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Sample records for alloy shrapnel rapidly

  1. Rapid solidification of immiscible alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, Enrica; Rizzi, Paola; Baricco, Marcello E-mail: marcello.baricco@unito.it

    2003-05-01

    Immiscible alloys have been rapidly solidified for the preparation of granular materials with giant magnetoresistance properties. Au-based (Au-Co and Au-Fe) and Cu-based (Cu-Co and Cu-Fe) systems have been investigated. Single supersaturated solid solution has been obtained for Au-Fe, whereas three FCC solid solutions with different Co content have been found for Au-Co. For Cu-Co and Cu-Fe a limit of solubility in Cu has been observed. Ni additions to Cu-Fe strongly enhance solid solubility. A thermodynamic analysis has been used to describe the competition between partition-less solidification and phase separation in undercooled liquid.

  2. New developments in rapidly solidified magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Chang, C.F. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Raybould, D. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); King, J.F. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Thistlethwaite, S. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    In the present paper, we will examine the new developments in the rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-Nd (EA55RS) alloy. We shall first briefly review the process scale-up currently employed for producing rapidly solidified magnesium alloys in large quantities, and then discuss the effect of billet size and processing parameters on the mechanical properties of various mill product forms such as extrusions and sheets. The superplastic behavior of EA55RS extrusions and rolled sheets are also discussed. Finally, some results on magnesium metal-matrix composites using rapidly solidified EA55RS matrix powders and SiC particulates are presented. (orig.)

  3. Rapidly solidified titanium alloys by melt overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Thomas A.; Bruce, Thomas J., Jr.; Hackman, Lloyd E.; Brasmer, Susan E.; Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Baeslack, William A., III

    1989-01-01

    A pilot plant scale furnace was designed and constructed for casting titanium alloy strips. The furnace combines plasma arc skull melting techniques with melt overflow rapid solidification technology. A mathematical model of the melting and casting process was developed. The furnace cast strip of a suitable length and width for use with honeycomb structures. Titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-14Al-21 Nb were successfully cast into strips. The strips were evaluated by optical metallography, microhardness measurements, chemical analysis, and cold rolling.

  4. Debris and Shrapnel Mitigation Procedure for NIF Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, D; Koniges, A; Landen, O; Masters, N; Fisher, A; Jones, O; Suratwala, T; Suter, L

    2007-09-04

    All experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will produce debris and shrapnel from vaporized, melted, or fragmented target/diagnostics components. For some experiments mitigation is needed to reduce the impact of debris and shrapnel on optics and diagnostics. The final optics, e.g., wedge focus lens, are protected by two layers of debris shields. There are 192 relatively thin (1-3 mm) disposable debris shields (DDS's) located in front of an equal number of thicker (10 mm) main debris shields (MDS's). The rate of deposition of debris on DDS's affects their replacement rate and hence has an impact on operations. Shrapnel (molten and solid) can have an impact on both types of debris shields. There is a benefit to better understanding these impacts and appropriate mitigation. Our experiments on the Omega laser showed that shrapnel from Ta pinhole foils could be redirected by tilting the foils. Other mitigation steps include changing location or material of the component identified as the shrapnel source. Decisions on the best method to reduce the impact of debris and shrapnel are based on results from a number of advanced simulation codes. These codes are validated by a series of dedicated experiments. One of the 3D codes, NIF's ALE-AMR, is being developed with the primary focus being a predictive capability for debris/shrapnel generation. Target experiments are planned next year on NIF using 96 beams. Evaluations of debris and shrapnel for hohlraum and capsule campaigns are presented.

  5. Rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-rare earth alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.F.; Das, S.K.; Raybould, D.

    1987-01-01

    Among the light metal alloys, magnesium is the lightest structural material except for beryllium, and yet magnesium alloys have not seen extensive use because of their poor strength and corrosion resistance. Rapid solidification technology offers a possible solution to these problems. A number of Mg-Al-Zn alloys containing rare earth (RE) elements (e.g. Ce, Pr, Y, and Nd) have been investigated using rapid solidification processing for possible structural applications. The processing consists of planar flow or jet casting into ribbons, pulverization of ribbon to powder, and consolidation of powder into bulk shapes. The mechanical properties of some of these alloys show attractive combinations of strength, ductility and corrosion resistance. The microstructures of these alloys are correlated with their mechanical properties. The rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-RE alloys show great potential for applications in automotive and aerospace industries. 7 references.

  6. Experiments for the validation of debris and shrapnel calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koniges, A E; Eder, D; Kalantar, D; Masters, N; Fisher, A; Anderson, R; Gunney, B; Brown, B; Sain, K [LLNL Livermore, CA (United States); Debonnel, C S; Bonneau, F; Bourgade, J-L; Combis, P; Jadaud, J-P; Maroni; Ulmer, J-L [CEA/DIF (France); Andrew, J [AWE (United Kingdom); Chevalier, J-M; Geille, A; Raffestin, D [CEA/CESTA (France)], E-mail: koniges@llnl.gov (and others)

    2008-05-15

    The debris and shrapnel generated by laser targets will play an increasingly major role in the operation of large laser facilities such as NIF, LMJ, and Orion. Past experience has shown that it is possible for such target debris/shrapnel to render diagnostics inoperable and also to penetrate or damage optical protection (debris) shields. We are developing the tools to evaluate target configurations, in order to better mitigate the generation and impact of debris/shrapnel, including development of dedicated modelling codes. In order to validate these predictive simulations, we briefly describe a series of experiments aimed at determining the amount of debris and/or shrapnel produced in controlled situations. We use glass plates and aerogel to capture generated debris/shrapnel. The experimental targets include hohlraums, halfraums, and thin foils in a variety of geometries. Post-shot analysis includes scanning electron microscopy and x-ray tomography. We show results from a few of these experiments and discuss related modelling efforts.

  7. Microstructural Investigations of Rapidly Solidified Al-Co-Y Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    B. Avar; Gogebakan, M.; Tarakci, M.; Y. Gencer; S. Kerli

    2013-01-01

    The alloys with different compositions in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Co-Y ternary system were prepared by conventional casting and further processed by melt-spinning technique. The microstructure and the thermal behavior of the alloys were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that only rapidly solidified Al85Co7Y8 alloy exhibited the best glass forming ...

  8. Experiments for the Validation of Debris and Shrapnel Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koniges, A E; Andrew, J; Eder, D; Kalantar, D; Masters, N; Fisher, A; Anderson, R; Gunney, B; Brown, B; Sain, K; Tobin, A M; Debonnel, C; Gielle, A; Combis, P; Jadaud, J P; Meyers, M; Jarmakani, H

    2007-08-29

    The debris and shrapnel generated by laser targets are important factors in the operation of a large laser facility such as NIF, LMJ, and Orion. Past experience has shown that it is possible for such target debris to render diagnostics inoperable and also to penetrate or damage optical protection (debris) shields. We are developing the tools to allow evaluation of target configurations in order to better mitigate the generation and impact of debris, including development of dedicated modeling codes. In order to validate these predictive simulations, we briefly describe a series of experiments aimed at determining the amount of debris and/or shrapnel produced in controlled situations. We use glass and aerogel to capture generated debris/shrapnel. The experimental targets include hohlraums (halfraums) and thin foils in a variety of geometries. Post-shot analysis includes scanning electron microscopy and x-ray tomography. We show the results of some of these experiments and discuss modeling efforts.

  9. Devitrification of rapidly quenched Al–Cu–Ti amorphous alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Misra; R S Tiwari; O N Srivastava

    2003-08-01

    X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to study the transformation from amorphous to icosahedral/crystalline phases in the rapidly quenched Al50Cu45Ti5 and Al45Cu45Ti10 alloys. In the present investigation, we have studied the formation and stability of amorphous phase in Al50Cu45Ti5 and Al45Cu45Ti10 rapidly quenched alloys. The DSC curve shows a broad complex type of exothermic overlapping peaks (288–550°C) for Al50Cu45Ti5 and a well defined peak around 373°C for Al45Cu45Ti10 alloy. In the case of Al50Cu45Ti5 alloy amorphous to icosahedral phase transformation has been observed after annealing at 280°C for 73 h. Large dendritic growth of icosahedral phase along with -Al phase has been found. Annealing of Al50Cu45Ti5 alloy at 400°C for 8 h results in formation of Al3Ti type phase. Al45Cu45Ti10 amorphous alloy is more stable in comparison to Al50Cu45Ti5 alloy and after annealing at 400°C for 8 h it also transforms to Al3Ti type phase. However, this alloy does not show amorphous to icosahedral phase transformation.

  10. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum alloys containing 10 to 11.5 wt. pct. of iron and 1.5 to 3 wt. pct. of chromium using the technique of rapid solidification powder metallurgy were studied. Alloys were prepared as thin ribbons (.002 inch thick) rapidly solidified at uniform rate of 10(6) C/second by the melt spinning process. The melt spun ribbons were pulverized into powders (-60 to 400 mesh) by a rotating hammer mill. The powders were consolidated by hot extrusion at a high reduction ratio of 50:1. The powder extrusion temperature was varied to determine the range of desirable processing conditions necessary to yield useful properties. Powders and consolidated alloys were characterized by SEM and optical metallography. The consolidated alloys were evaluated for (1) thermal stability, (2) tensile properties in the range, room temperature to 450 F, and (3) notch toughness in the range, room temperature to 450 F.

  11. Potential of rapid heat treatment of titanium alloys and steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivasishin, O.M.; Teliovich, R.V. [Institute of Metal Physics, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1999-05-15

    Rapid heat treatment (RHT) of titanium alloys and steels, which includes rapid heating into the single-phase field, {beta} and {gamma} of titanium alloys and steels, respectively, is reviewed. Heating rate is an important parameter that affects the mechanism and kinetics of phase and/or structural transformation. Refinement of grain structure, formation of micro-chemical inhomogeneity and substructure in the high temperature phase following RHT are addressed. Thermo-kinetic effects during rapid heating of material with an initial metastable (quenched or deformed) microstructure are discussed. The response of titanium alloys and steels to RHT is compared. The improvement in mechanical properties of both material system following RHT is also presented. (orig.) 48 refs.

  12. The structure of rapidly solidified Al- Fe- Cr alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearim, R.; Shechtman, D.

    1982-11-01

    Four aluminum alloys, designed for use at elevated temperatures, were studied. The alloys were supersaturated with iron and chromium, and one of them contained small amounts of Ti, V, and Zr. The starting materials were alloy powders made by the RSR (Rapid Solidification Rate) centrifugal atomization process. Extrusion bars were made from the four powders. The as-extruded microstructure and the microstructure of the alloys after annealing at 482 °C were investigated by optical and transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure consists of equiaxed grains of aluminum matrix and two types of precipitates, namely, Al3(Fe ,Cr) and a metastable phase, Al6(Fe,Cr). The precipitates were different in their shape, size, distribution, and location within the grains.

  13. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flinn, J.E. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  14. Structure of nanocomposites of Al–Fe alloys prepared by mechanical alloying and rapid solidification processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Nayak; B S Murty; S K Pabi

    2008-06-01

    Structures of Al-based nanocomposites of Al–Fe alloys prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) and subsequent annealing are compared with those obtained by rapid solidification processing (RSP). MA produced only supersaturated solid solution of Fe in Al up to 10 at.% Fe, while for higher Fe content up to 20 at.% the nonequilibrium intermetallic Al5Fe2 appeared. Subsequent annealing at 673 K resulted in more Al5Fe2 formation with very little coarsening. The equilibrium intermetallics, Al3Fe (Al13Fe4), was not observed even at this temperature. In contrast, ribbons of similar composition produced by RSP formed fine cellular or dendritic structure with nanosized dispersoids of possibly a nano-quasicrystalline phase and amorphous phase along with -Al depending on the Fe content in the alloys. This difference in the product structure can be attributed to the difference in alloying mechanisms in MA and RSP.

  15. Rapid solidification of undercooled Al-Cu-Si eutectic alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Ying; WEI BingBo

    2009-01-01

    Under the conventional solidification condition,a liquid aluminium alloy can be hardly undercooled because of oxidation.In this work,rapid solidification of an undercooled liquid Al,80.4Cu,13.6Si,6 ternary eutectic alloy was realized by the glass fluxing method combined with recycled superheating.The re-lationship between superheating and undercooling was investigated at a certain cooling rate of the alloy melt.The maximum undercooling is 147 K (0.18 TE).The undercooled ternary eutectic is composed of α(Al) solid solution,(Si) semiconductor and β(CuAl,2) intermetallic compound.In the (Al+Si+θ) ternary eutectic,(Si) faceted phase grows independently,while (Al) and θ non-faceted phases grow coopera-tively in the lamellar mode.When undercooling is small,only (Al) solid solution forms as the leading phase.Once undercooling exceeds 73 K,(Si) phase nucleates firstly and grows as the primary phase.The alloy microstructure consists of primary (Al) dendrite,(Al+9) pseudobinary eutectic and (Al+Si+θ) ternary eutectic at small undercooling,while at large undercooling primary (Si) block,(Al+θ) pseudo-binary eutectic and (Al+Si+θ) ternary eutectic coexist.As undercooling increases,the volume fraction of primary (Al) dendrite decreases and that of primary (Si) block increases.

  16. Phase transformations in titanium alloys hardened by rapid heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Oshkaderov, S.P.; Smirnov, A.M. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)

    Features of phase transformations in titanium alloys, which subjected to hardening by rapid heating, are studied. The model for mathematical description of ..cap alpha..+..beta.. ..-->.. ..beta..- transformation under the conditions of continuous heating with different rate, is proposed. The increase of the polymorphic transformation temperature with the heating rate, is predicted and confirmed experimentally. Under certain conditions this fact can result in a two-stage process, of ..cap alpha..+..beta.. ..-->.. ..beta..-transformation, which begins according to difussion mechanism, and completes according to the non-diffusion one. It is shown, that ..cap alpha..+..beta.. ..-->.. ..beta..-transformation under non-equilibrium conditions is followed by appearing of concentration non-uniformity in reacting phases, that essentially affects the grain and intragranular structure of hardened alloys, and their phase composition. Variants of phase composition of the alloys of different classes quenched after rapid heating in the ..beta..-field, are analyzed. Possible aspects of the effect of increased heating rates on the ageing process are considered.

  17. Hydrogen absorption and desorption in rapidly solidified Mg- Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgnani, J; Di Chio, M; Palumbo, M; Baricco, M [Dipartimento di Chimica I.F.M. and NIS, Universita di Torino, via P. Giuria, 10125, Torino (Italy); Feuerbacher, M [Institut fuer Mikrostrukturforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brand- Strasse, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Fernandez, J F; Leardini, F, E-mail: jacopo.urgnani@unito.i [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-01

    The addition of Al to Mg has been indicated as a suitable way to destabilise the hydride phase, in order to bring the absorption and desorption reactions close to reasonable temperatures and pressure values for hydrogen storage. Rapid solidification is known to refine the microstructure of Mg-Al alloys and it might improve the H{sub 2} absorption/desorption kinetics. In this paper, the interaction of H{sub 2} with rapidly solidified Mg-Al alloys have been studied for three different composition: Mg{sub 38.5}Al{sub 61.5}, Mg{sub 69}Al{sub 31} and Mg{sub 72}Al{sub 28}. For Mg{sub 72}Al{sub 28}, no significant changes in the microstructure have been obtained by rapid solidification. In Mg{sub 69}Al{sub 31}, a significant grain refinement has been observed, whereas, for Mg{sub 38.5}Al{sub 61.5}, the formation of a metastable hexagonal phase has been found. In all cases, a disproportionation reaction has been observed after H{sub 2} absorption, leading to MgH{sub 2}. After heating up to 430 deg. C the hydrogenated samples, a main desorption reaction from MgH{sub 2} has been observed, which brings again to the starting phases. Experimental results have been discussed on the basis of a thermodynamic assessment of the Mg-Al-H system.

  18. Rapid solidification of Cu-Fe-Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baricco, M.; Bosco, E.; Acconciaioco, G.; Rizzi, P.; Coisson, M

    2004-07-15

    Cu{sub 80-x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 20} (x=0, 5 and 20) alloys have been rapidly solidified by planar flow casting. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of as-quenched ribbons shows bcc-Fe precipitates embedded in an fcc phase (x=0), two co-existing fcc solid solutions (x=5) and a complete solid solution of the parent elements (x=20). Thermal treatments in the temperature range between 400 and 600 deg. C give precipitation and spinodal decomposition reactions. These phase transformations have been evidenced from a variation of lattice constants, from a broadening of diffraction peaks and from TEM observations. The role of Ni content on competition between precipitation and decomposition reactions during rapid solidification and annealing is discussed in terms of thermodynamic arguments. Recent CALPHAD assessment of thermodynamic properties for Cu-Fe-Ni system has been used for an estimation of composition and volume fraction of equilibrium phases.

  19. Shrapnel protection testing in support of the proposed Site 300 Contained Firing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrnak, J W; Baker, C F; Simmons, L F

    1992-08-04

    In preparation for the planned Contained Firing Facility at LLNL's Site 300, various multi-layered shrapnel protection schemes were investigated with the intent of minimizing the amount of material used in the shielding. As a result of testing, it was found that two pieces of 1-in.-thick mild steel plate provide adequate general-purpose protection from shrapnel generated by normal hydrodynamic and cylinder shots at Bunker 801. 8 refs.

  20. Rapid dendrite growth in quaternary Ni-based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The high undercooling and rapid solidification of Ni-10%Cu-10%Fe-10%Co quaternary alloy were achieved by electromagnetic levitation and glass fluxing techniques. The maximum undercooling of 276 K (0.16TL) was obtained in the experiments. All the solidified samples are determined to be α-Ni single-phase solid solutions by DSC thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. The microstructure of the α-Ni solid solution phase transfers from dendrite to equiaxed grain with an increase in undercooling, accompanied by the grain refinement effect. When the undercooling is very large, the solute trapping effect becomes quite significant and the microsegregation is suppressed. The experimental measurement of α-Ni dendrite growth velocity indicates that it increases with undercooling according to the relation, V=8×10-2×△T1.2.

  1. Rapid Solidification of AB{sub 5} Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbrandsen-Dahl, Sverre

    2002-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with rapid solidification of AB{sub 5} materials suitable for electrochemical hydrogen storage. The primary objective of the work has been to characterise the microstructure and crystal structure of the produced AB{sub 5} materials as a function of the process parameters, e.g. the cooling rate during rapid solidification, the determination of which has been paid special attention to. The thesis is divided into 6 parts, of which Part I is a literature review, starting with a short presentation of energy storage alternatives. Then a general review of metal hydrides and their utilisation as energy carriers is presented. This part also includes more detailed descriptions of the crystal structure, the chemical composition and the hydrogen storage properties of AB{sub 5} materials. Furthermore, a description of the chill-block melt spinning process and the gas atomisation process is given. In Part II of the thesis a digital photo calorimetric technique has been developed and applied for obtaining in situ temperature measurements during chill-block melt spinning of a Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5} hydride forming alloy (Mm = Mischmetal of rare earths). Compared with conventional colour transmission temperature measurements, this technique offers a special advantage in terms of a high temperature resolutional and positional accuracy, which under the prevailing experimental conditions were found to be {+-}29 K and {+-} 0.1 mm, respectively. Moreover, it is shown that the cooling rate in solid state is approximately 2.5 times higher than that observed during solidification, indicating that the solid ribbon stayed in intimate contact with the wheel surface down to very low metal temperatures before the bond was broken. During this contact period the cooling regime shifted from near ideal in the melt puddle to near Newtonian towards the end, when the heat transfer from the solid ribbon to the wheel became the rate controlling step. In Part III of the

  2. Velocities and Displacements of Shrapnel and a Shock Wave during Blast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-hui; TIAN Da-zhan; XU Jin-yu; ZHANG Hai-rong

    2007-01-01

    It is important to minimize the destruction of defense works when blasted. In our opinion,information in the available literature is very deficient. We now present our research results on better and simpler formulas for calculating the velocities and displacements of shrapnel and a shock wave;these formulas are indispensable for understanding the destruction of blast. Formulas now available in China are too complicated. In this paper, we derive Equation (13) as the formula for calculating the velocity of shrapnel and Equation (18) as that for calculating the velocity of a shock wave. We used the test data of Denver Research Institute, as reported in Reference 4, as numerical example and found that our Equations (13) and (18) give calculated results that agree well with their test data in two respects: (1) both test data and our calculations show that at first a shock wave is ahead of shrapnel,then their displacements are equal, and finally shrapnel is ahead of the shock wave; (2) when the displacements of shrapnel and shock wave are equal, the time is 0.34 s according to test data and 0.31 s according to our calculations.

  3. Debris and shrapnel assessments for National Ignition Facility targets and diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, N. D.; Fisher, A.; Kalantar, D.; Stölken, J.; Smith, C.; Vignes, R.; Burns, S.; Doeppner, T.; Kritcher, A.; Park, H.-S.

    2016-05-01

    High-energy laser experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) can create debris and shrapnel capable of damaging laser optics and diagnostic instruments. The size, composition and location of target components and sacrificial shielding (e.g., disposable debris shields, or diagnostic filters) and the protection they provide is constrained by many factors, including: chamber and diagnostic geometries, experimental goals and material considerations. An assessment of the generation, nature and velocity of shrapnel and debris and their potential threats is necessary prior to fielding targets or diagnostics. These assessments may influence target and shielding design, filter configurations and diagnostic selection. This paper will outline the approach used to manage the debris and shrapnel risk associated with NIF targets and diagnostics and present some aspects of two such cases: the Material Strength Rayleigh- Taylor campaign and the Mono Angle Crystal Spectrometer (MACS).

  4. Chest wall shrapnel-induced beryllium-sensitization and associated pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E; Shai, A Bar; Lerman, Y; Topilsky, M; Blanc, P D; Maier, L; Li, L; Chandra, S; Abraham, J M; Fomin, I; Aviram, G; Abraham, J L

    2012-10-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is an exposure-related granulomatous disease mimicking sarcoidosis. Beryllium exposure-associated disease occurs mainly via inhalation, but skin may also be a source of sensitization. A 65-year-old male with a history of war-related shrapnel wounds was initially diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Twenty years later, the possibility of a metal-related etiology for the lung disease was raised. A beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test, elemental analysis of removed shrapnel, and genetic studies were consistent with a diagnosis of CBD. This case demonstrates that retained beryllium-containing foreign bodies can be linked to a pathophysiologic response in the lung consistent with CBD.

  5. Rapid Solidification of AB{sub 5} Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbrandsen-Dahl, Sverre

    2002-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with rapid solidification of AB{sub 5} materials suitable for electrochemical hydrogen storage. The primary objective of the work has been to characterise the microstructure and crystal structure of the produced AB{sub 5} materials as a function of the process parameters, e.g. the cooling rate during rapid solidification, the determination of which has been paid special attention to. The thesis is divided into 6 parts, of which Part I is a literature review, starting with a short presentation of energy storage alternatives. Then a general review of metal hydrides and their utilisation as energy carriers is presented. This part also includes more detailed descriptions of the crystal structure, the chemical composition and the hydrogen storage properties of AB{sub 5} materials. Furthermore, a description of the chill-block melt spinning process and the gas atomisation process is given. In Part II of the thesis a digital photo calorimetric technique has been developed and applied for obtaining in situ temperature measurements during chill-block melt spinning of a Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5} hydride forming alloy (Mm = Mischmetal of rare earths). Compared with conventional colour transmission temperature measurements, this technique offers a special advantage in terms of a high temperature resolutional and positional accuracy, which under the prevailing experimental conditions were found to be {+-}29 K and {+-} 0.1 mm, respectively. Moreover, it is shown that the cooling rate in solid state is approximately 2.5 times higher than that observed during solidification, indicating that the solid ribbon stayed in intimate contact with the wheel surface down to very low metal temperatures before the bond was broken. During this contact period the cooling regime shifted from near ideal in the melt puddle to near Newtonian towards the end, when the heat transfer from the solid ribbon to the wheel became the rate controlling step. In Part III of the

  6. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.

    1987-01-01

    Marko's rapid solidification technology was applied to processing high strength aluminum alloys. Four classes of alloys, namely, Al-Li based (class 1), 2124 type (class 2), high temperature Al-Fe-Mo (class 3), and PM X7091 type (class 4) alloy, were produced as melt-spun ribbons. The ribbons were pulverized, cold compacted, hot-degassed, and consolidated through single or double stage extrusion. The mechanical properties of all four classes of alloys were measured at room and elevated temperatures and their microstructures were investigated optically and through electron microscopy. The microstructure of class 1 Al-Li-Mg alloy was predominantly unrecrystallized due to Zr addition. Yield strengths to the order of 50 Ksi were obtained, but tensile elongation in most cases remained below 2 percent. The class 2 alloys were modified composition of 2124 aluminum alloy, through addition of 0.6 weight percent Zr and 1 weight percent Ni. Nickel addition gave rise to a fine dispersion of intermetallic particles resisting coarsening during elevated temperature exposure. The class 2 alloy showed good combination of tensile strength and ductility and retained high strength after 1000 hour exposure at 177 C. The class 3 Al-Fe-Mo alloy showed high strength and good ductility both at room and high temperatures. The yield and tensile strength of class 4 alloy exceeded those of the commercial 7075 aluminum alloy.

  7. Quantification and micron-scale imaging of spatial distribution of trace beryllium in shrapnel fragments and metallurgic samples with correlative fluorescence detection method and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J L; Chandra, S; Agrawal, A

    2014-11-01

    Recently, a report raised the possibility of shrapnel-induced chronic beryllium disease from long-term exposure to the surface of retained aluminum shrapnel fragments in the body. Since the shrapnel fragments contained trace beryllium, methodological developments were needed for beryllium quantification and to study its spatial distribution in relation to other matrix elements, such as aluminum and iron, in metallurgic samples. In this work, we developed methodology for quantification of trace beryllium in samples of shrapnel fragments and other metallurgic sample-types with main matrix of aluminum (aluminum cans from soda, beer, carbonated water and aluminum foil). Sample preparation procedures were developed for dissolving beryllium for its quantification with the fluorescence detection method for homogenized measurements. The spatial distribution of trace beryllium on the sample surface and in 3D was imaged with a dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry instrument, CAMECA IMS 3f secondary ion mass spectrometry ion microscope. The beryllium content of shrapnel (∼100 ppb) was the same as the trace quantities of beryllium found in aluminum cans. The beryllium content of aluminum foil (∼25 ppb) was significantly lower than cans. SIMS imaging analysis revealed beryllium to be distributed in the form of low micron-sized particles and clusters distributed randomly in X-Y- and Z dimensions, and often in association with iron, in the main aluminum matrix of cans. These observations indicate a plausible formation of Be-Fe or Al-Be alloy in the matrix of cans. Further observations were made on fluids (carbonated water) for understanding if trace beryllium in cans leached out and contaminated the food product. A direct comparison of carbonated water in aluminum cans and plastic bottles revealed that beryllium was below the detection limits of the fluorescence detection method (∼0.01 ppb). These observations indicate that beryllium present in aluminum matrix was either

  8. Ultrasound imaging of embedded shrapnel facilitates diagnosis and management of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Hariharan; Cummings, Craig

    2013-06-01

    Trigger points can result from a variety of inciting events including muscle overuse, trauma, mechanical overload, and psychological stress. When the myofascial trigger points occur in cervical musculature, they have been known to cause headaches. Ultrasound imaging is being increasingly used for the diagnosis and interventional management of various painful conditions. A veteran was referred to the pain clinic for management of his severe headache following a gunshot wound to the neck with shrapnel embedded in the neck muscles a few years prior to presentation. He had no other comorbid conditions. Physical examination revealed a taut band in the neck. An ultrasound imaging of the neck over the taut band revealed the deformed shrapnel located within the levator scapulae muscle along with an associated trigger point in the same muscle. Ultrasound guided trigger point injection, followed by physical therapy resolved his symptoms. This is a unique report of embedded shrapnel and coexisting myofascial pain syndrome revealed by ultrasound imaging. The association between shrapnel and myofascial pain syndrome requires further investigation.

  9. Containerless rapid solidification of undercoolecl Cu-Co peritectic alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹崇德; 王楠; 魏炳波

    2000-01-01

    Droplets of Co-16%Cu and Co-71.6%Cu peritectic alloys were solidified during container-less processing in a 3-m drop tube. The microstructures of Co-16%Cu alloy droplets were characterized by dendritic or equiaxed α-Co phase with a small amount of Cu-rich solid solution distributed on α-Co phase boundaries. Two thresholds of droplet diameter were observed for Co-16%Cu alloy at which "equiaxed-dendritic-equiaxed" morphological transitions occur to primary α-Co phase. This conspicuous refinement of primary α-Co grains results from the fragmentation of α-Co dendrites caused by re-calescence effect. For Co-71.6% Cu alloy, the primary a-Co phase forms as coarse columnar dendrites in large droplets and equiaxed dendrites in small droplets. Theoretical calculations indicate that Marangoni migration contributes more to the growth of disperse Co-rich spheres by stimulating collision and coalescence than Stokes motion caused by the residual gravity in the falling Co-71.6%Cu alloy droplets.

  10. Containerless rapid solidification of undercooled Cu_Co peritectic alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Droplets of Co-16%Cu and Co-71.6%Cu peritectic alloys were solidified during containerless processing in a 3_m drop tube. The microstructures of Co-16%Cu alloy droplets were characterized by dendritic or equiaxed α-Co phase with a small amount of Cu-rich solid solution distributed on α-Co phase boundaries. Two thresholds of droplet diameter were observed for Co-16%Cu alloy at which "equiaxed-dendritic-equiaxed" morphological transitions occur to primary α-Co phase. This conspicuous refinement of primary α-Co grains results from the fragmentation of α-Co dendrites caused by recalescence effect. For Co-71.6%Cu alloy, the primary α-Co phase forms as coarse columnar dendrites in large droplets and equiaxed dendrites in small droplets. Theoretical calculations indicate that Marangoni migration contributes more to the growth of disperse Co-rich spheres by stimulating collision and coalescence than Stokes motion caused by the residual gravity in the falling Co-71.6%Cu alloy droplets.

  11. Increased corrosion resistance of the AZ80 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, E; Jan, L; Meshi, L; Goldman, J

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys are being considered as implantable biometals. Despite their excellent biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, their rapid corrosion is a major impediment precluding their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigate the potential for rapid solidification to increase the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys. To this end, the effect of rapid solidification on the environmental and stress corrosion behavior of the AZ80 Mg alloy vs. its conventionally cast counterpart was evaluated in simulated physiological electrolytes. The microstructural characteristics were examined by optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion, salt spraying, and potentiodynamic polarization. Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by Slow Strain Rate Testing. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of rapidly solidified ribbons is significantly improved relative to the conventional cast alloy due to the increased Al content dissolved in the α-Mg matrix and the correspondingly reduced presence of the β-phase (Mg17 Al12 ). Unfortunately, extrusion consolidated solidified ribbons exhibited a substantial reduction in the environmental performance and stress corrosion resistance. This was mainly attributed to the detrimental effect of the extrusion process, which enriched the iron impurities and increased the internal stresses by imposing a higher dislocation density. In terms of immersion tests, the average corrosion rate of the rapidly solidified ribbons was <0.4 mm/year compared with ∼2 mm/year for the conventionally cast alloy and 26 mm/year for the rapidly solidified extruded ribbons.

  12. High strength microstructural forms developed in titanium alloys by rapid heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivasishin, O.M. [Institute of Metal Physics, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2001-09-01

    It is shown that rapid heat treatment of alpha+beta and beta titanium alloys, which includes rapid heating of alloys with initial equiaxed microstructure into single-phase beta field is able to produce microstructural forms in which high strength can be well balanced with other mechanical properties. Main advantage of rapid heating approach comes from the possibility to extend the level of ''useful'' strength. Desirably high strength is provided by intragranular morphology and microchemistry while beta-grain refinement permits a reliability of such high strength conditions. (orig.)

  13. Rapid coating of AZ31 magnesium alloy with calcium deficient hydroxyapatite using microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yufu, E-mail: Yufu.Ren@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Zhou, Huan [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Nabiyouni, Maryam [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Due to their unique biodegradability, magnesium alloys have been recognized as suitable metallic implant materials for degradable bone implants and bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. However, the extremely high degradation rate of magnesium alloys in physiological environment has restricted its practical application. This paper reports the use of a novel microwave assisted coating technology to improve the in vitro corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg alloy AZ31. Results indicate that a dense calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) layer was uniformly coated on a AZ31 substrate in less than 10 min. Weight loss measurement and SEM were used to evaluate corrosion behaviors in vitro of coated samples and of non-coated samples. It was seen that CDHA coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of AZ31 alloy after 7 days of immersion in SBF. In addition, the prompt precipitation of bone-like apatite layer on the sample surface during immersion demonstrated a good bioactivity of the CDHA coatings. Proliferation of osteoblast cells was promoted in 5 days of incubation, which indicated that the CDHA coatings could improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. All the results suggest that the CDHA coatings, serving as a protective layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys. Furthermore, this microwave assisted coating technology could be a promising method for rapid surface modification of biomedical materials. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted coating process for biodegradable Mg alloy. • CDHA coatings were successfully developed on AZ31 alloy in minutes. • The as-deposited CDHA coatings significantly reduced the degradation rate of AZ31 alloy. • The CDHA coated AZ31 alloy showed good bioactivity and biocompatibility in vitro. • The microwave assisted coating process can be used as rapid surface modification for bioimplants.

  14. Microstructural evolution during containerless rapid solidification of Co-Si alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文静; 魏炳波

    2003-01-01

    The Co-12%Si hypoeutectic, Co-12.52%Si eutectic and Co-13%Si hypereutectic alloys are rapidly solidified in a containerless environment in a drop tube. Undercoolings up to 207K (0.14TE) are obtained, which play a dominant role in dendritic and eutectic growth. The coupled zone around Co-12.52%Si eutectic alloy has been calculated, which covers a composition range from 11.6 to 12.7%Si. A microstructural transition from lamellar eutectic to divorced eutectic occurs to Co-12.52%Si eutectic droplets with increasing undercooling. The lamellar eutectic structure of the Co-12.52%Si alloy consists of εCo and Co3Si phases at small undercooling. The CoaSi phase cannot decompose completely into εCo and αCo2Si phases. As undercooling becomes larger, the Co3Si phase grows very rapidly from the highly undercooled alloy melt to form a divorced eutectic. The structural morphology of the Co-12%Si alloy droplets transforms from εCo primary phase plus lamellar eutectic to anomalous eutectic, whereas the microstructure of Co-13%Si alloy droplets solution is the primary nucleation phase. In the highly undercooled alloy melts, the growth of εCo and Co3Si phases is controlled by solutal diffusion.

  15. Fatigue strength of MAR-M509 alloy with structure refined by rapid crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mróz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents test results of high-cycle (N>2⋅107 fatigue bending strength of MAR-M-509 cobalt alloy samples, as cast and aftersurface refining with a concentrated stream of heat. Tests were conducted on samples of MAR-M59 alloy casts, obtained using the lostwax method. Cast structure refining was performed with the GTAW method in argon atmosphere, using the current I = 200 A andelectrical arc scanning velocity vs = 250 mm/min. The effect of rapid crystallization occurring after the fusion process is refinement of the MAR-M509 alloy cast microstructure and significant improvement in bending fatigue strength.

  16. Structure of rapidly quenched Ga-free Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunol, J.J.; Escoda, L. [Department of Physics, University of Girona (P II, EPS) (Spain); Hernando, B.; Rosa, W.O.; Sanchez, T.; Santos, J.D.; Prida, V.M. [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo (Spain); Shavrov, V.G. [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronic of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15

    The development of magnetic shape memory alloys in ribbon form is a new field with interesting thermo-elastic and thermo-magnetic properties. In this work, two Ga-free Heusler alloys were obtained. It is found that is possible to obtain these materials with an austenite structure or with a martensite structure at room temperature. The lattice parameters are a = 0.5985(4) nm for the cubic L2{sub 1} austenite and a = 1.2604(5) nm, b = 0.4925(2) nm and c = 0.4775(9) nm for the orthorhombic martensite. Furthermore, the microstructure followed by scanning electron microscopy confirms the coexistence of equiaxial and columnar grains with an inhomogeneous distribution. The composition of each alloy is homogeneous. The control of different parameters, as the composition and the processing conditions can be a good option in order to obtain a material with the crystalline structure and the microstructure desired at room or near room temperature. This fact, can favours the applicability of this materials. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-12-31

    The present work summarizes recent progress in the investigation of nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys foils produced at exceptionally high cooling rates. We focus here on the potential of modification of hydrogen desorption kinetics in respect to weak and strong trapping sites that could serve as hydrogen sinks in Al materials. It is shown that it is important to elucidate the surface microstructure of the Al alloy foils at the submicrometer scale because rapidly solidified microstructural features affect hydrogen trapping at nanostructured defects. We discuss the profound influence of solute atoms on hydrogen−lattice defect interactions in the alloys. with emphasis on role of vacancies in hydrogen evolution; both rapidly solidified pure Al and conventionally processed aluminum samples are considered.

  18. Microstructure and Properties of Secondary Al-12%Si Alloy Rapidly Quenched from the Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaus, Alexander S.; Marukovich, Evgeny I.; Sahul, Martin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the effect of rapid quenching from the melt is investigated on the solidification microstructure and tensile properties of a secondary Al-12%Si alloy, which was cast in ingots measuring 45 mm in diameter and 200 mm in height. Compared with conventional casting into metallic molds, significant refinement of all the microstructural constituents was observed under the effect of rapid quenching, including primary α-Al, primary silicon, the eutectic and iron-rich intermetallics. The coarse plate-like to fine fibrous transition of eutectic silicon, and the change of coarse plate and needle-shaped iron-rich intermetallic phase particles to a well-dispersed morphology accompanied the microstructure refinement. Both the microstructure refinement and the favorable morphological changes of the phases resulted in the enhanced of tensile properties and more ductile fracture behavior of the alloy. T2 heat treatment additionally increases elongation of the rapidly quenched alloy.

  19. Tuning the Corrosion Behavior of Rapidly Solidified and Thermally-annealed Fe-Ti-Pd Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Sanchez, Sergio; Sort, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of rapidly solidified Fe(91-x)Ti9Pdx (x=0, 1, 3 5) alloys (wt. %), both in the as-cast and thermally annealed (i.e., slowly cooled) states, has been investigated by means of electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests. Addition of Pd shifts the corrosion potential towards more anodic values than in the Fe91Ti9 alloy, both in the as-cast and annealed samples. In turn, the processing route (rapid cooling vs. thermal annealing) has a strong influence i...

  20. Formation Processes of Nanocomposite Strengthening Particles in Rapidly Quenched Al-Sc-Zr Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kotko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition processes of supersaturated solid solution of aluminium alloys alloyed with Sc and Zr have been studied in the work. The binary hypereutectic Al-Sc alloys, hyperperitectic Al-Zr alloys and ternary Al-Sc-Zr alloys were chosen. Alloys were obtained by the melt-spinning. Melts were quenched from temperatures of Т = 1000 C and Т = 1400 ºC. The study of the structure of rapidly solidifyed binary Al alloys alloyed with Sc and Zr showed that the crystallization of anomalously supersaturated solid solution (Tquen. = 1400 ºC or the crystallization with the formation of "fan" structure (Tquen. = 1000 ºC are possible depending on the quenching temperature of the melt. The decomposition of anomalously supersaturated solid solution is continuous, with the precipitation of nano-sized spherical Al3X (X-Sc, Zr particles of L12-ordered phase which is isomorphous to matrix. It was found that the loss of thermal stability of Al-Sc alloys is due to the loss of coherence of the strengthening Al3Sc phase. In Al-Zr alloys the loss of strength is due to the formation of a stable tetragonal DO23-ordered A13Zr phase. After co-alloying of Al by Sc and Zr a bimodal grained structure was observed for the hypereutectic ternary alloy (Tquen. = 400ºC. Nano-sized grains of 50-60 nm were present on the boundaries of 1-2 µm large-sized grains. TEM shows the formation of nanocomposite Al3Zr/Al3Sc particles. The formation of Al3Zr shell changes the nature of the interfacial fit of the particle with the matrix and slows down the decomposition during the coalescence. Ternary Al-Sc-Zr alloys have significantly higher thermal stability during aging as compared to binary Al-Sc and Al-Zr alloys. Decomposition processes of supersaturated solid solution of aluminium alloys alloyed with Sc and Zr have been studied in the work. The binary hypereutectic Al-Sc alloys, hyperperitectic Al-Zr alloys and ternary Al-Sc-Zr alloys were chosen. Alloys were

  1. Rapid growth of nickel dendrite in highly undercooled Ni-Mo alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文静; 魏炳波

    2003-01-01

    Ni-39.3%Mo, Ni-45%Mo hypoeutectic alloys and Ni-47.7%Mo eutectic alloy have been rapidly solidified with different droplet sizes by containerless processing in a drop tube. For Ni-39.3%Mo hypoeutectic alloy, which corresponds to the maximum solid solubility of nickel phase, the solidification microstructure is characterized by nickel dendrite plus (Ni+NiMo) eutectic structure. The undercooling of this alloy up to 182 K has been realized in the experiments. With an increase in undercooling, the dendritic microstructure is refined. The microstructural evolution of primary Ni phase in Ni-45%Mo hypoeutectic alloy evolves from remelted dendrite to equiaxed grains, whereas Ni-47.7%Mo eutectic alloy exhibits a structural transition from lamellar eutectic to anomalous eutectic. Theoretical analyses indicate that, for Ni-39.3%Mo, Ni-45%Mo and Ni-47.7%Mo alloys, the nickel phase shows a transition from solutal-diffusion-controlled growth to thermal-diffusion-controlled growth at undercoolings of 66.6, 81.9 and 85.0 K. The critical transition temperature decreases with a reduction in the nickel content.

  2. Rapid Solidification of AB5 Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbrandsen-Dahl, Sverre

    2002-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with rapid solidification of AB5 materials suitable for electrochemical hydrogen storage. The primary objective of the work has been to characterise the microstructure and crystal structure of the produced AB5 materials as a function of the process parameters, e.g. the cooling rate during rapid solidification, the determination of which has been paid special attention to.The thesis is divided in to 6 parts, of which Part I is a literature review, starting wit...

  3. Influence of cooling rate on microstructure formation during rapid solidification of binary TiAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenel, C., E-mail: Christoph.Kenel@empa.ch; Leinenbach, C.

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Rapid solidification studies with varying cooling rates were realized for Ti–Al. • Experiments were combined with finite element simulations of heat transfer. • The resulting microstructure of Ti–Al alloys is strongly dependent on the Al content. • The microstructure and phase transformation behavior can be predicted. • The method allows alloy development for processes involving rapid solidification. - Abstract: Titanium aluminides as structural intermetallics are possible candidates for a potential weight reduction and increased performance of high temperature components. A method for the characterization of the microstructure formation in rapidly solidified alloys was developed and applied for binary Ti–(44–48)Al (at.%). The results show a strong dependency of the microstructure on the Al content at cooling rates between 6 ⋅ 10{sup 2} and 1.5 ⋅ 10{sup 4} K s{sup −1}. The formation of α → α{sub 2} ordering, lamellar α{sub 2} + γ colonies and interdendritic TiAl γ-phase were observed, depending on the Al amount. Based on thermodynamic calculations the observed microstructure can be explained using the CALPHAD approach taking into account the non-equilibrium conditions. The presented method provides a useful tool for alloy development for processing techniques involving rapid solidification with varying cooling rates.

  4. Microstructures and properties of rapidly solidified Mg-Zn-Ca alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Ternary alloys based on the Mg-Zn-Ca system were produced by twin-roll rapid solidification. The alloys were characterized by OM, SEM, HRTEM, XRD, EDS and Micro-hardness. The results show that the rapidly solidified flakes are of frnedendritic cell structures with the cell size ranging from 1 to 5 μn. The Mg-6Zn-5Ca alloy in RS and annealing (200 ℃ for 1 h) states are mainly composed of α-Mg, Mg2Ca, Ca2Mg6, Zn3 and a small quantity of Mg51Zn20, MgZn2 and Mg2Zn3. Micro-hardness increases with the increment of Ca content and age hardening occurs after aging at 200 ℃ in the flakes probably due to the precipitation strengthening of the fine precipitates Mg2Ca and Ca2Mg6, Zn3. Some phases at the grain boundary in Mg-6Zn-5Ca alloy are identified by means of HRTEM, which may be beneficial to the improvement in thermal stability of the alloy.

  5. Microstructural characteristics and electrical resistivity of rapidly solidified Co-Sn alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jinfeng; WANG Nan; WEI Bingbo

    2004-01-01

    The rapid solidification behavior of Co-Sn alloys was investigated by melt spinning method. The growth morphology of αCo phase in Co-20%Sn hypoeutectic alloy changes sensitively with cooling rate. A layer of columnar αCo dendrite forms near the roller side at low cooling rates. This region becomes small and disappears as the cooling rate increases and a kind of very fine homogeneous microstructure characterized by the distribution of equiaxed αCo dendrites in αCo3Sn matrix is subsequently produced. For Co-34.2%Sn eutectic alloy, anomalous eutectic forms within the whole range of cooling rates. The increase of cooling rate has two obvious effects on both alloys: one is the microstructure refinement, and the other is that it produces more crystal defects to intensify the scattering of free electrons, leading to a remarkable increase of electrical resistivity. Under the condition that the grain boundary reflection coefficient r approaches 1, the resistivity of rapidly solidified Co-Sn alloys can be predicted theoretically.

  6. Effects of partial crystallinity and quenched-in defects on corrosion of a rapidly solidified Ti–Cu alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Dutta; G K Dey

    2003-08-01

    Rapid solidification by planar flow casting has been found to have introduced deficiencies, viz. partial crystallinity, air pockets and compositional difference in the ribbons of rapidly solidified Ti42.9-Cu57.1 alloy. In order to investigate the effects of these deficiencies on the corrosion of rapidly solidified Ti42.9-Cu57.1 alloy ribbons, electrochemical behaviour of alloy ribbons has been investigated in the acidic chloride environments at room temperature by taking into consideration each side of the alloy ribbon separately. The alloy displayed passivity followed by pitting corrosion. In the as-solidified condition, air pockets appear to be the most detrimental defect from the viewpoint of corrosion resistance of the alloy ribbons.

  7. Microstructural Evolution of Rapidly Solidified Co-Mo and Ni-Mo Eutectic Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiujun HAN; Wenjing YAO; Bingbo WEI

    2003-01-01

    Droplets of Co-37.6 wt pct Mo and Ni-47.7 wt pct Mo eutectic alloys were rapidly solidified during containerless processing in a 3 m drop tube. A kind of anomalous eutectic appears in these two eutectic alloys when undercooling is beyond 56 and 61 K, respectively. The two eutectic phases in anomalous eutectic were observed to grow in dendrite manner. The formation of anomalous eutectic is ascribed to the cooperative dendrite growth of the two independently nucleated eutectic phases. Current dendrite and eutectic growth theories are applied to describe the observed processes.

  8. Model for calculation of microstructural development in rapidly directionally solidified immiscible alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵九洲

    2002-01-01

    A model has been developed for the calculation of the microstructural evolution in a rapidly directionally solidified immiscible alloy. Numerical solutions have been performed for Al-Pb immiscible alloys. The results demonstrate that at a higher solidification velocity a constitutional supercooling region appears in front of the solid/liquid interface and the liquid-liquid decomposition takes place in this region. A higher solidification velocity leads to a higher nucleation rate and, therefore, a higher number density of the minority phase droplets. As a result, the average radius of droplets in the melt at the solid/liquid interface decreases with the solidification velocity.

  9. Effect of preparation and test variables on the dissolution kinetics in saline solutions of rapidly solidified and standard magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, D.S. [School of Materials, Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Edyvean, R.G.J. [School of Materials, Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Jones, H. [School of Materials, Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sellars, C.M. [School of Materials, Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    Renewed interest in the factors that determine the corrosion characteristics of magnesium alloys has been stimulated of late by the opportunity to provide high strength, corrosion resistant magnesium alloys as ultralight castings and wrought products for automobile and aerospace applications. The present contribution forms part of continuing work at Sheffield to develop improved magnesium alloys by rapid solidification routes. It was motivated by the need to assess the usefulness of dissolution rate, measured during short-term immersion in 3% NaCl solution of rapidly solidified samples, such as splats or ribbons, as a screening parameter to select alloys for full evaluation in scale-up quantities. (orig.)

  10. Al-Si-Re Alloys Cast by the Rapid Solidification Process / Stopy Al-Si-Re Odlewane Metodą Rapid Solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymanek M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the studies described in this article was to present the effect of rare earth elements on aluminium alloys produced by an unconventional casting technique. The article gives characteristics of the thin strip of Al-Si-RE alloy produced by Rapid Solidification (RS. The effect of rare earth elements on structure refinement, i.e. on the size of near-eutectic crystallites in an aluminium-silicon alloy, was discussed. To determine the size of crystallites, the Scherrer X-ray diffraction method was used. The results presented capture relationships showing the effect of variable casting parameters and chemical composition on microstructure of the examined alloys. Rapid Solidification applied to Al-Si alloys with the addition of mischmetal (Ce, La, Ne, Pr refines their structure.

  11. Electronic properties and superconductivity of rapidly quenched Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, J.; Pavuna, D.; Cyrot-Lackmann, F.

    1987-12-15

    We present detailed studies of electronic properties of Al-Si alloys prepared in a nonequilibrium state by means of rapid solidification. The quenched alloys exhibit an enhanced superconducting transition temperature up to 6.2 K in an Al--Si 30 at. % alloy as well as an increased thermal slope of resistivity. Using differential scanning calorimetry, a large enthalpy variation (..delta..H = 4.1 kJ/mole for Al--Si 30 at. %) has been measured during the irreversible transition from the non- equilibrium state to the equilibrium one. This is mainly attributed to the energy difference between the metallic state of silicon atoms trapped in fcc aluminum matrix during quenching and the usual covalent state of silicon precipitates in an equilibrium state. This large energy difference is presented as the origin of a lattice instability which softens the phonon spectrum and gives rise to a stronger electron-phonon coupling. This appears to be a characteristic property of nonequilibrium Al-Si solid solutions, which is associated with the metallic state of silicon atoms. An interpretation of the T/sub c/ enhancement is proposed for both Al-Si and Al-Ge alloys based on the phonon softening in these nonequilibrium crystalline alloys.

  12. Recovery Phenomenon During Annealing of an As-Rapidly Solidified Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhigang; Mao, Shuaiying; Lin, Yaojun; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Limin

    2017-03-01

    It has been well documented that recovery occurring in metals/alloys produced via solid-state quenching involves only annihilation of supersaturated vacancies. Interestingly, in the present study, we observed completely different mechanisms underlying recovery during annealing of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7075 Al) alloy processed via liquid-state quenching, i.e., rapid solidification (specifically melt spinning herein). The as-melt-spun alloy consists of refined grains containing tangled dislocations inside the grains. Following annealing at 393 K (120 °C) for 24 hours, refined grain structure was still retained and grain sizes essentially remained unchanged, but subgrains separated by dense dislocation walls were generated at grain interiors, with a much lower density of dislocations at subgrain interiors than that in the as-melt-spun 7075 Al alloy and dislocation arrays inside some subgrains. The microstructural evolution suggests the absence of recrystallization and the occurrence of recovery primarily via the annihilation and rearrangement of dislocations and the formation of subgrains. Based on the stored energy in dislocations in, and the annealing temperature of, the as-melt-spun 7075 Al alloy, the recovery phenomenon was analyzed and discussed in detail.

  13. Homogenization of. beta. -solid solution upon rapid heating of two-phase titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grudnev, V.N.; Zhuravlav, A.F.; Zhuravlev, B.F.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Markovskiy, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    High temperature ..beta.. phase homogenization during rapid heating was studied in a Ti-Mo alloy by mathematical simulation and experimental observation. The method used allows quantitative estimation of the influence of the two major factors determining development of the process of homogenization of the ..beta.. solid solution: heating rate and initial structure dispersion. Successive quenching of specimens from increasing temperatures in the ..beta.. area provides a simple and reliable method of observing the process of homogenization. This method allows experimental development of equations similar to those calculated for the ..beta.. solid solution area with minimum alloying element content. The experimental and calculated results are similar for a heating rate of 300/sup 0/K per second. Heating rate and initial structure dispersion are found to be quite significant in the Ti-10% Mo alloy studied. A method is suggested for estimating the concentration state of impoverished sectors of the ..beta.. solid solution in commercial alloys during rapid heating and used to analyze the inhomogenization. 8 references, 6 figures.

  14. Structure and mechanical properties of high-temperature titanium alloys after rapid heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivasishin, O.M. (Inst. for Metal Physics, Kiev (Ukraine)); Luetjering, G. (Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany))

    1993-08-30

    In this study a new approach to optimizing the mechanical properties of high-temperature titanium alloys was developed. It is based on using rapid heating of equiaxed structures into the [beta]-field to achieve a fine [beta] grain size (less than or equal to 100 [mu]m), transforming on subsequent cooling into a fully lamellar structure. This fine [beta] grain size is an order of magnitude smaller than the grain sizes achieved by conventional furnace [beta]-treatment. Structures and mechanical properties (tensile, fatigue and creep) of high temperature alloys after rapid and conventional furnace heat treatments were compared. The results are discussed in terms of structure-property relationships. (orig.)

  15. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Rapidly Solidified Mg-Al-Zn-MM Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mg-Al-Zn-MM (misch metal) alloy powders were manufactured by inert gas atomization and the characteristics of alloy powders were investigated. In spite of the low fluidity and easy oxidation of the magnesium melt, the spherical powder was made successfully with the improved three piece nozzle systems of gas atomization unit.It was found that most of the solidified powders with particles size of less than 50 μm in diameter were single crystal and the solidification structure of rapidly solidified powders showed a typical dendritic morphology because of supercooling prior to nucleation. The spacing of secondary denrite arms was deceasing as the size of powders was decreasing. The rapidly solidified powders were consolidated by vacuum hot extrusion and the effects of misch metal addition to AZ91 on mechanical properties of extruded bars were also examined. During extrusion of the rapidly solidified powders, their dendritic structure was broken into fragments and remained as grains of about 3μm in size. The Mg-Al-Ce intermetallic compounds formed in the interdendritic regions of powders were finely broken, too. The tensile strength and ductility obtained in as-extruded Mg-9 wt pct Al-1 wt pct Zn-3 wt pct MM alloy were σT.S. =383 MPa and ε=10.6%, respectively. All of these improvements on mechanical properties were resulted from the refined microstructure and second-phase dispersions.

  16. Rapid solidification processing of iron-base alloys for structural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flinn, J.E.

    1991-09-01

    The response of iron-base alloys to rapid solidification is reviewed with an emphasis on the effects of processing on the microstructure and mechanical property behavior. The processing topics addressed are powder atomization, powder consolidation, joining, and thermal-mechanical exposure. The value of rapid solidification processing (RSP) lies in the ability to promote compositional homogeneity and retention of fine and stable (to high temperatures) microstructures. Achieving the maximum benefit from RSP requires proper application of the basic principles of composition control and rapid crystallization. This investigation has disclosed two very important facets of the RSP approach that can be applied using current technologies. Dissociated oxygen appears to play a significant role in stabilizing microstructural features. In conjunction with oxygen, vacancies trapped during crystallization provide a very stable matrix dispersion for enhanced strengthening. With a fundamental understanding of the response of iron-base alloys to RSP, alloys can be designed that will have substantially better properties and performance than their conventionally processed counterparts. 77 refs., 94 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Mechanical properties of amorphous alloys ribbons prepared by rapid quenching of the melt after different thermal treatments before quenching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabachnikova, ED; Bengus, VZ; Egorov, D V; Tsepelev, VS; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical properties of amorphous alloy are greatly influenced by the thermal treatment of its melt before rapid quenching. The strength and the fracture toughness of some amorphous alloys obtained after melt beating above the melt critical temperature T-CR are essentially higher than those obt

  18. Effects of rapid quenching on structure and cycle stability of La-Mg-Ni-Co type hydrogen storage alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiaoping; Lü Fanxiu; ZHANG Yanghuan; YANG Liying; FENG Meng; WANG Xinlin

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the cycle stability of La-Mg-Ni-Co type alloy electrode, rapid quenching technology was employed. The effects of rapid quenching on the microstructure and cycle stability of the alloy were investigated. The obtained results show that the La2Mg(Ni0.85Co0.15)9M0.1 (M=B, Cr) alloy electrodes are composed of (La, Mg)Ni3 phase, LaNi5 phase and a small amount of the LaNi2 phase. A trace of the Ni2B phase exists in the as-cast MB alloy, and the Ni2B phase in the alloy nearly disappears after rapid quenching. Rapid quenching technology can slightly improve the cycling life of the alloy. When the quenching rate increases from 0 m·s -1 (As-cast is defined as quenching rate of 0 m·s-1 ) to 30 m·s -1 , the cycle lives of the MB, M Cr alloys enhance from 86 and 87 cycles to 106 and 119 cycles, respectively. On the other hand, the average capacity decay rates of the MB, M Cr alloys decrease from 1.7172 and 1.7178 mAh·g-1·cycle-1 to 1.5751 and 1.3060 mAh·g-1·cycle-1 after 86 charge-discharges cycling, respectively.

  19. Effect of rapid solidification treatment on structure and electrochemical performance of low-Co AB5-type hydrogen storage alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚青荣; 唐莹; 周怀营; 邓健秋; 王仲民; 潘顺康; 饶光辉; 朱其明

    2014-01-01

    The effect of rapid solidification on structure and electrochemical performance of the LaNi4.5Co0.25Al0.25 hydrogen storage alloy was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and a simulated battery test, including maximum capacity, cycling stability, self-discharge, and high-rate discharge ability (HRD). All the melt-spun alloys were single-phase with the CaCu5-type structure (space groupP6/mmm). In comparison to the as-cast alloy, the rapidly quenched alloys manifested an improved homogeneity of com-position and expanded lattice parameters. The electrochemical measurements showed that the activation property, cycling stability and self-discharge of the alloy electrodes were also improved for the rapid solidified alloys. The HRDof the as-cast alloy was better than those of all the rapidly solidified alloys. As the quenching rate increased, the HRD and exchange current density first decreased and then increased.

  20. Influence of Alloying Treatment and Rapid Solidification on the Degradation Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg has drawn increasing attention as a tissue engineering material. However, there have been very few studies of laser-melted Mg-Zn alloys. In this study, four binary Mg-xZn (x = 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt. % alloys were fabricated by laser melting. The influence of zinc (Zn content and technique on the degradation behavior and mechanical properties of Mg were discussed. Results revealed that Mg-xZn alloys consisted of an α-Mg matrix and MgZn phases, which dispersed at the grain boundaries. In addition, the MgZn phase increased with the increase in Zn content. The laser-melted alloy had fine homogenous grains, with an average grain size of approximately 15 μm. Grain growth was effectively inhibited due to the precipitation of the MgZn phase and rapid solidification. Grain refinement consequently slowed down the degradation rate, with Zn content increasing to 6 wt. %. However, a further increase of Zn content accelerated the degradation rate due to the galvanic couple effect between α-Mg and MgZn. Moreover, the mechanical properties were improved due to the grain refinement and reinforcement of the MgZn phase.

  1. Rapid growth of primary dendrite in highly undercooled copper-antimany alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The droplets of Cu-11wt.%Sb hypoeutectic alloy have been rapidly solidified during containerless processing in a 3 m drop tube. The undercooling and cooling rates are estimated, and both play a dominant role in the dendritic growth of primary Cu phase. Undercoolings up to 200 K (0.16TL, where TL is the liquidus temperature) have been obtained in the experiment. With the increase of undercooling, the microstructural evolution of primary Cu phase proceeds from remelted dendrites to the equiaxed grains. A coarse dendritic grain microstructure can form in the undercooling range of 61~102 K and at cooling rates of 1.35×102~2.66×103 K/s. The segregationless solidification of Cu-11wt.%Sb hypoeutectic alloy occurs when undercooling is more than 176 K. The growth of primary Cu phase is mainly controlled by solute diffusion.

  2. Microstructure evolution of immiscible alloys during rapid cooling through miscibility gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘源; 郭景杰; 贾均; 李言祥; 赵九洲

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model was developed to describe the coarsening of the second phase droplets under the common action of nucleation, diffusional growth and Brownian collision between minority phase droplets during rapidly cooling a hypermonotectic alloy through its miscibility gap. The simulated results show that Brownian motion is an important factor influencing the coarsening process. A faster cooling rate leads the supersaturation of the matrix liquid and the nucleation rate to grow up to a higher level, but leads to a smaller droplet radius and a higher number density. This model is used to predict the microstructural evolution of melt-spun Al-30%In ribbon. The model reflects the real physical processes well and is expected to be applicable to other immiscible alloys or other preparing processes.

  3. Investigation of Intermetallic Compound Formed from Rapid Solidification of Al-Ti-RE Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明珊; 王振飞

    2004-01-01

    Al-Ti alloy containing rare earth elements can produce fine,uniform dispersion intermetallic phase through rapid solidification(RS)technology.RS Al-Ti-RE alloy can be designed for applications at elevated-temperature since the intermetallic compound has good thermal stability.A transmission electron microscopy investigation shows the intermetallic phase has a diamond cubic structure(a=1.47736 nm),with space group Fd3m.The chemical stoichiometry is Al20Ti2La.The particle is formed from the melting directly,prior to other phases,and the nucleus is formed from icosahedrons composed with twenty tetrahedrons.Twin crystal structure plays an important role in the nucleation stage.

  4. A Moessbauer effect study of structural ordering in rapidly quenched Fe-Ga alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlap, R.A. [Defence R and D Canada-Atlantic, P.O. Box 1012, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 3Z7 (Canada) and Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada) and Institute for Research in Materials, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada)]. E-mail: dunlap@fizz.phys.dal.ca; McGraw, J.D. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada); Farrell, S.P. [Defence R and D Canada-Atlantic, P.O. Box 1012, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 3Z7 (Canada)

    2006-10-15

    Samples of Fe{sub 100-} {sub x} Ga {sub x} (x=8.3, 17.9, 20.5 and 23.3) were prepared by rapid solidification from the melt using a single Cu roller. X-ray diffraction studies of all samples showed them to be single phase with the disordered BCC structure. No evidence of superlattice reflections from D0{sub 3} ordering was observed for any of the samples. Room-temperature {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer effect spectra indicated that all samples were ferromagnetically ordered. Spectra were fit to distributions of hyperfine fields. The x=8.3 sample showed a hyperfine field distribution that was single peaked and indicated a reasonably random distribution of local Fe environments. The x=17.9 and 20.5 samples showed hyperfine field distributions that were bimodal and indicated two distinct local Fe environments. The x=23.3 sample showed three distinct field components. It is suggested that the x=8.3, 17.9 and 20.5 alloys are primarily a disordered BCC phase. The x=8.3 alloy shows a small amount of short-range Ga-Ga pairing, while this short-range pairing is significantly greater in the x=17.9 and 20.5 alloys. The three field components in the x=23.3 alloy correspond well to the two sites associated with the D0{sub 3} phase and a third component corresponding to a remaining L1{sub 2} phase suggesting the presence of at least short-range D0{sub 3} clustering in this alloy.

  5. Microstructure refinement and hardening of Ag–20 wt.%Cu alloy by rapid solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussana, Danilo, E-mail: danilo.lussana@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Castellero, Alberto [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Vedani, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Ripamonti, Dario; Angella, Giuliano [Istituto IENI-CNR, Unità territoriale di Milano, Milano (Italy); Baricco, Marcello [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Ag80–Cu20 alloy were rapidly solidified by planar flow casting technique. • A significant refinement of the eutectic microstructure has been obtained. • A refinement of the primary silver-rich phase has been achieved with high cooling rate. • The hardness increases up to the 150% of the value of an annealed sample. - Abstract: Ag–20 wt.%Cu (wt%) hypoeutectic alloy has been rapidly solidified by means of planar flow casting technique. Two fcc solid solutions have been identified by X-ray diffraction. Microstructures have been observed by electron microscopy. A refinement of the eutectic microstructure, as well as of the Ag-rich primary phase, has been observed for high quenching rates, leading to a hardness value up to 235 Vickers. The lattice parameter and phase fraction of the Ag-rich solid solution increase as a function of quenching rates (i.e. wheel speed). The solidification processes occurring during rapid quenching have been described on the basis of thermodynamic and kinetic arguments.

  6. Microstructure, corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity of biodegradable Mg–Sn implant alloys prepared by sub-rapid solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chaoyong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401123 (China); Zhao, Shuang; Pan, Hucheng; Song, Kai [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Tang, Aitao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-09-01

    In this study, biodegradable Mg–Sn alloys were fabricated by sub-rapid solidification, and their microstructure, corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity were investigated by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, immersion test, potentiodynamic polarization test and cytotoxicity test. The results showed that the microstructure of Mg–1Sn alloy was almost equiaxed grain, while the Mg–Sn alloys with higher Sn content (Sn ≥ 3 wt.%) displayed α-Mg dendrites, and the secondary dendrite arm spacing of the primary α-Mg decreased significantly with increasing Sn content. The Mg–Sn alloys consisted of primary α-Mg matrix, Sn-rich segregation and Mg{sub 2}Sn phase, and the amount of Mg{sub 2}Sn phases increased with increasing Sn content. Potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests revealed that the corrosion rates of Mg–Sn alloys increased with increasing Sn content. Cytotoxicity test showed that Mg–1Sn and Mg–3Sn alloys were harmless to MG63 cells. These results of the present study indicated that Mg–1Sn and Mg–3Sn alloys were promising to be used as biodegradable implants. - Highlights: • Biodegradable Mg–Sn implant alloys were prepared by sub-rapid solidification. • Secondary dendrite arm spacing of alloys decreased with increasing Sn content. • Corrosion rates of alloys increased significantly with increasing Sn content. • Mg–1Sn and Mg–3Sn alloys were harmless to MG63 cells.

  7. Rapid dendritic growth of Al-Ge hypoeutectic alloy in a drop tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic growth in Al-45% Ge hypoeutectic alloy has been investigated during free fall in a 3 m drop tube. Calculations indicate that the undercooling obtained for the falling Al-45% Ge droplets ranges from 13 K to 201 K. The maximum undercooling attains 0.27TL. With the increase of undercooling, the primary (Al) phase undergoes a "columnar dendrite to equiaxed dendrite" structural transition. According to the current rapid dendritic growth theory, the growth of primary (Al) phase is always controlled by solute diffusion.

  8. Microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of laser rapidly formed Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Lei; CHEN Jing; LIN Xin; LU Xiao-wei; WANG Wei; HUANG Wei-dong

    2006-01-01

    Several tensile samples were prepared using laser rapid forming (LRF) with Ti-6Al-4V alloy as powder material, and the samples were annealed. The microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of laser formed Ti-6Al-4V alloy through annealing treatment were investigated. The short-term and long-term tensile tests at 350 ℃ were performed. The results show that the microstructure of LRF samples consists of the large columnar prior β grains which grow epitaxially from the substrate along the deposition direction. There are Widmanst-tten α laths in prior β grains, but α laths in annealed microstructure are coarser, and their aspect ratio is lower than that in as-deposited microstructure. In addition, the prior β grain boundary is also coarsened and broken off through the annealing treatment. The high temperature mechanical properties of the annealed LRF samples exceed those of casting alloy significantly, especially the stress-rupture lifetime reaches 661.7 h even while the test stress increases from initial value of 490 MPa to the final stress of 800 MPa gradually.

  9. ``Debussy'' Orion campaign for assessing target shrapnel originating from laser experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffestin, Didier; Jadaud, Jean-Paul; Andrew, Jim; Rubery, Mike; Videau, Laurent; Combis, Patrick; Chevalier, Jean-Marc; Galtie, Alain; Quessada, Jean-Hugues; Geille, Alain; CEA/DAM Team; AWE Team

    2014-10-01

    During plasma experiments on high energy laser facilities, debris and fragments originating from the target can result in significant damage to optics and/or equipment. In the scope of future experiments on the LMJ, it is thus necessary to develop an accurate predictive tool for assessing the speed, mass, state and direction of ejected material. In this context, a 28 shot campaign was performed in June 2014 on the Orion facility in collaboration with AWE. The first part was dedicated to the characterization of debris and shrapnel emitted from halfraum or cylinders using PDV laser velocimetry and passive collectors (aluminium and plastic sleeves, varagel and aerogel). The second part aimed at collecting basic data on fragmentation of samples (steel, Ta, Ti, Al, PMMA, SiO2) irradiated by x-rays using PDV measurement. Some preliminary data and observations will be presented and compared to simulations (CEA Esther code).

  10. Design and Analysis of Test Schemes of Static Postponing Time on Shrapnels Used to Riot Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Yong-hai; MIN Bi-bo; SUN Guo-ju

    2006-01-01

    The test scheme of static postponing time given in our actual national military test standard on shrapnels used to control riot is a nine-point test scheme on the combined action of three kinds of temperatures and three kinds of pressures,the consumed ammunitions are more excessive. Statistic analysis and tentative checkout about a lot of test data are done,feasibility gists are put forward for optimizing of the test design scheme. The optimizing design and data analysis of test scheme of the item are done by managing uniformity design theory, two scientific and reasonable six-point test schemes are confirmed. The feasibility and reliability of the optimizing design schemes put forward above are proved ulteriorly by test validating. The gained schemes not only have good design uniformity and little ammunition wastage and meet the test demand, but also have better forecast ability for the result data of other points using the mathematic models from the actual test points.

  11. Electrical and thermal conductivities of rapidly crystallized Cu-Zr alloys: The effect of anharmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uporov, S.; Bykov, V.; Estemirova, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a comprehensive study of electrical and thermal conductivities, specific heat and magnetic susceptibility of rapidly crystallized Cu100-xZrx (x = 20-90) alloys. X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed that all the prepared compositions had strongly textured and distorted crystal structures. Different monoclinic and other non-equilibrium phases were detected in the case of glass-forming samples, whereas the alloys without a tendency to form glassy state show almost equilibrium phase content. Metallic type of electrical conductivity and the Kondo anomaly were observed for all the examined samples. It was found that the electrical resistance data cannot be adequately described within the standard Bloch-Grüneisen theory. We use the Debye characteristic temperature as a linear function to fit the electrical conductivity accurately. The composition dependence of the electron density of states at the Fermi level (DOS) has been extracted from room temperature magnetic susceptibility. We found that the glass-forming alloys are characterized by abnormally large values of DOS, which are comparable to those of glassy analogues. Noticeable anharmonic contribution in total specific heat has been revealed for all the studied compositions. In order to estimate the effect of anharmonicity in the system under consideration, we analyzed composition and temperature dependencies of the studied thermal characteristics related to the Grüneisen coefficient. Basing on the results obtained in this study we propose a phenomenological concept to explain abnormal behavior of physical properties of glass-forming Cu-Zr alloys within the standard solid state theory taking into account anharmonic effects.

  12. High undercooling and rapid dendritic growth of Cu-Sb alloy in drop tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Droplets of Cu-20%Sb hypoeutectic alloy has been rapidly solidified in drop tube within the containerless condition. With the decrease of droplet diameter, undercooling increases and the microstructures of primary copper dendrite refines. Undercooling up to 207 K (0.17 TL) is obtained in experiment. Theoretic analysis indicated that, because of the broad temperature range of solidification, the rapid growth of primary copper dendrite is controlled by the solutal diffusion. Judging from the calculation of T0 curve in the phase diagram, it is shown that the critical undercooling of segregationless solidification is (T0 = 474 K. At the maximum undercooling of 207 K, the growth velocity of primary copper phase exceeds to 37 mm/s, and the distinct solute trapping occurs.

  13. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Novel Rapidly Solidified, High-Temperature Al-Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Mathaudhu, Suveen; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2016-02-12

    Rapid solidification (RS) processing, as a production method, offers a variety of unique properties based on far-from-equilibrium microstructures obtained through rapid cooling rates. In this study, we seek to investigate the microstructures and properties of a novel Al-alloy specifically designed for high temperature mechanical stability. Synthesis of, AlFe11.4Si1.8V1.6Mn0.9 (wt. %), was performed by two approaches: rotating cup atomization (“shot”) and melt spinning (“flake”). These methods were chosen because of their ability to produce alloys with tailored microstructures due to their inherent differences in cooling rate. The as-solidified precursor materials were microstructurally characterized with electron microscopy. The results show that the higher cooling rate flake material exhibited the formation of nanocrystalline regions as well additional phase morphologies not seen in the shot material. Secondary dendritic branching in the flake material was on the order of 0.1-0.25µm whereas branching in the shot material was 0.5-1.0µm. Consolidated and extruded material from both precursor materials was mechanically evaluated at both ambient and high (300°C) temperature. The consolidated RS flake material is shown to exhibit higher strengths than the shot material. The ultimate tensile strength of the melt spun flake was reported as 544.2MPa at room temperature and 298.0MPa at 300°C. These results forecast the ability to design alloys and processing approaches with unique non-equilibrium microstructures with robust mechanical properties at elevated temperatures.

  14. Rapid and Accurate Estimates of Alloy Phase Diagrams for Design and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teck; Johnson, Duane

    2009-03-01

    Based on first-principles cluster expansion (CE), we obtain rapid but accurate assessments of alloy T vs c phase diagrams from a mean-field theory that conserves sum rules over pair correlations. Such conserving mean-field theories are less complicated than the popular cluster variation method, and better reproduce the Monte Carlo (MC) phase boundaries and Tc for the nearest-neighbor Ising model [1]. The free-energy f(T,c) is a simple analytic expression and its value at fixed T or c is obtained by solving a set of n non-linear coupled equations, where n is determined by the number of sublattices in the groundstate structure and the range of pair correlations included. While MC is ``exact,'' conserving mean-field theories are 10 to 10^3 faster, allowing for rapid phase diagram construction, dramatically saving computation time. We have generalized the method to account for multibody interactions to enable phase diagram calculations via first-principles CE, and its accuracy is showed vis-à-vis exact MC for several alloy systems. The method is included in our Thermodynamic ToolKit (TTK), available for general use in 2009. [1] V. I. Tokar, Comput. Mater. Sci. 8 (1997), p.8

  15. Heterogeneous nucleation of the primary phase in the rapid solidification of Al-4.5wt%Cu alloy droplet

    OpenAIRE

    Maitre, A.; Bogno, A-A; Bedel, M; Reinhart, G; Henein, H

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper reports on rapid solidification of Al-Cu alloys. A heterogeneous nucleation/growth model coupled with a thermal model of a falling droplet through a stagnant gas was developed. The primary undercooling as well as the number of nucleation points was compared with Al-Cu alloy droplets produced by Impulse Atomization (IA). Based on experimental results from Neutron Diffraction, secondary (eutectic) phases were obtained. Then, primary and secondary undercoolings...

  16. On the Evolution of Quasicrystalline and Crystalline Phases in Rapidly Quenched Al-Co-Cu-Ni Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, T. P.; Mukhopadhyay, N. K.; Tiwari, R. S.; O. N. Srivastava

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of stable decagonal quasicrystalline phase in Al-Co-Ni and Al-Cu-Co alloys through conventional solidification is well established. Earlier, we have studied the effect of Cu substitution in place of Co in the Al70 Co15Ni15 alloy. Here we report the structural/micro-structural changes with substitution of Cu for Ni in rapidly solidified Al-Co-Ni alloys. The melt-spun ribbons have been characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (...

  17. Improved stress corrosion cracking resistance of a novel biodegradable EW62 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification, in simulated electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakimi, O.; Aghion, E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Goldman, J., E-mail: jgoldman@mtu.edu [Biomedical Engineering Department, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 49931 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The high corrosion rate of magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys precludes their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigated the potential for rapid solidification (RS) to increase the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of a novel Mg alloy, Mg–6%Nd–2%Y–0.5%Zr (EW62), in comparison to its conventionally cast (CC) counterpart. RS ribbons were extrusion consolidated in order to generate bioimplant-relevant geometries for testing and practical use. Microstructural characteristics were examined by SEM. Corrosion rates were calculated based upon hydrogen evolution during immersion testing. The surface layer of the tested alloys was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by slow strain rate testing and fractography. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the RS alloy is significantly improved relative to the CC alloy due to a supersaturated Nd enrichment that increases the Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in the external oxide layer, as well as a more homogeneous structure and reduced grain size. These improvements contributed to the reduced formation of hydrogen gas and hydrogen embrittlement, which reduced the SCC sensitivity relative to the CC alloy. Therefore, EW62 in the form of a rapidly solidified extruded structure may serve as a biodegradable implant for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Here we have evaluated the corrosion resistance of a novel Mg alloy (EW62). • Rapid solidification reduces the hydrogen gas evolution and hydrogen embrittlement. • Rapid solidification increases the stress corrosion cracking resistance of EW62. • Improvement is due to enrichment with supersaturated Nd in the external oxide film. • Rapidly solidified and extruded EW62 may serve as a biodegradable medical implant.

  18. Microstructure, biocorrosion and cytotoxicity evaluations of rapid solidified Mg-3Ca alloy ribbons as a biodegradable material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X N; Zhou, W R; Zheng, Y F [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, X L [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Cheng, Y, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.c [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Rapidly solidified (RS) Mg-3Ca alloy ribbons were prepared by the melt-spinning technique at different wheel rotating speeds (15 m s{sup -1}, 30 m s{sup -1} and 45 m s{sup -1}) with the as-cast Mg-3Ca alloy ingot as a raw material. The RS45 Mg-3Ca alloy ribbon showed a much more fine grain size feature (approximately 200-500 nm) in comparison to the coarse grain size (50-100 {mu}m) of the original as-cast Mg-3Ca alloy ingot. The corrosion electrochemical tests in simulated body fluid indicated that the corrosion rate of the as-cast Mg-3Ca alloy was strongly reduced by the RS procedure and tended to be further decreased with increasing wheel rotating speeds (1.43 mm yr{sup -1} for RS15, 0.94 mm yr{sup -1} for RS30 and 0.36 mm yr{sup -1} for RS45). The RS Mg-3Ca alloy ribbons showed more uniform corrosion morphology compared with the as-cast Mg-3Ca alloy after polarization. The cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that the three experimental as-spun Mg-3Ca alloy ribbon extracts did not induce toxicity to the L-929 cells, whereas the as-cast Mg-3Ca alloy ingot extract did. The L-929 cells showed more improved adhesion on the surfaces of the three as-spun Mg-3Ca alloy ribbons than that of the as-cast Mg-3Ca alloy ingot.

  19. Microstructure, biocorrosion and cytotoxicity evaluations of rapid solidified Mg-3Ca alloy ribbons as a biodegradable material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Li, X L; Zhou, W R; Cheng, Y; Zheng, Y F

    2010-06-01

    Rapidly solidified (RS) Mg–3Ca alloy ribbons were prepared by the melt-spinning technique at different wheel rotating speeds (15 m s(-1), 30 m s(-1) and 45 m s(-1) with the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot as a raw material. The RS45 Mg–3Ca alloy ribbon showed a much more fine grain size feature (approximately 200–500 nm) in comparison to the coarse grain size (50–100 μm)of the original as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot. The corrosion electrochemical tests in simulated body fluid indicated that the corrosion rate of the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy was strongly reduced by the RS procedure and tended to be further decreased with increasing wheel rotating speeds(1.43 mm yr(-1) for RS15, 0.94 mm yr(-1) for RS30 and 0.36 mm yr(-1) for RS45). The RS Mg–3Ca alloy ribbons showed more uniform corrosion morphology compared with the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy after polarization. The cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that the three experimental as-spun Mg–3Ca alloy ribbon extracts did not induce toxicity to the L-929 cells,whereas the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot extract did. The L-929 cells showed more improved adhesion on the surfaces of the three as-spun Mg–3Ca alloy ribbons than that of the as-cast Mg–3Ca alloy ingot.

  20. Phase-field investigation on the non-equilibrium interface dynamics of rapid alloy solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    solute trapping models are not rigorously verified due to the difficulty in experimentally measuring under rapid growth conditions. Moreover, since these solute trapping models include kinetic parameters which are difficult to directly measure from experiments, application of the solute trapping models or the associated analytic rapid solidification model is limited. These theoretical models for steady state rapid solidification which incorporate the solute trapping models do not describe the interdependency of solute diffusion, interface kinetics, and alloy thermodynamics. The phase-field approach allows calculating, spontaneously, the non-equilibrium growth effects of alloys and the associated time-dependent growth dynamics, without making the assumptions that solute partitioning is an explicit function of velocity, as is the current convention. In the research described here, by utilizing the phase-field model in the thin-interface limit, incorporating the anti-trapping current term, more quantitatively valid interface kinetics and solute diffusion across the interface are calculated. In order to sufficiently resolve the physical length scales (i.e. interface thickness and diffusion boundary length), grid spacings are continually adjusted in calculations. The full trajectories of transient planar growth dynamics under rapid directional solidification conditions with different pulling velocities are described. As a validation of a model, the predicted steady state conditions are consistent with the analytic approach for rapid growth. It was confirmed that rapid interface dynamics exhibits the abrupt acceleration of the planar front when the effect of the non-equilibrium solute partitioning at the interface becomes signi ficant. This is consistent with the previous linear stability analysis for the non-equilibrium interface dynamics. With an appropriate growth condition, the continuous oscillation dynamics was able to be simulated using continually adjusting grid

  1. Rapid solidification and dendrite growth of ternary Fe-Sn-Ge and Cu-Pb-Ge monotectic alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The phase separation and dendrite growth characteristics of ternary Fe-43.9%Sn- 10%Ge and Cu-35.5%Pb-5%Ge monotectic alloys were studied systematically by the glass fluxing method under substantial undercooling conditions. The maximum undercoolings obtained in this work are 245 and 257 K, respectively, for these two alloys. All of the solidified samples exhibit serious macrosegregation, indicating that the homogenous alloy melt is separated into two liquid phases prior to rapid solidification. The solidification structures consist of four phases including α-Fe, (Sn), FeSn and FeSn2 in Fe-43.9%Sn-10%Ge ternary alloy, whereas only (Cu) and (Pb) solid solution phases in Cu-35.5%Pb-5%Ge alloy under different undercool- ings. In the process of rapid monotectic solidification, α-Fe and (Cu) phases grow in a dendritic mode, and the transition "dendrite→monotectic cell" happens when alloy undercoolings become sufficiently large. The dendrite growth velocities of α-Fe and (Cu) phases are found to increase with undercooling according to an exponential relation.

  2. Rapid solidification and dendrite growth of ternary Fe-Sn-Ge and Cu-Pb-Ge monotectic alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XueHua; RUAN Ying; WANG WeiLi; WEI BingBo

    2007-01-01

    The phase separation and dendrite growth characteristics of ternary Fe-43.9%Sn- 10%Ge and Cu-35.5%Pb-5%Ge monotectic alloys were studied systematically by the glass fluxing method under substantial undercooling conditions. The maximum undercoolings obtained in this work are 245 and 257 K, respectively, for these two alloys. All of the solidified samples exhibit serious macrosegregation, indicating that the homogenous alloy melt is separated into two liquid phases prior to rapid solidification. The solidification structures consist of four phases including α-Fe, (Sn), FeSn and FeSn2 in Fe-43.9%Sn-10%Ge ternary alloy, whereas only (Cu) and (Pb) solid solution phases in Cu-35.5%Pb-5%Ge alloy under different undercoolings. In the process of rapid monotectic solidification, α-Fe and (Cu) phases grow in a dendritic mode, and the transition "dendrite→monotectic cell" happens when alloy undercoolings become sufficiently large. The dendrite growth velocities of α-Fe and (Cu) phases are found to increase with undercooling according to an exponential relation.

  3. Effect of Rapid Quenching on Electrochemical Properties of AB5 and AB3.5-Type Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ping; Zheng Xueping; An Fuqiang; Islam S. Humail; Qu Xuanhui

    2007-01-01

    Effect of rapid quenching on the electrochemical properties of AB5 and AB3.5-type hydrogen storage alloys was studied. The results indicated that the discharge capacities of the rapid quenching MmNi3.55 Co0.75 Mn0.4Al0.3 alloys decrease under 25 and -35℃ with the increase of the quenching rate. Comparatively, the decrease extent of the quenching alloys at -35℃ is lower than that at 25℃. The result on the study of the cycle life indicated that the quenching process was favorable to improve the cycle stabilities of the MmNi3.55Co0.75-Mn0.4Al0.3alloys under 25 and -35℃. Whereas, the effect of the quenching process on the La0.7Mg0.3(Ni0.85Co0.15)3.5 alloy was different at 25℃ from at -35℃. Under 25℃, the cycle life of the alloy was obviously improved by the quenching process, however, the quenching process did not improve but decreased slightly the cycle life at -35℃.

  4. Improved stress corrosion cracking resistance of a novel biodegradable EW62 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification, in simulated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, O; Aghion, E; Goldman, J

    2015-06-01

    The high corrosion rate of magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys precludes their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigated the potential for rapid solidification (RS) to increase the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of a novel Mg alloy, Mg-6%Nd-2%Y-0.5%Zr (EW62), in comparison to its conventionally cast (CC) counterpart. RS ribbons were extrusion consolidated in order to generate bioimplant-relevant geometries for testing and practical use. Microstructural characteristics were examined by SEM. Corrosion rates were calculated based upon hydrogen evolution during immersion testing. The surface layer of the tested alloys was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by slow strain rate testing and fractography. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the RS alloy is significantly improved relative to the CC alloy due to a supersaturated Nd enrichment that increases the Nd2O3 content in the external oxide layer, as well as a more homogeneous structure and reduced grain size. These improvements contributed to the reduced formation of hydrogen gas and hydrogen embrittlement, which reduced the SCC sensitivity relative to the CC alloy. Therefore, EW62 in the form of a rapidly solidified extruded structure may serve as a biodegradable implant for biomedical applications.

  5. Phase separation and rapid solidification of liquid Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI FuPing; CAO ChongDe; WEI BingBo

    2007-01-01

    The metastable liquid phase separation and rapid solidification of Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy were investigated by using the drop tube technique and the differential scanning calorimetry method. It was found that the critical temperature of metastable liquid phase separation in this alloy is 1623.5 K, and the two separated liquid phases solidify as Cu(Fe,Co) and Fe(Cu,Co) solid solutions, respectively. The undercooling and cooling rate of droplets processed in the drop tube increase with the decrease of their diameters. During the drop tube processing, the structural morphologies of undercooled droplets are strongly dependent on the cooling rate. With the increase of the cooling rate, Fe(Cu,Co) spheres are refined greatly and become uniformly dispersed in the Cu-rich matrix. The calculations of Marangoni migration velocity (VM) and Stokes motion velocity (VS) of Fe(Cu,Co) droplets indicated that Marangoni migration contributes more to the coarsening and congregation of the minor phase during free fall. At the same undercooling, the VM/VS ratio increases drastically as Fe(Cu,Co) droplet size decreases. On the other hand, a larger undercooling tends to increase the VM/VS value for Fe(Cu,Co) droplets with the same size.

  6. Phase separation and rapid solidification of liquid Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The metastable liquid phase separation and rapid solidification of Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy were investigated by using the drop tube technique and the differential scanning calorimetry method. It was found that the critical temperature of metastable liquid phase separation in this alloy is 1623.5 K, and the two sepa- rated liquid phases solidify as Cu(Fe,Co) and Fe(Cu,Co) solid solutions, respec- tively. The undercooling and cooling rate of droplets processed in the drop tube increase with the decrease of their diameters. During the drop tube processing, the structural morphologies of undercooled droplets are strongly dependent on the cooling rate. With the increase of the cooling rate, Fe(Cu,Co) spheres are refined greatly and become uniformly dispersed in the Cu-rich matrix. The calculations of Marangoni migration velocity (VM) and Stokes motion velocity (VS) of Fe(Cu,Co) droplets indicated that Marangoni migration contributes more to the coarsening and congregation of the minor phase during free fall. At the same undercooling, the VM/VS ratio increases drastically as Fe(Cu,Co) droplet size decreases. On the other hand, a larger undercooling tends to increase the VM/VS value for Fe(Cu,Co) drop- lets with the same size.

  7. Recrystallisation in a cold drawn low cost beta titanium alloy during rapid resistance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2519 (Australia); Vu, Viet Q.; Saleh, Ahmed A. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Markovsky, Pavlo E.; Ivasishin, Orest M. [Institute for Metal Physics, National Academy of Sciences Ukraine, UA-03142 Kiev (Ukraine); Davies, Christopher H.J. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Pereloma, Elena V. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2519 (Australia); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • First EBSD study of cold drawn and rapid annealed LCB-Ti. • Maps are deconstructed into deformed, recovered, newly nucleated and growing grains. • Specific interfacial areas calculate apparent growth rates and activation energy. • The solute drag effect during grain growth is quantified. • Discontinuous and continuous recrystallization varies with cold drawing reduction. -- Abstract: The microstructure and micro-texture evolution in an 80% and 90% cold drawn LCB-Ti alloy subjected to rapid annealing was analysed via electron back-scattering diffraction. The partially recrystallised microstructures were deconstructed into four fractions comprising deformed, recovered, newly nucleated and growing grains. The specific interfacial areas of the various recrystallisation fronts were used to estimate the activation energy for boundary migration. It is inferred that diffusion controlled boundary migration is operational during rapid heating as the apparent activation energies for the deformed–recrystallised interfaces are close to the activation energy for the self-diffusion of β-Ti. Compared to the newly nucleated grains, the increase in the apparent activation energy of the growing grains suggests solute drag effects during the growth stage. The recrystallisation micro-textures of both cold drawn reductions exhibit varying extents of high and low energy discontinuous recrystallisation and continuous recrystallisation.

  8. Microstructure Evolution and Biodegradation Behavior of Laser Rapid Solidified Mg–Al–Zn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongxian He

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The too fast degradation of magnesium (Mg alloys is a major impediment hindering their orthopedic application, despite their superior mechanical properties and favorable biocompatibility. In this study, the degradation resistance of AZ61 (Al 6 wt. %, Zn 1 wt. %, remaining Mg was enhanced by rapid solidification via selective laser melting (SLM. The results indicated that an increase of the laser power was beneficial for enhancing degradation resistance and microhardness due to the increase of relative density and formation of uniformed equiaxed grains. However, too high a laser power led to the increase of mass loss and decrease of microhardness due to coarsened equiaxed grains and a reduced solid solution of Al in the Mg matrix. In addition, immersion tests showed that the apatite increased with the increase of immersion time, which indicated that SLMed AZ61 possessed good bioactivity.

  9. Rapid structural mapping of ternary metallic alloy systems using the combinatorial approach and cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C J; Hattrick-Simpers, J; Murakami, M; Srivastava, R C; Takeuchi, I; Karen, V L; Li, X

    2007-07-01

    We are developing a procedure for the quick identification of structural phases in thin film composition spread experiments which map large fractions of compositional phase diagrams of ternary metallic alloy systems. An in-house scanning x-ray microdiffractometer is used to obtain x-ray spectra from 273 different compositions on a single composition spread library. A cluster analysis software is then used to sort the spectra into groups in order to rapidly discover the distribution of phases on the ternary diagram. The most representative pattern of each group is then compared to a database of known structures to identify known phases. Using this method, the arduous analysis and classification of hundreds of spectra is reduced to a much shorter analysis of only a few spectra.

  10. Influence of sub-rapid solidification on microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ61A magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure of sub-rapid solidification processed AZ61A magnesium alloy was presented and discussed. The results show that the grain size of the foil is significantly refined, and the grain morphology is cellular or globular. The eutectic transformation L→α-Mg+β-Mg17Al12 and microsegregation in conventionally solidified AZ61A alloy are suppressed to a great extent.The β-Mg17Al12 phases located in the α-Mg grain boundaries are largely decreased due to high solidification cooling rate. As a consequence, the alloying elements Al, Zn, Mn show much higher solid solubility and the sub-rapid solidification microstructure dominantly consists of supersaturated α-Mg solid solution. The mechanical properties and fractographic analysis reveal that the fracture mechanism and corresponding morphology of the rapture surface of tensile bars are linked to the microstructure obtained and depend on the sub-solidification processes.

  11. Phase-field investigation on the non-equilibrium interface dynamics of rapid alloy solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    solute trapping models are not rigorously verified due to the difficulty in experimentally measuring under rapid growth conditions. Moreover, since these solute trapping models include kinetic parameters which are difficult to directly measure from experiments, application of the solute trapping models or the associated analytic rapid solidification model is limited. These theoretical models for steady state rapid solidification which incorporate the solute trapping models do not describe the interdependency of solute diffusion, interface kinetics, and alloy thermodynamics. The phase-field approach allows calculating, spontaneously, the non-equilibrium growth effects of alloys and the associated time-dependent growth dynamics, without making the assumptions that solute partitioning is an explicit function of velocity, as is the current convention. In the research described here, by utilizing the phase-field model in the thin-interface limit, incorporating the anti-trapping current term, more quantitatively valid interface kinetics and solute diffusion across the interface are calculated. In order to sufficiently resolve the physical length scales (i.e. interface thickness and diffusion boundary length), grid spacings are continually adjusted in calculations. The full trajectories of transient planar growth dynamics under rapid directional solidification conditions with different pulling velocities are described. As a validation of a model, the predicted steady state conditions are consistent with the analytic approach for rapid growth. It was confirmed that rapid interface dynamics exhibits the abrupt acceleration of the planar front when the effect of the non-equilibrium solute partitioning at the interface becomes signi ficant. This is consistent with the previous linear stability analysis for the non-equilibrium interface dynamics. With an appropriate growth condition, the continuous oscillation dynamics was able to be simulated using continually adjusting grid

  12. Solidification characteristics of Fe-Ni peritectic alloy thin strips under a near-rapid solidification condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jiang Song

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an experimental investigation of the structure evolution and the solute distribution of 2 mm thick strips of Fe-(2.6, 4.2, 4.7, 7.9wt.%Ni peritectic alloy under a near-rapid solidification condition, which were in the regions of δ-ferrite single-phase, hypo-peritectic, hyper-peritectic and γ-austenite single-phase, respectively. The highest area ratio of equiaxed grain zone in the hyper-peritectic of Fe-4.7wt.%Ni alloy strip was observed, while other strips were mainly columnar grains. The lowest micro-segregation was obtained in the Fe-7.9wt.%Ni alloy strip, while micro-segregation in the Fe-4.7wt.%Ni alloy was the highest. As opposed to the micro-segregation, the macro-segregation of all the Fe-Ni strips was suppressed due to the rapid solidification rate. Finally, the structure formation mechanism of Fe-Ni alloy strips was analyzed.

  13. Microstructural evolution of Al-20Si-5Fe alloy during rapid solidification and hot consolidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Rajabi; M. Vahidi; A. Simchi; P. Davami

    2009-01-01

    Al-20Si-5Fe melt was rapidly solidified into particles and ribbons and then consolidated to near full density by hot pressing at 400℃/250 MPa/1 h. According to the eutectic-growth and dendritic-growth velocity models, the solidification front velocity and the amount of under-cooling were estimated for the particles with different sizes. Values of 0.43-1.2 cm/s and 15-28 K were obtained. The secondary dendrite arm spacing revealed a cooling rote of 6×10~5 K/s for the particles with an average size of 20 μm. Solidification models for the ribbons yielded a cooling rate of 5×10~7 K/s. As a result of the higher cooling rate, the melt-spun ribbons exhibited considerable microstructural refinement and modification, The size of the primary silicon decreased from approximately 1 μm to 30 nm while the formation of iron-containing inter-metallic compounds was suppressed, Supersaturation of the aluminum marx in an amount of~7 at.% Si was noticed from the XRD patterns. During the hot consolidation process, coarsening of the primary silicon particles and precipitation of β-Al_5FeSi phase were observed. Evalua-tion of the compressive strength and hardness of the alloy indicated an improvement in mechanical properties due to the microstructural modification.

  14. Rapidly solidified Fe-6.5%Si alloy powders for high frequency use (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duk Choi, Seung; Jin Yang, Choong

    1996-04-01

    Fe-(3˜6.5%) Si alloy powders having a high magnetic induction (Bs) and a low core loss value for high frequency use were obtained by an extractive melt spinning as well as a centrifugal atomization technique. Sintered core rings made by the rapidly solidified Fe-6.5% Si powders exhibited the high frequency electromagnetic properties: saturated induction (B8) of 1.23 T, coercivity (Hc) of 9.5 A/m, relative permeability (μa) of 6321, and core loss (W10/50) of 1.27 W/kg from the rings of 1.1 mm thick. The saturated induction values were found to be almost identical to those of nonoriented Fe-3% Si steel sheet and 6.5% Si sheet prepared by the CVD technique. The high frequency core loss values were measured not to be changed much up to 10 kHz (W1/10k=55 W/kg) in applied ac frequency.

  15. Rapid prototyping: porous titanium alloy scaffolds produced by selective laser melting for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Patrick H; Douglas, Timothy; Wollny, Patrick; Sherry, Eugene; Steiner, Martin; Galonska, Sebastian; Becker, Stephan T; Springer, Ingo N; Wiltfang, Jörg; Sivananthan, Sureshan

    2009-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM), a method used in the nuclear, space, and racing industries, allows the creation of customized titanium alloy scaffolds with highly defined external shape and internal structure using rapid prototyping as supporting external structures within which bone tissue can grow. Human osteoblasts were cultured on SLM-produced Ti6Al4V mesh scaffolds to demonstrate biocompatibility using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy after cell vitality staining, and common biocompatibility tests (lactate dihydrogenase (LDH), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and water soluble tetrazolium (WST)). Cell occlusion of pores of different widths (0.45-1.2 mm) was evaluated. Scaffolds were tested for resistance to compressive force. SEM investigations showed osteoblasts with well-spread morphology and multiple contact points. Cell vitality staining and biocompatibility tests confirmed osteoblast vitality and proliferation on the scaffolds. Pore overgrowth increased during 6 weeks' culture at pore widths of 0.45 and 0.5 mm, and in the course of 3 weeks for pore widths of 0.55, 0.6, and 0.7 mm. No pore occlusion was observed on pores of width 0.9-1.2 mm. Porosity and maximum compressive load at failure increased and decreased with increasing pore width, respectively. In summary, the scaffolds are biocompatible, and pore width influences pore overgrowth, resistance to compressive force, and porosity.

  16. Peculiarities of high-temperature. beta. -phase formation during rapid heating of titanium-molybdenum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Zhuravlev, A.F.; Zhuravlev, B.F.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Oshkaderov, S.P. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)

    1983-11-01

    In the framework of the diffusion mechanism of ..cap alpha..+..beta.. ..-->.. ..beta.. transformation the model for calculating interface location determining the degree of transformation and concentration of the formed ..beta..-phase during continuous heating under different rates in titanium alloys with ..beta..-isomorphous alloying elements is suggested. On the example of Ti-10% Mo alloy the comparison of calculation and experimental results of determining parameters of ..cap alpha..+..beta.. ..-->.. ..beta.. transformation is performed.

  17. Hydrogen storage alloys rapidly solidified by the melt-spinning method and their characteristics as metal hydride electrodes. [LaNiAl; LaNiCoAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, R. (Mitsubishi Kasei Corp., Research Center, Yokohama (Japan)); Miyamura, H. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan)); Sakai, T. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan)); Kuriyama, N. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan)); Ishikawa, H. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan)); Uehara, I. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-02-23

    Rapidly solidified LaNi[sub 5]-based hydrogen storage alloys were prepared by a melt-spinning method. The prepared melt-spun alloy ribbon had very fine crystal grain of below 10 [mu]m. The hydrogen absorption behavior and electrode properties of the alloys were greatly improved. Heat treatment at 400 C which did not cause enlargement of the grain further improved these properties. (orig.)

  18. MICROSTRUCTURE OF Mg-6.4Zn-1.1Y ALLOY FABRICATED BY RAPID SOLIDIFICATION AND RECIPROCATING EXTRUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.M. Zhang; C.J. Xu; X.F. Guo

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore the methods to prepare high-strength quasicrystal-reinforced magnesium alloys, the flakes of rapidly solidified Mg-6.4Zn-1.1 Y magnesium alloy with a thickness of 50-60 um were obtained by a melt spinning single-roller device, and the flakes were then processed into rods by reciprocating extrusion and direct extrusion. The microstructure of the alloy was analyzed by optical microscope and SEM, and the constituent phases were identified by XRD. Phase transformation and its onset temperature were determined by differential thermal analyzer (DTA). The analysis result shows that rapid solidification for Mg-6.4Zn-1.1Y alloy can inhibit the eutectic reactions, broaden the solid solubility of Zn in a-Mg solute solution, and impede the formation of Mg3 Y2 Zn3 and MgZn2 compounds, and thus help the icosahedral Mg3 YZn6 quasicrystal formed directly from the melt. The mierostrueture of the flakes consists of the a-Mg solid solution and icosahedral Mg3 YZn6 quasierystal. Dense rods can be made from the flakes by two-pass reciprocating extrusion and direct extrusion. The interfaces between flakes in the rods can be welded and jointed perfectly. During the reciprocating extrusion and direct extrusion process, more Mg3 YZn6 compounds are precipitated and distributed uniformly, whereas the rods possess fine microstructures inherited from rapidly solidified flakes. The rods contain only two phases: amagnesium solid solution as matrix and fine icosahedral Mg3 YZn6 quasicrystal which disperses uniformly in the matrix.

  19. Magnetocaloric Effect and Critical Behavior in Fe-Dy-Zr Rapidly Quenched Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Nguyen Huy; Yen, Nguyen Hai; Thanh, Pham Thi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present our study results for Fe90- x Dy x Zr10 ( x = 1-6) alloy ribbons with thickness of about 15 µm prepared by using a melt-spinning technique. Structure and magnetic properties of the ribbons were investigated by using x-ray diffraction analysis and magnetization measurements, respectively. The results show that the alloy is almost amorphous with x = 1, but partly crystalline with x ≥ 2, i.e. the glass forming ability (GFA) of the alloy is reduced with an increase of the Dy-concentration. Curie temperature, T C, of the alloy is considerably increased, from 273 K (for x = 1) to 305 K (for x = 3), by increasing the Dy-concentration. Maximum magnetic entropy change, |∆S m|max, of the alloys with x = 1 and 2 was respectively determined to be 0.84 and 0.93 J kg-1 K-1 with magnetic field change ΔH = 12 kOe. High refrigerant capacity (RC > 80 J kg-1) at room temperature region has been obtained for the alloy revealing its possibility for practical application in magnetic refrigeration. Critical analyses around the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transitions, by using the Arrott-Noakes method, indicate long-range ferromagnetic orders in the alloys.

  20. Numerical simulation on rapid melting and nonequilibrium solidification of pure metals and binary alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠希东; 陈国良; 杨院生; 胡壮麒

    2002-01-01

    A heat and mass transfer modelling containing phase transformation dynamics is made for pure metals and binary alloys under pulsed laser processing. The nonequilibrium effects of processing parameters and physical properties are evaluated on the melting and solidification of pure metals (Al, Cu, Fe and Ni) and Al-Cu alloys. It is shown that the energy intensity of laser beam and physical properties of metals and the solute concentration of alloys have important effect on the interface temperature, melting and solidification velocity, melting depth and non-equilibrium partition coefficient. This situation is resulted from the interaction of heat transfer, redistribution of solute, solute trapping and growth kinetics.

  1. Nanostructured Hypoeutectic Fe-B Alloy Prepared by a Self-propagating High Temperature Synthesis Combining a Rapid Cooling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Licai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have successfully synthesized bulk nanostructured Fe94.3B5.7 alloy using the one-step approach of a self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS combining a rapid cooling technique. This method is convenient, low in cost, and capable of being scaled up for processing the bulk nanostructured materials. The solidification microstructure is composed of a relatively coarse, uniformly distributed dendriteto a nanostructured eutectic matrix with α-Fe(B and t-Fe2B phases. The fine eutectic structure is disorganized, and the precipitation Fe2B is found in the α-Fe(B phase of the eutectic. The dendrite phase has the t-Fe2B structure rather than α-Fe(B in the Fe94.3B5.7 alloy, because the growth velocity of t-Fe2B is faster than that of the α-Fe with the deeply super-cooling degree. The coercivity (Hc and saturation magnetization (Ms values of the Fe94.3B5.7 alloy are 11 A/m and 1.74T, respectively. Moreover, the Fe94.3B5.7 alloy yields at 1430 MPa and fractures at 1710 MPa with a large ductility of 19.8% at compressive test.

  2. Liquid Phase Separation and the Aging Effect on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Laser Rapidly Solidified Cu100−xCrx Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Hua Si

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duplex structure Cu-Cr alloys are widely used as contact materials. They are generally designed by increasing the Cr content for the hardness improvement, which, however, leads to the unfavorable rapid increase of the electrical resistivity. The solidification behavior of Cu100−xCrx (x = 4.2, 25 and 50 in wt.% alloys prepared by laser rapid solidification is studied here, and their hardness and electrical conductivity after aging are measured. The results show that the Cu-4.2%Cr alloy has the most desirable combination of hardness and conductive properties after aging in comparison with Cu-25%Cr and Cu-50%Cr alloys. Very importantly, a 50% improvement in hardness is achieved with a simultaneous 70% reduction in electrical resistivity. The reason is mainly attributed to the liquid phase separation occurring in the Cu-4.2%Cr alloy, which introduces a large a

  3. Rapid iodometric determination of copper in some copper-base alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterdenbos, J.; Eelberse, P.A.

    1966-01-01

    Copper-base alloys, especially those containing tin, are readily dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids. In the resulting solution copper can be titrated iodometrically in the conventional manner.

  4. Laser rapid forming of low cost hydride-dehydride titanium alloy powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; ZHANG Feng-ying; LIN Xin; TAN Hua; HUANG Wei-dong

    2006-01-01

    Low cost hydride-dehydride (HDH) Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) alloy powder was employed to investigate the metallurgical quality and mechanical properties of laser formed samples. With appropriate control of the laser forming processing parameters and the loose density of HDH powder, two kinds of defect, i.e. porosity and ill-bonding, can be avoided. Rare earth Nd powder was added to HDH Ti-64 powder to purify laser formed alloy. The results show that with a few additive of Nd, the microstructure of laser formed alloy changes from Widmanst-tten morphology to a basket weave microstructure. Accordingly an appropriate addition of Nd is effective to improve both the strength and ductility of laser formed HDH Ti-64 alloy. The values of tensile test meet the wrought specification with the content of Nd ranging from 0.1%-0.2%(mass fraction).

  5. Microstructure characterization and room temperature deformation of a rapidly solidified NiAl-based eutectic alloy containing trace Dy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hutian; Guo, Jianting; Huai, Kaiwen; Ye, Hengqiang

    2006-04-01

    The microstructure and room temperature compressive deformation behavior of a rapidly solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo)-Dy eutectic alloy fabricated by water-cooled copper mold method were studied by a combination of SEM, EDS and compressive tests. The morphology stability after hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatment was evaluated. Rapid solidification resulted in a shift in the coupled zone for the eutectic growth towards the Cr(Mo) phase, indicating a hypoeutectic composition, hence increasing the volume fraction of primary dendritic NiAl. Meanwhile, significantly refined microstructure and lamellar/rod-like Cr(Mo) transition were observed due to trace rare earth (RE) element Dy addition and rapid solidification effects. Compared with the results in literature [H.E. Cline, J.L. Walter, Metall. Trans. 1(1970)2907-2917; P. Ferrandini, W.W. Batista, R. Caram, J. Alloys Comp. 381(2004)91-98], an interesting phenomenon, viz., NiAl halos around the primary Cr(Mo) dendrites in solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo) hypereutectic alloy, was not observed in this study. This difference was interpreted in terms of their different reciprocal nucleation ability. In addition, it was proposed that the localized destabilization of morphology after HIP treatment is closely related to the presence of primary NiAl dendrites. The improved mechanical properties can be attributed to the synergistic effects of rapid solidification and Dy addition, which included refined microstructure, suppression of the crack development along eutectic grain boundaries, enhancement of density of geometrically necessary dislocations located at NiAl/Cr(Mo) interfaces and the Cr solubility extension in NiAl.

  6. Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Sandra; Garcés, Gerardo; Pérez, Pablo; Adeva, Paloma

    2014-07-01

    The Mg98.5Gd1Zn0.5 alloy produced by a powder metallurgy route was studied and compared with the same alloy produced by extrusion of ingots. Atomized powders were cold compacted and extruded at 623 K and 673 K (350 °C and 400 °C). The microstructure of extruded materials was characterized by α-Mg grains, and Mg3Gd and 14H-LPSO particles located at grain boundaries. Grain size decreased from 6.8 μm in the extruded ingot, down to 1.6 μm for powders extruded at 623 K (350 °C). Grain refinement resulted in an increase in mechanical properties at room and high temperatures. Moreover, at high temperatures the PM alloy showed superplasticity at high strain rates, with elongations to failure up to 700 pct.

  7. Observations and modeling of debris and shrapnel impacts on optics and diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of targets with laser energies spanning two orders of magnitude have been shot at the National Ignition Facility (NIF. The National Ignition Campaign (NIC targets are cryogenic with Si supports and cooling rings attached to an Al Thermo-Mechanical Package (TMP with a thin (30 micron Au hohlraum inside. Particular attention is placed on the low-energy shots where the TMP is not completely vaporized. In addition to NIC targets, a range of other targets has also been fielded on NIF. For all targets, simulations play a critical role in determining if the risks associated with debris and shrapnel are acceptable. In a number of cases, experiments were redesigned, based on simulations, to reduce risks or to obtain data. The majority of these simulations were done using the ALE-AMR code, which provides efficient late-time (100 – 1000 X the pulse duration 3 D calculations of complex NIF targets.

  8. Rapid Solidification of Sn-Cu-Al Alloys for High-Reliability, Lead-Free Solder: Part I. Microstructural Characterization of Rapidly Solidified Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Choquette, Stephanie M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2016-12-01

    Particles of Cu x Al y in Sn-Cu-Al solders have previously been shown to nucleate the Cu6Sn5 phase during solidification. In this study, the number and size of Cu6Sn5 nucleation sites were controlled through the particle size refinement of Cu x Al y via rapid solidification processing and controlled cooling in a differential scanning calorimeter. Cooling rates spanning eight orders of magnitude were used to refine the average Cu x Al y and Cu6Sn5 particle sizes down to submicron ranges. The average particle sizes, particle size distributions, and morphologies in the microstructures were analyzed as a function of alloy composition and cooling rate. Deep etching of the samples revealed the three-dimensional microstructures and illuminated the epitaxial and morphological relationships between the Cu x Al y and Cu6Sn5 phases. Transitions in the Cu6Sn5 particle morphologies from faceted rods to nonfaceted, equiaxed particles were observed as a function of both cooling rate and composition. Initial solidification cooling rates within the range of 103 to 104 °C/s were found to be optimal for realizing particle size refinement and maintaining the Cu x Al y /Cu6Sn5 nucleant relationship. In addition, little evidence of the formation or decomposition of the ternary- β phase in the solidified alloys was noted. Solidification pathways omitting the formation of the ternary- β phase agreed well with observed room temperature microstructures.

  9. Effects of intermetallic phases on the electrochemical properties of rapidly-solidified Si-Cr alloys for rechargeable Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jeong Ae; Jo, In Joo; Park, Won-Wook; Sohn, Keun Yong

    2016-09-01

    The microstructures and the electrochemical properties of rapidly-solidified Si-Cr alloys of various compositions were investigated in order to elucidate the effects of intermetallic phases on the cyclic energy capacity of the materials. Rapidly-solidified ribbons of the alloys were prepared by using a melt-spinning process, which is one of the most efficient rapid-solidification processes. The ribbons were fragmented by using a ball-milling process to produce powders of the alloys. To examine the electrochemical characteristics of the alloys, we mixed each of the alloy powders with Ketjenblack®, a conductive material, and a binder dissolved in deionized water and used it to form electrodes. The electrolyte used was 1.5-M LiPF6 dissolved in ethyl carbonate/dimethyl carbonate/fluoroethylene carbonate. The microstructures and the phases of the alloys were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses. The obtained results showed that the microstructures of the rapidly-solidified Si-Cr alloys were composed of Si and CrSi2 phases. Fine Si particles with diameters of 50 - 100 nm were observed in an eutectic constituent while the sizes of the primary Si and CrSi2 phases were relatively larger at 500 - 900 nm. The specific energy capacities ( C) of the Si-Cr alloys decreased linearly with increasing volume fraction ( f) of the CrSi2 phase as follows: C = -1,667 f + 1,978 after the 50th cycle. The Columbic efficiency after the 3rd cycle increased slightly with increasing volume fraction of the CrSi2 phase; this was effective in improving the cycling capacity of the Si particles.

  10. Effect of Rapid Quenching on Microstructures and Electrochemical Performances of La2Mg(Ni0.85Co0.15)9M0.1(M=B, Cr) Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yanghuan; Dong Xiaoping; Wang Guoqing; Feng Meng; Ren Jiangyuan; Wang Xinlin

    2005-01-01

    The La-Mg-Ni-system (PuNi3-type) La2Mg(Ni0.85Co0.15)9M0.1 (M=B, Cr) hydrogen storage electrode alloys were prepared by casting and rapid quenching. The electrochemical performances and microstructures of the as-cast and quenched alloys were determined and measured. The effects of rapid quenching on the microstructures and electrochemical properties of the alloys were investigated in detail. The obtained results show that the alloys are composed of the (La, Mg)Ni3 phase (PuNi3-type structure) and the LaNi5 phase, as well as the small amount of the LaNi2 phase. A trace of the Ni2B phase exists in the as-cast alloy containing boron, and the Ni2B phase in the alloy nearly disappears after rapid quenching. The relative amount of each phase in the alloys depends on the quenching rate. The rapid quenching technique can greatly improve the electrochemical performance of the alloy, and the effect of rapid quenching on the activation performances of the alloys is minor. Rapid quenching enhances the cycle stability of the alloy, and the cycle life of the alloy increases with the increase of the quenching rate.

  11. Effects of rapid quenching on microstructures and electrochemical properties of La0.7Mg0.3Ni2.55Co0.45Bx(x=0-0.2) hydrogen storage alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang-huan; DONG Xiao-ping; WANG Guo-qing; GUO Shi-hai; REN Jiang-yuan; WANG Xin-lin

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performances of La-Mg-Ni based electrode alloys with PuNi3-type structure, a trace of boron was added in La0.7Mg0.3Ni2.55Co0.45 alloy. The La0.7Mg0.3Ni2.55Co0.45Bx(x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) alloys were prepared by casting and rapid quenching. The electrochemical performances and microstructures of the as-cast and quenched alloys were investigated. The effects of rapid quenching on the microstructures and electrochemical performances of the above alloys were investigated. The results show that the as-cast and quenched alloys are composed of (La, Mg)Ni3 phase, LaNi5 phase and LaNi2 phase. A trace of the Ni2B phase exists in the as-cast alloys containing boron, and the Ni2B phase in the B-contained alloys nearly disappears after rapid quenching. Rapid quenching increases the amount of the LaNi2 phase in the B-free alloy, but it decreases the amount of the LaNi2 phase in the boron-containing alloys. The effects of rapid quenching on the capacities of the boron-containing and boron-free alloys are different. The capacity of the B-free alloy monotonously decreases with increasing quenching rate, whereas the capacities of the B-contained alloys have a maximum value with the change of the quenching rate. The rapid quenching can improve the stability of La-Mg-Ni based electrode alloy but lowers the discharge plateau voltage and decreases the plateau length.The effect of rapid quenching on the activation capabilities of the alloys was complicated.

  12. Rapidly solidified surface melts of Ni-B-Si-Cr brazing alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, T. R.; Ayers, J. D.

    1981-10-01

    Sintered powder layers of a Ni-based brazing alloy were consolidated by scanned electron beam radiation to produce a continuous fused coating. The surface of this coating was then remelted by laser and electron beams under differing conditions, resulting in a variety of resolidification structures. Alloy BNi2 was chosen for these studies because it exhibits substantial hardening on grain refinement and because it can be prepared in the glassy state relatively easily. Surface microhardness for BNi2 reaches a maximum of about 1200 DPH at a cooling rate approaching 105 K/s. For higher quench rates, hardness decreases and ductility increases. As the cooling rate approaches 107 k/s, overlapping beam scans produce an extended amorphous surface. A solidification rate higher than that needed to produce an amorphous structure in a single melt pass is necessary to avoid surface cracking or crystallization when overlapping melt passes are employed.

  13. As Cast and Rapidly SolidifiedTi-V Alloys for Selective Hydrogen Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarno, Suwarno

    2012-01-01

    Steam reforming of hydrocarbons is a dominant technology in the commercial production of hydrogen. Hydrogen Sorption Enhanced Reforming (HSER) is a novel concept recently proposed by Statoil, with the aim of increasing the efficiency of conventional steam reforming. This goal can be achieved by using hydride forming alloys as hydrogen absorbers from the mixtures of hydrogen with active gases such as CH4, CO, CO2 and H2O.Thermodynamic analysis has shown that HSER increases fuel conversion and ...

  14. Numerical calculation on temperature field of FGH95 alloy droplet during rapid solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanming Chen; Benfu Hu

    2003-01-01

    The temperature field of FGH95 alloy droplet atomized by plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP) during solidifica-tion has been calculated through numerical analysis based on equivalent sensible heat capacity method. And thus the relational cul-ves among temperature gradient of solid-liquid interface, moving velocity of solid-liquid interface and solid fraction during solidifi-cation have been presented. The results indicate that the relation between average temperature gradient of solid-liquid interface anddroplet size, and the relation between average moving velocity of solid-liquid interface and droplet size can be expressed during solidification.

  15. Microstructural characterization of the -TiAl alloy samples fabricated by direct laser fabrication rapid prototype technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Srivastava

    2002-12-01

    A direct laser fabrication technique (DLF) has been used to fabricate near net shape samples of a -TiAl alloy using gas atomized Ti48A148Mn2Nb2 alloy powder as a feed stock material. The microstructures of these Ti48Al48Mn2Nb2 laser treated samples have been characterized using optical, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), both immediately after laser fabrication and after heat treatments. The microstructural studies have shown that the microstructure is heterogeneous in nature and extremely fine in comparison with the conventionally processed material. The process parameters such as laser power and laser scanning speed greatly influence the morphology and the microstructure of the laser treated samples. Heat treatments for a number of process conditions have been carried out to examine the stability of the microstructure which remains stable up to 973 K and rapid grain coarsening occurs at 1273 K. A fully recrystallized and uniform microstructure is obtained after annealing at 1073 K for 24 h and compositional heterogeneity present in the laser-fabricated samples is eliminated. Annealing in the phase field followed by air cooling and annealing in (2 + ) phase region gives rise to a homogeneous and uniform microstructure. However, the microstructure is much coarser than the microstructure of the DLF samples.

  16. The Effect of Substitution of Fe By Co on Rapidly Quenched (FeCoMoCuB Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara F. Conde

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available (Fe1-xCox79Mo8Cu1B15 amorphous alloys ware prepared in the form of ribbons by rapid quenching for x=0. 0.25 and 0.5. The effect of variation of Co/Fe ratio is analyzed with respect to the formation of amorphous state and to transformation of the structure into nancrystalline phases formed after subsequent thermal treatment. Selected properties and atomic structure in as-quenched state are studied by TEM, AFM, XRD any by measurement of magnetoresistance characteristics. The influence of heat treatment on transport and magnetic properties is shown on temperature dependencies of electrical resistivity and magnetization. It was founf that while the increase of Co content leads to the increase of Curie temperature of as-quenched structure, transition to nanocrystalline state is not affected in a significant manner. The as-quenched state for alloy without Co was found to contain thin crystal-containing layer which, however, was observed, contary to general behavior, at the side of the ribbon exposed to higher quenching rates.

  17. Primary cellular/dendritic spacing selection of Al-4.95%Zn alloy under near-rapid directional solidification condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Al-4.95% Zn alloy is directionally solidified in a modified Bridgman apparatus with higher temperature gradient to investigate response of cellular/dendritic microstructures and primary spacing to the variation of growth velocity under near-rapid directional solidification condition. The results show that, with increasing growth rate, there exists a transition from dendrite to fine cell and a wide distribution range in primary cellular/dendritic spacing at the given temperature gradient. The maximum, λmax, minimum, λmin, and average primary spacing, (-\\λ), as functions of growth velocity, v, can be given by λmax = 12 340 v-0.8353, λmin = 2953.7 v-07717, (-\\λ)= 7820.3 v-08333, respectively.

  18. Rapid air film continuous casting of aluminum alloy using static magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu QU; Huixue JIANG; Gaosong WANG; Qingfeng ZHU; Xiangjie WANG; Jianzhong CUI

    2009-01-01

    The influences of the cooling style and static magnetic field on the air film casting process were investigated. Ingots of 6063 aluminum alloy were produced by AIRSOL VEIL casting with double-layer cooling water and static magnetic field. Surface segregation, hot crack and variation of solute content along the radius direction of ingot were examined. The results showed that double-layer cooling water can improve the surface quality and avoid of hot crack, which created conditions to increase the casting speed. The electromagnetic casting process can effectively improve the surface quality in high speed casting process, and static magnetic field has a great influence on solute distribution along the radius direction of ingot.

  19. Rapid Directional Solidification with Ultra-High Temperature Gradient and Cellular Spacing Selection of Cu-Mn Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The detailed laser surface remelting experiments of Cu-31.4 wt pct Mn and Cu-26.6 wt pct Mn alloys on a 5 kW CO2laser were carried out to study the effects of processing parameters (scanning velocity, output power of laser) on the growthdirection of microstructure in the molten pool and cellular spacing selection under the condition of ultra-high temperaturegradient and rapid directional solidification. The experimental results show that the growth direction of microstructure isstrongly affected by laser processing parameters. The ultra-high temperature gradient directional solidification can be realizedon the surface of samples during laser surface remelting by controlling laser processing parameters, the temperature gradientand growth velocity can reach 106 K/m and 24.1 mm/s, respectively, and the solidification microstructure in the center ofthe molten pool grows along the laser beam scanning direction. There exists a distribution range of cellular spacings underthe laser rapid solidification conditions, and the average spacing decreases with increasing of growth rate. The maximum,λ minimum, λmin, and average primary spacing,λ, as functions of growth rate, Vb, can be given by, λ =12.54V b-0.61,λmin=4.47 Vb-0.52, λ=9.09Vb-0.62, respectively. The experimental results are compared with the current Hunt-Lu model forrapid cellular/dendritic growth, and a good agreement is found.

  20. Rapid Prototyping for In Vitro Knee Rig Investigations of Prosthetized Knee Biomechanics: Comparison with Cobalt-Chromium Alloy Implant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schröder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retropatellar complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA such as anterior knee pain and subluxations might be related to altered patellofemoral biomechanics, in particular to trochlear design and femorotibial joint positioning. A method was developed to test femorotibial and patellofemoral joint modifications separately with 3D-rapid prototyped components for in vitro tests, but material differences may further influence results. This pilot study aims at validating the use of prostheses made of photopolymerized rapid prototype material (RPM by measuring the sliding friction with a ring-on-disc setup as well as knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure on a knee rig. Cobalt-chromium alloy (standard prosthesis material, SPM prostheses served as validation standard. Friction coefficients between these materials and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE were additionally tested as this latter material is commonly used to protect pressure sensors in experiments. No statistical differences were found between friction coefficients of both materials to PTFE. UHMWPE shows higher friction coefficient at low axial loads for RPM, a difference that disappears at higher load. No measurable statistical differences were found in knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure distribution. This suggests that using polymer prototypes may be a valid alternative to original components for in vitro TKA studies and future investigations on knee biomechanics.

  1. Rapid Growth of Nanostructured Diamond Film on Silicon and Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi K. Samudrala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured diamond (NSD films were grown on silicon and Ti–6Al–4V alloy substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD. NSD Growth rates of 5 µm/h on silicon, and 4 µm/h on Ti–6Al–4V were achieved. In a chemistry of H2/CH4/N2, varying ratios of CH4/H2 and N2/CH4 were employed in this research and their effect on the resulting diamond films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. As a result of modifying the stock cooling stage of CVD system, we were able to utilize plasma with high power densities in our NSD growth experiments, enabling us to achieve high growth rates. Substrate temperature and N2/CH4 ratio have been found to be key factors in determining the diamond film quality. NSD films grown as part of this study were shown to contain 85% to 90% sp3 bonded carbon.

  2. Morphology and microstructure of rapidly solidified tin-lead alloy powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Qingchun; Zhang Wei; Qiu Keqiang; Qu Yingdong; Li Rongde

    2014-01-01

    Sn60Pb40 al oy powders were fabricated using the planar flow casting (PFC) atomization process. By using OM, SEM and EPMA, the characteristics of the morphologies and microstructures of the powders have been investigated. It is observed that the environment of ambient gas in the atomization box has great effects on the morphology of the al oy powders. The microstructures of Sn60Pb40 al oy powders produced by the PFC atomization process are completely composed of eutectic, which is made up of both oversaturated αsolid solution and β solid solution. The microstructures of smal size powders are extraordinarily undeveloped dendritic eutectic, in which the large majority of the α phase appears nearly spherical, evidently since the cooling rate is higher and the under-cooling is larger. As for the large size powders, since the cooling rate and undercooling are relatively low, lamel ar α phase apparently increases in the eutectic microstructures of these powders, and there is even typical lamellar eutectic structure clearly observed in some micro-areas. After remelting tests by DTA, the microstructures of smal size powders are transformed, which become composed of large crumby α phase and eutectic (α+β), while those of large size powders change into classical tin-lead structures of primary α phase plus lamellar eutectic (α+β). By studying the microstructures of tin-lead alloy powders, a model has been proposed to predict the microstructure formation of Sn60Pb40 al oy powders.

  3. Rapid eutectic growth in undercooled Al-Ge alloy under free fall condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向荣; 曹崇德; 魏炳波

    2003-01-01

    Eutectic growth in Al-51.6%wt Ge alloy has been investigated during free fall in a drop tube. With decreasing undercooling △T, the microstructural evolution has shown a transition from lamellar eutectic to anomalous eutectic.A maximum cooling rate of 4.2×104K/s and undercooling of up to 240K (0.35TE) are obtained in the experiment.The eutectic coupled zone is calculated on the basis of current eutectic and dendritic growth theories, which covers a composition range from 48%-59% Ge and leans towards the Ge-rich side. The two critical undercoolings for the eutectic transition are △T1*=101K and △T2*=178K. When △T ≤△T1*, the microstructure for Al-51.6% Ge eutectic shows lamellar eutectic. If △T ≥△T2*, the microstructure shows anomalous eutectic. In the intermediate range of △T1* <△T <△T2*, the microstructure is the mixture of the above two types of eutectics.

  4. Magnetocaloric properties of rapidly solidified Dy{sub 3}Co alloy ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Llamazares, J. L., E-mail: jose.sanchez@ipicyt.edu.mx; Flores-Zúñiga, H.; Sánchez-Valdés, C. F. [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A.C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055 Col. Lomas 4" a, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. 78216 (Mexico); Álvarez-Alonso, Pablo [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Lara Rodríguez, G. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, México, D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Fernández-Gubieda, M. L. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa (Spain); BC Materials, Camino de Ibaizabal, Edificio 500, Planta 1, Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Zamudio, 48160 Derio (Spain)

    2015-05-07

    The magnetic and magnetocaloric (MC) properties of melt-spun ribbons of the Dy{sub 3}Co intermetallic compound were investigated. Samples were fabricated in an Ar environment using a homemade melt spinner system at a linear speed of the rotating copper wheel of 40 ms{sup −1}. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that ribbons crystallize into a single-phase with the Fe{sub 3}C-type orthorhombic crystal structure. The M(T) curve measured at 5 mT reveals the occurrence of a transition at 32 K from a first to a second antiferromagnetic (AFM) state and an AFM-to-paramagnetic transition at T{sub N} = 43 K. Furthermore, a metamagnetic transition is observed below T{sub N}, but the magnetization change ΔM is well below the one reported for bulk alloys. Below 12 K, large inverse MC effect and hysteresis losses are observed. This behavior is related to the metamagnetic transition. For a magnetic field change of 5 T (2 T) applied along the ribbon length, the produced ribbons show a peak value of the magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M}{sup peak} of −6.5 (− 2.1) Jkg{sup −1}K{sup −1} occurring close to T{sub N} with a full-width at half-maximum δT{sub FWHM} of 53 (37) K, and refrigerant capacity RC = 364 (83) Jkg{sup −1} (estimated from the product |ΔS{sub M}{sup peak}| × δT{sub FWHM})

  5. A simulation study of rapid solidification and crystal configuration of Cu70Ni30 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Caixing; LIU Rangsu; ZHOU Qunyi; TIAN Ze'an; WANG Xin; LI Qiang

    2005-01-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study has been performed for the rapid solidification of Cu70Ni30 adopting the quantum Sutton-Chen many-body potentials. By analyzing the bond-types and the relation of atomic average energy versus temperature, it was demonstrated that as cooling rate being 2 × 1012 K/s, the Cu70Ni30 formed fcc crystal structures and freezing point was found. In addition, having analyzed the transformation of microstructures and the detail of crystal growth by using atomic trace and visual method, not only could the formation of binary disordered solid solution be showed, but also the solidification of liquid metals and the crystal growth processes could be further understood.

  6. Rapid ultrasound-induced transient-liquid-phase bonding of Al-50Si alloys with Zn interlayer in air for electrical packaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Lin; Yan, Jiuchun; Lai, Zhiwei; Zhao, Pizhi; Bao, Juncheng; Lv, Guicai; You, Chen; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jian; Li, Yuntao

    2017-01-01

    Al-50Si alloys were joined by rapid ultrasound-induced transient-liquid-phase bonding method using Zn foil as interlayer at 390°C in air, below the melt point of interlayer. The fracture of oxide films along the edge of Si particles led to contact and inter-diffusion between aluminum substrate and Zn interlayer, and liquefied Zn-Al alloys were developed. The width of Zn-Al alloys gradually decreased with increasing the ultrasonic vibration time due to liquid squeezing out and accelerated diffusion. A stage of isothermal solidification existed, and the completion time was significantly shortened. In the liquid metal, the acoustic streaming and ultrasonic cavitations were induced. As the process developed, much more Si particles, which were particulate-reinforced phases of Al-50Si, gradually migrated to the center of soldering seam. The highest average shear strength of joints reached to 94.2MPa, and the fracture mainly occurred at the base metal.

  7. Hydrogen-induced changes in the crystalline structure and mechanical properties of a Zn-Al eutectoid alloy rapidly solidified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Jimenez, Alberto; Iturbe Garcia, Jose Luis [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: alberto.sandoval@inin.gob.mx; asandovalj@correo.unam.mx; Negrete Sanchez, Jesus [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Torres Villasenor, Gabriel [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Ribbon fractions of a zinc-aluminum eutectoid (Zn40.8Al%at.) alloy, obtained by rapid solidification using melt spinning technique, were submitted to a thermo-hydrogenation process by periods of 1, 6, 18, 24, 30, and 48 hours, to 200 degrees Celsius and 20 atmospheres. Thermo-hydrogenated samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hydrogen-induced changes were produced, such as microstructure refining, development of crystalline defects, microhardness changes and modification of stable crystalline structures to {alpha}R meta-stable phase at room temperature. [Spanish] Fracciones de tiras de una aleacion eutectoide de zinc-aluminio (Zn40.8Al%at.), obtenidas mediante solidificacion rapida usando la tecnica de melt spinning, se sometieron a un proceso de termohidrogenacion por periodos de 1, 6, 18, 24, 30 y 48 horas, a 200 grados centigrados y 20 atmosferas. Las muestras termohidrogenadas se analizaron por microscopia electronica de transmision (MET). Se produjeron cambios inducidos por hidrogeno, tales como la refinacion de la microestructura, el desarrollo de defectos cristalinos, cambios de microdureza y modificacion de las estructuras cristalinas estables a fase metaestable {alpha}R a temperatura ambiente.

  8. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt % to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %. Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  9. Deformation Localization and Shear Fracture of a Rapidly Solidified Al-Fe-V-Si Alloy at Elevated Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongbo XU

    2007-01-01

    The tensile and fatigue behavior of a dispersoid strengthened, powder metallurgy Al-Fe-V-Si alloy at ambient and elevated temperatures was investigated. The results show that the strength and ductility of the alloy decrease significantly with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. Micro-structural examinations reveal that this change in mechanical behavior with increasing temperature is related to the mode of deformation of the alloy. Further observations show that localized shear deformation is responsible for the losses in both strength and ductility of the alloy at elevated temperature.

  10. Structural and mechanical characterization of rapidly solidified Al{sub 95}Ni{sub 5} and Al{sub 93}Ni{sub 5}Mm{sub 2} alloys prepared by centrifugal atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtech, D., E-mail: Dalibor.Vojtech@vscht.c [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Prusa, F.; Michalcova, A. [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Structure and properties of a rapidly solidified Al-Ni-Mm alloy with a relatively low Mm content. {yields} Comparison of slowly and rapidly solidified state. {yields} High hardness of the RS Al-Ni-Mm alloy, but low thermal stability. {yields} Chemical compositions of metastable primary phases in the RS Al-Ni-Mm alloy. - Abstract: Al{sub 95}Ni{sub 5} and Al{sub 93}Ni{sub 5}Mm{sub 2} (at.%) alloys were prepared by induction melting and centrifugal atomization. Both as-cast and rapidly solidified (RS) alloys were studied by various techniques, including light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis. Room temperature hardness was measured for the rapidly solidified alloys, as well as after their long-term annealing at 400 {sup o}C. It is observed that the RS alloys are crystalline. The binary Al-Ni alloy consists of Al and Al{sub 3}Ni phases, while in the ternary Al-Ni-Mm alloy, there are Al dendrites supersaturated with Ni, Al{sub 3}Ni and non-equilibrium {alpha}Al{sub 11}(Mm,Ni){sub 3} phases. Average Al dendrite arm thickness is about 100 nm. Both supersaturated Al and {alpha}Al{sub 11}(Mm,Ni){sub 3} decompose upon heating at 300-450 {sup o}C. Room temperature hardness of the RS Al{sub 95}Ni{sub 5} and Al{sub 93}Ni{sub 5}Mm{sub 2} alloys are 150 and 300 HV, respectively. These values are discussed in relation to various hardening mechanisms. Thermal stability of both alloys is low, due a rapid structural coarsening and hardness reduction during annealing at 400 {sup o}C.

  11. PREPARATION AND ACTIVATION OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED Ni-Zr-Al AMORPHOUS ALLOY FOR CATALYTIC PURPOSE%快速凝固Ni-Zr-Al非晶态催化合金的制备与活化处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国胜; 张海峰; 沈宁福

    1999-01-01

    @@ As new catalytic materials, amorphous alloys have attracted much attention since 1980s. Rapid solidification is one of the main techniques to prepare amorphous alloys.However, as-cast rapidly solidified alloys usually can not be directly used as the catalyst for their poor surface area, oxide film on their surface, etc. Therefore, activation pretreatment must be carried out. Recently, leaching aluminum has been attempted to activate rapidly solidified amorphous catalytic alloys containing aluminum. In order to carry out such an activation pretreatment, the Al-rich amorphous precursor alloys must be obtained first, in which the content of active component must be sufficiently high so that the catalytic activity of the activated catalyst can be attained. On the other hand, the chemical composition of the precursor must approach eutectic point or contribute to the range of low liquidus temperature so that the glass transition can be easily achieved according to the solidification theory[1]. So far Al-based alloys which meet the dual confinement have not been found yet. For Ni-Al and Cu-Al systems,only the microcrystalline alloys can be obtained through rapid solidification[2,3].In the present study, glass formation was achieved by introducing promotion elements in Ni-Al system precursor alloys.

  12. The structure and functional properties of Ti2 NiCu alloy rapidly quenched ribbons with different fractions of crystalline phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, S. P.; Istomin-Kastrovskiy, V. V.; Koledov, V. V.; Kuchin, D. S.; Resnina, N. N.; Shavrov, V. G.; Shelyakov, A. V.; Ivanov, S. E.

    The samples of Ti2NiCu rapidly quenched alloy with different fractions of crystalline phase have been prepared by electric pulse technique from as spun amorphous ribbons. The structure and thermomechanical properties of these samples have been studied. The mixture of amorphous and nanocrystalline structures with mean grains size less than 10 nm has been observed by HRTEM. The remarkable thermomechanical properties of the samples with the ratio of crystalline fraction in the range of r = 0.4 - 0.6 (determined by electrical resistivity measurements) have been found. The two-way shape memory effect with the reverse deformation Δε = 0.31 % has been induced in the sample with r = 0.46 by single deformation at cooling below the temperature of martensite transformation. The prototype of microtweezers based on amorphous-nanocrystalline Ti2NiCu melt-spun ribbon alloy with two-way shape memory effect has been designed and tested.

  13. Rapid activation of MmNi{sub 5-x}M{sub x} based MH alloy through Pd nanoparticle impregnation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, M.A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM-CIICAp, Av Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62210-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Wang, Xianyou [Chemistry College, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G. [UAEM-CIICAp, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62210-Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Gamboa, S.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Xochicalco S/N, Centro, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-04-21

    Faster activation of a multi-component AB{sub 5} based alloy metal hydride electrode through Pd nanoparticle (NP) impregnation is demonstrated. Pd nanoparticle impregnated MmNi{sub 5-x}M{sub x} based alloy was prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and elemental mapping techniques. Electro-catalytic activity of laminar metal hydride electrodes containing Pd nanoparticles and micrometer size Ni particles was studied. Hydrogen absorption efficiency of the nanocomposite electrodes was compared with the metal hydride electrodes without Pd nanoparticles. The incorporation of nanostructured materials in the metal hydride alloy increased its hydrogen absorption capacity at the initial stage and activated much faster, indicating its good prospect for energy storage applications. (author)

  14. Glassy and icosahedral phases in rapidly solidified Ti-Zr-Hf-(Fe, Co orNi) alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, N.; Louzguine-Luzgin, DV; Ranganathan, S; Inoue, A.

    2005-01-01

    The icosahedral quasicrystalline, amorphous plus crystalline and glassy phases were formed in $Ti_{40}Zr_{20}Hf_{20}(3d-LTM)_{20}$ alloys (3d-LTM = 3d late transition metals Fe, Co and Ni). The icosahedral phase formed in the melt-spun $Ti_{40}Zr_{20}Hf_{20}Fe_{20}$ alloy is metastable and the average size ofthe quasicrystalline icosahedral particles precipitated in the amorphous matrix is 5 nm. The metastable icosahedral phase transformed to a big-cubic fcc $Hf_{2}Fe$ phase with the grain si...

  15. Rapid Assessment of the Role of Microstructural Variability in the Fatigue Behavior of Structural Alloys using Ultrasonic Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-23

    and consequences on probabilistic life prediction," Scripta Materiala, 48, pp. 1637-1642, 2003. 9 [16] AS Beranger, X Feaugas, M Clavel ; "Low cycle...M Clavel ; "Low cycle fatigue behavior of an a + P3 titanium alloy:Ti6246," Materials Science and Engineering, A172, pp. 3 1-41, 1993. [9] Y Mahajan

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of rapidly quenched and as-cast bulk NdFeBCu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Ll, J.L. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Facultad de Fisica-IMRE, Universidad de La Habana, Havana 10400 (Cuba)]. E-mail: sanchez@fisica.uh.cu; Bustamante S, R. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Facultad de Fisica-IMRE, Universidad de La Habana, Havana 10400 (Cuba); Barthem, V.M.T.S. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRJ, CT, Bloco A, C.P. 68528, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda, P.E.V. de [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, COPPE, UFRJ, C.P. 68505, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2005-07-15

    A study of the structural and magnetic properties of as-cast and melt spun (x)Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B(100-x)Nd{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} alloys (x=10, 50 and 75%wt.) is presented. In as-cast alloys for x=10wt%. the formation of a high coercivity phase, referred to as N (T{sub C}=240 deg. C, {sub i}H{sub C}=4.9kOe) is found. N is a (Nd-Fe)-based phase with a Fe/Nd ratio lower than that of phase Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B ({phi}). It is suggested that this phase is related to the A{sub 1} phase found in binary Nd-Fe alloys. In melt-spun alloys, at the same x value of 10wt%, another hard phase is found which is suggested to be the Nd{sub 6}Fe{sub 13}Cu {delta}-phase (T{sub C}=192 deg. C, {sub i}H{sub C}=4.8kOe). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs of the ribbons with x=10wt% shows the formation of nanograins with a non-uniform grain size distribution. In cast alloys with x=50 and 75wt% large slab-like grains of {phi} are formed, in the inter-granular region a Nd-Cu eutectic phase and Nd grains, are observed. High coercivities are obtained in ribbons with x=50wt% ({sub i}H{sub C}=19.7kOe) and 75wt% ({sub i}H{sub C}=13.0kOe). A slight reduction in the Curie temperature of the {phi}-phase with respect to the bulk value is found in these ribbons.

  17. Rapid Synthesis of Highly Monodisperse Au x Ag 1− x Alloy Nanoparticles via a Half-Seeding Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Chng, Ting Ting

    2011-05-03

    Gold-silver alloy AuxAg1-x is an important class of functional materials promising new applications across a wide array of technological fields. In this paper, we report a fast and facile synthetic protocol for preparation of highly monodisperse AuxAg1-x alloy nanoparticles in the size range of 3-6 nm. The precursors employed in this work are M(I)-alkanethiolates (M = Au and Ag), which can be easily prepared by mixing common chemicals such as HAuCl4 or AgNO3 with alkanethiols at room temperature. In this half-seeding approach, one of the M(I)-alkanethiolates is first heated and reduced in oleylamine solvent, and freshly formed metal clusters will then act as premature seeds on which both the first and second metals (from M(I)-alkanethiolates, M = Au and Ag) can grow accordingly without additional nucleation and thus achieve high monodispersity for product alloy nanoparticles. Unlike in other prevailing methods, both Au and Ag elements present in these solid precursors are in the same monovalent state and have identical supramolecular structures, which may lead to a more homogeneous reduction and complete interdiffusion at elevated reaction temperatures. When the M(I)-alkanethiolates are reduced to metallic forms, the detached alkanethiolate ligands will serve as capping agent to control the growth. More importantly, composition, particle size, and optical properties of AuxAg1-x alloy nanoparticles can be conveniently tuned with this approach. The optical limiting properties of the prepared particles have also been investigated at 532 and 1064 nm using 7 ns laser pulses, which reveals that the as-prepared alloy nanoparticles exhibit outstanding broadband optical limiting properties with low thresholds. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Formation process of unique microstructure in rapidly solidified Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 2} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Minoru; Kawamura, Yoshihito; Yamamuro, Takateru

    2004-07-15

    The formation process of 6H-phase in rapidly solidified powder metallurgy (RS P/M) Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 2} alloy has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The initial microstructure of RS powder consists of equiaxed grains about 1 {mu}m in average diameter which is surrounded by Y and Zn rich amorphous grain boundaries. The 6H-phase was observed at grain boundaries in the RS ribbon prepared at circumferential speed of 42 m/s. By lowering the circumferential speed, the 6H-phase at grain boundary in the RS ribbon changes to amorphous phase. The amount of Y and Zn segregation at the grain boundary in RS Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 2} alloy increases with decreasing the cooling rate. In other words, the amorphization of grain boundary phase in RS alloy was promoted by the enrichment of Y and Zn. The growth of 6H-phase starts from grain boundary in the RS ribbon annealed at 573 K for 1.2 ks. It can be concluded that the 6H-phase in RS P/M Mg{sub 97}Zn{sub 1}Y{sub 2} alloy crystallizes in the Y and Zn rich amorphous phase at grain boundary and then grows into grain interior during extrusion. In order to clarify the stability of 6H-phase with heat treatment, microstructure changes in RS ribbon are also described.

  19. Microstructure Evolution in a Rapidly Solidified Cu85Fe15 Alloy Undercooled into the Metastable Miscibility Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie HE; Jiuzhou ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A model has been developed to describe the microstructure evolution in the atomized droplets of Cu-Fe alloy during cooling through the metastable miscibility gap. Calculations have been performed for Cu85Fe15 alloy to investigate the process of liquid-liquid phase transformation. The numerical results indicate that the minority phase droplets are nucleated in a temperature region around the peak of the supersaturation. The average radius of the Fe-rich droplets decreases and the number density of the minority phase droplets increases with decreasing the atomized droplet size.The simulated results were compared with the experimental ones. The kinetic process of the liquid-liquid phase transformation was discussed in detail.

  20. Microstructure and Phase Formation in a Rapidly Solidified Laser-Deposited Ni-Cr-B-Si-C Hardfacing Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmati, Ismail; Ocelik, Vaclav; Csach, Kornel; Hosson, Jeff Th.M.; 296099953

    2014-01-01

    In this study, microstructural evolutions and phase selection phenomena during laser deposition of a hardfacing Ni-Cr-B-Si-C alloy at different processing conditions are experimentally investigated. The results show that even minor variations in the thermal conditions during solidification can modify the type and morphology of the phases. Higher undercoolings obtained at faster cooling rates suppressed the primary borides and encouraged floret-shape mixtures of Ni and Cr5B3 via a metastable r...

  1. Influence of the chemical composition of rapidly quenched amorphous alloys (Ni, Fe, Cr)-B-Si on its crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmanov, G.; Dzhumaev, P.; Ivanitskaya, E.; Skrytnyi, V.; Ruslanov, A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of research of the structure and phase transformations during the multistage crystallization of the metallic glasses with the compositions Ni71,5Cr6,8Fe2,7B11,9Si7,1 and Ni63,4Cr7,4Fe4,3Mn0,8B15,6Si8,5 labeled as AWS BNi-2 according to American Welding Society. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) were used as experimental research methods. The influence of the alloys chemical composition (boron, manganese and iron) on the temperatures and the exothermic heat effects of phase transformations, as well as on the phase composition of alloys at three stages of crystallization was analyzed. We present a thermodynamic explanation of the observed heat effects. It has been shown that manganese has the main influence on the phase transformations temperatures and heat effects in these two alloys. It is also assumed that at the final crystallization stage simultaneously with the formation of phases Ni3B and β1-Ni3Si should occur the nucleation of borides of CrB type with high Cr and low Si content.

  2. The Assess Efficiency Model for Shrapnel Cluster Ammunition to Fire Gather Aims%多用途子母弹对集群目标毁伤效率评估模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙兆军; 刘富书; 钱林方

    2012-01-01

    多用途子母弹是多功能火炮配备的一种集地面打击和防空袭于一体的新型弹药,为充分发挥该弹药的战技性能,并合理地研究其作战使用.在假定单个目标均匀分布的基础上,运用离散的方法研究并建立了单发多用途子母弹对集群目标射击的效率评定模型,在此基础上又建立了多发多用途子母弹对集群目标射击时的效率评定模型,并运用模型进行了计算分析,计算结果表明该模型计算过程简便、精度高、准确性较好.%The multi-function artillery is one of the most important directions of the artillery. The efficiency assess of the shrapnel cluster ammunition for the multi-function artillery is a important study appearance. In order to exert the tactics capability of the weapon and make use of the weapon logicall,the paper assume the single aim distribute equality and use the discrete method to establish the assess efficiency model for the single shrapnel cluster ammunition of the multi-function artillery to fire gather aims. On the basis of the assess efficiency model for the single shrapnel cluster ammunition of the multifunction artillery to fire gather aims, the paper establish the assess efficiency model for more multifunction artillerys launch the shrapnel cluster ammunition to fire gather aims, and then use the model to count and analyze the examples. The result indicates that the model is simplet and exact.

  3. On the origin and stability of the metastable phase in rapidly solidified Sn-Bi alloy particles embedded in Al matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Victoria [Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India)]. E-mail: victoria@platinum.met.iisc.ernet.in; Yamasue, E. [Department of Socio-Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8501 (Japan); Ishihara, K.N. [Department of Socio-Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8501 (Japan); Chattopadhyay, K. [Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2005-10-15

    The paper reports the synthesis of nanoscaled tin-bismuth alloy particles embedded in an aluminum matrix by rapid solidification. The observed microstructure and composition analyses suggest the co-existence of tetragonal {beta}-Sn and rhombohedral Bi phase within the nanoparticles. Additionally, another phase, primarily a tin-based solid solution, gets stabilized and co-exists with the equilibrium bismuth phase in some of the smaller particles. In order to understand the kinetic stability of this phase we have carried out detailed thermal analyses using differential scanning calorimetry, high temperature X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results suggest that at small length scales this phase can be more stable than the eutectic phase. We have tried to explain the formation and stability of this new phase in terms of favorable nucleation kinetics, and the pressure developed in the melt within the cavity during solidification.

  4. Rapid Microwave Digestion Procedures for the Elemental Analysis of Alloy and Slag Samples of Smelted Ocean Bed Polymetallic Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Smita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave digester for digestion of alloy and slag samples of smelted ocean bed polymetallic nodules has permitted the complete digestion of samples, thereby replacing the tedious classical methods of digestion of samples. The digestion procedure includes two acid-closed digestions of samples in a microwave oven. Owing to the hazardous nature of perchloric acid, it was not used in developed digestion procedure. Digested sample solutions were analyzed for concentrations of various radicals and the effectiveness of the developed digestion methodology was tested using certified reference materials. It was found that the developed method is giving results comparable with that obtained from conventionally digested samples. In this digestion procedure, time required for digestion of samples was reduced to about 1 hour only from 8-9 hours of conventional digestion.

  5. Evaluation of Titanium Alloys Fabricated Using Rapid Prototyping Technologies—Electron Beam Melting and Laser Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Okabe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized properties of Ti-6Al-4V ELI (extra low interstitial, ASTM grade 23 specimens fabricated by a laser beam melting (LBM and an electron beam melting (EBM system for dental applications. Titanium alloy specimens were made into required size and shape for each standard test using fabrication methods. The LBM specimens were made by an LBM machine utilizing 20 µm of Ti-6Al-4V ELI powder. Ti-6Al-4V ELI specimens were also fabricated by an EBM using 40 µm of Ti-6Al-4V ELI powder (average diameter, 40 µm: Arcam ABÒ in a vacuum. As a control, cast Ti-6Al-4V ELI specimens (Cast were made using a centrifugal casting machine in an MgO-based mold. Also, a wrought form of Ti-6Al-4V ELI (Wrought was used as a control. The mechanical properties, corrosion properties and grindability (wear properties were evaluated and data was analyzed using ANOVA and a non-parametric method (α = 0.05. The strength of the LBM and wrought specimens were similar, whereas the EBM specimens were slightly lower than those two specimens. The hardness of both the LBM and EBM specimens was similar and slightly higher than that of the cast and wrought alloys. For the higher grindability speed at 1,250 m/min, the volume loss of Ti64 LBM and EBM showed no significant differences among all the fabrication methods. LBM and EBM exhibited favorable results in fabricating dental appliances with excellent properties as found for specimens made by other fabricating methods.

  6. Influence of quench rates on the properties of rapidly solidified FeNbCuSiB alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Panda; I Chattoraj; S Basu; A Mitra

    2002-11-01

    FeNbCuSiB based materials were produced in the form of ribbons by rapid solidification techniques. The crystallization, magnetic, mechanical and corrosion behaviour were studied for the prepared materials as a function of quenching rate from liquid to the solid state. Higher quench rates produced a more amorphous structure exhibiting superior soft magnetic properties with improved corrosion resistance.

  7. Separation in liquid and the formation of supersaturated solid solutions in Fe-Cu alloys upon rapid laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharanzhevskiy, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    The structure of compacted specimens produced using the rapid laser melting of ultradispersed Fe-50 wt % Cu powders has been studied. The original powder was produced via the mechanical milling of iron and copper powders in a planetary-type ball mill. It has been found that the structure of the compacted specimens produced using rapid laser melting exhibits signs of the initial stages of separation in supercooled liquid. It has been shown using X-ray diffraction analysis as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy that the final structure contains a supersaturated (Fe; Cu) solid solution formed from the high-speed movement of the solidification front and the nonequilibrium capture of copper by the moving front.

  8. Microstructural characterization of rapidly solidified Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 40}Ni{sub 5}Ti{sub 5} amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kursun, Celal, E-mail: celalkursun@ksu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras 46100 (Turkey); Gögebakan, Musa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras 46100 (Turkey); Gencer, Yucel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2015-09-15

    The amorphous Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 40}Ni{sub 5}Ti{sub 5} alloy was produced by melt-spinning at wheel speeds of 35, 38 and 41 m s{sup −1}. The resulting melt-spun ribbons were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Vickers microhardness (HV) tester. The XRD and SEM results revealed that the rapidly solidified ribbons have a fully amorphous structure. After partial or fully crystallisation of Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 40}Ni{sub 5}Ti{sub 5} ribbons upon annealing, the microstructure had uneven and irregularly shaped features with the existence of Cu{sub 10}Zr{sub 7}, Cu{sub 8}Zr{sub 3}, CuZr and FCC-Cu phases while as quenched ribbons had featureless microstructure. The SEM-EDX analysis confirmed compositional homogeneity of the Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 40}Ni{sub 5}Ti{sub 5} alloy ribbon. According to DSC results, the amorphous ribbons exhibited distinct glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and wide supercooled liquid region (ΔT{sub x} = T{sub x} − T{sub g}) before crystallization. Accordingly, T{sub g} and ΔT{sub x} are around 409–414 °C and 37–54 °C, respectively. The microhardness of the as-quenched ribbons was about 522 HV while it decreased with increasing annealing temperature and had a value of 463 HV for 725 °C.

  9. Thermal Modeling and Simulation of Electron Beam Melting for Rapid Prototyping on Ti6Al4V Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira Arce, Alderson

    To be a viable solution for contemporary engineering challenges, the use of titanium alloys in a wider range of applications requires the development of new techniques and processes that are able to decrease production cost and delivery times. As a result, the use of material consolidation in a near-net-shape fashion, using dynamic techniques like additive manufacturing by electron beam selective melting EBSM represents a promising method for part manufacturing. However, a new product material development can be cost prohibitive, requiring the use of computer modeling and simulation as a way to decrease turnaround time. To ensure a proper representation of the EBSM process, a thermophysical material characterization and comparison was first performed on two Ti6Al4V powder feedstock materials prepared by plasma (PREP) and gas atomized (GA) processes. This evaluation comprises an evaluation on particle size distribution, density and powder surface area, collectively with the temperature dependence on properties such as heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and surface emissivity. Multiple techniques were employed in this evaluation, including high temperature differential scanning calorimetry (HT-DSC), laser flash analysis (LFA), infrared remote temperature analysis (IR-Thermography), laser diffraction, liquid and gas pycnometry using mercury and krypton adsorption respectively. This study was followed by the review of complementary strategies to simulate the temperature evolution during the EBSM process, using a finite element analysis package called COMSOL Multiphysics. Two alternatives dedicated to representing a moving heat source (electron beam) and the powder bed were developed using a step-by-step approximation initiative. The first method consisted of the depiction of a powder bed discretized on an array of domains, each one representing a static melt pool, where the moving heat source was illustrated by a series of time dependant selective

  10. Nearly Monodispersion CoSm Alloy Nanoparticles Formed by an In-situ Rapid Cooling and Passivating Microfluidic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An in siturapid cooling and passivating microfluidic processhas been developed for the synthesis of nearly monodispersed cobalt samarium nanoparticles (NPs with tunable crystal structures and surface properties. This process involves promoting the nucleation and growth of NPs at an elevated temperature and rapidly quenching the NP colloids in a solution containing a passivating reagent at a reduced temperature. We have shown that Cobalt samarium NPs having amorphous crystal structures and a thin passivating layer can be synthesized with uniform nonspherical shapes and size of about 4.8 nm. The amorphous CoSm NPs in our study have blocking temperature near 40 K and average coercivity of 225 Oe at 10 K. The NPs also exhibit high anisotropic magnetic properties with a wasp-waist hysteresis loop and a bias shift of coercivity due to the shape anisotropy and the exchange coupling between the core and the thin oxidized surface layer.

  11. Effect of process parameters on properties of Al-Si alloys cast by Rapid Slurry Formation (RSF) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratke, L.; Sharma, A.; Kohli, D.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid slurry formation is a semi-solid metal forming technique, which is based on a so-called solid enthalpy exchange material (EEM). It is a fascinating technology offering the opportunity to manufacture net-shaped metal components of complex geometry in a single forming operation. At the same time, high mechanical properties can be achieved due to the unique microstructure and flow behaviour. The major process parameters used in the RSF process are rotation speed of the EEM, melt superheat, amount of EEM added (determining fs), and holding time. The process parameters can be well controlled with clear effects on the microstructure. There is a lack of theoretical modelling of the morphological evolution in these two-phase slurries.

  12. Magnetic losses and mechanical properties of Fe-4 to 7.8 wt% Si rapidly quenched alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorillo, F.; Ferrara, E.; Ferrando, L.; Appino, C. [Ist. Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Torino (Italy); Lebourg, C.; Degauque, J. [CNRS INSA, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Baricco, M. [IFM dell`Univ., Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica

    1997-09-01

    Magnetic and mechanical properties have been investigated in Fe-4 to 7.8 wt% Si rapidly quenched and annealed ribbons. The roles played by composition and microstructure on the magnetic energy losses and the tensile stress-strain behavior have been put in evidence, by carrying out the related experiments as a function of grain size. The energy losses attain a minimum value at the 6.7% Si composition at all frequencies in the investigated range d.c.-10 kHz. The vanishing of a demonstrably important magnetostriction-related coercivity contribution, which can be singled out in these stress-free samples, is recognized as the leading cause of loss minimization. The composition and grain size dependent stress-strain curves are found to obey a Hall-Petch law for the yield stress. While the elastic limit increases with the Si content, a decrease of the strain at fracture is correspondingly observed.

  13. Thermoelastic martensitic transformations, mechanical properties, and shape-memory effects in rapidly quenched Ni45Ti32Hf18Cu5 alloy in the ultrafine-grained state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushin, V. G.; Pushin, A. V.; Kuranova, N. N.; Kuntsevich, T. E.; Uksusnikov, A. N.; Dyakina, V. P.; Kourov, N. I.

    2016-12-01

    Methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy and chemical microanalysis, electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction were used to study the structure and the chemical and phase composition of ribbons of the four-component quasi-binary alloy Ni45Ti32Hf18Cu5. The influence of the synthesis regimes and subsequent heat treatment of the alloy on the formation of the amorphized state and ultrafine-grained structure has been determined. The critical temperatures of the devitrification and of the B2 ↔ B19' thermoelastic martensitic transformation have been established based on the data of the temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity. The lattice parameters of the B2 and B19' phases and the (Ti,Hf)2Ni phase have been determined by X-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties of the alloy were determined in tensile tests, and the shape-memory effects in the ribbons of the alloy were measured using bending tests.

  14. Effect of Fe addition on the magnetic and giant magneto-impedance behaviour of CoCrSiB rapidly solidified alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Seema; Chattoraj, I; Panda, A K; Mitra, A; Pal, S K [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831 007 (India)

    2006-05-21

    Thermal electrical resistivity, magnetic hysteresis and magneto-impedance behaviour of melt spun and annealed Co{sub 71-X}Fe{sub X}Cr{sub 7}Si{sub 8}B{sub 14} (X = 0, 2, 3.2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 at.%) were investigated. The addition of Fe in the system changed crystallization as well as the magnetic properties of the materials. The alloy containing 6 at.% Fe showed an increase in resistivity during the first crystallization process. A TEM micrograph indicated the formation of nanostructure during the crystallization process. The GMI properties of the alloys are evaluated at a driving current amplitude of 5 mA and a frequency of 4 MHz. The two-peak behaviour in the GMI profile was observed for all the samples. It is found that the alloy with 4 at.% Fe has the maximum GMI ratio because of the nearly zero magnetostriction value of the sample. About 62% change in the GMI ratio was observed in the alloy with 4 at.% Fe when annealed at 673 K. The anisotropy field was also minimum for the annealed alloy. The results were explained by the formation of directional ordering and the reduction of the magnetostriction constant of the alloy due to nanocrystallization during the annealing process.

  15. Effect of silver and indium addition on mechanical properties and indentation creep behavior of rapidly solidified Bi-Sn based lead-free solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalaby, Rizk Mostafa, E-mail: rizk1969@yahoo.co.uk [Mansoura University, Metal Physics Lab., Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Gomhouria Street, Mansoura, P.O.Box 35516 (Egypt)

    2013-01-10

    Mechanical properties and indentation creep of the melt-spun process Bi-42 wt%Sn, Bi-40 wt%Sn-2 wt%In, Bi-40 wt%Sn-2 wt%Ag and Bi-38 wt%Sn-2 wt%In-2 wt%Ag were studied by dynamic resonance technique and Vickers indentation testing at room temperature and compared to that of the traditional Sn-37 wt%Pb eutectic alloy. The results show that the structure of Bi-42 wt%Sn alloy is characterized by the presence of rhombohedral Bi and body centered tetragonal {beta}-Sn. The two ternary alloys exhibit additional constituent phases of intermetallic compounds SnIn{sub 19} for Bi-40 wt%Sn-2 wt%In and {epsilon}-Ag{sub 3}Sn for Bi-40 wt%Sn-2 wt%Ag alloys. Attention has been paid to the role of intermetallic compounds on mechanical and creep behavior. The In and Ag containing solder alloy exhibited a good combination of higher creep resistance, good mechanical properties and lower melting temperature as compared with Pb-Sn eutectic solder alloy. This was attributed to the strengthening effect of Bi as a strong solid solution element in the Sn matrix and formation of intermetallic compounds {beta}-SnBi, {epsilon}-Ag{sub 3}Sn and InSn{sub 19} which act as both strengthening agent and grain refiner in the matrix of the material. Addition of In and Ag decreased the melting temperature of Bi-Sn lead-free solder from 143 Degree-Sign C to 133 Degree-Sign C which was possible mainly due to the existence of InSn{sub 19} and Ag{sub 3}Sn intermetallic compounds. Elastic constants, internal friction and thermal properties of Bi-Sn based alloys have been studied and analyzed.

  16. 弹载高冲击一体化子母弹子弹飞行姿态测量系统%The Integrative High Impact Embed Bullet Flying Attitude Detection System of Some Shrapnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文丰; 任勇峰; 王强

    2012-01-01

    为了测试获取子母弹爆炸抛撒后的子弹飞行姿态,采用基于MEMS惯性测量组合与动态存储测试技术相结合的方法来测试子母弹子弹的飞行姿态,对系统的组成、工作原理和主要关键技术的实现途径进行了详细的介绍.系统以MEMS三维角速度和三维加速度的惯性测量组合为姿态敏感元件,一体化的子母弹子弹飞行姿态测量记录器主要由FLASH存储器、FPGA为中心控制器及多通道高速12位模数转换器等组成.记录器具有多通道、低功耗、体积小、大容量、高精度及嵌入子弹内部随子弹飞行测量等优点.系统试验结果表明:该系统能够准确获取子弹从抛撒到中靶的整个过程的姿态数据.%For getting the bullet attitude of some shrapnel after it is dispersed, the method based on MEMS IMU and the dynamic storage test technology is integrated for testing the bullet attitude of shrapnel. The principle of operation, the system composition and major critical implements is provided. The attitude sense organ is three axis angular velocity transducer and three axis accelerometer, the integrative bullet attitude of some shrapnel recorder is composed by flash memory, FPGA ( the center controller) and multi-channel high speed 12 bit ADC, etc. The merits of the recorder are multi-channel, low power dissipation, small in size but high storage capacity, high-precision and can be embed the bullet flying with it for real attitude detecting. The system test result of the flight test proves that the integrated system can get the flight attitude data, which is the bullet from firing to hitting the target.

  17. Anomalous electrical conductivity in rapidly crystallized Cu{sub 100−x}Zr{sub x} (x = 50–66.6) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uporov, S.A., E-mail: segga@bk.ru [Institute of Metallurgy, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Amudsena str. 101, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Estemirova, S.Kh. [Institute of Metallurgy, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Amudsena str. 101, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Mira str. 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Chtchelkatchev, N.M. [Institute of Metallurgy, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Amudsena str. 101, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Department of Theoretical Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Ryltsev, R.E. [Institute of Metallurgy, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Amudsena str. 101, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Mira str. 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-25

    Cu{sub 100−x}Zr{sub x} (x = 50, 54, 60 and 66.6) polycrystalline alloys were prepared by arc-melting. The crystal structure of the ingots has been examined by X-ray diffraction. Non-equilibrium martensitic phases with monoclinic structure were detected in all the alloys except Cu{sub 33.4}Zr{sub 66.6}. Temperature dependencies of electrical resistivity in the temperature range of T = 4–300 K have been experimentally obtained as well as room temperature values of Hall coefficients and thermal conductivity. Electrical resistivity demonstrates anomalous behavior. At the temperatures lower than 20 K, their temperature dependencies are non-monotonous with pronounced minima. At elevated temperatures they have sufficiently non-linear character which cannot be described within framework of the standard Bloch–Grüneisen model. We show that experimental resistivity dependencies may be perfectly fitted by generalized Bloch–Grüneisen model with variable Debye temperature. We found that both the electrical resistivity and the Hall coefficients reveal metallic-type conductivity in the Cu–Zr alloys. The estimated values of both the charge carrier mobility and the phonon contribution to thermal and electric conductivity indicate the strong lattice defects and structure disorder. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 100−x} Zr{sub x} (x = 50, 54, 60, 66.6) polycrystalline alloys were prepared by arc-melting. • Existence of various martensitic monoclinic structures was revealed in the alloys. • The electrical resistivity of the samples exhibits Kondo-like behavior below 20 K. • The electrical resistivity of the alloys has non-linear behavior at elevated temperatures. • Generalized Bloch–Grüneisen model is proposed to fit experimental resistivity data.

  18. La última baja de la División Azul (de la metralla al hepatocarcinoma The last casualty of 250 Wehrmacht Division (Blue Division (from shrapnel to liver carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lisbona Gil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos aquí el caso clínico y evolución de un cabo de la División Azul, que habiendo sido herido en el frente ruso, sector de Nitlikino, por metralla, el 5 de diciembre de 1941, falleció cincuenta y un años más tarde como consecuencia probablemente de dicha herida.We present the case of a corporal belonging to 250 Wehrmacht Division (Blau Division, that after he was hurt by shrapnel in the Russia front during the II World War, fifth of December 1941, he died fifty one years later, owing probably to that wound.

  19. Effect of Al incorporation for Co on the gamma-beta phase boundary of rapidly solidified CoNiAl ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satnam; Roy, R.K.; Mahato, B.; Ghosh, M.; Mitra, A.; Panda, A.K., E-mail: akpanda@nmlindia.org

    2014-11-15

    The alloys Co{sub 64−x}Ni{sub 36}Al{sub x}(at%, X=23,24,26 and 28) prepared through melt spinning technique revealed β- and γ-phase structure at room temperature. A monotonous increase in β-phase and simultaneous decrease in γ-phase has been observed with increasing Al content. The synergistic competition between β- and γ-phase influence β(B2)→L1{sub 0} martensitic transformation. Therefore transformation broadening has been observed with Al content. Consequently, martensitic transformation temperature decreases and austenite transformation temperature increases. The γ-rich alloys showed magnetically soft phase, with high initial susceptibility and enhanced saturation magnetization. These alloys also revealed large magneto-strain values which are also supported by micro-structural morphology. - Highlights: • Presence of β- and γ- phases in melt-spun CoNiAl ribbons has been revealed. • Increase in Al causes simultaneous increase in β- and decrease in γ-phase. • Span of martensitic transformation (β↔L1{sub 0}) increased due to γ-phase. • Higher content of γ- phases enhanced the magnetic properties. • Alloys with high γ- phase showed large magneto-strain values.

  20. Effects of various Mg-Sr master alloys on microstructural refinement of ZK60 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various Mg-Sr master alloys (conventional as-cast, rapidly-solidified, rolled and solutionized) on microstructural refinement of ZK60 magnesium alloy were investigated. The results indicate that the refinement efficiency of various Mg-Sr master alloys in ZK60 alloy is different. The rolled Mg-Sr master alloy is found to have relatively higher refinement efficiency than the conventional as-cast, solutionized and rapidly-solidified Mg-Sr master alloys. After being treated with the rolled Mg-Sr master alloy, the ZK60 alloy obtains the minimum average grain size of 33 μm. The difference of various Mg-Sr master alloys in refinement efficiency might be related to the initial microstructure change of various Mg-Sr master alloys.

  1. Characterization of the Ni-45wt% Ti shape memory alloy rapidly solidified; Caracterizacao da liga Ni-45wt%Ti com efeito de memoria de forma solidificadas rapidamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmo, G.C.S.; Castro, W.B. de; Araujo, C.J. de, E-mail: walman@dem.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEM/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    One important challenge of microsystems design is the implementation of miniaturized actuation principles efficient at the micro-scale. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have early on been considered as a potential solution to this problem as these materials offer attractive properties like a high-power to weight ratio, large deformation and the capability to be processed at the micro-scale. shape memory characteristics of Ni-45wt%Ti alloy ribbons prepared by melt spinning were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray. In these experiments particular attention has been paid to change the velocity of cooling wheel from 30 to 50 m/s. Then the cooling rates of ribbons were controlled. The effect of this cooling rate on martensitic transformation behaviors and structure are discussed. (author)

  2. Microstructure and hydrogen storage properties of as-cast and rapidly solidified Ti-rich Ti-V alloys%快速凝固富钛Ti-V合金的微观组织和储氢性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suwarno SUWARNO; Volodymyr A.YARTYS; Jan KetilSOLBERG; JanPetter MAEHLEN; Bente KROGH; B(Φ)rre Tore B(Φ)RRESEN; Esther OCHOA-FERNANDEZ; Erling RYTTER; Mario WILLIAMS; Roman DENYS

    2012-01-01

    研究目的在于优化Ti0.8-0.9V0.2-0.1二元合金的相结构成分、微观组织和储氢性能.该合金主要用于从含有大量一氧化碳的高温气态混合物中吸收氢气.Ti0.8-0.9V0.2-0.1合金中的α-(HCP)和β-(BCC)相在纯氢气中基于氢化作用,形成单相FCC结构的氢化物,此过程与合金的化学成分无关.同步辐射X射线衍射的原位分析表明,在含有氧气和10%一氧化碳的混合气体中,只有β相转变成相应的氢化物.快速凝固(RS)处理细化了Ti0.8V0.2和Ti0.9V0.1合金的晶粒组织,而且,快速凝固处理增加了Ti0.9V0.1合金中的β相,其所占比例是普通熔铸条件下的两倍.扫描电子显微镜(SEM)分析表明,Ti0.9V0.1合金含有片状组织,层片的厚度约为300nm.热脱附谱(TDS)显示,微观组织的细化可以加快氢脱附的动力学过程.%The goal of the present work was to optimize the phase-structural composition and microstructure of binary Ti0.8-0.9V0.2-0.1 alloys with respect to their hydrogen sorption properties.Application of these alloys is for hydrogen absorption from gaseous mixtures containing substantial amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) at high temperatures.Irrespective of alloy composition,both α(HCP) and β(BCC) phases in Ti0.8-0.9V0.2-0.1 formed single phase FCC hydrides upon hydrogenation in pure H2.An in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study showed that only the β-phase transforrncd to the corresponding hydride when the alloy was hydrogenated in a mixture of H2+10%CO.Rapid solidification (RS) of the alloy resulted in refined grain sizes both in the Ti0.8V0.2 and Ti0.9V0.1 alloys.Furthermore,RS was found to increase the β-phase fraction in Ti0.9V0.1,being twice larger than that of the as-cast alloy.Ti0.9V0.1 had a platelike microstructure as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),the plates were about 300 nm thick.The microstructure refinement resulted in a faster kinetics of H desorption as observed by temperature desorption

  3. Preparation and soldering test for rapid solidification Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy%快速凝固型Sn-Ag-Cu系钎料合金制备及钎焊工艺试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李攀; 张鑫; 刘治军; 高广东; 熊毅

    2012-01-01

    采用单辊法制备了快速凝固型Sn2.5Ag0.7Cu钎料合金,在对其进行XRD检测、熔化特性测定和钎焊工艺试验后,对一定钎焊工艺条件下钎焊接头的力学性能和显微组织进行了测试分析,结果表明:所制备的钎料合金的熔化特性和钎焊接头力学性能满足要求,钎缝-母材界面上金属间化合物呈不均匀分布,且朝向钎焊缝中心生长.%Rapid solidification Sn2.5Ag0.7Cu solder alloy was prepared by using single-roller method, after XRD-test and testing the melting property and soldering procedure, the mechanical properties and microstructure of the joints under given soldering conditions were tested and analyzed. The results showed that the melting property of the solder alloy and mechanical properties of the joint were satisfactory. The IMC located at the solder-parent metal interface had an uneven distribution, and they grew toward the center of the solder seam.

  4. C-V and DLTS Characterization of Rapid Thermal Oxides on Si0.887Ge0.113 and Si0.8811Ge0.113C0.0059 Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, W.; Choi, W. K.; Bera, L. K.; Mi, J.; YANG, C. Y.

    Capacitance versus voltage (C-V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) characterization was performed on rapid thermal oxides (RTO) on Si0.887Ge0.113 and Si0.8811Ge0.113C0.0059 alloys. A high interface trap density (~ 1012 eV-1 cm-2) and a high apparent doping level were obtained for the SiO2/Si0.8811Ge0.113C0.0059 samples. The C-V results at different temperatures showed that the high apparent doping levels of the SiO2/Si0.8811Ge0.113C0.0059 samples might be due to the formation of SiC-related defects introduced by the high temperature oxidation process.

  5. Study of Rapid Determination of Low-content Silver in Copper Alloy%铜合金中低含量银的快速测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范珍媛

    2015-01-01

    The paper presented rapid determination method of low -content silver (0.03% ~0.60%)in copper al oy,and it pointed out that the method has the advantages of rapid reaction,energy efficiency,convenient operation,environmental protection.%文章介绍了铜合金中低含量银(0.03%~0.60%)的快速测定方法,指出该方法快速、节能降耗、操作简便且环保。

  6. Sustainable, Rapid Synthesis of Bright-Luminescent CuInS2-ZnS Alloyed Nanocrystals: Multistage Nano-xenotoxicity Assessment and Intravital Fluorescence Bioimaging in Zebrafish-Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S. Shashank; Praneetha, S.; Basu, Sandeep; Sachidanandan, Chetana; Murugan, A. Vadivel

    2016-05-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) luminescent CuInS2-ZnS alloyed nanocrystals (CIZS-NCs) for highly fluorescence bioimaging have received considerable interest in recent years. Owing, they became a desirable alternative to heavy-metal based-NCs and organic dyes with unique optical properties and low-toxicity for bioimaging and optoelectronic applications. In the present study, bright and robust CIZS-NCs have been synthesized within 5 min, as-high-as 230 °C without requiring any inert-gas atmosphere via microwave-solvothermal (MW-ST) method. Subsequently, the in vitro and in vivo nano-xenotoxicity and cellular uptake of the MUA-functionalized CIZS-NCs were investigated in L929, Vero, MCF7 cell lines and zebrafish-embryos. We observed minimal toxicity and acute teratogenic consequences upto 62.5 μg/ml of the CIZS-NCs in zebrafish-embryos. We also observed spontaneous uptake of the MUA-functionalized CIZS-NCs by 3 dpf older zebrafish-embryos that are evident through bright red fluorescence-emission at a low concentration of 7.8 μg/mL. Hence, we propose that the rapid, low-cost, large-scale “sustainable” MW-ST synthesis of CIZS-NCs, is an ideal bio-nanoprobe with good temporal and spatial resolution for rapid labeling, long-term in vivo tracking and intravital-fluorescence-bioimaging (IVBI).

  7. Characteristics of Nanophase WC and WC-3 wt% (Ni, Co, and Fe Alloys Using a Rapid Sintering Process for the Application of Friction Stir Processing Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeup Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures and mechanical characteristics of tungsten carbide- (WC- based alloys, that is, WC, WC-3 wt% Ni, WC-3 wt% Co, and WC-3 wt% Fe, fabricated using a spark plasma sintering (SPS method for the application of friction stir processing tools were evaluated. The sintered bodies with a diameter of 66 mm showed relative densities of up to 99% with an average particle size of 0.26~0.41 μm under a pressure condition of 60 MPa with an electric current for 35 min without noticeable grain growth during sintering. Even though no phase changes were observed after the ball milling process the phases of W2C and WC1-x appeared in all sintered samples after sintering. The Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of the WC, WC-3 wt% Ni, WC-3 wt% Co, and WC-3 wt% Fe samples ranged from 2,240 kg mm2 to 2,730 kg mm2 and from 6.3 MPa·m1/2 to 9.1 MPa·m1/2, respectively.

  8. GeSn Alloy Growth Using Ion Implantation and Rapid Thermal Anneal%基于离子注入与快速热退火的GeSn合金生长技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周谦; 杨谟华; 王向展; 李竞春; 罗谦

    2013-01-01

    针对源漏诱生应变Ge沟道p-MOSFET的发展趋势,开发了一种基于离子注入与快速热退火的GeSn合金生长新技术,并进行了二次离子质谱、X射线衍射、透射电子显微镜和方块电阻等测试.结果表明,采用快速热退火,可将单晶Ge衬底中的Sn原子激发至替位式位置,形成GeSn合金.当退火温度为400℃时,Sn原子激活率为100%,其峰值浓度固定为1×1021 cm-3,与Sn的初始注入剂量无关.该技术与现有CMOS工艺兼容,附加成本低,适用于单轴压应变Ge沟道MOSFET的大规模生产.%A new technique for GeSn alloy growth was demonstrated In this technique, high Sn dose ion implantation was used to incorporate Sn atoms in Ge substrate, and rapid thermal anneal (RTA) was employed for solid phase epitaxy of GeSn alloy. SIMS, XRD, TEM and four-point probe measurements were carried out to inspect material and electrical properties of the as-annealed sample. Experimental results showed that RTA could activate Sn atoms in single crystal Ge and form GeSn alloy. Sn activation rate reached 100% when RTA temperature was 400 ℃. The substitutional Sn concentration was fixed to 1×1021 cm-3 and it was not related to initial Sn dose. The new technique for GeSn growth, which was fully compatible with standard CMOS technology with minimal additional cost, is a prospective way for mass production of uniaxial strained Ge MOSFET with GeSn source/drain stressors.

  9. Soft magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe73B7Si16Nb3Cu1 alloy after rapid heating under tensile stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, Anton; Mika, Taras; Rudenko, Olexandr; Yarmoshchuk, Yevhenii; Nosenko, Viktor

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous Fe73B7Si16Nb3Cu1 ribbon was crystallized rapidly by electric current heating under simultaneously applied tensile stress along the ribbon axis. As a result, strong transverse magnetic anisotropy was induced in the ribbon. Dynamic magnetic properties of the ribbons rapidly heated either under the tensile stress or without tensile stress were measured using toroidal cores. Optimal electric current heating regime that provides maximum improvement of the initial magnetic permeability and core loss was determined. Tensile stress increase from 0 to 180 MPa was shown to result in the decrease of the initial magnetic permeability down to 400 and core loss at frequencies from 0.4 to 200 kHz. Comparative analysis of magnetic properties of the cut core (with non-magnetic gap) and the cores heated under tensile stress was carried out. The magnetic properties of the latter cores are advantageous for manufacturing the reactors and linear chokes of switch-mode power supplies.

  10. A Method for Rapid Determination of Arsenic in Corrosion-resistant Copper Alloy%耐腐蚀铜合金中砷的快速测定法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范珍媛

    2014-01-01

    The paper highlighted the turbidimetry.Comparing with the past determination of arsenic in such al oys as aluminum brass and tin brass,the turbidimetry (12 minutes ) is far more rapid than the past methods (4 ~5 hours ).The paper considered the proposed method to be a precise,rapid,stable,reliable and environmental way by on-the-spot sample analysis and finished product chemical analysis.%本测定方法是比浊法,过去分析加砷铝黄铜、锡黄铜等合金中的砷(As)元素需4~5h,而使用本法只需12min 左右。经本公司炉前分析和产品成品化学分析多年实践,证明该法是准确、快速、稳定、可靠、环保清洁的好方法。

  11. 光度法快速测定铜合金中微量铝%RAPID DETERMINATION OF TRACE ALUMINUM IN COPPER ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟国秀; 黄清华

    2011-01-01

    In hexamethylenetetramine medium pH 4 - 6, aluminum reacts with chlorophosphonazo I to form a blue - violet complex which exhibits an absorption maximum at 600 nm with a apparent molar absorptivity of 3.9 x 104 L/( mol· cm). The absorption spectra, acidity, reagent dosage, interfering ions and other factors were discussed, and the experimental conditions were optimized. Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 0 -25 μg/(50 mL) for aluminum with EDTA - Mn as a masking agent. Coexisting ele-merits didn't interfere with the determination, the method had good selectivity. The proposed method can be applied to determine aluminum directly in copper alloy, and the RSD was less than 2% (n =5). The determination results were corresponded with the certified values.%在pH 4-6的六次甲基四胺介质中,显色剂偶氮氯膦I与铝形成稳定的蓝紫色络合物.讨论了吸收光谱、酸度、试剂用量、干扰离子等因素对实验的影响,确定了反应的最佳条件.铝含量在0-25μg/(50 mL )范围内符合比耳定律,铝络合物在600 nm处有最大吸收,表观摩尔吸光系数为3.9×104L/(mol·cm).用EDTA-Mn作掩蔽剂.共存元素均不干扰测定,方法有良好的选择性.此法可不经过分离直接测定铜合金中的微量铝,测定结果的相对标准偏差小于2%(n=5),测定结果与认定值相符.

  12. 铝合金铸件成本报价速算法%Rapid Calculation Method of Quoted Price for Aluminum Alloy Castings Costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学斌

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the medium-complex ZL101-T4 typical castings with general requirements were taken as case. The "unit casting material consumption quota" that dominates the total cost of single casting is regarded as the baseline cost "A" (in this case, A=18.16 Yuan RMB/kg). The proportions coefficients of the rest costs, profits, and the amount of payable taxes etc. account for the baseline cost A can be obtained through "A", which were added to obtain the quote coefficient F=2.050 1. Because of the different complexity and process difficulty of casting, the process cost is also different, so the casting price adjustment coefficient K (K=0.90-1.30) is introduced to adapt the needs of the rapid calculation method of the various types of casting. The rapid calculation formula is Q=2.0501 AK (Yuan RMB/kg) .%以中等复杂一般要求的ZL101-T4典型铸件为案例,以铸件总成本中占主导地位的“单位铸件材料消耗定额”单项成本作为基准成本“A” (本案例A=18.16元/kg),以此求出其余各成本以及利润、应纳税费额等占基准成本A的比例系数,相加全部系数得到铸件报价系数F=2.0501.由于铸件复杂程度和工艺难度不同,其工艺成本亦不同,引入铸件调价系数K (K=0.90~1.30)以适应各类不同铸件的速算报价需要,其速算公式为:铸件总报价Q=2.0501AK(元/kg).

  13. Alloy nanoparticle synthesis using ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Powers, Dana A.; Zhang, Zhenyuan

    2011-08-16

    A method of forming stable nanoparticles comprising substantially uniform alloys of metals. A high dose of ionizing radiation is used to generate high concentrations of solvated electrons and optionally radical reducing species that rapidly reduce a mixture of metal ion source species to form alloy nanoparticles. The method can make uniform alloy nanoparticles from normally immiscible metals by overcoming the thermodynamic limitations that would preferentially produce core-shell nanoparticles.

  14. Trends of Chinese RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ . Status of Chinese RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys 1. R εt D of RE Hydrogen Storage Alloys in China AB5 hydrogen storage materials, taking rare earth mischmetals as raw materials, developed rapidly in China in recent years. Today, different countries attach importance to the development and application of the new environmental protection reproducible power sources.

  15. TEM microstructure of rapidly solidified Mg-6Zn- 1Y-1Ce alloy%快速凝固Mg-6Zn-1Y-1Ce合金的TEM组织

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文朋; 郭学锋; 卢正欣

    2012-01-01

    利用单辊甩带技术制备快速凝固Mg-6Zn-1Y-1Ce薄带,并利用透射电子显微镜和能谱仪分析薄带组织.结果表明:薄带近辊面区域晶粒内部和晶界处分布着高密度颗粒,颗粒密度在中间区域和自由面区域有所降低;快速凝固合金主要由过饱和α-Mg固溶体、T相和W相组成,同时还存在少量的二十面体准晶相颗粒和Mg4Zn7相颗粒;其中T相为体心正交晶体结构,是由于体心正方结构的Mg12Ce相中部分Mg原子被Zn原子代替而形成的.%Rapidly solidified (RS) Mg-6Zn-1Y-1Ce ribbons were prepared by single roller melt-spinning technique.Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were employed to characterize the microstructure of RS ribbons.The results show that there is high density of particles distributed within grains and at grain boundaries in the region near wheel side.The particle density is decreased in the middle region and free surface region.The alloy is predominantly composed of supersaturated α-Mg solid solution,T phase and W phase; meanwhile,a few icosahedral quasicrystalline and Mg4Zn7 particles are also observed.The T phase is confirmed having a body-centered orthorhombic structure that is transformed from the body-centered tetragonal structure Mg12Ce phase due to the partial substitution of Mg atoms by Zn.

  16. Microstructure and Aging of Powder-Metallurgy Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experimental study of thermal responses and aging behaviors of three new aluminum alloys. Alloys produced from rapidly solidified powders and contain 3.20 to 5.15 percent copper, 0.24 to 1.73 percent magnesium, 0.08 to 0.92 percent iron, and smaller amounts of manganese, nickel, titanium, silicon, and zinc. Peak hardness achieved at lower aging temperatures than with standard ingot-metallurgy alloys. Alloys of interest for automobile, aircraft, and aerospace applications.

  17. Aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  18. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...

  19. China’s Aluminum Alloy Die Castings Industry has Promising Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Engine aluminum alloy engine block die casting experienced rapid development in recent years. Domestic enterprises introduced large die casting machine automatic production lines, and developed large aluminum alloy die cast-

  20. Alloy hardening and softening in binary molybdenum alloys as related to electron concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Determination of the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. A modified microhardness test unit permitted hardness determinations at homologous temperatures ranging from 0.02 to 0.15, where alloy softening normally occurs in bcc alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s + d electrons compared to Mo while those elements having an equal number or fewer s + d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. The magnitude of the softening and the amount of solute element at the hardness minimum diminished rapidly with increasing test temperature. At solute concentrations where alloy softening was observed, the temperature sensitivity of hardness was lowered. For solute elements having an excess of s + d electrons or fewer s + d electrons than Mo, alloy softening and alloy hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s + d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  1. Microstructure Development and Characteristics of Semisolid Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merton Flemings; srinath Viswanathan

    2001-05-15

    A drop forge viscometer was employed to investigate the flow behavior under very rapid compression rates of A357, A356 diluted with pure aluminum and Al-4.5%Cu alloys. The A357 alloys were of commercial origin (MHD and SIMA) and the rheocast, modified A356 and Al-4.5Cu alloys were produced by a process developed at the solidification laboratory of MIT.

  2. Microstructural and magnetic behavior of an equiatomic NiCoAlFe alloy prepared by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Esparza, C.D.; Baldenebro-López, F.J.; Santillán-Rodríguez, C.R.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Matutes-Aquino, J.A.; Herrera-Ramírez, J.M., E-mail: martin.herrera@cimav.edu.mx; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Equiatomic NiCoAlFe powder alloys were synthesized by mechanical alloying. • The nanocrystalline alloys were characterized after milled and annealed conditions. • In alloyed and annealed powders, only BCC and FCC structure phases were observed. • Magnetic properties are strongly affected by the phases formed after annealing. - Abstract: Equiatomic NiCoAlFe powder alloys were synthesized by mechanical alloying. The microstructural evolution of the mechanically alloyed powders at different times was followed with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The as-mechanically alloyed powders were subjected to a rapid annealing treatment at 1273 K and 1473 K during 3 min in vacuum. X-ray diffraction studies show the structure of both, the as-mechanically alloyed and annealed powders, consisted in a mixture of nanocrystalline simple phases (FCC + BCC). Crystallite size, after annealing, still remained in nanoscale. Coercivity increased due to the decrease in crystallite size and because of the defects caused by mechanical alloying in the as-mechanically alloyed samples; then coercivity decreased due to the phenomenon of random magnetic anisotropy and tended to stabilize with longer alloying times. A similar behavior was observed in annealed samples at 1273 K. However, random magnetic anisotropy was not observed after annealing at 1473 K because crystals with larger sizes were produced, and a steady increase in coercivity was observed.

  3. Effect of Addition of Sm on Structure and Microwave Property of Rapid Quenching FeSiCo Alloy%Sm掺杂快淬FeSiCo合金的结构与微波物性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宦峰; 谢国治; 陈将伟; 唐东明; 张豹山

    2013-01-01

    采用真空快淬工艺制备SmxFe70-xSi20Co10(x=0,1,2)磁性合金,高能球磨后通过SEM、XRD、VSM等手段研究Sm掺杂对FeSiCo基快淬合金微观结构、非晶形成能力、磁性能的影响,采用Agilent PNA 8363B微波矢量网络分析仪测试合金粉末的电磁参量.研究结果表明,快淬SmFeSiCo合金粉末经高能球磨后具有扁平状的形貌结构;Sm掺杂量的变化对合金粉末相结构的影响较小,都为α-Fe(Co)结构;随着Sm掺杂量的增加.矫顽力相应减小,在x=2时,合金具有最低的矫顽力值87.291 Oe,饱和磁化强度Ms则相应增大,在x=2时,合金具有最高的饱和磁化强度值142.955 emu/g;按传输线理论模拟计算,Smn2Fe68Si20Co10合金粉末具有最佳的反射损耗,在涂层厚度为1 mm,频率为3.5 GHz时其反射损耗为-4.98 dB.%The SmxFe70-xSi20Co10 (x =0,1,2) magnetic alloys were prepared by melt spinning technology and high-energy ball milling method.The influence of rare earth element Sm addition on the microstructure,amorphous formation ability and magnetic properties of SmFeSiCo alloys were studied by SEM,XRD and VSM.The electromagnetic parameters were detected by microwave vector network analyzer (Agilent PNA 8363B).The results show that after high energy ball milling,the melt spun SmFeSiCo alloy powder have platy morphology structure.The variation of Sm addition have little influence on the phase structure of alloy powder.The phases of all samples appear as (-Fe(Co) structure.With the increasing of the Sm addition,coercive force decreases,while x =2,the alloy have the minimum value of 87.291 Oe.Moreover,the saturation magnetization increases with increasing of the Sm addition,while x =2,the alloy have the maximum value of 142.955 emu/g.According to the simulation calculation of transmission line theory,under the thickness of 1 mm,the Sm2 Fe68 Si20 Co10 alloy powder has the best reflection loss-4.98 dB at the frequency of 3.5 GHz.

  4. Corrosion Behavior of AlSi10Mg Alloy Produced by Additive Manufacturing (AM vs. Its Counterpart Gravity Cast Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Leon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The attractiveness of additive manufacturing (AM relates to the ability of this technology to rapidly produce very complex components at affordable costs. However, the properties and corrosion behavior, in particular, of products produced by AM technology should at least match the properties obtained by conventional technologies. The present study aims at evaluating the corrosion behavior and corrosion fatigue endurance of AlSi10Mg alloy produced by selective laser melting (SLM in comparison with its conventional counterpart, gravity cast alloy. The results obtained indicate that the corrosion resistance of the printed and cast alloys was relatively similar, with a minor advantage to the printed alloy. The corrosion fatigue endurance of the printed alloy was relatively improved compared to the cast alloy. This was mainly attributed to the significant differences between the microstructure and defect characteristics of those two alloys.

  5. The influence of alloy composition on residual stresses in heat treated aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.S., E-mail: jeremy.robinson@ul.ie [Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); Redington, W. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    The as quenched properties of eight different heat treatable aluminium alloys are related to residual stress magnitudes with the objective being to establish if there is a relationship between the residual stress and the as quenched alloy hardness and strength. Near surface residual stresses were assessed with X-ray diffraction using both the established sin{sup 2}ψ method and the more recent cos α technique. Through thickness residual stresses were also characterised using neutron diffraction. The alloys were chosen to encompass a wide range of strengths. The low to medium strength alloys were 6060 and 6082, medium to high strength 2618A, 2014A, 7075, 7010 and two variants of 7449, while the very high strength alloy was the powder metallurgy alloy N707. To assess the as quenched strength, dynamic hardness and tensile properties were determined from samples tested immediately after quenching to minimise the influence of precipitation hardening by natural aging. In addition, hot hardness measurements were made in situ on samples cooled to simulate quench paths. Within the experimental constraints of the investigation, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness was found to follow the same pattern for all the alloys investigated, varying from tensile in the interior to surface compression. The influence of alloy strength was manifested as a change in the observed residual stress magnitudes, and surface residual stresses were found to vary linearly with as quenched hardness and strength. - Highlights: • As quenched aluminium alloys contain high magnitude residual stresses. • Surface is compressive balance by a tensile core. • As quenched surface residual stress is linear function of alloy strength. • In situ hot hardness demonstrates rapid change in intrinsic hardness during rapid cooling.

  6. Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys for Orthopaedic Applications: A Review on Corrosion, Biocompatibility and Surface Modifications.

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sankalp; Curtin, James; Duffy, Brendan; Jaiswal, Swarna

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys an...

  7. Heat treatment of NiCrFe alloy 600 to optimize resistance to intergranular stress corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, A.F.; Bibb, A.E.

    A process of producing a NiCrFe alloy having a high resistance to stress corrosion cracking comprises heating a NiCrFe alloy to a temperature sufficient to enable the carbon present in the alloy body in the form of carbide deposits to enter into solution, rapidly cooling the alloy body, and heating the cooled body to a temperature between 1100 to 1500/sup 0/F for about 1 to 30 hours.

  8. Rapidly solidified aluminium for optical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, G.P.H.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Bosch, A.J.; Senden, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper present the results of a diamond turning study of a rapidly solidified aluminium 6061 alloy grade, known as RSA6061. It is shown that this small grain material can be diamond turned to smaller roughness values than standard AA6061 aluminium grades. Also, the results are nearly as good as

  9. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    . Traditionally, theorem provers are used to prove that specifications are correct but this process is highly dependent on expert users. Alternatively, model finding has proved to be useful for validation of specifications. The Alloy Analyzer is an automated model finder for checking and visualising Alloy...... specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  10. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the

  11. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  12. Accelerated exploration of multi-principal element alloys with solid solution phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkov, O N; Miller, J D; Miracle, D B; Woodward, C

    2015-03-05

    Recent multi-principal element, high entropy alloy (HEA) development strategies vastly expand the number of candidate alloy systems, but also pose a new challenge--how to rapidly screen thousands of candidate alloy systems for targeted properties. Here we develop a new approach to rapidly assess structural metals by combining calculated phase diagrams with simple rules based on the phases present, their transformation temperatures and useful microstructures. We evaluate over 130,000 alloy systems, identifying promising compositions for more time-intensive experimental studies. We find the surprising result that solid solution alloys become less likely as the number of alloy elements increases. This contradicts the major premise of HEAs--that increased configurational entropy increases the stability of disordered solid solution phases. As the number of elements increases, the configurational entropy rises slowly while the probability of at least one pair of elements favouring formation of intermetallic compounds increases more rapidly, explaining this apparent contradiction.

  13. F-Alloy: An Alloy Based Model Transformation Language

    OpenAIRE

    Gammaitoni, Loïc; Kelsen, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Model transformations are one of the core artifacts of a model-driven engineering approach. The relational logic language Alloy has been used in the past to verify properties of model transformations. In this paper we introduce the concept of functional Alloy modules. In essence a functional Alloy module can be viewed as an Alloy module representing a model transformation. We describe a sublanguage of Alloy called F-Alloy that allows the specification of functional Alloy modules. Module...

  14. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  15. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  16. High strength alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  17. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  18. Ordered iron aluminide alloys having an improved room-temperature ductility and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for improving the room temperature ductility and strength of iron aluminide intermetallic alloys. The process involves thermomechanically working an iron aluminide alloy by means which produce an elongated grain structure. The worked alloy is then heated at a temperature in the range of about 650.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. to produce a B2-type crystal structure. The alloy is rapidly cooled in a moisture free atmosphere to retain the B2-type crystal structure at room temperature, thus providing an alloy having improved room temperature ductility and strength.

  19. Order/disorder in electrodeposited aluminum-titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford G.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition, morphology, and crystallographic microstructure of Al-Ti alloys electrodeposited from two different chloroaluminate molten salt electrolytes were examined. Alloys containing up to 28 % atomic fraction Ti were electrodeposited at 150 °C from 2:1 AlCl3-NaCl with controlled additions of Ti2+. The apparent limit on alloy composition is proposed to be due to a mechanism by which Al3Ti forms through the reductive decomposition of [Ti(AlCl43]-. The composition of Al-Ti alloys electrodeposited from the AlCl3-EtMeImCl melt at 80 °C is limited by the diffusion of Ti2+ to the electrode surface. Alloys containing up to 18.4 % atomic fraction Ti are only obtainable at high Ti2+ concentrations in the melt and low current densities. Alloys electrodeposited from the higher temperature melt have an ordered L12 crystal structure while alloys of similar composition but deposited at lower temperature are disordered fcc. The appearance of antiphase boundaries in the ordered alloys suggests that the deposit may be disordered initially and then orders in the solid state, subsequent to the charge transfer step and adatom incorporation into the lattice. This is very similar to the disorder-trapping observed in rapidly solidified alloys. The measured domain size is consistent with a mechanism of diffusion-controlled doman growth at the examined deposition temperatures and times.

  20. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank E. Goodwin

    2002-12-31

    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  1. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  2. EFFECT OF PRE-ALLOYING CONDITION ON THE BULK AMORPHOUS ALLOY ND(60)FE(30)AL(10).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OCONNOR,A.S.; LEWIS,L.H.; MCCALLUM,R.W.; DENNIS,K.W.; KRAMER,M.J.; KIM ANH,D.T.; DAN,N.H.; PHUC,N.X.

    2000-09-10

    Bulk metallic glasses are materials that require only modest cooling rates to obtain amorphous solids directly from the melt. Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 30}Al{sub 10} has been reported to be a ferromagnetic bulk metallic glass that exhibits high coercivity, a combination unlike conventional Nd-based amorphous magnetic alloys. To clarify the relationship between short-range order and high coercivity in glassy Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 30}Al{sub 10}, experiments were performed to verify the existence of a homogeneous liquid state prior to rapid solidification. Alloys were prepared by various pre-alloying routes and then melt-spun. Arc-melted alloys were prepared for melt spinning using three different protocols involving: (1) alloying all three elements at once, (2) forming a Nd-Fe alloy which was subsequently alloyed with Al, and (3) forming a Fe-Al alloy for subsequent alloying with Nd. XRD, DTA, and magnetic measurement data from the resultant ribbons indicate significant differences in both the glassy fraction and the crystalline phase present in the as-spun material. These observed differences are attributed to the presence of highly stable nanoscopic aluminide-and/or silicide-phases, or motes, present in the melt prior to solidification. These motes would affect the short-range order and coercivity of the resultant glassy state and are anticipated to provide heterogeneous nucleation sites for crystallization.

  3. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Xuming Zhang; Guosong Wu; Xiang Peng; Limin Li; Hongqing Feng; Biao Gao; Kaifu Huo; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface c...

  4. Laser synthesis of germanium tin alloys on virtual germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, S.; Conde, J. C.; Benedetti, A.; Serra, C.; Werner, J.; Oehme, M.; Schulze, J.; Buca, D.; Holländer, B.; Mantl, S.; Chiussi, S.

    2012-03-01

    Synthesis of heteroepitaxial germanium tin (GeSn) alloys using excimer laser processing of a thin 4 nm Sn layer on Ge has been demonstrated and studied. Laser induced rapid heating, subsequent melting, and re-solidification processes at extremely high cooling rates have been experimentally achieved and also simulated numerically to optimize the processing parameters. "In situ" measured sample reflectivity with nanosecond time resolution was used as feedback for the simulations and directly correlated to alloy composition. Detailed characterization of the GeSn alloys after the optimization of the processing conditions indicated substitutional Sn concentration of up to 1% in the Ge matrix.

  5. High Speed Twin Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Strips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshio; Haga

    2002-01-01

    The twin roll caster for aluminum alloys has many a dv antages. For example, rapid solidification, low equipment cost, and low running cost, etc. However, the twin roll caster has some disadvantages. They are slow c asting speed and limitation of alloys. In the conventional twin roll caster, the casting speed is slower than 10 m/min. Aluminum alloys, which freezing range is wide, can not be cast. In the present study, break through of these problems wa s tried, and a new type twin roll caster was devised...

  6. Shape Memory Alloys (Part II: Classification, Production and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanic

    2014-09-01

    breakdown at low stress levels. The technologies for production of shape memory alloys are induction melting, vacuum melting, vacuum arc melting, following hot and cold working (forging, rolling, wire drawing. In addition, rapid solidification methods, like melt spinning and continuous casting have been developed. These methods are characterized by high cooling rates. High cooling rates allow very short time for diffusion processes and may lead to extremely fine microstructure, better homogeneity etc. SMAs have found applications in many areas due to their thermomechanical and thermoelectrical properties (biomedical applications, engineering industry, electrical industry. In this paper, a review of shape memory alloys, properties and applications of mentioned materials is presented.

  7. Rapid directional solidification in Sn-Cu lead-free solder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Shen; Yongchang Liu; Houxiu Gao

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study on the microstructures of a rapid directionally solidified metallo-eutectic Sn-Cu alloy was carried out.This material is an important alloy that is used as a lead-free solder. The results showed that the kinetic undercooling due to the rapid solidification process led to the formation of a pseudoeutectic zone, whereas the hypereutectic reaction produced the regular lamellar structure in the hypereutectic Sn-1.0Cu alloy. The corresponding arm spacing in the obtained lamellar phases decreased gradually with the increase of the applied cooling rate, which corresponded well with the prediction of a rapid directional solidification model.

  8. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  9. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  10. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  11. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  12. Fundamental Studies on the Aluminum-Lithium-Beryllium Alloy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Rapidly Solidified Crystalline Alloys ," S.K... Solidified Crystalline Alloys ," S.K. Das, B.H. Kear, and C.M. Adam, eds., pp. 157-183, The ,W Metallurgical Society of AIME, Warrendale, PA, (1986). 2.i...Adda, J. Phys. 29, 345(1968) °t. 8. W.C. Oliver and W.D. Nix, Acta Metall. vol. 30,pp. 1335 to - 1347(1982). 9. C.M. Adam and R.E. Lewis, " Rapidly

  13. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  14. Mg based alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, S. [Univ. de Santiago de Chile (Chile). Fac. de Ingenieria; Garcia, G.; Serafini, D.; San Martin, A.

    1999-07-01

    In the present work, we studied the production of magnesium alloys, of stoichiometry 2Mg + Ni, by mechanical alloying (MA) and the behavior of the alloys under hydrogen in a Sievert`s type apparatus. The elemental powders were milled under argon atmosphere in a Spex 8000 high energy ball mill. The milled materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Only minimum amounts of the Mg{sub 2}Ni intermetallic compound was obtained after 22 h of milling time. Most of the material was sticked to the inner surface of the container as well as to the milling balls. Powders milled only for 12 hours transforms to the intermetallic at around 433 K. Effects of the MA on the hydrogen absorption kinetics were also studied. (orig.) 10 refs.

  15. Nickel-Titanium Alloys: Corrosion "Proof" Alloys for Space Bearing, Components and Mechanism Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, 60NiTi (60 wt% Ni, 40 wt% Ti), is shown to be a promising candidate tribological material for space mechanisms. 60NiTi offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. 60NiTi is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, and is non-magnetic. Despite its high Ti content, 60NiTi is non-galling even under dry sliding. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic, encompasses all of these attributes. Since 60NiTi contains such a high proportion of Ti and possesses many metallic properties, it was expected to exhibit poor tribological performance typical of Ti alloys, namely galling type behavior and rapid lubricant degradation. In this poster-paper, the oil-lubricated behavior of 60NiTi is presented.

  16. Moessbauer investigation of Au/Fe alloys with giant magnetoresistence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanese, G.; Deriu, A. E-mail: antonio.deriu@fis.unipr.it; Moya, J.; Angeli, E.; Bisero, D.; Da Re, A.; Ronconi, F.; Spizzo, F.; Vavassori, P.; Baricco, M.; Bosco, E

    2004-05-01

    Rapidly quenched ribbon samples and sputtered granular films of AuFe alloys with giant magnetoresistance behaviour were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The structural and magnetic characteristics of the two kinds of samples are discussed and compared.

  17. Effect of Trivalent Additions and Processing on Structural and Magnetic Transitions in Ni-Mn-Ga Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    R. P. Mathur; Singh, R. K.; Ray, S.; P. Ghosal; Chandrasekaran, V.

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory Ni50Mn30Ga15Al5-xBx (x = 0, 1, and 4) alloys were prepared by vacuum arc melting and subsequent heat-treatment as well as by melt spinning to investigate the effect of trivalent element additions in ternary Ni-Mn-Ga alloys. The heat-treated alloys containing Al were reported to possess a modulated martensite structure, however alloy containing both Al and B showed a loss of modulated structure in martensite formed. The rapidly solidified alloys on the other hand sho...

  18. Rank correlation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic data for the identification of alloys used in jewelry manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-López, A.; Luque de Castro, M. D.

    2003-07-01

    The aim of the present study was the rapid identification of alloys used in the manufacture of jewelry pieces with the help of a spectral library. The laser-induced breakdown spectra of 32 alloys were stored, with 25 of them chosen as library standards; the remaining seven spectra were used as samples. The composition of the alloys was obtained by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A rank correlation method was applied for comparison between spectra, providing good correlation coefficients for the alloys studied. The composition of the samples was also predicted by partial least-squares regression to demonstrate the capability of this technique for the rapid analysis of this type of material.

  19. Microstructures and oxidation behavior of some Molybdenum based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Pratik Kumar [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The advent of Ni based superalloys revolutionized the high temperature alloy industry. These materials are capable of operating in extremely harsh environments, comprising of temperatures around 1050 C, under oxidative conditions. Demands for increased fuel efficiency, however, has highlighted the need for materials that can be used under oxidative conditions at temperatures in excess of 1200 C. The Ni based superalloys are restricted to lower temperatures due to the presence of a number of low melting phases that melt in the 1250 - 1450 C, resulting in softening of the alloys above 1000 C. Therefore, recent research directions have been skewed towards exploring and developing newer alloy systems. This thesis comprises a part of such an effort. Techniques for rapid thermodynamic assessments were developed and applied to two different systems - Mo-Si alloys with transition metal substitutions (and this forms the first part of the thesis) and Ni-Al alloys with added components for providing high temperature strength and ductility. A hierarchical approach towards alloy design indicated the Mo-Ni-Al system as a prospective candidate for high temperature applications. Investigations on microstructures and oxidation behavior, under both isothermal and cyclic conditions, of these alloys constitute the second part of this thesis. It was seen that refractory metal systems show a marked microstructure dependence of oxidation.

  20. De-alloying and stress-corrosion cracking. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieradzki, K.

    1998-09-01

    This research program has had two major areas of focus that are related: (1) alloy corrosion and (2) the role of selective dissolution in the stress corrosion cracking of alloy systems. These interrelated issues were examined using model systems such as Ag-Au and Cu-Au by conventional electrochemical techniques, in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), in situ small angle neutron scattering (SANS), ultrahigh speed digital photography of fracture events, and computer simulations. The STM and SANS work were specifically aimed at addressing a roughening transition known to occur in alloy systems undergoing corrosion at electrochemical potentials greater than the so-called critical potential. Analytical models of de-alloying processes including the roughening transition were developed that specifically include curvature effects that are important in alloy corrosion processes. Stress-corrosion experiments were performed on the same model systems using rapid optical and electrochemical techniques on 50 {micro}m--250 {micro}m thick sheets and small diameter wires. The primary goal of this work was to develop a fundamental understanding of the corrosion and electrochemistry of alloys and the stress-corrosion cracking processes these alloys undergo. Computer simulations and analytical work identified surface stress and an important parameter in environmentally assisted fracture. The major results of the research on this program since the summer of 1993 are briefly summarized.

  1. Complex metallic alloys as new materials for additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzari, Samuel; Bonina, David; Marie Dubois, Jean; Fournée, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Additive manufacturing processes allow freeform fabrication of the physical representation of a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data model. This area has been expanding rapidly over the last 20 years. It includes several techniques such as selective laser sintering and stereolithography. The range of materials used today is quite restricted while there is a real demand for manufacturing lighter functional parts or parts with improved functional properties. In this article, we summarize recent work performed in this field, introducing new composite materials containing complex metallic alloys. These are mainly Al-based quasicrystalline alloys whose properties differ from those of conventional alloys. The use of these materials allows us to produce light-weight parts consisting of either metal-matrix composites or of polymer-matrix composites with improved properties. Functional parts using these alloys are now commercialized.

  2. Early solute clustering in an AlZnMg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupasquier, A.; Iglesias, M.M. [Dipt. di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Ist. Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (Italy); Ferragut, R. [Dipt. di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Ist. Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (Italy); IFIMAT, UNCentro and CICPBA, Tandil (Argentina); Macchi, C.E.; Somoza, A. [IFIMAT, UNCentro and CICPBA, Tandil (Argentina); Massazza, M.; Riontino, G. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (Italy); Dipt. di Chimica IFM, Univ. di Torino, Torino (Italy); Mengucci, P. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (Italy); Dipt. di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Univ. Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Within the framework of an extended investigation programme addressing the development of methods for enhancing the quality of aluminium alloys, decomposition processes were studied for a laboratory system having the same main alloying elements of the commercial alloy 7020 (Al, 2.1 at. % Zn, 1.5 at % Mg). Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), microhardness measurements, DSC, SAXS and TEM were combined to observe the evolution of this alloy at 150 C and at room temperature (RT) after a solution treatment at 480 C; in the RT case, also after preliminary ageing at 150 C. The results show: a) presence of vacancy rich clusters (VRC) formed during quenching; b) early formation of GP(I) zones at RT; c) changing chemical composition of GP(I) zones during RT ageing; d) rapid dissolution of GP(I) at 150 C and incipient loss of coherency after 1 hour; e) recovery of GP(I) at RT after interrupted ageing at 150 C. (orig.)

  3. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  4. Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

  5. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of AlCrFeCuCo high entropy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Xing-Wu, E-mail: qiuxingwu@126.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Sichuan College of Architectural Technology, Deyang 618000 (China); Zhang, Yun-Peng; He, Li [School of Material Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Liu, Chun-ge [Department of Transportation and Municipal Engineering, Sichuan College of Architectural Technology, Deyang 618000 (China)

    2013-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use a new method (laser cladding) to prepare high-entropy alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We gained small microstructure under rapid solidification condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied corrosion resistance of AlCrFeCuCo high-entropy alloy in two different liquids. - Abstract: The AlCrFeCuCo high-entropy alloys were prepared by the laser cladding method. The microstructure and corrosion resistance property of AlCrFeCuCo high-entropy alloy were researched by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical workstation. The results show that, under the rapid solidification small microstructure gained, the morphology of AlCrFeCuCo high entropy alloy is simple, the phase mainly compose of FCC and BCC; elements segregated in the alloys; the alloy shows excellent corrosion resistance, along with the increase of the scanning speed, alloy corrosion resistance performance shows a enhancement in the first and then weakened trend. The corrosion resistance performance of AlCrFeCuCo high-entropy alloys in 1 mol/L NaCl solution is better than in 0.5 mol/L H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution.

  6. Undercooling and demixing in rapidly solidified Cu-Co alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battezzati, L.; Curiotto, S.; Johnson, Erik;

    2007-01-01

    The Cu–Co system displays a metastable miscibility gap in the liquid state. A considerable amount of work has been performed to study phase separation and related microstructures showing that demixing of the liquid is followed by coagulation before dendritic solidification. Due to kinetic...

  7. Enhancement of Aluminum Alloy Forgings through Rapid Billet Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kervick, R.; Blue, C. A.; Kadolkar, P. B.; Ando, T.; Lu, H.; Nakazawa, K.; Mayer, H.; Mochnal, G.

    2006-06-01

    Forging is a manufacturing process in which metal is pressed, pounded or squeezed under great pressure and, often, under high strain rates into high-strength parts known as forgings. The process is typically performed hot by preheating the metal to a desired temperature before it is worked. The forging process can create parts that are stronger than those manufactured by any other metal working process. Forgings are almost always used where reliability and human safety are critical. Forgings are normally component parts contained inside assembled items such airplanes, automobiles, tractors, ships, oil drilling equipment, engines missiles, and all kinds of capital equipment Forgings are stronger than castings and surpass them in predictable strength properties, producing superior strength that is assured, part to part.

  8. Strength of Hard Alloys,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partial replacement of titanium carbide by tantalum carbide in three-phase WC-TiC-Co alloys tends to have a favorable effect on mechanical properties such as fatigue strength under bending and impact durability.

  9. Alloy Selection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-02-01

    Software will Predict Corrosion Rates to Improve Productivity in the Chemical Industry. Many aspects of equipment design and operation are influenced by the choice of the alloys used to fabricate process equipment.

  10. Microstructures and Mechanism of Cracks Forming of Rene 80 High-Temperature Alloy Fabricated by Laser Rapid Forming Process%激光快速成形Rene80高温合金组织及裂纹形成机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席明哲; 高士友

    2012-01-01

    研究了激光快速成形(LRF)Rene 80高温合金厚壁件的凝固组织和裂纹的形成机理.结果表明,激光快速成形Rene 80高温合金的凝固组织为与沉积高度方向平行的定向凝固枝晶组织,由于凝固偏析,MC型碳化物和γ-γ′共晶组织分布于定向凝固组织的枝晶间区域.激光快速成形Rene 80高温合金厚壁件含有许多长度大于10 mm,扩展方向与沉积高度方向平行的宏观裂纹.分析表明,这些裂纹为液化裂纹,其形成原因为:激光快速成形时,紧邻激光熔池的热影响区(HAZ)内沿晶界分布的低熔点γ-γ′共晶组织发生熔化,形成热影响区内沿晶界扩展的晶界液相,在热影响区冷却过程中,由于热影响区内固相的收缩应力作用,沿晶界扩展的固-液界面被撕开,从而导致液化裂纹的产生.%The microstructures and mechanism, of cracks forming of a thick-wall part of Rene 80 superalloy fabricated by laser rapid forming (LRF) process are presented. Results show that the solidified microstructures of LRF Rene 80 high-temperature alloy consist of directionally solidified dendrites, which are parallel with the deposition direction. The MC type carbides and γ — γ' eutectic distribute in interdendritic region of the directionally solidified microstructure due to element segregation. The LRF Rene 80 high-temperature alloy thick-wall part contains many macro cracks, which have the length of more than 10 mm and expand along the direction parallel to the deposition direction. Analyses indicate that these macro cracks are liquated cracks. During LRF process, the γ—γ' eutectic with lower melting point particularly along the grain-boundary regions in heat-affected zone (HAZ) melt produced by laser melting pool and result in the formation of grain-boundary liquid. On the subsequent cooling process of the HAZ, the liquated cracks along the HAZ grain boundaries occurred by decohesion across the liquid-solid interface due to

  11. First Everlasting Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仲言

    1994-01-01

    There′s new alloy that apparently just won′t give up. When a pin was scraped along it the equivalent of one million times, the alloy-made of zirconium, palladium, and ruthenium—displayed no net loss of surface material. When astonished researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST) persevered with a five-million-cycle wear test, they got the same result.

  12. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  13. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  14. Dry face milling of titanium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Hassan; Zhenqiang Yao

    2004-01-01

    In machining titanium alloys, cutting tools generally wear out very rapidly because of the high cutting temperature resulted from the low thermal conductivity and density of the work material. In order to increase the tool life, it is necessary to suppress the cutting heat as much as possible by applying an abundant amount of coolant, but this will entail serious techno-environmental and biological problems. To study the performance and avoid these limitations, a PVD-coated insert was used to the dry face mill of (α +β) titanium alloys. As a result it was found that the inserts exhibit an excellent cutting performance at low cutting speeds and feed rates, and there is no significant difference in the dominant insert failure mode between the wet and dry cutting in discontinuous cutting.

  15. Effective band structure of random alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Voicu; Zunger, Alex

    2010-06-11

    Random substitutional A(x)B(1-x) alloys lack formal translational symmetry and thus cannot be described by the language of band-structure dispersion E(k(→)). Yet, many alloy experiments are interpreted phenomenologically precisely by constructs derived from wave vector k(→), e.g., effective masses or van Hove singularities. Here we use large supercells with randomly distributed A and B atoms, whereby many different local environments are allowed to coexist, and transform the eigenstates into an effective band structure (EBS) in the primitive cell using a spectral decomposition. The resulting EBS reveals the extent to which band characteristics are preserved or lost at different compositions, band indices, and k(→) points, showing in (In,Ga)N the rapid disintegration of the valence band Bloch character and in Ga(N,P) the appearance of a pinned impurity band.

  16. Corrosion mechanism of micro-arc oxidation treated biocompatible AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Li; Fang Lu; Honglong Li; Wenjun Zhu; Haobo Pan; Guoxin Tan; Yonghua Lao; Chengyun Ning; Guoxin Ni

    2014-01-01

    The rapid degradation of magnesium (Mg) based alloys has prevented their further use in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention, and therefore it is essential to investigate the corrosion mechanism for improving the corrosion resistance of these alloys. In this work, the effect of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with different voltages were carried out to obtain biocompatible ceramic coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy. The ...

  17. Correlation between diffusion barriers and alloying energy in binary alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells.......In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells....

  18. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  19. Selective dissolution in binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Carol Rene

    Corrosion is an important issue in the design of engineering alloys. De-alloying is an aspect of alloy corrosion related to the selective dissolution of one or more of the components in an alloy. The work reported herein focuses on the topic of de-alloying specific to single-phase binary noble metal alloy systems. The alloy systems investigated were gold-silver and gold-copper. The onset of a bulk selective dissolution process is typically marked by a critical potential whereby the more reactive component in the alloy begins dissolving from the bulk, leading to the formation of a bi-continuous solid-void morphology. The critical potential was investigated for the entire composition range of gold-silver alloys. The results presented herein include the formulation of an expression for critical potential as a function of both alloy and electrolyte composition. Results of the first investigation of underpotential deposition (UPD) on alloys are also presented herein. These results were implemented as an analytical tool to provide quantitative measurements of the surface evolution of gold during de-alloying. The region below the critical potential was investigated in terms of the compositional evolution of the alloy surface. Below the critical potential, there is a competition between the dissolution of the more reactive alloying constituent (either silver or copper) and surface diffusion of gold that serves to cover dissolution sites and prevent bulk dissolution. By holding the potential at a prescribed value below the critical potential, a time-dependent gold enrichment occurs on the alloy surface leading to passivation. A theoretical model was developed to predict the surface enrichment of gold based on the assumption of layer-by-layer dissolution of the more reactive alloy constituent. The UPD measurements were used to measure the time-dependent surface gold concentration and the results agreed with the predictions of the theoretical model.

  20. Structural thermodynamics of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Manenc, Jack

    1973-01-01

    Technical progress has for a very long time been directly dependent on progress in metallurgy, which is itself connected with improvements in the technology of alloys. Metals are most frequently used in the form of alloys for several reasons: the quantity of pure metal in its native state in the earth's crust is very limited; pure metals must be extracted from ores which are themselves impure. Finally, the methods of treatment used lead more easily to alloys than to pure metals. The most typical case is that of iron, where a pure ore may be found, but which is the starting point for cast iron or steel, alloys of iron and carbon. In addition, the properties of alloys are in general superior to those of pure metals and modem metallurgy consists of controlling these properties so as to make them conform to the requirements of the design office. Whilst the engineer was formerly compelled to adapt his designs and constructions to the materials available, such as wood, stone, bronze, iron, cast iron and ordinary st...

  1. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Peter; Koh, Shirlaine; Mani, Prasanna; Ratndeep, Srivastava

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  2. Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al Alloy/Mg Alloy Laminated Composite Plates Fabricated by Equal Channel Angular Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guorui; ZHAO Dong; ZHAO Yaojiang; ZHOU Bin; WANG Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    KAl (7075) alloy /Mg (AZ31) alloy laminated composite plates were successfully fabricated by the equal channel angular processing (ECAP) by using route A for 1, 2, and 3 passes at 573 K, respectively. After fabrication, the 1-pass ECAPed laminated composite plates were annealed at different temperatures. The microstructure evolution, phase constituent, and bonding strength near the joining interface of Al (7075) alloy /Mg (AZ31) alloy laminated composites plates were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and shear tests. The experimental results indicated that a 20 μm diffusion layer was observed at the joining interface of Al (7075) alloy /Mg (AZ31) alloy laminated composites plates fabricated by the 1-pass ECAP, which mainly included Al3Mg2 and Mg17Al12 phases. With the increase of passes, the increase of diffusion layer thickness was not obvious and the form of crack in these processes led to the decrease of bonding strength. For 1-pass ECAPed composites, the thickness of diffusion layer remained unchanged after annealed at 473 K, while the bonding strength reached its maximum value 29.12 MPa. However, after elevating heat treatment temperature to 573 K, the thickness of diffusion layer increased rapidly, and thus the bonding strength decreased.

  3. Accelerated growth of oxide film on aluminium alloys under steam: Part I: Effects of alloy chemistry and steam vapour pressure on microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Gudla, Visweswara C.; Jellesen, Morten S.;

    2015-01-01

    at the top. The kinetics of formation of film understeamwas rapid; approx. 350nm thick layers were generated within 5 s of steam treatment, however increase in thickness of the oxide retarded further growth. The enrichment or depletion of different alloying elements at the surface of aluminium as a result...... of alkaline etching pre-treatment influenced the thickness and growth of theoxide. Moreover the steam treatment resulted in the partial oxidation of second phase intermetallic particles present in the aluminium alloy microstructure....

  4. Effects of Alloying Elements on Microstructure and Properties of Magnesium Alloys for Tripling Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, D. H.; Geng, Z. W.; Chen, L.; Wu, Z.; Diao, H. Y.; Song, M.; Zhou, P. F.

    2015-10-01

    In order to find good candidate materials for degradable fracturing ball applications, Mg-Al-Zn-Cu alloys with different contents of aluminum, zinc, and copper were prepared by ingot metallurgy. The effects of aluminum, zinc, and copper additions on the microstructure, compressive strength, and rapid decomposition properties of the alloys have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy, compressive tests, and immersion tests. The results show that the addition of high contents Al (15 to 20 wt pct) in pure magnesium promotes a large number of network-like β-Mg17All2 phases, which helps produce more micro-thermocouples to accelerate the corrosion process in 3 wt pct potassium chloride (KCl) at 366 K (93 °C). Adding different Zn contents improves the compressive properties of Mg-20Al alloys drastically. However, it decreases the decomposition rate in 3 wt pct KCl at 366 K (93 °C). Small amount of Cu will slightly reduce the compressive strength of Mg-20Al-5Zn alloy but dramatically increase its decomposition rate.

  5. Neutron absorbing alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masayuki

    1998-12-04

    The neutron absorbing alloy of the present invention comprises Ti or an alloy thereof as a mother material, to which from 2 to 40% by weight of Hf and Gd within a range of from 4 to 50% by weight in total are added respectively. Ti is excellent in specific strength, corrosion resistance and workability, and produces no noxious intermetallic compound with Hf and Gd. In addition, since the alloy can incorporate a great quantity of Hf and Gd, a neutron absorbing material having excellent neutron absorbing performance than usual and excellent in specific strength, corrosion resistance and workability can be manufactured conveniently and economically not by a special manufacturing method. (T.M.)

  6. Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deexith Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are metals that "remember" their original shapes. SMAs are useful for such things as actuators which are materials that "change shape, stiffness, position, natural frequency, and other mechanical characteristics in response to temperature or electromagnetic fields" The potential uses for SMAs especially as actuators have broadened the spectrum of many scientific fields. The study of the history and development of SMAs can provide an insight into a material involved in cutting-edge technology. The diverse applications for these metals have made them increasingly important and visible to the world. This paper presents the working of shape memory alloys , the phenomenon of super-elasticity and applications of these alloys.

  7. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-ze; XU Zhong; HE Zhi-yong; ZHANG Gao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%.Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  8. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGPing-ze; XUZhong; HEZhi-yong; ZHANGGao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%. Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  9. Strip Casting of High Performance Structural Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S S Park; J G Lee; Nack J Kim

    2004-01-01

    There exists a great need for the development of high performance alloys due to increasing demands for energy conservation and environmental protection. Application of strip casting shows a strong potential for the improvement of properties of existing alloys and also for the development of novel alloy systems with superior properties. The present paper reviews our Center's activities in the development of high performance alloys by strip casting. Examples include (1) Al alloys, (2) wrought Mg alloys, and (3) bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys.

  10. Pemilihan Bahan Alloy Untuk Konstruksi Gigitiruan

    OpenAIRE

    Medila Dahlan

    2008-01-01

    Pada kedokteran gigi bahan alloy sangat banyak digunakan dalam segala bidang. Dalam pembuatan konstruksi gigitiman biasanya digunakan alloy emas, alloy kobalt kromium, alloy nikei kromium dan alloy stainless steel sebagai komponen gigitiman kerangka logam serta pembuatan mahkota dan jembatan. Pemilihan bahan alloy dapat dilakukan berdasarkan sifat yang dimiiiki oleh masing-masing bahan alloy sehingga akan didapat hasil konstmksi gigitiruan yang memuaskan. Pada pemakaiannya didaiam mulut...

  11. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of

  12. Sodium corrosion behavior of austenitic alloys and selective dissolution of chromium and nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T.; Mutoh, I.; Yagi, T.; Ikenaga, Y.

    1986-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of six austenitic alloys and reference Type 316 stainless steel (SS) has been examined in a flowing sodium environment at 700°C for up to about 4000 h. The alloys with a range of nickel content between ~ 15 and 43 wt% were designed and manufactured with an expectation of improved swelling resistance during fast neutron irradiation, compared to reference Type 316 SS. The corrosion loss of the alloys at zero downstream position and the concentrations of chromium, nickel and iron in the surface region were determined as a function of corrosion time. The selective dissolution of nickel and chromium played an important role in sodium corrosion of the alloys. During the initial period, accelerated corrosion took place and selective dissolution of chromium and nickel proceeded at a rapid rate. During the subsequent period, the overall corrosion rate and depletion of chromium and nickel decreased with increasing time until the corrosion rate and the surface concentrations of chromium, nickel and iron, which depended on composition of the alloys, reached the steady-state after about 2000 h. Also, the corrosion rate increased with increasing original nickel content of the alloys. Microstructural examination revealed surface attack of the alloys with higher nickel contents, in particular for the two precipitation strengthened Fe-Ni alloys. The alloys showed a trend of increasing carbon and nitrogen contents.

  13. Thermal Stability of Annealed Germanium-Tin Alloys Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Nupur; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Faleev, Nikolai; Wielunski, Leszek; Kolodzey, James

    2017-01-01

    The thermal stability of undoped and boron-doped germanium tin (Ge1-x Sn x ) alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy with varying composition and layer thickness was investigated. The alloys were annealed in forming gas at various temperatures up to 800°C for 1 min using rapid thermal processing, and were characterized using high-resolution x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. It was found that the Ge1-x Sn x alloys were stable to well above the growth temperature, but the stability decreased with increasing thickness, Sn content, and doping. Ge1-x Sn x alloys with low Sn composition (x ˜ 0.025) were stable up to 700°C, and for a given Sn composition, the undoped alloys were more thermally stable than the doped alloys. As the thickness of the Ge0.975Sn0.025 alloys increased to about 950 nm, the temperature of thermal stability dropped to 500°C. As the Sn composition of the 90 nm-Ge1-x Sn x alloys increased up to x = 0.08, the temperature of thermal stability dropped to 300°C. At higher annealing temperatures, the Ge1-x Sn x alloy degraded with lower crystal quality, and a gradient in the Sn composition appeared, which may be due to Sn diffusion or segregation.

  14. Hydrogen generation by the hydrolysis reaction of ball-milled aluminium-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingyu; Zhao, Zhongwei; Liu, Xuheng; Hao, Mingming; Chen, Ailiang; Tang, Zhongyang

    2014-05-01

    The addition of Li can prevent an inert alumina film from forming on the surface of Al alloy particles, allowing the rapid hydrogen generation of Al alloys to be achieved. However, because the Li content is less than 10%, the hydrogen generation rate and hydrogen yield of Al-Li alloys are significantly decreased. In this work, NaCl is introduced to prepare Al-Li alloys with low Li contents by ball milling. The research results show that by increasing the amount of NaCl added, the ball milling time and Li content can effectively improve the hydrogen generation of the alloys. Under optimal preparation conditions, the ultimate hydrogen yield of Al-Li alloys can reach 100%. The initial water temperature has almost no effect on the generation of hydrogen, even at 0 °C. Ca2+ and Mg2+ can combine with OH- to form the insoluble compounds Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2, which can prevent hydrogen generation. NO3- reacts with Al to form ammonia and reduce the hydrogen yield of the alloys. Therefore, Al-Li alloys should be prevented from reacting with water containing Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3-. Al-Li alloys must be stored in isolation from air to maintain good hydrogen-generation performances.

  15. Corrosion action and passivation mechanism of magnesium alloy in fluoride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-zhong; HUANG Jiu-gui; TIAN Yan-wen; LIU Chang-sheng

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion action and passive mechanism of magnesium alloy in the fluoride solution were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS), and electrochemistry methods. The results show that an insoluble MgF2 film is generated on the surface of magnesium alloy activated in the hydrofluoric acid. And the mass of the deposited MgF2 film may reach a constant value, when the mass ratio of Mg/F on the magnesium alloy surface is fixed at 11.3-1. The activated magnesium alloy gains a 'passivation state' in a mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid at a volume ratio of less than 1.2. At the same time the mass of magnesium alloy is maintained as a function of the time. When the ratio is above 1.4, the mass of magnesium alloy rapidly decreases. The passive film formed through adsorption of HF2- (or H2F3-, H3F4-) ions by the deposited MgF2 film can protect the magnesium alloy from corrosion in fluoride solution, but not in non-fluoride solutions. The passive state is maintained for activated magnesium alloy in an acidic sulfuric nickel solution with added fluoride. If fluoride and carbonate are added to the acidic sulfuric nickel solution, a replacement reaction between magnesium alloy and solution takes place.

  16. Effects of substituting Ni with M (M=Cu, Al and Mn) on microstructures and electrochemical characteristics of La-Mg-Ni system (PuNi3-type) electrode alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanghuan; ZHAO Dongliang; DONG Xiaoping; REN Huiping; GUO Shihai; WANG Xinlin

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical cycle stability of La-Mg-Ni system (PuNi3-type) hydrogen storage alloy, Ni in the alloys was partially substituted by M (M=Cu, Al, Mn). A new La-Mg-Ni system electrode alloys La0.7Mg0.3Ni2.55-xCo0.45Mx (M=Cu, Al, Mn;x =0,0.1) were prepared by casting and rapid quenching. The effects of element substitution and rapid quenching on the microstructures and electrochemical performances of the alloys were investigated. The results by XRD, SEM and TEM show that the alloys havea multiphase structure, including the (La, Mg)Ni3 phase, the LaNi5 phase and the LaNi2 phase. The rapid quenching and element substitution have an imperceptible influence on the phase compositions of the alloys, but both change the phase abundance of the alloys. The rapid quenching significantly improves the composition homogeneity of the alloys and markedly decreases the grain size of the alloys. The Cu substitution promotes the formation of an amorphous phase in the as-quenched alloy, and a reversal result by the Al substitution. The electrochemical measurement indicates that the element substitution decreases the discharge capacity of the alloys, whereas it obviously improves the cycle stability of the alloys. The positive influence of element substitution on the cycle life of the alloys is in sequence Al>Cu>Mn, and negative influence on the discharge capacity is in sequence Al>Mn>Cu. The rapid quenching significantly enhances the cycle stability of the alloys, but it leads to a different extent decrease of thedischarge capacity of the alloys.

  17. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...

  18. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  19. Pareto-optimal alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bligaard, Thomas; Johannesson, Gisli Holmar; Ruban, Andrei;

    2003-01-01

    and the cost. In this letter we present a database consisting of the lattice parameters, bulk moduli, and heats of formation for over 64 000 ordered metallic alloys, which has been established by direct first-principles density-functional-theory calculations. Furthermore, we use a concept from economic theory...

  20. Rapid response systems update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Fiona; Castex, Julie; Campbell, Anita

    2013-06-01

    Rapid response is a mature concept that is undergoing metamorphosis. The ideal structure and function of these safety teams has not yet been realized but new developments in the field of rapid response systems are evolving.

  1. The Development of Rapidly Solidified Magnesium – Copper Ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszak M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to plan and carry out an experiment consisting of amorphization of industrial magnesium alloy WE 43 (Mg - 4 Y - 3 RE - 0.5 Zr modified by the copper addition. Investigated alloy modified with 20% of copper was rapidly quenched with the use of melt spinning technique. The effects of cooling rate on the structure and properties of the obtained material were extensively analyzed. The structure and phase analysis of samples were examined using X-ray diffraction method (XRD while the thermal stability of the samples was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Microstructure observations were also conducted. The microhardness tests (HV0.02 and corrosion resistance tests were carried out to investigate the properties of the material. Corrosion resistance measurements were held using a typical three-electrode system. As the result of the research, the effect of cooling rate on microstructure and properties of investigated alloy was determined.

  2. Air cushion furnace technology for heat treatment of high quality aluminum alloy auto body sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Zhaodong; Ma Mingtu; Wang Guodong; Fu Tianliang; Li Jiadong; Liang Xiong

    2014-01-01

    The process characteristics of heat treatment of aluminum alloy auto body sheet and the working prin-ciple of air cushion furnace were introduced. The process position and irreplaceable role of air cushion furnace in the aluminum alloy auto body sheet production was pointed out after the difficulty and key points in the whole production process of auto body sheet were studied. Then the development process of air cushion furnace line of aluminum alloy sheet was reviewed,summarized and divided to two stages. Based on the research of air cushion furnace,the key technology of it was analyzed,then the key points on process,equipment and control models of air cushion furnace for aluminum alloy auto body sheet in future were put forward. With the rapid de-velopment of automotive industry,there will be certainly a new upsurge of research and application of air cush-ion furnace for heat treatment of aluminum alloy auto body sheet.

  3. Surface alloying of Cu with Ti by double glow discharge process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁庆龙; 池成忠; 苏永安; 徐重; 唐宾

    2004-01-01

    The surface of pure copper alloyed with Ti using double glow discharge process was investigated. The morphology, structure and forming mechanism of the Cu-Ti alloying layer were analyzed. The microhardness and wear resistance of the Cu-Ti alloying layer were measured, and compared with those of pure copper. The results indicate that the surface of copper activated by Ar and Ti ions bombardment is favorable to absorption and diffusion of Ti element. In current experimental temperature, as the Ti content increases, the liquid phase occurs between the deposited layer and diffused layer, which makes the Ti ions and atoms easy to dissolve and the thickness of Cu-Ti alloying layer increase rapidly. After cooling, the structure of the alloying layer is composed of CuTi, Cu4 Ti and Cu(Ti) solid solution. The solid solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening effects of Ti result in high surface hardness and wear resistance.

  4. Oxidation of two-phase Cu-Cr alloys with different microstructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The oxidation of PM Cu-50Cr, MA Cu-40Cr and MS Cu-40Cr alloys at 800  ℃ in 0.1  MPa O2 was studied. The most important difference of their oxidation behaviors is the formation of an exclusive chromia scale on the surface of the MS Cu-40Cr alloy and a continuous chromia layer beneath an outer CuO layer corresponding MA Cu-40Cr alloy, while a complex scale composing of CuO, Cu2O, Cu2Cr2O4 and Cr2O3 formed on the PM Cu-50Cr alloy. This result implies that alloy microstructure affects their oxidation behaviors largely. Microcrystalline structure provides numerous diffusion paths for reactive component chromium, shorter diffusion distance and rapid dissolution of Cr-riched second phase. All these favor the exclusive formation of the most stable oxide.

  5. Amorphous metal nanocrystallization changes due to mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonastre, Jordi; Escoda, Lluisa; Sunol, Joan Josep [GRMT, EPS, Campus Montilivi s/n, Girona University, 17071 Girona (Spain); Hernando, Blanca; Sanchez-Llamazares, Jose Luis [Dept. Fisica, Univ. Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    A detailed knowledge of the temperature dependence of the transformed fraction is an essential issue in the development of nanomaterials and the control of their microstructure. In technical applications, the thermal stability of nanocrystalline alloys is a problem of fundamental interest in order to determine the useful working temperature ranges. The transformation diagrams give information relative to the stability and applicability of these materials. In this work the temperature-heating rate transformation diagram of a Co-rich alloy obtained by mechanical alloying or rapid solidification was built using an isoconversional approach in order to obtain a good prediction even for low transformed fractions (0.1). (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Metal Alloy Compositions And Process Background Of The Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, Merton C.; Martinez-Ayers, Raul A.; de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Yurko, James A.

    2003-11-11

    A skinless metal alloy composition free of entrapped gas and comprising primary solid discrete degenerate dendrites homogeneously dispersed within a secondary phase is formed by a process wherein the metal alloy is heated in a vessel to render it a liquid. The liquid is then rapidly cooled while vigorously agitating it under conditions to avoid entrapment of gas while forming solid nuclei homogeneously distributed in the liquid. Agitation then is ceased when the liquid contains a small fraction solid or the liquid-solid alloy is removed from the source of agitation while cooling is continued to form the primary solid discrete degenerate dendrites in liquid secondary phase. The solid-liquid mixture then can be formed such as by casting.

  7. Characteristic Investigation of Nano-Crystal Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Fangming; Huang Lili; Tang Renheng; Lu Qiyun; Peng Neng; Wang Ying

    2004-01-01

    A Ml (NiCoMnA1)5 hydrogen storage alloys was prepared by double-roller rapid quenching.Its microstructure, electrochemically and kinetic characteristic were studied.A uniform crystal phase with CaCu5 structure could be detected by XRD analyses, whose average grain size is 30 ~ 50 nm and the ratio of c/a of nano-crystal hydrogen storage alloy is larger.The hydrogen absorption/desertion p - C isotherms of alloy show that its fiat-performance is perfect and the magnetic stagnant effect is very little.An simulate cell is used for electrochemical measurement.Electrode is 10C, the capacity decreasing rate via the 450 cycles at 7C is less than 20%.

  8. Morphological evolutions of cast and melt-spun Mg97Zn1Y2 alloys during deformation and heat-treating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy has been studied as an elevated temperature creep resistant Mg-based alloy for nearly ten years. While,the strength of the cast Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy with long-period stacking(LPS) structure is lower than that of the commercial AZ91 alloy at room temperature. The microstructure evolutions in Mg97Zn1Y2 (molar fraction, %) alloys with LPS phase, processed by rolling and annealing the as-cast alloy and rapidly solidifying/melt-spinning and age treating at different temperatures respectively, were investigated by differential thermal analysis(DTA), X-ray diffraction(XRD), and laser optical microscopy(LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The evolutionary direction of microstructure prescribed by thermodynamics in the Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy is reflected from experimental data of the as-cast alloy; and the actual evolution paths selected by kinetics are depicted in detail in the as-spun alloy and rolled alloy. The strong influences of thermodynamic nonequilibrium mechanism, which entails the factual complexity of microstructures typically during rapid solidification and deformation processing for strengthening the creep resistant magnesium alloy, are presented.

  9. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  10. Surface Features of Nanocrystalline Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Miglierini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline alloys are prepared by controlled annealing of metallic glass precursors. The latter are obtained by rapid quenching of a melt on a rotating wheel. This process leads to structural deviation of the produced ribbons’ surfaces. Structural features of as-quenched and thermally annealed 57Fe81Mo8Cu1B10 ribbons were studied employing Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectrometry (CEMS and Conversion X-ray Mössbauer Spectrometry (CXMS. Enrichment of the alloy’s composition in 57Fe helped in identification of surface crystallites that were formed even during the production process. Magnetite and bcc-Fe were found at the wheel side of the as-quenched ribbons whereas only bcc-Fe nanocrystals were uncovered at the opposite air side. Accelerated formation of bcc-Fe was observed in this side of the ribbons after annealing. The relative content of magnetite at the wheel side was almost stable in near surface areas (CEMS and in more deep subsurface regions (CXMS. It vanished completely after annealing at 550 °C. No magnetite was observed at the air side of the ribbons regardless the annealing temperature and/or depth of the scanned regions.

  11. Opportunities and challenges for the biodegradable magnesium alloys as next-generation biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenjiang

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, biodegradable magnesium alloys emerge as a new class of biomaterials for tissue engineering and medical devices. Deploying biodegradable magnesium-based materials not only avoids a second surgical intervention for implant removal but also circumvents the long-term foreign body effect of permanent implants. However, these materials are often subjected to an uncontrolled and fast degradation, acute toxic responses and rapid structural failure presumably due to a localized, too rapid corrosion process. The patented Mg-Nd-Zn-based alloys (JiaoDa BioMg [JDBM]) have been developed in Shanghai Jiao Tong University in recent years. The alloy series exhibit lower biodegradation rate and homogeneous nanophasic degradation patterns as compared with other biodegradable Mg alloys. The in vitro cytotoxicity tests using various types of cells indicate excellent biocompatibility of JDBM. Finally, bone implants using JDBM-1 alloy and cardiovascular stents using JDBM-2 alloy have been successfully fabricated and in vivo long-term assessment via implantation in animal model have been performed. The results confirmed the reduced degradation rate in vivo, excellent tissue compatibility and long-term structural and mechanical durability. Thus, this novel Mg-alloy series with highly uniform nanophasic biodegradation represent a major breakthrough in the field and a promising candidate for manufacturing the next generation biodegradable implants.

  12. Tungsten carbide laser alloying of a low alloyed steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Mihai; Taca, Mihaela

    1996-10-01

    Laser alloying is a way to change the composition of metal surfaces in order to improve their corrosion-resistance, high-temperature strength and hardness. The results of a structural and phase analysis of a tungsten carbide based surface layer prepared by laser alloying of a low carbon steel substrate are presented. Structure, phase composition and microhardness of surface alloyed layers have been investigated. The surface of the samples exhibited a thin layer with a different chemical and phase composition. An increase in alloyed surface hardness and wear-resistance was observed.

  13. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  14. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  15. Materials data handbook, Inconel alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessler, J.; Weiss, V.

    1967-01-01

    Materials data handbook on Inconel alloy 718 includes data on the properties of the alloy at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures and other pertinent engineering information required for the design and fabrication of components and equipment utilizing this alloy.

  16. SINTERED REFRACTORY TUNGSTEN ALLOYS. Gesinterte hochschmelzende wolframlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, R.; Sedlatschek, K.; Braun, H.

    1971-12-15

    Dependence of the melting point of the refractory metals on their positions in the periodic system - alloys of tungsten with other refractory metals - sintering of the alloys - processing of the alloys - technological properties.

  17. Modeling corrosion behavior of gas tungsten arc welded titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The pitting corrosion characteristics of pulse TIG welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy in marine environment were explained.Besides the rapid advance of titanium metallurgy, this is also due to the successful solution of problems associated with the development of titanium alloy welding. The preferred welding process of titanium alloy is frequently gas tungsten arc(GTA) welding due to its comparatively easier applicability and better economy. In the case of single pass GTA welding of thinner section of this alloy, the pulsed current has been found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. The benefit of the process is utilized to obtain better quality titanium weldments. Four factors, five levels, central composite, rotatable design matrix are used to optimize the required number of experiments. The mathematical models have been developed by response surface method(RSM). The results reveal that the titanium alloy can form a protective scale in marine environment and is resistant to pitting corrosion. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the proposed approach.

  18. Formation of ζ phase in Cu-Ge peritectic alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rapid growth behavior of ζ phase has been investigated in the undercooling experiments of Cu-14%Ge, Cu-15%Ge, Cu-18.5%Ge and Cu-22%Ge alloys. Alloys of the four compositions obtain the maximum undercoolings of 202 K(0.17TL), 245 K(0.20TL), 223 K(0.20TL) and 176 K(0.17TL), respectively. As the content of Ge increases, the microstructural transition of "α(Cu) dendrite + ζ peritectic phase → ζ peritectic phase → ζ dendrite + (ε+ζ ) eutectic" takes place in the alloy at small undercooling, while the microstructural transition of "fragmented α (Cu) dendrite +ζperitectic phase → ζ peritectic phase → ζ dendrite + ε phase" happens in the alloy at large undercooling. EDS analysis of the Ge content in ζ peritectic phase indicates that undercooling enlarges the solid solubility of α dendrite, which leads to a decrease in the Ge content in ζ phase as undercooling increases. In the Cu-18.5%Ge alloy composed of ζ peritectic phase, the Ge content in ζ phase increases when undercooling increases, which is due to the restraint of the Ge enrichment on the grain boundaries by high undercooling effect.

  19. Application of Rapidly Solidified Superalloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    those described earlier. It was noted, however, that the conventional lype stlperalloys (as evidenced in MAR M2(W, AF2-1DA and MAR M247 alloys, the...Activation Energy For Matrix Creep in MAR MAX() Alloy....................... I I *v 7o- SUMMARY This program is being conducted for the purpose of applying...can be achieved in superalloy powder materials for optimization of mechanical properties above I., Tm. MAR M200 alloy powder, processed and reacted in

  20. High-temperature Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Gogia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of high-temperature titanium alloys has contributed significantly to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero gas turbines. This paper presents anoverview on the development of high-temperature titanium alloys used in aero engines and potential futuristic materials based on titanium aluminides and composites. The role of alloychemistry, processing, and microstructure, in determining the mechanical properties of titanium alloys is discussed. While phase equilibria and microstructural stability consideration haverestricted the use of conventional titanium alloys up to about 600 "C, alloys based on TiPl (or,, E,AINb (0, TiAl (y, and titaniumltitanium aluminides-based composites offer a possibility ofquantum jump in the temperature capability of titanium alloys.

  1. Formation of nano quasicrystalline and crystalline phases by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamah, A.M.; Ibrahim, S. [Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Hanna, F.F., E-mail: fariedhanna@yahoo.com [Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > Mechanical alloying (MA) is an important method to investigate the formation of nano sized quasicrystalline phases in Al{sub 86}Cr{sub 14}, Al{sub 84}Fe{sub 16} and Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5} compounds. The second part of the present work is an attempt to examine the possibility of formation of the i-phase of the Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5}, which lies in the region of the perfect i-phase in the ternary phase diagram, by rapid solidification method. To perform the obtained quasi phase mechanical alloying and heat treatment at the rapid solidified sample were done. - Abstract: In the present work, the formation of nano quasicrystalline icosahedral phase in Al{sub 86}Cr{sub 14}, Al{sub 84}Fe{sub 16} and Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5} alloys has been investigated by mechanical alloying. Mixtures of quasicrystalline and related crystalline phases have been observed under various milling conditions. The X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and electrical resistivity techniques have been used for characterization and physical property measurements. The particle size was calculated by X-ray profile using Williamson-Hall plot method and it was found to be 25-50 nm size.

  2. NASA MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic levitation, a form of containerless processing, is an important tool in materials research. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container; therefore, heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is not possible. This allows studies of deeply undercooled melts. Furthermore, studies of high-temperature, highly reactive materials are also possible. Studies of the solidification and crystallization of undercooled melts is vital to the understanding of microstructure development, particularly the formation of alloys with unique properties by rapid solidification. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) lab has recently been upgraded to allow for rapid quenching of levitated materials. The ESL Rapid Quench System uses a small crucible-like vessel that can be partially filled with a low melting point material, such as a Gallium alloy, as a quench medium. An undercooled sample can be dropped into the vessel to rapidly quench the sample. A carousel with nine vessels sits below the bottom electrode assembly. This system allows up to nine rapid quenches before having to break vacuum and remove the vessels. This new Rapid Quench System will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and initial results are presented.

  3. Multicomponent and High Entropy Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Cantor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some underlying principles of multicomponent and high entropy alloys, and gives some examples of these materials. Different types of multicomponent alloy and different methods of accessing multicomponent phase space are discussed. The alloys were manufactured by conventional and high speed solidification techniques, and their macroscopic, microscopic and nanoscale structures were studied by optical, X-ray and electron microscope methods. They exhibit a variety of amorphous, quasicrystalline, dendritic and eutectic structures.

  4. Porosity of porous Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two porosity models of porous Al alloys with different pore types (ball and polygon shape) were established. The experimental results coincide well with theoretical computations. The porosity of Al alloys (Prc) consists of three parts, porosity caused by preform particles (Prp), additional porosity (Pra), and porosity caused by solidification shrinkage (Prs). Prp is the main part of Prc while Pra is the key for fabricating porous Al alloys successfully in spite of its little contribution to Prc.

  5. Duct and cladding alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1983-01-01

    An austenitic alloy having good thermal stability and resistance to sodium corrosion at 700.degree. C. consists essentially of 35-45% nickel 7.5-14% chromium 0.8-3.2% molybdenum 0.3-1.0% silicon 0.2-1.0% manganese 0-0.1% zirconium 2.0-3.5% titanium 1.0-2.0% aluminum 0.02-0.1% carbon 0-0.01% boron and the balance iron.

  6. Analysis of laser alloyed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D.C.; Augustyniak, W.M.; Buene, L.; Draper, C.W.; Poate, J.M.

    1981-04-01

    Surface alloys of precious metals have many advantages over bulk alloys, the most obvious of which is cost reduction due to the reduced consumption of precious metal. There are several techniques for producing surface alloys. In this paper the laser irradiation technique is presented. The following lasers: CW CO/sub 2/, Q-switched Nd-YAG, frequency double Q-switched Nd-YAG, and pulsed ruby were used to irradiate and melt thin solid films of precious metals on metal substrates. This causes the surfaces to melt to a depth of approximately 10,000A. Alloying then takes place in the liquid phase where most metals are miscible. The high quench rates obtainable by this method of melting can result in the forming of metastable alloys. This melting and regrowth process is well understood and has been discussed in the literature over the last few years. This paper deals with two binary alloy systems, Au-Ni and Pd-Ti. Surface alloys of Au-Ni with a wide range of concentrations have been produced by laser irradiation of thin Au films on Ni. These films have been analyzed using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and channeling. Many thin film metals other than Au have also been successfully alloyed using these methods. An example of a potential application is the laser surface alloying of Pd to Ti for corrosion passivation.

  7. Generation reason and corrosion characteristic of cavity of tinplate alloy layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄久贵; 李宁; 周德瑞

    2004-01-01

    The surface morphology of alloy layer of tinplate was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy.By using the layer on layer debonding technology of glow discharge spectrum, the contents of C and O at the boundary of alloy layer and black plate were analyzed. And the corrosion characteristic of cavity of tinplate alloy layer was studied on-line and in-situ by means of electrochemical atomic force microscope. The corrosion depth of cavity of alloy layer in-situ after different corrosion time was measured. The results show that the cavity of alloy layer is a critical factor causing rapid decline of corrosion resistance of tinplate, and the formation of cavity of alloy layer is due to incorrect pretreatment of black plate before electrotinning. The cavity of alloy layer is the internal factor causing pitting corrosion of tinplate when the tinplate is applied to food packaging material. And the dynamic equation of pitting corrosion generated in the cavity of alloy layer conforms to logarithm law.

  8. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueland, Stian M.; Chen, Ying; Schuh, Christopher A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-05-23

    Copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit excellent shape memory properties in single crystalline form. However, when they are polycrystalline, their shape memory properties are severely compromised by brittle fracture arising from transformation strain incompatibility at grain boundaries and triple junctions. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys (oSMAs) are microstructurally designed SMA structures in which the total surface area exceeds the total grain boundary area, and triple junctions can even be completely absent. Here it is shown how an oligocrystalline structure provides a means of achieving single crystal-like SMA properties without being limited by constraints of single crystal processing. Additionally, the formation of oSMAs typically involves the reduction of the size scale of specimens, and sample size effects begin to emerge. Recent findings on a size effect on the martensitic transformation in oSMAs are compared and a new regime of heat transfer associated with the transformation heat evolution in these alloys is discussed. New results on unassisted two-way shape memory and the effect of loading rate in oSMAs are also reported. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Aluminum alloy impact sparkling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudyk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cast machine parts are widely used in many branches of industry. A very important issue is gaining the appropriate knowledge relating to the application of castings in places of explosion risks including but not limited to mining, chemical industry and rescue works. A possibility of explosion risks occurrence following the impact sparkling of the cast metal parts is still not solved problem in scientific research. In relation to this issue, in this article, the results of the study are presented, and relating to the tendency to impact sparkling of the aluminium alloys used in machine building. On the grounds of the results obtained, it was demonstrated that the registered impact sparkles bunches of feathers from the analyzed alloys: AlSi7Mg, (AK7; AlSi9Mg, (AK9; AlSi6Cu4, (AK64 and AlSi11, (AK11 show significant differences between each other. The quantitative analysis of the temperature distribution and nuclei surface area performed on the example of the alloy AK9 (subjected to defined period of corrosion allows for the statement that they are dangerous in conditions of explosion risk. Following this fact, designers and users of machine parts made from these materials should not use them in conditions where the explosive mixtures occur.

  10. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  11. High speed twin roll casting of 6061 alloy strips

    OpenAIRE

    T. Haga; Sakaguchi, H.; H. Watari; S. Kumai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin strips of two aluminum alloys:6061 and recycled 6061. Mechanical properties of the roll cast 6061 and recycled 6061 strips were investigated inthe frame of this purpose.Design/methodology/approach: Methods used in the present study were high speed twin roll caster and lowtemperature casting. These methods were used to realize rapid solidification and increase the casting speed.Findings: are that 6061 and rec...

  12. Radiation Effects in Refractory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, Steven J.; Wiffen, F. W.

    2004-02-01

    In order to achieve the required low reactor mass per unit electrical power for space reactors, refractory alloys are essential due to their high operating temperature capability that in turn enables high thermal conversion efficiencies. One of the key issues associated with refractory alloys is their performance in a neutron irradiation environment. The available radiation effects data are reviewed for alloys based on Mo, W, Re, Nb and Ta. The largest database is associated with Mo alloys, whereas Re, W and Ta alloys have the least available information. Particular attention is focused on Nb-1Zr, which is a proposed cladding and structural material for the reactor in the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) project. All of the refractory alloys exhibit qualitatively similar temperature-dependent behavior. At low temperatures up to ~0.3TM, where TM is the melting temperature, the dominant effect of radiation is to produce pronounced radiation hardening and concomitant loss of ductility. The radiation hardening also causes a dramatic decrease in the fracture toughness of the refractory alloys. These low temperature radiation effects occur at relatively low damage levels of ~0.1 displacement per atom, dpa (~2×1024 n/m2, E>0.1 MeV). As a consequence, operation at low temperatures in the presence of neutron irradiation must be avoided for all refractory alloys. At intermediate temperatures (0.3 to 0.6 TM), void swelling and irradiation creep are the dominant effects of irradiation. The amount of volumetric swelling associated with void formation in refractory alloys is generally within engineering design limits (>10 dpa). Very little experimental data exist on irradiation creep of refractory alloys, but data for other body centered cubic alloys suggest that the irradiation creep will produce negligible deformation for near-term space reactor applications.

  13. Properties of laser alloyed surface layers on magnesium base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galun, R.; Weisheit, A.; Mordike, B.L. (Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Werkstofftechnik)

    1998-01-01

    The investigations have shown that laser surface alloying is a promising process to improve the wear and corrosion properties of magnesium base alloys without affecting the initial bulk properties like the low density. With an alloying element combination of aluminium and nickel the wear rate in the scratch test was reduced by 90% compared to untreated pure magnesium. Additionally the corrosion resistance was improved by laser alloying with this element combination. Because of distortion or crack formation in the case of large area treatments, the laser alloying should be limited to the treatment of smaller areas. In the near future this process could be an interesting alternative to surface coating or to a partially reinforcement with ceramic fibres or particles. (orig.)

  14. Development of Combinatorial Methods for Alloy Design and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharr, George M.; George, Easo P.; Santella, Michael L

    2005-07-01

    The primary goal of this research was to develop a comprehensive methodology for designing and optimizing metallic alloys by combinatorial principles. Because conventional techniques for alloy preparation are unavoidably restrictive in the range of alloy composition that can be examined, combinatorial methods promise to significantly reduce the time, energy, and expense needed for alloy design. Combinatorial methods can be developed not only to optimize existing alloys, but to explore and develop new ones as well. The scientific approach involved fabricating an alloy specimen with a continuous distribution of binary and ternary alloy compositions across its surface--an ''alloy library''--and then using spatially resolved probing techniques to characterize its structure, composition, and relevant properties. The three specific objectives of the project were: (1) to devise means by which simple test specimens with a library of alloy compositions spanning the range interest can be produced; (2) to assess how well the properties of the combinatorial specimen reproduce those of the conventionally processed alloys; and (3) to devise screening tools which can be used to rapidly assess the important properties of the alloys. As proof of principle, the methodology was applied to the Fe-Ni-Cr ternary alloy system that constitutes many commercially important materials such as stainless steels and the H-series and C-series heat and corrosion resistant casting alloys. Three different techniques were developed for making alloy libraries: (1) vapor deposition of discrete thin films on an appropriate substrate and then alloying them together by solid-state diffusion; (2) co-deposition of the alloying elements from three separate magnetron sputtering sources onto an inert substrate; and (3) localized melting of thin films with a focused electron-beam welding system. Each of the techniques was found to have its own advantages and disadvantages. A new and very

  15. Electron Theory in Alloy Design

    CERN Document Server

    Pettifor, DG

    1992-01-01

    Presents recent developments in electron theory which have impacted upon the search for novel alloys with improved mechanical or magnetic properties. The ten chapters outline the ability of electron theory to make quantitative predictions (such as heats of formation, planar fault energies, shear moduli and magnetic anisotropy), and to provide simplifying concepts for understanding trends in alloy behaviour.

  16. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  17. Mo-Si alloy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Heatherly, L.; Wright, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this task is to develop new-generation corrosion-resistant Mo-Si intermetallic alloys as hot components in advanced fossil energy conversion and combustion systems. The initial effort is devoted to Mo{sub 5}-Si{sub 3}-base (MSB) alloys containing boron additions. Three MSB alloys based on Mo-10.5Si-1.1B (wt %), weighing 1500 g were prepared by hot pressing of elemental and alloy powders at temperatures to 1600{degrees}C in vacuum. Microporosities and glassy-phase (probably silicate phases) formations are identified as the major concerns for preparation of MSB alloys by powder metallurgy. Suggestions are made to alleviate the problems of material processing.

  18. Role of alloying elements and carbides in the chlorine-induced corrosion of steels and alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jürgen Grabke

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature corrosion of steels and Ni-base alloys in oxidizing and chloridizing environments is of practical interest in relation to problems in waste incineration plants and power plants using Cl containing fuels. The behaviour of the most important alloying elements Fe, Cr, Ni, Mo, Mn, Si, Al upon corrosion in an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere was elucidated: the reactions and kinetics can be largely understood on the base of thermodynamic data, i.e. free energy of chloride formation, vapor pressure of the chlorides and oxygen pressure pO2 needed for the conversion chlorides -> oxides. The mechanism is described by 'active oxidation', comprising inward penetration of chlorine into the scale, formation of chlorides at the oxide/metal interface, evaporation of the chlorides and conversion of the evaporating chlorides into oxides, which occurs in more or less distance from the surface (depending on pO2. This process leads to loose, fragile, multilayered oxides which are unprotective (therefore: active oxidation. Fe and Cr are rapidly transferred into such scale, Ni and Mo are relatively resistant. In many cases, the grain boundaries of the materials are strongly attacked, this is due to a susceptibility of chromium carbides to chloridation. In contrast the carbides Mo2C, TiC and NbC are less attacked than the matrix. Alloys on the basis Fe-Cr-Si proved to be rather resistant, and the alloying elements Ni and Mo clearly retard the attack in an oxidizing and chloridizing environment.

  19. Wedlable nickel aluminide alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-11-19

    A Ni.sub.3 Al alloy with improved weldability is described. It contains about 6-12 wt % Al, about 6-12 wt % Cr, about 0-3 wt % Mo, about 1.5-6 wt % Zr, about 0-0.02 wt % B and at least one of about 0-0.15 wt % C, about 0-0.20 wt % Si, about 0-0.01 wt % S and about 0-0.30 wt % Fe with the balance being Ni.

  20. Effect of stoichiometric ratio upon electrochemical properties of AB5-type alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Li-min; JIANG Wen-quan; JIANG Li-jun; FU Zhong-zhen; ZHANG Wen-guang

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of stoichiometric ratio upon electrochemical properties of AB5-type hydrogen storage alloys, a series of alloys Mm0.8La0.2(Ni4.0Mn0.5Al0.3Co0.37Fe0.13)a (a=0.90-1.08) were prepared and the electrochemical properties were tested. Mm0.8La0.2Ni4.0Mn0.5Al0.3Co0.37Fe0.13 was one of some new low cobalt AB5-type hydrogen storage alloys which had been researched to have good electrochemical properties. The results show that the stoichiometric ratio has great effects on the electrochemical properties of alloys. And the effects were investigated in detail. When stoichiometric ratio x<5.3, the activation performances of alloys are all good. But when stoichiometric ratio x>5.3, the activation performances are decreased evidently. When stoichiometric ratio x<5.3, the discharge capacities of alloys are linearly increased with the increase of stoichiometric ratio. When stoichiometric ratio x>5.3, the discharge capacities of hydrogen storage alloys decrease linearly rapidly by the raise of stoichiometric ratio. Overstoichiometry is good to the cycle lives of alloys. When stoichiometric ratio is between 4.8 and 5.4, voltage platforms of alloys tend to increase linearly with the increasing of x. When x>5.4, the increase of stoichiometric ratio leads to the decrease of voltage platform of alloys.

  1. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  2. Rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Wolff, Martin; Weitz, Michael; Bartlau, Thomas; Korth, Carsten; Zerr, Inga

    2011-09-01

    Different rates of progression have been observed among patients with Alzheimer disease. Risk factors that accelerate deterioration have been identified and some are being discussed, such as genetics, comorbidity, and the early appearance of Alzheimer disease motor signs. Progressive forms of Alzheimer disease have been reported with rapid cognitive decline and disease duration of only a few years. This short review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, we suggest that rapid, in this context, should be defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score decrease of 6 points per year.

  3. 有序度对Ni4Mo合金在氢气中脆性的影响%Effect of Ordering on Embrittlement of Ni4Mo Alloy in Hydrogen Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓英; 李慧改

    2005-01-01

    The fracture behavior of disordered and ordered Ni4 Mo alloy was investigated by tensile tests in hydrogen gas or during hydrogen charging. The results show that the ductility of the disordered alloy decreased slightly with the hydrogen pressure increasing, while that of the ordered alloy decreased rapidly with the hydrogen pressure increasing. However, the ductility of both disordered and ordered alloys reduced similarly seriously with the charging current density increasing. Therefore, the mechanism of order-induced embrittlement of Ni4 Mo alloy in hydrogen gas is supposed to be that atomic order accelerates the kinetics of the catalytic reaction for the dissociation of molecular H2 into atomic H.

  4. Effect of Trivalent Additions and Processing on Structural and Magnetic Transitions in Ni-Mn-Ga Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Mathur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic shape memory Ni50Mn30Ga15Al5-xBx (x = 0, 1, and 4 alloys were prepared by vacuum arc melting and subsequent heat-treatment as well as by melt spinning to investigate the effect of trivalent element additions in ternary Ni-Mn-Ga alloys. The heat-treated alloys containing Al were reported to possess a modulated martensite structure, however alloy containing both Al and B showed a loss of modulated structure in martensite formed. The rapidly solidified alloys on the other hand showed the formation of a similar modulated structure without composition change in alloys containing Al and the alloys containing Al and B. In addition, the former showed a presence of an amorphous phase with latter showing crystalline boron rich phases. The magnetisation of the B containing alloys in both the processing technique was however very low, showing lower magnetic exchange interaction in such alloys.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(4, pp.252-260, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1279

  5. Galvanic cells including cobalt-chromium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdet, N R

    1980-01-01

    Galvanic cells may be created when dentures made of cobalt-chromium alloys are placed on teeth with metallic restorations. The power of such cells was evaluated in an in vitro galvanic using amalgams, gold alloy, and nickel-chromium alloys. The amalgams and one of the nickel-chromium alloys revealed high corrosion currents when placed in contact with cobalt-chromium alloy, the conventional amalgam showing the highest values. The gold alloy and another nickel-chromium alloy exhibited low corrosion currents and they were noble with respect to cobalt-chromium.

  6. MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Laboratory is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified, all without the interference of a container or data-gathering instrument. The ESL main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to 8 quench vessels can be loaded into the quench wheel, which is indexed with LabVIEW control software. This allows up to 8 samples to be rapidly quenched before having to open the chamber. The system has been tested successfully on several zirconium samples. Future work will be done with other materials using different quench mediums. Microstructural analysis will also be done on successfully quench samples.

  7. Rapid Prototyping and its Application in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. V. Madhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical implants and biological models have three main characteristics: low volume, complex shape, and can be customized. These characteristics suit very well with Rapid Prototyping (RP and Rapid Manufacturing (RM processes. RP/RM processes are fabricated part layer- by-layer until complete shape finished from 3D model. Biocompatible materials, such as Titanium and Titanium alloy, Zirconium, Cobalt Chromium, PEEK, etc, are used for fabrication process. Reverse Engineering (RE technology greatly affects RP/RM processes. RE is used to capture or scan image of the limb, cranium, tooth, and other biological objects. Three common methods to get the image are 3D laser scanning, Computer Tomography (CT, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Main RP/RM techniques used in Dentistry are Stereotype Lithography Apparatus (SLA, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS, and ink jet printing. This article reviews the changing scenario of technology in dentistry with special emphasis on Rapid Prototyping and its various applications in Dentistry.

  8. Cladding Alloys for Fluoride Salt Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    This report provides an overview of several candidate technologies for cladding nickel-based corrosion protection layers onto high-temperature structural alloys. The report also provides a brief overview of the welding and weld performance issues associated with joining nickel-clad nickel-based alloys. From the available techniques, two cladding technologies were selected for initial evaluation. The first technique is a line-of-sight method that would be useful for cladding large structures such as vessel interiors or large piping. The line-of-sight method is a laser-based surface cladding technique in which a high-purity nickel powder mixed into a polymer binder is first sprayed onto the surface, baked, and then rapidly melted using a high-power laser. The second technique is a vapor phase technique based on the nickel-carbonyl process that is suitable for cladding inaccessible surfaces such as the interior surfaces of heat exchangers. An initial evaluation for performed on the quality of nickel claddings processed using the two selected cladding techniques.

  9. SAP Sector Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Stable demand growth internationally Super absorbent polymers (SAP) feature high water absorption, high water retention, rapid water absorption, great expanding power,strong thickening, strong anchoring and excellent elasticity.

  10. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitro Diagnostics Tests Used In Clinical Care Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  11. Hydropower RAPID Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit including its capabilities, features, and benefits.

  12. [Prosthetic dental alloys. 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Engelmbright, M A

    1990-11-01

    A wide variety of restoration materials for prosthetic odontology is now available to the dental surgeon, either of the covalent type (acrylic resins), metallic (alloys), ionic (porcelains), or a combination of them, as in the so-called composites, such as the composite resins, or as ceramics-metals mixtures. An example of the latter is a product called Miracle-Mix, a glass ionomere cement reinforced with an amalgam alloy. In those cases where the blend is done by a synterization process, the material is called Cermet. The above-listed alternatives clearly evidence day-to-day advances in odontology, with researchers and manufacturers engaged the world over in improving existing products or developing new ones to enrich the dentist's armamentarium. As a side effect of this constant renewal, those dentists who have failed to update their knowledge fall behind in their practice as they persist in using products they have known for years, and may be deceived by advertisements of too-often unreliable products. It is, therefore, important to be aware of available products and their latest improvements.

  13. [Prosthetic dental alloys (2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Englembright, M A

    1990-12-01

    A wide variety of restoration materials for prosthetic odontology is now available to the dental surgeon, either of the covalent type (acrylic resins), metallic (alloys), ionic (porcelains), or a combination of them, as in the so-called composites, such as the composite resins, or as ceramics-metals mixtures. An example of the latter is a product called Miracle-Mix, a glass ionomere cement reinforced with an amalgam alloy. In those cases where the blend is done by a synterization process, the material is called Cermet. The above-listed alternatives clearly evidence day-to-day advances in odontology, with researchers and manufacturers engaged the world over in improving existing products or developing new ones to enrich the dentist's armamentarium. As a side effect of this constant renewal, those dentists who have failed to update their knowledge fall behind in their practice as they persist in using products they have known for years, and may be deceived by advertisements of too-often unreliable products. It is, therefore, important to be aware of available products and their latest improvements.

  14. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  15. Effects of segregation of primary alloying elements on the creep response in magnesium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Y.D.; Dieringa, H.; Hort, N.

    2008-01-01

    The segregation of primary alloying elements deteriorates the high temperature creep resistance of magnesium alloys. Annealing at high temperatures alleviating their segregations can improve the creep resistance. Present investigation on the effect of segregation of primary alloying elements...

  16. Effects of grain refinement on mechanical properties and microstructures of AZ31 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cerium was added in AZ31 alloy with the contents of 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% respectively to produce experimental alloys.The grain refinement of Ce in the as-east and rolled AZ31 alloy were studied by using Polyvar-MET optical microscope with a VSM2000 quantitative analysis system, KYKY2000 SEM and Tecnai G2 20 TEM. And the mechanical properties of AZ31+Ce alloy were tested on a CSS-44100 testing system with computerized data acquisition. The results show that the cerium has a good grain refinement effect on the as-cast AZ31 alloy because cerium can build up a solute enriched zone rapidly during the solidification process. The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) grains less than 10 μm can be obtained in hot rolled AZ31+Ce alloy. A cold rolling deformation degree over than 20% and a following annealing at 400 ℃ for 1h will lead to refine and uniform grains with the sizes of about 25μm. The cerium can form dispersed and thermally stable Al4Ce phase that can prohibit the coarsening of grains in AZ31 +Ce alloy during the hot rolling and annealing process.

  17. Microstructural change and precipitation hardening in melt-spun Mg–X–Ca alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Wook Park, Bong-Sun You, Byoung-Gi Moon and Wan-Chul Kim

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mg–Al–Si–Ca and Mg–Zn–Ca base alloys were rapidly solidified by melt spinning at the cooling rate of about a million K/s. The melt-spun ribbons were aged in the range 100–400°C for 1 h. The effect of additional elements on microstructural change and precipitation hardening after heat treatment was investigated using TEM, XRD and a Vickers microhardness tester. Age hardening occurred after aging at 200°C in the Mg–Al–Si–Ca alloys mainly due to the formation of Al2Ca and Mg2Ca phases, whereas in the Mg–Zn–Ca alloys mostly due to the distribution of Mg2Ca. TEM results revealed that spherical Al2Ca precipitate has the coherent interface with the matrix. Considering the total amount of additional elements, Mg–Zn–Ca alloys showed higher hardness and smaller size of precipitates than Mg–Al–Si–Ca alloys. With the increase of Ca content, the hardness values of the aged ribbons were increased. Among the alloys, Mg–6Zn–5Ca alloy showed the maximum value of age hardening peak(Hv:180 after aging at 200°C for 1 h.

  18. Near infrared Ag/Au alloy nanoclusters: tunable photoluminescence and cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanxi; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hao; Sun, Hongchen; Lin, Quan; Zhang, Chi

    2014-02-15

    The fluorescent nanomaterials play an important role in cellular imaging. Although the synthesis of fluorescent metal nanoclusters (NCs) have been developing rapidly, there are many technical issues in preparing metal alloy NCs. Herein, we used a facile galvanic replacement reaction to prepare Ag/Au alloy NCs. The characterizations of UV, PL, HRTEM, EDX and XPS confirm one fact the Ag/Au alloy NCs are carried out. As-prepared Ag/Au alloy NCs display near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence centered at 716 nm and show tunable luminescence from visible red (614 nm) to NIR (716 nm) by controlling the experimental Ag/Au ratios. Moreover, as-prepared Ag/Au alloy NCs are protected by glutathione (GSH) whose some functional groups including thiol, carboxyl and amino groups make the as-prepared alloy NCs exhibit good dispersion in aqueous solution, high physiological stability and favorable biocompatibility. Together with NIR fluorescence, these advantages make alloy NCs be promising candidate in biological labeling.

  19. A Novel Zr-1Nb Alloy and a New Look at Hydriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Mariani; James I. Cole; Assel Aitkaliyeva

    2013-09-01

    A novel Zr-1Nb has begun development based on a working model that takes into account the hydrogen permeabilities for zirconium and niobium metals. The beta-Nb secondary phase particles (SPPs) in Zr-1Nb are believed to promote more rapid hydrogen dynamics in the alloy in comparison to other zirconium alloys. Furthermore, some hydrogen release is expected at the lower temperatures corresponding to outages when the partial pressure of H2 in the coolant is less. These characteristics lessen the negative synergism between corrosion and hydriding that is otherwise observed in cladding alloys without niobium. In accord with the working model, development of nanoscale precursors was initiated to enhance the performance of existing Zr-1Nb alloys. Their characteristics and properties can be compared to oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys, and material additions have been proposed to zirconium-based LWR cladding to guard further against hydriding and to fix the size of the SPPs for microstructure stability enhancements. A preparative route is being investigated that does not require mechanical alloying, and 10 nanometer molybdenum particles have been prepared which are part of the nanoscale precursors. If successful, the approach has implications for long term dry storage of used fuel and for new routes to nanoferritic and ODS alloys.

  20. Positron annihilation and tribological studies of nano-embedded Al alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jerzy Dryzek; Krzysztof Siemek; Krzysztof Ziewiec; Henk Schut

    2015-09-01

    Positron annihilation studies of aluminium alloys with nanodispersions of insoluble elements, i.e., In, Sn, Pb and Au were reported. The alloys were obtained using a rapid solidification process. For all alloys, except that with Au, the average diameter of nanoparticles in aluminium matrix was 100 nm, and variance of the size distribution was above 50 nm. Positron annihilation studies reveal the presence of monovacancies or divacancies, which were located at the interface between nanoparticles and the matrix. In the as-cast reference pure aluminium sample as well as the aluminium and gold alloy dislocations were identified as well. The isothermal annealing of the obtained alloys and measurement of the annihilation characteristic, i.e., S-parameter, allow us to determine the activation energy of grain boundary migration, which for the alloys was higher by the factor of four than for the reference sample. The measurements of friction parameters for the alloys confirmed the results reported by the other authors that, the friction coefficient was lower by the factor of about two and the specific wear rate was by the factor of about fifty higher than the reference sample. The present study confirmed the attractive positron affinity of the nanoparticles of In, Sn, Pb and Au compared to aluminium matrix.

  1. Mechanically Alloyed High Entropy Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, G.; Adrian, M. M.; Csaki, I.; Popescu, C. A.; Mitrică, D.; Vasile, S.; Carcea, I.

    2016-08-01

    In the last years high entropy alloys have been investigated due to their high hardness, high temperature stability and unusual properties that make these alloys to have significant interest. In comparison with traditional alloys that are based on two or three major elements, this new generation alloys consists at least of 5 principal elements, with the concentration between 5 and 35 at.%. The present paper reports synthesis of high entropy alloys (HEA) and high entropy composites (HEC) synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA). The equiatomic AlCrFeNiMn matrix was used for creating the HEA matrix, starting from elemental powders and as reinforcing material for composites was used pure graphite. The mechanical alloying process was carried out at different duration, in a high energy planetary ball mill, under argon atmosphere. The elemental powders alloying began after '5 hours of milling and was complete after 40 hours. The mechanical alloyed matrix and composite was pressed and heat treated under argon protection. The elemental powers were investigated for physical - technological properties, and by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Phase pressing operation was realized with a hydraulic press and the applied pressure was progressive. The sintering process was carried out at 850°C for 2 h. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the MA process resulted in solid solutions formation and also revealed body- centred cubic (BCC) and face-centred cubic (FCC) structures with average grain size around 40 nm. In addition, nanoscale particles were highlighted by scanning electron microscopy, as well as the homogeneity of the chemical composition of the matrix and composite that was confirmed by EDX microanalysis. It was noted that HEA matrix and HEA composites were processed with a high degree of compaction and with a quite large capacity of mixed powder densification (around 70%).

  2. Optical processes in dilute nitrides Semiconductors; Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, R J

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the narrow bandgap semiconductor alloys known as dilute nitrides. The initial part of this project was concerned with characterisation of chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) grown samples so that growth techniques could be refined. Early samples show evidence of structural/compositional disorder resulting from the large miscibility gap induced by nitrogen. Non-equilibrium growth was employed to overcome this, eventually resulting in improved material. In the second part of this project, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence, along with photomodulated reflectance were employed to investigate the optical properties of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown GalnNAs, GaNAs and InGaAs quantum wells (QWs). Low temperature results show evidence of carrier localization, which was interpreted in terms of structural/compositional fluctuations induced by the nitrogen incorporation. Poor photoluminescence efficiency and rapid decay of emission kinetics indicate the presence of strong non-radi...

  3. Effect of cooling rate on microstructure and compressive performance of AZ91 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lin; FENG Hui; QIU Ke-qiang; CHEN Li-jia; LIU Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Effect of cooling rate on both microstructure and room temperature compressive performance of the AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated. The experimental results show that with increasing cooling rate, the quantity of the solid solution phase increases and the fraction of secondary phase Mg17Al12 decreases. The almost single solid solution phase can be obtained with using liquid nitrogen as a coolant. The compressive strengths of the rapid solidified AZ91 magnesium alloys are higher than those of normal cast alloy, and decrease with increasing cooling rate. After artificial aging treatment for 14 h at 168 ℃, the compressive strength of the rapidly solidified AZ91 magnesium alloy cooled in liquid nitrogen increases from 253.5 to 335.3 MPa, while the compressive yield strength increases from 138.1 to 225.91 MPa. The improvement in the compressive strength of the rapidly solidified AZ91magnesium alloys can be attributed to the hardening effect from fine secondary phase.

  4. Evaluation of Microscopic Degradation of Copper and Copper Alloy by Electrical Resistivity Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chung Seok [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Seung Hoon [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Chang Young [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In the present study, the microscopic degradation of copper and copper and alloy subjected to cyclic deformation has been evaluated by the electrical resistivity measurement using the DC four terminal potential method. The copper (Cu) and copper alloy (Cu-35Zn), whose stacking fault energy is much different each other, were cyclically deformed to investigate the response of the electrical resistivity to different dislocation substructures. Dislocation cell substructure was developed in the Cu, while the planar array of dislocation structure was developed in the Cu-35Zn alloy increasing dislocation density with fatigue cycles. The electrical resistivity increased rapidly in the initial stage of fatigue deformation in both materials. Moreover, after the fatigue test it increased by about 7 % for the Cu and 6.5 % for the Cu-35Zn alloy, respectively. From these consistent results, it may be concluded that the dislocation cell structure responds to the electrical resistivity more sensitively than the planar array dislocation structure evolved during cyclic fatigue

  5. Influence of Procedure Parameters on Rheological Property of Semi-Solid AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yunxi; Xie Shuisheng; Li Xinggang; Li Lei

    2004-01-01

    Semi-solid AZ91D magnesium alloy was investigated in isothermal steady-state condition. The influence of stirring technological parameters such as stirring temperature and shear rate to apparent viscosity of semi-solid alloy slurry was discussed. Apparent viscosity increases with stirring temperature decreases at the same shear rate. At the same stirring temperature, apparent viscosity decreases rapidly at first with shear rate increases, and then apparent viscosity decreases slowly with shear rate increases, when shear rate reaches a certain value, apparent viscosity appears tiny increase. According to the experimental data, the relation between solid volume fraction and apparent viscosity of semi-solid AZ9l D alloy at shear rate 238 s- 1 is fitted by regression method, it supplies useful data to the numerical simulation of semi-solid AZ91D alloy die casting process.

  6. Modeling dissolution in aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Tracie Lee

    2005-07-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are used in many aspects of modern life, from soda cans and household foil to the automobiles and aircraft in which we travel. Aluminum alloy systems are characterized by good workability that enables these alloys to be economically rolled, extruded, or forged into useful shapes. Mechanical properties such as strength are altered significantly with cold working, annealing, precipitation-hardening, and/or heat-treatments. Heat-treatable aluminum alloys contain one or more soluble constituents such as copper, lithium, magnesium, silicon and zinc that individually, or with other elements, can form phases that strengthen the alloy. Microstructure development is highly dependent on all of the processing steps the alloy experiences. Ultimately, the macroscopic properties of the alloy depend strongly on the microstructure. Therefore, a quantitative understanding of the microstructural changes that occur during thermal and mechanical processing is fundamental to predicting alloy properties. In particular, the microstructure becomes more homogeneous and secondary phases are dissolved during thermal treatments. Robust physical models for the kinetics of particle dissolution are necessary to predict the most efficient thermal treatment. A general dissolution model for multi-component alloys has been developed using the front-tracking method to study the dissolution of precipitates in an aluminum alloy matrix. This technique is applicable to any alloy system, provided thermodynamic and diffusion data are available. Treatment of the precipitate interface is explored using two techniques: the immersed-boundary method and a new technique, termed here the "sharp-interface" method. The sharp-interface technique is based on a variation of the ghost fluid method and eliminates the need for corrective source terms in the characteristic equations. In addition, the sharp-interface method is shown to predict the dissolution behavior of precipitates in aluminum

  7. Comparison of Recuperator Alloy Degradation in Laboratory and Engine Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of advanced microturbines, durable alloy foils are needed for their recuperators to operate at 650-700 C. Prior work has demonstrated that water vapor in the exhaust gas causes more rapid consumption of Cr from austenitic alloys, leading to a reduction in lifetime for the thin-walled components in this application. New commercial alloy foils are being tested in both laboratory tests in humid air and in the exhaust gas of a modified 60 kW microturbine. Initial results are presented for a commercial batch of 80 {micro}m alloy 120 foil. The Cr consumption rates in laboratory testing were similar to those observed in previous testing. The initial results from the microturbine indicate a faster Cr consumption rate compared to the laboratory test, but longer term results are needed to quantify the difference. These results will help to verify a Cr consumption model for predicting lifetimes in this environment based on classical gas transport theory.

  8. Electroplating process of amorphous Fe-Ni-Cr alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何湘柱; 夏畅斌; 王红军; 龚竹清; 蒋汉瀛

    2001-01-01

    A novel process of electroplating amorphous Fe-Cr-Ni alloy in chloride aqueous solution with Fe( Ⅱ ), Ni ( lⅡ ) and Cr( Ⅲ ) was reported. Couple plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), X-ray diffractometry(XRD),scanning electronic microscopy(SEM), microhardness test and rapid heating-cooling method were adopted to detect the properties of the amorphous Fe-Ni-Cr deposit, such as composition, crystalline structure, micrograph, hardness, and adherence between deposit and substrate. The effects of the operating parameters on the electrodeposit of the amorphous FeNi-Cr alloy were discussed in detail. The results show that a 8.7 μm thick mirror-like amorphous Fe-Ni-Cr alloy deposit,with Vicker's hardness of 530 and composition of 45%~55% Fe, 33%~37% Ni, 9%~23% Cr was obtained by electroplating for 20 min at room temperature( 10 30 C ), cathode current 10~16 A/dm2, pH = 1.0~3.0. The XRD pat terns show that there only appears a broad hump around 2θ of 41 °~47 °for the amorphous Fe-Ni-Cr alloy deposit, while the SEM micrographs show that the deposit contains only a few fine cracks but no pinholes.

  9. Quantitative EELS analysis of zirconium alloy metal/oxide interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Na; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Sykes, John; Grovenor, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Zirconium alloys have been long used for fuel cladding and other structural components in water-cooled nuclear reactors, but waterside corrosion is a primary limitation on both high fuel burn-up and extended fuel cycle operation. Understanding the processes that occur at the metal/oxide interface is crucial for a full mechanistic description of the oxidation process. In this paper we show that reliable quantification of the oxygen content at the metal/oxide interface can be obtained by Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry (EELS) if enough care is taken over both the preparation of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) samples and the methodology for quantification of the EELS data. We have reviewed the accuracy of theoretically calculated inelastic partial scattering cross-sections and effective inelastic mean-free-paths for oxygen and zirconium in oxidized Zr-alloy samples. After careful recalibration against a ZrO₂ powder standard, systematic differences in the local oxygen profile across the interface in different zirconium alloys were found. The presence of a sub-stoichiometric oxide layer (a suboxide) was detected under conditions of slow oxide growth but not where growth was more rapid. This difference could arise from the different corrosion resistances of the alloys or, more likely, as a result of the transition in oxidation behaviour, which refers to a sharp increase in the oxidation rate when the oxide is a few microns thick.

  10. Single-aging characteristics of 7055 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; YIN Zhi-min; SHEN Kai; LI Jie; HUANG ji-wu

    2007-01-01

    The microstructures and properties of 7055 aluminum alloy were studied at different single-aging for up to 48 h using hardness test, tensile test, electrical conductivity measurement, XRD and TEM microstructure analysis. The results show that at the early stage of aging, the hardness and strength of the alloy increase rapidly, the peak hardness and strength are approached after 120 ℃ aging for 4 h, then maintained at a high level for a long time. The suitable single-aging treatment of 7055 alloy is 480 ℃, 1 h solution treatment and water quenching, then aging at 120 ℃ for 24 h. Under those condition, the tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and electrical conductivity of the studied alloy are 513 MPa, 462 MPa, 9.5% and 29%(IACS), respectively. During aging, the solid solution decomposes and precipitation occurs. At the early aging stage of 120 ℃, GP zones form and then grow up gradually with increasing ageing time. η' phase forms after ageing for 4 h and η phase starts to occur after 24 h aging.

  11. Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The...

  12. Alloy design for intrinsically ductile refractory high-entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Saad; Shafeie, Samrand; Hu, Qiang; Ahlström, Johan; Persson, Christer; Veselý, Jaroslav; Zýka, Jiří; Klement, Uta; Guo, Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs), comprising group IV (Ti, Zr, Hf), V (V, Nb, Ta), and VI (Cr, Mo, W) refractory elements, can be potentially new generation high-temperature materials. However, most existing RHEAs lack room-temperature ductility, similar to conventional refractory metals and alloys. Here, we propose an alloy design strategy to intrinsically ductilize RHEAs based on the electron theory and more specifically to decrease the number of valence electrons through controlled alloying. A new ductile RHEA, Hf0.5Nb0.5Ta0.5Ti1.5Zr, was developed as a proof of concept, with a fracture stress of close to 1 GPa and an elongation of near 20%. The findings here will shed light on the development of ductile RHEAs for ultrahigh-temperature applications in aerospace and power-generation industries.

  13. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant, colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistive materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2003-07-08

    Method of making an active magnetic refrigerant represented by Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4 alloy for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.0 comprising placing amounts of the commercially pure Gd, Si, and Ge charge components in a crucible, heating the charge contents under subambient pressure to a melting temperature of the alloy for a time sufficient to homogenize the alloy and oxidize carbon with oxygen present in the Gd charge component to reduce carbon, rapidly solidifying the alloy in the crucible, and heat treating the solidified alloy at a temperature below the melting temperature for a time effective to homogenize a microstructure of the solidified material, and then cooling sufficiently fast to prevent the eutectoid decomposition and improve magnetocaloric and/or the magnetostrictive and/or the magnetoresistive properties thereof.

  14. Study of the pyrophoric characteristics of uranium-iron alloys; Etude du caractere pyrophorique des alliages uranium fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplessis, X

    2000-02-23

    The objective of the study is to understand the pyrophoric characteristics of uranium-iron alloys. In order to carry out this research we have elected to use uranium-iron alloy powder with granules of 200 {mu}m and 1000 {mu}m diameter with 4%, 10.8% and 14% iron content. The experiments were performed on small samples of few milligrams and on larger quantities of few hundred grams. The main conclusions obtained are the followings: -The reaction start at 453 K (180 deg. C) and the ignition at 543 K (270 deg. C) - The influence of the specific area seems more important than the iron concentration in the alloys - When the alloy ignites, the fire spreads quickly and the alloy rapidly consumes. (author)

  15. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from July 1, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) Ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) Powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) Rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  16. Dumb-bell Structures of Nonstoichiometric La(Ni,Sn)5+x Alloys and Their Relationships with the Preparation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhi-Qing; Lü Guang-Lie; WEI Fan-Song; LEI Yong-Quan

    2004-01-01

    Crystal structures of nonstoichiometric La(Ni, Sn)5+x (x = 0.1~0.4) alloys prepared by different methods were investigated by using powder X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement analysis. Space group of this type of alloys belongs to P6/mmm, in which Sn only occupies the 3g sites. It has been demonstrated that some of the 1a sites of the nonstoichiometric alloy are replaced by the Ni-Ni dumb-bells which have a strong correlation with the anisotropic thermal parameter B33. The preparation methods have an effect on the number of dumb-bells that can substitute the 1a sites. It was found that the annealed alloys have more Ni-Ni dumb-bells in the structure than the rapid solidified and as-cast alloys have while still keep good crystallinity.

  17. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable highstrength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO2 laser. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloys, over the last years.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la aleación superficial mediante láser de aluminio con metales de transición. El cromo y el molibdeno son particularmente interesantes porque producen aleaciones de alta resistencia y por el bajo coeficiente de difusión y solución sólida en aluminio. Para producir estas aleaciones se ha seguido un procedimiento desarrollado en dos partes. En primer lugar, el material se alea usando una baja velocidad de procesado y en segundo lugar la estructura se modifica mediante un refinamiento posterior. Este procedimiento se ha empleado en la producción de aleaciones Al-Cr, Al-Mo y Al-Nb mediante aleación con láser de CO2 de polvos de Cr, Mo o Nb en aluminio y la aleación 7175. Este trabajo es una revisión del desarrollado en el Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa en los últimos años.

  18. The potential of rapid cooling spark plasma sintering for metallic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spark plasma sintering (SPS is a remarkable technique for consolidating a large variety of advanced materials with rapid heating rates. However, adjusting the cooling rates has so far faced limitations. This communication discusses the potentials of SPS integrated with a novel gas quenching system that can allow metallic materials to be sintered and rapidly quenched directly after the sintering step, saving energy and costs. Results on numerical simulations of rapid cooling-SPS and the mechanical properties and microstructures of Ti6Al4V alloy are discussed; exhibiting the feasibility of this rapid cooling SPS technique and the major implications for the field of SPS and metallic powder consolidation.

  19. The corrosion resistance and neutron-absorbing properties of coatings based on amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevryukov, O. N.; Polyansky, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The object of the present study was the corrosion-resistant amorphizing alloys with an increased content of boron for cladding the surface of metals, rapidly quenched alloys without boron for protective coatings on a high-boron cladding layer, as well as steel samples with a protective coating with a high content of boron and without boron. The aim of the work is to investigate the corrosion resistance of a coating in water at the temperature of 40 °C in conditions of an open access of oxygen for 1000 h, as well as the features of the microstructure of clad samples before and after the corrosion tests. New data on the corrosion resistance of Cr18Ni10Ti steel samples with a protective layer from a rapidly quenched alloy Ni-19Cr-10Si (in wt.%) on a high-boron coating have been obtained.

  20. Lead telluride alloy thermoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. LaLonde

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to use solid-state thermoelectrics for waste heat recovery has reinvigorated the field of thermoelectrics in tackling the challenges of energy sustainability. While thermoelectric generators have decades of proven reliability in space, from the 1960s to the present, terrestrial uses have so far been limited to niche applications on Earth because of a relatively low material efficiency. Lead telluride alloys were some of the first materials investigated and commercialized for generators but their full potential for thermoelectrics has only recently been revealed to be far greater than commonly believed. By reviewing some of the past and present successes of PbTe as a thermoelectric material we identify the issues for achieving maximum performance and successful band structure engineering strategies for further improvements that can be applied to other thermoelectric materials systems.

  1. Metallic alloy stability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    The dimensional stability of candidate cryogenic wind tunnel model materials was investigated. Flat specimens of candidate materials were fabricated and cryo-cycled to assess relative dimensional stability. Existing 2-dimensional airfoil models as well as models in various stages of manufacture were also cryo-cycled. The tests indicate that 18 Ni maraging steel offers the greatest dimensional stability and that PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel is the most stable of the stainless steels. Dimensional stability is influenced primarily by metallurgical transformations (austenitic to martensitic) and manufacturing-induced stresses. These factors can be minimized by utilization of stable alloys, refinement of existing manufacturing techniques, and incorporation of new manufacturing technologies.

  2. Emissivity measurements on aeronautical alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, L. del, E-mail: leire.del-campo@cnrs-orleans.f [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Perez-Saez, R.B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.e [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Gonzalez-Fernandez, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Esquisabel, X.; Fernandez, I. [Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Planta de Zamudio, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Gonzalez-Martin, P. [Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Parque empresarial San Fernando, Avda. Castilla 2, 28830 San Fernando de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Tello, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-01-21

    The emissivity of three Ni and Co based aeronautical alloys is analyzed in this paper. These alloys are employed in high temperature environments whenever good corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance and high strength are essential. Thus, apart from the aeronautical industry, these alloys are also used in other technological applications, as for example, aerospace, nuclear reactors, and tooling. The results in this paper extend the emissivity data for these alloys available in the literature. Emissivity dependence on the radiation wavelength (2-22 {mu}m), sample temperature (200-650 {sup o}C) and emission angle (0-85{sup o}) has been investigated. In addition, the effect of surface finish and oxidation has also been taken into consideration. The data in this paper have several applications, as temperature measurement of a target by pyrometry, low observability of airplanes and thermal radiation heat transfer simulation in airplane nozzles or furnaces.

  3. Rapid cooled lens cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, David M.; Hsu, Ike C.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the optomechanical design, thermal analysis, fabrication, and test evaluation processes followed in developing a rapid cooled, infrared lens cell. Thermal analysis was the key engineering discipline exercised in the design phase. The effect of thermal stress on the lens, induced by rapid cooling of the lens cell, was investigated. Features of this lens cell that minimized the thermal stress will be discussed in a dedicated section. The results of thermal analysis on the selected lens cell design and the selection of the flow channel design in the heat exchanger will be discussed. Throughout the paper engineering drawings, illustrations, analytical results, and photographs of actual hardware are presented.

  4. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  5. Electron backscatter diffraction of a plutonium-gallium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlert, C. J.; Zocco, T. G.; Schulze, R. K.; Mitchell, J. N.; Pereyra, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental technique has recently been developed to characterize reactive metals, including plutonium (Pu) and cerium, using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructural characterization of Pu and its alloys by EBSD had been previously elusive primarily because of the extreme toxicity and rapid surface oxidation rate associated with Pu metal. The experimental technique, which included ion-sputtering the metal surface using a scanning Auger microprobe (SAM) followed by vacuum transfer of the sample from the SAM to the scanning electron microscope (SEM), used to obtain electron backscatter diffraction Kikuchi patterns and orientation maps for a Pu-gallium alloy is described and the initial microstructural observations based on the analysis are discussed. The phase transformation behavior between the δ (face-centered cubic) and ɛ (body-centered-cubic) structures is explained by combining the SEM and EBSD observations.

  6. Isothermal Aging Precipitate of TB17 Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM, X-Ray Diffraction(XRD and Optical Microscope(OMwere employed to investigate the aging precipitation behavior of a new type of ultra-high strength TB17 titanium alloy. The results show that during heat solution treated in the β phase field followed by aging the secondary α phase is nucleated, precipitated and grew on the β phase matrix,and the precipitated phase is lamellar structure which has burgers relation with the matrix. The secondary α phase content is increased rapidly and finally reach a steady-state as aging time increased and the final product of aging consists of α phase and β phase. there is a good linearity relationship between the content of secondary α phase and the hardness of age hardening. The TB17 titanium alloy isothermal phase transformation kinetics can be described by JMAK equation.

  7. Thermophysical properties of Ni-5%Sn alloy melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Fuping; CAO; Chongde; WEI; Bingbo

    2006-01-01

    The surface tension and specific heat of Ni-5%Sn alloy melt were measured by the oscillating drop method and the drop calorimetric method using electromagnetic levitation, respectively. The temperature coefficient of surface tension is 6.43×10-4 N·m-1K-1 within the temperature regime of 1464-1931 K. The enthalpy change was measured in the temperature range from 1461 to 1986 K, and the average specific heat was obtained as 43.03 J·mol-1K-1. Some other thermophysical properties, such as viscosity, solute diffusion coefficient, density, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of this alloy melt, were derived based on the experimentally measured surface tension and specific heat. Using these thermophysical parameters, the relation between solute trapping and undercooling in rapidly solidified α-Ni was calculated, and the theoretical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental data.

  8. Three-Dimensional Cellular Structures Enhanced By Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, Michael V.; Krause, David L.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Baker, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    This research effort explored lightweight structural concepts married with advanced smart materials to achieve a wide variety of benefits in airframe and engine components. Lattice block structures were cast from an aerospace structural titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA), and preliminary properties have been measured. A finite element-based modeling approach that can rapidly and accurately capture the deformation response of lattice architectures was developed. The Ti-6-4 and SMA material behavior was calibrated via experimental tests of ligaments machined from the lattice. Benchmark testing of complete lattice structures verified the main aspects of the model as well as demonstrated the advantages of the lattice structure. Shape memory behavior of a sample machined from a lattice block was also demonstrated.

  9. Boriding of Binary Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Nazim; Dogan, Sule; Karakas, Mustafa Serdar; Calik, Adnan

    2016-11-01

    Boriding of binary Ni-Ti shape memory alloys was carried out in a solid medium at 1273 K for 2, 4, 6, and 8 h using the powder pack method with proprietary Ekabor-Ni powders. Characterization of the boride layer formed on the surface of alloys was done by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of boride, silicide, and borosilicide phases in the boride layers was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The thickness and microhardness of the boride layers increased with increasing boriding time. Hardness profiles showed a rapid decrease in hardness moving from the boride layer to the main structure. The high hardness of the boride layer was attributed mainly to the formation of TiB2. A parabolic relationship was observed between layer thickness and boriding time, and the growth rate constant for the boriding treatment was calculated as 0.62×10-8 cm2 s-1.

  10. Breaking through the strength-ductility trade-off dilemma in an Al-Si-based casting alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, B.; Zhang, X.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chen, C. X.; Wang, H. T.; Liu, F.

    2016-08-01

    Al-Si-based casting alloys have a great potential in various industrial applications. Common strengthening strategies on these alloys are accompanied inevitably by sacrifice of ductility, known as strength-ductility trade-off dilemma. Here, we report a simple route by combining rapid solidification (RS) with a post-solidification heat treatment (PHT), i.e. a RS + PHT route, to break through this dilemma using a commercial Al-Si-based casting alloy (A356 alloy) as an example. It is shown that yield strength and elongation to failure of the RS + PHT processed alloy are elevated simultaneously by increasing the cooling rate upon RS, which are not influenced by subsequent T6 heat treatment. Breaking through the dilemma is attributed to the hierarchical microstructure formed by the RS + PHT route, i.e. highly dispersed nanoscale Si particles in Al dendrites and nanoscale Al particles decorated in eutectic Si. Simplicity of the RS + PHT route makes it being suitable for industrial scaling production. The strategy of engineering microstructures offers a general pathway in tailoring mechanical properties of other Al-Si-based alloys. Moreover, the remarkably enhanced ductility of A356 alloy not only permits strengthening further the material by work hardening but also enables possibly conventional solid-state forming of the material, thus extending the applications of such an alloy.

  11. Investigation of the inner corrosion layer formed in pulse electrodeposition coating on Mg-Sr alloy and corresponding degradation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Yongming; Wan, Peng; Tan, Lili; Fan, Xinmin; Qin, Ling; Yang, Ke

    2016-11-01

    Magnesium-based metals are considered as promising biodegradable orthopedic implant materials due to their potentials of enhancing bone healing and reconstruction, and in vivo absorbable characteristic without second operation for removal. However, the rapid corrosion has limited their clinical applications. Ca-P coating by electrodeposition has been supposed to be effective to control the degradation rate and enhance the bioactivity. In this work, a brushite coating was fabricated on the Mg-Sr alloy by pulse electrodeposition (PED) to evaluate its efficacy for orthopedic application. Interestingly, an inner corrosion layer was observed between the PED coating and the alloy substrate. Meanwhile the results of in vitro immersion and electrochemical tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the coated alloy was undermined in comparison with the uncoated alloy. It was deduced that the existence of this corrosion layer was attributed to the worse corrosion performance of the alloy. The mechanism on formation of the inner corrosion layer and its influence on consequent degradation were analyzed. It can be concluded that the electrodeposition coating should be not suitable for those magnesium alloys with poor corrosion resistance such as the Mg-Sr alloy. More importantly, it should be noted that the process of coating formation combined with the nature of substrate alloy is important to evaluate the efficacy of coating for biodegradable Mg-based implants application.

  12. Electrochemical and surface analyses of nanostructured Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn alloys in simulated body solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Li, S J; Hao, Y L; Huang, H H; Bai, Y; Hao, Y Q; Guo, Z; Xue, J Q; Yang, R

    2014-06-01

    The use of nanostructuring to improve the stability of passive thin films on biomaterials can enhance their effectiveness in corrosion resistance and reduce the release of ions. The thickness of the ultrathin films that cover Ti and Ti alloys (only several nanometers) has prevented researchers from establishing systematic methods for their characterization. This study employed a multifunctional biomedical titanium alloy Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (wt.%) as a model material. Coarse-grained (CG) and nanostructured (NS) alloys were analyzed in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37°C. To reveal the details of the passive film, a method of sample preparation producing a passive layer suitable for transmission electron microscope analysis was developed. Electrochemical corrosion behavior was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization tests and Mott-Schottky measurements. Surface depth chemical profile and morphology evolution were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ atomic force microscopy, respectively. A mechanism was proposed on the basis of the point defect model to compare the corrosion resistance of the passive film on NS and CG alloys. Results showed that the protective amorphous film on NS alloy is thicker, denser and more homogeneous with fewer defects than that on CG alloy. The film on NS alloy contains more oxygen and corrosion-resistant elements (Ti and Nb), as well as their suboxides, compared with the film on CG alloy. These characteristics can be attributed to the rapid, uniform growth of the passive film facilitated by nanostructuring.

  13. Research of heat treatment of low-Co AB5 type hydrogen storage alloys for MH-Ni batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jinghong; CHEN Demin; LIU Guozhong; YANG Ke; MA Jun

    2003-01-01

    The effects of low-Co AB5 type hydrogen storage alloys prepared by quenching and annealing on the performances of MH-Ni batteries were investigated, and the characteristics of the low-Co AB5 type hydrogen storage alloys were compared with those of the high-Co AB5 type hydrogen storage alloy as well. The results showed that the faster the cooling of the low-Co hydrogen storage alloy is, the better homogeneity of the chemical composition for the alloy and the longer cycle life of the battery are, but the electrochemical discharge capacity and high-rate discharge ability are reduced. The high-rate discharge ability and charge retention of MH-Ni batteries for the conventional as-cast annealed low-Co hydrogen storage alloy were superior to those for the rapidly quenched low-Co hydrogen storage alloy and the high-Co hydrogen storage alloy, but a little inferior in the cycle life.

  14. Influence of artificial biological fluid composition on the biocorrosion of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31, AZ91 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen, L J, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.c [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shengyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110023 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The electrochemical behavior of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31 and AZ91 alloys was studied in Hank's solution, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and serum-containing medium (DMEM adding 10% fetal bovine serum (DMEM+FBS)) over a 7 day immersion period. The biocorrosion of the above three alloys for various immersion time intervals was investigated by linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). After 7 day immersion, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out and the surface morphologies of experimental samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation complemented by energy-disperse spectrometer (EDS) analysis. It was shown that the corrosion of magnesium alloys was influenced by the composition of the solution. The results indicated that chloride ion could reduce the corrosion resistance and the hydrocarbonate ions could induce rapid surface passivation. The adsorbed amino acid on the experimental magnesium alloys' surface increased their polarization resistance and reduced current densities. The influence of the serum protein on corrosion was found to be associated with the magnesium alloy compositions. A Mg-Ca alloy exhibited an increased corrosion rate in the presence of serum protein. An AZ31 alloy showed an increased corrosion rate in DMEM+FBS in the initial 3 day immersion and the corrosion rate decreased thereafter. An AZ91 alloy, with high Al content, showed a reduced corrosion rate with the addition of FBS into DMEM.

  15. Influence of artificial biological fluid composition on the biocorrosion of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31, AZ91 alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Chen, L J

    2009-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31 and AZ91 alloys was studied in Hank's solution, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and serum-containing medium (DMEM adding 10% fetal bovine serum (DMEM+FBS)) over a 7 day immersion period. The biocorrosion of the above three alloys for various immersion time intervals was investigated by linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). After 7 day immersion, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out and the surface morphologies of experimental samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation complemented by energy-disperse spectrometer (EDS) analysis. It was shown that the corrosion of magnesium alloys was influenced by the composition of the solution. The results indicated that chloride ion could reduce the corrosion resistance and the hydrocarbonate ions could induce rapid surface passivation. The adsorbed amino acid on the experimental magnesium alloys' surface increased their polarization resistance and reduced current densities. The influence of the serum protein on corrosion was found to be associated with the magnesium alloy compositions. A Mg-Ca alloy exhibited an increased corrosion rate in the presence of serum protein. An AZ31 alloy showed an increased corrosion rate in DMEM+FBS in the initial 3 day immersion and the corrosion rate decreased thereafter. An AZ91 alloy, with high Al content, showed a reduced corrosion rate with the addition of FBS into DMEM.

  16. Corrosion resistance of Fe-based amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botta, W.J., E-mail: wjbotta@ufscar.br [LEPMI, UMR5279 CNRS, Grenoble INP, Université de Savoie, Université Joseph Fourier, 1130, Rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luiz, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Berger, J.E.; Kiminami, C.S. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luiz, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Roche, V.; Nogueira, R.P. [LEPMI, UMR5279 CNRS, Grenoble INP, Université de Savoie, Université Joseph Fourier, 1130, Rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Bolfarini, C. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luiz, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► We report corrosion properties of Fe-based amorphous alloys in different media. ► The Cr-containing alloys had corrosion resistance close to that of Pt in all media. ► The wide range of electrochemical stability is relevant in many industrial domains. -- Abstract: Fe-based amorphous alloys can be designed to present an attractive combination of properties with high corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength. Such properties are clearly adequate for their technological use as coatings, for example, in steel pipes. In this work, we studied the corrosion properties of amorphous ribbons of the following Fe-based compositions: Fe{sub 66}B{sub 30}Nb{sub 4}, [(Fe{sub 0.6}Co{sub 0.4}){sub 0.75}B{sub 0.2}Si{sub 0.05}]{sub 96}Nb{sub 4}, [(Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 0.75}B{sub 0.2}Si{sub 0.05}]{sub 96}Nb{sub 4}, Fe{sub 56}Cr{sub 23}Ni{sub 5.7}B{sub 16}, Fe{sub 53}Cr{sub 22}Ni{sub 5.6}B{sub 19} and Fe{sub 50}Cr{sub 22}Ni{sub 5.4}B{sub 23}. The ribbons were obtained by rapid solidification using the melt-spinning process, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion properties were evaluated by corrosion potential survey and potentiodynamic polarization. The Cr containing alloys, that is the FeCrNiB type of alloys, showed the best corrosion resistance properties with the formation of a stable passive film that ensured a very large passivation plateau.

  17. Properties of thermally stable PM Al-Cr based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtech, D. [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: Dalibor.Vojtech@vscht.cz; Verner, J. [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Serak, J. [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Simancik, F. [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3 (Slovakia); Balog, M. [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3 (Slovakia); Nagy, J. [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3 (Slovakia)

    2007-06-15

    The presented paper describes properties of Al-6.0 wt.%Cr-2.3 wt.%Fe-0.4 wt.%Ti-0.7 wt.%Si alloy produced by powder metallurgy (PM). The powder alloy was prepared by the pressure nitrogen melt atomization. The granulometric powder fraction of less than 45 {mu}m was then hot-extruded at 450 deg. C to produce a rod of 6 mm in diameter. Microstructure of the as-extruded material was composed of recrystallized {alpha}(Al) grains (the average grain size of 640 nm) and Al{sub 13}Cr{sub 2} spheroids (the average particle diameter of 130 nm and interparticle spacing of 290 nm). Metastable phases were not observed due to their decomposition on the hot extrusion. Hardness of the as-extruded material was 108 HV1, ultimate tensile strength, 327 MPa, yield strength, 258 MPa and elongation, 14%. Mechanical properties resulted mainly from Hall-Petch strengthening. The room-temperature mechanical properties were also measured after a long-term annealing at 400 deg. C. The investigated PM material was compared with the commercial Al-11.8 wt.%Si-0.9 wt.%Ni-1.2 wt.%Cu-1.2 wt.%Mg casting alloy generally applied at elevated temperatures. The PM alloy showed much higher thermal stability, since its room temperature hardness and tensile properties did not degradate significantly even after annealing at 400 deg. C/200 h. In contrast, the hardness and strength of the casting alloy reduced rapidly already after a 30 min annealing. The excellent thermal stability of the investigated PM material was a consequence of very slow diffusivities and low equilibrium solubilities of chromium and iron in solid aluminium.

  18. Nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. Phase transformations, structure and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubina, J.V.

    2006-12-21

    This work has been devoted to the study of phase transformations involving chemical ordering and magnetic properties evolution in bulk Fe-Pt alloys composed of nanometersized grains. Nanocrystalline Fe{sub 100-x}Pt{sub x} (x=40-60) alloys have been prepared by mechanical ball milling of elemental Fe and Pt powders at liquid nitrogen temperature. The as-milled Fe-Pt alloys consist of {proportional_to} 100 {mu}m sized particles constituted by randomly oriented grains having an average size in the range of 10-40 nm. Depending on the milling time, three major microstructure types have been obtained: samples with a multilayer-type structure of Fe and Pt with a thickness of 20-300 nm and a very thin (several nanometers) A1 layer at their interfaces (2 h milled), an intermediate structure, consisting of finer lamellae of Fe and Pt (below approximately 100 nm) with the A1 layer thickness reaching several tens of nanometers (4 h milled) and alloys containing a homogeneous A1 phase (7 h milled). Subsequent heat treatment at elevated temperatures is required for the formation of the L1{sub 0} FePt phase. The ordering develops via so-called combined solid state reactions. It is accompanied by grain growth and thermally assisted removal of defects introduced by milling and proceeds rapidly at moderate temperatures by nucleation and growth of the ordered phases with a high degree of the long-range order. In a two-particle interaction model elaborated in the present work, the existence of hysteresis in recoil loops has been shown to arise from insufficient coupling between the low- and the high-anisotropy particles. The model reveals the main features of magnetisation reversal processes observed experimentally in exchange-coupled systems. Neutron diffraction has been used for the investigation of the magnetic structure of ordered and partially ordered nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. (orig.)

  19. 超音速电弧喷射雾化制备的非互溶Ag-10Ni合金粉末的凝固特征%Rapid Solidification Features of Ag-10Ni Immiscible Alloy by Ultrasonic Arc Spray Gas Atomization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦国义; 王剑华; 蔡宏忠; 赵怀志; 张富文; 宁远涛

    2007-01-01

    The fine powder of Ag-10Ni immiscible alloy was prepared by Ultrasonic Arc Spray Gas Atomization process.The particle size distribution,morphology,microstructure evolution of the powder were studied in the present paper.It is shown that the particle size of the Ag-10Ni alloy powder ranges from 20 μm to 45 μm,the average particle size is about 32 μm,the powder possesses spherical form;the microstructure of the Ag-10Ni particle consists of the large spherical Ni-rich particles with dispersed Ag precipitates in the center part of the solidified droplets,Ag-rich matrix with dispersed tiny Ni-rich particles and Ni precipitates on outer part of large Ni-rich particles.The Ag-rich matrix has a dendritic structure.The interdendritic spacing is about 0.2 μm for the powder less than 20 μm.%采用超音速电弧喷射气雾化制粉设备制备了难固溶Ag-10Ni合金粉末.研究了粉末粒度分布、形貌及凝固组特征,并对雾化熔滴的冷却速率及过冷度、凝固组织的凝固次序、形成机制进行了分析.结果表明:粉末分散性好、粒度主要集中在20 μm~45 μm、平均粒度32 μm、形貌主要为球形和近球形;粉末颗粒凝固组织为富Ag基体+弥散分布于基体中的细Ni相+位于芯部的大直径初晶富Ni相,在大直径初晶富Ni相中弥散分布析出Ag相;富Ag基体的凝固组织为树枝晶组织,小颗粒粉末(《20 μm)枝晶间距小于0.2 μm.

  20. Kinetics of aluminum lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletcher, Ben A.

    2009-12-01

    Aluminum lithium alloys are increasingly used in aerospace for their high strength-to-weight ratio. Additions of lithium, up to 4.2 wt% decrease the alloy density while increasing the modulus and yield strength. The metastable, second phase Al3Li or delta' is intriguing, as it remains spherical and coherent with the matrix phase, alpha, well into the overaged condition. Small interfacial strain energy allows these precipitates to remain spherical for volume fractions (VV ) of delta' less than 0.3, making this alloy system ideal for investigation of late-stage coarsening phenomena. Experimental characterization of three binary Al-Li alloys are presented as a critical test of diffusion screening theory and multi-particle diffusion simulations. Quantitative transmission electron microscopy is used to image the precipitates directly using the centered dark-field technique. Images are analyzed autonomously within a novel Matlab function that determines the center and size of each precipitate. Particle size distribution, particle growth kinetics, and maximum particle size are used to track the precipitate growth and correlate with the predictions of screening theory and multi-particle diffusion simulations. This project is the first extensive study of Al-Li alloys, in over 25 years, applying modern transmission electron microscopy and image analysis techniques. Previous studies sampled but a single alloy composition, and measured far fewer precipitates. This study investigates 3 alloys with volume fractions of the delta precipitates, VV =0.1-0.27, aged at 225C for 1 to 10 days. More than 1000 precipitates were sampled per aging time, creating more statistically significant data. Experimental results are used to test the predictions based on diffusion screening theory and multi-particle aging simulations. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured palladium-based alloy electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arindam

    Low temperature fuel cells like proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are expected to play a crucial role in the future hydrogen economy, especially for transportation applications. These electrochemical devices offer significantly higher efficiency compared to conventional heat engines. However, use of exotic and expensive platinum as the electrocatalyst poses serious problems for commercial viability. In this regard, there is an urgent need to develop low-platinum or non-platinum electrocatalysts with electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) superior or comparable to that of platinum. This dissertation first investigates non-platinum, palladium-based alloy electrocatalysts for ORR. Particularly, Pd-M (M = Mo and W) alloys are synthesized by a novel thermal decomposition of organo-metallic precursors. The carbon-supported Pd-M (M = Mo, W) electrocatalyts are then heat treated up to 900°C in H2 atmosphere and investigated for their phase behavior. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements reveal that the alloying of Pd with Mo or W significantly enhances the catalytic activity for ORR as well as the stability (durability) of the electrocatalysts. Additionally, both the alloy systems exhibit high tolerance to methanol, which is particularly advantageous for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The dissertation then focuses on one-pot synthesis of carbon-supported multi-metallic Pt-Pd-Co nanoalloys by a rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal (MW-ST) method. The multi-metallic alloy compositions synthesized by the MW-ST method show much higher catalytic activity for ORR compared to their counterparts synthesized by the conventional borohydride reduction method. Additionally, a series of Pt encapsulated Pd-Co nanoparticle electrocatalysts are synthesized by the MW-ST method and characterized to understand their phase behavior, surface composition, and electrocatalytic activity for ORR. Finally, the dissertation

  2. Alloys developed for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Eddy Agus; Prajitno, Djoko Hadi; Muhammad, Fadhli

    2017-01-01

    Alloys used for high temperatures applications require combinations of mechanical strength, microstructural stability and corrosion/oxidation resistance. Nickel base superalloys have been traditionally the prime materials utilized for hot section components of aircraft turbine engines. Nevertheless, due to their limited melting temperatures, alloys based on intermetallic compounds, such as TiAl base alloys, have emerged as high temperature materials and intensively developed with the main aim to replace nickel based superalloys. For applications in steam power plants operated at lower temperatures, ferritic high temperature alloys still attract high attention, and therefore, development of these alloys is in progress. This paper highlights the important metallurgical parameters of high temperature alloys and describes few efforts in the development of Fe-Ni-Al based alloys containing B2-(Fe,Ni)Al precipitates, oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) ferritic steels and titanium aluminide based alloys include important protection system of aluminide coatings.

  3. Laser cladding of titanium alloy coating on titanium aluminide alloy substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子文; 黄正; 阮中健

    2003-01-01

    A new diffusion bonding technique combined with laser cladding process was developed to join TiAl alloy to itself and Ti-alloys. In order to enhance the weldability of TiAl alloys, Ti-alloy coatings were fabricated by laser cladding on the TiAl alloy. Ti powder and shaped Ti-alloy were respectively used as laser cladding materials. The materials characterization was carried out by OM, SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. The results show that the laser cladding process with shaped Ti-alloy remedy the problems present in the conventional process with powder, such as impurities, cracks and pores. The diffusion bonding of TiAl alloy with Ti-alloy coating to itself and Ti-alloy was carried out with a Gleeble 1500 thermal simulator. The sound bonds of TiAl/TiAl, TiAl/Ti were obtained at a lower temperature and with shorter time.

  4. Properties of WZ21 (%wt) alloy processed by a powder metallurgy route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Sandra; Garcés, Gerardo; Pérez, Pablo; Adeva, Paloma

    2015-06-01

    Microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of WZ21 (%wt) alloy prepared by a powder metallurgy route from rapidly solidified powders have been studied. Results were compared to those of the same alloy prepared through a conventional route of casting and extrusion. The microstructure of the extruded ingot consisted of α-Mg grains and Mg3Zn3Y2 (W-phase) and LPSO-phase particles located at grain boundaries. Moreover, stacking faults were also observed within α-Mg grains. The alloy processed by the powder metallurgy route exhibited a more homogeneous and finer microstructure, with a grain size of 2 μm. In this case W-phase and Mg24Y5 phase were identified, but not the LPSO-phase. The microstructural refinement induced by the use of rapidly solidified powders strengthened the alloy at room temperature and promoted superplasticity at higher strain rates. Corrosion behaviour in PBS medium evidenced certain physical barrier effect of the almost continuous arrangements of second phases aligned along the extrusion direction in conventionally processed WZ21 alloy, with a stable tendency around 7 mm/year. On the other hand, powder metallurgy processing promoted significant pitting corrosion, inducing accelerated corrosion rate during prolonged immersion times.

  5. Rapid-Sequence Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Dávila Cabo de Villa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In medical practice there are several situations that require immediate intervention of the airway in some patients, in order to ensure proper entrance and exit of gases into and out of the lungs and prevent aspiration. Rapid-sequence intubation has been considered as the administration of a hypnotic agent and a neuromuscular relaxant consecutively (virtually simultaneously to facilitate orotracheal intubation in critically ill patients and minimize the risk of aspiration. This paper aims to collect elements that promote a successful medical management according to the situation presented, since there is no single way of proceeding in case of rapid-sequence intubation. The elements to consider include: knowing the anatomy of the upper respiratory tract, having a group of drugs to choose from, receiving adequate training and having an alternative plan for the difficulties that may arise.

  6. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  7. New Rapid Spore Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Conley, Catharine

    2012-07-01

    The presentation will detail approved Planetary Protection specifications for the Rapid Spore Assay for spacecraft components and subsystems. Outlined will be the research and studies on which the specifications were based. The research, funded by ESA and NASA/JPL, was conducted over a period of two years and was followed by limited cleanroom studies to assess the feasibility of this assay during spacecraft assembly.

  8. Shape memory alloys. Ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chluba, Christoph; Ge, Wenwei; Lima de Miranda, Rodrigo; Strobel, Julian; Kienle, Lorenz; Quandt, Eckhard; Wuttig, Manfred

    2015-05-29

    Functional shape memory alloys need to operate reversibly and repeatedly. Quantitative measures of reversibility include the relative volume change of the participating phases and compatibility matrices for twinning. But no similar argument is known for repeatability. This is especially crucial for many future applications, such as artificial heart valves or elastocaloric cooling, in which more than 10 million transformation cycles will be required. We report on the discovery of an ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy film system based on TiNiCu that allows at least 10 million transformation cycles. We found that these films contain Ti2Cu precipitates embedded in the base alloy that serve as sentinels to ensure complete and reproducible transformation in the course of each memory cycle.

  9. Shape memory alloy flexures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellouard, Yves; Clavel, Reymond

    2003-07-25

    Flexures are used in precision engineering where highly accurate, wear-free, smooth and repeatable motion is desired. Flexures are based on deformation of material to achieve a motion between elastically joined parts. They are used in a variety of precision mechanisms such as high-resolution balances or high accuracy optical positioning stages. Shape memory alloys (SMA) are an attractive option in designing flexures. Superelastic flexures can withstand larger deformations for the same weight as a conventional flexure. In addition, the damping properties of SMA, controllable through the phase transformation, offer new design opportunities for adaptive compliant mechanisms. The martensitic phase transformation can also be used to shift the natural frequency of flexures adding useful functionalities such as vibration rejection. This paper presents design principles of SMA flexures based on non-linear beam theory. Results show a good agreement between measured and predicted data. In addition, experimental results on phase transformation effects on damping behavior are also presented. Both, natural-frequency shift and increased damping were observed in bulk-micro machined flexures using the R-phase transformation. These results demonstrate the feasibility of natural-frequency-tunable flexures.

  10. Influence of the pulsed plasma treatment on the corrosion resistance of the low-alloy steel plated by Ni-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhumaev, P.; Yakushin, V.; Kalin, B.; Polsky, V.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents investigation results of the influence of high temperature pulsed plasma flows (HTPPF) treatment on the corrosion resistance of low-alloy steel 0.2C-Cr-Mn- Ni-Mo cladded by the rapidly quenched nickel-based alloy. A technique that allows obtaining a defect-free clad layer with a good adhesion to the substrate was developed. It is shown that the preliminary treatment of steel samples by nitrogen plasma flows significantly increases their corrosion resistance in the conditions of intergranular corrosion test in a water solution of sulfuric acid. A change of the corrosion mechanism of the clad layer from intergranular to uniform corrosion was observed as a result of sub-microcrystalline structure formation and homogeneous distribution of alloying elements in the plasma treated surface layer thus leading to the significant increase of the corrosion resistance.

  11. Thermomechanical behavior of comercial yellow gold alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš G. Djordjević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of science and technology, in the late 19th century, began the research and application of new alloys for making jewelry. By adding different amounts of Cu and Ag alloy of Au, as well as adding some new elements (Zn, alloys were obtained with different color spectrum (from red to yellow and different technological and metallurgical characteristics. This paper aims to show thermomechanical behavior of commercial yellow Au alloys for making jewelry.

  12. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  13. The borohydride oxidation reaction on La-Ni-based hydrogen-storage alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoalino, Waldemir J; Thompson, Stephen J; Russell, Andrea E; Ticianelli, Edson A

    2014-07-21

    This work provides insights into the processes involved in the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR) in alkaline media on metal hydride alloys formed by LaNi(4.7)Sn(0.2)Cu(0.1) and LaNi(4.78)Al(0.22) with and without deposited Pt, Pd, and Au. The results confirm the occurrence of hydrolysis of the borohydride ions when the materials are exposed to BH(4)(-) and a continuous hydriding of the alloys during BH(4)(-) oxidation measurements at low current densities. The activity for the direct BOR is low in both bare metal hydride alloys, but the rate of the BH(4)(-) hydrolysis and the hydrogen-storage capacity are higher, while the rate of H diffusion is slower for bare LaNi(4.78) Al(0.22). The addition of Pt and Pd to both alloys results in an increase of the BH(4)(-) hydrolysis, but the H(2) formed is rapidly oxidized at the Pt-modified catalysts. In the case of Au modification, a small increase in the BH(4)(-) hydrolysis is observed as compared to the bare alloys. The presence of Au and Pd also leads to a reduction of the rates of alloy hydriding/de-hydriding.

  14. The influence of partitioning on the growth of intragranular α in near-β Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tong, E-mail: tong.li@sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis and School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ahmed, Mansur [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Sha, Gang [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis and School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu 210094 (China); Shi, Rongpei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Casillas, Gilberto [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, NSW 2519 (Australia); Yen, Hung-Wei [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis and School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yunzhi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pereloma, Elena V. [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, NSW 2519 (Australia); Cairney, Julie M., E-mail: julie.cairney@sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis and School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • In the early stage of α formation, Al is not an effective α stabiliser. • High build-up of slow diffusing elements observed at the tip of intragranular α. • Low/no pile-up at the broad face of intragranular α. • Mo segregates at the tip, which possibly impedes the diffusion of V from α to β. • The lengthening kinetic drops dramatically due to the solute segregation effect. - Abstract: We report on partitioning of alloying elements during the formation of fine intragranular α plates in a Ti-55521 alloy after thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) and isothermal ageing at 923 K. The microstructures were characterised using atom probe tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The partitioning of Mo, V and Al are strongly affected by their diffusivities and their mutual interaction. This leads to a deviation of the measured contents of alloying elements in the two phases from the predicted equilibrium values. The alloying elements at the broad faces and tips of α plates were found to exhibit different pile-up and segregation behaviours, which is thought to affect the lengthening and thickening kinetics of the α plates. As a result, the aspect ratio of α plates decreased rapidly with increasing ageing time. This study suggests that careful selection of alloying elements could be an effective way in controlling the growth anisotropy of α plates and thus α + β microstructures in near-β Ti alloys.

  15. Determination of the Crevice Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 By a Potentiodynamic-Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Evans; L. Wong; R. Rebak

    2004-06-01

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is a nickel-based alloy highly resistant to corrosion. In some aggressive conditions of high chloride concentration, temperature and applied potential, Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion, a form of localized corrosion. There are several electrochemical methods that can be used to determine localized corrosion in metallic alloys. One of the most popular for rapid screening is the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP). This work compares the results obtained by measuring the localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 using both CPP and the more cumbersome Tsujikawa-Hisamatsu Electrochemical (THE) method. The electrolytes used were 1 M NaCl and 5 M CaCl{sub 2}, both at 90 C. Results show that similar repassivation potentials were obtained for Alloy 22 using both methods. That is, in cases where localized corrosion is observed using the fast CPP method, there is no need to use THE method since it takes ten times longer to obtain comparable results in spite of the mode of corrosion attack is different in the tested specimens.

  16. Correlation Between Superheated Liquid Fragility And Onset Temperature Of Crystallization For Al-Based Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous alloys or metallic glasses have attracted significant interest in the materials science and engineering communities due to their unique physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The viscous flow of amorphous alloys exhibiting high strain rate sensitivity and homogeneous deformation is considered to be an important characteristic in thermoplastic forming processes performed within the supercooled liquid region because it allows superplastic-like deformation behavior. Here, the correlation between the superheated liquid fragility, and the onset temperature of crystallization for Al-based alloys, is investigated. The activation energy for viscous flow of the liquid is also investigated. There is a negative correlation between the parameter of superheated liquid fragility and the onset temperature of crystallization in the same Al-based alloy system. The activation energy decreases as the onset temperature of crystallization increases. This indicates that the stability of a superheated liquid can affect the thermal stability of the amorphous alloy. It also means that a liquid with a large superheated liquid fragility, when rapidly solidified, forms an amorphous alloy with a low thermal stability.

  17. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-06-24

    Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

  18. Effect of Cerium on Gas Evolution Behavior of Pb-Ca-Sn Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Guanfa; Zhou Genshu; Li Dangguo; Zheng Maosheng

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Ce on the behavior of gas evolution on Pb-Ca-Sn alloy in 4.5 mol·L-1 H2SO4 was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), cathodic polarization curves and AC impedance (EIS).Cyclic voltammetry experiments show that the current of oxygen evolution on Pb-Ca-Sn-Ce electrode is lower than that of Pb-Ca-Sn electrode in the same anodic voltage.Moreover, the oxygen evolution potential on the former electrode is greater than that on the latter, and this means that Ce can increase the potential of oxygen evolution on Pb-Ca-Sn alloy.The AC impedance experiments show that Ce can also enhance the resistance of hydrogen evolution on Pb-Ca-Sn electrode, i.e., Ce can inhibit the hydrogen evolution on Pb-Ca-Sn electrode.The reason why Ce decreases the volume of hydrogen evolution on Pb-Ca-Sn alloy is that Ce increases the resistance of absorbing step of hydrogen evolution reaction.All the experimental results indicate that Pb-Ca-Sn-Ce alloy can rapidly decrease the oxygen and hydrogen evolution on Pb-Ca-Sn-Ce alloy.It is concluded that Pb-Ca-Sn-Ce alloy can promote the maintenance-free property of lead acid battery, and can serve as the candidate of the grid material for maintenance-free lead acid battery.

  19. Study of Nd-Fe-B alloys with nonstoichiometric Nd content in optimal magnetic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of two rapid-quenched Nd-Fe-B alloys with nonstoichiometric Nd content in the optimized magnetic state was carried out using the X-ray diffractometry (XRD, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic phase analysis (MS, electron microscopy (TEM, high resolution TEM (HREM and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID magnetometer. The experimental results demonstrate the fundamental difference in the structure and magnetic properties of the two investigated alloys in the optimized magnetic state. The Nd-Fe-B alloy with the reduced Nd content (Nd4.5Fe77B18.5 was found to have the nanocomposite structure of Fe3B/Nd2Fe14B and partly α-Fe/Nd2Fe14B, with mean grain size below 30 nm. On the other side, the overstoichiometric Nd14Fe79B7 alloy has almost a monophase structure with the dominant content of the hard magnetic phase Nd2Fe14B (up to 95 wt. % and a mean crystallite size about 60 nm, as determined by XRD and TEM analysis. The results of magnetic measurements on SQUID magnetometer also suggest the nanocomposite structure of the Nd-low alloy and nanocrystalline decoupled structure of the Nd-rich alloy after the optimal heat treatment.

  20. Database on Performance of Neutron Irradiated FeCrAl Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Briggs, Samuel A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Littrell, Ken [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parish, Chad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The present report summarizes and discusses the database on radiation tolerance for Generation I, Generation II, and commercial FeCrAl alloys. This database has been built upon mechanical testing and microstructural characterization on selected alloys irradiated within the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) up to doses of 13.8 dpa at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 550°C. The structure and performance of these irradiated alloys were characterized using advanced microstructural characterization techniques and mechanical testing. The primary objective of developing this database is to enhance the rapid development of a mechanistic understanding on the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys, thereby enabling informed decisions on the optimization of composition and microstructure of FeCrAl alloys for application as an accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding. This report is structured to provide a brief summary of critical results related to the database on radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys.

  1. Oxidation of low cobalt alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Four high temperature alloys: U-700, Mar M-247, Waspaloy and PM/HIP U-700 were modified with various cobalt levels ranging from 0 percent to their nominal commercial levels. The alloys were then tested in cyclic oxidation in static air at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1150 C at times from 500 to 100 1 hour cycles. Specific weight change with time and X-ray diffraction analyses of the oxidized samples were used to evaluate the alloys. The alloys tend to be either Al2O3/aluminate spinel or Cr2O3/chromite spinel formers depending on the Cr/Al ratio in the alloy. Waspaloy with a ratio of 15:1 is a strong Cr2O3 former while this U-700 with a ratio of 3.33:1 tends to form mostly Cr2O3 while Mar M-247 with a ratio of 1.53:1 is a strong Al2O3 former. The best cyclic oxidation resistance is associated with the Al2O3 formers. The cobalt levels appear to have little effect on the oxidation resistance of the Al2O3/aluminate spinel formers while any tendency to form Cr2O3 is accelerated with increased cobalt levels and leads to increased oxidation attack.

  2. Membrane lipid peroxidation in copper alloy-mediated contact killing of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Robert; Kang, Tae Y; Michels, Corinne A; Gadura, Nidhi

    2012-03-01

    Copper alloy surfaces are passive antimicrobial sanitizing agents that kill bacteria, fungi, and some viruses. Studies of the mechanism of contact killing in Escherichia coli implicate the membrane as the target, yet the specific component and underlying biochemistry remain unknown. This study explores the hypothesis that nonenzymatic peroxidation of membrane phospholipids is responsible for copper alloy-mediated surface killing. Lipid peroxidation was monitored with the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Survival, TBARS levels, and DNA degradation were followed in cells exposed to copper alloy surfaces containing 60 to 99.90% copper or in medium containing CuSO(4). In all cases, TBARS levels increased with copper exposure levels. Cells exposed to the highest copper content alloys, C11000 and C24000, exhibited novel characteristics. TBARS increased immediately at a very rapid rate but peaked at about 30 min. This peak was associated with the period of most rapid killing, loss in membrane integrity, and DNA degradation. DNA degradation is not the primary cause of copper-mediated surface killing. Cells exposed to the 60% copper alloy for 60 min had fully intact genomic DNA but no viable cells. In a fabR mutant strain with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids, sensitivity to copper alloy surface-mediated killing increased, TBARS levels peaked earlier, and genomic DNA degradation occurred sooner than in the isogenic parental strain. Taken together, these results suggest that copper alloy surface-mediated killing of E. coli is triggered by nonenzymatic oxidative damage of membrane phospholipids that ultimately results in the loss of membrane integrity and cell death.

  3. In vitro biocompatibility of Ti–Mg alloys fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hieda, Junko, E-mail: hieda@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken

    2015-09-01

    . Consequently, it is revealed that the Ti–33Mg alloy film evaluated in this study is suitable for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Biocompatibility of Ti–Mg alloys fabricated by magnetron sputtering was investigated. • The dissolution amounts of Ti are below or near the detection limit of ICP-OES. • The dissolution amounts of Mg increase rapidly in the Ti–55Mg alloy and Mg films. • Calcium phosphate is precipitated on the surfaces of the Ti–33Mg and Ti–55Mg alloys. • Ti–33Mg alloy film exhibits high corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility.

  4. Improved thermal treatment of aluminum alloy 7075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, F. H.

    1968-01-01

    Newly developed tempering treatment considerably increases the corrosion resistance of 7075-T6 alloy and concomitantly preserves its yield strength. The results of tests on samples of the alloy subjected to the above treatments show that when the overaging period is 12 hours /at 325 degrees F/, the alloy exhibits a yield strength of 73,000 psi.

  5. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio and...

  6. Corrosion Behaviour of New Zr Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolksdorf, E.

    1974-01-01

    Corrosion studies have indicated that the most promising replacements for Zicaloy-2 are ZrCrFe, ZrVFe and probably ZrNbTa, provided they are in their optimized condition. These alloys are conventionally manufactured alloys. An internally oxidized ZrMgO alloy is even superior, from the corrosion...

  7. Bulk Combinatorial Synthesis and High Throughput Characterization for Rapid Assessment of Magnetic Materials: Application of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Besser, M. F.; Simsek, E.; Ott, R. T.

    2016-07-01

    A bulk combinatorial approach for synthesizing alloy libraries using laser engineered net shaping (LENS™; i.e., 3D printing) was utilized to rapidly assess material systems for magnetic applications. The LENS™ system feeds powders in different ratios into a melt pool created by a laser to synthesize samples with bulk (millimeters) dimensions. By analyzing these libraries with autosampler differential scanning calorimeter/thermal gravimetric analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry, we are able to rapidly characterize the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the libraries. The Fe-Co binary alloy was used as a model system and the results were compared with data in the literature.

  8. Basic principles of creating a new generation of high- temperature brazing filler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, B. A.; Suchkov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The development of new materials is based on the formation of a structural-phase state providing the desired properties by selecting the base and the complex of alloying elements. The development of amorphous filler alloys for a high-temperature brazing has its own features that are due to the limited life cycle and the production method of brazing filler alloys. The work presents a cycle of analytical and experimental materials science investigations including justification of the composition of a new amorphous filler alloy for brazing the products from zirconium alloys at the temperature of no more than 800 °C and at the unbrazing temperature of permanent joints of more than 1200 °C. The experimental alloys have been used for manufacture of amorphous ribbons by rapid quenching, of which the certification has been made by X-ray investigations and a differential-thermal analysis. These ribbons were used to obtain permanent joints from the spacer grid cells (made from the alloy Zr-1% Nb) of fuel assemblies of the thermal nuclear reactor VVER-440. The brazed samples in the form of a pair of cells have been exposed to corrosion tests in autoclaves in superheated water at a temperature of 350 °C, a pressure of 160 MPa and duration of up to 6,000 h. They have been also exposed to destructive tests using a tensile machine. The experimental results obtained have made it possible to propose and patent a brazing filler alloy of the following composition: Zr-5.5Fe-(2.5-3.5)Be-1Nb-(5-8)Cu-2Sn-0.4Cr-(0.5-1.0)Ge. Its melting point is 780 °C and the recommended brazing temperature is 800°C.

  9. The developing strategy of Chinese magnesium and magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO; Tie-yong; DU; Wen-bo

    2005-01-01

    The status and developing strategy of Chinese magnesium industry are summarized in the present paper. The output and export of Chinese magnesium ingot have rapidly increased in the recent ten years, but the magnesium products with high value, such as the wrought magnesium alloys, and their applications are insufficient. Chinese magnesium industry should develop toward the direction of large scale, specialization and collectivization in the future. The enterprises should enhance the level of management and reinforce the international competing ability with the help of governmental policies.

  10. The fluidity and molding ability of glass-forming Zr-based alloy melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fluidity and filling ability of glass-forming Zr-based alloy melt in copper mould were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The major factors which affected the flowing behavior of the metallic melt in the mold were determined,which provides the foundation for overcoming the contradiction between the filling and formation of amorphous alloy during the rapid cooling process of the metallic melts. The casting factors to prepare a metallic ring were discussed and selected. As a result,a Zr-based bulk metallic glass ring was prepared successfully.

  11. The effects of solidification and atomization on rare-earth alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Osborne, M. G.; Ellis, T. W.

    1996-03-01

    This article discusses the results of experiments involving the application of atomization techniques to the production of three selected rare-earth intermetallic (REI) materials. High-pressure gas atomization and centrifugal atomization into a rotating quench bath have been used to process the alloys. Rapid-solidification processing by atomization techniques is of great benefit since optimum performance of these REI materials demands chemical and structural homogeneity. The results demonstrate that such careful solidification microstructure control is required if the benefits of REI-alloy properties are to be realized with maximum processing efficiency.

  12. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization behaviors of jet electrodeposition Ni–W–P alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Yu; Y H Wang; G Z Xing; Q Qiao; B Liu; Z J Chu; C L Li; F You

    2015-02-01

    The undercooling of Ni–W– P ternary alloy coating melt was investigated by in situ differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with the flux processing technique. The results showed that the highest undercooling of Ni–W–P ternary alloy with 359 K was obtained as the thermal treatment temperature of themelt being 1679 K and the cooling rate being 50 K min-1. When cooling rate is fixed, the change of undercooling depends on the melt processing temperature, and the undercooling will increase rapidly at the first stage. The effects of thermal treatment temperature and cooling rates on the undercooling were discussed.

  13. Magnetic properties of ND Rich Melt-Spun ND-FE-B alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of these experimental investigations of melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloy with Nd rich content in relation to Nd2Fe14B prepared by rapid quenching process for optimally selected cooling rate and heat treatment, the influence of the chosen chemical composition on magnetic properties was observed. The results of X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy phase analysis and magnetic measurement of investigated melt-spun Nd14.5Fe78.5B7 alloy are presented to bring some new information concerning the relation between their structure and magnetic properties.

  14. Characterization of rapidly and naturally quenched skeletal iron catalysts for FT synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shi-run; QIAO Ming-hua; ZHU Yuan-long; FAN Kang-nian

    2004-01-01

    The slurry phase is a promising system for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Since the liquid medium efficiently removes the heat of reaction so that the steady-state reaction is easily achieved. High catalytic activity is maintained due to removal of waxy products from the catalyst surface by the action of solvent. In addition, CO-rich syngas from coal gasification can be directly used in FT synthesis which may increase the thermal efficiency of the indirect coal liquefaction. One of the important problems to be solved for slurry phase FT is the catalyst attrition and separation from wax residue. Fused iron and Raney iron were found to have high attrition resistance and easy to separate from wax in slurry phase FT synthesis, but their activity is relatively low. Amorphous alloys made by rapid quenching techniques have drawn increasing interest due to their superior mechanical,chemical and magnetic properties compared to the thermodynamically stable crystalline alloys of the same compositions. It is reported that rapidly quenched skeletal Ni catalyst showed higher catalytic activity than Raney Ni in selective hydrogenation of unsaturated organic functional groups.In this paper, Fe50Al50 (by weight) alloys with different quenching rates, rapid quenching (RQ) and natural quenching (NQ) were prepared for FT synthesis. The phase composition of alloys was characterized by XRD. The physical properties, thermal-stability and adsorption properties of skeletal Fe that was prepared by leaching aluminum of the corresponding alloy with aqueous solution of NaOH were also studied by BET, in situ XRD and H2- and CO-TPD. It is found from XRD patterns of the alloys that RQ Fe50Al50 is composed of orthorhombic phase, and NQ Fe50Al50 alloy is mainly composed of monoclinic phase. Meanwhile, diffraction peaks of the RQ alloy are seriously broadened. After leaching aluminum by aqueous solution of NaOH at the same conditions,skeletal Fe from the RQ alloy give the higher specific surface

  15. Current research situation of titanium alloys in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys possess excellent comprehensive properties, and they are widely used in many fields. China pays great attentions to the research on new titanium alloys. This paper mainly reviews the research on new Ti alloys in China, for example, high strength and high toughness Ti alloys, burn resistant Tialloys, high temperature Ti alloys, low cost Ti alloys and so on.New basic theories on Ti alloys developed in China in recent years are also reviewed.

  16. Alloy 718 for Oilfield Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBarbadillo, John J.; Mannan, Sarwan K.

    2012-02-01

    Alloy 718 (UNS N07718) was developed for use in aircraft gas turbine engines, but its unique combination of room-temperature strength and aqueous corrosion resistance made it a candidate for oilfield fasteners, valves, drill tools, and completion equipment. As well environments became more severe, stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement failures in production equipment drove the evolution of the composition and microstructure that distinguish today's oilfield-grade 718 from aerospace grades. This paper reviews the development of the grade and its applications and describes some of its unique characteristics, testing, and manufacturing methods as well as newer alloys designed for high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) conditions.

  17. PROCESS OF DISSOLVING ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, R.S.; Vogler, S.

    1958-01-21

    A process is described for dissolving binary zirconium-uranium alloys where the uranium content is about 2%. In prior dissolution procedures for these alloys, an oxidizing agent was added to prevent the precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride. In the present method complete dissolution is accomplished without the use of the oxidizing agent by using only the stoichiometric amount or slight excess of HF required by the zirconium. The concentration of the acid may range from 2M to 10M and the dissolution is advatageously carried out at a temperature of 80 deg C.

  18. High strength, tough alloy steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  19. Bulk nano-crystalline alloys

    OpenAIRE

    T.-S. Chin; Lin, C. Y.; Lee, M.C.; R.T. Huang; S. M. Huang

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Fe–B–Y–Nb–Cu, 2 mm in diameter, were successfully annealed to become bulk nano-crystalline alloys (BNCAs) with α-Fe crystallite 11–13 nm in size. A ‘crystallization-and-stop’ model was proposed to explain this behavior. Following this model, alloy-design criteria were elucidated and confirmed successful on another Fe-based BMG Fe–B–Si–Nb–Cu, 1 mm in diameter, with crystallite sizes 10–40 nm. It was concluded that BNCAs can be designed in general by the proposed cr...

  20. Microstructure and mechanical property change of dissimilar metal welds Alloy 600 - Alloy 182 - A508 Gr. 3 according to thermal aging effect at 400 .deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Jun Hyuk; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To prevent such critical matters above mentioned, investigation about degradation mechanism of materials by thermal aging should be conducted. However, there are no sufficient studies on this field. Therefore, the final goal of this study is to investigate microstructure along the DMW undergone thermal aging process. Firstly, in order to get a reference data for further comparison analysis which is expected to show degradation mechanism of the weld joint, un-heated weld joint was investigated with several instruments, Vickers hardness tester, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Detail instrumental analysis in Alloy 600 - Alloy 182 - A508 Gr. 3 DMW joint were performed in order to investigate microstructure and mechanical properties of material. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. Alloy 182 has austenitic dendrite structure which is formed by heat flow during welding process. Type-II boundaries were observed at the interface between Alloy 182 and A508 Gr. 3. Chemical composition shows rapid transition at the interface which makes 3000 µm of chromium dilution zone. Microstructure of A508 Gr. 3 was investigated from the interface between Alloy 182 to base metal.

  1. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  2. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  3. Rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖伟红; 薛华忠; 韩国柱

    2003-01-01

    Since the sexually transmitted diseases were recognized as a public health problem in China during the early 1980's, the incidence of syphilis has gradually increased. Though there have been case reports of clinical variants of neurosyphilis, including syphilitic cerebrospinal meningitis or meningomyelitis and meningovascular syphilis, occurring in different regions of China,1-3 tabes dorsalis or tabetic neurosyphilis has not yet been reported in China. Here, we report a young man with rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis admitted to our hospital in October 1999.

  4. FFAGS for rapid acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carol J. Johnstone and Shane Koscielniak

    2002-09-30

    When large transverse and longitudinal emittances are to be transported through a circular machine, extremely rapid acceleration holds the advantage that the beam becomes immune to nonlinear resonances because there is insufficient time for amplitudes to build up. Uncooled muon beams exhibit large emittances and require fast acceleration to avoid decay losses and would benefit from this style of acceleration. The approach here employs a fixed-field alternating gradient or FFAG magnet structure and a fixed frequency acceleration system. Acceptance is enhanced by the use only of linear lattice elements, and fixed-frequency rf enables the use of cavities with large shunt resistance and quality factor.

  5. PLEJ RAPIDE TRA PARIZO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Povas esti tre malpla■e en urbegoj, se estas du lokoj, kie flugma■ino povas alteri■i, kaj oni devas rapi-de transiri de unu al la alia. Tiel estas ekzemple en Parizo. Foje mi alteri■is en Charles-de-Gaulle[elparolu■arl de gol’], kaj devis reekflugi el Orly[orli’]. Mi havis malmulte da tempo inter la alveno en unu kaj laflugo el la alia. Kaj jen la personaro, kiu funkciigas la publikajn transportojn, tiutage ne ofieis, ■ar la ■tatomalkonsentis altigi ■ian laborpagon. La urbo estis tiom plena je veturiloj, ke estis preskaǔneeble

  6. Effects of Annealing Process on the Formability of Friction Stir Welded Al-Li Alloy 2195 Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Shou; Bradford, Vann; Russell, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Large rocket cryogenic tank domes have typically been fabricated using Al-Cu based alloys like Al-Cu alloy 2219. The use of aluminum-lithium based alloys for rocket fuel tank domes can reduce weight because aluminum-lithium alloys have lower density and higher strength than Al-Cu alloy 2219. However, Al-Li alloys have rarely been used to fabricate rocket fuel tank domes because of the inherent low formability characteristic that make them susceptible to cracking during the forming operations. The ability to form metal by stretch forming or spin forming without excessive thinning or necking depends on the strain hardening exponent "n". The stain hardening exponent is a measure of how rapidly a metal becomes stronger and harder. A high strain hardening exponent is beneficial to a material's ability to uniformly distribute the imposed strain. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a novel annealing process that can achieve a work hardening exponent on the order of 0.27 to 0.29, which is approximately 50% higher than what is typically obtained for Al-Li alloys using the conventional method. The strain hardening exponent of the Al-Li alloy plates or blanks heat treated using the conventional method is typically on the order of 0.17 to 0.19. The effects of this novel annealing process on the formability of friction stir welded Al-Li alloy blanks are being studied at Marshall Space Flight Center. The formability ratings will be generated using the strain hardening exponent, strain rate sensitivity and forming range. The effects of forming temperature on the formability will also be studied. The objective of this work is to study the deformation behavior of the friction stir welded Al-Li alloy 2195 blank and determine the formability enhancement by the new annealing process.

  7. Surface Tension Calculation of Undercooled Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Butler equation and extrapolated thermodynamic data of undercooled alloys from those of liquid stable alloys, a method for surface tension calculation of undercooled alloys is proposed. The surface tensions of liquid stable and undercooled Ni-Cu (xNi=0.42) and Ni-Fe (xNi=0.3 and 0.7) alloys are calculated using STCBE (Surface Tension Calculation based on Butler Equation) program. The agreement between calculated values and experimental data is good enough, and the temperature dependence of the surface tension can be reasonable down to 150-200 K under the liquid temperature of the alloys.

  8. An introduction to surface alloying of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmani, Santosh S; Goyal, Rajendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Surface Alloying of Metals aims to serve as a primer to the basic aspects of surface alloying of metals. The book serves to elucidate fundamentals of surface modification and their engineering applications. The book starts with basics of surface alloying and goes on to cover key surface alloying methods, such as carburizing, nitriding, chromizing, duplex treatment, and the characterization of surface layers. The book will prove useful to students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, as also to researchers and practitioners looking for a quick introduction to surface alloying.

  9. ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

    1962-06-12

    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  10. Alloy softening in binary iron solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine softening and hardening behavior in 19 binary iron-alloy systems. Microhardness tests were conducted at four temperatures in the range 77 to 411 K. Alloy softening was exhibited by 17 of the 19 alloy systems. Alloy softening observed in 15 of the alloy systems was attributed to an intrinsic mechanism, believed to be lowering of the Peierls (lattice friction) stress. Softening and hardening rates could be correlated with the atomic radius ratio of solute to iron. Softening observed in two other systems was attributed to an extrinsic mechanism, believed to be associated with scavenging of interstitial impurities.

  11. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Wright, Shelley A; Tonry, John; Tully, R Brent; Szapudi, István; Takamiya, Marianne; Hunter, Lisa; Riddle, Reed; Chen, Shaojie; Chun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of ~4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z < 0.1 universe. RTS will comprise an upgraded version of the Robo-AO laser AO system and will respond quickly to target-of-opportunity events, minimizing the time between discovery and characterization. RTS will acquire simultaneous-multicolor images with a...

  12. The rapid transient surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, C.; Lu, J. R.; Wright, S. A.; Tonry, J.; Tully, R. B.; Szapudi, I.; Takamiya, M.; Hunter, L.; Riddle, R.; Chen, S.; Chun, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of 4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z efficiency prism integral field unit spectrograph: R = 70-140 over a total bandpass of 840-1830nm with an 8.7" by 6.0" field of view (0.15" spaxels). The AO correction boosts the infrared point-source sensitivity of the spectrograph against the sky background by a factor of seven for faint targets, giving the UH 2.2-m the H-band sensitivity of a 5.7-m telescope without AO.

  13. Microstructure and property characterization of a modified zinc-base alloy and comparison with bearing alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. K.; Patwardhan, A. K.; Yegneswaran, A. H.

    1998-02-01

    The microstructure and physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of a modified zinc-base alloy have been characterized. In order to assess its utility as a bearing alloy, its properties have also been compared with those of a similarly processed conventional zinc-base alloy and a leaded-tin bronze (conforming to ZA27 and SAE 660 specifications, respectively) used for bearing applications. The modified zinc-base alloy shows promise in terms of better elevated-temperature strength and wear response at higher sliding speeds relative to the conventional zinc-base alloy. Interestingly, the wear behavior (especially the seizure pressure) of the modified alloy was also comparable to that of the bronze specimens at the maximum sliding speed, and was superior at the minimum sliding speed. The modified alloy also attained lower density and better hardness. Alloy behavior has been linked to the nature and type of the alloy microconstituents.

  14. Investigation of solidification dynamics of Zr-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobold, Raphael; Herlach, Dieter [Institut fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, 51170 Koeln (Germany); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to experiments with most undercooled binary alloys the velocity of dendritic growth of a Cu50Zr50 alloy does not increase monotonically with undercooling but passes through a maximum and then decreases. To study this behaviour we investigate Zr-based alloys such as CuZr, NiZr and NiZrAl with Zirconium concentrations ranging from 36 to 64 at.% including eutectic and intermetallic phases. We use electrostatic levitation technique to melt and undercool samples with a diameter of 2-3 mm under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. Containerless processing is an effective tool for undercooling metallic melts far below their equilibrium melting temperatures since heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is completely avoided. During crystallisation of the undercooled melt the heat of crystallisation is released. The rapid increase of the temperature at the solid-liquid interface makes the solidification front visible. The velocities of the solidification front are recorded by using a high-speed camera with a maximum rate of 50.000 frames per second and are analyzed with a software for optical ray tracing. Furthermore, we try to model the growth velocity vs. the undercooling temperature and perform sample EBSD analysis with a scanning electron microscope.

  15. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-11-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  16. Microstructure analysis of magnesium alloy melted by laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. Y.; Hu, J. D.; Yang, Y.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, H. Y.

    2005-12-01

    The effects of laser surface melting (LSM) on microstructure of magnesium alloy containing Al8.57%, Zn 0.68%, Mn0.15%, Ce0.52% were investigated. In the present work, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used to melt and rapidly solidify the surface of the magnesium alloy with the objective of changing microstructure and improving the corrosion resistance. The results indicate that laser-melted layer contains the finer dendrites and behaviors good resistance corrosion compared with the untreated layer. Furthermore, the absorption coefficient of the magnesium alloy has been estimated according to the numeral simulation of the thermal conditions. The formation process of fine microstructure in melted layers was investigated based on the experimental observation and the theoretical analysis. Some simulation results such as the re-solidification velocities are obtained. The phase constitutions of the melted layers determined by X-ray diffraction were β-Mg 17Al 12 and α-Mg as well as some phases unidentified.

  17. Strengthening mechanism of steels treated by barium-bearing alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhouhua Jiang; Yang Liu

    2008-01-01

    The deoxidation, desulfurization, dephosphorization, microstructure, and mechanical properties of steels treated by barium-bearing alloys were investigated in laboratory and by industrial tests. The results show that barium takes part in the deoxidation reaction at the beginning of the experiments, generating oxide and sulfide compound inclusions, which easily float up from the molten steel, leading to the rapid reduction of total oxygen content to a very low level. The desulfurization and dephosphorization capabilities of calcium-bearing alloys increase with the addition of barium. The results of OM and SEM observations and mechanical property tests show that the structure of the steel treated by barium-bearing alloys is refined remarkably, the iamellar thickness of pearlitic structure decreases, and the pearlitic morphology shows clustering distribution. Less barium exists in steel substrate and the enrichment of barium-bearing precipitated phase mostly occurs in grain boundary and phase boundary, which can prevent the movement of grain boundary and dislocation during the heat treatment and the deformation processes. Therefore, the strength and toughness of barium-treated steels are improved by the effect of grain-boundary strengthening and nail-prick dislocation.

  18. Oxidation - Nitridation of Ni-Cr-Al alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Susan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of alloys containing 24-36 wt pct Cr and 13.5 - 25.0 wt pct Al was reacted with air at 1100°C for 260 h. The products of isothermal reaction were scales of a-Al2O3 plus small amounts of Cr2O3. These grew according to parabolic kinetics, interrupted by episodic weight losses caused by partial spallation. No nitridation occurred during the isothermal exposures. Reaction during thermal cycling for up to 260 one hour cycles was much more severe. Repeated scale spallation led to subsurface alloy depletion in aluminium and, to a lesser extent, chromium. This caused transformation of the prior alloy three-phase structures (a-Cr+b-NiAl+g-Ni to single-phase g-nickel solution. Destruction of the external scale allowed gas access to this metal which was able to dissolve both oxygen and nitrogen. Inward diffusion of the two oxidants led to development of a complex internal precipitation zone: Al2O3 and Cr2O3 beneath the surface, then Al2O3 then AIN, then AIN + Cr2N and finally AIN alone in the deepest region. Diffusion-controlled kinetics were in effect initially, but mechanical damage to the internal precipitation zone led to more rapid gas access and approximately linear kinetics in the long term.

  19. Corrosion of Titanium Alloys in High Temperature Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, J. J.; Blackwood, D. J. [National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-08-15

    Materials of choice for offshore structures and the marine industry have been increasingly favoring materials that offer high strength-to-weight ratios. One of the most promising families of light-weight materials is titanium alloys, but these do have two potential Achilles' heels: (i) the passive film may not form or may be unstable in low oxygen environments, leading to rapid corrosion; and (ii) titanium is a strong hydride former, making it vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement (cracking) at high temperatures in low oxygen environments. Unfortunately, such environments exist at deep sea well-heads; temperatures can exceed 120 °C, and oxygen levels can drop below 1 ppm. The present study demonstrates the results of investigations into the corrosion behavior of a range of titanium alloys, including newly developed alloys containing rare earth additions for refined microstructure and added strength, in artificial seawater over the temperature range of 25 °C to 200 °C. Tests include potentiodynamic polarization, crevice corrosion, and U-bend stress corrosion cracking.

  20. High Damping Alloys and Their Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxing Yin

    2000-01-01

    Damping alloys show prospective applications in the elimination of unwanted vibrations and acoustic noise. The basic definitions and characterization methods of damping capacity are reviewed in this paper. Several physical mechanisms controlled by the alloy microstructure are responsible for the damping behavior in the damping alloys. Composite, dislocation, ferromagnetic and planar defect types are commonly classified for the alloys, which show the different damping behavior against temperature, frequency of vibration,amplitude of vibration and damping modes. Development of practically applicable damping alloys requires the higher mechanical properties and adequate workability, besides the high damping capacity. A new Mn-Cu damping alloy, named as M2052 alloy, is recently developed with possible industrial applications.

  1. Paracrystalline property of high-entropy alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqing Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Atomic structure models of six-component high-entropy alloys with body-centered cubic structure are successfully built according to the principle of maximum entropy for the first time. The lattice distortion parameters g of seven typical high-entropy alloys are calculated. From the optimized lattice configuration of high-entropy alloys, we show that these alloys are ideal three-dimensional paracrystals. The formation mechanism, structural feature, mechanical property, and application prospect of high-entropy alloys are discussed in comparison with the traditional alloys. The novel properties of body-centered cubic high-entropy alloys are attributed to the failure of dislocation deformation mechanism and the difficulty of directed particle diffusion.

  2. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Payer, J H

    2006-01-10

    Alloy 22 (N06022) was designed to stand the most aggressive industrial applications, including both reducing and oxidizing acids. Even in the most aggressive environments, if the temperature is lower than 150 F (66 C) Alloy 22 would remain in the passive state having particularly low corrosion rates. In multi-ionic solutions that may simulate the behavior of concentrated ground water, even at near boiling temperatures, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 is only a few nanometers per year because the alloy is in the complete passive state. The corrosion rate of passive Alloy 22 decreases as the time increases. Immersion corrosion testing also show that the newer generation of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may offer a better corrosion resistance than Alloy 22 only in some highly aggressive conditions such as in hot acids.

  3. Applications of shape memory alloys in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, M.; Suzuki, Y. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). R and D Labs.

    2000-07-01

    In Japan, a first application of shape memory TiNi alloy was a moving flap in an air-conditioner which was developed as sensing function of shape memory alloy at Matsushista Electric Industrial Co. Then, shape memory utilized in a coffee maker, an electric rice-cooker, a thermal mixing valve and etc. were commercialized in Japan. And brassiere wires, a guide wire for medical treatment, an antenna for portable telephone and others were commercialized utilizing superelasticity. At the same time with these commercial products, there was not only progress in fabrication technology to effect accurate transformation temperature, but also the discovery of small hysteresis alloy such as R-phase or TiNiCu alloy and low transformation temperature alloy such as TiNiFe, TiNiV and TiNiCo alloys. Therefore the shape memory alloy market has expanded widely to electric appliances, automobile, residence, medical care and otherfield today. (orig.)

  4. Research on Application of 3D Laser-rapid Prototyping of TC1 1 Titanium Alloy Blisc%TC 11钛合金整体叶盘应用3 D激光快速成形技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕日红; 樊国福; 夏峥嵘; 胡林荣; 章丽

    2014-01-01

    3D laser-rapid prototyping is an advanced manufacturing technology both of high-performance material crea-ting and complex parts near net shaping.The paper introduced the research about the mechanical property,metallographic property,nondestructive testing,cutter design,blades deformation controlling,as well as the online inspection of a turbo-fan engine fourth-fan blisc which was made of TC11 by 3D laser-rapid prototyping.%3D激光快速成形技术是一种高性能材料制备与复杂零件直接近净成形一体化的先进制造技术。本文介绍了采用3 D激光快速成形技术研制的某型涡扇发动机TC11钛合金四级风扇整体叶盘的性能和组织,以及零件在加工过程中的无损检测、刀具结构设计、叶片变形控制技术和在线检测技术等的研究情况。

  5. Nickel, cobalt, and their alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the compositions, properties, processing, performance, and applications of nickel, cobalt, and their alloys. It includes all of the essential information contained in the ASM Handbook series, as well as new or updated coverage in many areas in the nickel, cobalt, and related industries.

  6. Gold color in dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, T

    1997-01-01

    This article will help the dental laboratory with alloy selection by exploring how the relationship among color, ductility and strength applies to gold and how color can be quantified. Because higher quality materials translate into higher profits, upselling to the dentist and patient is also discussed.

  7. Hydrostatic extrusion of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bohlen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the capabilities and limitations of the hydrostatic extrusion process for the manufacturing of magnesium alloy sections. Firstly, the process basics for the hydrostatic extrusion of materials in general and of magnesium in particular are introduced. Next, some recent research

  8. Superb nanocrystalline alloys for plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With high rigidity and antiwear performance,nanocrystalline metals and their alloys can find wide applications in surface protection.However, the existence of grain boundaries often leads to erosive micro-batteries which accelerate the process of corrosion.Therefore, it has already become a key issue for surface engineering researchers to find nano materials with higher lubricating, anticorrosion and antiwear capacities.

  9. Elevated temperature crack growth in advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porr, William C., Jr.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si powder metallurgy alloy FVS0812 is among the most promising of the elevated temperature aluminum alloys developed in recent years. The ultra fine grain size and high volume fraction of thermally stable dispersoids enable the alloy to maintain tensile properties at elevated temperatures. In contrast, this alloy displays complex and potentially deleterious damage tolerant and time dependent fracture behavior that varies with temperature. J-Integral fracture mechanics were used to determine fracture toughness (K sub IC) and crack growth resistance (tearing modulus, T) of extruded FVS0812 as a function of temperature. The alloy exhibits high fracture properties at room temperature when tested in the LT orientation, due to extensive delamination of prior ribbon particle boundaries perpendicular to the crack front. Delamination results in a loss of through thickness constraint along the crack front, raising the critical stress intensity necessary for precrack initiation. The fracture toughness and tensile ductility of this alloy decrease with increasing temperature, with minima observed at 200 C. This behavior results from minima in the intrinsic toughness of the material, due to dynamic strain aging, and in the extent of prior particle boundary delaminations. At 200 C FVS0812 fails at K levels that are insufficient to cause through thickness delamination. As temperature increases beyond the minimum, strain aging is reduced and delamination returns. For the TL orientation, K (sub IC) decreased and T increased slightly with increasing temperature from 25 to 316 C. Fracture in the TL orientation is governed by prior particle boundary toughness; increased strain localization at these boundaries may result in lower toughness with increasing temperature. Preliminary results demonstrate a complex effect of loading rate on K (sub IC) and T at 175 C, and indicate that the combined effects of time dependent deformation, environment, and strain aging

  10. Microstructure and thermal stability of mechanically alloyed Al3Ti/Al alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建国; 魏浩岩; 黄正

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure stability of Al3Ti/Al alloy prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) was investigated in the simulating environment in which they may be used. The results show that the MA alloy possesses fine microstructure (the grain size is about 0.5  μm). After cycling loaded followed by heat exposure at 350  ℃ for 24  h, no microstructure coarsening of the alloy occurred, which means that the Al3Ti/Al alloy behaves good microstructure stability at high temperature. The compression yield strength of the alloy reaches up to 247  MPa at 350  ℃.

  11. Blood compatibility of zinc-calcium phosphate conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Wang, Qing-Zhao; Liu, Li-Jun; Xu, Qian-Qian; Wang, Chuang; Liu, Zhi-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium alloys as a new class of biomaterials possess biodegradability and biocompatibility in comparison with currently used metal implants. However, their rapid corrosion rates are necessary to be manipulated by appropriate coatings. In this paper, a new attempt was used to develop a zinc-calcium phosphate (Zn-Ca-P) conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys to increase the biocompatibility and improve the corrosion resistance. In vitro blood biocompatibility of the alloy with and without the Zn-Ca-P coating was investigated to determine its suitability as a degradable medical biomaterial. Blood biocompatibility was assessed from the hemolysis test, the dynamic cruor time test, blood cell count and SEM observation of the platelet adhesion to membrane surface. The results showed that the Zn-Ca-P coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys had good blood compatibility, which is in accordance with the requirements for medical biomaterials.

  12. Microstructural characterization of rapidly solidified Al-Li-Co powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Fawzy H.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the combined effect of alloying elements and melt superheat has been carried out on the as-solidified structure of rapidly solidified Al-Li-Co powders. Three alloys, viz., Al-3 pct Li, Al-3 pct Li-0.4 pct Co, and Al-3 pct Li-0.8 pct Co were chosen, and the liquid melt in each alloy atomized from the temperatures 1173 and 1073 K, using the centrifugal atomization technique. The microstructural characterization was done using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Four types of microstructures, viz., dendritic, cellular, equiaxed-type, and featureless structures, were observed by light microscopy. The cooling rate, as determined from the same, lay in the range 104 to 106 Ks-1, but was seen to go beyond 107 Ks-1 when estimated from TEM micrographs. On the micro-level, the Al-Li powders were found to exhibit dendritic structures with differing morphologies, whereas low-angle cell walls with perturbed interfaces were the main structural features observed in the Al-Li-Co alloys. Increasing both cobalt content and powder particle diameter favored transition from dendritic into cellular structure. The featureless zone was comprised mainly of elongated columnar grains (0.2 μm width and 1.5 μm length). A mechanism describing the cellular structure formation has been proposed. Aging of the melt-quenched powders at 473 K for times up to 100 hours results in the dissolution of the cellular structure. A mechanism for the same has been postulated. The difference in the superheats chosen in the present work is found not sufficient to cause drastic microstructural changes.

  13. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  14. Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton K. Murray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria's global impact is expansive and includes the extremes of the healthcare system ranging from international travelers returning to nonendemic regions with tertiary referral medical care to residents in hyperendemic regions without access to medical care. Implementation of prompt and accurate diagnosis is needed to curb the expanding global impact of malaria associated with ever-increasing antimalarial drug resistance. Traditionally, malaria is diagnosed using clinical criteria and/or light microscopy even though both strategies are clearly inadequate in many healthcare settings. Hand held immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have been recognized as an ideal alternative method for diagnosing malaria. Numerous malaria RDTs have been developed and are widely available; however, an assortment of issues related to these products have become apparent. This review provides a summary of RDT including effectiveness and strategies to select the ideal RDT in varying healthcare settings.

  15. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  16. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  17. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  18. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and automated detection and characterization of astrophysical transients during a sustained observing campaign will yield the necessary statistics to precisely map dark matter in the local universe.

  19. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  20. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  1. Calorimetric studies of 7000 series aluminum alloys. I - Matrix precipitate characterization of 7075. II - Comparison of 7075, 7050, and RX720 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiasi, R.; Adler, P. N.

    1977-01-01

    Correlation between differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature transmission electron microscopy for the characterization of preexisting matrix precipitates in the highest-strength and overaged tempers of 7075 aluminum was demonstrated. The solid state reactions undergone by these tempers in the 20-500 C temperature range were elucidated and expressed in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. The dissolution parameters for each phase are distinguishable and serve as guidelines for a rapid characterization of the matrix microstructure of these alloys.

  2. Rapid Melt and Resolidification of Surface Layers Using Intense, Pulsed Ion Beams Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, Timothy J.

    1998-10-02

    The emerging technology of pulsed intense ion beams has been shown to lead to improvements in surface characteristics such as hardness and wear resistance, as well as mechanical smoothing. We report hereon the use of this technology to systematically study improvements to three types of metal alloys - aluminum, iron, and titanium. Ion beam tieatment produces a rapid melt and resolidification (RMR) of the surface layer. In the case of a predeposited thin-fihn layer, the beam mixes this layer into the substrate, Ieading to improvements that can exceed those produced by treatment of the alloy alone, In either case, RMR results in both crystal refinement and metastable state formation in the treated surface layer not accessible by conventional alloy production. Although more characterization is needed, we have begun the process of relating these microstructural changes to the surface improvements we discuss in this report.

  3. Formation of novel flower-like silicon phases and evaluation of mechanical properties of hypereutectic melt-spun Al–20Si–5Fe alloys with addition of V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzun, Orhan [Department of Metallurgical and Material Science Engineering, Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak (Turkey); Kilicaslan, Muhammed Fatih, E-mail: fatihkilicaslan@yahoo.com [Department of Materials and Nanotechnology Engineering, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu (Turkey); Yılmaz, Fikret [Department of Physics, Gaziosmanpaşa University, Tokat (Turkey)

    2014-06-01

    In this work, rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al–20Si–5Fe–XV (X=0, 0.5 and 1) alloys were fabricated by melt spinning under vacuum. Microstructural and spectroscopic analyses were performed using SEM, TEM, TEM-MAPing, TEM-EDS and XRD measurements. Mechanical properties of the alloys were determined using DSI measurements. Experimental results indicated that addition of 0.5 wt% V to melt-spun Al–20Si–5Fe alloys induced formation of a novel flower-like Si phase. And addition of higher amount V (1 wt%), caused formation of refined Si phases and mostly hindered formation of Fe-bearing intermetallics. Observations along with manuscript strongly indicate that V modifies the Si phases by the impurity induced twinning (IIT). Changes in the dynamic microhardness of the samples were mainly determined by the size of Si phases. Addition of vanadium led to quite lower elastic modulus in the vanadium added alloys compared to base alloy.

  4. Aging properties and microstructures of Ti-B20 titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Peng; ZHAO Yong-qing; ZHOU Lian

    2006-01-01

    A new metastable beta titanium alloy of Ti-Al-Mo-V-Cr-Fe-Zr-Sn system was designed and named Ti-B20. In order to investigate the aging properties and microstructures of the new alloy subjected to different solution treatments, the tensile and Vickers hardness tests were carried out and the optical microscope and scanning electron microscope analysis were performed. The results show that the new alloy displays rapid aging response, high age strengthening effect and fine deposition. In addition, beta solution results in ultra high age hardening effect with low tensile ductility, whereas excellent combination of aging strength and ductility can be obtained after solution treated below beta transus temperature.

  5. A new dynamic method for measuring hydrogen partial pressure in molten aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen partial pressure is an important parameter to calculate hydrogen concentration levels in molten aluminum alloy. A new dynamic method for measuring hydrogen partial pressure in molten aluminum alloy is studied. Dynamic and rapid measurement is realized through changing the volume of the vacuum chamber and calculating the pressure difference ΔP between the theoretical and measured pressures in the vacuum chamber. Positive ΔP indicates hydrogen transmits from melt to vacuum chamber and negative ΔP means the reverse. When ΔP is equal to zero, hydrogen transmitted from both sides reached a state of dynamical equilibrium and the pressure in the vacuum chamber is equal to the hydrogen partial pressure in the molten aluminum alloy. Compared with other existing measuring methods, the new method can significantly shorten the testing time and reduce measuring cost.

  6. Study on Nanocrystalline Rare Earth Mg-Based System Hydrogen Storage Alloys with AB3-Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A sort of rare earth Mg-based system hydrogen storage alloys with AB3-type was prepared by double-roller rapid quenching method. The alloys were nanocrystalline multi-phase structures composed of LaNi3 phase and LaNi5 phase by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses, and the suitable absorption/desorption plateau was revealed by the measurement of P-C-I curve. Electrochemical studies indicate that the alloys exhibit good electrochemical properties such as high capacity and stable cycle life, and the discharge capacity is 369 mAh·g-1 at 0.2 C (72 mA·g-1), after 460 cycles, the capacity decay was only 19.4% at 2 C (720 mA·g-1).

  7. Bonding strength of Al/Mg/Al alloy tri-metallic laminates fabricated by hot rolling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X P Zhang; M J Tan; T H Yang; X J Xu; J T Wang

    2011-07-01

    One of major drawbacks of magnesium alloy is its low corrosion resistance, which can be improved by using an aluminized coating. In this paper, 7075 Al/Mg–12Gd–3Y–0.5Zr/7075 Al laminated composites were produced by a hot roll bonding method. The rolling temperature was determined based on the flow stresses of Mg–12Gd–3Y–0.5Zr magnesium alloy and 7075 Al alloy at elevated temperature. The bonding strength of the laminate composites and their mechanism were studied. The effects of the reduction ratio (single pass), the rolling temperature, and the subsequent annealing on the bonding strength were also investigated. It was observed that the bonding strength increased rapidly with the reduction ratio and slightly with the rolling temperature. The bonding strength increases with the annealing time until the annealing time reaches 2 h and then decreases. The mechanical bond plays a major role in the bonding strength.

  8. Cold compression residual stress reduction in aluminium alloy 7010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, D.A. [Limerick Univ. (Ireland). Materials Research Centre; Robinson, J.S. [Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Univ. of Limerick (Ireland); Cudd, R.L. [HDA Forgings Ltd., Redditch, Worchestershire (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    7010 is one of the high strength aluminium alloys used mainly as plate and forgings in the aerospace industry. Its high strength is achieved through a quenching operation where the material is rapidly cooled from the solution heat treatment temperature (475 C) to room temperature. As with all rapid quenching operations, residual stresses develop, leaving the material unsuitable for further machining operations and for service. Regular shaped forgings are generally cold compressed after quenching to relieve residual stresses. The effect of friction, increasing/decreasing the amount of cold compression and applying cold compression in 'bites' on residual stress magnitudes is unknown. This paper aims to study the effect that these variables have on final residual stress patterns through use of a finite element model. (orig.)

  9. Metallic Thin-Film Bonding and Alloy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor); Campbell, Geoff (Inventor); Peotter, Brian S. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion bonding a stack of aluminum thin films is particularly challenging due to a stable aluminum oxide coating that rapidly forms on the aluminum thin films when they are exposed to atmosphere and the relatively low meting temperature of aluminum. By plating the individual aluminum thin films with a metal that does not rapidly form a stable oxide coating, the individual aluminum thin films may be readily diffusion bonded together using heat and pressure. The resulting diffusion bonded structure can be an alloy of choice through the use of a carefully selected base and plating metals. The aluminum thin films may also be etched with distinct patterns that form a microfluidic fluid flow path through the stack of aluminum thin films when diffusion bonded together.

  10. PERSPECTIVES OF MOLIBDENUM CONTAINING MATERIALS APPLICATION FOR ALLOYING OF IRONCARBON ALLOYS DURING MANUFACTURING OF CRITICAL CASTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Slutsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor is one of most important part of automobile determine its economical effectiveness of usage. On the other hand, sleeves, pistons and rings are crucible parts as they determine the service life of a motor. These parts are producing in big scale – dozens of millions pieces. Increase of cylinder sleeves physical-mechanical properties results in prolongation of motor service life and improvement of motor’s characteristics. Nowadays low alloyed cast irons with perlite structure are used to manufacture motor’s sleeves. For alloying purposes such traditional elements as Cr, Ni, Cu, and V are applied. But it is interesting to use molybdenum for cast iron alloying. It is known that alloying of alloys allows considerable increasing of consumption properties of castings. But in spite of advantages of alloys alloying the increase of molybdenum containing iron-carbon alloys production is restricted by economical reasons – high cost of alloying additions. Expenditures on alloying additions can be reduced by the application cheap secondary alloys in the charge. So, the present paper is devoted to investigation of alloying peculiarities during the treatment of ferrous alloys with molybdenum applying different initial materials.

  11. Method of producing superplastic alloys and superplastic alloys produced by the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeger, Lillianne P. (Inventor); Starke, Jr., Edgar A. (Inventor); Crooks, Roy (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for producing new superplastic alloys by inducing in an alloy the formation of precipitates having a sufficient size and homogeneous distribution that a sufficiently refined grain structure to produce superplasticity is obtained after subsequent PSN processing. An age-hardenable alloy having at least one dispersoid phase is selected for processing. The alloy is solution heat-treated and cooled to form a supersaturated solid solution. The alloy is plastically deformed sufficiently to form a high-energy defect structure useful for the subsequent heterogeneous nucleation of precipitates. The alloy is then aged, preferably by a multi-stage low and high temperature process, and precipitates are formed at the defect sites. The alloy then is subjected to a PSN process comprising plastically deforming the alloy to provide sufficient strain energy in the alloy to ensure recrystallization, and statically recrystallizing the alloy. A grain structure exhibiting new, fine, equiaxed and uniform grains is produced in the alloy. An exemplary 6xxx alloy of the type capable of being produced by the present invention, and which is useful for aerospace, automotive and other applications, is disclosed and claimed. The process is also suitable for processing any age-hardenable aluminum or other alloy.

  12. Microstructural and mechanical properties analysis of extruded Sn–0.7Cu solder alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul-Aziz Bogno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties and performance of lead-free solder alloys such as fluidity and wettability are defined by the alloy composition and solidification microstructure. Rapid solidification of metallic alloys is known to result in refined microstructures with reduced microsegregation and improved mechanical properties of the final products as compared to normal castings. The rapidly solidified Sn-based solders by melt spinning were shown to be suitable for soldering with low temperature and short soldering duration. In the present study, rapidly solidified Sn–0.7 wt.%Cu droplets generated by impulse atomization (IA were achieved as well as directional solidification under transient conditions at lower cooling rate. This paper reports on a comparative study of the rapidly solidified and the directionally solidified samples. Different but complementary characterization techniques were used to fully analyze the solidification microstructures of the samples obtained under the two cooling regimes. These include X-ray diffractometry (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In order to compare the tensile strength and elongation to fracture of the directionally solidified ingot and strip castings with the atomized droplet, compaction and extrusion of the latter were carried out. It was shown that more balanced and superior tensile mechanical properties are available for the hot extruded samples from compacted as-atomized Sn–0.7 wt.%Cu droplets. Further, elongation-to-fracture was 2–3× higher than that obtained for the directionally solidified samples.

  13. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genau, Amber Lynn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  14. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  15. Relationship between microstructure, cytotoxicity and corrosion properties of a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colić, Miodrag; Rudolf, Rebeka; Stamenković, Dragoslav; Anzel, Ivan; Vucević, Dragana; Jenko, Monika; Lazić, Vojkan; Lojen, Gorazd

    2010-01-01

    Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been investigated as materials for medical devices, but their biomedical application is still limited. The aim of this work was to compare the microstructure, corrosion and cytotoxicity in vitro of a Cu-Al-Ni SMA. Rapidly solidified (RS) thin ribbons, manufactured via melt spinning, were used for the tests. The control alloy was a permanent mould casting of the same composition, but without shape memory effect. The results show that RS ribbons are significantly more resistant to corrosion compared with the control alloy, as judged by the lesser release of Cu and Ni into the conditioning medium. These results correlate with the finding that RS ribbons were not cytotoxic to L929 mouse fibroblasts and rat thymocytes. In addition, the RS ribbon conditioning medium inhibited cellular proliferation and IL-2 production by activated rat splenocytes to a much lesser extent. The inhibitory effects were almost completely abolished by conditioning the RS ribbons in culture medium for 4 weeks. Microstructural analysis showed that RS ribbons are martensitic, with boron particles as a minor phase. In contrast, the control Cu-Al-Ni alloy had a complex multiphase microstructure. Examination of the alloy surfaces after conditioning by energy dispersive X-ray and Auger electron spectroscopy showed the formation of Cu and Al oxide layers and confirmed that the metals in RS ribbons are less susceptible to oxidation and corrosion compared with the control alloy. In conclusion, these results suggest that rapid solidification significantly improves the corrosion stability and biocompatibility in vitro of Cu-Al-Ni SMA ribbons.

  16. Diamond grooving of rapidly solidified optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Ghobashy, Sameh; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Mkoko, Zwelinzima

    2015-10-01

    Traditional optical aluminium grades such as Al 6061 are intensively used for making optical components for applications ranging from mould insert fabrication to laser machine making. However, because of their irregular microstructure and relative inhomogeneity of material properties at micro scale, traditional optical aluminium may exhibit some difficulties when ultra-high precision diamond turned. Inhomogeneity and micro-variation in the material properties combined with uneven and coarse microstructure may cause unacceptable surface finish and accelerated tool wear, especially in grooving operation when the diamond tool edge is fully immersed in the material surface. Recently, new grades of optical aluminium that are featured by their ultra-fine microstructure and improved material properties have been developed to overcome the problem of high tool wear rates. The new aluminium grades have been developed using rapid solidification process which results in extremely small grain sizes combined with improved mechanical properties. The current study is concerned with investigating the performance of single-point diamond turning when grooving two grades of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades: RSA905 which is a high-alloyed aluminium grade and RSA443 which has a high silicon content. In this study, two series of experiments employed to create radial microgrooves on the two RSA grades. The surface roughness obtained on the groove surface is measured when different combinations of cutting parameters are used. Cutting speed is varied while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant. The results show that groove surface roughness produced on RSA443 is higher than that obtained on RSA905. Also, the paper reports on the effect of cutting speed on surface roughness for each RSA grade.

  17. Dendrite growth characteristics within liquid Fe-Sb alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG WeiLi; Lü YongJun; QIN HaiYan; WEI BingBo

    2009-01-01

    Bulk samples and small droplets of liquid Fe-10%Sb alloys are undercooled up to 429 K (0.24TL) and 568 K (0.32 TL), respectively, with glass fluxing and free fall techniques. The high undercooling does not change the phase constitution, and only the αFe solid solution is found in the rapidly solidified alloy.The experimental results show that when the undercooling is below 296 K, the growth velocity of αFe dendrite rises exponentially with the increase of undercooling and reaches a maximum value 1.38 m/s.Subsequently, the growth velocity begins to decrease if undercooling further increases. The αFe phase grows into coarse dendrites under small undercooling conditions, whereas it becomes vermicular dendrites in highly undercooled melts. The solute trapping is closely related to the dendrite growth velocity and cooling rate rather than undercooling. Although the solute trapping can be remarkably suppressed by the rapid dendrite growth, the segregationless solidification is not observed in the present experiments due to the large solidification temperature range.

  18. Dendrite growth characteristics within liquid Fe-Sb alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bulk samples and small droplets of liquid Fe-10%Sb alloys are undercooled up to 429 K (0.24TL) and 568 K (0.32TL), respectively, with glass fluxing and free fall techniques. The high undercooling does not change the phase constitution, and only the αFe solid solution is found in the rapidly solidified alloy. The experimental results show that when the undercooling is below 296 K, the growth velocity of αFe dendrite rises exponentially with the increase of undercooling and reaches a maximum value 1.38 m/s. Subsequently, the growth velocity begins to decrease if undercooling further increases. The αFe phase grows into coarse dendrites under small undercooling conditions, whereas it becomes vermicular dendrites in highly undercooled melts. The solute trapping is closely related to the dendrite growth velocity and cooling rate rather than undercooling. Although the solute trapping can be remarkably suppressed by the rapid dendrite growth, the segregationless solidification is not observed in the present experiments due to the large solidification temperature range.

  19. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  20. Micro-Structures of Hard Coatings Deposited on Titanium Alloys by Laser Alloying Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Weng, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This work is based on micro-structural performance of the Ti-B4C-C laser alloying coatings on Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The test results indicated that laser alloying of the Ti-B4C-C pre-placed powders on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate can form the ceramics reinforced hard alloying coatings, which increased the micro-hardness and wear resistance of substrate. The test result also indicated that the TiB phase was produced in alloying coating, which corresponded to its (101) crystal plane. In addition, yttria has a refining effect on micro-structures of the laser alloying coating, and its refinement mechanism was analyzed. This research provided essential experimental and theoretical basis to promote the applications of the laser alloying technique in manufacturing and repairing of the aerospace parts.

  1. Status of Testing and Characterization of CMS Alloy 617 and Alloy 230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Battiste, Rick [ORNL; Terry, Totemeier [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Denis, Clark [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2006-08-01

    Status and progress in testing and characterizing CMS Alloy 617 and Alloy 230 tasks in FY06 at ORNL and INL are described. ORNL research has focused on CMS Alloy 617 development and creep and tensile properties of both alloys. In addition to refurbishing facilities to conduct tests, a significant amount of creep and tensile data on Alloy 230, worth several years of research funds and time, has been located and collected from private enterprise. INL research has focused on the creep-fatigue behavior of standard chemistry Alloy 617 base metal and fusion weldments. Creep-fatigue tests have been performed in air, vacuum, and purified Ar environments at 800 and 1000 C. Initial characterization and high-temperature joining work has also been performed on Alloy 230 and CCA Alloy 617 in preparation for creep-fatigue testing.

  2. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by Al-Ti-C-Y master alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chunxiang; LU Binfeng; L(U) Zhengling; LIANG Wei

    2008-01-01

    Al-Ti-C-Y master alloy was prepared by combining SHS technique and melting-casting method. The microstructure of master alloy and its grain-refining effect on AZ31 alloy were investigated by means of OM, XRD, SEM and EDS. Experimental results indicated that the prepared master alloy consisted of α-Al, TiAl3, TiC and Al3Y phases, and exhibited good grain-refining performance of AZ31 alloy. Morphology of α-Mg changed from coarse dendritic to fine equiaxed and the average grain size of α-Mg matrix reduced from the original 580 to 170 μm after adding 1.0 wt.% master alloy. The grain refining efficiency of Al-Ti-C-Y master alloy on AZ31 alloy was mainly attributed to heterogeneous nucleation of TiC particles and grain growth restriction of Al-Y compound or TiC at grain boundaries.

  3. Rapidly rotating red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Gehan, Charlotte; Michel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, which behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the id...

  4. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  5. Rapidly Evolving Giant Dermatofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Lang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibroma, also known as “fibrous histiocytoma”, is a benign dermal or subcutaneous poorly circumscribed proliferation of spindle-shaped fibroblasts and macrophages in the dermis. Although it is commonly present as a brownish nodule the legs of females, it may also arise on the upper extremities, trunk, and rarely on the head. The exact pathogenesis is unclear. However, it is widely believed that the originating insult to the dermis is a folliculitis, an arthropod bite, or an unspecified initial inflammatory condition. Giant dermatofibromas of greater than 5 cm in diameter are rare, with only 22 cases reported in the literature. We present a case of a rapidly evolving pedunculated mass in the groin of a male patient. Histological examination confirmed this to be a giant dermatofibroma. Though this specimen cannot is not confirmed as such, the cellular subtype is sometimes present as a larger lesion with anecdotal reports of local recurrence and distant metastases. The clinical and radiological features which were somewhat suspicious of malignancy are considered in the context of the definitive pathological diagnosis of a benign lesion.

  6. New Dental Alloys with Special Consumer Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TYKOCHINSKIY D. S.; VASEKIN V. V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to create a new gold alloy of yellow for casting the frames of metal-ceramic dentures.The yellow color corresponds to the consumer and aesthetic needs of some patients,because it is a sign of the metal,which is noble and innocuous.The main alloying elements of the majority of gold alloys for metal-ceramics are platinum and palladium,which increase the strength characteristics.Copper,tin,and other precious metals and base metals are also introduced in these alloys.At the same time,it is necessary to ensure the correspondence of the properties of the alloy with those of the ceramics applied onto the metal frame.For this purpose,the thermal expansion coefficient of the alloy (TEC) should be in a range of 13.5~14.5 × 10-6 K-1 when heated from 20 to 600 ℃.The two-component alloys,alloying of gold with platinum and palladium results in a decrease in the TEC,and the introduction of copper,silver,and tin,increases it.Multidirectional influence of the alloying elements is a factor in achieving compliance of the TEC with the given values of the alloy.In multicomponent systems,however,the mutual influence of individual components on the properties of the alloy is unpredictable.This also applies to the color characteristics of the alloys,which vary in the direction of reducing the yellowness with increasing concentration of platinum and palladium,while other elements may have the opposite effect on the results.Yellowness index (YI),calculated according to the results of spectrophotometric studies,has been chosen as an objective indicator of color.In this study,the requirement for YI was given not less than 25; the color of such alloys can be called light yellow.All the alloys investigated contained 85% (by weight)of gold.Therefore,higher corrosion resistance and biological inertness of a finished dental products were ensured.Among the alloys that met the yellowness/TEC requirements,two alloys have been selected that were "most yellow

  7. Models of Mass Transport During Microgravity Crystal Growth of Alloyed Semiconductors in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Alloyed semiconductor crystals, such as germanium-silicon (GeSi) and various II-VI alloyed crystals, are extremely important for optoelectronic devices. Currently, high-quality crystals of GeSi and of II-VI alloys can be grown by epitaxial processes, but the time required to grow a certain amount of single crystal is roughly 1,000 times longer than the time required for Bridgman growth from a melt. Recent rapid advances in optoelectronics have led to a great demand for more and larger crystals with fewer dislocations and other microdefects and with more uniform and controllable compositions. Currently, alloyed crystals grown by bulk methods have unacceptable levels of segregation in the composition of the crystal. Alloyed crystals are being grown by the Bridgman process in space in order to develop successful bulk-growth methods, with the hope that the technology will be equally successful on earth. Unfortunately some crystals grown in space still have unacceptable segregation, for example, due to residual accelerations. The application of a weak magnetic field during crystal growth in space may eliminate the undesirable segregation. Understanding and improving the bulk growth of alloyed semiconductors in microgravity is critically important. The purpose of this grant to to develop models of the unsteady species transport during the bulk growth of alloyed semiconductor crystals in the presence of a magnetic field in microgravity. The research supports experiments being conducted in the High Magnetic Field Solidification Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and future experiments on the International Space Station.

  8. Effect of precipitations on the damping capacity of Fe-13Cr-2.5Mo alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Li, Xiuyan; Zhang, Bo; Rong, Lijian; Li, Yiyi

    2009-07-01

    The influence of precipitations on the damping capacity of Fe-13Cr-2.5Mo (mass %) based alloys has been investigated in this paper. The damping behaviors were examined by dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) at temperature t = 35 °C, vibrate frequency f = 1 Hz and strain amplitude ɛ of 10-6 and 10-3. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was used to observe microstructure and determine the composition of precipitations. The results show that damping capacity of Fe-13Cr-2.5Mo based alloys is more strongly correlated with intragranular precipitation than with grain boundary (GB) precipitation. Fe-Cr-Mo alloy annealed at 1100 °C for 1 h followed by furnace cooling (FC) with relatively fewer intergranular precipitations, exhibits higher damping behavior. With the increase of annealing temperature, the amount of intragranular precipitations increases while damping capacity of Fe-Cr-Mo alloy decreases. Addition of 1.0% Ti obviously inhibits precipitation of GB precipitations, but promotes the intragranular precipitations in the alloy distinctly, so the damping capacity of Fe-Cr-Mo- 1Ti is slightly lower than that of Fe-Cr-Mo alloy. Addition of 1.0% Nb can significantly decrease damping capacity of Fe-Cr-Mo-1Nb at low strain amplitude. But at higher strain amplitude, damping capacity increases more rapidly and Fe- Cr-Mo-1Nb possesses the highest damping capacity. This result reveals that larger amount of precipitations in Fe-Cr-Mo based alloys can interact with dislocations and generate an amplitude-dependent dislocation damping Q-1dis at high strain amplitude.

  9. A Fundamental Understanding of the Effect of Alloying Elements on the Corrosion Resistance of Rapidly Solidified Mg Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-16

    Typical procedure in making a melt spinning run involved the following 6 steps: 1. The crucible is loaded with an appropriate amount (I to 5 g) of...formation of a telati’.elv thick (290(.A) oxide which contains little or no aluminulm hiit contains traces of zinc and phosphorous (from glycol etch

  10. The skin effect and the yielding behavior of cold chamber high pressure die cast Mg-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K. Vanna [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Materials Engineering School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072 (Australia); Caceres, C.H., E-mail: c.caceres@uq.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Materials Engineering School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072 (Australia); Nagasekhar, A.V. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Materials Engineering School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072 (Australia); Easton, M.A. [CAST Co-operative Research Centre, Department of Materials Engineering Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3800 (Australia)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The area fraction of elastic skin was calculated for a range of Mg-Al alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The skin was defined using micro mechanistic concepts and tensile testing data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The elastic constraint imposed by the skin on the core is discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The skin covers {approx}30% of the cross section of the most concentrated alloy. - Abstract: The volume fraction of material that remained elastic as yielding developed in cast-to-shape tensile specimens of binary alloys with Al contents between 0.47 and 11.6 mass% was calculated using the Kocks-Mecking method of analysis. In the most dilute alloys the elastic fraction decreased rapidly to zero at a well-defined stress, suggesting that yielding was uniform across the specimen, whereas in the concentrated ones it decreased gradually over a wide range of stresses, suggesting that yielding developed first in the softer core of the casting while the harder outer layer, or skin, remained elastic. Comparison with specimens of the concentrated alloys which had a surface layer removed showed that the strain hardening behavior of the core resembled that of full specimens of the most dilute alloy. The maximum amount of elastic material in comparison with the most dilute alloy was used to define the area fraction covered by the skin, for each alloy. The skin covered between {approx}10% and {approx}30% of the cross section, the greater values for the concentrated alloys. The skin imposed an elastic constraint that delayed the development of full plasticity at the core.

  11. First principles theory of disordered alloys and alloy phase stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocks, G.M.; Nicholson, D.M.C.; Shelton, W.A. [and others

    1993-06-05

    These lecture notes review the LDA-KKR-CPA method for treating the electronic structure and energetics of random alloys and the MF-CF and GPM theories of ordering and phase stability built on the LDA- KKR-CPA description of the disordered phase. Section 2 lays out the basic LDA-KKR-CPA theory of random alloys and some applications. Section 3 reviews the progress made in understanding specific ordering phenomena in binary solid solutions base on the MF-CF and GPM theories of ordering and phase stability. Examples are Fermi surface nesting, band filling, off diagonal randomness, charge transfer, size difference or local strain fluctuations, magnetic effects; in each case, an attempt is made to link the ordering and the underlying electronic structure of the disordered phase. Section 4 reviews calculations of electronic structure of {beta}-phase Ni{sub c}Al{sub 1-c} alloys using a version of the LDA-KKR-CPA codes generalized to complex lattices.

  12. Characterization and Catalytic Properties of a Rapidly Quenched Ni-RE-P-AL Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A Ni-RE-P-AL catalyst prepared by alkaline extraction of a rapidly quenched Ni-RE-P-AL alloy was characterized by means of ICP,BET,XRD,ZPS and TEM.The results show that the rapidly quenched Ni-RE-P-AL alloy contained less crystalline AL3Ni than AL-Ni alloy.After alkaline extraction,most of Al in the Ni-RE-P-AL alloy was leached out and the resulted Ni-RE-P-AL catalyst presented a spone structure similar to Raney Ni.Although Crystalline Ni is the major phase in the Ni-RE-P-AL catalyst and Raney Ni,amorphous Ni-P phase has been detected in the Ni-RE-P-AL catalyst.Studies on catalytic hydrogenation of toluene,phenyl ethylene,acetylene benzene,nitrobenzene,cyclohexanone and adiponitrile in liquid phase showed that the activity and selectivity of this Ni-RE-P-AL catalyst are superior to those of Raney Ni,especially at low temperatures.The amorphous phase is considered to be responsible for its superior catalytic properties.

  13. The Influence of Novel Alloying Additions on the Performance of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    alloys are based on a rather small group of alloying elements, there are often limited differences between them in properties (strength, corrosion ...Research Laboratory (ARL). Initially, the discussions focused on ways to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium ( Mg ) alloys to increase the...elements display little tendency to alter precipitates or otherwise adversely influence the corrosion performance of the base alloy . Based on these

  14. Fabrication methods and applications of microstructured gallium based liquid metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khondoker, M. A. H.; Sameoto, D.

    2016-09-01

    This review contains a comparative study of reported fabrication techniques of gallium based liquid metal alloys embedded in elastomers such as polydimethylsiloxane or other rubbers as well as the primary challenges associated with their use. The eutectic gallium-indium binary alloy (EGaIn) and gallium-indium-tin ternary alloy (galinstan) are the most common non-toxic liquid metals in use today. Due to their deformability, non-toxicity and superior electrical conductivity, these alloys have become very popular among researchers for flexible and reconfigurable electronics applications. All the available manufacturing techniques have been grouped into four major classes. Among them, casting by needle injection is the most widely used technique as it is capable of producing features as small as 150 nm width by high-pressure infiltration. One particular fabrication challenge with gallium based liquid metals is that an oxide skin is rapidly formed on the entire exposed surface. This oxide skin increases wettability on many surfaces, which is excellent for keeping patterned metal in position, but is a drawback in applications like reconfigurable circuits, where the position of liquid metal needs to be altered and controlled accurately. The major challenges involved in many applications of liquid metal alloys have also been discussed thoroughly in this article.

  15. Phase and magnetic studies of the high-energy alloyed Ni–Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiraskova, Y., E-mail: jirasko@ipm.cz [Institute of Physics of Materials, AS CR, Žižkova 22, CZ-616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Bursik, J.; Turek, I.; Hapla, M. [Institute of Physics of Materials, AS CR, Žižkova 22, CZ-616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Titov, A.; Zivotsky, O. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology Centre, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, CZ-708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The mechanically alloyed Ni–Fe system is studied by a number of methods. • Three-stage alloying results in a formation of Ni{sub 3}Fe. • Magnetic properties and particle interactions reflect the changes in composition. - Abstract: A report on the systematic study of the changes in the phase composition, morphology, and magnetic properties of the Fe–Ni alloy is presented. Structure studies based on the X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the step-wise alloying by high energy ball milling for time up to 6000 min proceeds in three stages: (i) solid state diffusion of Ni into bcc-Fe, (ii) the ongoing diffusion of Ni into bcc-Fe and simultaneous diffusion of Fe into fcc-Ni, and (iii) structural transformation of bcc-FeNi into fcc-NiFe and final formation of the Ni{sub 3}Fe phase. Except for ferromagnetic phases, a small contribution of the paramagnetic component is detected by Mössbauer spectrometry. The alloying process is accompanied by an initial rapid decrease in crystallite size followed by a sluggish decrease down to the mean final size of 12 nm. The changes in the grain size and phase compositions are reflected in magnetic characteristics. The results yielded from the Henkel graphs confirm a dominance of the negative particle interactions.

  16. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H. [Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Tahara, S. [Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Okada, T. [Niigata College of Technology, Kamishin’eicho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2076 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  17. Fabrication of porous NiTi shape memory alloy structures using laser engineered net shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, B Vamsi; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2009-05-01

    Porous NiTi alloy samples were fabricated with 12-36% porosity from equiatomic NiTi alloy powder using laser engineered net shaping (LENS). The effects of processing parameters on density and properties of laser-processed NiTi alloy samples were investigated. It was found that the density increased rapidly with increasing the specific energy input up to 50 J/mm(3). Further increase in the energy input had small effect on density. High cooling rates associated with LENS processing resulted in higher amount of cubic B2 phase, and increased the reverse transformation temperatures of porous NiTi samples due to thermally induced stresses and defects. Transformation temperatures were found to be independent of pore volume, though higher pore volume in the samples decreased the maximum recoverable strain from 6% to 4%. Porous NiTi alloy samples with 12-36% porosity exhibited low Young's modulus between 2 and 18 GPa as well as high compressive strength and recoverable strain. Because of high open pore volume between 36% and 62% of total volume fraction porosity, these porous NiTi alloy samples can potentially accelerate the healing process and improve biological fixation when implanted in vivo. Thus porous NiTi is a promising biomaterial for hard tissue replacements.

  18. Bonding theory for metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Frederick E

    2005-01-01

    Bonding Theory for Metals and Alloys exhorts the potential existence of covalent bonding in metals and alloys. Through the recognition of the covalent bond in coexistence with the 'free' electron band, the book describes and demonstrates how the many experimental observations on metals and alloys can all be reconciled. Subsequently, it shows how the individual view of metals and alloys by physicists, chemists and metallurgists can be unified. The physical phenomena of metals and alloys covered in this book are: Miscibility Gap between two liquid metals; Phase Equilibrium Diagrams; Phenomenon of Melting. Superconductivity; Nitinol; A Metal-Alloy with Memory; Mechanical Properties; Liquid Metal Embrittlement; Superplasticity; Corrosion; The author introduces a new theory based on 'Covalon' conduction, which forms the basis for a new approach to the theory of superconductivity. This new approach not only explains the many observations made on the phenomenon of superconductivity but also makes predictions that ha...

  19. Wetting behavior of alternative solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

    1993-07-01

    Recent economic and environmental issues have stimulated interest in solder alloys other than the traditional Sn-Pb eutectic or near eutectic composition. Preliminary evaluations suggest that several of these alloys approach the baseline properties (wetting, mechanical, thermal, and electrical) of the Sn-Pb solders. Final alloy acceptance will require major revisions to existing industrial and military soldering specifications. Bulk alloy and solder joint properties are consequently being investigated to validate their producibility and reliability. The work reported in this paper examines the wetting behavior of several of the more promising commercial alloys on copper substrates. Solder wettability was determined by the meniscometer and wetting balance techniques. The wetting results suggest that several of the alternative solders would satisfy pretinning and surface mount soldering applications. Their use on plated through hole technology might be more difficult since the alloys generally did not spread or flow as well as the 60Sn-40Pb solder.

  20. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2016-07-22

    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at -150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries.

  1. Magnetic Characteristics of Two Metglas Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatnik, Marie; SNS nEDM Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic shielding is gaining greater significance as precision experiments become more sensitive, such as for the Spallation Neutron Source nEDM [neutron electric dipole moment] measurement. Targeting a sensitivity of 10-28 e-cm, the SNS nEDM collaboration minimizes magnetic shield gradients and magnetic noise with a superconducting lead shield and several shield layers that include using a Metglas layer as a primary component. Metglas is a thin ribbon of proprietary engineered alloy that comes in many varieties. One alloy with high (as cast) permeability is Metglas alloy 2705M, which is primarily composed of Cobalt. However, this alloy will activate under neutron radiation and is therefore unsuitable. However, another high-performance Metglas alloy, 2826 MB, contains only trace amounts of Cobalt. A study of the shielding characteristics of the two alloys was performed, paying close attention to field oscillation frequency and magnitude.

  2. Theory of Random Anisotropic Magnetic Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1976-01-01

    A mean-field-crystal-field theory is developed for random, multicomponent, anisotropic magnetic alloys. It is specially applicable to rare-earth alloys. A discussion is given of multicritical points and phase transitions between various states characterized by order parameters with different...... spatial directions or different ordering wave vectors. Theoretical predictions based on known parameters for the phase diagrams and magnetic moments for the binary rare-earth alloys of Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, Tb-Tm, Nd-Pr, and pure double-hcp Nd agree qualitatively with the experimental observations....... Quantitative agreement can be obtained by increasing the interaction between different alloy elements, in particular for alloys with very different axial anisotropy, e.g., Tb-Tm. A model system consisting of a singlet-singlet and singlet-doublet alloy is discussed in detail. A simple procedure to include...

  3. Biocorrosion study of titanium-nickel alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern Lin, J H; Lo, S J; Ju, C P

    1996-02-01

    The present study provides results of the corrosion behaviour in Hank's physiological solution and some other properties of three Ti-Ni alloys with 18, 25 and 28.4 wt% Ni, respectively. Results indicate that alpha-titanium and Ti2Ni were the two major phases in all three Ti-Ni alloys. The relative amount of the Ti2Ni phase increased with additional Ni content. Hardness of the Ti-Ni alloys also increased with added nickel content, ranging from 310 to 390 VHN, similar to the hardness of enamel. Melting temperatures of the Ti-Ni alloys were all lower than that of pure titanium by least 600 degrees C. The three Ti-Ni alloys behaved almost identically when potentiodynamically polarized in Hank's solution at 37 degrees C. The critical anodic current densities of the alloys were nearly 30 microA/cm2 and the breakdown potentials were all above 1100 mV (SCE).

  4. The Enhancement of Mg Corrosion Resistance by Alloying Mn and Laser-Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youwen Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mg has been considered a promising biomaterial for bone implants. However, the poor corrosion resistance has become its main undesirable property. In this study, both alloying Mn and laser-melting were applied to enhance the Mg corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, and microstructure of rapid laser-melted Mg-xMn (x = 0–3 wt % alloys were investigated. The alloys were composed of dendrite grains, and the grains size decreased with increasing Mn. Moreover, Mn could dissolve and induce the crystal lattice distortion of the Mg matrix during the solidification process. Mn ranging from 0–2 wt % dissolved completely due to rapid laser solidification. As Mn contents further increased up to 3 wt %, a small amount of Mn was left undissolved. The compressive strength of Mg-Mn alloys increased first (up to 2 wt % and then decreased with increasing Mn, while the hardness increased continuously. The refinement of grains and the increase in corrosion potential both made contributions to the enhancement of Mg corrosion resistance.

  5. Demand for PC Increases Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ PC (polycarbonate) is an engineering thermoplastic with excellent comprehensive properties. It has the advantages of great strength, high toughness, good heat resistance,light weight, excellent workability and stable color and is therefore extensively used in several sectors:automotive, electronic/electric,construction, office equipment,packaging, sports ware, medical/health care and household utensils.PC can also be used to make PC copolymers or alloyed with other monomers or resins to improve its properties.

  6. Spark alloying of VK8 and T15K6 hard alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptsov, S. G.; Fominykh, M. V.; Mukhinov, D. V.; Magomedova, R. S.; Nikonenko, E. A.; Pleshchev, V. P.

    2015-08-01

    A method is developed to restore the service properties of VK hard alloy plates using preliminary carburizing followed by spark alloying with a VT1-0 alloy. The phase composition is studied as a function of the spark treatment time.

  7. Kinetics and Structure of Refractory Compounds and AlloysObtained by Mechanical Alloying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Refractory compounds are material with interesting properties for structural applications. However, the processing of such material is a great challenge because of their high melting temperature and limited ductility. Mechanical alloying is a novel technique of producing refractory compounds with specific properties. Kinetical and structural peculiarities of refractory compounds and alloys obtained by mechanical alloying are discussed.

  8. Alloying Solid Solution Strengthening of Fe-Ga Alloys: A First-Principle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    effect from alloying additions of Nb, Mo, V, Cr and Co in cubic solid solution of Fe-Ga alloys. Mayer bond order "BO" values were used to evaluate the...that transition metal Nb achieves the best strengthening effect in Fe-Ga alloys. The solid solution strengthening follows a trend from larger to

  9. Aspects of precipitation in alloy Inconel 718

    OpenAIRE

    Azadian, Saied

    2004-01-01

    A study was made of the microstructure of the Ni-base alloy Inconel 718 with emphasis on the precipitation and stability of intermetallic phases as affected by heat treatments. In addition the effect of the precipitation on selected mechanical properties namely hardness, creep notch sensitivity and hot ductlity were investigated. The materials studied were a spray-formed version and three wrought versions of the alloy. The spray-formed version of the alloy was of interest since it exhibited a...

  10. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  11. Cobalt-Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    are presented in Section 5. 2. Materials and methods The composition of the cobalt -base alloy (CBA) is presented in Table 1. The production of this... Cobalt -Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study by William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 A reprint...21005-5069 ARL-RP-0491 July 2014 Cobalt -Base Alloy Gun Barrel Study William S. de Rosset and Jonathan S. Montgomery Weapons and Materials

  12. High toughness-high strength iron alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An iron alloy is provided which exhibits strength and toughness characteristics at cryogenic temperatures. The alloy consists essentially of about 10 to 16 percent by weight nickel, about 0.1 to 1.0 percent by weight aluminum, and 0 to about 3 percent by weight copper, with the balance being essentially iron. The iron alloy is produced by a process which includes cold rolling at room temperature and subsequent heat treatment.

  13. The oxidation and corrosion of ODS alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion of high temperature oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are reviewed. The environmental resistance of such alloys are classified by oxide growth rate, oxide volatility, oxide spalling, and hot corrosion limitations. Also discussed are environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. It is concluded that ODS NiCrAl and FeCrAl alloys are highly oxidation and corrosion resistant and can probably be used uncoated.

  14. Oxidation And Hot Corrosion Of ODS Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Report reviews oxidation and hot corrosion of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys, intended for use at high temperatures. Classifies environmental resistances of such alloys by rates of growth of oxides, volatilities of oxides, spalling of oxides, and limitations imposed by hot corrosion. Also discusses environmentally resistant coatings for ODS materials. Concludes ODS NICrAl and FeCrAl alloys highly resistant to oxidation and corrosion and can be used uncoated.

  15. The Fatigue of Powder Metallurgy Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    v1o -2- MATERIALS AND TESTS Table 1 provides a complete listing of the alloys studied in this program together with their chemical compositions ...use can minimize material waste and minimize machining costs. In addition there is the potential for the development of more fine-grained and...out under fully reversed loading conditions in the high cycle range with smooth specimens. X7090 and X7091 are P/M alloys, 7075 is an ingot alloy

  16. Deformation Driven Alloying and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-03

    Rolling, Acta Materiala (08 2014) Zhe Wang , John H Perepezko, David Larson, David Reinhard. Mixing Behaviors in Cu/Ni and Ni/V Multilayers Induced...by Cold Rolling, Journal of Alloys and Compounds (07 2014) Zhe Wang , John H. Perepezko. Deformation-Induced Nanoscale Mixing Reactions in Cu/Ni...FTE Equivalent: Total Number: Discipline Zhe Wang 0.50 0.50 1 Names of Post Doctorates Names of Faculty Supported Names of Under Graduate students

  17. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  18. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  19. New aluminium alloys with high lithium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemme, K.; Velten, B.

    1989-06-01

    Since the early 80's there have been made great efforts to replace the high strength aluminium alloys for the aircraft and space industry by a new generation of aluminium-lithium alloys. The attractivity of this kind of alloys could be increased by a further reduction of their density, caused by an increasing lithium content (/ge/ 5 wt.% Li). Therefore binary high-lithium containing alloys with low density are produced and metallografically investigated. A survey of their strength and wear behavior is given by using tensile tests and pin abrasing tests. (orig.).

  20. Comparative study of the microstructures and mechanical properties of direct laser fabricated and arc-melted Al{sub x}CoCrFeNi high entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Jithin, E-mail: jithin@deakin.edu.au [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds 3216 (Australia); Jarvis, Tom; Wu, Xinhua [Monash Centre for Additive Manufacturing, Monash University, Clayton 3168 (Australia); Stanford, Nicole; Hodgson, Peter; Fabijanic, Daniel Mark [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds 3216 (Australia)

    2015-05-01

    High entropy alloys (HEA) are a relatively new metal alloy system that have promising potential in high temperature applications. These multi-component alloys are typically produced by arc-melting, requiring several remelts to achieve chemical homogeneity. Direct laser fabrication (DLF) is a rapid prototyping technique, which produces complex components from alloy powder by selectively melting micron-sized powder in successive layers. However, studies of the fabrication of complex alloys from simple elemental powder blends are sparse. In this study, DLF was employed to fabricate bulk samples of three alloys based on the Al{sub x}CoCrFeNi HEA system, where x was 0.3, 0.6 and 0.85 M fraction of Al. This produced FCC, FCC/BCC and BCC crystal structures, respectively. Corresponding alloys were also produced by arc-melting, and all microstructures were characterised and compared longitudinal and transverse to the build/solidification direction by x-ray diffraction, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (EDX and EBSD). Strong similarities were observed between the single phase FCC and BCC alloys produced by both techniques, however the FCC/BCC structures differed significantly. This has been attributed to a difference in the solidification rate and thermal gradient in the melt pool between the two different techniques. Room temperature compression testing showed very similar mechanical behaviour and properties for the two different processing routes. DLF was concluded to be a successful technique to manufacture bulk HEA's.