayed that 4 mA NiTi sample possessed the highest E(br) - E(corr), 470 mV higher than that of untreated NiTi, suggesting a significant improvement on pitting corrosion resistance. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry tests during 60 days immersion demonstrated that Ni ion release rate was remarkably decreased, for example, a reduction of 67% in the first day. The water contact angle increased and surface energy decreased after Hf implantation. Cell culture and methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium indicated that Hf-implanted NiTi expressed enhanced osteoblasts adhesion and proliferation, especially after 7 days culture. Hf implantation decreased fibrinogen adsorption, but had almost no effect on albumin adsorption. Platelets adhesion and activation were suppressed significantly (97% for 4 mA NiTi) and hemolysis rate was decreased by at least 57% after Hf implantation. Modified surface composition and morphology and decreased surface energy should be responsible for the improvement of cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. System integration and demonstration of adhesive bonded high temperature aluminum alloys for aerospace structure, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Anthony; Laakso, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive bonding materials and processes were evaluated for assembly of future high-temperature aluminum alloy structural components such as may be used in high-speed civil transport aircraft and space launch vehicles. A number of candidate high-temperature adhesives were selected and screening tests were conducted using single lap shear specimens. The selected adhesives were then used to bond sandwich (titanium core) test specimens, adhesive toughness test specimens, and isothermally aged lap shear specimens. Moderate-to-high lap shear strengths were obtained from bonded high-temperature aluminum and silicon carbide particulate-reinforced (SiC(sub p)) aluminum specimens. Shear strengths typically exceeded 3500 to 4000 lb/in(sup 2) and flatwise tensile strengths exceeded 750 lb/in(sup 2) even at elevated temperatures (300 F) using a bismaleimide adhesive. All faceskin-to-core bonds displayed excellent tear strength. The existing production phosphoric acid anodize surface preparation process developed at Boeing was used, and gave good performance with all of the aluminum and silicon carbide particulate-reinforced aluminum alloys investigated. The results of this program support using bonded assemblies of high-temperature aluminum components in applications where bonding is often used (e.g., secondary structures and tear stoppers).

  6. Comparison of Shear Bond Strengths of three resin systems for a Base Metal Alloy bonded to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlali H

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (F.P.D can be used for conservative treatment of partially edentulous"npatients. There are numerous studies regarding the strength of resin composite bond to base meta! alloys. Shear bond"nstrength of three resin systems were invistigated. In this study these systems consisted of: Panavia Ex, Mirage FLC and"nMarathon V. Thirty base metal specimens were prepared from rexillium III alloy and divided into three groups. Then each"ngroup was bonded to enamel of human extracted molar teeth with these systems. All of specimens were stored in water at"n37ac for 48 hours. A shear force was applied to each specimen by the instron universal testing machine. A statistical"nevaluation of the data using one-way analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant difference (P<0.01"nbetween the bond strengths of these three groups."nThe base metal specimens bonded with panavia Ex luting agent, exhibited the highest mean bond strength. Shear bond"nstrength of the specimens bonded to enamel with Mirage F1C showed lower bond strenght than panavia EX. However, the"nlowest bond strength was obtained by the specimens bonded with Marathon V.

  7. Helium flaking in metals and alloys promising as first-wall materials in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, M.I.; Ionova, E.S.; Mansurova, A.N.; Martynenko, Yu.V.; Nikol'skij, Yu.V.; Stepanchikov, V.A.; Chelnokov, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    Main peculiar features of flaking (the process of separating an irradiated layer from the metal surface under the pressure of intruded gas) in dependence on radiation doses, target temperature during irradiation, ions energy, orientation and chemical composition of targets are given. A review is represented on flaking in various materials promising for the first wall in fusion reactors under helium ion bombardment. Flaking is observed in the temperature range of 0.1 to 0.45, Tsub(melt) and leads to surface erosion to a greater extent than blistering [ru

  8. Micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of medical implant material Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy on various friction pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenguo; Huang, Weijiu; Ma, Yanlong

    2014-09-01

    The micro-scale abrasion behaviors of surgical implant materials have often been reported in the literature. However, little work has been reported on the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn (TLM) titanium alloy in simulated body fluids, especially with respect to friction pairs. Therefore, a TE66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester was used to study the micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of the TLM alloy. This study covers the friction coefficient and wear loss of the TLM alloy induced by various friction pairs. Different friction pairs comprised of ZrO2, Si3N4 and Al2O3 ceramic balls with 25.4mm diameters were employed. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanisms and synergistic effect between corrosion and micro-abrasion of the TLM alloy were investigated under various wear-corrosion conditions employing an abrasive, comprised of SiC (3.5 ± 0.5 μm), in two test solutions, Hanks' solution and distilled water. Before the test, the specimens were heat treated at 760°C/1.0/AC+550°C/6.0/AC. It was discovered that the friction coefficient values of the TLM alloy are larger than those in distilled water regardless of friction pairs used, because of the corrosive Hanks' solution. It was also found that the value of the friction coefficient was volatile at the beginning of wear testing, and it became more stable with further experiments. Because the ceramic balls have different properties, especially with respect to the Vickers hardness (Hv), the wear loss of the TLM alloy increased as the ball hardness increased. In addition, the wear loss of the TLM alloy in Hanks' solution was greater than that in distilled water, and this was due to the synergistic effect of micro-abrasion and corrosion, and this micro-abrasion played a leading role in the wear process. The micro-scale abrasive wear mechanism of the TLM alloy gradually changed from two-body to mixed abrasion and then to three-body abrasion as the Vickers hardness of the balls increased. Copyright

  9. Alloying principles for magnesium base heat resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Oreshkina, A.A.; Nikitina, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Some binary systems of magnesium-base alloys in which solid solutions are formed, are considered for prospecting heat resistant alloys. It is shown that elements having essential solubility in solid magnesium strongly decreasing with temperature should be used for alloying maqnesium base alloys with high strength properties at increased temperatures. The strengthening phases in these alloys should comprise essential quantity of magnesium and be rather refractory

  10. Synthesis and thermoelectric performance of a p-type Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 material developed via mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Sandra; Perez, Jose G.; Tritt, Terry M.; Zhu, Song; Sosa-Sanchez, Jose L.; Martinez-Juarez, Javier; López, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper shows a Bi 1.6 Sb 0.4 Te 3 alloy prepared by MA-SPS process. • A ZT value of about 1.2–1.3 around 360 K was achieved for this compound. • The lower sintering process was carried out in a short time. • The resulting material has a very fine microstructure and high density. - Abstract: A p-type Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 thermoelectric compound was fabricated via mechanical alloying of bismuth, antimony and tellurium elemental powders as starting materials. The mechanically alloyed compositions were sintered through a spark-plasma sintering (SPS) process. The effect of the milling time was investigated. In order to characterize the powders obtained via mechanical alloying, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were used. The morphological evolution was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the p-type Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 compound was formed after 2 h of milling. Further, the variation of milling time showed that the synthesized phase was stable. All the powders exhibit the same morphology albeit with slight differences. Measurements of the electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity were performed in the temperature range 300–520 K for the SPS samples. The resulting thermoelectric figure of merit ZT reaches a maximum of 1.2 at 360 K for the p-type bulk material with a 5 h milling time. This study demonstrates the possibility of preparing thermoelectric materials of high performance and short processing time

  11. Low activation vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzenburg, W. van.

    1991-01-01

    The properties and general characteristics of vanadium-base alloys are reviewed in terms of the materials requirements for fusion reactor first wall and blanket structures. In this review attention is focussed on radiation response including induced radioactivity, mechanical properties, compatibility with potential coolants, physical and thermal properties, fabricability and resources. Where possible, properties are compared to those of other leading candidate structural materials, e.g. austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels. Vanadium alloys appear to offer advantages in the areas of long-term activation, mechanical properties at temperatures above 600 deg C, radiation resistance and thermo-hydraulic design, due to superior physical and thermal properties. They also have a potential for higher temperature operation in liquid lithium systems. Disadvantages are associated with their ability to retain high concentrations of hydrogen isotopes, higher cost, more difficult fabrication and welding. A particular concern regarding use of vanadium alloys relates their reactivity with non-metallic elements, such as oxygen and nitrogen. (author). 33 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Materials, Turbomachinery and Heat Exchangers for Supercritical CO2 Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Nellis, Greg; Corradini, Michael

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this project is to produce the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the supercritical carbon dioxide cycle. The activities include a study of materials compatibility of various alloys at high temperatures, the heat transfer and pressure drop in compact heat exchanger units, and turbomachinery issues, primarily leakage rates through dynamic seals. This experimental work will serve as a test bed for model development and design calculations, and will help define further tests necessary to develop high-efficiency power conversion cycles for use on a variety of reactor designs, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR) and very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). The research will be broken into three separate tasks. The first task deals with the analysis of materials related to the high-temperature S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. The most taxing materials issues with regard to the cycle are associated with the high temperatures in the reactor side heat exchanger and in the high-temperature turbine. The system could experience pressures as high as 20MPa and temperatures as high as 650°C. The second task deals with optimization of the heat exchangers required by the S-CO{sub 2} cycle; the S-CO{sub 2} flow passages in these heat exchangers are required whether the cycle is coupled with a VHTR or an SFR. At least three heat exchangers will be required: the pre-cooler before compression, the recuperator, and the heat exchanger that interfaces with the reactor coolant. Each of these heat exchangers is unique and must be optimized separately. The most challenging heat exchanger is likely the pre-cooler, as there is only about a 40°C temperature change but it operates close to the CO{sub 2} critical point, therefore inducing substantial changes in properties. The proposed research will focus on this most challenging component. The third task examines seal leakage through various dynamic seal designs under the conditions expected in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle

  13. Radioactive materials system of the ININ (SMATRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero G, E.; Ledezma F, L.E.; Valdivia R, D.

    2007-01-01

    The radioactive iodine (I-131) it is an isotope created starting from the iodine with the purpose of emitting radiation for medicinal use. When a small dose of I-131 is ingested, this is absorbed in the sanguine torrent in the gastrointestinal tract (Gl) and it is concentrated by the blood on the thyroid gland, where it begins to destroy the cells. This treatment makes that the activity of the thyroid decreases in great measure and in some cases it can transform an hyperactive thyroid in a hypoactive thyroid which requires additional treatments. The sodium iodide I-131 is one of the products elaborated and marketed by the ININ in the Radiopharmaceuticals and Radioisotopes production plant, dependent of the Radioactive Material Department of the Nuclear Applications in the Health Management. The Plant is the only one in its type that exists in the country, it has Sanitary License and Good Practice of Production Certificate, emitted by the Secretary of Health, and licenses for the handling and the transportation of radioactive material, sent by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards. Also, the quality system of the plant is certified under the ISO 9001:2000 standard. (Author)

  14. Local structure evolution of FexNi77-xCu(1-)Nb2P14B6 soft magnetic materials by mechanical alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S; Wei, S; Bian, Q; Li, Z

    2001-03-01

    Mechanically alloyed Fe(x)Ni77-xCu1Nb2P14B6 soft magnetic materials have been prepared with different atomic compositions. The alloy structures are investigated by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results show that mechanical alloying (MA) can drive the Fe(x)Ni77-xCu1Nb2P14B6 powder mixture to produce amorphous alloy while the atomic concentration of Fe element is about and over 40%. On the contrary, the MA Fe(x)Ni77 xCu1Nb2P14B6 is a solid solution with a fcc-like structure in the region of lower Fe atomic concentration (<22%), preserving a medium-range order around Ni and Fe atoms. Moreover, we have found that the local structure geometry of Fe atom is similar to that of Ni atom for all the MA Fe(x)Ni77-xCu1NbP14B6 samples. It indicates that the local structures of Fe and Ni atoms in a Fe(x)Ni77-xCu1Nb2P14B6 sample only depend on the x value of element Ni after ball milling.

  15. Current state of laser synthesis of metal and alloy nanoparticles as ligand-free reference materials for nano-toxicological assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Rehbock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the abundance of nanomaterials in medical devices and everyday products, toxicological effects related to nanoparticles released from these materials, e.g., by mechanical wear, are a growing matter of concern. Unfortunately, appropriate nanoparticles required for systematic toxicological evaluation of these materials are still lacking. Here, the ubiquitous presence of surface ligands, remaining from chemical synthesis are a major drawback as these organic residues may cause cross-contaminations in toxicological studies. Nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid are a promising alternative as this synthesis route provides totally ligand-free nanoparticles. The first part of this article reviews recent methods that allow the size control of laser-fabricated nanoparticles, focusing on laser post irradiation, delayed bioconjugation and in situ size quenching by low salinity electrolytes. Subsequent or parallel applications of these methods enable precise tuning of the particle diameters in a regime from 4–400 nm without utilization of any artificial surface ligands. The second paragraph of this article highlights the recent progress concerning the synthesis of composition controlled alloy nanoparticles by laser ablation in liquids. Here, binary and ternary alloy nanoparticles with totally homogeneous elemental distribution could be fabricated and the composition of these particles closely resembled bulk implant material. Finally, the model AuAg was used to systematically evaluate composition related toxicological effects of alloy nanoparticles. Here Ag+ ion release is identified as the most probable mechanism of toxicity when recent toxicological studies with gametes, mammalian cells and bacteria are considered.

  16. Material control system simulator user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    This report describes the use of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts.

  17. In vitro and in vivo studies on a Mg-Sr binary alloy system developed as a new kind of biodegradable metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Xie, X H; Li, N; Zheng, Y F; Qin, L

    2012-07-01

    Magnesium alloys have shown potential as biodegradable metallic materials for orthopedic applications due to their degradability, resemblance to cortical bone and biocompatible degradation/corrosion products. However, the fast corrosion rate and the potential toxicity of their alloying element limit the clinical application of Mg alloys. From the viewpoint of both metallurgy and biocompatibility, strontium (Sr) was selected to prepare hot rolled Mg-Sr binary alloys (with a Sr content ranging from 1 to 4 wt.%) in the present study. The optimal Sr content was screened with respect to the mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-Sr binary alloys and the feasibility of the use of Mg-Sr alloys as orthopedic biodegradable metals was investigated by in vitro cell experiments and intramedullary implantation tests. The mechanical properties and corrosion rates of Mg-Sr alloys were dose dependent with respect to the added Sr content. The as-rolled Mg-2Sr alloy exhibited the highest strength and slowest corrosion rate, suggesting that the optimal Sr content was 2 wt.%. The as-rolled Mg-2Sr alloy showed Grade I cytotoxicity and induced higher alkaline phosphatase activity than the other alloys. During the 4 weeks implantation period we saw gradual degradation of the as-rolled Mg-2Sr alloy within a bone tunnel. Micro-computer tomography and histological analysis showed an enhanced mineral density and thicker cortical bone around the experimental implants. Higher levels of Sr were observed in newly formed peri-implant bone compared with the control. In summary, this study shows that the optimal content of added Sr is 2 wt.% for binary Mg-Sr alloys in the rolled state and that the as-rolled Mg-2Sr alloy in vivo produces an acceptable host response. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Material behavior and physical chemistry in liquid metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book gives an overview of current work in liquid metal science and technology. Included are the topics of sodium corrosion and mass transfer, impurities in sodium, lithium corrosion, material behavior, lead corrosion, chemical reactions, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, solubility in alkali metals, and interstitial elements transfer. The 57 papers include one discussion report; the latter challenges the attempts made as reported in the other papers to determine the diffusing coefficients of the alloying elements during corrosion of austenitic stainless steel in liquid sodium. The preface groups the papers into logical categories and offers several overviews concerning results and findings. The index is to topics

  19. Time dependent argon glow discharge treatment of Al-alloy samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium alloy ultra-high vacuum system provides a convenient tool to access the UHV region due to short pump down time, its reduced weight, low cost etc. For UHV systems, aluminium and its alloys are preferred materials to stainless steel. A cylindrical discharge chamger of SS 304 with various ports on it, evacuated by ...

  20. Structural, mechanical and electrical properties of alloys in ternary Ag-Bi-Zn system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minic, Duško M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural, mechanical and electrical properties of selected alloys in ternary Ag-Bi-Zn system are presented in this paper. Chosen alloys were investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, light optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS, as well as by electrical conductivity and Brinell hardness measurements. Isolines of electrical conductivity and hardness for the entire Ag-Bi-Zn system were calculated using regression models.Este trabajo estudia las propiedades estructurales, mecánicas y eléctricas de aleaciones seleccionadas del sistema ternario Ag-Bi-Zn. Las aleaciones elegidas se han caracterizado por medio de difracción de rayos X, microscopía óptica, microscopía electrónica de barrido combinada con espectrometría de dispersión de energía, así como por medio de medidas de conductividad eléctrica y dureza Brinell. Por medio de modelos de regresión se han calculado las líneas de isoconductividad eléctrica y dureza para todo el sistema Ag-Bi-Zn.