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Sample records for alloy neck adapter

  1. Modular titanium alloy neck adapter failures in hip replacement - failure mode analysis and influence of implant material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloemer Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modular neck adapters for hip arthroplasty stems allow the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intraoperatively. Fretting or crevice corrosion may lead to failure of such a modular device due to high loads or surface contamination inside the modular coupling. Unfortunately we have experienced such a failure of implants and now report our clinical experience with the failures in order to advance orthopaedic material research and joint replacement surgery. The failed neck adapters were implanted between August 2004 and November 2006 a total of about 5000 devices. After this period, the titanium neck adapters were replaced by adapters out of cobalt-chromium. Until the end of 2008 in total 1.4% (n = 68 of the implanted titanium alloy neck adapters failed with an average time of 2.0 years (0.7 to 4.0 years postoperatively. All, but one, patients were male, their average age being 57.4 years (36 to 75 years and the average weight 102.3 kg (75 to 130 kg. The failures of neck adapters were divided into 66% with small CCD of 130° and 60% with head lengths of L or larger. Assuming an average time to failure of 2.8 years, the cumulative failure rate was calculated with 2.4%. Methods A series of adapter failures of titanium alloy modular neck adapters in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem was investigated. For patients having received this particular implant combination risk factors were identified which were associated with the occurence of implant failure. A Kaplan-Meier survival-failure-analysis was conducted. The retrieved implants were analysed using microscopic and chemical methods. Modes of failure were simulated in biomechanical tests. Comparative tests included modular neck adapters made of titanium alloy and cobalt chrome alloy material. Results Retrieval examinations and biomechanical simulation revealed that primary micromotions initiated fretting within the modular tapered neck

  2. Modular titanium alloy neck adapter failures in hip replacement--failure mode analysis and influence of implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, Thomas M; Weik, Thomas; Bloemer, Wilhelm; Knaebel, Hanns-Peter

    2010-01-04

    Modular neck adapters for hip arthroplasty stems allow the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intraoperatively. Fretting or crevice corrosion may lead to failure of such a modular device due to high loads or surface contamination inside the modular coupling. Unfortunately we have experienced such a failure of implants and now report our clinical experience with the failures in order to advance orthopaedic material research and joint replacement surgery.The failed neck adapters were implanted between August 2004 and November 2006 a total of about 5000 devices. After this period, the titanium neck adapters were replaced by adapters out of cobalt-chromium. Until the end of 2008 in total 1.4% (n = 68) of the implanted titanium alloy neck adapters failed with an average time of 2.0 years (0.7 to 4.0 years) postoperatively. All, but one, patients were male, their average age being 57.4 years (36 to 75 years) and the average weight 102.3 kg (75 to 130 kg). The failures of neck adapters were divided into 66% with small CCD of 130 degrees and 60% with head lengths of L or larger. Assuming an average time to failure of 2.8 years, the cumulative failure rate was calculated with 2.4%. A series of adapter failures of titanium alloy modular neck adapters in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem was investigated. For patients having received this particular implant combination risk factors were identified which were associated with the occurRence of implant failure. A Kaplan-Meier survival-failure-analysis was conducted. The retrieved implants were analysed using microscopic and chemical methods. Modes of failure were simulated in biomechanical tests. Comparative tests included modular neck adapters made of titanium alloy and cobalt chrome alloy material. Retrieval examinations and biomechanical simulation revealed that primary micromotions initiated fretting within the modular tapered neck connection. A continuous abrasion and

  3. Micromotions at the taper interface between stem and neck adapter of a bimodular hip prosthesis during activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Sabrina Yvonne; Huber, Gerd; Sellenschloh, Kay; Haschke, Henning; Baxmann, Marc; Grupp, Thomas M; Morlock, Michael M

    2013-08-01

    The stem-neck taper interface of bimodular hip endoprostheses bears the risk of micromotions that can result in ongoing corrosion due to removal of the passive layer and ultimately cause implant fracture. We investigated the extent of micromotions at the stem-neck interface and the seating behavior of necks of one design made from different alloys during daily activities. Modular hip prostheses (n = 36, Metha®, Aesculap AG, Germany) with neck adapters (CoCr29Mo6 or Ti6Al4V) were embedded in PMMA (ISO 7206-4) and exposed to cyclic loading with peak loads ranging from walking (Fmax  = 2.3 kN) to stumbling (Fmax  = 5.3 kN). Translational and rotational micromotions at the taper interface and seating characteristics during assembly and loading were determined using four eddy-current sensors. Seating during loading after implant assembly was dependent on load magnitude but not on material coupling. Micromotions in the stem-neck interface correlated positively with load levels (CoCr: 2.6-6.3 µm, Ti: 4.6-13.8 µm; p < 0.001) with Ti neck adapters exhibiting significantly larger micromotions than CoCr (p < 0.001). These findings explain why high body weights and activities related to higher loads could increase the risk of fretting-induced implant failures in clinical application, especially for Ti-Ti combinations. Still, the role of taper seating is not clearly understood. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  4. Shape Memory Alloy Adaptive Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will demonstrate and scale up an innovative manufacturing process that yields aerospace grade shape memory alloy (SMA) solids and periodic...

  5. The role of adaptive martensite in magnetic shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niemann, R.; Rößler, U.K.; Gruner, M.E.; Heczko, Oleg; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2012), s. 562-581 ISSN 1438-1656 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100913 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Ni-Mn-Ga * magnetic shape memory alloy * ferromagnetic martensite * modulated structure * adaptive phase * mobility of twin boundary Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2012

  6. Evaluation of radiotherapy methods for adaptative head and neck treatment with RapidArc®

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaro, Sarah J.; Vasconcellos, Herminiane L.; Silva, Laura E. da; Bastos, Fernanda M.; Silva, Leonardo P. da; Alvaro S; Migoviski, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is considered a public health problem worldwide. The intensity-modulated techniques have shown benefit in the treatment of these sites, particularly with respect to reduction of deterministic effects of risk, such as parotid. Anatomical variations in cases of head and neck are very frequent and may lead, for example, to an overdose in the parotid. This can be mitigated if making use of adaptive radiation therapy. The work aims to analyze a methodology to redo the planning of treatments, through 02 acquisitions of TC. The results showed that, due to a reduction in the volumes of the parotid, the doses delivered to these organs are underestimated, which is relevant to readapt the treatment, with the addition of only a second scan without the need of the third. (author)

  7. Expected treatment dose construction and adaptive inverse planning optimization: Implementation for offline head and neck cancer adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Di; Liang Jian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To construct expected treatment dose for adaptive inverse planning optimization, and evaluate it on head and neck (h and n) cancer adaptive treatment modification. Methods: Adaptive inverse planning engine was developed and integrated in our in-house adaptive treatment control system. The adaptive inverse planning engine includes an expected treatment dose constructed using the daily cone beam (CB) CT images in its objective and constrains. Feasibility of the adaptive inverse planning optimization was evaluated retrospectively using daily CBCT images obtained from the image guided IMRT treatment of 19 h and n cancer patients. Adaptive treatment modification strategies with respect to the time and the number of adaptive inverse planning optimization during the treatment course were evaluated using the cumulative treatment dose in organs of interest constructed using all daily CBCT images. Results: Expected treatment dose was constructed to include both the delivered dose, to date, and the estimated dose for the remaining treatment during the adaptive treatment course. It was used in treatment evaluation, as well as in constructing the objective and constraints for adaptive inverse planning optimization. The optimization engine is feasible to perform planning optimization based on preassigned treatment modification schedule. Compared to the conventional IMRT, the adaptive treatment for h and n cancer illustrated clear dose-volume improvement for all critical normal organs. The dose-volume reductions of right and left parotid glands, spine cord, brain stem and mandible were (17 {+-} 6)%, (14 {+-} 6)%, (11 {+-} 6)%, (12 {+-} 8)%, and (5 {+-} 3)% respectively with the single adaptive modification performed after the second treatment week; (24 {+-} 6)%, (22 {+-} 8)%, (21 {+-} 5)%, (19 {+-} 8)%, and (10 {+-} 6)% with three weekly modifications; and (28 {+-} 5)%, (25 {+-} 9)%, (26 {+-} 5)%, (24 {+-} 8)%, and (15 {+-} 9)% with five weekly modifications. Conclusions

  8. A Clinical Concept for Interfractional Adaptive Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Alexandra D.; Nill, Simeon; Huber, Peter E.; Bendl, Rolf; Debus, Jürgen; Münter, Marc W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present an approach to fast, interfractional adaptive RT in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of head and neck tumors in clinical routine. Ensuring adequate patient position throughout treatment proves challenging in high-precision RT despite elaborate immobilization. Because of weight loss, treatment plans must be adapted to account for requiring supportive therapy incl. feeding tube or parenteral nutrition without treatment breaks. Methods and Materials: In-room CT position checks are used to create adapted IMRT treatment plans by stereotactic correlation to the initial setup, and volumes are adapted to the new geometry. New IMRT treatment plans are prospectively created on the basis of position control scans using the initial optimization parameters in KonRad without requiring complete reoptimization and thus facilitating quick replanning in daily routine. Patients treated for squamous cell head and neck cancer (SCCHN) in 2006–2007 were evaluated as to necessity/number of replannings, weight loss, dose, and plan parameters. Results: Seventy-two patients with SCCHN received IMRT to the primary site and lymph nodes (median dose 70.4 Gy). All patients received concomitant chemotherapy requiring supportive therapy by feeding tube or parenteral nutrition. Median weight loss was 7.8 kg, median volume loss was approximately 7%. Fifteen of 72 patients required adaptation of their treatment plans at least once. Target coverage was improved by up to 10.7% (median dose). The increase of dose to spared parotid without replanning was 11.7%. Replanning including outlining and optimization was feasible within 2 hours for each patient, and treatment could be continued without any interruptions. Conclusion: To preserve high-quality dose application, treatment plans must be adapted to anatomical changes. Replanning based on position control scans therefore presents a practical approach in clinical routine. In the absence of clinically usable online

  9. Adaptive radiotherapy for head and neck cancer—Dosimetric results from a prospective clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, David L.; Garden, Adam S.; Shah, Shalin J.; Chronowski, Gregory; Sejpal, Samir; Rosenthal, David I.; Chen, Yipei; Zhang, Yongbin; Zhang, Lifei; Wong, Pei-Fong; Garcia, John A.; Kian Ang, K.; Dong, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a clinical trial evaluating adaptive head and neck radiotherapy (ART). Methods: Patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer were prospectively enrolled. Daily CT-guided setup and deformable image registration permitted mapping of dose to avoidance structures and CTVs. We compared four planning scenarios: (1) original IMRT plan aligned daily to marked isocenter (BB); (2) original plan aligned daily to bone (IGRT); (3) IGRT with one adaptive replan (ART1); and (4) actual treatment received by each study patient (IGRT with one or two adaptive replans, ART2). Results: All 22 study patients underwent one replan (ART1); eight patients had two replans (ART2). ART1 reduced mean dose to contralateral parotid by 0.6 Gy or 2.8% (paired t-test; p = 0.003) and ipsilateral parotid by 1.3 Gy (3.9%) (p = 0.002) over the IGRT alone. ART2 further reduced the mean contralateral parotid dose by 0.8 Gy or 3.8% (p = 0.026) and ipsilateral parotid by 4.1 Gy or 9% (p = 0.001). ART significantly reduced integral body dose. Conclusions: This pilot trial suggests that head and neck ART dosimetrically outperforms IMRT. IGRT that leverages conventional PTV margins does not improve dosimetry. One properly timed replan delivers the majority of achievable dosimetric improvement. The clinical impact of ART must be confirmed by future trials

  10. Image-guided adaptive radiotherapy for prostate and head-and-neck cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daniel, Jennifer C.

    In the current practice of radiation therapy, daily patient alignments have been based on external skin marks or on bone. However, internal organ variation (both motion and volumetric changes) between treatment fractions can displace the treatment target, causing target underdosage and normal tissue overdosage. In order to deliver the radiation treatment as planned, more accurate knowledge of the daily internal anatomy was needed. Additionally, treatments needed to adapt to these variations by either shifting the patient to account for the daily target position or by altering the treatment plan. In this dissertation, the question of whether inter-fractional variations in internal patient anatomy combined with external set-up uncertainties produced measurable differences between planned and delivered doses for prostate and head-and-neck cancer patients was investigated. Image-guided adaptive treatment strategies to improve tumor coverage and/or reduce normal tissue dose were examined. Treatment deliveries utilizing various alignment procedures for ten prostate cancer patients and eleven head-and-neck cancer patients, each of whom received multiple CT scans over the course of treatment, were simulated. The largest prostate dose losses between planning and delivery were correlated with anterior/posterior and superior/inferior prostate displacement. Daily bone alignment sufficiently maintained target coverage for 70% of patients, ultrasound for 90%, and CT for 100%. A no-action-level correction protocol, which corrected the daily bone alignment for the systematic internal displacement of the prostate based on a pre-determined number of CT image sets, successfully improved the prostate and seminal vesicle dosimetric coverage. Three CT image sets were sufficient to accurately correct the bone alignment scheme for the prostate internal systematic shifts. For head-and-neck cancer patient treatment, setup uncertainties and internal organ variations did not greatly affect

  11. Dosimetric Evaluation of Automatic Segmentation for Adaptive IMRT for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Stuart Y.; Hwang, Andrew; Weinberg, Vivian; Yom, Sue S.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Xia Ping

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive planning to accommodate anatomic changes during treatment requires repeat segmentation. This study uses dosimetric endpoints to assess automatically deformed contours. Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients with head-and-neck cancer had adaptive plans because of anatomic change during radiotherapy. Contours from the initial planning computed tomography (CT) were deformed to the mid-treatment CT using an intensity-based free-form registration algorithm then compared with the manually drawn contours for the same CT using the Dice similarity coefficient and an overlap index. The automatic contours were used to create new adaptive plans. The original and automatic adaptive plans were compared based on dosimetric outcomes of the manual contours and on plan conformality. Results: Volumes from the manual and automatic segmentation were similar; only the gross tumor volume (GTV) was significantly different. Automatic plans achieved lower mean coverage for the GTV: V95: 98.6 ± 1.9% vs. 89.9 ± 10.1% (p = 0.004) and clinical target volume: V95: 98.4 ± 0.8% vs. 89.8 ± 6.2% (p 3 of the spinal cord 39.9 ± 3.7 Gy vs. 42.8 ± 5.4 Gy (p = 0.034), but no difference for the remaining structures. Conclusions: Automatic segmentation is not robust enough to substitute for physician-drawn volumes, particularly for the GTV. However, it generates normal structure contours of sufficient accuracy when assessed by dosimetric end points.

  12. Patient Concerns Inventory for head and neck cancer: Brazilian cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerman, Ivy; Toyota, Julia; Montoni, Neyller Patriota; Azevedo, Elma Heitmann Mares; Guedes, Renata Ligia Vieira; Damascena, Aline; Lowe, Derek; Vartanian, José Guilherme; Rogers, Simon N; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate, culturally validate and evaluate the Patients Concerns Inventory - Head and Neck (PCI-H&N) in a consecutive series of Brazilian patients. This study included adult patients treated for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. The translation and cultural adaptation of the PCI-H&N followed internationally accepted guidelines and included a pretest sample of patients that completed the first Brazilian Portuguese version of the PCI. Use, feasibility and acceptability of the PCI were tested subsequently in a consecutive series of UADT cancer patients that completed the final Brazilian Portuguese version of the PCI and a Brazilian Portuguese version of the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QOL). Associations between physical and socio-emotional composite scores from the UW-QOL and the PCI were analyzed. Twenty (20) patients participated in the pretest survey (translation and cultural adaptation process), and 84 patients were analyzed in the cultural validation study. Issues most selected were: fear of cancer returning, dry mouth, chewing/eating, speech/voice/being understood, swallowing, dental health/teeth, anxiety, fatigue/tiredness, taste, and fear of adverse events. The three specialists most selected by the patients for further consultation were speech therapist, dentist and psychologist. Statistically significant relationships between PCI and UW-QOL were found. The translation and cultural adaptation of the PCI into Brazilian Portuguese language was successful, and the results demonstrate its feasibility and usefulness, making this a valuable tool for use among the Brazilian head and neck cancer population.

  13. Nanostructured Shape Memory Alloys: Adaptive Composite Materials and Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crone, Wendy C; Ellis, Arthur B; Perepezko, John H

    2007-01-01

    .... Both SMA-polymer and SMA-metal composites were created, as well as new fabrication strategies for producing NiTi and CuAlNi shape memory alloy particles with refined size which still display shape...

  14. Head and Neck Margin Reduction With Adaptive Radiation Therapy: Robustness of Treatment Plans Against Anatomy Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranen, Simon van; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Wolf, Annelisa; Damen, Eugène [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van [Christie Hospital and University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: We set out to investigate loss of target coverage from anatomy changes in head and neck cancer patients as a function of applied safety margins and to verify a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)–based adaptive strategy with an average patient anatomy to overcome possible target underdosage. Methods and Materials: For 19 oropharyngeal cancer patients, volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans (2 arcs; simultaneous integrated boost, 70 and 54.25 Gy; 35 fractions) were automatically optimized with uniform clinical target volume (CTV)–to–planning target volume margins of 5, 3, and 0 mm. We applied b-spline CBCT–to–computed tomography (CT) deformable registration to allow recalculation of the dose on modified CT scans (planning CT deformed to daily CBCT following online positioning) and dose accumulation in the planning CT scan. Patients with deviations in primary or elective CTV coverage >2 Gy were identified as candidates for adaptive replanning. For these patients, a single adaptive intervention was simulated with an average anatomy from the first 10 fractions. Results: Margin reduction from 5 mm to 3 mm to 0 mm generally led to an organ-at-risk (OAR) mean dose (D{sub mean}) sparing of approximately 1 Gy/mm. CTV shrinkage was mainly seen in the elective volumes (up to 10%), likely related to weight loss. Despite online repositioning, substantial systematic errors were present (>3 mm) in lymph node CTV, the parotid glands, and the larynx. Nevertheless, the average increase in OAR dose was small: maximum of 1.2 Gy (parotid glands, D{sub mean}) for all applied margins. Loss of CTV coverage >2 Gy was found in 1, 3, and 7 of 73 CTVs, respectively. Adaptive intervention in 0-mm plans substantially improved coverage: in 5 of 7 CTVs (in 6 patients) to <2 Gy of initially planned. Conclusions: Volumetric modulated arc therapy head and neck cancer treatment plans with 5-mm margins are robust for anatomy changes and show a modest

  15. Head and Neck Margin Reduction With Adaptive Radiation Therapy: Robustness of Treatment Plans Against Anatomy Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranen, Simon van; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Wolf, Annelisa; Damen, Eugène; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We set out to investigate loss of target coverage from anatomy changes in head and neck cancer patients as a function of applied safety margins and to verify a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)–based adaptive strategy with an average patient anatomy to overcome possible target underdosage. Methods and Materials: For 19 oropharyngeal cancer patients, volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans (2 arcs; simultaneous integrated boost, 70 and 54.25 Gy; 35 fractions) were automatically optimized with uniform clinical target volume (CTV)–to–planning target volume margins of 5, 3, and 0 mm. We applied b-spline CBCT–to–computed tomography (CT) deformable registration to allow recalculation of the dose on modified CT scans (planning CT deformed to daily CBCT following online positioning) and dose accumulation in the planning CT scan. Patients with deviations in primary or elective CTV coverage >2 Gy were identified as candidates for adaptive replanning. For these patients, a single adaptive intervention was simulated with an average anatomy from the first 10 fractions. Results: Margin reduction from 5 mm to 3 mm to 0 mm generally led to an organ-at-risk (OAR) mean dose (D mean ) sparing of approximately 1 Gy/mm. CTV shrinkage was mainly seen in the elective volumes (up to 10%), likely related to weight loss. Despite online repositioning, substantial systematic errors were present (>3 mm) in lymph node CTV, the parotid glands, and the larynx. Nevertheless, the average increase in OAR dose was small: maximum of 1.2 Gy (parotid glands, D mean ) for all applied margins. Loss of CTV coverage >2 Gy was found in 1, 3, and 7 of 73 CTVs, respectively. Adaptive intervention in 0-mm plans substantially improved coverage: in 5 of 7 CTVs (in 6 patients) to <2 Gy of initially planned. Conclusions: Volumetric modulated arc therapy head and neck cancer treatment plans with 5-mm margins are robust for anatomy changes and show a modest increase in OAR

  16. Nanostructured Shape Memory Alloys: Adaptive Composite Materials and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    fracture behavior. Similar loading conditions for multilayer material have been reported in the literature for both composite materials and geologic...8 5. Bordeaux F., Yavari, R. Multiple Necking and Deformation Behavior of Multilayer Composites Prepared by Cold Rolling. Zeitschrift f’r Metallkunde...Stiffness Greater Than Diamond. Science 315: 620-622, 2007 13. ASTM D 1238-01, Standard Method for Melt Flow Rates of Thermoplastics by Extrusion Plastometer

  17. Molecular PET imaging for biology-guided adaptive radiotherapy of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeben, Bianca A W; Bussink, Johan; Troost, Esther G C; Oyen, Wim J G; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2013-10-01

    Integration of molecular imaging PET techniques into therapy selection strategies and radiation treatment planning for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) can serve several purposes. First, pre-treatment assessments can steer decisions about radiotherapy modifications or combinations with other modalities. Second, biology-based objective functions can be introduced to the radiation treatment planning process by co-registration of molecular imaging with planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Thus, customized heterogeneous dose distributions can be generated with escalated doses to tumor areas where radiotherapy resistance mechanisms are most prevalent. Third, monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in these radiotherapy resistance mechanisms early during the course of treatment can discriminate responders from non-responders. With such information available shortly after the start of treatment, modifications can be implemented or the radiation treatment plan can be adapted tailing the biological response pattern. Currently, these strategies are in various phases of clinical testing, mostly in single-center studies. Further validation in multicenter set-up is needed. Ultimately, this should result in availability for routine clinical practice requiring stable production and accessibility of tracers, reproducibility and standardization of imaging and analysis methods, as well as general availability of knowledge and expertise. Small studies employing adaptive radiotherapy based on functional dynamics and early response mechanisms demonstrate promising results. In this context, we focus this review on the widely used PET tracer (18)F-FDG and PET tracers depicting hypoxia and proliferation; two well-known radiation resistance mechanisms.

  18. Predicting the need for adaptive radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Elizabeth; Owen, Rebecca; Harden, Fiona; Mengersen, Kerrie; Oestreich, Kimberley; Houghton, Whitney; Poulsen, Michael; Harris, Selina; Lin, Charles; Porceddu, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Adaptive radiotherapy (ART) can account for the dosimetric impact of anatomical change in head and neck cancer patients; however it can be resource intensive. Consequently, it is imperative that patients likely to require ART are identified. The purpose of this study was to find predictive factors that identify oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients more likely to need ART. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with OPC or NPC were analysed. Patient demographics and tumour characteristics were compared between patients who were replanned and those that were not. Factors found to be significant were included in logistic regression models. Risk profiles were developed from these models. A dosimetric analysis was performed. Results: Nodal disease stage, pre-treatment largest involved node size, diagnosis and initial weight (categorised in 2 groups) were identified as significant for inclusion in the model. Two models were found to be significant (p = 0.001), correctly classifying 98.2% and 96.1% of patients respectively. Three ART risk profiles were developed. Conclusion: Predictive factors identifying OPC or NPC patients more likely to require ART were reported. A risk profile approach could facilitate the effective implementation of ART into radiotherapy departments through forward planning and appropriate resource allocation

  19. Adaptive radiotherapy for soft tissue changes during helical tomotherapy for head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duma, M.N.; Kampfer, S.; Winkler, C.; Geinitz, H. [Universitaetsklinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schuster, T. [Universitaetsklinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology

    2012-03-15

    The goal of the present study was to assess the frequency and impact of replanning triggered solely by soft tissue changes observed on the daily setup mega-voltage CT (MVCT) in head and neck cancer (H and N) helical tomotherapy (HT). A total of 11 patients underwent adaptive radiotherapy (ART) using MVCT. Preconditions were a soft tissue change > 0.5 cm and a tight mask. The dose-volume histograms (DVHs) derived from the initial planning kVCT (inPlan), the recalculated DVHs of the fraction (fx) when replanning was decided (actSit) and the DVHs of the new plan (adaptPlan) were compared. Assessed were the following: maximum dose (D{sub max}), minimum dose (D{sub min}), and mean dose (D{sub mean}) to the planning target volume (PTV) normalized to the prescribed dose; the D{sub mean}/fx to the parotid glands (PG), oral cavity (OC), and larynx (Lx); and the D{sub max}/fx to the spinal cord (SC) in Gy/fx. No patient had palpable soft tissue changes. The median weight loss at the moment of replanning was 2.3 kg. The median PTV D{sub mean} was 100% for inPlan, 103% for actSit, and 100% for adaptPlan. The PTV was always covered by the prescribed dose. A statistically significant increase was noted for all organs at risk (OAR) in the actSit. The D{sub mean} to the Lx, the D{sub mean} to the OC and the D{sub max} to the SC were statistically better in the adaptPlan. No statistically significant improvement was achieved by ART for the PGs. No significant correlations between weight and volume loss or between the volume changes of the organs to each other were observed, except a strong positive correlation of the shrinkage of the PGs ({rho} = + 0.77, p = 0.005). Soft tissue shrinkage without clinical palpable changes will not affect the coverage of the PTV, but translates into a higher delivered dose to the PTV itself and the normal tissue outside the PTV. The gain by ART in individual patients - especially in patients who receive doses close to the tolerance doses of the OAR

  20. Automatic Delineation of On-Line Head-And-Neck Computed Tomography Images: Toward On-Line Adaptive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tiezhi; Chi Yuwei; Meldolesi, Elisa; Yan Di

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a fully automatic region-of-interest (ROI) delineation method for on-line adaptive radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: On-line adaptive radiotherapy requires a robust and automatic image segmentation method to delineate ROIs in on-line volumetric images. We have implemented an atlas-based image segmentation method to automatically delineate ROIs of head-and-neck helical computed tomography images. A total of 32 daily computed tomography images from 7 head-and-neck patients were delineated using this automatic image segmentation method. Manually drawn contours on the daily images were used as references in the evaluation of automatically delineated ROIs. Two methods were used in quantitative validation: (1) the dice similarity coefficient index, which indicates the overlapping ratio between the manually and automatically delineated ROIs; and (2) the distance transformation, which yields the distances between the manually and automatically delineated ROI surfaces. Results: Automatic segmentation showed agreement with manual contouring. For most ROIs, the dice similarity coefficient indexes were approximately 0.8. Similarly, the distance transformation evaluation results showed that the distances between the manually and automatically delineated ROI surfaces were mostly within 3 mm. The distances between two surfaces had a mean of 1 mm and standard deviation of <2 mm in most ROIs. Conclusion: With atlas-based image segmentation, it is feasible to automatically delineate ROIs on the head-and-neck helical computed tomography images in on-line adaptive treatments

  1. A support vector machine tool for adaptive tomotherapy treatments: Prediction of head and neck patients criticalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Maffei, Nicola; Vecchi, Claudio; Ciarmatori, Alberto; Mistretta, Grazia Maria; Gottardi, Giovanni; Meduri, Bruno; Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Bertoni, Filippo; Costi, Tiziana

    2015-07-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) is an advanced field of radiation oncology. Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) methods can support daily setup and assess anatomical variations during therapy, which could prevent incorrect dose distribution and unexpected toxicities. A re-planning to correct these anatomical variations should be done daily/weekly, but to be applicable to a large number of patients, still require time consumption and resources. Using unsupervised machine learning on retrospective data, we have developed a predictive network, to identify patients that would benefit of a re-planning. 1200 MVCT of 40 head and neck (H&N) cases were re-contoured, automatically, using deformable hybrid registration and structures mapping. Deformable algorithm and MATLAB(®) homemade machine learning process, developed, allow prediction of criticalities for Tomotherapy treatments. Using retrospective analysis of H&N treatments, we have investigated and predicted tumor shrinkage and organ at risk (OAR) deformations. Support vector machine (SVM) and cluster analysis have identified cases or treatment sessions with potential criticalities, based on dose and volume discrepancies between fractions. During 1st weeks of treatment, 84% of patients shown an output comparable to average standard radiation treatment behavior. Starting from the 4th week, significant morpho-dosimetric changes affect 77% of patients, suggesting need for re-planning. The comparison of treatment delivered and ART simulation was carried out with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, showing monotonous increase of ROC area. Warping methods, supported by daily image analysis and predictive tools, can improve personalization and monitoring of each treatment, thereby minimizing anatomic and dosimetric divergences from initial constraints. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Automatic Segmentation and Online virtualCT in Head-and-Neck Adaptive Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peroni, Marta, E-mail: marta.peroni@mail.polimi.it [Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Ciardo, Delia [Advanced Radiotherapy Center, European Institute of Oncology, Milano (Italy); Spadea, Maria Francesca [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Universita degli Studi Magna Graecia, Catanzaro (Italy); Riboldi, Marco [Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia (Italy); Comi, Stefania; Alterio, Daniela [Advanced Radiotherapy Center, European Institute of Oncology, Milano (Italy); Baroni, Guido [Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia (Italy); Orecchia, Roberto [Advanced Radiotherapy Center, European Institute of Oncology, Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Medical Department, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an efficient and automatic strategy to generate online virtual computed tomography (CT) scans for adaptive radiation therapy (ART) in head-and-neck (HN) cancer treatment. Method: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients, treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), for an HN malignancy. Different anatomical structures were considered: mandible, parotid glands, and nodal gross tumor volume (nGTV). We generated 28 virtualCT scans by means of nonrigid registration of simulation computed tomography (CTsim) and cone beam CT images (CBCTs), acquired for patient setup. We validated our approach by considering the real replanning CT (CTrepl) as ground truth. We computed the Dice coefficient (DSC), center of mass (COM) distance, and root mean square error (RMSE) between correspondent points located on the automatically segmented structures on CBCT and virtualCT. Results: Residual deformation between CTrepl and CBCT was below one voxel. Median DSC was around 0.8 for mandible and parotid glands, but only 0.55 for nGTV, because of the fairly homogeneous surrounding soft tissues and of its small volume. Median COM distance and RMSE were comparable with image resolution. No significant correlation between RMSE and initial or final deformation was found. Conclusion: The analysis provides evidence that deformable image registration may contribute significantly in reducing the need of full CT-based replanning in HN radiation therapy by supporting swift and objective decision-making in clinical practice. Further work is needed to strengthen algorithm potential in nGTV localization.

  3. Decision Trees Predicting Tumor Shrinkage for Head and Neck Cancer: Implications for Adaptive Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surucu, Murat; Shah, Karan K; Mescioglu, Ibrahim; Roeske, John C; Small, William; Choi, Mehee; Emami, Bahman

    2016-02-01

    To develop decision trees predicting for tumor volume reduction in patients with head and neck (H&N) cancer using pretreatment clinical and pathological parameters. Forty-eight patients treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity, or hypopharynx were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were rescanned at a median dose of 37.8 Gy and replanned to account for anatomical changes. The percentages of gross tumor volume (GTV) change from initial to rescan computed tomography (CT; %GTVΔ) were calculated. Two decision trees were generated to correlate %GTVΔ in primary and nodal volumes with 14 characteristics including age, gender, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), site, human papilloma virus (HPV) status, tumor grade, primary tumor growth pattern (endophytic/exophytic), tumor/nodal/group stages, chemotherapy regimen, and primary, nodal, and total GTV volumes in the initial CT scan. The C4.5 Decision Tree induction algorithm was implemented. The median %GTVΔ for primary, nodal, and total GTVs was 26.8%, 43.0%, and 31.2%, respectively. Type of chemotherapy, age, primary tumor growth pattern, site, KPS, and HPV status were the most predictive parameters for primary %GTVΔ decision tree, whereas for nodal %GTVΔ, KPS, site, age, primary tumor growth pattern, initial primary GTV, and total GTV volumes were predictive. Both decision trees had an accuracy of 88%. There can be significant changes in primary and nodal tumor volumes during the course of H&N chemoradiotherapy. Considering the proposed decision trees, radiation oncologists can select patients predicted to have high %GTVΔ, who would theoretically gain the most benefit from adaptive radiotherapy, in order to better use limited clinical resources. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. A deformable head and neck phantom with in-vivo dosimetry for adaptive radiotherapy quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, Yan Jiang [Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies and Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037-0843 and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Smith, Arthur-Allen; Mcilvena, David; Manilay, Zherrina; Lai, Yuet Kong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Rice, Roger; Mell, Loren; Cerviño, Laura, E-mail: lcervino@ucsd.edu, E-mail: steve.jiang@utsouthwestern.edu [Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies and Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037-0843 (United States); Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B., E-mail: lcervino@ucsd.edu, E-mail: steve.jiang@utsouthwestern.edu [Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies and Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037-0843 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Patients’ interfractional anatomic changes can compromise the initial treatment plan quality. To overcome this issue, adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been introduced. Deformable image registration (DIR) is an important tool for ART and several deformable phantoms have been built to evaluate the algorithms’ accuracy. However, there is a lack of deformable phantoms that can also provide dosimetric information to verify the accuracy of the whole ART process. The goal of this work is to design and construct a deformable head and neck (HN) ART quality assurance (QA) phantom with in vivo dosimetry. Methods: An axial slice of a HN patient is taken as a model for the phantom construction. Six anatomic materials are considered, with HU numbers similar to a real patient. A filled balloon inside the phantom tissue is inserted to simulate tumor. Deflation of the balloon simulates tumor shrinkage. Nonradiopaque surface markers, which do not influence DIR algorithms, provide the deformation ground truth. Fixed and movable holders are built in the phantom to hold a diode for dosimetric measurements. Results: The measured deformations at the surface marker positions can be compared with deformations calculated by a DIR algorithm to evaluate its accuracy. In this study, the authors selected a Demons algorithm as a DIR algorithm example for demonstration purposes. The average error magnitude is 2.1 mm. The point dose measurements from the in vivo diode dosimeters show a good agreement with the calculated doses from the treatment planning system with a maximum difference of 3.1% of prescription dose, when the treatment plans are delivered to the phantom with original or deformed geometry. Conclusions: In this study, the authors have presented the functionality of this deformable HN phantom for testing the accuracy of DIR algorithms and verifying the ART dosimetric accuracy. The authors’ experiments demonstrate the feasibility of this phantom serving as an end

  5. Comparison of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, adaptive radiotherapy, proton radiotherapy, and adaptive proton radiotherapy for treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, Charles B.; Ly, David; Dan, Tu D.; Ondos, John; Ning, Holly; Belard, Arnaud; O’Connell, John; Miller, Robert W.; Simone, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Various radiotherapy planning methods for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) have been proposed to decrease normal tissue toxicity. We compare IMRT, adaptive IMRT, proton therapy (IMPT), and adaptive IMPT for SCCHN. Materials and methods: Initial and re-simulation CT images from 10 consecutive patients with SCCHN were used to quantify dosimetric differences between photon and proton therapy. Contouring was performed on both CTs, and plans (n = 40 plans) and dose–volume histograms were generated. Results: The mean GTV volume decreased 53.4% with re-simulation. All plans provided comparable PTV coverage. Compared with IMRT, adaptive IMRT significantly reduced the maximum dose to the mandible (p = 0.020) and mean doses to the contralateral parotid gland (p = 0.049) and larynx (p = 0.049). Compared with IMRT and adaptive IMRT, IMPT significantly lowered the maximum doses to the spinal cord (p < 0.002 for both) and brainstem (p < 0.002 for both) and mean doses to the larynx (p < 0.002 for both) and ipsilateral (p = 0.004 IMRT, p = 0.050 adaptive) and contralateral (p < 0.002 IMRT, p = 0.010 adaptive) parotid glands. Adaptive IMPT significantly reduced doses to all critical structures compared with IMRT and adaptive IMRT and several critical structures compared with non-adaptive IMPT. Conclusions: Although adaptive IMRT reduced dose to several normal structures compared with standard IMRT, non-adaptive proton therapy had a more favorable dosimetric profile than IMRT or adaptive IMRT and may obviate the need for adaptive planning. Protons allowed significant sparing of the spinal cord, parotid glands, larynx, and brainstem and should be considered for SCCHN to decrease normal tissue toxicity while still providing optimal tumor coverage.

  6. Molecular PET imaging for biology-guided adaptive radiotherapy of head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, B.A.W.; Bussink, J.; Troost, E.G.C.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Integration of molecular imaging PET techniques into therapy selection strategies and radiation treatment planning for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) can serve several purposes. First, pre-treatment assessments can steer decisions about radiotherapy modifications or

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Neck Disability Index and Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale for patients with neck pain due to degenerative and discopathic disorders. Psychometric properties of the Polish versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glowacki Maciej

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though there are several region-specific functional outcome questionnaires measuring neck disorders that have been developed in English-speaking countries, no Polish version has ever been validated. The purpose of our study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Neck Disability Index (NDI and Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CDS for Polish-speaking patients with neck pain. Methods The translation was carried out according to the International Quality of Life Association (IQOLA Project. Sixty patients were treated due to degenerative and discopathic disorders in the cervical spine filled out the NDI-PL and the CDS-PL. The pain level was evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale. The mean age of the assessed group was 47.1 years (SD 8.9. We used Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency. We assessed the test-retest reliability using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rS was used to determine dependency between quantitative characteristics. The Mann-Whitney test was applied to determine dependency between quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Results The Cronbach's alpha values were excellent for the NDI-PL in the test and in the retest (0.84, 0.85, respectively, and for the CDS-PL (0.90 in the test and in the retest. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients were excellent for the CDS-PL and NDI-PL and equalled 0.93 (95% CI from 0.89 to 0.95 and 0.87 (95% CI from 0.80 to 0.92, respectively The concurrent validity was good in the test and in the retest (rs = 0.42 p Conclusions The present versions of the NDI-PL and CDS-PL, the first to be published in Polish, have proven to be reliable and valid for patients with degenerative changes in the cervical spine. The NDI-PL and CDS-PL have excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and good concurrent validity. The adapted questionnaires showed a strong inter-correlation both

  8. The Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire cross-cultural adaptation into Dutch and evaluation of its psychometric properties in a population with subacute and chronic whiplash associated disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.A.; Wijer, A. de; Genderen, F.R. van; Graaf, Y. van der; Helders, P.J.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2009-01-01

    Study Design. Cross-cultural adaptation of an outcome questionnaire. Objective. The aim of the study was to cross-culturally adapt the Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire (NBQ) for the Dutch language in a population of people with subacute and chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), and to assess

  9. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 (VHNSS 2.0 for the assessment of oral symptoms in head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Marçon Barroso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Patients submitted to radiotherapy for the treatment of head and neck cancer have several symptoms, predominantly oral. The Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 is an American tool developed to evaluate oral symptoms in head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to translate the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 into Brazilian Portuguese and cross-culturally adapt this tool for subsequent validation and application in Brazil. METHODS: A method used for the translation and cultural adaptation of tools, which included independent translations, synthesis of the translations, back-translations, expert committee, and pre-test, was used. The pre-test was performed with 37 head and neck cancer patients, who were divided into four groups, to assess the relevance and understanding of the assessed items. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. RESULTS: The overall mean of the content validity index was 0.79 for semantic and idiomatic equivalence, and it was higher than 0.8 for cultural and conceptual equivalence. The cognitive interview showed that patients were able to paraphrase the items, and considered them relevant and easily understood. CONCLUSION: The tool was translated and cross-culturally adapted to be used in Brazil. The authors believe this translation is suited for validation.

  10. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 (VHNSS 2.0) for the assessment of oral symptoms in head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Eliane Marçon; Carvalho, André Lopes; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Nunes, João Soares; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Patients submitted to radiotherapy for the treatment of head and neck cancer have several symptoms, predominantly oral. The Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 is an American tool developed to evaluate oral symptoms in head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to translate the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 into Brazilian Portuguese and cross-culturally adapt this tool for subsequent validation and application in Brazil. A method used for the translation and cultural adaptation of tools, which included independent translations, synthesis of the translations, back-translations, expert committee, and pre-test, was used. The pre-test was performed with 37 head and neck cancer patients, who were divided into four groups, to assess the relevance and understanding of the assessed items. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. The overall mean of the content validity index was 0.79 for semantic and idiomatic equivalence, and it was higher than 0.8 for cultural and conceptual equivalence. The cognitive interview showed that patients were able to paraphrase the items, and considered them relevant and easily understood. The tool was translated and cross-culturally adapted to be used in Brazil. The authors believe this translation is suited for validation. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental evaluation of shape memory alloy actuation technique in adaptive antenna design concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, W. Neill; Carpenter, Bernie F.

    1994-01-01

    Creation of an antenna system that could autonomously adapt contours of reflecting surfaces to compensate for structural loads induced by a variable environment would maximize performance of space-based communication systems. Design of such a system requires the comprehensive development and integration of advanced actuator, sensor, and control technologies. As an initial step in this process, a test has been performed to assess the use of a shape memory alloy as a potential actuation technique. For this test, an existing, offset, cassegrain antenna system was retrofit with a subreflector equipped with shape memory alloy actuators for surface contour control. The impacts that the actuators had on both the subreflector contour and the antenna system patterns were measured. The results of this study indicate the potential for using shape memory alloy actuation techniques to adaptively control antenna performance; both variations in gain and beam steering capabilities were demonstrated. Future development effort is required to evolve this potential into a useful technology for satellite applications.

  12. Electro-bending characterization of adaptive 3D fiber reinforced plastics based on shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashir, Moniruddoza; Hahn, Lars; Kluge, Axel; Nocke, Andreas; Cherif, Chokri

    2016-03-01

    The industrial importance of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) is growing steadily in recent years, which are mostly used in different niche products, has been growing steadily in recent years. The integration of sensors and actuators in FRP is potentially valuable for creating innovative applications and therefore the market acceptance of adaptive FRP is increasing. In particular, in the field of highly stressed FRP, structural integrated systems for continuous component parts monitoring play an important role. This presented work focuses on the electro-mechanical characterization of adaptive three-dimensional (3D)FRP with integrated textile-based actuators. Here, the friction spun hybrid yarn, consisting of shape memory alloy (SMA) in wire form as core, serves as an actuator. Because of the shape memory effect, the SMA-hybrid yarn returns to its original shape upon heating that also causes the deformation of adaptive 3D FRP. In order to investigate the influences of the deformation behavior of the adaptive 3D FRP, investigations in this research are varied according to the structural parameters such as radius of curvature of the adaptive 3D FRP, fabric types and number of layers of the fabric in the composite. Results show that reproducible deformations can be realized with adaptive 3D FRP and that structural parameters have a significant impact on the deformation capability.

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Neck Disability Index and Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale for patients with neck pain due to degenerative and discopathic disorders. Psychometric properties of the Polish versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Even though there are several region-specific functional outcome questionnaires measuring neck disorders that have been developed in English-speaking countries, no Polish version has ever been validated. The purpose of our study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CDS) for Polish-speaking patients with neck pain. Methods The translation was carried out according to the International Quality of Life Association (IQOLA) Project. Sixty patients were treated due to degenerative and discopathic disorders in the cervical spine filled out the NDI-PL and the CDS-PL. The pain level was evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale. The mean age of the assessed group was 47.1 years (SD 8.9). We used Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency. We assessed the test-retest reliability using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rS) was used to determine dependency between quantitative characteristics. The Mann-Whitney test was applied to determine dependency between quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Results The Cronbach's alpha values were excellent for the NDI-PL in the test and in the retest (0.84, 0.85, respectively), and for the CDS-PL (0.90 in the test and in the retest). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients were excellent for the CDS-PL and NDI-PL and equalled 0.93 (95% CI from 0.89 to 0.95) and 0.87 (95% CI from 0.80 to 0.92), respectively The concurrent validity was good in the test and in the retest (rs = 0.42 p < 0.001; rs = 0.40 p = 0.002, respectively) for NDI-PL and for CDS-PL (rs = 0.42 p < 0.001; rs = 0.40 p = 0.001, respectively). The adapted questionnaires showed a strong inter-correlation both in the test (0.87 p < 0.001) and in the retest (0.79 p < 0.001). Conclusions The present versions of the NDI-PL and CDS-PL, the first to be published in Polish, have proven to be reliable and valid for

  14. Adaptive online inverse control of a shape memory alloy wire actuator using a dynamic neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Huanhuan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Song, Gangbing

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators exhibit severe hysteresis, a nonlinear behavior, which complicates control strategies and limits their applications. This paper presents a new approach to controlling an SMA actuator through an adaptive inverse model based controller that consists of a dynamic neural network (DNN) identifier, a copy dynamic neural network (CDNN) feedforward term and a proportional (P) feedback action. Unlike fixed hysteresis models used in most inverse controllers, the proposed one uses a DNN to identify online the relationship between the applied voltage to the actuator and the displacement (the inverse model). Even without a priori knowledge of the SMA hysteresis and without pre-training, the proposed controller can precisely control the SMA wire actuator in various tracking tasks by identifying online the inverse model of the SMA actuator. Experiments were conducted, and experimental results demonstrated real-time modeling capabilities of DNN and the performance of the adaptive inverse controller. (paper)

  15. Adaptive proportional–integral–derivative tuning sliding mode control for a shape memory alloy actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Nguyen Trong; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel adaptive sliding mode control with a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) tuning method is proposed to control a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator. The goal of the controller is to achieve system robustness against the SMA hysteresis phenomenon, system uncertainties and external disturbances. In the controller, the PID controller is employed to approximate the sliding mode equivalent control along the direction that makes the sliding mode asymptotically stable. Due to the system nonlinearity, the PID control gain parameters are systematically computed online according to the adaptive law. To improve the transient performance, the initial PID gain parameters are optimized by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the controller performs well for the desired trajectory tracking, and the hysteresis phenomenon is compensated for completely. The control results are also compared with the optimized PID controller

  16. Adaptive radiotherapy with an average anatomy model: Evaluation and quantification of residual deformations in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranen, Simon van; Mencarelli, Angelo; Beek, Suzanne van; Rasch, Coen; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To develop and validate an adaptive intervention strategy for radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer that accounts for systematic deformations by modifying the planning-CT (pCT) to the average misalignments in daily cone beam CT (CBCT) measured with deformable registration (DR). Methods and materials: Daily CBCT scans (808 scans) for 25 patients were retrospectively registered to the pCT with B-spline DR. The average deformation vector field ( ) was used to deform the pCT for adaptive intervention. Two strategies were simulated: single intervention after 10 fractions and weekly intervention with an from the previous week. The model was geometrically validated with the residual misalignment of anatomical landmarks both on bony-anatomy (BA; automatically generated) and soft-tissue (ST; manually identified). Results: Systematic deformations were 2.5/3.4 mm vector length (BA/ST). Single intervention reduced deformations to 1.5/2.7 mm (BA/ST). Weekly intervention resulted in 1.0/2.2 mm (BA/ST) and accounted better for progressive changes. 15 patients had average systematic deformations >2 mm (BA): reductions were 1.1/1.9 mm (single/weekly BA). ST improvements were underestimated due to observer and registration variability. Conclusions: Adaptive intervention with a pCT modified to the average anatomy during treatment successfully reduces systematic deformations. The improved accuracy could possibly be exploited in margin reduction and/or dose escalation

  17. The evaluation of composite dose using deformable image registration in adaptive radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Chul Hwan; Ko, Seong Jin; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Choi, Seok Yoon; Ye, Soo Young; Kang, Se Sik [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    In adaptive radiotherapy(ART), generated composite dose of surrounding normal tissue on overall treatment course which is using deformable image registration from multistage images. Also, compared with doses summed by each treatment plan and clinical significance is considered. From the first of May, 2011 to the last of July, 2012. Patients who were given treatment and had the head and neck cancer with 3-dimension conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy, those who were carried out adaptive radiotherapy cause of tumor shrinkage and weight loss. Generated composite dose of surrounding normal tissue using deformable image registration was been possible, statistically significant difference was showed to mandible(48.95±3.89 vs 49.10±3.55 Gy), oral cavity(36.93±4.03 vs 38.97±5.08 Gy), parotid gland(35.71±6.22 vs 36.12±6.70 Gy) and temporomandibular joint(18.41±9.60 vs 20.13±10.42 Gy) compared with doses summed by each treatment plan. The results of this study show significant difference between composite dose by deformable image registration and doses summed by each treatment plan, composite dose by deformable image registration may generate more exact evaluation to surrounding normal tissue in adaptive radiotherapy.

  18. Impact of head and neck cancer adaptive radiotherapy to spare the parotid glands and decrease the risk of xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelli, Joel; Simon, Antoine; Louvel, Guillaume; Henry, Olivier; Chajon, Enrique; Nassef, Mohamed; Haigron, Pascal; Cazoulat, Guillaume; Ospina, Juan David; Jegoux, Franck; Benezery, Karen; Crevoisier, Renaud de

    2015-01-01

    Large anatomical variations occur during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC). The risks are therefore a parotid glands (PG) overdose and a xerostomia increase. The purposes of the study were to estimate: - the PG overdose and the xerostomia risk increase during a “standard” IMRT (IMRT std ); - the benefits of an adaptive IMRT (ART) with weekly replanning to spare the PGs and limit the risk of xerostomia. Fifteen patients received radical IMRT (70 Gy) for LAHNC. Weekly CTs were used to estimate the dose distributions delivered during the treatment, corresponding either to the initial planning (IMRT std ) or to weekly replanning (ART). PGs dose were recalculated at the fraction, from the weekly CTs. PG cumulated doses were then estimated using deformable image registration. The following PG doses were compared: pre-treatment planned dose, per-treatment IMRT std and ART. The corresponding estimated risks of xerostomia were also compared. Correlations between anatomical markers and dose differences were searched. Compared to the initial planning, a PG overdose was observed during IMRT std for 59% of the PGs, with an average increase of 3.7 Gy (10.0 Gy maximum) for the mean dose, and of 8.2% (23.9% maximum) for the risk of xerostomia. Compared to the initial planning, weekly replanning reduced the PG mean dose for all the patients (p < 0.05). In the overirradiated PG group, weekly replanning reduced the mean dose by 5.1 Gy (12.2 Gy maximum) and the absolute risk of xerostomia by 11% (p < 0.01) (30% maximum). The PG overdose and the dosimetric benefit of replanning increased with the tumor shrinkage and the neck thickness reduction (p < 0.001). During the course of LAHNC IMRT, around 60% of the PGs are overdosed of 4 Gy. Weekly replanning decreased the PG mean dose by 5 Gy, and therefore by 11% the xerostomia risk

  19. Two-dimensional fully adaptive solutions of solid--solid alloying reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smooke, M.D.; Koszykowski, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Solid--solid alloying reactions occur in a variety of pyrotechnical applications. They arise when a mixture of powders composed of appropriate oxidizing and reducing agents is heated. The large quantity of heat evolved produces a self-propagating reaction front that is often very narrow with sharp changes in both the temperature and the concentrations of the reacting species. Solution of problems of this type with an equispaced or mildly nonuniform grid can be extremely inefficient. In this paper we develop a two-dimensional fully adaptive method for solving problems of this class. The method adaptively adjusts the number of grid points needed to equidistribute a positive weight function over a given mesh interval in each direction at each time level. We monitor the solution from one time level to another to ensure that the local error per unti step associated with the time differencing method is below some specified tolerance. The method is applied to several examples involving exothermic, diffusion-controlled, self-propagating reactions in packed bed reactors

  20. Adaptive tuned vibration absorber based on magnetorheological elastomer-shape memory alloy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Samir B.; Chavan, S. P.; Gawade, S. S.

    2018-02-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) is an attractive smart material which could be used as stiffness tuning element in adaptive tuned vibration absorber (ATVA). The sharp modulus change in SMA material during phase transformation creates difficulties for smooth tuning to track forcing frequency to minimize vibrations of primary system. However, high hysteresis damping at low temperature martensitic phase degrades performance of vibration absorber. This paper deals with the study of dynamic response of system in which SMA and magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) are combined together to act as a smart spring- mass-damper system in a tuned vibration absorber. This composite is used as two way stiffness tuning element in ATVA for smooth and continuous tuning and to minimize the adverse effect at low temperature by increasing equivalent stiffness. The stiffnesses of SMA element and MRE are varied respectively by changing temperature and strength of external magnetic field. The two way stiffness tuning ability and adaptivity have been demonstrated analytically and experimentally. The experimental results show good agreement with analytical results. The proposed composite is able to shift the stiffness consequently the natural frequency of primary system as well as reduce the vibration level of primary system by substantial mount.

  1. [Cultural adaptation and Argentine validation of the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire in the hospitals of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Mariana V; Rodríguez, Matias G; Clarett, Martín; Iribarne, Juan I; Martínez, Marianela; Battistotti, Romina; López de Arcaute, Ana S; Adarves, Romina; Orsini, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    [corrected] To make cultural adaptation and validation of the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) in Argentina, determining its psychometric properties in patients with neck pain of mechanical origin referred to the physiotherapy Service at D. F. Santojanni Hospital. autorization of original author of the NPQ was requested. Then we make the linguistic adaptation and pilot study. Psychometric analyses included test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient), validity (Pearson correlation coefficient NPQ-Visual Analog Scale, VAS), internal consistency (Cronbach Coefficient Alpha) and sensibility to change (paired t test). Sixty patients were inclueed from September 2007 to February 2009 with mechanical neck pain. The variables percentage of disability (NPQ) and pain (VAS) were measured on the day of admission, 24 hours later and when the patient was discharged. Twenty six patients completed the study, 4 were eliminated and 30 did not complete the 3rd measurement. We get a good test-retest reliability (CCI 0,8979) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach Coefficient Alpha 0,86). Validity obtained a good correlation (r=0,678). Sensitivity to change was good (r=0,661). The NPQ is a valid, reliable and sensitive instrument to assess disability associated with neck pain of mechanical origin in patients treated at the hospitals of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.

  2. Impact of head and neck cancer adaptive radiotherapy to spare the parotid glands and decrease the risk of xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Joel; Simon, Antoine; Louvel, Guillaume; Henry, Olivier; Chajon, Enrique; Nassef, Mohamed; Haigron, Pascal; Cazoulat, Guillaume; Ospina, Juan David; Jegoux, Franck; Benezery, Karen; de Crevoisier, Renaud

    2015-01-09

    Large anatomical variations occur during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC). The risks are therefore a parotid glands (PG) overdose and a xerostomia increase. The purposes of the study were to estimate: - the PG overdose and the xerostomia risk increase during a "standard" IMRT (IMRTstd); - the benefits of an adaptive IMRT (ART) with weekly replanning to spare the PGs and limit the risk of xerostomia. Fifteen patients received radical IMRT (70 Gy) for LAHNC. Weekly CTs were used to estimate the dose distributions delivered during the treatment, corresponding either to the initial planning (IMRTstd) or to weekly replanning (ART). PGs dose were recalculated at the fraction, from the weekly CTs. PG cumulated doses were then estimated using deformable image registration. The following PG doses were compared: pre-treatment planned dose, per-treatment IMRTstd and ART. The corresponding estimated risks of xerostomia were also compared. Correlations between anatomical markers and dose differences were searched. Compared to the initial planning, a PG overdose was observed during IMRTstd for 59% of the PGs, with an average increase of 3.7 Gy (10.0 Gy maximum) for the mean dose, and of 8.2% (23.9% maximum) for the risk of xerostomia. Compared to the initial planning, weekly replanning reduced the PG mean dose for all the patients (pxerostomia by 11% (pxerostomia risk.

  3. Face, neck, and eye protection: adapting body armour to counter the changing patterns of injuries on the battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, J; Horsfall, I; Hepper, A; Clasper, J

    2011-12-01

    Recent international papers have suggested an urgent need for new methods of protecting the face, neck, and eyes in battle. We made a systematic analysis to identify all papers that reported the incidence and mortality of combat wounds to the face, eyes, or neck in the 21st century, and any papers that described methods of protecting the face, neck, or eyes. Neck wounds were found in 2-11% of injuries in battle, and associated with high mortality, but no new methods of protecting the neck were identified. Facial wounds were found in 6-30% of injuries in battle, but despite the psychological effects of this type of injury only one paper suggested methods for protection. If soldiers wore existing eye protection they potentially reduced the mean incidence of eye injuries in combat from the 4.5% found in this analysis to 0.5%. Given the need to balance protection with the functional requirements of the individual soldier, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Military surgeons are well placed to work with material scientists and biomechanical engineers to suggest modifications to the design of both personal and vehicle-mounted protection. Further research needs is needed to find out how effective current methods of protecting the neck are, and to develop innovative methods of protecting the vulnerable regions of the neck and face. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Principal component analysis-based anatomical motion models for use in adaptive radiation therapy of head and neck cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetvertkov, Mikhail A.

    Purpose: To develop standard and regularized principal component analysis (PCA) models of anatomical changes from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H&N) patients, assess their potential use in adaptive radiation therapy (ART), and to extract quantitative information for treatment response assessment. Methods: Planning CT (pCT) images of H&N patients were artificially deformed to create "digital phantom" images, which modeled systematic anatomical changes during Radiation Therapy (RT). Artificial deformations closely mirrored patients' actual deformations, and were interpolated to generate 35 synthetic CBCTs, representing evolving anatomy over 35 fractions. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between pCT and synthetic CBCTs (i.e., digital phantoms), and between pCT and clinical CBCTs. Patient-specific standard PCA (SPCA) and regularized PCA (RPCA) models were built from these synthetic and clinical DVF sets. Eigenvectors, or eigenDVFs (EDVFs), having the largest eigenvalues were hypothesized to capture the major anatomical deformations during treatment. Modeled anatomies were used to assess the dose deviations with respect to the planned dose distribution. Results: PCA models achieve variable results, depending on the size and location of anatomical change. Random changes prevent or degrade SPCA's ability to detect underlying systematic change. RPCA is able to detect smaller systematic changes against the background of random fraction-to-fraction changes, and is therefore more successful than SPCA at capturing systematic changes early in treatment. SPCA models were less successful at modeling systematic changes in clinical patient images, which contain a wider range of random motion than synthetic CBCTs, while the regularized approach was able to extract major modes of motion. For dose assessment it has been shown that the modeled dose distribution was different from the planned dose for the parotid glands due to their shrinkage and shift into

  5. SU-E-J-68: Adaptive Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer: Re-Planning Based On Prior Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, N; Padgett, K [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Evans, J; Sleeman, W; Song, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Fatyga, M [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART) with frequent CT imaging has been used to improve dosimetric accuracy by accounting for anatomical variations, such as primary tumor shrinkage and/or body weight loss, in Head and Neck (H&N) patients. In most ART strategies, the difference between the planned and the delivered dose is estimated by generating new plans on repeated CT scans using dose-volume constraints used with the initial planning CT without considering already delivered dose. The aim of this study was to assess the dosimetric gains achieved by re-planning based on prior dose by comparing them to re-planning not based-on prior dose for H&N patients. Methods: Ten locally-advanced H&N cancer patients were selected for this study. For each patient, six weekly CT imaging were acquired during the course of radiotherapy. PTVs, parotids, cord, brainstem, and esophagus were contoured on both planning and six weekly CT images. ART with weekly re-plans were done by two strategies: 1) Generating a new optimized IMRT plan without including prior dose from previous fractions (NoPriorDose) and 2) Generating a new optimized IMRT plan based on the prior dose given from previous fractions (PriorDose). Deformable image registration was used to accumulate the dose distributions between planning and six weekly CT scans. The differences in accumulated doses for both strategies were evaluated using the DVH constraints for all structures. Results: On average, the differences in accumulated doses for PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3 for NoPriorDose and PriorDose strategies were <2%. The differences in Dmean to the cord and brainstem were within 3%. The esophagus Dmean was reduced by 2% using PriorDose. PriorDose strategy, however, reduced the left parotid D50 and Dmean by 15% and 14% respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrated significant parotid sparing, potentially reducing xerostomia, by using ART with IMRT optimization based on prior dose for weekly re-planning of H&N cancer patients.

  6. Cross-Cultural Translation, Adaptation and Reliability of the Danish M. D. Andeson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajdú, Sara Fredslund; Plaschke, Christina Caroline; Johansen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to translate and culturally adapt the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) into Danish and subsequently test the reliability of the Danish version. The MDADI was translated into Danish and cross culturally adapted through cognitive interviews. The final version was test...... patients were interviewed on the comprehensibility of the Danish MDADI, and all found the questionnaire meaningful, easy to understand, non-offensive and to include relevant aspects of dysphagia related to HNC. Sixty-four patients were included in the test-retest study. Especially, one item....... The Danish MDADI is reliable in terms of internal consistency and test-retest reproducibility and can be used in assessing the health-related quality of life in head and neck cancer patients with dysphagia....

  7. SU-E-J-74: Dosimetric Advantages of Adaptive Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer Are Confirmed with Weekly CBCT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Q; Li, Z; Qu, H; Ward, M; Greskovich, J; Koyfman, S; Xia, P [The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Our previous study showed that weekly dose monitoring using cone-beam CT (CBCT) images can guide the timing and need for adaptive re-planning during the treatment of head and neck (HN) cancer. Here we aim to confirm the dosimetric improvement of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) using weekly CBCTs. Methods: We randomly selected seven HN patients treated with ART due to noticeable anatomic changes. Twenty weekly images acquired during the second treatment course were included. These CBCTs were aligned with both the initial and re-planning simulation CTs according to the clinical shifts. Daily doses were re-calculated for both the initial and adaptive plans. Contours of the tumor and organs-at-risk (OARs) were manually delineated by a physician on the re-planning CT and then were transferred to the CBCTs for plan evaluation. Contour modifications were made based on the daily anatomic changes observed on CBCTs. All patients were treated with 70Gy to the primary tumor and 56Gy to the elective lymph nodes. Results: Volumetric changes of the tumor (range — 43.9%∼+15.9%) were observed. The average D99 to the primary tumor was (70.1±2.0)Gy (range 62.2∼72.5Gy) for the adaptive plan and (66.0±5.5)Gy (range 50.9∼70.7Gy) for the initial plan(p<<0.01). The average D99 to the elective neck was (56.3±1.3)Gy (range 52.8∼59.2Gy) for the adaptive plan and (52.4±7.0)Gy (range 37.7∼58.6Gy) for the initial plan(p=0.01). The parotid decreased in volume during the treatment course (range 7.3%∼42.2%). The average D-mean to the spared parotid decreased by 15.3% (p=0.002) for the adaptive plan when compared to the original. With ART, 4 out of 7 patients experienced better sparing of the spinal cord (D-max reduced by 2.5%∼10.2%) and the oral cavity (D-mean reduced by 3.5%∼20.1%). Conclusion: Weekly CBCT dosimetry confirms that ART is an effective method to accommodate on-treatment anatomic changes. In select patients, tumor coverage and OAR sparing may be improved

  8. SU-F-T-449: Dosimetric Comparison of Acuros XB, Adaptive Convolve in Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, R [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: There have been several publications focusing on dose calculation in lung for a new dose calculation algorithm of Acuros XB (AXB). AXB could contribute to dose calculation for high-density media for bone and dental prosthesis rather than in lung. We compared the dosimetric performance of AXB, Adaptive Convolve (AC) in head and neck IMRT plans. Methods: In a phantom study, the difference in depth profile between AXB and AC was evaluated using Kodak EDR2 film sandwiched with tough water phantoms. 6 MV x-ray using the TrueBeam was irradiated. In a patient study, 20 head and neck IMRT plans had been clinically approved in Pinnacle3 and were transferred to Eclipse. Dose distribution was recalculated using AXB in Eclipse while maintaining AC-calculated monitor units and MLC sequence planned in Pinnacle. Subsequently, both the dose-volumetric data obtained using the two different calculation algorithms were compared. Results: The results in the phantom evaluation for the shallow area ahead of the build-up region shows over-dose for AXB and under-dose for AC, respectively. In the patient plans, AXB shows more hot spots especially around the high-density media than AC in terms of PTV (Max difference: 4.0%) and OAR (Max. difference: 1.9%). Compared to AC, there were larger dose deviations in steep dose gradient region and higher skin-dose. Conclusion: In head and neck IMRT plans, AXB and AC show different dosimetric performance for the regions inside the target volume around high-density media, steep dose gradient regions and skin-surface. There are limitations in skin-dose and complex anatomic condition using even inhomogeneous anthropomorphic phantom Thus, there is the potential for an increase of hot-spot in AXB, and an underestimation of dose in substance boundaries and skin regions in AC.

  9. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) into Portuguese (Brazil) to evaluate patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirola, William Eduardo; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; Barroso, Eliane Marçon; Kissane, David W; Serrano, Claudia Valéria Maseti Pimenta; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    Head and neck cancer is the sixth leading cause of death from cancer worldwide and its treatment may involve surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The surgical procedure may cause mutilating sequelae, that can alter patient self-image. Thus, head and neck cancer is often connected to the negative stigma with decreased quality of life. Few studies assess the social stigma and shame perceived by patients with head and neck cancer. To perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) into Portuguese (Brazil). Two independent translations (English into Portuguese) were carried out by two professionals fluent in the English language. After the synthesis of the translations, two independent back-translations (from Portuguese into English) were performed by two translators whose native language is English. All translations were critically assessed by a committee of experts consisting of five members. A sample of 15 patients answered the Brazilian Portuguese version of the SSS to carry out the pretest. At this step, the patients were able to suggest modifications and evaluate the understanding of the items. There was no need to change the scale after this step. Based on the previous steps, we obtained the Portuguese (Brazil) version of the SSS, which was called "Escala de Vergonha e Estigma". The Portuguese (Brazil) version of the SSP was shown to be adequate to be applied to the population with HNC and, therefore, the psychometric properties of the tool will be evaluated during following steps. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS into Portuguese (Brazil to evaluate patients with head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Eduardo Pirola

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Head and neck cancer is the sixth leading cause of death from cancer worldwide and its treatment may involve surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The surgical procedure may cause mutilating sequelae, that can alter patient self-image. Thus, head and neck cancer is often connected to the negative stigma with decreased quality of life. Few studies assess the social stigma and shame perceived by patients with head and neck cancer. Objective: To perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS into Portuguese (Brazil. Methods: Two independent translations (English into Portuguese were carried out by two professionals fluent in the English language. After the synthesis of the translations, two independent back-translations (from Portuguese into English were performed by two translators whose native language is English. All translations were critically assessed by a committee of experts consisting of five members. A sample of 15 patients answered the Brazilian Portuguese version of the SSS to carry out the pretest. At this step, the patients were able to suggest modifications and evaluate the understanding of the items. Results: There was no need to change the scale after this step. Based on the previous steps, we obtained the Portuguese (Brazil version of the SSS, which was called "Escala de Vergonha e Estigma". Conclusion: The Portuguese (Brazil version of the SSP was shown to be adequate to be applied to the population with HNC and, therefore, the psychometric properties of the tool will be evaluated during following steps.

  11. [Cervical adaptation of complete cast crowns of various metal alloys, with and without die spacers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephano, C B; Roselino, R F; Roselino, R B; Campos, G M

    1989-01-01

    A metallic replica from a dental preparation for crown was used to make 8 class-IV stone dies. The wax patterns for the casting of the crowns were obtained in two conditions: a) from the stone die with no spacer; and b) from the stone die with an acrylic spacer. Thus, 64 metallic crowns were casted, using 4 different alloys: DURACAST (Cu-Al), NICROCAST (Ni-Cr) and DURABOND (Ni-Cr), and gold. The casted crowns were fitted in the metallic replica and measured as to the cervical discrepance of fitting. The results showed that the use of die spacers decreases the clinical discrepancies of fitting of the casted crowns (in a statistically significant level), no matter the metallic alloy employed.

  12. Specific Adaptation of Gas Atomization Processing for Al-Based Alloy Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Siemon, John [Alcoa, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The initial three atomization attempts resulted in “freeze-outs” within the pour tubes in the pilot-scale system and yielded no powder. Re-evaluation of the alloy liquidus temperatures and melting characteristics, in collaboration with Alcoa, showed further superheat to be necessary to allow the liquid metal to flow through the pour tube to the atomization nozzle. A subsequent smaller run on the experimental atomization system verified these parameters and was successful, as were all successive runs on the larger pilot scale system. One alloy composition froze-out part way through the atomization on both pilot scale runs. SEM images showed needle formation and phase segregations within the microstructure. Analysis of the pour tube freeze-out microstructures showed that large needles formed within the pour tube during the atomization experiment, which eventually blocked the melt stream. Alcoa verified the needle formation in this alloy using theoretical modeling of phase solidification. Sufficient powder of this composition was still generated to allow powder characterization and additive manufacturing trials at Alcoa.

  13. Tumor volume delineation in head and neck cancer with 18-fluor-fluorodeoxiglucose positron emission tomography: adaptive thresholding method applied to primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Romasanta, Luis Alberto; Bellon-Guardia, Maria; Torres-Donaire, Javier; Lozano-Martin, Eva; Sanz-Martin, Miguel; Velasco-Jimenez, Joaquin

    2013-04-01

    There are several potential advantages of using 18-fluor-fluorodeoxiglucose (18F-FDG) PET for target volume contouring, but before PET-based gross tumor volumes (GTVs) can reliably and reproducibly be incorporated into high-precision radiotherapy planning, operator-independent segmentation tools have to be developed and validated. The purpose of the present work was to apply the adaptive to the signal/background ratio (R(S/B)) thresholding method for head and neck tumor delineation, and compare these GTV(PET) to reference GTV(CT) volumes in order to assess discrepancies. A cohort of 19 patients (39 lesions) with a histological diagnosis of head and neck cancer who would undergo definitive concurrent radiochemotherapy or radical radiotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique (IMRT), were enrolled in this prospective study. Contouring on PET images was accomplished through standardized uptake value (SUV)-threshold definition. The threshold value was adapted to R(S/B). To determine the relationship between the threshold and the R(S/B), we performed a phantom study. A discrepancy index (DI) between both imaging modalities, overlap fraction (OF) and mismatch fraction (MF) were calculated for each lesion and imaging modality. The median DI value for lymph nodes was 2.67 and 1.76 for primary lesions. The OF values were larger for CT volumes than for PET volumes (p < 0.001), for both types of lesions. The MF values were smaller for CT volumes than for PET volumes (p < 0.001), for both types of lesions. The GTV(PET) coverage (OF(PET)) was strongly correlated with the lesion volume (GTV(CT)) for metastatic lymph nodes (Pearson correlation = 0.665; p < 0.01). For smaller lesions, despite the GTV volumes were relatively larger on PET than in CT contours, the coverage was poorer. Accordingly, the MF(PET/CT) was negatively correlated with the lesion volume for metastatic lymph nodes. The present study highlights the considerable challenges involved in using FDG PET

  14. Rotor-bearing system integrated with shape memory alloy springs for ensuring adaptable dynamics and damping enhancement-Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2016-01-01

    Helical pseudoelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) springs are integrated into a dynamic system consisting of a rigid rotor supported by passive magnetic bearings. The aim is to determine the utility of SMAs for vibration attenuation via their mechanical hysteresis, and for adaptation of the dynamic...... nonlinear coupled dynamics of the rotor-bearing system. The nonlinear forces from the thermomechanical shape memory alloy springs and from the passive magnetic bearings are coupled to the rotor and bearing housing dynamics. The equations of motion describing rotor tilt and bearing housing lateral motion...

  15. Systematic evaluation of three different commercial software solutions for automatic segmentation for adaptive therapy in head-and-neck, prostate and pleural cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Macchia, Mariangela; Fellin, Francesco; Amichetti, Maurizio; Cianchetti, Marco; Gianolini, Stefano; Paola, Vitali; Lomax, Antony J; Widesott, Lamberto

    2012-01-01

    To validate, in the context of adaptive radiotherapy, three commercial software solutions for atlas-based segmentation. Fifteen patients, five for each group, with cancer of the Head&Neck, pleura, and prostate were enrolled in the study. In addition to the treatment planning CT (pCT) images, one replanning CT (rCT) image set was acquired for each patient during the RT course. Three experienced physicians outlined on the pCT and rCT all the volumes of interest (VOIs). We used three software solutions (VelocityAI 2.6.2 (V), MIM 5.1.1 (M) by MIMVista and ABAS 2.0 (A) by CMS-Elekta) to generate the automatic contouring on the repeated CT. All the VOIs obtained with automatic contouring (AC) were successively corrected manually. We recorded the time needed for: 1) ex novo ROIs definition on rCT; 2) generation of AC by the three software solutions; 3) manual correction of AC. To compare the quality of the volumes obtained automatically by the software and manually corrected with those drawn from scratch on rCT, we used the following indexes: overlap coefficient (DICE), sensitivity, inclusiveness index, difference in volume, and displacement differences on three axes (x, y, z) from the isocenter. The time saved by the three software solutions for all the sites, compared to the manual contouring from scratch, is statistically significant and similar for all the three software solutions. The time saved for each site are as follows: about an hour for Head&Neck, about 40 minutes for prostate, and about 20 minutes for mesothelioma. The best DICE similarity coefficient index was obtained with the manual correction for: A (contours for prostate), A and M (contours for H&N), and M (contours for mesothelioma). From a clinical point of view, the automated contouring workflow was shown to be significantly shorter than the manual contouring process, even though manual correction of the VOIs is always needed

  16. Evaluation of the Block Matching deformable registration algorithm in the field of head-and-neck adaptive radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huger, S; Graff, P; Harter, V; Marchesi, V; Royer, P; Diaz, J C; Aouadi, S; Wolf, D; Peiffert, D; Noel, A

    2014-05-01

    To compare the accuracy of the Block Matching deformable registration (DIR) against rigid image registration (RIR) for head-and-neck multi-modal images CT to cone-beam CT (CBCT) registration. Planning-CT and weekly CBCT of 10 patients were used for this study. Several volumes, including medullary canal (MC), thyroid cartilage (TC), hyoid bone (HB) and submandibular gland (SMG) were transposed from CT to CBCT images using either DIR or RIR. Transposed volumes were compared with the manual delineation of these volumes on every CBCT. The parameters of similarity used for analysis were: Dice Similarity Index (DSI), 95%-Hausdorff Distance (95%-HD) and difference of volumes (cc). With DIR, the major mean difference of volumes was -1.4 cc for MC, revealing limited under-segmentation. DIR limited variability of DSI and 95%-HD. It significantly improved DSI for TC and HB and 95%-HD for all structures but SMG. With DIR, mean 95%-HD (mm) was 3.01 ± 0.80, 5.33 ± 2.51, 4.99 ± 1.69, 3.07 ± 1.31 for MC, TC, HB and SMG, respectively. With RIR, it was 3.92 ± 1.86, 6.94 ± 3.98, 6.44 ± 3.37 and 3.41 ± 2.25, respectively. Block Matching is a valid algorithm for deformable multi-modal CT to CBCT registration. Values of 95%-HD are useful for ongoing development of its application to the cumulative dose calculation. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of atlas based auto-segmentation for head and neck target volume delineation in adaptive/replan IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speight, R; Lindsay, R; Harding, R; Sykes, J; Karakaya, E; Prestwich, R; Sen, M

    2014-01-01

    IMRT for head and neck patients requires clinicians to delineate clinical target volumes (CTV) on a planning-CT (>2hrs/patient). When patients require a replan-CT, CTVs must be re-delineated. This work assesses the performance of atlas-based autosegmentation (ABAS), which uses deformable image registration between planning and replan-CTs to auto-segment CTVs on the replan-CT, based on the planning contours. Fifteen patients with planning-CT and replan-CTs were selected. One clinician delineated CTVs on the planning-CTs and up to three clinicians delineated CTVs on the replan-CTs. Replan-CT volumes were auto-segmented using ABAS using the manual CTVs from the planning-CT as an atlas. ABAS CTVs were edited manually to make them clinically acceptable. Clinicians were timed to estimate savings using ABAS. CTVs were compared using dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean distance to agreement (MDA). Mean inter-observer variability (DSC>0.79 and MDA<2.1mm) was found to be greater than intra-observer variability (DSC>0.91 and MDA<1.5mm). Comparing ABAS to manual CTVs gave DSC=0.86 and MDA=2.07mm. Once edited, ABAS volumes agreed more closely with the manual CTVs (DSC=0.87 and MDA=1.87mm). The mean clinician time required to produce CTVs reduced from 169min to 57min when using ABAS. ABAS segments volumes with accuracy close to inter-observer variability however the volumes require some editing before clinical use. Using ABAS reduces contouring time by a factor of three.

  18. Specific Adaptation of Gas Atomization Processing for Al-Based Alloy Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Siemon, John [Alcoa Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The charge for each gas atomization experiment was provided by Alcoa and consisted of cast blocks cut into 1 inch by 1 inch square rods of the chosen aluminum alloys. The atmosphere in the melting chamber and connected atomization system was evacuated with a mechanical pump prior to backfilling with ultrahigh purity (UHP grade) Ar. The melt was contained in a bottom tapped alumina crucible with an alumina stopper rod to seal the exit while heating to a pouring temperature of 1000 – 1400°C. When the desired superheat was reached, the stopper rod was lifted and melt flowed through pour tube and was atomized with Ar from a 45-22-052-409 gas atomization nozzle (or atomization die), having a jet apex angle of 45 degrees with 22 cylindrical gas jets (each with diameter of 1.32 mm or 0.052 inches) arrayed around the axis of a 10.4 mm central bore. The Ar atomization gas supply regulator pressure was set to produce nozzle manifold pressures for the series of runs at pressures of 250-650 psi. Secondary gas halos of Ar+O2 and He also were added to the interior of the spray chamber at various downstream locations for additional cooling of the atomized droplets, surface passivation, and to prevent coalescence of the resulting powder.

  19. Geometric adaption of biodegradable magnesium alloy scaffolds to stabilise biological myocardial grafts. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M; Schilling, T; Weidling, M; Hartung, D; Biskup, Ch; Wriggers, P; Wacker, F; Bach, Fr-W; Haverich, A; Hassel, T

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic patch materials currently in use have major limitations, such as high susceptibility to infections and lack of contractility. Biological grafts are a novel approach to overcome these limitations, but do not always offer sufficient mechanical durability in early stages after implantation. Therefore, a stabilising structure based on resorbable magnesium alloys could support the biological graft until its physiologic remodelling. To prevent early breakage in vivo due to stress of non-determined forming, these scaffolds should be preformed according to the geometry of the targeted myocardial region. Thus, the left ventricular geometry of 28 patients was assessed via standard cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The resulting data served as a basis for a finite element simulation (FEM). Calculated stresses and strains of flat and preformed scaffolds were evaluated. Afterwards, the structures were manufactured by abrasive waterjet cutting and preformed according to the MRI data. Finally, the mechanical durability of the preformed and flat structures was compared in an in vitro test rig. The FEM predicted higher durability of the preformed scaffolds, which was proven in the in vitro test. In conclusion, preformed scaffolds provide extended durability and will facilitate more widespread use of regenerative biological grafts for surgical left ventricular reconstruction.

  20. Prediction of Surface Roughness When End Milling Ti6Al4V Alloy Using Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Al-Zubaidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness is considered as the quality index of the machine parts. Many diverse techniques have been applied in modelling metal cutting processes. Previous studies have revealed that artificial intelligence techniques are novel soft computing methods which fit the solution of nonlinear and complex problems like metal cutting processes. The present study used adaptive neurofuzzy inference system for the purpose of predicting the surface roughness when end milling Ti6Al4V alloy with coated (PVD and uncoated cutting tools under dry cutting conditions. Real experimental results have been used for training and testing of ANFIS models, and the best model was selected based on minimum root mean square error. A generalized bell-shaped function has been adopted as a membership function for the modelling process, and its numbers were changed from 2 to 5. The findings provided evidence of the capability of ANFIS in modelling surface roughness in end milling process and obtainment of good matching between experimental and predicted results.

  1. Evaluation of deformable image registration for contour propagation between CT and cone-beam CT images in adaptive head and neck radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Zhang, Y Y; Shi, Y H; Zhou, L H; Zhen, X

    2016-04-29

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is a critical technic in adaptive radiotherapy (ART) to propagate contours between planning computerized tomography (CT) images and treatment CT/Cone-beam CT (CBCT) image to account for organ deformation for treatment re-planning. To validate the ability and accuracy of DIR algorithms in organ at risk (OAR) contours mapping, seven intensity-based DIR strategies are tested on the planning CT and weekly CBCT images from six Head & Neck cancer patients who underwent a 6 ∼ 7 weeks intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Three similarity metrics, i.e. the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), the percentage error (PE) and the Hausdorff distance (HD), are employed to measure the agreement between the propagated contours and the physician delineated ground truths. It is found that the performance of all the evaluated DIR algorithms declines as the treatment proceeds. No statistically significant performance difference is observed between different DIR algorithms (p> 0.05), except for the double force demons (DFD) which yields the worst result in terms of DSC and PE. For the metric HD, all the DIR algorithms behaved unsatisfactorily with no statistically significant performance difference (p= 0.273). These findings suggested that special care should be taken when utilizing the intensity-based DIR algorithms involved in this study to deform OAR contours between CT and CBCT, especially for those organs with low contrast.

  2. SU-E-J-229: Quantitative Assessment for Timely Adaptive Re-Planning Using Weekly Dose Monitoring for Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Q; Liu, H; Greskovich, J; Koyfman, S; Xia, P [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Li, Z [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); the 6th people' s hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For patients with head and neck (HN) cancer, mid-course adaptive radiation therapy (ART) is a common practice in our institution to accommodate anatomic changes. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether dose re-calculation on weekly verification images can provide quantitative assessment for timely adaptive re-planning with daily image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: We retrospectively selected sixty daily verification images acquired on CT-on-rail/CBCT from ten HN patients. These image sets were typically a week apart. Among these patients, six patients received a mid-course ART. Contours of the tumors and organ-at-risks (OARs) were manually delineated by a physician on each verification CT. After placing the treatment iso-center on the verification CTs according to the recorded clinical shifts, daily dose was re-calculated with the same beam configuration as the original plan. For the purpose of this study, electron densities for both verification CTs and planning CTs were set to 1.0 g/cm3. Results: Two patients had D99 of the CTV < 97% of the planned dose for more than three fractions due to remarkable tumor volume shrinkages. D-max of the spinal cord exceeded a tolerance of 45 Gy for four fractions in additional two patients. D-mean of the parotid increased within 25% of the planned value. D-max of the brainstem and D-mean of the oral cavity did not show significant variation. If the re-planning criteria included D99 of the CTV < 97% of the planned dose and D-max of the spinal cord > 45 Gy, two out ten patients required ART at week 2 and two patients required ART at week 3, respectively. Conclusion: Weekly dose monitoring with re-calculation on verification images can provide quantitative dose guidance for timely adaptive re-planning. Future work will include accumulative dose analysis for the decision of adaptive re-planning. The study is supported in part by Siemens Medical Solutions.

  3. Parotid Glands Dose–Effect Relationships Based on Their Actually Delivered Doses: Implications for Adaptive Replanning in Radiation Therapy of Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Klaudia U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Fernandes, Laura L. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Vineberg, Karen A.; McShan, Daniel; Antonuk, Alan E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cornwall, Craig [Department of Hospital Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Mathew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham, E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Doses actually delivered to the parotid glands during radiation therapy often exceed planned doses. We hypothesized that the delivered doses correlate better with parotid salivary output than the planned doses, used in all previous studies, and that determining these correlations will help make decisions regarding adaptive radiation therapy (ART) aimed at reducing the delivered doses. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study, oropharyngeal cancer patients treated definitively with chemoirradiation underwent daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with clinical setup alignment based on the C2 posterior edge. Parotid glands in the CBCTs were aligned by deformable registration to calculate cumulative delivered doses. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured separately from each parotid gland pretherapy and periodically posttherapy. Results: Thirty-six parotid glands of 18 patients were analyzed. Average mean planned doses was 32 Gy, and differences from planned to delivered mean gland doses were −4.9 to +8.4 Gy, median difference +2.2 Gy in glands in which delivered doses increased relative to planned. Both planned and delivered mean doses were significantly correlated with posttreatment salivary outputs at almost all posttherapy time points, without statistically significant differences in the correlations. Large dispersions (on average, SD 3.6 Gy) characterized the dose–effect relationships for both. The differences between the cumulative delivered doses and planned doses were evident at first fraction (r=.92, P<.0001) because of complex setup deviations (eg, rotations and neck articulations), uncorrected by the translational clinical alignments. Conclusions: After daily translational setup corrections, differences between planned and delivered doses in most glands were small relative to the SDs of the dose–saliva data, suggesting that ART is not likely to gain measurable salivary output improvement in most cases. These differences were

  4. Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arms or hands or if you have shooting pain into your shoulder or down your arm. Symptoms Signs and symptoms ... org/search/Pages/results.aspx?k=Chronic neck pain. Accessed June 11, 2015. Isaac Z. Evaluation of the patient with neck pain and cervical ...

  5. Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vehicle accidents is a common cause of neck pain. The diagnosis of neck pain is determined by a medical history and physical ... qualified health care provider for professional medical advice, diagnosis and treatment of a medical or health condition. ... Links Glossary of Rheumatology Terms ...

  6. Adaptation and micro-structure of Co-Cr alloy maxillary complete denture base plates fabricated by selective laser melting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ye; Jiao, Ting; Zhu, Jiarui; Sun, Jian

    2018-01-24

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the adaptation and micro-structure of Co-Cr alloy maxillary complete denture base plates fabricated by the selective laser melting (SLM) technique. Twenty pairs of edentulous casts were randomly and evenly divided into two groups, and manufacturing of the Co-Cr alloy maxillary complete denture base was conducted either by the SLM technique or by the conventional method. The base-cast sets were transversally sectioned into three sections at the distal canines, mesial of the first molars and the posterior palatal zone. The gap between the metal base and cast was measured in these three sections with a stereoscopic microscope, and the data were analysed using t tests. A total of five specimens of 5 mm diameter were fabricated with the Co-Cr alloy by SLM and the traditional casting technology. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the differences in microstructure between these specimens. There was no statistical difference between the three sections in all four groups (P > 0.05). At the region of the canines, the clearance value for the SLM Co-Cr alloy group was larger than that of the conventional method group (P  0.05). The SLM Co-Cr alloy has a denser microstructure behaviour and less casting defect than the cast Co-Cr alloy. The SLM technique showed initial feasibility for the manufacture of dental bases of complete dentures, but large sample studies are needed to prove its reliability in clinical applications. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the denture frameworks prepared by selective laser melting indicate that these dentures are appropriate for clinical use.

  7. Systematic evaluation of three different commercial software solutions for automatic segmentation for adaptive therapy in head-and-neck, prostate and pleural cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Macchia Mariangela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To validate, in the context of adaptive radiotherapy, three commercial software solutions for atlas-based segmentation. Methods and materials Fifteen patients, five for each group, with cancer of the Head&Neck, pleura, and prostate were enrolled in the study. In addition to the treatment planning CT (pCT images, one replanning CT (rCT image set was acquired for each patient during the RT course. Three experienced physicians outlined on the pCT and rCT all the volumes of interest (VOIs. We used three software solutions (VelocityAI 2.6.2 (V, MIM 5.1.1 (M by MIMVista and ABAS 2.0 (A by CMS-Elekta to generate the automatic contouring on the repeated CT. All the VOIs obtained with automatic contouring (AC were successively corrected manually. We recorded the time needed for: 1 ex novo ROIs definition on rCT; 2 generation of AC by the three software solutions; 3 manual correction of AC. To compare the quality of the volumes obtained automatically by the software and manually corrected with those drawn from scratch on rCT, we used the following indexes: overlap coefficient (DICE, sensitivity, inclusiveness index, difference in volume, and displacement differences on three axes (x, y, z from the isocenter. Results The time saved by the three software solutions for all the sites, compared to the manual contouring from scratch, is statistically significant and similar for all the three software solutions. The time saved for each site are as follows: about an hour for Head&Neck, about 40 minutes for prostate, and about 20 minutes for mesothelioma. The best DICE similarity coefficient index was obtained with the manual correction for: A (contours for prostate, A and M (contours for H&N, and M (contours for mesothelioma. Conclusions From a clinical point of view, the automated contouring workflow was shown to be significantly shorter than the manual contouring process, even though manual correction of the VOIs is always needed.

  8. Systematic evaluation of three different commercial software solutions for automatic segmentation for adaptive therapy in head-and-neck, prostate and pleural cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Macchia, Mariangela; Fellin, Francesco; Amichetti, Maurizio; Cianchetti, Marco; Gianolini, Stefano; Paola, Vitali; Lomax, Antony J; Widesott, Lamberto

    2012-09-18

    To validate, in the context of adaptive radiotherapy, three commercial software solutions for atlas-based segmentation. Fifteen patients, five for each group, with cancer of the Head&Neck, pleura, and prostate were enrolled in the study. In addition to the treatment planning CT (pCT) images, one replanning CT (rCT) image set was acquired for each patient during the RT course. Three experienced physicians outlined on the pCT and rCT all the volumes of interest (VOIs). We used three software solutions (VelocityAI 2.6.2 (V), MIM 5.1.1 (M) by MIMVista and ABAS 2.0 (A) by CMS-Elekta) to generate the automatic contouring on the repeated CT. All the VOIs obtained with automatic contouring (AC) were successively corrected manually. We recorded the time needed for: 1) ex novo ROIs definition on rCT; 2) generation of AC by the three software solutions; 3) manual correction of AC.To compare the quality of the volumes obtained automatically by the software and manually corrected with those drawn from scratch on rCT, we used the following indexes: overlap coefficient (DICE), sensitivity, inclusiveness index, difference in volume, and displacement differences on three axes (x, y, z) from the isocenter. The time saved by the three software solutions for all the sites, compared to the manual contouring from scratch, is statistically significant and similar for all the three software solutions. The time saved for each site are as follows: about an hour for Head&Neck, about 40 minutes for prostate, and about 20 minutes for mesothelioma. The best DICE similarity coefficient index was obtained with the manual correction for: A (contours for prostate), A and M (contours for H&N), and M (contours for mesothelioma). From a clinical point of view, the automated contouring workflow was shown to be significantly shorter than the manual contouring process, even though manual correction of the VOIs is always needed.

  9. A multi-institution evaluation of deformable image registration algorithms for automatic organ delineation in adaptive head and neck radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardcastle Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive Radiotherapy aims to identify anatomical deviations during a radiotherapy course and modify the treatment plan to maintain treatment objectives. This requires regions of interest (ROIs to be defined using the most recent imaging data. This study investigates the clinical utility of using deformable image registration (DIR to automatically propagate ROIs. Methods Target (GTV and organ-at-risk (OAR ROIs were non-rigidly propagated from a planning CT scan to a per-treatment CT scan for 22 patients. Propagated ROIs were quantitatively compared with expert physician-drawn ROIs on the per-treatment scan using Dice scores and mean slicewise Hausdorff distances, and center of mass distances for GTVs. The propagated ROIs were qualitatively examined by experts and scored based on their clinical utility. Results Good agreement between the DIR-propagated ROIs and expert-drawn ROIs was observed based on the metrics used. 94% of all ROIs generated using DIR were scored as being clinically useful, requiring minimal or no edits. However, 27% (12/44 of the GTVs required major edits. Conclusion DIR was successfully used on 22 patients to propagate target and OAR structures for ART with good anatomical agreement for OARs. It is recommended that propagated target structures be thoroughly reviewed by the treating physician.

  10. A multi-institution evaluation of deformable image registration algorithms for automatic organ delineation in adaptive head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardcastle, Nicholas; Kumar, Prashant; Oechsner, Markus; Richter, Anne; Song, Shiyu; Myers, Michael; Polat, Bülent; Bzdusek, Karl; Tomé, Wolfgang A; Cannon, Donald M; Brouwer, Charlotte L; Wittendorp, Paul WH; Dogan, Nesrin; Guckenberger, Matthias; Allaire, Stéphane; Mallya, Yogish

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive Radiotherapy aims to identify anatomical deviations during a radiotherapy course and modify the treatment plan to maintain treatment objectives. This requires regions of interest (ROIs) to be defined using the most recent imaging data. This study investigates the clinical utility of using deformable image registration (DIR) to automatically propagate ROIs. Target (GTV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) ROIs were non-rigidly propagated from a planning CT scan to a per-treatment CT scan for 22 patients. Propagated ROIs were quantitatively compared with expert physician-drawn ROIs on the per-treatment scan using Dice scores and mean slicewise Hausdorff distances, and center of mass distances for GTVs. The propagated ROIs were qualitatively examined by experts and scored based on their clinical utility. Good agreement between the DIR-propagated ROIs and expert-drawn ROIs was observed based on the metrics used. 94% of all ROIs generated using DIR were scored as being clinically useful, requiring minimal or no edits. However, 27% (12/44) of the GTVs required major edits. DIR was successfully used on 22 patients to propagate target and OAR structures for ART with good anatomical agreement for OARs. It is recommended that propagated target structures be thoroughly reviewed by the treating physician

  11. Semiautomated head-and-neck IMRT planning using dose warping and scaling to robustly adapt plans in a knowledge database containing potentially suboptimal plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.schmidt@varian.com; Grzetic, Shelby [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lutzky, Carly [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Brizel, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Das, Shiva K. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Prior work by the authors and other groups has studied the creation of automated intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans of equivalent quality to those in a patient database of manually created clinical plans; those database plans provided guidance on the achievable sparing to organs-at-risk (OARs). However, in certain sites, such as head-and-neck, the clinical plans may not be sufficiently optimized because of anatomical complexity and clinical time constraints. This could lead to automated plans that suboptimally exploit OAR sparing. This work investigates a novel dose warping and scaling scheme that attempts to reduce effects of suboptimal sparing in clinical database plans, thus improving the quality of semiautomated head-and-neck cancer (HNC) plans. Methods: Knowledge-based radiotherapy (KBRT) plans for each of ten “query” patients were semiautomatically generated by identifying the most similar “match” patient in a database of 103 clinical manually created patient plans. The match patient’s plans were adapted to the query case by: (1) deforming the match beam fluences to suit the query target volume and (2) warping the match primary/boost dose distribution to suit the query geometry and using the warped distribution to generate query primary/boost optimization dose-volume constraints. Item (2) included a distance scaling factor to improve query OAR dose sparing with respect to the possibly suboptimal clinical match plan. To further compensate for a component plan of the match case (primary/boost) not optimally sparing OARs, the query dose volume constraints were reduced using a dose scaling factor to be the minimum from either (a) the warped component plan (primary or boost) dose distribution or (b) the warped total plan dose distribution (primary + boost) scaled in proportion to the ratio of component prescription dose to total prescription dose. The dose-volume constraints were used to plan the query case with no human intervention

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of ten deformable image registration algorithms for contour propagation between CT and cone-beam CT images in adaptive head & neck radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    Full Text Available Deformable image registration (DIR is a critical technic in adaptive radiotherapy (ART for propagating contours between planning computerized tomography (CT images and treatment CT/cone-beam CT (CBCT images to account for organ deformation for treatment re-planning. To validate the ability and accuracy of DIR algorithms in organ at risk (OAR contour mapping, ten intensity-based DIR strategies, which were classified into four categories-optical flow-based, demons-based, level-set-based and spline-based-were tested on planning CT and fractional CBCT images acquired from twenty-one head & neck (H&N cancer patients who underwent 6~7-week intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT. Three similarity metrics, i.e., the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC, the percentage error (PE and the Hausdorff distance (HD, were employed to measure the agreement between the propagated contours and the physician-delineated ground truths of four OARs, including the vertebra (VTB, the vertebral foramen (VF, the parotid gland (PG and the submandibular gland (SMG. It was found that the evaluated DIRs in this work did not necessarily outperform rigid registration. DIR performed better for bony structures than soft-tissue organs, and the DIR performance tended to vary for different ROIs with different degrees of deformation as the treatment proceeded. Generally, the optical flow-based DIR performed best, while the demons-based DIR usually ranked last except for a modified demons-based DISC used for CT-CBCT DIR. These experimental results suggest that the choice of a specific DIR algorithm depends on the image modality, anatomic site, magnitude of deformation and application. Therefore, careful examinations and modifications are required before accepting the auto-propagated contours, especially for automatic re-planning ART systems.

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of ten deformable image registration algorithms for contour propagation between CT and cone-beam CT images in adaptive head & neck radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuyu; Shi, Yinghua; Wu, Shuyu; Xiao, Yang; Gu, Xuejun; Zhen, Xin; Zhou, Linghong

    2017-01-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is a critical technic in adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for propagating contours between planning computerized tomography (CT) images and treatment CT/cone-beam CT (CBCT) images to account for organ deformation for treatment re-planning. To validate the ability and accuracy of DIR algorithms in organ at risk (OAR) contour mapping, ten intensity-based DIR strategies, which were classified into four categories-optical flow-based, demons-based, level-set-based and spline-based-were tested on planning CT and fractional CBCT images acquired from twenty-one head & neck (H&N) cancer patients who underwent 6~7-week intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Three similarity metrics, i.e., the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), the percentage error (PE) and the Hausdorff distance (HD), were employed to measure the agreement between the propagated contours and the physician-delineated ground truths of four OARs, including the vertebra (VTB), the vertebral foramen (VF), the parotid gland (PG) and the submandibular gland (SMG). It was found that the evaluated DIRs in this work did not necessarily outperform rigid registration. DIR performed better for bony structures than soft-tissue organs, and the DIR performance tended to vary for different ROIs with different degrees of deformation as the treatment proceeded. Generally, the optical flow-based DIR performed best, while the demons-based DIR usually ranked last except for a modified demons-based DISC used for CT-CBCT DIR. These experimental results suggest that the choice of a specific DIR algorithm depends on the image modality, anatomic site, magnitude of deformation and application. Therefore, careful examinations and modifications are required before accepting the auto-propagated contours, especially for automatic re-planning ART systems.

  14. Definition of criteria for estimating alternative technologies of increasing quality of rotor shaft neck by electroerosive alloying and surface plastic deformation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsynkovskyy, V.; Kirik, G.; Tarelnyk, V.; Zharkov, P.; Konoplianchenko, Ie; Dovzhyk, M.

    2017-08-01

    There are represented the results of influence of the surface plastic deformation (SPD) methods, namely, diamond smoothing (DS) and ball-rolling surface roughness generation (BSRG) ones on the qualitative parameters (residual stresses, fatigue strength and wear resistance values) of the steel substrate surface layers formed by the electroerosive alloying (EEA) method. There are proposed the most rational methods of deformation and also the composition for electroerosive coatings providing the presence of the favorable residual compressive stresses in the surface layer, increasing fatigue strength and wear resistance values. There are stated the criteria for estimating the alternative variants of the combined technologies and choosing the most rational ones thereof.

  15. Evaluation of radiotherapy methods for adaptative head and neck treatment with RapidArc®; Avaliacao de uma metodologia de radioterapia adaptativa para tratamentos de cabeca e pescoco com RapidArc®

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazaro, Sarah J.; Vasconcellos, Herminiane L.; Silva, Laura E. da; Bastos, Fernanda M.; Silva, Leonardo P. da; Alvaro S; Migoviski, Igor, E-mail: sarahmazaro@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer Jose de Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCA), Rio de Janeiro,RJ (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Head and neck cancer is considered a public health problem worldwide. The intensity-modulated techniques have shown benefit in the treatment of these sites, particularly with respect to reduction of deterministic effects of risk, such as parotid. Anatomical variations in cases of head and neck are very frequent and may lead, for example, to an overdose in the parotid. This can be mitigated if making use of adaptive radiation therapy. The work aims to analyze a methodology to redo the planning of treatments, through 02 acquisitions of TC. The results showed that, due to a reduction in the volumes of the parotid, the doses delivered to these organs are underestimated, which is relevant to readapt the treatment, with the addition of only a second scan without the need of the third. (author)

  16. SU-E-J-257: A PCA Model to Predict Adaptive Changes for Head&neck Patients Based On Extraction of Geometric Features From Daily CBCT Datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetvertkov, M; Siddiqui, F; Chetty, I; Kim, J; Kumarasiri, A; Liu, C; Gordon, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Using daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) to develop principal component analysis (PCA) models of anatomical changes in head and neck (H&N) patients and to assess the possibility of using these prospectively in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: Planning CT (pCT) images of 4 H&N patients were deformed to model several different systematic changes in patient anatomy during the course of the radiation therapy (RT). A Pinnacle plugin was used to linearly interpolate the systematic change in patient for the 35 fraction RT course and to generate a set of 35 synthetic CBCTs. Each synthetic CBCT represents the systematic change in patient anatomy for each fraction. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between the pCT and synthetic CBCTs with random fraction-to-fraction changes were superimposed on the DVFs. A patient-specific PCA model was built using these DVFs containing systematic plus random changes. It was hypothesized that resulting eigenDVFs (EDVFs) with largest eigenvalues represent the major anatomical deformations during the course of treatment. Results: For all 4 patients, the PCA model provided different results depending on the type and size of systematic change in patient’s body. PCA was more successful in capturing the systematic changes early in the treatment course when these were of a larger scale with respect to the random fraction-to-fraction changes in patient’s anatomy. For smaller scale systematic changes, random changes in patient could completely “hide” the systematic change. Conclusion: The leading EDVF from the patientspecific PCA models could tentatively be identified as a major systematic change during treatment if the systematic change is large enough with respect to random fraction-to-fraction changes. Otherwise, leading EDVF could not represent systematic changes reliably. This work is expected to facilitate development of population-based PCA models that can be used to prospectively identify significant

  17. SU-E-J-220: Evaluation of Atlas-Based Auto-Segmentation (ABAS) in Head-And-Neck Adaptive Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q; Yan, D [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the accuracy of atlas-based auto segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) on both helical CT (HCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT) images in head and neck (HN) cancer adaptive radiotherapy (ART). Methods: Six HN patients treated in the ART process were included in this study. For each patient, three images were selected: pretreatment planning CT (PreTx-HCT), in treatment CT for replanning (InTx-HCT) and a CBCT acquired in the same day of the InTx-HCT. Three clinical procedures of auto segmentation and deformable registration performed in the ART process were evaluated: a) auto segmentation on PreTx-HCT using multi-subject atlases, b) intra-patient propagation of OARs from PreTx-HCT to InTx-HCT using deformable HCT-to-HCT image registration, and c) intra-patient propagation of OARs from PreTx-HCT to CBCT using deformable CBCT-to-HCT image registration. Seven OARs (brainstem, cord, L/R parotid, L/R submandibular gland and mandible) were manually contoured on PreTx-HCT and InTx-HCT for comparison. In addition, manual contours on InTx-CT were copied on the same day CBCT, and a local region rigid body registration was performed accordingly for each individual OAR. For procedures a) and b), auto contours were compared to manual contours, and for c) auto contours were compared to those rigidly transferred contours on CBCT. Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) and mean surface distances of agreement (MSDA) were calculated for evaluation. Results: For procedure a), the mean DSC/MSDA of most OARs are >80%/±2mm. For intra-patient HCT-to-HCT propagation, the Resultimproved to >85%/±1.5mm. Compared to HCT-to-HCT, the mean DSC for HCT-to-CBCT propagation drops ∼2–3% and MSDA increases ∼0.2mm. This Resultindicates that the inferior imaging quality of CBCT seems only degrade auto propagation performance slightly. Conclusion: Auto segmentation and deformable propagation can generate OAR structures on HCT and CBCT images with clinically acceptable accuracy. Therefore

  18. SU-E-J-220: Evaluation of Atlas-Based Auto-Segmentation (ABAS) in Head-And-Neck Adaptive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q; Yan, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the accuracy of atlas-based auto segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) on both helical CT (HCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT) images in head and neck (HN) cancer adaptive radiotherapy (ART). Methods: Six HN patients treated in the ART process were included in this study. For each patient, three images were selected: pretreatment planning CT (PreTx-HCT), in treatment CT for replanning (InTx-HCT) and a CBCT acquired in the same day of the InTx-HCT. Three clinical procedures of auto segmentation and deformable registration performed in the ART process were evaluated: a) auto segmentation on PreTx-HCT using multi-subject atlases, b) intra-patient propagation of OARs from PreTx-HCT to InTx-HCT using deformable HCT-to-HCT image registration, and c) intra-patient propagation of OARs from PreTx-HCT to CBCT using deformable CBCT-to-HCT image registration. Seven OARs (brainstem, cord, L/R parotid, L/R submandibular gland and mandible) were manually contoured on PreTx-HCT and InTx-HCT for comparison. In addition, manual contours on InTx-CT were copied on the same day CBCT, and a local region rigid body registration was performed accordingly for each individual OAR. For procedures a) and b), auto contours were compared to manual contours, and for c) auto contours were compared to those rigidly transferred contours on CBCT. Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) and mean surface distances of agreement (MSDA) were calculated for evaluation. Results: For procedure a), the mean DSC/MSDA of most OARs are >80%/±2mm. For intra-patient HCT-to-HCT propagation, the Resultimproved to >85%/±1.5mm. Compared to HCT-to-HCT, the mean DSC for HCT-to-CBCT propagation drops ∼2–3% and MSDA increases ∼0.2mm. This Resultindicates that the inferior imaging quality of CBCT seems only degrade auto propagation performance slightly. Conclusion: Auto segmentation and deformable propagation can generate OAR structures on HCT and CBCT images with clinically acceptable accuracy. Therefore

  19. SU-D-202-04: Validation of Deformable Image Registration Algorithms for Head and Neck Adaptive Radiotherapy in Routine Clinical Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L; Pi, Y; Chen, Z; Xu, X [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wang, Z [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui (China); Shi, C [Saint Vincent Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Long, T; Luo, W; Wang, F [The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the ROI contours and accumulated dose difference using different deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for head and neck (H&N) adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Eight H&N cancer patients were randomly selected from the affiliated hospital. During the treatment, patients were rescanned every week with ROIs well delineated by radiation oncologist on each weekly CT. New weekly treatment plans were also re-designed with consistent dose prescription on the rescanned CT and executed for one week on Siemens CT-on-rails accelerator. At the end, we got six weekly CT scans from CT1 to CT6 including six weekly treatment plans for each patient. The primary CT1 was set as the reference CT for DIR proceeding with the left five weekly CTs using ANACONDA and MORFEUS algorithms separately in RayStation and the external skin ROI was set to be the controlling ROI both. The entire calculated weekly dose were deformed and accumulated on corresponding reference CT1 according to the deformation vector field (DVFs) generated by the two different DIR algorithms respectively. Thus we got both the ANACONDA-based and MORFEUS-based accumulated total dose on CT1 for each patient. At the same time, we mapped the ROIs on CT1 to generate the corresponding ROIs on CT6 using ANACONDA and MORFEUS DIR algorithms. DICE coefficients between the DIR deformed and radiation oncologist delineated ROIs on CT6 were calculated. Results: For DIR accumulated dose, PTV D95 and Left-Eyeball Dmax show significant differences with 67.13 cGy and 109.29 cGy respectively (Table1). For DIR mapped ROIs, PTV, Spinal cord and Left-Optic nerve show difference with −0.025, −0.127 and −0.124 (Table2). Conclusion: Even two excellent DIR algorithms can give divergent results for ROI deformation and dose accumulation. As more and more TPS get DIR module integrated, there is an urgent need to realize the potential risk using DIR in clinical.

  20. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  1. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . Dar es Salaam. Durban. Bloemfontein. Antananarivo. Cape Town. Ifrane ... program strategy. A number of CCAA-supported projects have relevance to other important adaptation-related themes such as disaster preparedness and climate.

  2. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  3. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nairobi, Kenya. 28 Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific and Endogenous Knowledge. Cap Verde, Gambia,. Guinea, Guinea Bissau,. Mauritania and Senegal. Environment and Development in the Third World. (ENDA-TM). Dakar, Senegal. 29 Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk ...

  4. The Danish Neck Disability Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik H; O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Kongsted, Alice

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) translate and culturally adapt and (2) determine the clinimetric properties of the Danish 8-item Neck Disability Index (NDI-8) in primary sector patients (PSPs) and secondary sector patients (SSPs). METHODS: Analyses included 326 patients with neck pain. Validity and reliability...... determined. RESULTS: The original Danish version of the NDI was not unidimensional. Omitting 2 items (pain, headache) revealed a 1-factor structure (NDI-8). Construct validity correctly predicted 88% of the hypotheses. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) ranged between 0.88 and 0.89, and generalizability...

  5. A cellular automaton - finite volume method for the simulation of dendritic and eutectic growth in binary alloys using an adaptive mesh refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobravec, Tadej; Mavrič, Boštjan; Šarler, Božidar

    2017-11-01

    A two-dimensional model to simulate the dendritic and eutectic growth in binary alloys is developed. A cellular automaton method is adopted to track the movement of the solid-liquid interface. The diffusion equation is solved in the solid and liquid phases by using an explicit finite volume method. The computational domain is divided into square cells that can be hierarchically refined or coarsened using an adaptive mesh based on the quadtree algorithm. Such a mesh refines the regions of the domain near the solid-liquid interface, where the highest concentration gradients are observed. In the regions where the lowest concentration gradients are observed the cells are coarsened. The originality of the work is in the novel, adaptive approach to the efficient and accurate solution of the posed multiscale problem. The model is verified and assessed by comparison with the analytical results of the Lipton-Glicksman-Kurz model for the steady growth of a dendrite tip and the Jackson-Hunt model for regular eutectic growth. Several examples of typical microstructures are simulated and the features of the method as well as further developments are discussed.

  6. Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of 280 X 90 with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

  7. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  8. Third-generation dual-source CT of the neck using automated tube voltage adaptation in combination with advanced modeled iterative reconstruction: evaluation of image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Wichmann, Julian L.; Huesers, Kristina; Albrecht, Moritz H.; Beeres, Martin; Bauer, Ralf W.; Vogl, Thomas J.; Bodelle, Boris

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate image quality and radiation dose in third-generation dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) of the neck using automated tube voltage adaptation (TVA) with advanced modelled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) algorithm. One hundred and sixteen patients were retrospectively evaluated. Group A (n = 59) was examined on second-generation DSCT with automated TVA and filtered back projection. Group B (n = 57) was examined on a third-generation DSCT with automated TVA and ADMIRE. Age, body diameter, attenuation of several anatomic structures, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), radiation dose (CTDI vol ) and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) were assessed. Diagnostic acceptability was rated by three readers. Age (p = 0.87) and body diameter (p = 0.075) did not differ significantly. Tube voltage in Group A was set automatically to 100 kV for all patients (n = 59), and to 70 kV (n = 2), 80 kV (n = 5), and 90 kV (n = 50) in Group B. Noise was reduced and CNR was increased significantly (p < 0.001). Diagnostic acceptability was rated high in both groups, with better ratings in Group B (p < 0.001). SSDE was reduced by 34 % in Group B (20.38 ± 1.63 mGy vs. 13.04 ± 1.50 mGy, p < 0.001). Combination of automated TVA and ADMIRE in neck CT using third-generation DSCT results in a substantial radiation dose reduction with low noise and increased CNR. (orig.)

  9. Electrotherapy for neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeling, Peter; Gross, Anita; Graham, Nadine; Burnie, Stephen J; Szeto, Grace; Goldsmith, Charles H; Haines, Ted; Forget, Mario

    2013-08-26

    Neck pain is common, disabling and costly. The effectiveness of electrotherapy as a physiotherapeutic option remains unclear. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005 and previously updated in 2009. This systematic review assessed the short, intermediate and long-term effects of electrotherapy on pain, function, disability, patient satisfaction, global perceived effect, and quality of life in adults with neck pain with and without radiculopathy or cervicogenic headache. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, MANTIS, CINAHL, and ICL, without language restrictions, from their beginning to August 2012; handsearched relevant conference proceedings; and consulted content experts. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in any language, investigating the effects of electrotherapy used primarily as unimodal treatment for neck pain. Quasi-RCTs and controlled clinical trials were excluded. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We were unable to statistically pool any of the results, but we assessed the quality of the evidence using an adapted GRADE approach. Twenty small trials (1239 people with neck pain) containing 38 comparisons were included. Analysis was limited by trials of varied quality, heterogeneous treatment subtypes and conflicting results. The main findings for reduction of neck pain by treatment with electrotherapeutic modalities were as follows.Very low quality evidence determined that pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) and repetitive magnetic stimulation (rMS) were more effective than placebo, while transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) showed inconsistent results.Very low quality evidence determined that PEMF, rMS and TENS were more effective than placebo.Low quality evidence (1 trial, 52 participants) determined that permanent magnets (necklace) were no more effective than placebo (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.27, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.82, random-effects model

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  11. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  12. Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in ...

  13. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  14. Volume and dosimetric changes and initial clinical experience of a two-step adaptive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) scheme for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Tamaki; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Shibata, Toru; Tamura, Masaya; Nishigaito, Naohiro; Okumura, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to show the benefit of a two-step intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) method by examining geometric and dosimetric changes. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with pharyngeal cancers treated with two-step IMRT combined with chemotherapy were included. Treatment-planning CT was done twice before IMRT (CT-1) and at the third or fourth week of IMRT for boost IMRT (CT-2). Transferred plans recalculated initial plan on CT-2 were compared with the initial plans on CT-1. Dose parameters were calculated for a total dose of 70 Gy for each plan. Results: The volumes of primary tumors and parotid glands on CT-2 regressed significantly. Parotid glands shifted medially an average of 4.2 mm on CT-2. The mean doses of the parotid glands in the initial and transferred plans were 25.2 Gy and 30.5 Gy, respectively. D 2 (dose to 2% of the volume) doses of the spinal cord were 37.1 Gy and 39.2 Gy per 70 Gy, respectively. Of 15 patients in whom xerostomia scores could be evaluated 1–2 years after IMRT, no patient complained of grade 2 or more xerostomia. Conclusions: This two-step IMRT method as an adaptive RT scheme could adapt to changes in body contour, target volumes and risk organs during IMRT

  15. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  16. Head and Neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Liselotte; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Loft, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography with FDG of the head and neck region is mainly used for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer, for staging, treatment evaluation, relapse, and planning of surgery and radio therapy. This article is a practical guide of imaging techniques......, including a detailed protocol for FDG PET in head and neck imaging, physiologic findings, and pitfalls in selected case stories....

  17. Neck pain with radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagawati, Dimpu; Gwilym, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific neck pain has a postural or mechanical basis, and affects about two-thirds of people at some stage, especially in middle age. Acute neck pain resolves within days or weeks, but becomes chronic in about 10% of people.Whiplash injuries follow sudden acceleration-deceleration of the neck, such as in road traffic or sporting accidents. Up to 40% of people continue to report symptoms 15 years after the accident.

  18. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular ...

  19. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is to ...

  20. NECK PAIN: AN ANCIENT VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Yogitha Bali

    2012-01-01

    Neck pain is one of the very common complaints across the globe. Common neck pain occurs due to problems in the neck muscles, ligaments and discs due to faulty neck postures and daily neck misadventures accounting for more than 80% of neck pains around the globe. Conventional treatment methods which include drugs, physiotherapy, exercises & operative care have their own limitations and are not entirely effective. Alternative therapeutic approach could complement or supplement the existing tre...

  1. Heritability of neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, R; Hartvigsen, J; Kyvik, K O

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the heritability of neck pain in a large population-based study of twins. METHODS: Data on lifetime prevalence of neck pain from a population-based cross-sectional survey of Danish twins were used. To assess twin similarity, the probandwise concordance rates, zygosity......-specific odds ratios and tetrachoric correlations were calculated and compared for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Using biometric modelling (structural equation modelling), the genetic and environmental contributions of the liability to neck pain were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 33,794 twins (response rate...... 73%) answered the questions regarding neck pain. Probandwise concordance rates, zygosity-specific odds ratios and tetrachoric correlations showed a significant genetic effect on neck pain. An overall additive genetic component of 44% was found. The genetic effect decreased with age, accounting...

  2. Italian cross-cultural adaptation and validation of three different scales for the evaluation of shoulder pain and dysfunction after neck dissection: University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Scale, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, C; Cristalli, G; Pichi, B; Manciocco, V; Mercante, G; Pellini, R; Marchesi, P; Sperduti, I; Ruscito, P; Spriano, G

    2012-02-01

    Shoulder syndrome after neck dissection is a well known entity, but its incidence and prognostic factors influencing recovery have not been clearly assessed due to the heterogeneity of possible evaluations. The University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Scale, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) are three English-language questionnaires commonly used to test shoulder impairment. An Italian version of these scales is not available. The aim of the present study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate an Italian version of UCLA Shoulder Scale, SPADI and SST. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SPADI, the UCLA shoulder scale and the SST was performed according to the international guidelines. Sixty-six patients treated with neck dissection for head and neck cancer were called to draw up these scales. Forty patients completed the same questionnaires a second time one week after the first to test the reproducibility of the Italian versions. All the English-speaking Italian patients (n = 11) were asked to complete both the English and the Italian versions of the three questionnaires to validate the scales. No major problems regarding the content or the language were found during the translation of the 3 questionnaires. For all three scales, Cronbach's α was > 0.89. The Pearson correlation coefficient was r > 0.91. With respect to validity, there was a significant correlation between the Italian and the English versions of all three scales. This study shows that the Italian versions of UCLA Shoulder Scale, SPADI and SST are valid instruments for the evaluation of shoulder dysfunction after neck dissection in Italian patients.

  3. Morbidity of the neck after head and neck cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van der Laan, B.F.; Plukker, J.T.; Roodenburg, J.L.

    Background. Studies on morbidity of the neck after head and neck cancer therapy are scarcely described. Methods. Patients who underwent surgery, including neck dissection, with and without radiation therapy at least 1 year before the study were asked to participate. We assessed neck pain, loss of

  4. Pitfalls in neck imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, S.B.; Phillips, C.D.; Cornett, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    CT and MR imaging have become effective imaging modalities in the evaluation of primary head and neck neoplasms. As radiologists have gained experience in head and neck imaging, certain pitfalls have become evident. Identification of pathologic lymph nodes is the critical element in staging neoplasms of the head and neck. The diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy may be complicated by confusion with normal structures, inadequate contrast opacification of vascular structures, and poor scanning technique. This paper illustrates these potential problem areas on both CT and MR images and offers the authors' approach to further evaluation in problem cases

  5. Multidisciplinary treatment of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Since lymph node metastases are one of the most important prognostic factors, treatment of the neck is challenging. In clinically N0 neck, (super)selective neck dissection is indicated, whereas a more extensive neck dissection with preservation of important structures is performed in N2-N3 disease.

  6. Structural thermodynamics of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Manenc, Jack

    1973-01-01

    Technical progress has for a very long time been directly dependent on progress in metallurgy, which is itself connected with improvements in the technology of alloys. Metals are most frequently used in the form of alloys for several reasons: the quantity of pure metal in its native state in the earth's crust is very limited; pure metals must be extracted from ores which are themselves impure. Finally, the methods of treatment used lead more easily to alloys than to pure metals. The most typical case is that of iron, where a pure ore may be found, but which is the starting point for cast iron or steel, alloys of iron and carbon. In addition, the properties of alloys are in general superior to those of pure metals and modem metallurgy consists of controlling these properties so as to make them conform to the requirements of the design office. Whilst the engineer was formerly compelled to adapt his designs and constructions to the materials available, such as wood, stone, bronze, iron, cast iron and ordinary st...

  7. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  8. Talar neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlet, G C; Lee, T H; Massa, E G

    2001-01-01

    Clinical management of talar neck fractures is complex and fraught with complications. As Gaius Julius Caesar stated: "The die is cast"; often the outcome of a talar neck fracture is determined at the time of injury. The authors believe, however, that better results can be achieved by following some simple guidelines. The authors advocate prompt and precise anatomic surgical reduction, preferring the medial approach with secondary anterolateral approach. Preservation of blood supply can be achieved by a thorough understanding of vascular pathways and efforts to stay within appropriate surgical intervals. The authors advocate bone grafting of medial neck comminution (if present) to prevent varus malalignment and rigid internal fixation to allow for joint mobilization postoperatively. These guidelines may seem simple, but when dealing with the complexity of talar neck fractures, the foot and ankle surgeon needs to focus and rely on easily grasped concepts to reduce poor outcomes.

  9. Melanoma - neck (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This melanoma on the neck is variously colored with a very darkly pigmented area found centrally. It has irregular ... be larger than 0.5 cm. Prognosis in melanoma is best defined by its depth on resection.

  10. Neck dissection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drain in your neck when you leave the hospital. The provider will tell you how to care for it. Healing time will depend on how much tissue was removed. Diet and Nutrition You can eat your regular foods ...

  11. Neck Pain following Laminoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mesfin, Addisu; Park, Moon-Soo; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Song, Kwang Sup; Kim, Han Jo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data. Objective?To compare preoperative and postoperative neck pain following laminoplasty using the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Methods?Seventy-two patients undergoing laminoplasty from 2006 to 2009 at a single institution were identified. Thirty-four patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up who completed preoperative, 6-week, and 1-year postoperative NDI questionnaires were enrolled. Demographic data and surgical data includi...

  12. Neck Pain Occurrence and Characteristics in Nigerian University Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunke Patience Iroko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: University students seem to be a high risk group for neck pain which often leads to diminished concentration and academic performance among them. This study examined the occurrence and characteristics of neck pain in undergraduate students from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. METHOD: One thousand and sixty nine (512 male and 557 female undergraduate students with the mean age of 23.49 ± 2.54 years responded in this cross-sectional survey. An adapted questionnaire that sought information on demographics, occurrence, characteristics and the consequence of neck pain on activities of daily living served as the survey instrument. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence and current frequency of neck pain among the respondents was 34.9% and 9.8% respectively. Female students had a higher preponderance of lifetime neck pain prevalence than their male counterparts (52.8 vs. 47.2%. There was higher frequency of neck pain after admission into the university than before (68.6 vs. 28.7%. Neck pain increased according to level of study and commoner among clinical students. 20% of the respondents reported chronic neck pain and was commoner in males than females (13% vs. 7% females. Seats without back supports used during lectures (48.0%, long reading hours (31.4%, poor self perpetuating posture (16.6%, and types of pillow used when sleeping (14.2% were the most implicated predisposing factors to neck pain. Reading (49.7% and concentration on school work (27.9% were the most limited activities of daily living. CONCLUSION: Neck pain is common among Nigerian university undergraduate students and affects females than males. The prevalence increased with higher level of study and commoner among clinical students. Neck pain mostly affects reading and concentration on school work among university undergraduate students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 167-174

  13. Nonswelling alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses

  14. Pediatric Neck Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Machado de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Neck masses include a wide variety of diagnostic possibilities, with more than 60 etiologies that depend on clinical aspects such as age, location and time of disease progression. The interview and physical examination guide research that cross the neck masses in pediatric patients in 3 groups: infectious / inflammatory, and neoplastic embryonic remnants. The aim of this study was to present a protocol for evaluation of neck masses in the pediatric age group, based on a review of literature on the subject and experience of this service. Materials and Methods Survey of literature data from PubMed / Medline, Google Scholar and Scopus Database without language restriction, since 1980 sources, with the MeSH term "Pediatric neck mass".  Results Prepared flowchart guidelines to be followed according with diagnostic suspicions. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the initial clinical manifestations and according to etiological hypotheses formulated recommend evaluations protocols.  Conclusion The standardization of the evaluation of neck masses in children proves valuable and can help in the differential diagnosis of different etiologies involved.

  15. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or ... Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or ...

  16. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay, Theresa M.; Gross, Anita; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Rutherford, Sherrill; Voth, Sandra; Hoving, Jan L.; Brønfort, Gert; Santaguida, Pasqualina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neck disorders are common, disabling and costly. The effectiveness of exercise as a physiotherapy intervention remains unclear. Objectives To improve pain, disability, function, patient satisfaction, quality of life and global perceived effect in adults with neck pain. Search methods

  17. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation Thyroid nodules (see Thyroid Nodule brochure) • Thyroid nodules ...

  18. Mechanical evaluation of cerebral aneurysm clip scissoring phenomenon: comparison of titanium alloy and cobalt alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Keiji; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2017-09-13

    Cerebral aneurysm clip blades crossing during surgery is well known as scissoring. Scissoring might cause rupture of the aneurysm due to laceration of its neck. Although aneurysm clip scissoring is well known, there have been few reports describing the details of this phenomenon. Quasi-scissoring phenomenon was introduced mechanically by rotating the clip head attached to a silicone sheet. The anti-scissoring torque during the twist of the blades was measured by changing the depth and the opening width. The closing force was also evaluated. Sugita straight clips of titanium alloy and cobalt alloy were used in the present study. In both materials, the anti-scissoring torque and the closing force were bigger 3 mm in thickness than 1 mm. The initial closing forces and the anti-scissoring torque values at each rotation angles were increased in proportion to depth. Closing forces of titanium alloy clip were slightly higher than those of cobalt alloy clip. By contrast, anti-scissoring torque values of cobalt alloy clip were bigger than those of titanium alloy clip in all conditions. In condition of 3 mm in thickness and 3 mm in depth, anti-scissoring torque vales of titanium alloy clip decreased suddenly when an angle surpassed 70 degrees. Aneurysm clip scissoring phenomenon tends to occur when clipping the aneurysm neck only with blade tips. Based on the results of this experiment, titanium alloy clip is more prone to scissoring than cobalt alloy clip under the condition that the wide blade separation distance and the shallow blade length.

  19. Local strains, calorimetry, and magnetoresistance in adaptive martensite transition in multiple nanostrips of Ni39+xMn50Sn11−x(x ≤ 2 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Prasanna and Shanker Ram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni39+xMn50Sn11−x (x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 alloys comprise multiple martensite nanostrips of nanocrystallites when cast in small discs, for example, ~15 mm diameter and 8 mm width. A single martensite phase with a L10 tetragonal crystal structure at room temperature can be formed at a critical Sn content of 9.0 at.% (x = 2, whereas an austenite cubic L21 phase turns up at smaller x ≤ 1.5. The decrease in the Sn content from x = 2 to 0.5 also results in a gradual increase in the crystallite size from 11 to 17 nm. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal arrays of regularly displaced multiple martensite strips (x ≥ 1.5 with an average thickness of 20 nm. As forced oscillators, these strips carry over the local strains, magnetic dipoles, and thermions simultaneously in a martensite–austenite (or reverse phase transition. A net residual enthalpy change ΔHM↔A = −0.12 J g−1 arises in the process that lacks reversibility between the cooling and heating cycles. A large magnetoresistance of (–26% at 10 T is observed together with a large entropy change of 11.8 mJ g−1 K−1, nearly twice the value ever reported in such alloys, in the isothermal magnetization at 311 K. The ΔHM↔A irreversibility accounts for a thermal hysteresis in the electrical resistivity. Strain induced in the martensite strips leads them to have a higher electrical resistivity than that of the higher-temperature austenite phase. A model considering time-dependent enthalpy relaxation explains the irreversibility features.

  20. Local strains, calorimetry, and magnetoresistance in adaptive martensite transition in multiple nanostrips of Ni39+x Mn50Sn11-x (x ⩽ 2) alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, A A; Ram, Shanker

    2013-02-01

    Ni 39+ x Mn 50 Sn 11- x ( x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) alloys comprise multiple martensite nanostrips of nanocrystallites when cast in small discs, for example, ∼15 mm diameter and 8 mm width. A single martensite phase with a L 1 0 tetragonal crystal structure at room temperature can be formed at a critical Sn content of 9.0 at.% ( x = 2), whereas an austenite cubic L 2 1 phase turns up at smaller x ⩽ 1.5. The decrease in the Sn content from x = 2 to 0.5 also results in a gradual increase in the crystallite size from 11 to 17 nm. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal arrays of regularly displaced multiple martensite strips ( x ≽ 1.5) with an average thickness of 20 nm. As forced oscillators, these strips carry over the local strains, magnetic dipoles, and thermions simultaneously in a martensite-austenite (or reverse) phase transition. A net residual enthalpy change Δ H M↔A = -0.12 J g -1 arises in the process that lacks reversibility between the cooling and heating cycles. A large magnetoresistance of (-)26% at 10 T is observed together with a large entropy change of 11.8 mJ g -1 K -1 , nearly twice the value ever reported in such alloys, in the isothermal magnetization at 311 K. The Δ H M↔A irreversibility accounts for a thermal hysteresis in the electrical resistivity. Strain induced in the martensite strips leads them to have a higher electrical resistivity than that of the higher-temperature austenite phase. A model considering time-dependent enthalpy relaxation explains the irreversibility features.

  1. Local strains, calorimetry, and magnetoresistance in adaptive martensite transition in multiple nanostrips of Ni39+xMn50Sn11−x(x ⩽ 2) alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, A A; Ram, Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Ni39+xMn50Sn11−x (x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) alloys comprise multiple martensite nanostrips of nanocrystallites when cast in small discs, for example, ∼15 mm diameter and 8 mm width. A single martensite phase with a L10 tetragonal crystal structure at room temperature can be formed at a critical Sn content of 9.0 at.% (x = 2), whereas an austenite cubic L21 phase turns up at smaller x ⩽ 1.5. The decrease in the Sn content from x = 2 to 0.5 also results in a gradual increase in the crystallite size from 11 to 17 nm. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal arrays of regularly displaced multiple martensite strips (x ≽ 1.5) with an average thickness of 20 nm. As forced oscillators, these strips carry over the local strains, magnetic dipoles, and thermions simultaneously in a martensite–austenite (or reverse) phase transition. A net residual enthalpy change ΔHM↔A = −0.12 J g−1 arises in the process that lacks reversibility between the cooling and heating cycles. A large magnetoresistance of (–)26% at 10 T is observed together with a large entropy change of 11.8 mJ g−1 K−1, nearly twice the value ever reported in such alloys, in the isothermal magnetization at 311 K. The ΔHM↔A irreversibility accounts for a thermal hysteresis in the electrical resistivity. Strain induced in the martensite strips leads them to have a higher electrical resistivity than that of the higher-temperature austenite phase. A model considering time-dependent enthalpy relaxation explains the irreversibility features. PMID:27877562

  2. TC pathological Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Fontes, M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

  3. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...

  4. Design and experimental testing of an adaptive shape-morphing tensegrity structure, with frequency self-tuning capabilities, using shape-memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Filipe Amarante dos; Rodrigues, André; Micheletti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The present paper explores the capabilities of a tensegrity-inspired tower with regard to frequency tuning by shape morphing. To change the configuration of the proposed structure, shape-memory-alloy (SMA) actuators are used. This actuation principle also takes advantage of the variation of the elastic modulus of SMAs associated with the martensitic transformation. The temperature modulation of the SMA wires is successfully achieved by Joule heating, through a proportional-integral-derivative controller, to change between a low-temperature shape and a high-temperature shape. The implementation of a short-time-Fourier-transform control algorithm allows for the correct identification of the dominant input frequency, associated with the dynamic excitation. This information is used to automatically change the configuration of the structure in order to shift its natural frequency away from that of the dynamic excitation. With this frequency tuning, one obtains a reduction of the accelerations throughout the structure up to about 80%. The good performance of the proposed control approach gives promising indications regarding the use of tensegrity systems, in combination with SMAs, for shape-morphing applications, and, in particular, for self-tuning structures. (paper)

  5. Femoral Neck Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 74-year-old male presented to the emergency department with left hip pain after falling off his bicycle. Pain is 3/10 in severity and exacerbated by movement. Patient denied head trauma. Exam showed left hip tenderness, 3/5 left lower extremity strength secondary to pain, and 5/5 right lower extremity strength. Sensation and pulses were intact in bilateral lower extremities. Left hip X-ray and pelvic CT revealed comminuted, impacted transcervical and subcapital fracture of the left femoral neck. Significant findings: In the anteroposterior view bilateral hip x-ray, there is an evident loss of Shenton’s line on the left (red line when compared to the normal right (white line, indicative of a fracture in the left femoral neck. This correlates with findings seen on pelvic CT, which reveals both a subcapital fracture (blue arrow and transcervical fracture (yellow arrow. The neck of the femur is displaced superiorly relative to the head of the femur while the head of the femur remains in its anatomical position within the acetabulum. Discussion: Femoral neck fractures are one of the most common types of hip fractures, accounting for 49.4% of all hip fractures.1 Diagnosing a femoral neck fracture can be made with plain x-ray, CT, or MRI. Plain film radiographs have been found to be at least 90% sensitive for hip fractures CT’s have been found to be 87%-100% sensitive and 100% specific for occult hip fractures in which plain radiographs were read as negative, but the patient still complained of hip pain Although MRI is currently the gold standard for detecting occult hip fractures (sensitivity and specificity = 100%, given MRI’s limited accessibility in the ED as well as the high sensitivity and specificity of CT scans for occult hip fractures, it is generally recommended to obtain CT scans for patients with suspected occult hip fractures as a first-line investigation

  6. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP1-05: Water Equivalent Path Length Calculations Using Scatter-Corrected Head and Neck CBCT Images to Evaluate Patients for Adaptive Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J; Park, Y; Sharp, G; Winey, B [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To establish a method to evaluate the dosimetric impact of anatomic changes in head and neck patients during proton therapy by using scatter-corrected cone-beam CT (CBCT) images. Methods: The water equivalent path length (WEPL) was calculated to the distal edge of PTV contours by using tomographic images available for six head and neck patients received photon therapy. The proton range variation was measured by calculating the difference between the distal WEPLs calculated with the planning CT and weekly treatment CBCT images. By performing an automatic rigid registration, six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) correction was made to the CBCT images to account for the patient setup uncertainty. For accurate WEPL calculations, an existing CBCT scatter correction algorithm, whose performance was already proven for phantom images, was calibrated for head and neck patient images. Specifically, two different image similarity measures, mutual information (MI) and mean square error (MSE), were tested for the deformable image registration (DIR) in the CBCT scatter correction algorithm. Results: The impact of weight loss was reflected in the distal WEPL differences with the aid of the automatic rigid registration reducing the influence of patient setup uncertainty on the WEPL calculation results. The WEPL difference averaged over distal area was 2.9 ± 2.9 (mm) across all fractions of six patients and its maximum, mostly found at the last available fraction, was 6.2 ± 3.4 (mm). The MSE-based DIR successfully registered each treatment CBCT image to the planning CT image. On the other hand, the MI-based DIR deformed the skin voxels in the planning CT image to the immobilization mask in the treatment CBCT image, most of which was cropped out of the planning CT image. Conclusion: The dosimetric impact of anatomic changes was evaluated by calculating the distal WEPL difference with the existing scatter-correction algorithm appropriately calibrated. Jihun Kim, Yang-Kyun Park

  7. The edema of fiddler's neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J B

    1979-12-01

    Fiddler's neck is a dermatosis of violinists and violists. It characteristically presents as focal lichenification and pigmentation on the left side of the neck. Edema may also occur in the same area and lead to cosmetic concern or fear of malignancy. The edema apparently results from pressure on the patient's neck by the base of the violin or viola and is worsened by holding the instrument in a drooping position.

  8. The neck-tongue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, R W; Marsden, C D

    1994-01-01

    The neck-tongue syndrome, consisting of pain in the neck and altered sensation in the ipsilateral half of the tongue aggravated by neck movement, has been attributed to damage to lingual afferent fibres travelling in the hypoglossal nerve to the C2 spinal roots. The lingual afferents in the hypoglossal nerve are thought to be proprioceptive. Two further cases of the neck-tongue syndrome are described, the spectrum of its clinical manifestations is explored, and the phenomenon of lingual pseudoathetosis is illustrated as a result of the presumed lingual deafferentation. Images PMID:8158185

  9. Neck pain in different cephalalgias

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Chechet; G. R. Tabeeva

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews the literature related to the investigations of neck pain (cervicalgia) in patients with headache (cephalalgia). Neck pain is second to lower back pain as a reason for considerable socioeconomic damage to society. The prevalence of cervicalgia in the population ranges from 5.9 to 38%; the annual incidence is 10.4–21.3%; 14.2 to 71% of people report to have neck pain at some time in their lifetime. Neck pain is concurrent with cephalalgia in 70% of cases. In patients with cer...

  10. Femoral neck structure and function in early hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Christopher B; Higgins, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    All early (Pliocene-Early Pleistocene) hominins exhibit some differences in proximal femoral morphology from modern humans, including a long femoral neck and a low neck-shaft angle. In addition, australopiths (Au. afarensis, Au. africanus, Au. boisei, Paranthropus boisei), but not early Homo, have an "anteroposteriorly compressed" femoral neck and a small femoral head relative to femoral shaft breadth. Superoinferior asymmetry of cortical bone in the femoral neck has been claimed to be human-like in australopiths. In this study, we measured superior and inferior cortical thicknesses at the middle and base of the femoral neck using computed tomography in six Au. africanus and two P. robustus specimens. Cortical asymmetry in the fossils is closer overall to that of modern humans than to apes, although many values are intermediate between humans and apes, or even more ape-like in the midneck. Comparisons of external femoral neck and head dimensions were carried out for a more comprehensive sample of South and East African australopiths (n = 17) and two early Homo specimens. These show that compared with modern humans, femoral neck superoinferior, but not anteroposterior breadth, is larger relative to femoral head breadth in australopiths, but not in early Homo. Both internal and external characteristics of the australopith femoral neck indicate adaptation to relatively increased superoinferior bending loads, compared with both modern humans and early Homo. These observations, and a relatively small femoral head, are consistent with a slightly altered gait pattern in australopiths, involving more lateral deviation of the body center of mass over the stance limb. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Modular Necks and Corrosion - Review of Five Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy McTighe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This report updates previous articles and commentary presented on Modular Necks from our Tissue Sparing Implant Study Group. In July 2012 we reported that at two years post-op we had encountered no modular neck taper failures or any signs of fretting corrosion, or pseudo tumors associated with the ARC™ Stem. Today we describe five patients out of five hundred and forty-two who had total hip arthroplasty revision [titanium alloy stem, cobalt-chromium modular neck (c.c. and c.c. modular head (32 mm or 36 mm, highly-cross-linked polyethylene liner, metal titanium plasma sprayed cementless metal cup]. All patients’ were female and all demonstrated progressive hip pain or late instability. All  had debridement of the periarticular soft tissue, stem extraction with new primary length cementless stem replacement. At revision and early follow up all patients are doing well, however, we recommend heighten awareness in all active female patients with modular neck stem junctions.

  12. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay, T. M.; Gross, A.; Goldsmith, C.; Santaguida, P. L.; Hoving, J.; Bronfort, G.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck disorders are common, limit function, and are costly to individuals and society. Exercise therapy is a commonly used treatment for neck pain. The effectiveness of exercise therapy remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of exercise therapy to relieve pain, or

  13. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Kay, Theresa M.; Paquin, Jean-Philippe; Blanchette, Samuel; Lalonde, Patrick; Christie, Trevor; Dupont, Genevieve; Graham, Nadine; Burnie, Stephen J.; Gelley, Geoff; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Forget, Mario; Hoving, Jan L.; Bronfort, Gert; Santaguida, Pasqualina L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neck pain is common, disabling and costly. Exercise is one treatment approach. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of exercises to improve pain, disability, function, patient satisfaction, quality of life and global perceived effect in adults with neck pain. Search methods We searched

  14. Biogeometry of femoral neck for implant placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwa J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Treatment of fracture neck femur with three cannulated cancellous screws in an apex proximal configuration is practised in many parts of the world. Methods : Dimensions of femoral neck at the middle of transcervical neck using CT scan (live neck and vernier caliper (dry cadeveric neck in 20 subjects respectively were measured. Results : Inferior half of the neck is narrower than superior half. Conclusion : Biogeometry of the neck of femur does not accomodate two inferior screws and thus fixation of fracture neck femur with three canulated cancellous screws in an apex distal configuration is recommended.

  15. The innovation trap: modular neck in total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Karel Fokter

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Innovations play the key role in the success of orthopaedic surgery. However, even minor modifications in the established concepts and proven designs may result in disasters. The endemic of modular femoral neck fracture (24 cases of about 4000 implanted in fully modular total hip arthroplasty, popular in our country for the last 20 years, seems to challenge us with such an unfortunate consequences. The aim of this report was to analyze the extent and the causes of the problem on the one hand and to propose possible solutions on the other.Methods: Literature search for problems associated with Profemur Z (or earlier versions with the same taper-cone design fully-modular femoral stem made of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V was performed, and hip arthroplasty registries were searched to evaluate the failure rates of the mentioned design. Mechanisms of failure were studied to get in-depth understanding of this particular hip reconstruction device.Results: Since 2010 onwards, several case reports on catastrophic modular femoral neck fractures of Profemur Z were published. Te frst Slovenian case was described in 2012. The first two larger series with modular femoral neck fractures were published in 2016. Te Australian Joint Replacement Registry was the first to discover increased revision rates due to fractures of this hip reconstruction system. Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices (JAZMP received frst two reports regarding Profemur Z modular neck complication from abroad in 2010, the first Slovenian report was received in 2012, and altogether 7 reports from Slovenian hospitals were received until December 2016. Corrosion at the neck-taper interface, where two equal or different materials are subject to constant wear in the presence of body fluids, is assumed to be responsible for the unacceptable high failure rate.Conclusions: Manufacturers are responsible to produce and market only safe devices

  16. Prevalance of neck pain in computer users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabeen, F.; Bashir, M.S.; Hussain, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged use of computers during daily work activities and recreation is often cited as a cause of neck pain. Neck pain and computer users are clearly connected due to extended periods of sitting in a certain position with no breaks to stretch the neck muscles. Pro-longed computer use with neck bent forward, will cause the anterior neck muscles to gradually get shorter and tighter, while the muscles in the back of neck will grow longer and weaker. These changes will lead to development of neck pain. Objectives: To find incidence of neck pain in computer users, association between neck pain and prolong sitting in wrong posture, association between effects of break during prolong work, association between types of chair in use in prolong sitting and occurrence of neck pain. Methodology: For this observational study data was collected through Questionnaires from office workers (computer users), and students. Results: Out of 50 persons 72% of computer users had neck pain. Strong association was found between neck pain and prolonged computer use (p = 0.001). Those who took break during their work had less neck pain. No significant association was found between type of chair in use and neck pain. Neck pain and type of system in use also had no significant association. Conclusion: So duration of computer use and frequency of breaks are associated with neck pain at work. Severe Neck pain was found in people who use computer for more than 5 hours a day. (author)

  17. Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshiki; Imanishi, Yorihisa

    2008-01-01

    The limitation of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) as the primary treatment is described based on recent findings. Limits in the application/indication involve factors of age, performance status (PS) and renal function. The first is that, as deaths in >71 years old patients are derived from other causes (41%) than HNC, CCRT is only useful for younger population; the second, patients with PS 0-1 or Karnofsky performance score >60-70 can be indicated; and third, contraindicated are those with creatinine clearance (CCr) <60 mL/min as the key drug cisplatin in CCRT has a high renal toxicity. It should be recognized that completion rates of chemotherapy and RT are as low as 66-85% and 84-92%, respectively, in CCRT. CCRT has such limiting adverse events as mucitis, dry mouth, dysohagia, weight loss, neutropenia, sepsis, etc., which are most important in CCRT application. CCRT is recommended for the primary cancers of larynx and hypopharynx because they are significantly better conserved than middle pharyngeal, oral and upper jaw cancers. Evidence of CCRT is poor for cancers in paranasal sinuses. Planned neck dissection (PND) is for the cervical metastatic lymph nodes and conducted 6-12 weeks after CCRT regardless to its outcome. In fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) negative cases, PND can be omitted. Necessity of PND is possibly inversely proportional to CCRT intensity performed. For control of remote metastasis, CCRT has obvious limits and inductive chemotherapy before it is currently considered. Salvage surgery post CCRT does not always yield a relief because of complication. Patients with advanced laryngeal cancer can be selected either to surgery or CCRT depending on results of the inductive chemotherapy. To predict the sensitivity to CCRT, some biomarkers like HPV, EGFR and VEGF have been suggested to be useful by retrospective studies. Understanding the limitation is as important as knowing the usefulness in

  18. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  19. A pain in the neck-Imaging in neck sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle, N.J.; Rutherford, E.E.; Batty, V.B.

    2011-01-01

    Deep neck infection has a high morbidity and mortality and the extent of infection is often difficult to estimate clinically. The complex anatomy and the communication between neck spaces means that infection can spread along fascial planes leading to life-threatening complications such as airway compromise, vascular erosion/thrombosis, neural dysfunction, and ultimately descending necrotizing mediastinitis. Imaging has an important role to play in identifying the extent of infection and the presence of complications.

  20. A pain in the neck-Imaging in neck sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle, N.J., E-mail: nickylyle@doctors.org.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Rutherford, E.E.; Batty, V.B. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Deep neck infection has a high morbidity and mortality and the extent of infection is often difficult to estimate clinically. The complex anatomy and the communication between neck spaces means that infection can spread along fascial planes leading to life-threatening complications such as airway compromise, vascular erosion/thrombosis, neural dysfunction, and ultimately descending necrotizing mediastinitis. Imaging has an important role to play in identifying the extent of infection and the presence of complications.

  1. Neck muscle fatigue differentially alters scapular and humeral kinematics during humeral elevation in subclinical neck pain participants versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Howarth, Samuel; Ferguson, Brad; Murphy, Bernadette

    2017-04-01

    Scapular orientation is highly dependent on axioscapular muscle function. This study examined the impact of neck muscle fatigue on scapular and humeral kinematics in participants with and without subclinical neck pain (SCNP) during humeral elevation. Ten SCNP and 10 control participants performed three unconstrained trials of dominant arm humeral elevation in the scapular plane to approximately 120 degrees before and after neck extensor muscle fatigue. Three-dimensional scapular and humeral kinematics were measured during the humeral elevation trials. Humeral elevation plane angle showed a significant interaction between groups (SCNP vs controls) and trial (pre- vs post-fatigue) (p=0.001). Controls began the unconstrained humeral elevation task after fatigue in a more abducted position, (p=0.002). Significant baseline differences in scapular rotation existed between the two groups (Posterior/Anterior tilt, p=0.04; Internal/External Rotation, p=0.001). SCNP contributed to altered scapular kinematics. Neck muscle fatigue influenced humeral kinematics in controls but not the SCNP group; suggesting that altered scapular motor control in the SCNP group resulted in an impaired adaption further to the neck muscle fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dissolution ad uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, B.; Bergman, M.; Soeremark, R.

    1977-01-01

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium ( 115 Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of 115 Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver. (author)

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  4. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons ...

  5. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ ...

  6. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teeth or become infected. It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out ... and surgically treating cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to ...

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neck Pathology Download Download the ebook for further information Your oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is the ... well be the key to complete recovery. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disorders are not uncommon. Individuals with a TMJ disorder may experience a variety of symptoms, such as earaches, ... Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ ...

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans will ... cheek out to see its inside surface as well as the back of the gums Pull out ...

  10. Neck pain in different cephalalgias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Chechet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the literature related to the investigations of neck pain (cervicalgia in patients with headache (cephalalgia. Neck pain is second to lower back pain as a reason for considerable socioeconomic damage to society. The prevalence of cervicalgia in the population ranges from 5.9 to 38%; the annual incidence is 10.4–21.3%; 14.2 to 71% of people report to have neck pain at some time in their lifetime. Neck pain is concurrent with cephalalgia in 70% of cases. In patients with cervicalgia, the prevalence of headache is 20–40% higher than in those with musculoskeletal pain at another site. Neck pain is as a major risk factor for migraine and tension headache (TH. Neck pain in TH progresses with the increased intensity, frequency, and strength of headache. There is a direct relationship of the quality of life worsening associated withcervicalgia to the frequency of migraine attacks and the risk of its chronization. Neck pain is noted in cervicogenic headache belonging to secondary headaches. The identification of mixed headache in a patient with cervicalgia allows the prescription of a treatment option that may be effective in relieving both headache and neck pain. The paper discusses the causes and pathogenesis of cervicalgia in patients with headache, examination methods, and main approaches to drug and nondrug therapies in relation to the leading pathophysiological mechanism, as well as new possibilities for the effective and safe relief of pain syndrome in this category of patients. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, myorelaxants,and their combination are observed to be effective in treating patients with cervicalgia and cephalalgia.

  11. Neck biomechanics indicate that giant Transylvanian azhdarchid pterosaurs were short-necked arch predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Naish

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Azhdarchid pterosaurs include the largest animals to ever take to the skies with some species exceeding 10 metres in wingspan and 220 kg in mass. Associated skeletons show that azhdarchids were long-necked, long-jawed predators that combined a wing planform suited for soaring with limb adaptations indicative of quadrupedal terrestrial foraging. The postcranial proportions of the group have been regarded as uniform overall, irrespective of their overall size, notwithstanding suggestions that minor variation may have been present. Here, we discuss a recently discovered giant azhdarchid neck vertebra referable to Hatzegopteryx from the Maastrichtian Sebeş Formation of the Transylvanian Basin, Romania, which shows how some azhdarchids departed markedly from conventional views on their proportions. This vertebra, which we consider a cervical VII, is 240 mm long as preserved and almost as wide. Among azhdarchid cervicals, it is remarkable for the thickness of its cortex (4–6 mm along its ventral wall and robust proportions. By comparing its dimensions to other giant azhdarchid cervicals and to the more completely known necks of smaller taxa, we argue that Hatzegopteryx had a proportionally short, stocky neck highly resistant to torsion and compression. This specimen is one of several hinting at greater disparity within Azhdarchidae than previously considered, but is the first to demonstrate such proportional differences within giant taxa. On the assumption that other aspects of Hatzegopteryx functional anatomy were similar to those of other azhdarchids, and with reference to the absence of large terrestrial predators in the Maastrichtian of Transylvania, we suggest that this pterosaur played a dominant predatory role among the unusual palaeofauna of ancient Haţeg.

  12. Using BPA alone for boron neutron capture therapy of recurrent head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aihara, Teruhito; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Nishiike, Suetaka; Morita, Norimasa; Uno, Masako; Harada, Tamotsu; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, boron neutron capture therapy(BNCT) has been established as a special treatment technique for overcoming the radiation resistance of malignant melanomas and brain tumors. Head and neck malignancies were consequently selected as adaptable cancers. We report the clinical results of treatment with BPA alone utilizing 18 F-BPA·PET and discuss several advantages to the application of BNCT to head and neck malignancies. (author)

  13. Microstructures and superplasticity in near-gamma titanium aluminide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bampton, C.C.; Martin, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    Microstructure control by thermomechanical processing in near-gamma titanium aluminide alloys has recently progressed to a point where the authors are able to reliably produce a wide range of microstructures in a single alloy. The authors are now studying the basic superplastic deformation microstructures. Correlations are made between microstructural details and flow stress, strain hardening, strain-rate hardening, necking, cavitation and failure. Special emphasis is given to the cavitation behavior since this phenomenon may constitute a major limitation to the useful application of superplastic forming for gamma TiAl structures

  14. Effect of training on corticomotor excitability in clinical neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittig-Rasmussen, B; Kasch, H; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A; Svensson, P; Jensen, T S

    2014-09-01

    Corticomotor excitability has been shown to correlate with motor learning and functional recovery. The aim of the present study was to monitor changes in excitability of the corticomotor pathways induced by neck training and to compare the effects in patients with neck or knee pain and pain-free participants. Corticomotor excitability was assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography at baseline, after 30 min and 1 h, and at a 1-week follow-up visit. The primary outcome measures were changes in amplitudes and latencies of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) at 1-week follow-up. MEP responses induced by neck training yielded significantly different outcomes in the three groups. In the group with neck pain and training, MEP amplitudes were significantly reduced between baseline and 30 min (p ≤ 0.05), but with no significant difference between baseline, 1 h (p = 0.178) and 1 week (p = 0.067). In the group with knee pain and training, MEP amplitudes significantly increased between baseline and 30 min (p ≤ 0.01) and 1 h (p pain-free group, there were no changes over time. Neck training reduced neuroplastic responsiveness of corticomotor pathways in neck pain patients in contrast to knee pain patients and pain-free participants. Increased attention to adaptive and maladaptive neuroplastic responses induced by training may prove valuable in the process of optimizing clinical outcomes. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  15. AN EFFECT OF SHOT PEENING ON GROWTH AND RETARDATION OF PHYSICALLY SHORT FATIGUE CRACKS IN AN AIRCRAFT Al-ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Černý

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of an investigation of effect of shot peening on development of physically short fatigue crack in an aircraft V-95 Al-alloy, which is of a similar type as 7075 alloy, are described and discussed in the paper. The first part deals with adaptation and verification of direct current potential drop method for detection and measurement of short crack initiation and growth. The specific material and quite large dimensions of flat specimens with side necking of a low stress concentration factor had to be considered when position of electrodes was specified and the measurement method verified. The specimen type and dimensions were proposed taking account of the investigation of shot peening effects. Physically short fatigue cracks of the length from 0.2 mm to more than 3 mm, most of them between 0.8 – 1.5 mm, were prepared under high cycle fatigue loading of a constant nominal stress amplitude plus/minus 160 MPa. Specimens with existing short fatigue cracks were shot peened using two different groups of parameters. Development of crack growth after shot peening was measured and compared with crack growth in specimens without shot peening. Retardation of crack growth was significant particularly with cracks shorter than 2 mm. For the specific stress amplitude, evaluated results enable to estimate threshold length of defects, which after the application of shot peening will be reliably arrested.

  16. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  17. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  18. Are neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain? Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariens, G.A.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Douwes, M.; Miedema, M.C.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; van der Wal, G.; Bouter, L.M.; van Mechelen, W.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured

  19. Are neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain? : Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G A; Bongers, P M; Douwes, M; Miedema, M C; Hoogendoorn, W E; van der Wal, G; Bouter, L M; van Mechelen, W

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured

  20. Deep space infections of neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluskar, S; Bajaj, P; Bane, P

    2007-03-01

    A retrospective study was performed on fourteen cases of deep cervical space infections in the neck admitted for diagnosis and treatment to the ENT Department, during a period of seven years from 1989-1997. Of the fourteen, four patients had Ludwig's angina and of the fourteen, one had a very serious complication resulting in death. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment were of paramount importance. The role of tracheostomy and management of airway in deep cervical space infections of the neck is discussed to gether with bacteriology, antibiotic treatment and surgical management.

  1. Neck pain or spasms -- self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000802.htm Neck pain or spasms - self care To use the sharing ... strengthening exercises and how to do them. Preventing Neck Pain If you work at a computer or a ...

  2. Conserved bone microstructure in the shells of long-necked and short-necked chelid turtles (Testudinata, Pleurodira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Scheyer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Extant and fossil chelids are restricted to South America and Australasia. Based on morphological data, long-necked and short-necked chelids are hypothesised to form natural groups respectively, whereas molecular and serological data indicate South American and Australasian chelids are monophyletic, regardless of neck-length. Here I provide shell bone histological and microanatomical data and character mapping of seven chelid taxa and the Late Jurassic stem-pleurodiran Platychelys oberndorferi Wagner, 1853 to test both competing hypotheses. The chelid shells show conserved bone microstructures, many of which are plesiomorphic for all turtles. Part of the variation among chelid shell microstructures could be attributed to functional aspects associated with the ecology of the taxa, i.e. adaptation to an aquatic lifestyle. The character mapping further indicates that the hypothesis of clades based on neck length is supported by two synapomorphies (i.e., parallel-fibred bone grading into lamellar bone in internal cortex and vascularisation of internal cortex and one less tree step (16 instead of 17 in contrast to the molecular-based separation based on geographic distribution. doi:10.1002/mmng.200800009

  3. Processing and alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.

    1993-01-01

    Tungsten heavy alloys are two-phase metal matrix composites with a unique combination of density, strength, and ductility. They are processed by liquid-phase sintering of mixed elemental powders. The final microstructure consists of a contiguous network of nearly pure tungsten grains embedded in a matrix of a ductile W-Ni-Fe alloy. Due to the unique property combination of the material, they are used extensively as kinetic energy penetrators, radiation shields. counterbalances, and a number of other applications in the defense industry. The properties of these alloys are extremely sensitive to the processing conditions. Porosity levels as low as 1% can drastically degrade the properties of these alloys. During processing, care must be taken to reduce or prevent incomplete densification, hydrogen embrittlement, impurity segregation to the grain boundaries, solidification shrinkage induced porosity, and in situ formation of pores due to the sintering atmosphere. This paper will discuss some of the key processing issues for obtaining tungsten heavy alloys with good properties. High strength tungsten heavy alloys are usually fabricated by swaging and aging the conventional as-sintered material. The influence of this on the shear localization tendency of a W-Ni-Co alloy will also be demonstrated. Recent developments have shown that the addition of certain refractory metals partially replacing tungsten can significantly improve the strength of the conventional heavy alloys. This development becomes significant due to the recent interest in near net shaping techniques such as powder injection moldings. The role of suitable alloying additions to the classic W-Ni-Fe based heavy alloys and their processing techniques will also be discussed in this paper

  4. Castability of Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, A. L.; Han, Q.; Horton, J. A.

    There is intense research effort into the development of high pressure die cast-able creep resistant magnesium alloys. One of the difficulties encountered in magnesium alloy development for creep resistance is that many additions made to improve the creep properties have reportedly resulted in alloys that are difficult to cast. It is therefore important to have an understanding of the effect of alloying elements on the castability. This paper gives a review of the state of the knowledge of the castability of magnesium alloys.

  5. Neck and arm pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de las Peñas, César Fernández; Cleland, Joshua; Huijbregts, Peter

    The first of its kind, Neck and Arm Pain Syndromes is a comprehensive evidence- and clinical-based book, covering research-based diagnosis, prognosis and management of neuromusculoskeletal pathologies and dysfunctions of the upper quadrant, including joint, muscle, myofascial and neural tissue ap...

  6. Neck pain: causes, diagnosis, treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice. In most cases, it is unassociated with a serious problem and ends with complete recovery. Nonspecific (mechanical, axial) pain is most common; posttraumatic pain associated with whiplash injury is less frequently encountered; compression (radicular and myelopathic) syndromes are much less frequent. Analysis of complaints and medical histories and neuroorthopedic and neurological examin...

  7. Intracranial hypertension following neck dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, W. A.; Balm, A. J.; Tiwari, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A 51-year-old man developed prolonged papilloedema as a result of increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure following staged bilateral radical neck dissection. The patient recovered completely with no further specific therapy. Although the prognosis for vision is usually good in patients with

  8. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans ... diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ...

  9. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  10. Neck control after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Na Young; Lee, Keun-Wook; Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Sung; Ah Kim, In

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck control outcomes after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancer. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of fifty patients with node-positive head and neck cancer who received definitive radiochemotherapy. Twelve patients subsequently underwent neck dissection for suspicious recurrent or persistent disease. A median dose of 70 Gy (range 60-70.6) was delivered to involved nodes. Response evaluation was performed at a median of 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Neck failure was observed in 11 patients and the 3-year regional control (RC) rate was 77.1%. Neck dissection was performed in 10 of the 11 patients; seven of these cases were successfully salvaged, and the ultimate rate of neck control was 92%. The remaining two patients who received neck dissection had negative pathologic results. On univariate analysis, initial nodal size > 2 cm, a less-than-complete response at the primary site, post-radiotherapy nodal size > 1.5 cm, and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were associated with RC. On multivariate analysis, less-than-complete primary site response and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were identified as independent prognostic factors for RC. The neck failure rate after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection was 22%. Two-thirds of these were successfully salvaged with neck dissection and the ultimate neck control rate was 92%. Our results suggest that planned neck dissection might not be necessary in patients with complete response of primary site, no evidence of residual lesion > 1.5 cm, or no necrotic lymph nodes at the 1-2 months follow-up evaluation after radiotherapy

  11. [Spinal accessory nerve and lymphatic neck dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsolle, V; Michelet, V; Majoufre, C; Caix, P; Siberchicot, F; Pinsolle, J

    1997-09-01

    Radical neck dissection was the golden standard of treatment for cervical nodes in head and neck tumors. From the seventies, the preservation of the spinal accessory nerve has become increasingly popular in order to improve the functional result of the neck dissections. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of functional disability associated with each type of neck dissection and the value of anatomical references for dissection of the spinal accessory nerve. One hundred twenty seven patients were evaluated 1 month and 1 year after radical, functional or supraomohyoid neck dissection with a questionnaire and a physical examination. Anatomical measurements of the spinal accessory nerve were performed in 20 patients. We found considerable or severe shoulder dysfunction in 7%, 34% and 51% respectively of patients in whom supraomohyoid, functional and radical neck dissections were performed. Furthermore 49% of patients having undergone a radical neck dissection had little or no symptoms. Sacrifice of the spinal accessory nerve in radical neck dissection may lead to shoulder dysfunction. A functional disability may also be associated, although in a less extent, with any neck dissection in which the spinal accessory nerve is dissected and placed in traction. There is a large variation in the degree of functional disability and pain in patients with similar neck dissections. The course of the spinal accessory nerve in the neck makes it particularly vulnerable to injury during the dissection near the sternocleidomastoid muscle and in the posterior cervical triangle.

  12. Biomechanical analysis of football neck collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Steven; McNeely, David E; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Duma, Stefan M

    2008-07-01

    To determine the load-limiting capabilities of protective neck collars used in football through dynamic impact testing. A 50th-percentile male Hybrid III dummy was used in 48 dynamic impact tests comparing The Cowboy Collar, Bullock Collar, and Kerr Collar. A control and each collar were tested at two velocities (5 m/s and 7 m/s), three impact locations (front, top, and side of the helmet), and two shoulder pad positions (normal and raised). Research laboratory. None. None. Independent variables were the neck collars, impact velocity, and shoulder pad position. In addition to range of motion, upper and lower neck forces and moments were measured. With the top impact location, it was found that the Kerr Collar and Bullock Collar reduced head accelerations and force transmission through the neck. With the front impact location, all the collars reduced lower neck moment. The Kerr Collar was also capable of reducing the lower neck force and upper neck moment. With the side impact location, the Kerr Collar substantially reduced lower neck moment. These reductions in loads correlate with the degree to which each collar restricted the motion of the head and neck. By restricting the range of motion of the neck and redistributing load to the shoulders, neck loads can be effectively lowered.

  13. Neck muscle function in violinists/violists with and without neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Anke; Claus, Andrew; Hodges, Paul W; Jull, Gwendolen A

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain is associated with changes in neuromuscular control of cervical muscles. Violin and viola playing requires good function of the flexor muscles to stabilize the instrument. This study investigated the flexor muscle behaviour in violin/viola players with and without neck pain using the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT). In total, 12 violin/viola players with neck pain, 21 violin/viola players without neck pain in the preceding 12 weeks and 21 pain-free non-musicians were included. Activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) was measured with surface electromyography (EMG) during the CCFT. Violin/viola players with neck pain displayed greater normalised SCM EMG amplitudes during CCFT than the pain-free musicians and non-musicians (P neck pain in violinists/violists is associated with altered behaviour of the superficial neck flexor muscles consistent with neck pain, despite the specific use of the deep and superficial neck flexors during violin playing.

  14. Neck muscle endurance and head posture: A comparison between adolescents with and without neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Carolina; Silva, Anabela G

    2016-04-01

    The main aims of this study were to compare the neck flexor and extensor endurance and forward head posture between adolescents with and without neck pain. The secondary aims were to explore potential associations between muscles endurance, head posture and neck pain characteristics and to assess intra-rater reliability of the measurements used. Adolescents with neck pain (n = 35) and age-matched asymptomatic adolescents (n = 35) had their forward head posture, neck flexor endurance and neck extensor endurance measured using clinical tests. Intra-rater reliability was also assessed. Forward head posture and neck flexor and extensor endurance tests showed moderate to almost perfect intra-rater reliability (ICC between 0.58 and 0.88). Adolescents with neck pain showed significantly less forward head posture (neck pain = 46.62 ± 4.92; asymptomatic = 44.18°± 3.64°, p > 0.05) and less neck flexor (neck pain = 24.50 ± 23.03s; asymptomatic = 35.89 ± 21.53s, p > 0.05) and extensor endurance (neck pain = 12.6.64 ± 77.94s; asymptomatic = 168.66 ± 74.77s, p > 0.05) than asymptomatic adolescents. Results suggest that changes in posture and neck muscle endurance are a feature of adolescents with neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Text neck and neck pain in 18-21-year-old young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Gerson Moreira; Ferreira, Arthur Sá; Nogueira, Leandro Alberto Calazans; Reis, Felipe José Jandre; Andrade, Igor Caio Santana; Meziat-Filho, Ney

    2018-01-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between text neck and neck pain in young adults. Observational cross-sectional study with 150 18-21-year-old young adults from a public high school in the state of Rio de Janeiro was performed. In the self-report questionnaire, the participants answered questions on sociodemographic factors, anthropometric factors, time spent texting or playing on a mobile phone, visual impairments, and concern with the body posture. The neck posture was assessed by participants' self-perception and physiotherapists' judgment during a mobile phone texting message task. The Young Spine Questionnaire was used to evaluate the neck pain. Four multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to investigate the association between neck posture during mobile phone texting and neck pain, considering potential confounding factors. There is no association between neck posture, assessed by self-perception, and neck pain (OR = 1.66, p = 0.29), nor between neck posture, assessed by physiotherapists' judgment, and neck pain (OR = 1.23, p = 0.61). There was also no association between neck posture, assessed by self-perception, and frequency of neck pain (OR = 2.19, p = 0.09), nor between neck posture, assessed by physiotherapists' judgment, and frequency of neck pain (OR = 1.17, p = 0.68). This study did not show an association between text neck and neck pain in 18-21-year-old young adults. The findings challenge the belief that neck posture during mobile phone texting is associated to the growing prevalence of neck pain.

  16. The Use of Neck Support Pillows and Postural Exercises in the Management of Chronic Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Alisha N; Feldman, Brian M; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

    2016-10-01

    Chronic neck pain is a common problem with a profound effect on quality of life. Identifying evidence-based management strategies is fundamental in improving patient outcomes. This study is a reanalysis of the data from Helewa, et al to further characterize the effects of postural exercises and neck support pillows on neck pain. A full factorial model was used. All interactions were analyzed adjusting for the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) at baseline. Postural exercises significantly decreased NPQ scores at ≥ 3 weeks, and the use of a neck support pillow significantly decreased NPQ scores at ≥ 12 weeks. These interventions could be beneficial in reducing neck pain symptoms.

  17. Head and neck space infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larawin, Varqa; Naipao, James; Dubey, Siba P

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, causes, management, and complications of the different head and neck space infections in a Melanesian population. We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary referral and teaching hospital. Of the total 103 patients with deep neck space infections (DNSI), odontogenic causes and suppurative lymphadenitis were responsible in 62 (60%) patients. A wide range of DNSI was encountered in our series. Ludwig's angina was the most commonly encountered infection seen in 38 (37%) patients, whereas prevertebral abscess was only seen in 1 (1%) patient. A combination of surgical drainage and medical treatment was the main mode of treatment. Nine (8.7%) patients with DNSI with upper airway obstruction underwent tracheostomy; 9 (8.7%) patients with DNSI succumbed to their infection. DNSI needs early detection and aggressive management in order to evade dreaded complications.

  18. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  19. Deep space infections of neck

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluskar, S.; Bajaj, P.; Bane, P.

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed on fourteen cases of deep cervical space infections in the neck admitted for diagnosis and treatment to the ENT Department, during a period of seven years from 1989–1997. Of the fourteen, four patients had Ludwig’s angina and of the fourteen, one had a very serious complication resulting in death. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment were of paramount importance. The role of tracheostomy and management of airway in deep cervical space infections of the ne...

  20. High strength alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smelikov, V.G.; Obukhov, A.S.; Ryzhkov, I.V.; Koshelev, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    The magnesium-based alloy in question contains alloy components in the form of elements chosen from the Al, Zn, Mn, Zr and rare earth group, and compounds of nitrogen and oxygen with any of these elements in the following proportions (wt%): alloy components chosen from the Al, Zn, Mn, Zr, Th and rare earth group 0.6-8.0, compound of nitrogen and oxygen with any of the above 0.1-6.0, magnesium the remainder. (author)

  1. Machinability of Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Wong, Yoke San; Zareena, A. Rahmath

    Titanium and its alloys find wide application in many industries because of their excellent and unique combination of high strength-to-weight ratio and high resistance to corrosion. The machinability of titanium and its alloys is impaired by its high chemical reactivity, low modulus of elasticity and low thermal conductivity. A number of literatures on machining of titanium alloys with conventional tools and advanced cutting tool materials is reviewed. The results obtained from the study on high speed machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with cubic boron nitride (CBN), binderless cubic boron nitride (BCBN) and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) are also summarized.

  2. Advances in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagle, S.R.; Wood, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    As described above, new developments in the aerospace market are focusing on higher temperature alloys for jet engine components and higher strength/toughness alloys for airframe applications. Conventional alloys for engines have reached their maximum useful temperature of about 1000 F (540 C) because of oxidation resistance requirements. IMI 834 and Ti-1100 advanced alloys show some improvement, however, the major improvement appears to be in gamma titanium aluminides which could extend the maximum usage temperature to about 1500 F (815 C). This puts titanium alloys in a competitive position to replace nickel-base superalloys. Advanced airframe alloys such as Ti-6-22-22S, Beta C TM , Ti-15-333 and Ti-10-2-3 with higher strength than conventional Ti-6-4 are being utilized in significantly greater quantities, both in military and commercial applications. These alloys offer improved strength with little or no sacrifice in toughness and improved formability, in some cases. Advanced industrial alloys are being developed for improved corrosion resistance in more reducing and higher temperature environments such as those encountered in sour gas wells. Efforts are focused on small precious metal additions to optimize corrosion performance for specific applications at a modest increase in cost. As these applications develop, the usage of titanium alloys for industrial markets should steadily increase to approach that for aerospace applications. (orig.)

  3. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM) alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable high-strength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO 2 laser . This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloy, over the last years. (Author) 16 refs

  4. Crystallization characteristics of cast aluminum alloys during a unidirectional solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    The crystal orientation characteristics of cast Al–Si, Al–Cu and Al–Mg alloys produced by a unidirectional solidification process are examined. Two distinct crystal orientation patterns are observed: uniform and random formation. A uniform crystal orientation is created by columnar growth of α-Al dendrites in the alloys with low proportions of alloying element, e.g., the Al–Si alloy (with Si <12.6%) and the Al–Cu and Al–Mg alloys (with Cu and Mg <2%). A uniformly organized crystal orientation with [100] direction is created by columnar growth of α-Al dendrites. With increasing proportion of alloying element (>2% Cu or Mg), the uniform crystal orientations collapse in the Al–Cu and Al–Mg alloys, owing to interruption of the columnar α-Al dendrite growth as a result of different dynamics of the alloying atoms and the creation of a core for the eutectic phases. For the hypo-eutectic Al–Si alloys, a uniform crystal orientation is obtained. In contrast, a random orientation can be detected in the hyper-eutectic Al–Si alloy (15% Si), which results from interruption of the growth of the α-Al dendrites due to precipitation of primary Si particles. There is no clear effect of crystal formation on ultimate tensile strength (UTS), whereas crystal orientation does influence the material ductility, with the alloys with a uniform crystal orientation being elongated beyond their UTS points and with necking occurring in the test specimens. In contrast, the alloys with a nonuniform crystal orientation are not elongated beyond their UTS points

  5. Crystallization characteristics of cast aluminum alloys during a unidirectional solidification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: mitsuhiro.okayasu@utoronto.ca; Takeuchi, Shuhei

    2015-05-01

    The crystal orientation characteristics of cast Al–Si, Al–Cu and Al–Mg alloys produced by a unidirectional solidification process are examined. Two distinct crystal orientation patterns are observed: uniform and random formation. A uniform crystal orientation is created by columnar growth of α-Al dendrites in the alloys with low proportions of alloying element, e.g., the Al–Si alloy (with Si <12.6%) and the Al–Cu and Al–Mg alloys (with Cu and Mg <2%). A uniformly organized crystal orientation with [100] direction is created by columnar growth of α-Al dendrites. With increasing proportion of alloying element (>2% Cu or Mg), the uniform crystal orientations collapse in the Al–Cu and Al–Mg alloys, owing to interruption of the columnar α-Al dendrite growth as a result of different dynamics of the alloying atoms and the creation of a core for the eutectic phases. For the hypo-eutectic Al–Si alloys, a uniform crystal orientation is obtained. In contrast, a random orientation can be detected in the hyper-eutectic Al–Si alloy (15% Si), which results from interruption of the growth of the α-Al dendrites due to precipitation of primary Si particles. There is no clear effect of crystal formation on ultimate tensile strength (UTS), whereas crystal orientation does influence the material ductility, with the alloys with a uniform crystal orientation being elongated beyond their UTS points and with necking occurring in the test specimens. In contrast, the alloys with a nonuniform crystal orientation are not elongated beyond their UTS points.

  6. Analysis of scapular muscle EMG activity in patients with idiopathic neck pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Bostyn, Emma; Delemarre, Jolien; Lemahieu, Trees; Cagnie, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    It is proposed that altered scapular muscle function can contribute to abnormal loading of the cervical spine. However, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of the scapular muscles. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature regarding the differences or similarities in scapular muscle activity, measured by electromyography ( = EMG), between patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain compared to pain-free controls. Case-control (neck pain/healthy) studies investigating scapular muscle EMG activity (amplitude, timing and fatigue parameters) were searched in Pubmed and Web of Science. 25 articles were included in the systematic review. During rest and activities below shoulder height, no clear differences in mean Upper Trapezius ( = UT) EMG activity exist between patients with idiopathic neck pain and a healthy control group. During overhead activities, no conclusion for scapular EMG amplitude can be drawn as a large variation of results were reported. Adaptation strategies during overhead tasks are not the same between studies. Only one study investigated timing of the scapular muscles and found a delayed onset and shorter duration of the SA during elevation in patients with idiopathic neck pain. For scapular muscle fatigue, no definite conclusions can be made as a wide variation and conflicting results are reported. Further high quality EMG research on scapular muscles (broader than the UT) is necessary to understand/draw conclusions on how scapular muscles react in the presence of idiopathic neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Karadağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After penetrating neck traumas, physicians should consider subtle esophageal or tracheal laceration. Thyroid emphysema can occur as the result of penetrating neck trauma. The mechanism of emphysema of the thyroid parenchyma can be explained by the thyroid gland’s presence in a single visceral compartment that encompasses the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. We describe an unusual case of thyroid emphysema of a normal thyroid gland following a penetrating neck injury.

  8. Neck pain: manipulating the upper back helps lessen pain and improve neck motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Neck pain is very common. In the United States, between 30% and 50% of people suffer from an aching neck each year. Although neck pain can be caused by injury, most of this pain results from more gradual stresses, such as particular sitting, standing, or work postures, lifting patterns, or sleeping positions. Typical neck pain can also cause headaches, pain between your shoulders, or a feeling of knots in your neck and upper back muscles. Although manual therapy, sometimes called "manipulation," is a common treatment for many types of spine pain, some people are uncomfortable having their necks manipulated. Recently, though, researchers have tested the benefits of a thrust manipulation of the upper back to treat neck pain. A study published in the September 2011 issue of JOSPT provides new insight and an evidence-based summary of the benefits of manipulating the upper back to ease and eliminate neck pain.

  9. Oncologic safety of cervical nerve preservation in neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Kada, Shinpei; Tsujimura, Takashi; Kataoka, Michiko

    2017-09-01

    Although the functional merits of preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection for head and neck cancer have been reported, the oncologic safety has not yet been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of cervical nerve preservation. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with head and neck cancer who had been treated by neck dissection between 2009 and 2014 at Kyoto Medical Center. Management of cervical nerves and clinical results were analyzed. A total of 335 sides of neck dissection had been performed in 222 patients. Cervical nerves were preserved in 175 neck sides and resected in 160 sides. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 71%. The 5-year neck control rate was 95% in cervical nerve preserved sides and 89% in cervical nerve resected sides. Preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection is oncologically safe in selected cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Increased neck muscle activity and impaired balance among females with whiplash-related chronic neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Clausen, Brian; Ris Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls.......To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls....

  11. Status quo and directions in deep head and neck hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulides, Margarethus M; Verduijn, Gerda M; Van Holthe, Netteke

    2016-02-11

    The benefit of hyperthermia as a potent modifier of radiotherapy has been well established and more recently also the combination with chemotherapy was shown beneficial. Also for head and neck cancer, the impact of hyperthermia has been clinically demonstrated by a number of clinical trials. Unfortunately, the technology applied in these studies provided only limited thermal dose control, and the devices used only allowed treatment of target regions close to the skin. Over the last decade, we developed the technology for deep and controlled hyperthermia that allows treatment of the entire head and neck region. Our strategy involves focused microwave heating combined with 3D patient-specific electromagnetic and thermal simulations for conformal, reproducible and adaptive hyperthermia application. Validation of our strategy has been performed by 3D thermal dose assessment based on invasively placed temperature sensors combined with the 3D patient specific simulations. In this paper, we review the phase III clinical evidence for hyperthermia in head and neck tumors, as well as the heating and dosimetry technology applied in these studies. Next, we describe the development, clinical implementation and validation of 3D guided deep hyperthermia with the HYPERcollar, and its second generation, i.e. the HYPERcollar3D. Lastly, we discuss early clinical results and provide an outlook for this technology.

  12. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Karadağ; Egemen Doner; Baki Adapınar

    2011-01-01

    Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After pene...

  13. Clinical analysis of deep neck space infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Atsushi; Ui, Naoya; Shigeta, Yasushi; Iimura, Jiro; Rikitake, Masahiro; Endo, Tomonori; Kimura, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    Deep neck space infections, which affect soft tissues and fascial compartments of the head and neck, can lead to lethal complications unless treated carefully and quickly, even with the advanced antibiotics available. We reviewed our seventeen patients with deep neck abscesses, analyzed their location by reviewing CT images, and discussed the treatment. Deep neck space infections were classified according to the degree of diffusion of infection diagnosed by CT images. Neck space infection in two cases was localized to the upper neck space above the hyoid bone (Stage I). Neck space infection in 12 cases extended to the lower neck space (Stage II), and further extended to the mediastinum in one case (Stage III). The two cases of Stage I and the four cases of Stage II were managed with incision and drainage through a submental approach. The seven cases of Stage II were managed with incision and drainage parallel to the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the ''Dean'' approach. The one case of Stage III received treatment through transcervicotomy and anterior mediastinal drainage through a subxiphodal incision. The parapharyngeal space played an important role in that the inflammatory change can spread to the neck space inferiorly. The anterior cervical space in the infrahyoid neck was important for mediastinal extension of parapharyngeal abscesses. It is important to diagnose deep neck space infections promptly and treat them adequately, and contrast-enhanced CT is useful and indispensable for diagnosis. The point is which kind of drainage has to be performed. If the surgical method of drainage is chosen according to the level of involvement in the neck space and mediastinum, excellent results may be obtained in terms of survival and morbidity. (author)

  14. Modeling neck mobility in fossil turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Hinz, Juliane K.; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Volpato, Virginie; Natchev, Nikolay; Joyce, Walter G.

    2014-01-01

    Turtles have the unparalleled ability to retract their heads and necks within their shell but little is known about the evolution of this trait. Extensive analysis of neck mobility in turtles using radiographs, CT scans, and morphometry reveals that basal turtles possessed less mobility in the neck relative to their extant relatives, although the anatomical prerequisites for modern mobility were already established. Many extant turtles are able to achieve hypermobility by dislocating the cent...

  15. Metastasis to neck from unknown primary tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, B.; Bosch, A.; Caldwell, W.L.; Frias, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The records of 54 consecutive patients who were irradiated for metastatic disease in the neck from an unknown primary tumor were reviewed. The overall survival results are comparable to those of other reported series. Patients with high or posterior cervical lymph node involvement were irradiated with fields including the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Patients with high neck nodes had a better survival rate than those with low neck nodes. The size of the neck tumors and the local control after treatment also have prognostic significance. (Auth.)

  16. Subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Saeko; Tsujino, Kayoko; Oshitani, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Takada, Yoshiki; Kono, Michio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the risk factors for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 233 cases of patients who had undergone whole neck irradiation with 4-MV X-ray or 8-10-MeV electrons, or both, and had been followed with regard to their skin condition for at least 1 year. The prescribed dose to the whole neck ranged from 19.2 to 72.4 Gy (median 50). The skin-absorbed dose was specified as that at a depth of 4.1 mm (d4.1-mm depth ), and a biologically equivalent dose (BED) of d4.1-mm depth was also estimated (BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth ). Results: Univariate analysis revealed that previous neck dissection, concurrent chemotherapy, corticosteroid administration as a part of chemotherapy, fractionation, and BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth were significant prognostic variables. Multivariate analysis showed that BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth and previous neck dissection were the only prognostic variables for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis. Conclusion: A high dose to a 4.1-mm depth of the skin and a history of neck dissection were identified as the predominant risk factors for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation. A subcutaneous dose should be considered in radiotherapy treatment planning involving the whole neck, especially in cases in which patients have undergone previous neck dissection

  17. Incidence and severity of neck injury in Rugby Union: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Michael S; Lystad, Reidar P; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2011-09-01

    Objectives. To collate and appraise incidence and severity data for neck injury in Rugby Union. To report risk factors for neck injury in Rugby Union that are supported by incidence and severity data. Design. Systematic review. Methods. Original journal articles were retrieved from electronic searches of AusportMed, AUSPORT, Scopus, Medline (Ovid), CINAHL, Mantis, and Pubmed databases and relevant bibliographic hand searches. Selection criteria were restricted to: (a) prospective study designs including cohort, case-control, and intervention methodologies; (b) populations of Rugby Union players, either male or female of any age; (c) studies must report on neck injury incidence and/or severity specifically; (d) articles with republished neck injury data were excluded. The STROBE Statement was adapted for the quality assessment of included studies and categorised as either poor, moderate or good. Results. Thirty-three original articles met the selection criteria. Wide variation of injury and exposure definitions and population sampling was identified in the included articles. Neck injury incidence ranged between 0.26 (CI: 0.08, 0.93) and 9.17 (CI: 1.89, 26.81) per 1000 player hours for mixed populations that adopted an all inclusive sports injury definition. There is a paucity of severity data and analytical data which evaluates causal roles of risk factors for neck injury in Rugby Union. Conclusions. Meaningful understanding of neck injury incidence and severity in Rugby Union is restricted to a few studies which adopt comparable methodological construct. This paper provides an index for future neck injury studies in Rugby Union. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinically significant corrosion at the head-neck taper interface in total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Alberto; Politis, Angelos; Zukor, David; Huk, Olga; Antoniou, John

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of the head-neck junction of the femoral component in total hip arthroplasty has been associated with symptomatic adverse local tissue reactions, trunion fracture and elevated serum metal ions. An analysis of risk factors and treatment strategies for corrosion at this interface is lacking in the literature. We therefore performed a systematic review of AAOS proceedings, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, and included our own case series. A total of 24 articles representing 776 cases of head-neck corrosion met inclusion criteria. The combination of large femoral head sizes and small taper dimensions comprised the majority of published corrosion cases. Revision to ceramic head and ceramic/polyethylene liner was the most commonly utilised treatment. Coating precipitation, mixed alloy coupling and head-neck modulus mismatch collectively appear to contribute to the corrosive process.

  19. Is neck massage safe? A rare case of tetraplegia and spinal shock after neck manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tan Han; Zakaria, Amir Fariz Bin; Abdullah, Ahmad Tajuddin Bin

    2017-01-01

    Neck manipulation is associated with spinal cord injury. However, occurrence of such cases is infrequent. This article presents a 33-year-old gentleman who sustained acute tetraplegia after neck manipulation. The aim of this case report is to create awareness that vigorous neck manipulation could cause injury to the spinal cord.

  20. Treatment results of the neck by concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumaru, Yutaka; Fujii, Masato; Habu, Noboru; Yajima, Yoko; Yorozu, Atsunori

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is one of the recent emerging modalities for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). However some of the patients treated by CCRT have residual or recurrent cervical lymph nodes. In these cases, neck dissection is considered to be useful in the point of locolegional control and disease free survival. This study aims to analyze neck control rate by CCRT and usefulness of the neck dissection after CCRT for HNSCC. The medical records of 69 consecutive patients (stage III: 4%, stage IV: 96%) treated with CCRT for SCCHN (hypopharynx: 40, oropharynx: 25, larynx: 4) from 2003 through 2007 were reviewed. Clinical complete response (CR) rates of N1, N2a, N2b, N2c and N3 were 75%, 100%, 71%, 74% and 43% respectively. Among the patients with complete neck response, only 2 patients (5%) had an isolated neck recurrence. Eleven patients underwent surgical neck procedures including 7 planned neck dissections and 4 salvage neck dissections. All the 11 patients with neck dissections had good regional control except 1 case. There were a few minor complications such as wound infection and laryngeal edema. Patients who have a complete clinical regional response to CCRT have a low probability of an isolated recurrence in the neck. Planned and salvage neck dissections can be safely performed and considered to be useful in the point of regional control after intensive CCRT. (author)

  1. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  2. Thermofluency in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco M, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented about the theoretical and experimental results obtained at present in thermofluency under radiation in zirconium alloys. The phenomenon of thermofluency is presented in a general form, underlining the thermofluency at high temperature because this phenomenon is similar to the thermofluency under radiation, which ocurrs in zirconium alloys into the operating reactor. (author)

  3. Aluminum battery alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  4. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  5. Alloys in energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, B.R.T.

    1984-02-01

    The development of new and advanced energy systems often requires the tailoring of new alloys or alloy combinations to meet the novel and often stringent requirements of those systems. Longer life at higher temperatures and stresses in aggressive environments is the most common goal. Alloy theory helps in achieving this goal by suggesting uses of multiphase systems and intermediate phases, where solid solutions were traditionally used. However, the use of materials under non-equilibrium conditions is now quite common - as with rapidly solidified metals - and the application of alloy theory must be modified accordingly. Under certain conditions, as in a reactor core, the rate of approach to equilibrium will be modified; sometimes a quasi-equilibrium is established. Thus an alloy may exhibit enhanced general diffusion at the same time as precipitate particles are being dispersed and solute atoms are being carried to vacancy sinks. We are approaching an understanding of these processes and can begin to model these complex systems.

  6. Explosive device of conduit using Ti Ni alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Kolobov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, materials have been developed which are capable at changing temperate to return significant inelastic deformations, exhibit rubber-like elasticity, convert heat into mechanical work, etc. The aggregate of these effects is usually called the shape memory effect.At present a great number of compounds and alloys with a shape memory effect has been known.These are alloys based on titanium nickelide (TiNi, copper-based alloys (Cu-Al, Cu-Sn, Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Zn-Si, etc., gold and silver (Ag-Cd, Au-Ag-Cd, Au-Cd-Cu, Au-Zn-Cu, etc., manganese (Mn-Cr, Fe-Cu, Mn-Cu-Ni, Mn-Cu-Zr, Mn-Ni, etc., iron (Fe-Mn, Fe-Ni, Fe-Al, etc., and other compounds.The alloys based on titanium nickelide (nitinol are the most widely used.Alloys with shape memory effect find various applications in engineering and medicine, namely connecting devices, actuators, transformable design, multipurpose medical implants, etc.There is a task of breaking fuel conduit during separating the spacecraft from the rocket in space technology.The paper examines the procedure for design calculation of the separating device of conduit with the use of Ti-Ni alloy. This device can be used instead of the pyro-knives.The device contains two semi-rings from Ti-Ni alloy. In the place of break on the conduit an annular radius groove is made.At a temperature of martensite passage the semi-rings undergo deformation and in the strained state are set in the device. With heating to the temperature of the austenitic passage of bushing macro-deformation the energy stored by the nitinol bushing is great enough to break the conduit on the neck.The procedures of design calculation and response time of device are given.

  7. A pain in the neck

    OpenAIRE

    Minns, Tania; Raj, Ray; Clark, Kate

    2011-01-01

    A 21-year-old man presented to the emergency department with pain and swelling to the right side of his neck and chest wall with associated shortness of breath. Two days earlier, while playing football, he had been involved in a minor collision with another player where he was struck on the right side of his head, but had managed to continue playing. On examination, the patient had extensive cervical surgical emphysema. There were no further positive findings on respiratory and general examin...

  8. Maternal Obesity and Neck Circumference

    OpenAIRE

    Anglim, B.; O'Higgins, Amy; Daly, Niamh; Farren, Maria; Turner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Obese women are more likely to require general anaesthesia for an obstetric intervention than non-obese. Difficult tracheal intubation and oxygen desaturation is more common in pregnancy. Failed tracheal intubation has been associated with an increase in neck circumference (NC). We studied the relationship between maternal obesity and NC as pregnancy advanced in women attending a standard antenatal clinic. Of the 96 women recruited, 13.5% were obese. The mean NC was 36.8cm (SD 1.9) in the obe...

  9. 49 CFR 572.123 - Neck assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... procedure for the neck assembly is as follows: (1) Soak the neck assembly in a controlled environment at any... least four hours prior to a test. (2) Torque the jam nut (drawing 9000341) on the neck cable (drawing...

  10. Alloying principles for magnesium base heat resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Oreshkina, A.A.; Nikitina, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Some binary systems of magnesium-base alloys in which solid solutions are formed, are considered for prospecting heat resistant alloys. It is shown that elements having essential solubility in solid magnesium strongly decreasing with temperature should be used for alloying maqnesium base alloys with high strength properties at increased temperatures. The strengthening phases in these alloys should comprise essential quantity of magnesium and be rather refractory

  11. Inter-vertebral flexibility of the ostrich neck: implications for estimating sauropod neck flexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Cobley

    Full Text Available The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus. The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50. This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data.

  12. Physical risk factors for neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G.A.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.; Wal, G. van der; Bouter, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    To identify physical risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on methodological quality and study design, 4 levels of evidence were defined to establish the strength of evidence for the relationship between risk factors and neck pain. Altogether, 22

  13. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Neck Enlarged Adenoids Croup Sinusitis Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  14. Electroencephalographic responses to neck cut and exsanguination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-12-09

    Dec 9, 2016 ... The data of EEG from 60-second blocks prior to neck cut to 90-second blocks post neck cut were taken for statistical analysis based on the time to .... reported an initial increase in total EEG power in lambs of different ages undergoing rubber-ring castration. In these cases, the increase in total EEG power ...

  15. Nodal yield in selective neck dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norling, Rikke; Therkildsen, Marianne H; Bradley, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    The total lymph node yield in neck dissection is highly variable and depends on anatomical, surgical and pathological parameters. A minimum yield of six lymph nodes for a selective neck dissection (SND) as recommended in guidelines lies in the lower range of the reported clinical nodal yields...

  16. Postoperative hypertension following radical neck dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Baroreflex failure results in wide excursions of blood pressure and heart rate. We report two cases that developed severe postoperative hypertension after radical neck dissection. Carotid sinus denervation during neck dissection may be the cause of the reflex hypertension once general anesthesia-induced vasodilatation has ended.

  17. Public knowledge of head and neck cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T E

    2010-04-01

    Studies show 60% of patients with newly diagnosed Head & Neck Squamous Cell Cancer in Ireland, present with advanced disease. A poor level of knowledge and awareness among the public of Head & Neck Cancer, is an important consideration in the often delayed presentation for medical attention in many of these cases. Our study surveyed 200 members of the public to assess their knowledge and awareness of Head & Neck Cancer. One hundred and forty (70%) of respondents had never encountered the term "Head & Neck Cancer". One hundred and forty six (73%) failed to identify excessive alcohol consumption as a risk factor. Less than 100 (50%) would have concern about persisting hoarseness or a prolonged oral ulcer. An urgent need exists to raise awareness of Head & Neck Cancer among the public in Ireland.

  18. Clinical analysis of neck dissection patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Katsuro; Takahashi, Sugata

    2008-01-01

    Neck dissection is a highly important surgical procedure in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck since the control of the nodal disease is highly important in these patients. In this paper, 131 patients (210 necks) treated in our department were analyzed. The most frequent primary lesion site was the oral cavity, followed by larynx, hypopharynx and mesopharynx, and treatment of metastatic nodes was considered important especially in patients with SCC in those regions. As the surgical procedure for neck dissection, (modified) radical neck dissection was chosen for higher N stage cases, although it was also applied to lower N stage cases. Postoperative irradiation was performed for 70% of the patients, and control of the neck was considered good as recurrent neck disease occurred in 8% of the patients, and only 20% of those died of recurrent neck disease. The most common primary site showing cervical recurrence was the oral cavity, and control of neck disease is considered important, especially in patients with SCC of the oral cavity. Patients with ≤number of pN 1 receiving postoperative irradiation, and patients with pN (-) and ≤number of pN 1 without postoperative irradiation showed significantly higher survival rates. Postoperative irradiation should be done for patients with ≥number of pN 2, and follow-up without postoperative treatment should be considered for the cases of ≤number of pN 1. Further consideration of patient selection with regard to the area of dissection and the indication for postoperative irradiation without decreasing the survival rate is needed to further improve the treatment of head and neck SCCs. (author)

  19. Developing prospects of NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Min

    1999-01-01

    The reason and information on high temperature shape memory alloy research are introduced briefly Also, referring to some experimental reports on NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy, it is pointed out that ductility and memory property of this alloy can be improved by adapting proper composition and procedure to control its microstructure. Meanwhile, the engineering details must be considered when NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy being developed so as to resolve the problems of its practical use

  20. Influence of Implant Neck Design on Bone Formation Under Mechanical Repetitive Loading: Histomorphometric and Microcomputed Tomographic Studies in Rabbit Tibiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Munenori; Kuroshima, Shinichiro; Ishimoto, Takuya; Nakano, Takayoshi; Sawase, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of implant neck design on the original concept of osseointegration and bone formation when applying mechanical repetitive loading by bone-integrated implants. Twenty-eight anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloy implants with +60° or -60° grooves in the implant neck were placed in the proximal tibial metaphysis of 14 rabbits. Fourteen implants received mechanical repetitive loading along the long axis of the implant for 8 weeks at 12 weeks after implant placement. The remaining 14 implants received no loading. Histomorphometric and microcomputed tomographic analyses were then performed. No effect of neck design was observed without mechanical loading, whereas osseointegration around the +60° grooves was upregulated with mechanical loading. Calculated load effects on bone structure around the implant neck with +60° grooves were larger when compared with the -60° grooves under mechanical loading. These findings indicate that the establishment of osseointegration and bone formation around the implant neck with +60° grooves is superior to those with -60° grooves under loaded conditions.

  1. Uranium-Niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de

    1985-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the phase diagram of the U-Nb alloy are presented. Structural and morphological aspects of the kinectics of phase transformation are discussed, based in the phase diagram. (Author) [pt

  2. Characteristics of mechanical alloying of Zn-Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Perez Hernandez, A.; Lee, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three pure elemental powder mixtures of Zn-22%Al-18%Cu, Zn-5%Al-11%Cu, and Zn-27%Al-3%Cu (in wt.%) were mechanically alloyed by steel-ball milling processing. The mechanical alloying characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was explored that mechanical alloying started with the formation of phases from pure elemental powders, and this was followed by mechanical milling-induced phase transformation. During mechanical alloying, phases stable at the higher temperatures formed at the near room temperature of milling. Nano-structure Zn-Al-based alloys were produced by mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  3. Neck Posture Clusters and Their Association With Biopsychosocial Factors and Neck Pain in Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Karen V; Beales, Darren J; Smith, Anne J; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Straker, Leon M

    2016-10-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the association between sagittal neck posture and neck pain. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the existence of clusters of neck posture in a cohort of 17-year-olds and (2) to establish whether identified subgroups were associated with biopsychosocial factors and neck pain. This was a cross-sectional study. The adolescents (N=1,108) underwent 2-dimensional photographic postural assessment in a sitting position. One distance and 4 angular measurements of the head, neck, and thorax were calculated from photo-reflective markers placed on bony landmarks. Subgroups of sagittal sitting neck posture were determined by cluster analysis. Height and weight were measured, and lifestyle and psychological factors, neck pain, and headache were assessed by questionnaire. The associations among posture subgroups, neck pain, and other factors were evaluated using logistic regression. Four distinct clusters of sitting neck posture were identified: upright, intermediate, slumped thorax/forward head, and erect thorax/forward head. Significant associations between cluster and sex, weight, and height were found. Participants classified as having slumped thorax/forward head posture were at higher odds of mild, moderate, or severe depression. Participants classified as having upright posture exercised more frequently. There was no significant difference in the odds of neck pain or headache across the clusters. The results are specific to 17-year-olds and may not be applicable to adults. Meaningful sagittal sitting neck posture clusters were identified in 17-year-olds who demonstrated some differences with biopsychosocial profiling. The finding of no association between cluster membership and neck pain and headaches challenges widely held beliefs about the role of posture in adolescent neck pain. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  4. A pain in the neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minns, Tania; Raj, Ray; Clark, Kate

    2011-01-01

    A 21-year-old man presented to the emergency department with pain and swelling to the right side of his neck and chest wall with associated shortness of breath. Two days earlier, while playing football, he had been involved in a minor collision with another player where he was struck on the right side of his head, but had managed to continue playing. On examination, the patient had extensive cervical surgical emphysema. There were no further positive findings on respiratory and general examination. A chest x-ray demonstrated no rib or clavicular fractures and no pneumothorax. Therefore, a CT was undertaken to ascertain the cause of the surgical emphysema. This demonstrated a pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium and extradural air in the spinal column in addition to the subcutaneous air. The CT identified no bony trauma and no other injuries. The symptoms resolved spontaneously and follow-up radiography, 9 days later, showed no residual air. PMID:22675022

  5. MALLASEZIA FOLLICULITIS ON THE NECK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński Piotr

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Folliculitis caused by Malassezia spp. classified as yeasts in our climate (Poland is fairly rare disease . MF is most commonly found on the chest, back, upper arms, and less frequently on the face. Permanent symptom is persistent itching. The favorable external conditions, which are largely due to high temperature and humidity, and endogenous factors, such as immunosuppression, there is a lipophilic yeast multiplication in the hair follicles. The aim of this article is presentation of the patient with Malassezia Folliculitis on the neck. Patient age 33 with 1- to 2-mm monomorphic papules and pustules on chest. Skin lesions accompanied by itching. In the treatment used topical: ketoconazole containing shampoo, 1% clindamycin cream, 0,5% hydrocortisonum cream, fluconazole 400 mg once p.o.

  6. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  7. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  8. Porous Nb-Ti based alloy produced from plasma spheroidized powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Li

    Full Text Available Spherical Nb-Ti based alloy powder was prepared by the combination of plasma spheroidization and mechanical alloying. Phase constituents, microstructure and surface state of the powder, and pore characteristics of the resulting porous alloy were investigated. The results show that the undissolved W and V in the mechanically alloyed powder is fully alloyed after spheroidization, and single β phase is achieved. Particle size of the spheroidized powder is in the range of 20–110 μm. With the decrease of particle size, a transformation from typical dendrite solidification structure to fine cell microstructure occurs. The surface of the spheroidized powder is coated by a layer of oxides consisting mainly of TiO2 and Nb2O5. Probabilities of sinter-neck formation and particle coalescence increases with increasing sintering temperature. Porous skeleton with relatively homogeneous pore distribution and open pore channel is formed after vacuum sintering at 1700 °C, and the porosity is 32%. The sintering kinetic analysis indicates that grain boundary diffusion is the primary mass transport mechanism during sintering process. Keywords: Powder metallurgy, Nb-Ti based alloy, Porous material, Mechanical alloying, Plasma spheroidizing, Solidification microstructure

  9. Neck lift my way: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Joel J

    2014-12-01

    The author updates prior descriptions of an approach to the surgical neck lift that aims for a maximum degree of control over the size, shape, and position of every anatomical feature of the neck that is negatively affecting its appearance. A 38-year clinical experience guided the development of the operative tactics that define the strategy. Data collected from a records review of 522 consecutive neck lifts performed during the 10-year period 2004 through 2013 further inform the report. The approach has eight features: (1) nearly routine use of open submental access to all tissue layers of the central neck, including a regimen that curbed the problems that may attend an extensive tissue dissection; (2) management of lax neck skin by lateral excision using a specific postauricular incision, or by using the nonexcisional method of redistribution; (3) open lipectomy for precise removal of excess subcutaneous neck and jawline fat; (4) individualized modifications to subplatysmal fat, perihyoid fascia, and anterior digastric muscles; (5) treatment of large, ptotic, or malpositioned submandibular salivary glands by partial excision using a transcutaneous traction suture; (6) the current version of the corset platysmaplasty, which is used to treat static paramedian platysma muscle bands, and to avoid contour imperfections following subplatysmal maneuvers; (7) an approach that facilitates an isolated neck lift; and (8) durable results. Case examples demonstrate outcomes. Although the updated approach remains relatively complex and invasive, the author believes that the ends justify the means.

  10. Rupture of the neck in nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Managan, R.A.; Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    We introduce a degree of freedom to describe the rupture of the neck in nuclear fission and calculate the point at which the neck ruptures as the nucleus descends dynamically from its fission saddle point. This is done by mentally slicing the system into two portions at its minimum neck radius and calculating the force required to separate the two portions while keeping their shapes fixed. This force is obtained by differentiating with respect to separation the sum of the Coulomb and nuclear interaction energies between the two portions. For nuclei throughout the Periodic Table we calculate this force along dynamical paths leading from the fission saddle point. The force is initially attractive but becomes repulsive when the neck reaches a critical size. For actinide nuclei the neck radius at which rupture occurs is about 2 fm. This increases the calculated translational kinetic energy of the fission fragments at infinity relative to that calculated for scission occurring at zero neck radius. With the effect of neck rupture taken into account, we calculate and compare with experimental results fission-fragment kinetic energies for two types of nuclear dissipation: ordinary two-body viscosity and one-body dissipation

  11. Assessment of nutritional status and quality of life in patients treated for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, V; Joubert, C; Heutte, N; Babin, E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify tools for the assessment of nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients, to evaluate the impact of malnutrition on therapeutic management and quality of life and to propose a simple screening approach adapted to routine clinical practice. The authors conducted a review of the literature to identify tools for the assessment of nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients published in French and English. Articles were obtained from the PubMed database and from the references of these articles and selected journals, using the keywords: "nutritional assessment", and "head and neck" and "cancer". Anthropometric indices, laboratory parameters, dietary intake assessment, clinical scores and nutritional risk scores used in patients with head and neck cancers are presented. The relevance of these tools in clinical practice and in research is discussed, together with the links between nutritional status and quality of life. This article is designed to help teams involved in the management of patients with head and neck cancer to choose the most appropriate tools for assessment of nutritional status according to their resources and their objectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. MR of head and neck hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilaniuk, L.T.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Gusnard, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines the MR characteristics of head and neck hemangiomas and to evaluate the role of MR in their diagnosis and management. Eighteen pediatric and young adult patients with head and neck hemangiomas (six neck, six face, three eyelid, two scalp, and one parotid) underwent high-field-strength 1.5-T MR imaging. Conventional spin-echo sequences with T1 and T2 weighting were performed. In addition, one-third of patients underwent MR angiography and gadolinium enhancement. The hemangiomas were isointense to muscle on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on proton-density and T2-weighted images

  13. Management of patients with neck pain

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Chechet; V. A. Parfenov

    2016-01-01

    Neck pain (cervicalgia) occupies one of the leading places among the reasons for outpatient visits, 75% of people have experienced neck pain at least once in their lives. In most cases, neck pain regresses; however, it recurs in almost one half of patients. The paper gives data on the risk factors, mechanisms, course, and prognosis of cervicalgia. It discusses the issues of differential diagnosis, examination, and approaches to treating this condition in these patients. Nonsteroidal anti-infl...

  14. Texture in low-alloyed uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sariel, J.

    1982-08-01

    The dependence of the preferred orientation of cast and heat-treated polycrystalline adjusted uranium and uranium -0.1 w/o chromium alloys on the production process was studied. The importance of obtaining material free of preferred orientation is explained, and a survey of the regular methods to determine preferred orientation is given. Dilatometry, tensile testing and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the extent of the directionality of these alloys. Data processing showed that these methods are insufficient in a case of a material without any plastic forming, because of unreproducibility of results. Two parameters are defined from the results of Schlz's method diffraction test. These parameters are shown theoretically and experimentally (by extreme-case samples) to give the deviation from isotropy. Application of these parameters to the examined samples showes that cast material has preferred orientation, though it is not systematic. This preferred orientation was reduced by adequate heat treatments

  15. In Vivo Damage of the Head-Neck Junction in Hard-on-Hard Total Hip Replacements: Effect of Femoral Head Size, Metal Combination, and 12/14 Taper Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Baleani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, concerns have been raised about the potential effect of head-neck junction damage products at the local and systemic levels. Factors that may affect this damage process have not been fully established yet. This study investigated the possible correlations among head-neck junction damage level, implant design, material combination, and patient characteristics. Head-neck junctions of 148 retrieved implants were analysed, including both ceramic-on-ceramic (N = 61 and metal-on-metal (N = 87 bearings. In all cases, the male taper was made of titanium alloy. Damage was evaluated using a four-point scoring system based on damage morphology and extension. Patient age at implantation, implantation time, damage risk factor, and serum ion concentration were considered as independent potential predicting variables. The damage risk factor summarises head-neck design characteristics and junction loading condition. Junction damage correlated with both implantation time and damage factor risk when the head was made of ceramic. A poor correlation was found when the head was made of cobalt alloy. The fretting-corrosion phenomenon seemed mainly mechanically regulated, at least when cobalt alloy components were not involved. When a component was made of cobalt alloy, the role of chemical phenomena increased, likely becoming, over implantation time, the damage driving phenomena of highly stressed junctions.

  16. The Influence of Neck Posture and Helmet Configuration on Neck Muscle Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-22

    Electromyography ( EMG ) of 10 neck muscles were assessed while performing 7 distinct movements wearing 6 different helmet configurations. With respect to posture...configuration on muscular responses of the neck. In general, the muscular demands were modest, with mean EMG values for all muscles and tasks ranging...CF) pilots and flight engineers, neck pain and muscle fatigue are common with over 80% of CH146 Griffon helicopter pilots and flight engineers

  17. Correlation between diffusion barriers and alloying energy in binary alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells.......In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells....

  18. Three-dimensional measurement of femoral neck anteversion and neck shaft angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeux, Morgan; Pascoe, Jessica; Graham, H Kerr; Ramanauskas, Fiona; Cain, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional measurement technique for femoral neck anteversion and neck shaft angles which do not require alignment of the femoral and scanner axes. Two assessors performed the measurements on 11 patients (22 femurs). Repeatability between assessors was 2.7 degrees for femoral neck anteversion and 4.8 degrees for neck shaft angle. Measurements compared with an alternative single slice method were different by 2 degrees (3 degrees) in average. The method was repeatable and appropriate for clinical practice.

  19. Neck Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Neck Injuries and Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  20. Quality of life after planned neck dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwae, Shigemichi; Hirayama, Yuji; Komatsu, Hirokazu

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of planned neck dissection (PND) after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) on quality of life (QOL) by using a self-administered neck dissection questionnaire and an arm abduction test. Subjects are fourteen patients who had undergone CCRT followed by planned selective neck dissection for the treatment of mesopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. The findings of the survey were compared with thirty-two patients who had undergone CCRT alone. Patients without PND had better scores on measures of pain, constriction, numbness and appearance of the neck, but had no advantage about arm abduction. After PND, the patients who had dissected dominant hand side had lower satisfaction compared with those who had dissected non-dominant hand side. (author)

  1. Neck and scleral hemorrhage in drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Russell T; Jentzen, Jeffrey M

    2011-03-01

    The determination of the cause and manner of death for a body recovered from the water can be difficult because of a lack of autopsy findings specific for drowning. This case report describes a 30-year-old man found submerged at the bottom of a hotel pool. An autopsy revealed scleral hemorrhages and fascial hemorrhages of multiple muscles of the anterior and posterior neck bilaterally. No evidence of traumatic injury was on the surface of the body. An investigation by law enforcement found no evidence of foul play. The occurrence of petechial and neck hemorrhage in a body recovered from the water is controversial, and a review of this literature will be given. We suggest that fascial hemorrhages of the muscles of the neck, as well as cephalic hemorrhages, can be explained by drowning-related elevated central venous pressure that is communicated to the head through the valveless veins of the neck. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Manipulation and mobilisation for mechanical neck disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, A. R.; Hoving, J. L.; Haines, T. A.; Goldsmith, C. H.; Kay, T.; Aker, P.; Bronfort, G.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck disorders are common, disabling, and costly. The effectiveness of manipulation and mobilisation remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether manipulation and mobilisation, either alone or in combination with other treatments, relieve pain or improve function/disability, patient

  3. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. A customized head and neck support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentel, Gunilla C.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Sherouse, George W.; Spencer, David P.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a customized head and neck immobilization system for patients receiving radiotherapy including a head support that conforms to the posterior contour of the head and neck. Methods: The system includes a customized headrest to support the posterior head and neck. This is fixed to a thermoplastic face mask that molds to the anterior head/face contours. The shape of these customized head and neck supports were compared to 'standard' supports. Results: This system is comfortable for the patients and appears to be effective in reproducing the setup of the treatment. Conclusions: The variability in the size and shape of the customized posterior supports exceeded that of 'standard' headrests. It is our clinical impression that the customized supports improve reproducibility and are now a standard part of our immobilization system. The quantitative analysis of the customized headrests and some commonly used 'standard' headrests suggests that the customized supports are better able to address variabilities in patient shape

  5. Impact toughness of laser alloyed aluminium AA1200 alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4kW Nd:YAG laser and impact resistance of the alloys was investigated. The alloying powders were a mixture of Ni, Ti and SiC in different proportions. Surfaces reinforced...

  6. Civilian firearm injuries in head and neck

    OpenAIRE

    Sonkhya, Nishi; Singhal, Pawan; Srivastava, Subodh P.

    2005-01-01

    Firearm injuries to the head and neck contribute to substantial medical, medicolegal, economic as well as social problems. Internal wounds in the head and neck by firearms are usually complicated and are diagnostically and therapeutically challenging cases. Based on four cases of non-fatal firearm injuries, we discuss problems related to firearm wounds, their irregular path, final lodgment of the bullet and their diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. In the present study it was observed th...

  7. Ipsilateral femoral neck and trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devdatta S Neogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipsilateral fractures in the neck and trochanteric region of the femur are very rare and seen in elderly osteoporotic patients. We present a case of a young man who presented with ipsilateral fracture of the femoral neck and a reverse oblique fracture in the trochanteric region following a motor vehicle accident. A possible mechanism, diagnostic challenge, and awareness required for identifying this injury are discussed.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  9. Phase I trial of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose based radiation dose painting with concomitant cisplatin in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob H; Håkansson, Katrin; Vogelius, Ivan Richter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The CONTRAST (CONventional vs.Tumor Recurrence Adapted Specification of Target dose) phase I trial tested the safety of FDG PET guided dose redistribution in patients receiving accelerated chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS AND ...

  10. Shape memory alloy engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a shape memory alloy engine, developed for the purpose of extracting the mechanical energy from a small difference in temperature. The engine is mainly composed of two pulleys (high temperature and low temperature) and single belt made of the nickel titanium shape memory alloy. The alloy memorizes a shape arcing in the direction opposite to the direction of the belt arc around the pulleys. When the temperature of the belt which is in contact with the high temperature pulley rises above the transformation temperature, a return to the memorized shape generates a force which rotates the pulleys. To make the heat transfer more effective, the engine was designed so that the lower part of the two pulleys are embedded in hot and cold water, respectively. To predict the performance of the shape memory alloy engine, the stress change of the shape memory alloy caused by temperature change has been also investigated with the bending stress test, and a torque loss of the engine system was measured. The predicted results were coincident with the output power experiment

  11. Bilateral femoral neck fractures following pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuda, Kenji; Nishi, Hosei; Oba, Hiroshi

    1977-01-01

    Over 300 cases of femoral neck fractures following radiotherapy for intrapelvic malignant tumor have been reported in various countries since Baensch reported this disease in 1927. In Japan, 40 cases or so have been reported, and cases of bilateral femoral neck fractures have not reached to ten cases. The authors experienced a case of 75 year-old female who received radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus, and suffered from right femoral neck fracture 3 months after and left femoral neck fracture one year and half after. As clinical symptoms, she had not previous history of trauma in bilateral femurs, but she complained of a pain in a hip joint and of gait disturbance. The pain in left femoral neck continued for about one month before fracture was recognized with roentgenogram. As histopathological findings, increase of fat marrow, decrease of bone trabeculae, and its marked degeneration were recognized. Proliferation of some blood vessels was found out, but thickness of the internal membrane and thrombogenesis were not recognized. Treatment should be performed according to degree of displacement of fractures. In this case, artificial joint replacement surgery was performed to the side of fracture of this time, because this case was bilateral femoral neck fractures and the patient had received artificial head replacement surgery in the other side of fracture formerly. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. Modeling neck mobility in fossil turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Hinz, Juliane K; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Volpato, Virginie; Natchev, Nikolay; Joyce, Walter G

    2015-05-01

    Turtles have the unparalleled ability to retract their heads and necks within their shell but little is known about the evolution of this trait. Extensive analysis of neck mobility in turtles using radiographs, CT scans, and morphometry reveals that basal turtles possessed less mobility in the neck relative to their extant relatives, although the anatomical prerequisites for modern mobility were already established. Many extant turtles are able to achieve hypermobility by dislocating the central articulations, which raises cautions about reconstructing the mobility of fossil vertebrates. A 3D-model of the Late Triassic turtle Proganochelys quenstedti reveals that this early stem turtle was able to retract its head by tucking it sideways below the shell. The simple ventrolateral bend seen in this stem turtle, however, contrasts with the complex double-bend of extant turtles. The initial evolution of neck retraction therefore occurred in a near-synchrony with the origin of the turtle shell as a place to hide the unprotected neck. In this early, simplified retraction mode, the conical osteoderms on the neck provided further protection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL), short version. Extension assessment and principles of resection in cutaneous head and neck tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbec, M; Couloigner, V; Tronche, S; Albert, S; Kanitakis, J; Ltaief Boudrigua, A; Malard, O; Maubec, E; Mourrain Langlois, E; Navailles, B; Peuvrel, L; Phulpin, B; Thimonier, J-C; Disant, F; Dolivet, G

    2014-12-01

    Cutaneous head and neck tumors mainly comprise malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, trichoblastic carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, adnexal carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, sclerodermiform basalioma and angiosarcoma. Adapted management requires an experienced team with good knowledge of the various parameters relating to health status, histology, location and extension: risk factors for aggression, extension assessment, resection margin requirements, indications for specific procedures, such as lateral temporal bone resection, orbital exenteration, resection of the calvarium and meningeal envelopes, neck dissection and muscle resection.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Berat Barıs BULDUM; Aydın SIK; Iskender OZKUL

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attra...

  15. Torsion and bending in the neck and tail of sauropod dinosaurs and the function of cervical ribs: insights from functional morphology and biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Preuschoft

    Full Text Available The long necks of sauropods have been subject to many studies regarding their posture and flexibility. Length of the neck varies among groups. Here, we investigate neck posture and morphology in several clades from a mechanical viewpoint. Emphasis is put on comparing sauropod necks and tails with structures in living archosaurs and mammals. Differences in the use made of necks and tails lead to clear-cut differences in the mechanical loads occurring in the same models. Ways of sustaining loads are identified by theoretical considerations. If the observed skeletal structures are suited to resist the estimated loading in a particular posture, this concordance is taken as an argument that this posture or movement was of importance during the life of the individual. Apart from the often-discussed bending in side view, we analyze the often overlooked torsion. Because torsional stresses in a homogenous element concentrate near the periphery, a cylindrical cross section gives greatest strength, and the direction of forces is oblique. In a vertebrate neck, during e.g. shaking the head and twisting the neck, oblique muscles, like the mm. scaleni, if activated unilaterally initiate movement, counterbalance the torsional moments and keep the joints between neck vertebrae in equilibrium. If activated bilaterally, these muscles keep the neck balanced in an energy-saving upright posture. The tendons of the mm. scaleni may have ossified as cervical ribs The long cervical ribs in brachiosaurids and mamenchisaurids seem to have limited flexibility, whereas the shorter cervical ribs in Diplodocidae allowed free movement. The tails of sauropods do not show pronounced adaptation to torsion, and seem to have been carried more or less in a horizontal, extended posture. In this respect, sauropod tails resemble the necks of herbivorous cursorial mammals. These analyses provide an improved understanding of neck use that will be extended to other sauropods in subsequent

  16. Radiographic evaluation of marginal bone level around implants with different neck designs after 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Kyu; Han, Chong-Hyun; Heo, Seong-Joo; Kim, Sunjai; Chun, Heoung-Jae

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of macro- and microstructure of the implant surface at the marginal bone level after functional loading. Sixty-eight patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. The first group received 35 implants with a machined neck (Ankylos); the second group, 34 implants with a rough-surfaced neck (Stage 1); and the third, 38 implants with a rough-surfaced neck with microthreads (Oneplant). Clinical and radiographic examinations were conducted at baseline (implant loading) and 3, 6, and 12 months postloading. Two-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of marginal bone change of each tested group at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 month follow-ups and 1-way ANOVA was also used to compare the bone loss of each time interval within the same implant group (P < .05). At 12 months, significant differences were noted in the amount of alveolar bone loss recorded for the 3 groups (P < .05). The group with the rough-surfaced microthreaded neck had a mean crestal bone loss of 0.18 +/- 0.16 mm; the group with the rough-surfaced neck, 0.76 +/- 0.21 mm; and the group with the machined neck, 1.32 +/- 0.27 mm. In the rough-surfaced group and the rough-surfaced microthreaded group, no statistically significant changes were observed after 3 months, whereas the machined-surface group showed significant bone loss for every interval (P < .05). To minimize marginal bone loss, in addition to the use of a rough surface at the marginal bone level, a macroscopic modification such as the addition of microthreads could be recommended. A rough surface and microthreads at the implant neck not only reduce crestal bone loss but also help with early biomechanical adaptation against loading in comparison to the machined neck design. A rough surface with microthreads at the implant neck was the most effective design to maintain the marginal bone level against functional loading.

  17. Impact of model-based iterative reconstruction on image quality of contrast-enhanced neck CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddikeri, S; Andre, J B; Benjert, J; Hippe, D S; Anzai, Y

    2015-02-01

    Improved image quality is clinically desired for contrast-enhanced CT of the neck. We compared 30% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction algorithms for the assessment of image quality of contrast-enhanced CT of the neck. Neck contrast-enhanced CT data from 64 consecutive patients were reconstructed retrospectively by using 30% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction. Objective image quality was assessed by comparing SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio, and background noise at levels 1 (mandible) and 2 (superior mediastinum). Two independent blinded readers subjectively graded the image quality on a scale of 1-5, (grade 5 = excellent image quality without artifacts and grade 1 = nondiagnostic image quality with significant artifacts). The percentage of agreement and disagreement between the 2 readers was assessed. Compared with 30% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction, model-based iterative reconstruction significantly improved the SNR and contrast-to-noise ratio at levels 1 and 2. Model-based iterative reconstruction also decreased background noise at level 1 (P = .016), though there was no difference at level 2 (P = .61). Model-based iterative reconstruction was scored higher than 30% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction by both reviewers at the nasopharynx (P quality (P model-based iterative reconstruction. Model-based iterative reconstruction offers improved subjective and objective image quality as evidenced by a higher SNR and contrast-to-noise ratio and lower background noise within the same dataset for contrast-enhanced neck CT. Model-based iterative reconstruction has the potential to reduce the radiation dose while maintaining the image quality, with a minor downside being prominent artifacts related to thyroid shield use on model-based iterative reconstruction. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Peter [Houston, TX; Koh, Shirlaine [Houston, TX; Mani, Prasanna [Houston, TX; Ratndeep, Srivastava [Houston, TX

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  19. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro biocompatibility evaluation of porous Ta–Nb alloy for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huifeng; Li, Jing; Yang, Hailin; Liu, Chao; Ruan, Jianming, E-mail: jianming@csu.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    Porous Ta–Nb alloys were fabricated using the sponge impregnation technique and the powder metallurgy technique (P/M) in combination. All porous Ta–Nb alloys displayed interconnected open cell structures with porosities around 64% and pore sizes in the range of 300–500 μm. No carbide, oxide, or intermetallic-related phases were detected by the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Porous Ta–Nb alloys displayed sintering neck growth, smoother surface of the particles and more shrinkage of the micropores, with Nb contents increasing from 5% to 15%. The compressive strength and Young's modulus of the Ta–Nb alloys agreed well with the requirements of trabecular bone. The normalized compressive plateau stress and Young's modulus increased from 52.27 MPa to 85.43 MPa and from 1.850 GPa to 2.540 GPa, respectively, with Nb contents increasing from 5% to 15%. Porous Ta–Nb alloys had no cytotoxicity and possessed the excellent biocompatibility similar to porous Ta scaffolds. - Highlights: • Porous Ta–Nb alloys were prepared as a novel biomaterial for the first time. • Excellent mechanical properties of the porous Ta–Nb alloy were obtained. • The mechanical properties can be tailored by adjusting the Nb content. • The excellent in vitro biocompatibility of porous Ta–Nb alloys was shown.

  20. Welding of refractory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessmann, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    This review primarily summarizes welding evaluations supported by NASA-Lewis Research Center in the 1960s. A literature search run in preparation for this review indicates that more recent work is modest by comparison. Hence, this review restates these accomplishments briefly and addresses opportunities which have evolved in welding technology (such as lasers) in the intervening decade. Emphasis in this review is given to tantalum- and niobium-base alloys. Considerable work was also done to assure that a consistent comparison was made with tungsten. A wide variety of candidate alloys derived primarily from developments directed at aircraft propulsion applications were available. Early efforts by NASA were directed at screening studies to select promising structural alloys for the space power application. This objective required fine tuning of welding procedures, e.g., the demonstration of stringent standards for control of welding atmosphere to assure good corrosion resistance in liquid alkali metals. 16 figures, 6 tables

  1. The Effectiveness of Neck Stretching Exercises Following Total Thyroidectomy on Reducing Neck Pain and Disability: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Hatice; Tastan, Sevinc; Iyigün, Emine; Oztürk, Erkan; Yildiz, Ramazan; Görgülü, Semih

    2016-06-01

    Although there are a limited number of studies showing effects of neck stretching exercises following a thyroidectomy in reducing neck discomfort symptoms, no study has specifically dealt with and examined the effect of neck stretching exercises on neck pain and disability. To analyze the effect of neck stretching exercises, following a total thyroidectomy, on reducing neck pain and disability. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. The participants were randomly assigned either to the stretching exercise group (n = 40) or to the control group (n = 40). The stretching exercise group learned the neck stretching exercises immediately after total thyroidectomy. The effects of the stretching exercises on the participants' neck pain and disability, neck sensitivity, pain with neck movements as well as on wound healing, were evaluated at the end of the first week and at 1 month following surgery. When comparing neck pain and disability scale (NPDS) scores, neck sensitivity and pain with neck movement before thyroidectomy, after 1 week and after 1-month time-points, it was found that patients experienced significantly less pain and disability in the stretching exercise group than the control group (p stretching exercise group were significantly lower than those of the control group. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the scores at the 1-month evaluation (p > .05). Neck stretching exercises done immediately after a total thyroidectomy reduce short-term neck pain and disability symptoms. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  2. Comparison of electromyographic activity and range of neck motion in violin students with and without neck pain during playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyue-nam; Kwon, Oh-yun; Ha, Sung-min; Kim, Su-jung; Choi, Hyun-jung; Weon, Jong-hyuck

    2012-12-01

    Neck pain is common in violin students during a musical performance. The purpose of this study was to compare electromyographic (EMG) activity in superficial neck muscles with neck motion when playing the violin as well as neck range of motion (ROM) at rest, between violin students with and without neck pain. Nine violin students with neck pain and nine age- and gender-matched subjects without neck pain were recruited. Muscle activity of the bilateral upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and superficial cervical extensor muscles was measured using surface EMG. Kinematic data on neck motion while playing and active neck ROM were also measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Independent t-tests were used to compare EMG activity with kinematic data between groups. These analyses revealed that while playing, both the angle of left lateral bending and leftward rotation of the cervical spine were significantly greater in the neck pain group than among those without neck pain. Similarly, EMG activity of the left upper trapezius, both cervical extensors, and both sternocleidomastoid muscles were significantly greater in the neck pain group. The active ROM of left axial rotation was significantly lower in the neck pain group. These results suggest that an asymmetric playing posture and the associated increased muscle activity as well as decreased neck axial rotation may contribute to neck pain in violin students.

  3. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  4. Shape memory effect alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, S.

    1992-01-01

    Although the pseudo- or super-elasticity phenomena and the shape memory effect were known since the 1940's, the enormous curiosity and the great interest to their practical applications emerged with the development of the NITINOL alloy (Nickel-Titanium Naval Ordance Laboratory) by the NASA during the 1960's. This fact marked the appearance of a new class of materials, popularly known as shape memory effect alloys (SMEA). The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art of the development and applications for the SMEA. (E.O.)

  5. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of

  6. Regional control of melanoma neck node metastasis after selective neck dissection with or without adjuvant radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Hooft van Huysduynen, Thijs; Rasch, Coen R. N.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of adjuvant radiotherapy on regional control of melanoma neck node metastasis. DESIGN: A single-institution retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary care cancer center. PATIENTS: The study included 64 patients with melanoma neck node metastasis who were treated with

  7. Dose-response relationship for elective neck irradiation of head and neck cancer - facts and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwinski, R.; Maciejewski, B.; Withers, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assign dose-response relationship for subclinical neck metastases of squamous cell head and neck cancer based on extensive survey of 24 data sets collected from the literature. Neck relapse rates (NRR) without and after elective (ENI) or preoperative irradiation were estimated for each site and stage of primary tumor and the reduction in neck relapse rate was calculated. An average NRR without ENI was 22% (12-35% ) and only 2.5% (0-1 0%) after the ENI with total dose of 46- 50 Gy which gives high reduction rate in the risk of neck recurrences being on the average 89% and 42% (0-46%) after preoperative irradiation using 22-30 Gy. Dose response curve for elective and preoperative irradiation have shown that 50 Gy in 2 Gy fraction reduces the incidence of neck relapses in the NO patients by more than 90% and only by less than 50% after total doses lower than 30 Gy. No correlation between the risk of neck metastases without ENI and the reduction in neck relapses after ENI was found. (authors)

  8. Shoulder and neck morbidity in quality of life after surgery for head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van der Laan, B.F.; Plukker, J.T.; Roodenburg, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Quality of life has become a major issue in determining the outcome of treatment in head and neck surgery with curative intent. The aim of our study was to determine which factors in the postoperative care, especially shoulder and neck morbidity, are related to quality of life and how

  9. Neck Pain and Disability Scale and the Neck Disability Index : reproducibility of the Dutch Language Versions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, W; Knol-de Vries, Grietje; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Reneman, M.F

    2010-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to translate the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD) from English into Dutch producing the NPAD-Dutch Language Version (DLV). The second aim was to analyze test-retest reliability and agreement of the NPAD-DLV and the Neck Disability Index (NDI)-DLV. The NPAD was

  10. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Keijsers, Noël L.; Praet, Stephan F. E.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Devereaux, Philip J.; Guyatt, Gordon; Jeray, Kyle; Liew, Susan; Richardson, Martin J.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen; Sprague, Sheila; Simunovic, Helena Viveiros Nicole; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Buckingham, Lisa; Duraikannan, Aravin; Swiontkowski, Marc F.; Agel, Julie; Goslings, J. Carel; Haverlag, Robert; Ponsen, Kees Jan; Bronkhorst, Maarten W. G. A.; Guicherit, O. R.; Eversdijk, Martin G.; Peters, Rolf; den Hartog, Dennis; van Waes, Oscar J. F.; Oprel, Pim; de Rijcke, Piet A. R.; Koppert, C. L.; Buijk, Steven E.; Groenendijk, Richard P. R.; Dawson, I.; Tetteroo, G. W. M.; Bruijninckx, Milko M. M.; Doornebosch, Pascal G.; de Graaf, E. J. R.; Gasthuis, Kennemer; Visser, Gijs A.; Stockmann, Heyn; Silvis, Rob; Snellen, J. P.; Rijbroek, A.; Scheepers, Joris J. G.; Vermeulen, Erik G. J.; Siroen, M. P. C.; Vuylsteke, Ronald; Brom, H. L. F.; Ryna, H.; Roukema, Gert R.; Josaputra, H.; Keller, Paul; de Rooij, P. D.; Kuiken, Hans; Boxma, Han; Cleffken, Barry I.; Liem, Ronald; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Bosman, C. H. R.; van Otterloo, Alexander de Mol; Hoogendoorn, Jochem; de Vries, Alexander C.; Meylaerts, Sven A. G.; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Simons, Maarten P.; van der Heijden, Frank H. W. M.; Willems, W. J.; de Meulemeester, Frank R. A. J.; van der Hart, Cor P.; Turckan, Kahn; Festen, Sebastiaan; de Nies, F.; Out, Nico J. M.; Bosma, J.; van der Elst, Maarten; van der Pol, Carmen C.; van 't Riet, Martijne; Karsten, T. M.; de Vries, M. R.; Stassen, Laurents P. S.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Schmidt, G. B.; Hoffman, W. H.; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Zijl, Jacco A. C.; Verhoeven, Bart; Smits, Anke B.; de Vries, J. P. P. M.; Fioole, Bram; van der Hoeven, H.; Theunissen, Evert B. M.; de Vries Reilingh, Tammo S.; Govaert, Lonneke; Wittich, Philippe; de Brauw, Maurits; Wille, Jan; Go, Peter M. N. Y. M.; Ritchie, Ewan D.; Wessel, R. N.; Hammacher, Eric R.; Verhofstad, Michiel H. J.; Meijer, Joost; van Egmond, Teun; van der Brand, Igor; van der Vis, Harm M.; Campo, Martin; Verhagen, Ronald; Albers, G. H. R.; Zurcher, A.; van Kampen, A.; Biert, Jan; van Vugt, Arie B.; Edwards, Michael J. R.; Blokhuis, Taco J.; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Geeraedts, L. M. G.; Gardeniers, J. W. M.; Tan, Edward T. C. H.; Poelhekke, L. M. S. J.; de Waal Malefijt, M. C.; Schreurs, Bart; Simmermacher, Rogier K. J.; van Mulken, Jeroen; van Wessem, Karlijn; van Gaalen, Steven M.; Leenen, Luke P. H.; Frihagen, Frede; Nordsletten, Lars; Stoen, Ragnhild Oydna; Brekke, Kine; Tetsworth, Kevin; Weinrauch, Patrick; Pincus, Paul; Donald, Geoff; yang, Steven; Halliday, Brett; Gervais, Trevor; Holt, Michael; Flynn, Annette; Pirpiris, Marinis; Love, David; Bucknill, Andrew; Farrugia, Richard J.; Dowrick, Adam; Donohue, Craig; Bedi, Harvinder; Li, Doug; Edwards, Elton; Csongvay, Steven; Miller, Russell; Wang, Otis; Chia, Andrew; Jain, Arvind; Mammen, Mathan; Murdoch, Zoe; Sage, Claire; Kumar, Anil; Pankaj, Amite; Singh, Ajay Pal; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Martinez, Adriana; Novoa, Catherine; Buckley, Richard E.; Duffy, Paul; Korley, Robert; Johnston, Kelly; Puloski, Shannon; Carcary, Kimberly; Avram, Victoria; Bicknell, Ryan; Yach, Jeff; Bardana, Davide; Lambert, Sue; Sanders, David W.; Howard, Jamie; Macleod, Mark; Bartly, C. T.; Tieszer, Christina; Peterson, Devin; Zalzal, Paul; Maumetz, Victor; Brien, Heather; Weening, Brad; Wai, Eugene K.; Roffey, Darren; McCormack, Robert; Stone, Trevor; Perey, Bertrand; Viskontas, Darius; Boyer, Dory; Perey, Bert; Zomar, Mauri; Moon, Karyn; Oatt, Amber; McKee, Michael; Hall, Jeremy; Ahn, Henry; Vicente, Milena R.; Wild, Lisa M.; Kreder, Hans J.; Stephen, David J. G.; Nousianinen, Markku; Cagaanan, Ria; Kunz, Monica; Syed, Khalid; Azad, Tania; Coles, Chad; Leighton, Ross; Johnstone, David; Glazebrook, Mark; Alexander, David; Trask, Kelly; Dobbin, Gwendolyn; Oliver, Todd M.; Jones, Vicky; Ronan, James; Brown, Desmond T.; Carlilse, Hope; Shaughnessy, Lisa; Schwappach, John; Davis, Craig A.; Weingarten, Peter; Weinerman, Stewart; Newman, Heike; Baker, Janell; Browner, Kieran; Hurley, Meghan; Zura, Robert; Manson, Maria J.; Goetz, David; Broderick, Scott J.; Porter, Scott; Pace, Thomas; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Snider, Becky; Schmidt, Andrew H.; Haas, Jonathan; Templeman, David; Westberg, Jerald R.; Mullis, Brian; Ertl, J. P.; Shively, Karl; Frizzel, Valda; Marcantonio, Andrew J.; Iorio, Richard; Lobo, Margaret; Kain, Michael; Specht, Lawrence; Garfi, John; Prayson, Michael J.; Davis, Craig; Laughlin, Richard; Rubino, Joe; Lawless, Mathew; DiPaola, Matt; Gaydon, Chris; Dulaney, Liz; Vallier, Heather A.; Wilber, John; Sontich, John; Patterson, Brendan; Dolenc, Andrea; Robinson, Chalitha; Wilber, Roger; DePaolo, Charles J.; Alosky, Rachel; Shell, Leslie E.; Keeve, Jonathan P.; Anderson, Chris; McDonald, Michael; Hoffman, Jodi; Baele, Joseph; Weber, Tim; Edison, Matt; Musapatika, Dana; Jones, Clifford; Ringler, James; Endres, Terrance; Gelbke, Martin; Jabara, Michael; Sietsema, Debra L.; Engerman, Susan M.; Switzer, Julie A.; Li, Mangnai; Marston, Scott; Cole, Peter; Vang, Sandy X.; Foley, Amy; McBeth, Jessica; Comstock, Curt; Ziran, Navid; Shaer, James; Hileman, Barbara; Karges, David; Cannada, Lisa; Kuldjanov, Djoldas; Watson, John Tracy; Mills, Emily; Simon, Tiffany; Abdelgawad, Amr; Shunia, Juan; Jenkins, Mark; Zumwalt, Mimi; Romero, Amanda West; Lowe, Jason; Goldstein, Jessica; Zamorano, David P.; Lawson, Deanna; Archdeacon, Michael; Wyrick, John; Hampton, Shelley; Lewis, Courtland G.; Ademi, Arben; Sullivan, Raymond; Caminiti, Stephanie; Graves, Matthew; Smith, Lori; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Crist, Brett D.; Murtha, Yvonne; Anderson, Linda K.; Kliewer, Toni K.; McPherson, Melinda K.; Sullivan, Kelly M.; Sagebien, Carlos; Seuffert, Patricia; Mehta, Samir; Esterhai, John; Ahn, Jaimo; Tjoumakaris, Fotios; Horan, Annamarie D.; Kaminski, Christine; Tarkin, Ivan; Siska, Peter; Luther, Arlene; Irrgang, James; Farrell, Dana; Gorczyca, John T.; Gross, Jonathan M.; Kates, Stephen Lloyd; Colosi, Jen; Hibsch, Nancy; Noble, Krista; Agarwal, Animesh; Wright, Rebecca; Hsu, Joseph R.; Ficke, James R.; Napierala, Matthew A.; Charlton, Michael T.; Fan, Mary K.; Obremskey, William T.; Richards, Justin E.; Robinson, Kenya; Carroll, Eben; Kulp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses femoral neck shortening and its effect on gait pattern and muscle strength in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation. Seventy-six patients from a multicenter randomized controlled trial participated. Patient characteristics and Short Form 12 and

  11. Cooperation between medicine and sociology in head and neck oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Emmanuel; Grandazzi, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-first-century medicine is facing many challenges--knowledge and command of technical advances, research development, team management, knowledge transmission, and adaptation to economic constraints--without neglecting "human" aspects, via transformed carer-patient relationships, social change, and so on. The "modern" physicians know that simply treating disease is no longer enough. One of their essential missions lies in offering the individual patient overall care, which implies acknowledging the latter as an individual within a family, social, and professional environment. Indeed, medical practice requires pluridimensional knowledge of the patients' experience of their disease. Yet the contribution sociology can offer to health care remains largely unknown to many physicians, and medical training includes only limited instruction in the human sciences. On the basis of a few observations taken from sociological research, we would like to demonstrate how, in head and neck oncology, interdisciplinary collaboration between medicine and sociology can prove propitious to improving patient care and attention to their close relations.

  12. Galvanic corrosion in odontological alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesgo, O.; Bianchi, G.L.; Duffo, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Galvanic corrosion can occur when different alloys are placed in direct contact within the oral cavity or within tissues. Concern has been expressed associated with the coupling of selected restorative materials as well as implant material with various alloys used for restorative procedures. This could be critical if the crown or bridge had subgingival finish line with a metallic zone in contact with the tissue, and the implant was made in titanium alloy. The present work shows the results of galvanic coupling studies done on implants of titanium alloy connected to nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys. (Author)

  13. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  14. Fracture of Shape Memory Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Shuichi; Otsuka, Kazuhiro

    1981-01-01

    The initiation and the propagation of cracks during both quenching and deformation in polycrystalline Cu-Al-Ni alloys have been investigated under various conditions. The fracture surfaces of Ti-Ni and Cu-Al-Ni alloys were also observed by a scanning electron microscope. From these results, it was concluded that the brittleness of Cu-Al-Ni alloy and other β phase alloys are due to large elastic anisotropy and large grain sizes, while that the large ductility in Ti-Ni alloy being due to the sm...

  15. Neck Injury Response in High Vertical Accelerations and its Algorithmical Formalization to Mitigate Neck Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Julie; Kang, Jian; Meldrum, AnnMarie; Pankiewicz, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) conducted a comprehensive analysis of data collected during the evaluation of head and neck impact during injurious and non-injurious loading. This evaluation included impact velocity, helmet to roof clearance, and neck angle using a fully instrumented Hybrid III head and neck assembly. The results of this effort were compared against post mortem human subject (PMHS) data from similar testing conducted in conjunction with the Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) program. The results identified the most severe helmet to roof clearance and neck angles. TARDEC used this knowledge as the foundation for continued research into head and neck impact injury mitigation through the use of passive technology and interior vehicle design.

  16. Fracture performance of high strength steels, aluminium and magnesium alloys during plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of uniaxial tension tests were performed for 5052 and 6061 aluminum alloys, AZ31B magnesium alloy, TRIP600 and DP600 steels, to obtain a better understanding of their fracture performance. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observation of the microstructure evolution was conducted. The dimple structure, orientation relationship between the fracture surface and tensile direction, necking behavior were analyzed. The fracture mechanism and fracture mode of each material was discussed in detail. The results show that TRIP600 steel is subject to a typical inter-granular ductile fracture combined by shear fracture. DP600 steel belongs to mainly ductility mixed with normal fracture. Both 5052 and 6061 aluminum alloys are subject to a mixed ductility fracture and brittle fracture. AA5052 and AA6061 belong to a typical shear fracture and a normal fracture, respectively. Magnesium AZ31B is typical of a brittle fracture combined with normal fracture.

  17. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed...

  18. Titanium and zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard Legry, G.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium and zirconium pure and base alloys are protected by an oxide film with anionic vacancies which gives a very good resistance to corrosion in oxidizing medium, in some ph ranges. Results of pitting and crevice corrosion are given for Cl - , Br - , I - ions concentration with temperature and ph dependence, also with oxygenated ions effect. (A.B.). 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  20. Femoral neck fracture following hardware removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaer, James A; Hileman, Barbara M; Newcomer, Jill E; Hanes, Marina C

    2012-01-16

    It is uncommon for femoral neck fractures to occur after proximal femoral hardware removal because age, osteoporosis, and technical error are often noted as the causes for this type of fracture. However, excessive alcohol consumption and failure to comply with protected weight bearing for 6 weeks increases the risk of femoral neck fractures.This article describes a case of a 57-year-old man with a high-energy ipsilateral inter-trochanteric hip fracture, comminuted distal third femoral shaft fracture, and displaced lateral tibial plateau fracture. Cephalomedullary fixation was used to fix the ipsilateral femur fractures after medical stabilization and evaluation of the patient. The patient healed clinically and radiographically at 6 months. Despite conservative treatment for painful proximal hardware, elective hip screw removal was performed 22.5 months after injury. Seven weeks later, he sustained a nontraumatic femoral neck fracture.In this case, it is unlikely that the femoral neck fracture occurred as a result of hardware removal. We assumed that, in addition to the patient's alcohol abuse and tobacco use, stress fractures may have attributed to the femoral neck fracture. We recommend using a shorter hip screw to minimize hardware prominence or possibly off-label use of an injectable bone filler, such as calcium phosphate cement. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Neck motion, motor control, pain and disability: A longitudinal study of associations in neck pain patients in physiotherapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisingset, Ingebrigt; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Woodhouse, Astrid; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain is associated with several alterations in neck motion and motor control, but most of the findings are based on cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between changes in neck motion and motor control, and changes in neck pain and disability in physiotherapy patients during a course of treatment. Prospective cohort study. Subjects with non-specific neck pain (n = 71) participated in this study. Neck flexibility, joint position error (JPE), head steadiness, trajectory movement control and postural sway were recorded before commencement of physiotherapy (baseline), at 2 weeks, and at 2 months. Numerical Rating Scale and Neck Disability Index were used to measure neck pain and disability at the day of testing. To analyze within subjects effects in neck motion and motor control, neck pain, and disability over time we used fixed effects linear regression analysis. Changes in neck motion and motor control occurred primarily within 2 weeks. Reduction in neck pain was associated with increased cervical range of motion in flexion-/extension and increased postural sway when standing with eyes open. Decreased neck disability was associated with some variables for neck flexibility and trajectory movement control. Cervical range of motion in flexion-/extension was the only variable associated with changes in both neck pain and neck disability. This study shows that few of the variables for neck motion and motor control were associated with changes neck pain and disability over a course of 2 months with physiotherapy treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  3. Stress corrosion cracking growth rate of TT alloy 690 and its weld joint in simulated PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, some researchers reported that the SCC growth rate (SCCGR) of cold worked thermally treated (TT) Alloy 690 was significantly different in heat by heat. But, author has hypothesized that these high SCCGRs in cold worked TT Alloy 690 could be due to the metallurgical characteristics of these heats. In order to confirm this hypothesis, this study has been started in the author's laboratory, and the following 4 new evidences were obtained. First, microcracks of carbides and voids were observed in eutectic M 23 C 6 GB carbides (primary carbides) for cold rolled laboratory heat after as cast or lightly forged condition or for chemical composition simulated Bettis'TT Alloy 690 heat, after cold rolling, before SCC test. However, microcracks in primary carbides along grain boundaries and voids were rarely detected in the cold rolled commercial heat of TT Alloy 690 used for CRDM penetrations. Secondly, the SCCGR observed in TT Alloy 690 was different in each hot working process and each heat. Comparing the SCCGRs for all heats of cold worked TT Alloy 690, the SCCGR decreased with increasing of Vickers hardness. However, in same heats of cold worked TT Alloy 690, the SCCGR increased with increasing of Vickers hardness. Thirdly, the SCCGR in cold rolled TT Alloy 690 should be integrated by the effect of hardness or cold working ratio and by the effect of existing ratio of primary M23C6 carbides with cracks and Voids due to chemical composition and the fabrication process of TT Alloy 690. Fourthly, it is argued that the high SCCGRs in highly cold rolled TT Alloy 690 are not representative of the practical situation with TT Alloy 690 in service for CRDM adapter nozzles etc. The high SCCGR of highly cold rolled TT Alloy 690 is not thought to be an accurate tool in predicting the possibility of cracking of TT Alloy 690 for CRDM adapter nozzles. (author)

  4. Advances in Supportive Care for Late Effects of Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Barbara A; Deng, Jie

    2015-10-10

    As the population of head and neck cancer survivors increases, it has become increasingly important for health care providers to understand and manage late complications of therapy. Functional deficits can be categorized as general health deficits resulting in frailty or debility, head and neck-specific functional deficits such as swallowing and speech, and musculoskeletal impairment as a result of tumor and treatment. Of critical importance is the growing data indicating that swallow therapy and physical therapy may prevent or ameliorate long-term functional deficits. Oral health complications of head and neck therapy may manifest months or years after the completion of treatment. Patients with hyposalivation are at high risk for dental caries and thus require aggressive oral hygiene regimens and routine dental surveillance. Swallowing abnormalities, xerostomia, and poor dentition may result in dietary adaptations that may cause nutritional deficiencies. Identification and management of maladaptive dietary strategies are important for long-term health. Follow-up with primary care physicians for management of comorbidities such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia may help to limit late vascular complications caused by radiation therapy. Herein, we review late effects of head and neck cancer therapy, highlighting recent advances. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Fechner, Regina; Cladera, Gerardo; Puerta, Pablo

    2005-06-02

    Sauropod dinosaurs are one of the most conspicuous groups of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates. They show general trends towards an overall increase in size and elongation of the neck, by means of considerable elongation of the length of individual vertebrae and a cervical vertebra count that, in some cases, increases to 19 (ref. 1). The long neck is a particular hallmark of sauropod dinosaurs and is usually regarded as a key feeding adaptation. Here we describe a new dicraeosaurid sauropod, from the latest Jurassic period of Patagonia, that has a particularly short neck. With a neck that is about 40% shorter than in other known dicraeosaurs, this taxon demonstrates a trend opposite to that seen in most sauropods and indicates that the ecology of dicraeosaurids might have differed considerably from that of other sauropods. The new taxon indicates that there was a rapid radiation and dispersal of dicraeosaurids in the Late Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere, after the separation of Gondwana from the northern continents by the late Middle Jurassic.

  6. The posterior triangle in radical neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnik, E M; Yee, K F; Friedman, M; Golden, T A

    1976-01-01

    We evaluate the importance of cancer spread to the lymphatic system in the posterior triangle. The posterior triangle tissues of 51 radical neck specimens were serially sectioned and studied for metastic involvement. The findings were correlated with the findings in the anterior triangle and the primary tumor. Of the 51 neck operations performed, 25 were elective and 26 were therapeutic for carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, and oral cavity. Metastasis in the anterior triangles was detected in 88.4% of the therapeutic group and in 24.0% of the elective group. However, no metastasis in the posterior triangel was found in either group, regardless of the site of the tumor. We suggest that the posterior triangle can be totally preserved in radical neck surgery, which may make preservation of the spinal accessory nerve a more likely practice.

  7. Head and neck cancer imaging. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermans, Robert (ed.) [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2012-07-01

    Imaging is crucial in the multidisciplinary approach to head and neck cancer management. The rapid technological development of recent years makes it necessary for all members of the multidisciplinary team to understand the potential applications, limitations, and advantages of existing and evolving imaging technologies. It is equally important that the radiologist has sufficient clinical background knowledge to understand the clinical significance of imaging findings. This book provides an overview of the findings obtained using different imaging techniques during the evaluation of head and neck neoplasms, both before and after therapy. All anatomic areas in the head and neck are covered, and the impact of imaging on patient management is discussed in detail. The authors are recognized experts in the field, and numerous high-quality images are included. This second edition provides information on the latest imaging developments in this area, including the application of PET-CT and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Management of patients with neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Chechet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neck pain (cervicalgia occupies one of the leading places among the reasons for outpatient visits, 75% of people have experienced neck pain at least once in their lives. In most cases, neck pain regresses; however, it recurs in almost one half of patients. The paper gives data on the risk factors, mechanisms, course, and prognosis of cervicalgia. It discusses the issues of differential diagnosis, examination, and approaches to treating this condition in these patients. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are most effective in treating patients with acute cervicalgia. Therapeutic exercises and manual therapy are indicated in patients with chronic cervicalgia. There is evidence on the efficacy and safety of meloxicam for the management of acute and chronic cervicalgia.

  9. Acute lymphangitis mimicking mechanical neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, L A; Pinto, A

    2001-09-01

    To discuss acute lymphangitis as a potentially serious infection that can mimic mechanical musculoskeletal pain. A 27-year-old male plant worker had right-sided neck pain. Numerous lesions on the patient's scalp were observed, but were not considered to be related to the chief complaint. Conservative therapy was initiated to address what was thought to be mechanical neck pain. Shortly after the initial visit, it became evident that the source of the neck pain was infection because lymphangitis developed. Antibiotic therapy was initiated and complete resolution of the complaint occurred within 1 week. Primary contact practitioners should consider all aspects of the patient history and physical findings when formulating a diagnosis. This is especially important in the case of patients presenting with lymphangitis because mismanagement could have serious consequences. The importance of a good patient history and team approach to care is demonstrated by this case.

  10. DEEP NECK INFECTION AFTER THIRD MOLAR EXTRACTION*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda YILMAZ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenic and oropharyngeal infections are relatively common in the cervicofacial region. In rare cases, odontogenic or peritonsillar abscesses may spread through the deep fascial cervical spaces and cause life-threatening complications. Odontogenic infection is the most common cause of deep neck infections and it accounts for 43% of the cases. Early diagnosis, immediate antibiotic treatment, and surgical drainage are the basis of therapeutic success. Deep neck infections are potentially life threatening complications if they are not diagnosed in time and treated quickly. This case report presents clinical, radiological features and treatment of the spread of abscesses through cervical spaces of an unusual case of deep neck infection that was caused by the secondary infection of the root remnants after extraction.

  11. An uncommon case of neck fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S; Das, S; Khan, J A; Bhattacharya, R N

    2003-01-01

    Congenital fistulae of the neck are branchial in origin and of these 2nd arch fistula is by far the most common, 3rd and 4th arch fistulae being very rare. Here, a case of fistula present since birth and extending from the neck, near the midline to the alveololingual sulcus, considered very rare, is presented. The patient was a 32-year-old male having sticky discharge through an opening in the upper part of the neck. Examination revealed an opening of approximately 1 mm diameter about 1 cm to the left of the midline just above the hyoid bone. A sinogram revealed a fistulous linear tract communicating with the oral cavity. Surgery was undertaken and the fistulous tract was excised.

  12. Neural tumours of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindia, M L; Dimba, E

    2000-10-01

    To document the pattern of occurrence of all primary neural tumours arising in the neck and craniofacial region over the period 1982 to 1991. A retrospective study. Cancer Registry, Nairobi, Kenya. Out of the 289 cases who were identified to have had whole body neural tumours, 225 (77.8%) had the lesions distributed in the neck and craniofacial area. While 80% of the neoplasms located in this region were retinoblastomas (mainly occurring in the age group 0 to 4 years), other lesion types occurred in small numbers thus: neurofibromas comprised 12.4%, Schwannomas four per cent, neuroblastomas and neuromas each 0.4%; and extracranial gliomas 2.7%. Overall, the male to female ratio was 1:1 and the site distribution revealed that over 90% of the lesions afflicted the upper face. Neural tumours of the neck and craniofacial region appear generally rare in this population as has been shown elsewhere.

  13. Arm and neck pain in ultrasonographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Frank; Berger, Jan; Stassijns, Gaëtane

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of upper-body-quadrant pain among ultrasonographers and to evaluate the association between individual ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, and occurrence of neck pain. A hundred and ten (N = 110) Belgian and Dutch male and female hospital ultrasonographers were consecutively enrolled in the study. Data on work-related ergonomic and musculoskeletal disorders were collected with an electronic inquiry, including questions regarding ergonomics (position of the screen, high-low table, and ergonomic chair), symptoms (neck pain, upper-limb pain), and work-related factors (consecutive working hours a day, average working hours a week). Subjects with the screen on their left had significantly more neck pain (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, p = .0286). Depending on the workspace, high-low tables increased the chance of developing neck pain (OR = 12.9, p = .0246). A screen at eye level caused less neck pain (OR = .22, p = .0610). Employees with a fixed working space were less susceptible to arm pain (OR = 0.13, p = .0058). The prevalence of arm pain was significantly higher for the vascular department compared to radiology, urology, and gynecology departments (OR = 9.2, p = .0278). Regarding prevention of upper-limb pain in ultrasonograph, more attention should be paid to the work environment and more specialty to the ultrasound workstation layout. Primary ergonomic prevention could provide a painless work situation for the ultrasonographer. Further research on the ergonomic conditions of ultrasonography is necessary to develop ergonomic solutions in the work environment that will help to alleviate neck and arm pain. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Prediction of Neck Dissection Requirement After Definitive Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thariat, Juliette; Ang, K. Kian; Allen, Pamela K.; Ahamad, Anesa; Williams, Michelle D.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Rosenthal, David I.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Morrison, William H.; Weber, Randal S.; Garden, Adam S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This analysis was undertaken to assess the need for planned neck dissection in patients with a complete response (CR) of involved nodes after irradiation and to determine the benefit of a neck dissection in those with less than CR by tumor site. Methods: Our cohort included 880 patients with T1-4, N1-3M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, larynx, or hypopharynx who received treatment between 1994 and 2004. Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier Method, comparisons of rates with the log–rank test and prognostic factors by Cox's proportional hazard model. Results: Nodal CR occurred in 377 (43%) patients, of whom 365 patients did not undergo nodal dissection. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate of patients with CR was 92%. Two hundred sixty-eight of the remaining patients (53%) underwent neck dissections. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate for patients without a CR was 84%. Those who had a neck dissection fared better with 5-year actuarial regional control rates of 90% and 76% for those operated and those not operated (p < 0.001). Variables associated with poorer regional control rates included higher T and N stage, non-oropharynx cancers, non-CR, both clinical and pathological. Conclusions: With 92% 5-year neck control rate without neck dissection after CR, there is little justification for systematic neck dissection. The addition of a neck dissection resulted in higher neck control after partial response though patients with viable tumor on pathology specimens had poorer outcomes. The identification of that subgroup that benefits from additional treatment remains a challenge.

  15. Effect of neck exercise on sitting posture in patients with chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Deborah; Jull, Gwendolen; Russell, Trevor; Vicenzino, Bill; Hodges, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Poor sitting posture has been implicated in the development and perpetuation of neck pain symptoms. This study had 2 purposes: (1) to compare change in cervical and thoracic posture during a distracting task between subjects with chronic neck pain and control subjects and (2) to compare the effects of 2 different neck exercise regimens on the ability of people with neck pain to maintain an upright cervical and thoracic posture during this task. Fifty-eight subjects with chronic, nonsevere neck pain and 10 control subjects participated in the study. Change in cervical and thoracic posture from an upright posture was measured every 2 minutes during a 10-minute computer task. Following baseline measurements, the subjects with neck pain were randomized into one of two 6-week exercise intervention groups: a group that received training of the craniocervical flexor muscles or a group that received endurance-strength training of the cervical flexor muscles. The primary outcomes following intervention were changes in the angle of cervical and thoracic posture during the computer task. Subjects with neck pain demonstrated a change in cervical angle across the duration of the task (mean=4.4 degrees ; 95% confidence interval [CI]=3.3-5.4), consistent with a more forward head posture. No significant difference was observed for the change in cervical angle across the duration of the task for the control group subjects (mean=2.2 degrees ; 95% CI=1.0-3.4). Following intervention, the craniocervical flexor training group demonstrated a significant reduction in the change of cervical angle across the duration of the computer task. This study showed that people with chronic neck pain demonstrate a reduced ability to maintain an upright posture when distracted. Following intervention with an exercise program targeted at training the craniocervical flexor muscles, subjects with neck pain demonstrated an improved ability to maintain a neutral cervical posture during prolonged sitting.

  16. Neck muscle fatigue alters the cervical flexion relaxation ratio in sub-clinical neck pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Ferguson, Brad; Murphy, Bernadette

    2015-06-01

    The cervical flexion relaxation ratio is lower in neck pain patients compared to healthy controls. Fatigue modulates the onset and offset angles of the silent period in both the lumbar and cervical spine in healthy individuals; however, this response has not been studied with neck pain patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if cervical extensor fatigue would alter the parameters of the cervical flexion relaxation more in a neck pain group than a healthy control group. Thirteen healthy and twelve neck pain patients participated. Cervical extensor activity was examined bilaterally and kinematics of the neck and head were collected. An isometric, repetitive neck extension task at 70% of maximum elicited fatigue. Participants performed 3 trials of maximal cervical flexion both pre and post fatigue. The healthy controls and neck pain groups fatigued after 56 (41) and 39 (31) repetitions, respectively. There was a significant interaction effect for the flexion relaxation ratio between the control and neck pain groups from pre to post fatigue trials (F1,96=22.67, P=0.0001), but not for onset and offset angles (F1, 96=0.017, P=0.897), although the onset and offset angles did decrease significantly for both groups following fatigue (F1,96=9.26, P=0.002). Individuals with mild to moderate neck pain have significant differences in their neuromuscular control relative to controls, experienced myoelectric fatigue with fewer repetitions in a shorter time, had a lower cervical flexion relaxation ratio at baseline and had an inability to decrease this ratio further in response to fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neck and Upper Limb Dysfunction in Patients following Neck Dissection: Looking beyond the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gane, Elise M; O'Leary, Shaun P; Hatton, Anna L; Panizza, Benedict J; McPhail, Steven M

    2017-10-01

    Objective To measure patient-perceived upper limb and neck function following neck dissection and to investigate potential associations between clinical factors, symptoms, and function. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Subjects and Methods Inclusion criteria: patients treated with neck dissection (2009-2014). aged Index). Secondary outcomes included demographics, oncological management, self-efficacy, and pain. Generalized linear models were prepared to examine relationships between explanatory variables and self-reported function. Results Eighty-nine participants (male n = 63, 71%; median age, 62 years; median 3 years since surgery) reported mild upper limb and neck dysfunction (median [quartile 1, quartile 3] scores of 11 [3, 32] and 12 [4, 28], respectively). Significant associations were found between worse upper limb function and longer time since surgery (coefficient, 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-3.51), having disease within the thyroid (17.40; 2.37-32.44), postoperative radiation therapy (vs surgery only) (13.90; 6.67-21.14), and shoulder pain (0.65; 0.44-0.85). Worse neck function was associated with metastatic cervical lymph nodes (coefficient, 6.61; 95% CI, 1.14-12.08), shoulder pain (0.19; 0.04-0.34), neck pain (0.34; 0.21-0.47), and symptoms of neuropathic pain (0.61; 0.25-0.98). Conclusion Patients can experience upper limb and neck dysfunction following nerve-preserving neck dissection. The upper quadrant as a whole should be considered when assessing rehabilitation priorities after neck dissection.

  18. Adaptation Stories

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By Reg'

    formed a real foundation for endogenous, and, therefore, sustainable, strategies for adaptation to climate change. The stories reinforce what we already knew: that successful adaptation must come from the people who are living on the front lines, facing the many problems caused by climate change and climate variation.

  19. Complications of neck liposuction and submentoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, James

    2009-02-01

    Patients desiring improved neck and jawline contours often are looking for minimally invasive procedures and are not interested in undergoing extensive face-lifting procedures. Realizing the limitations, surgeons may offer their patient such procedures as liposuction and submentoplasty. Even though these procedures are less involved than a facelift, many pitfalls can occur, leading to an unfavorable result and a disappointed patient. Proper patient selection and choosing the correct operation are crucial to avoiding these situations. This article focuses on the common complications of neck liposuction and submentoplasty and reviews the management and avoidance of these complications.

  20. A clinical study on deep neck abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Yumi; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Takemura, Teiji; Sawada, Toru

    2007-01-01

    Although various effective antibiotics have been synthesized, deep neck abscess is still a serious and life-threatening infection. It is important to diagnose promptly and treat adequately, and contrast-enhanced CT is useful and indispensable for diagnosis. We reviewed our patients with deep neck abscess, and analyzed the location by reviewing CT images, and discussed the treatment. Surgical drainage is a fundamental treatment for abscess but if it exists in only one area such as the parotid gland space, it can be cured with needle aspiration and suitable antibiotics. (author)

  1. [Photodynamic therapy for head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, C.B.; Specht, Lena; Kirkegaard, J.

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new treatment for head and neck cancer. The principle of the treatment is a photochemical reaction initiated by light activation of a photosensitizer, which causes the death of the exposed tissue. This article presents the modes of action of PDT and the techniques...... as well as the clinical procedure. A critical review of the literature is also presented, regarding treatment results of the different techniques and indications for treatments. The possibilities for PDT for head and neck cancer in Denmark are mentioned Udgivelsesdato: 2006/6/5...

  2. Hyperparathyroidism following head and neck irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S.D.; Frame, B.; Miller, M.J.; Kleerskoper, M.; Block, M.A.; Parfitt, A.M.

    1980-02-01

    A history of head and neck irradiation in childhood or adolescence was found in 22 of 130 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism compared with only 12 of 400 control patients. Among 200 patients with a known history of childhood irradiation, biochemical or surgical evidence of hyperparathyroidism was found in ten, a prevalence of 5%. This is at least 30 times the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism in the general population. The data indicate that head and neck irradiation should be regarded as an important risk factor in the subsequent development of hyperparathyroidism.

  3. Pediatric nontraumatic myositis ossificans of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkosis, Angela A. [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Balsam, Dvorah [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lee, Thomas K. [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Schreiber, Z.J. [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Nontraumatic myositis ossificans circumscripta (MOC) is a rarely reported benign heterotopic ossification characterized by the aberrant formation of bone in extraskeletal soft tissues. Although a history of trauma can be elicited in 75% of MOC patients, the etiology is unclear in patients without inciting injury. MOC is associated with young male athletes, and is most often localized to the muscle groups of the extremities. Rare cases have been reported in children and adolescents of nontraumatic MOC in the neck. We present a 15-year-old adolescent with a rapidly growing, painful neck mass without traumatic stimulus. (orig.)

  4. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jens; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    cancer in Denmark and to create a basis for clinical trials. STUDY POPULATION: The study population consisted of all Danish patients referred for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, or neck nodes from unknown primary or any histopathological type (except lymphoma...... of continuous clinical trials and subsequent implementation in national guidelines. The database has furthermore been used to describe the effect of reduced waiting time, changed epidemiology, and influence of comorbidity and socioeconomic parameters. CONCLUSION: Half a century of registration of head and neck...

  5. MRI of the hypopharynx, larynx and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.J.; Steger, W.; Balzer, J.O.; Bergman, C.; Lissner, J.

    1992-01-01

    In the area of the neck, hypopharynx, and larynx, there is an extraordinarily high density of soft tissue structures which are vital to the survival of the organism. These include in particular vascular, neural, respiratory, and deglutitive structures. The advent of MRI was a milestone in the diagnostic evaluation of this region, allowing greatly increased contrast among these soft tissues as well as the possibility of obtaining multiplanar views in any desired orientation. MRI has decisive advantages over conventional imaging modalities, such as plain film imaging, computed tomography, and sonography. This article gives a short review of the diagnostic application of MRI in the neck, hypopharynx, and larynx. (orig.)

  6. Radiation Pneumonitis after Radiotherapy of Neck Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is still one of the effective means for treatment of malignant tumors up to now. Particularly, it is an indispensable effective measure for treatment of some lymphoma patients. In routine work, radiation pneumonitis (RP is the most significant complication of acute treatment-related toxicities in lung cancer; however, serious radioactive pneumonia is rare for the radiotherapy of neck lymphoma because the volume of the lungs affected by radiation dose was very small. We report a lymphoma case, where the patient had undergone radiotherapy for the bilateral neck and bilateral supraclavicular/infraclavicular area. Following completion of radiotherapy, the patient developed severe radiation pneumonitis.

  7. Radiation pneumonitis after radiotherapy of neck lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Cai, Jun; Tong, Tao; Yu, Shihua; Yang, Yonghua; Zhang, Weijia; Yang, Jiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the effective means for treatment of malignant tumors up to now. Particularly, it is an indispensable effective measure for treatment of some lymphoma patients. In routine work, radiation pneumonitis (RP) is the most significant complication of acute treatment-related toxicities in lung cancer; however, serious radioactive pneumonia is rare for the radiotherapy of neck lymphoma because the volume of the lungs affected by radiation dose was very small. We report a lymphoma case, where the patient had undergone radiotherapy for the bilateral neck and bilateral supraclavicular/infraclavicular area. Following completion of radiotherapy, the patient developed severe radiation pneumonitis.

  8. Treatment of Childhood Head and Neck Cancer - Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find diagnosis, staging, and treatment information for these head and neck cancers: hypopharynx, larynx, lip and oral cavity, neck cancer with occult primary, nasopharynx, oropharynx, paranasal sinus and nasal cavity, and salivary gland cancer.

  9. Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer in Adults - Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find diagnosis, staging, and treatment information for these head and neck cancers: hypopharynx, larynx, lip and oral cavity, neck cancer with occult primary, nasopharynx, oropharynx, paranasal sinus and nasal cavity, and salivary gland cancer.

  10. Neck Muscle Fatigue with Helmet-Mounted Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eveland, Edward S; Pellettiere, Joseph A

    2006-01-01

    .... Changes in neck muscle strength were identified along with EMG evidence of fatigue. When flights occurred on an almost daily basis over 4 days, the force imparted to the neck was reduced each day...

  11. PET-CT–Guided Surveillance of Head and Neck Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who underwent PET-CT–guided surveillance had fewer operations but similar overall survival rates to those of patients who underwent planned neck dissection.

  12. Macrobenthic Communities of the Dam Neck Disposal Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    catharinensis Muller Byblis aerrata Smith 0 Caprellidae app. Corophium app. Gammarus sp. Listriella barnardi Wigley Protohaustorius spp...TABLE 2 : Hydrographic Measurements at Dam Neck Stations (A) - Dam Neck Extension Stations Station Date Bottom Salinity Bottom Temperature Depth (ppt

  13. Amorphization of equimolar alloys with HCP elements during mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Liang [Materials and Electro-Optics Research Division, Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Armaments Bureau, MND, P.O. Box 90008-8-5, Lung-Tan, Tao-Yuan 32599, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Che-Wei; Juan, Chien-Chang; Chuang, Ming-Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Jien-Wei, E-mail: jwyeh@mx.nthu.edu.t [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chin, Tsung-Shune [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Chen, Swe-Kai [Center for Nanotechnology, Materials Science and Microsystems, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-10

    This study prepares two equimolar alloys, entirely composed of HCP elements, BeCoMgTi and BeCoMgTiZn, from elemental powders by mechanical alloying. No crystalline solid solutions and compounds formed during milling except an amorphous phase formed gradually until full amorphization was attained. The amorphization processes of these two alloys conform to type II according to the Weeber and Bakker classification based on binary alloys. The inhibition of crystalline solid solutions and compounds before amorphization relates to chemical compatibility, high entropy effect and large atomic size difference effect.

  14. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  15. Two phase titanium aluminide alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Liu, C. T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A two-phase titanic aluminide alloy having a lamellar microstructure with little intercolony structures. The alloy can include fine particles such as boride particles at colony boundaries and/or grain boundary equiaxed structures. The alloy can include alloying additions such as .ltoreq.10 at % W, Nb and/or Mo. The alloy can be free of Cr, V, Mn, Cu and/or Ni and can include, in atomic %, 45 to 55% Ti, 40 to 50% Al, 1 to 5% Nb, 0.3 to 2% W, up to 1% Mo and 0.1 to 0.3% B. In weight %, the alloy can include 57 to 60% Ti, 30 to 32% Al, 4 to 9% Nb, up to 2% Mo, 2 to 8% W and 0.02 to 0.08% B.

  16. Effects of Annealing Process on the Formability of Friction Stir Welded Al-Li Alloy 2195 Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Shou; Bradford, Vann; Russell, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Large rocket cryogenic tank domes have typically been fabricated using Al-Cu based alloys like Al-Cu alloy 2219. The use of aluminum-lithium based alloys for rocket fuel tank domes can reduce weight because aluminum-lithium alloys have lower density and higher strength than Al-Cu alloy 2219. However, Al-Li alloys have rarely been used to fabricate rocket fuel tank domes because of the inherent low formability characteristic that make them susceptible to cracking during the forming operations. The ability to form metal by stretch forming or spin forming without excessive thinning or necking depends on the strain hardening exponent "n". The stain hardening exponent is a measure of how rapidly a metal becomes stronger and harder. A high strain hardening exponent is beneficial to a material's ability to uniformly distribute the imposed strain. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a novel annealing process that can achieve a work hardening exponent on the order of 0.27 to 0.29, which is approximately 50% higher than what is typically obtained for Al-Li alloys using the conventional method. The strain hardening exponent of the Al-Li alloy plates or blanks heat treated using the conventional method is typically on the order of 0.17 to 0.19. The effects of this novel annealing process on the formability of friction stir welded Al-Li alloy blanks are being studied at Marshall Space Flight Center. The formability ratings will be generated using the strain hardening exponent, strain rate sensitivity and forming range. The effects of forming temperature on the formability will also be studied. The objective of this work is to study the deformation behavior of the friction stir welded Al-Li alloy 2195 blank and determine the formability enhancement by the new annealing process.

  17. Neck sprain after motor vehicle accidents in drivers and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Neck sprain is a general term denoting a soft tissue injury of the neck, which seldom causes major disability but is considered a modem epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sprain of the neck injury due to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) in both drivers and

  18. Topographic Pattern Distribution of Head And Neck Squamous Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    value of 71% of SCC in Turkey. Nevertheless a similar report documented a relatively lower value especially in. Yemen where head and neck SCC constituted only 8% of all head and neck cancers. Reports from Yemen revealed that oral cavity SCC was the most common topographic site of all head and. 3 neck cancers.

  19. Caliper measurement to improve clinical assessment of palpable neck lumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, J; Amonoo-Kuofi, K; Scrivens, J; Pfleiderer, A

    2012-05-01

    One-stop neck lump clinics with ultrasonography and cytopathology support are an expensive and finite resource. Consequently, many neck lump patients are assessed in general ear, nose and throat or head and neck clinics. Optimal clinical assessment of neck lump size is important to guide investigation, monitor change and provisionally stage nodal disease. The aims of this study were to investigate whether caliper measurement is more accurate than clinical palpation in assessing neck lump size and whether caliper measurement of neck lump size correlates closely with accurate ultrasonography measurement. A prospective study was carried out involving 50 patients with clinically palpable neck lumps presenting to the one-stop neck lump clinic. Long and short axis neck lump dimensions were estimated first by clinical palpation and second by caliper measurement. Estimations were compared with accurate ultrasonography measurement. The mean combined long and short axis measurement deviation from accurate ultrasonography measurement was smaller for caliper measurement (7.80 mm) than for clinical palpation (12.38 mm) (p caliper measurement of neck lumps (p = 0.462). Caliper measurement is more accurate than clinical palpation in estimating the size of clinically palpable neck lumps. The use of calipers to measure the skin surface dimensions of palpable neck lumps is statistically comparable to accurate ultrasonography measurement.

  20. Functional and selective neck dissection (IIa) following squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radical neck dissection was the original surgical procedure for the treatment of regional neck metastases. The aim of this paper is to report the management of a female patient with regional neck metastases from squamous cell carcinoma affecting the hard palate. Methods: A case report of a 60-year-old patient with ...

  1. Primary head and neck cancers in north eastern Nigeria | Otoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary head and neck cancers in north eastern Nigeria. EC Otoh, NW Johnson, IS Danfillo, OA Adeleke, HA Olasoji. Abstract. Background:To document the pattern of primary head and neck cancers in North Eastern Nigeria. Study DesignA record-based study of primary head and neck cancers histologically diagnosed at ...

  2. Prevention of flight-related neck pain in military aircrew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oord, M.H.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Military pilots and rear aircrew members are occupations with several occupational exposures that might cause neck pain. In addition to the negative impact of neck pain on health, safety is one of the main concerns for the military aviation, because neck pain may interfere with flying performance.

  3. Neck Pain in Military Helicopter Pilots: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oord, Marieke H. A. H.; de Loose, Veerle; Meeuwsen, Ted; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2010-01-01

    Our aim is to estimate the self-reported one-year prevalence of neck pain in military helicopter pilots and to compare work-related, individual, and health-related factors in the pilots with (neck pain group) and without (reference group) regular or continuous neck pain. A questionnaire was

  4. Shoulder morbidity after non-surgical treatment of the neck.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wouwe, V.; de Bree, R.; Kuik, D.J.; de Goede, C.J.T.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Leemans, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports on shoulder function after non-surgical treatment are not available. In the present study shoulder morbidity after surgical and non-surgical treatment of the neck is determined and compared. Materials and methods: In 100 head and neck cancer patients 174 neck sides

  5. Point defects and diffusion in alloys: correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Kinetic models in alloys aim at predicting the transport properties of a system starting from the microscopic jump frequencies of defects. Such properties are of prior importance in systems which stay out of equilibrium for a long time, as for example irradiated alloys in nuclear reactors. We hereby propose several developments of the recent self-consistent mean field (SCMF) kinetic theory, which deals particularly with the correlation effects due to the coupling of atomic and defect fluxes. They are taken into account through a non-equilibrium distribution function of the system, which is derived from the time evolution of small clusters (of two or more atoms or defects). We therefore introduce a set of 'dynamic' interactions called effective Hamiltonian. The SCMF theory is extended to treat high jump frequency ratios for the vacancy mechanism, as well as the transport through interstitial defects. We use in both cases an atomic model which accounts for the thermodynamic properties of the alloy, as e.g. the short-range order. Those models are eventually applied to predict the diffusion properties in two model alloys of nuclear interest: the concentrated Fe-Ni-Cr solid solution and the dilute Fe(P) alloy. We present adapted atomic models and compare our predictions to experimental data. (author)

  6. Development and characterization of Al-Li alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Nayan, Niraj; Nagasireesha, G.; Sharma, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    Increased strength to weight ratio of aluminium-lithium alloys has attracted material scientists to develop these for aerospace applications. But commercial scale production of these alloys has always been slow in view of difficulties encountered during addition of lithium and in ensuring homogeneous billet composition. A new technique of Li addition has been adapted, which gives maximum recovery of Li in the billet. Using this technique, aluminium-lithium alloys of two different grades for aerospace application were cast. Billets were hot forged and rolled to the thickness range of 3-4 mm and heat-treated for different temper conditions. Mechanical properties were evaluated in T6 (solution treated and artificial aged), T8 (solution treated, cold worked and artificial aged) and T4 (solution treated and natural aged) temper conditions. Both alloys exhibit a strong natural aging response. Reversion for short periods at 180 deg. C results in decrease of strength. With artificial reaging strength reaches above the T4 temper condition level. Characterization was carried out using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Experimental investigation shows that addition of lithium at high melt temperature gives lower recovery of Li, and use of impure aluminium adversely affects the mechanical properties of the alloy in all temper conditions

  7. Rare earth ferrosilicon alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caiquan, L.; Zeguang, T.; Zaizhang, L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to obtain RE ferrosilicon alloy with good quality and competitive price, it is essential that proper choice of raw materials, processing technology and equipments should be made based on the characteristics of Bai-Yun-Ebo mineral deposits. Experimental work and actual production practice indicate that pyrometallurgical method is suitable for the extraction and isolation of the rare earths and comprehensive utilization of the metal values contained in the feed material is capable of reducing cost of production of RE ferrosilicon alloy. In the Bai-Yun-Ebo deposit, the fluorite type medium lean ore (with respect to iron content) makes a reserve of considerable size. The average content of the chief constituents are given

  8. Metastable superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.

    1978-07-01

    The study of metastable metals and alloys has become one of the principal activities of specialists working in the field of superconducting materials. Metastable crystalline superconductors such as the A15-type materials have been given much attention. Non-crystalline superconductors were first studied over twenty years ago by Buckel and Hilsch using the technique of thin film evaporation on a cryogenic substrate. More recently, melt-quenching, sputtering, and ion implantation techniques have been employed to produce a variety of amorphous superconductors. The present article presents a brief review of experimental results and a survey of current work on these materials. The systematics of superconductivity in non-crystalline metals and alloys are described along with an analysis of the microscopic parameters which underlie the observed trends. The unique properties of these superconductors which arise from the high degree of structural disorder in the amorphous state are emphasized

  9. Informatics Aided Design for Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-28

    alloying discoveries/ predictions of new ternary cobalt based alloys that can have improved properties from conventional nickel based superalloys ...Using this approach we have proposed new ternary alloy additions for binary cobalt based intermetallics. Through comparison with some recent...that are even better than nickel base superalloys . This strategy has also been extended to the development of new type of design maps that identify

  10. Pareto-optimal alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bligaard, Thomas; Johannesson, Gisli Holmar; Ruban, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    Large databases that can be used in the search for new materials with specific properties remain an elusive goal in materials science. The problem is complicated by the fact that the optimal material for a given application is usually a compromise between a number of materials properties and the ......, the Pareto-optimal set, to determine optimal alloy solutions for the compromise between low compressibility, high stability, and cost....

  11. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...... of the novel catalyst material for synthesising hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water....

  12. Aluminum Alloy 7050 Extrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    tooling used in the 25-inch diameter casting trials at the laboratory was transferred to Lafayette Works and installed at a ladle casting station. The...for the laboratory casting trials was transferred to Alcoa’s Lafayette Works and installed on a ladle pour casting unit. After some minor adjustments...Fatigue Alloy Compressive Modulus of Elasticity Crack Propagation Ingot Fabricating Stress-Strain Stress-Corrosion Casting Heat

  13. Neck pain and disability due to neck pain: what is the relation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Pain and disability are interrelated, but the relationship between pain and disability is not straightforward. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between neck pain (NP) intensity, NP duration, and disability based on the population-based 'Funen Neck and Chest Pain......' study. Pain intensity was measured using 11-box numerical rating scales, pain duration was measured using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire, and disability was measured by the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale. Spearman rank correlation coefficients and logistic regression analyses were...... used to measure correlations and strength of associations between pain intensity, pain duration, and disability given domain specific characteristics (socioeconomic, health and physical, comorbidity, and variables related to consequences of NP). Neck pain was very common, but mainly mild and did...

  14. Spiral CT of the neck: When do neck malignancies delineate best during contrast enhancement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keberle, M.; Tschammler, A.; Hahn, D.; Berning, K.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the time of best contrast of neck malignancies in contrast-enhanced CT. The CT was done in 20 patients with squamous cell carcinoma using a standard protocol (100 ml contrast agent at 2 ml/s). Dynamic series of the tumors were performed (scan interval 6 s). In all relevant structures of the neck, densities were measured to obtain time-density curves. The best tumor contrast was measured ≥50 s after the start of the injection, and the best contrast of lymph nodes ≤75 s. For staging and volume measurements of neck primaries the best achievable contrast is necessary. Using the examined single-bolus technique, spiral CT allows a combination of perfect tumor contrast with a good contrast between lymph nodes and neck vessels between 50 and 75 s after starting the injection. (orig.)

  15. Are People With Whiplash-Associated Neck Pain Different from People With Nonspecific Neck Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anstey, Ricci; Kongsted, Alice; Kamper, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study with cross sectional and longitudinal analyses. Background The clinical importance of a history of whiplash associated disorder (WAD) in people with neck pain remains uncertain. Objective To compare people with WAD to people with non......-specific neck pain, in terms of their baseline characteristics, and pain and disability outcomes over 1 year. Methods Consecutive patients with neck pain presenting to a secondary care spine centre answered a comprehensive self-report questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Patients were classified....... At presentation patients with WAD were statistically different to patients without WAD for almost all characteristics investigated. While most differences were small (1.1 points on an 11-point pain rating scale and 11 percentage points on the Neck Disability Index) others including the presence of dizziness...

  16. Aluminum alloy impact sparkling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudyk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cast machine parts are widely used in many branches of industry. A very important issue is gaining the appropriate knowledge relating to the application of castings in places of explosion risks including but not limited to mining, chemical industry and rescue works. A possibility of explosion risks occurrence following the impact sparkling of the cast metal parts is still not solved problem in scientific research. In relation to this issue, in this article, the results of the study are presented, and relating to the tendency to impact sparkling of the aluminium alloys used in machine building. On the grounds of the results obtained, it was demonstrated that the registered impact sparkles bunches of feathers from the analyzed alloys: AlSi7Mg, (AK7; AlSi9Mg, (AK9; AlSi6Cu4, (AK64 and AlSi11, (AK11 show significant differences between each other. The quantitative analysis of the temperature distribution and nuclei surface area performed on the example of the alloy AK9 (subjected to defined period of corrosion allows for the statement that they are dangerous in conditions of explosion risk. Following this fact, designers and users of machine parts made from these materials should not use them in conditions where the explosive mixtures occur.

  17. Low activation vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzenburg, W. van.

    1991-01-01

    The properties and general characteristics of vanadium-base alloys are reviewed in terms of the materials requirements for fusion reactor first wall and blanket structures. In this review attention is focussed on radiation response including induced radioactivity, mechanical properties, compatibility with potential coolants, physical and thermal properties, fabricability and resources. Where possible, properties are compared to those of other leading candidate structural materials, e.g. austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels. Vanadium alloys appear to offer advantages in the areas of long-term activation, mechanical properties at temperatures above 600 deg C, radiation resistance and thermo-hydraulic design, due to superior physical and thermal properties. They also have a potential for higher temperature operation in liquid lithium systems. Disadvantages are associated with their ability to retain high concentrations of hydrogen isotopes, higher cost, more difficult fabrication and welding. A particular concern regarding use of vanadium alloys relates their reactivity with non-metallic elements, such as oxygen and nitrogen. (author). 33 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Head/Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tobacco smoking at every level of its exposure. Infection Agents:- While it has been suggested that various infectious agents play a role in head and neck squamous cell carcinogenesis, only Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and. Human papiloma virus (Hpv) can be implicated as etiologic agents in HNSCC based on the current. 15.

  19. Carcinoembryonic antigen and head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarman, D. A.; van Kamp, G. J.; Balm, A. J.; Braakhuis, B. J.; Snow, G. B.

    1991-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentrations were determined in the sera of 45 patients with a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and of 13 controls. In 13 patients serial CEA measurements were made during the follow-up period. In 38% of the patients the serum CEA level was slightly elevated

  20. Isolated Enteric Cyst in the Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mahore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare case of isolated enteric cyst in the neck region which was diagnosed on the histopathological examination. It was suspected to be duplication cyst on radiology. We have also evaluated the differential diagnosis and management issues.

  1. [Photodynamic therapy for head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, C.B.; Specht, Lena; Kirkegaard, J.

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new treatment for head and neck cancer. The principle of the treatment is a photochemical reaction initiated by light activation of a photosensitizer, which causes the death of the exposed tissue. This article presents the modes of action of PDT and the techniques...

  2. Sex differences in heritability of neck Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    Experimental studies have suggested biological factors as a possible explanation for gender disparities in perception of pain. Recently, heritability of liability to neck pain (NP) has been found to be statistically significantly larger in women compared to men. However, no studies have been...

  3. Manipulation or Mobilisation for Neck Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Miller, Jordan; D'Sylva, Jonathan; Burnie, Stephen J.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Graham, Nadine; Haines, Ted; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Manipulation and mobilisation are often used, either alone or combined with other treatment approaches, to treat neck pain. Objectives To assess if manipulation or mobilisation improves pain, function/disability, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and global perceived effect in adults

  4. The Funen Neck and Chest Pain study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the Funen Neck and Chest Pain (FNCP) study and carry out a comprehensive non-response analysis of the quality of the survey. METHODS: The FNCP questionnaire was sent out to 7000 randomly selected individuals aged 20-71 years living in Funen County, Denmark. A full description...

  5. BLADDER NECK RESECTION WITH PRESERVATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion The complication of retrograde ejaculation in young patients who are in need of fertililty may be avoided by preservation of > 1 cm of the supramontanal part during bladder neck resection. La Résection du Col de Vessie avec Préservation de l'Ejaculation Antégrade Objectif Evaluer une nouvelle méthode de ...

  6. Shoulder complaints after nerve sparing neck dissections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, CP; Dijkstra, PU; van der Laan, BFAM; Plukker, JTM; Roodenburg, JLN

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the prevalence of shoulder complaints after nerve sparing neck dissection at least I year after surgery, and to analyse the influence of radiation therapy on shoulder complaints. Patients were interviewed for shoulder complaints, and patients filled out the

  7. 49 CFR 572.183 - Neck assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assembly and the neck angle with respect to the pendulum shall be measured with potentiometers specified in... velocity of 3.4±0.1 m/s measured at the center of the pendulum accelerometer (Figure 22 as set forth in 49 CFR 572.33) at the time the pendulum makes contact with the decelerating mechanism. The velocity-time...

  8. Oral sequelae of head and neck radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A; Jansma, J; Spijkervet, FKL; Burlage, FR; Coppes, RP

    In addition to anti-tumor effects, ionizing radiation causes damage in normal tissues located in the radiation portals. Oral complications of radiotherapy in the head and neck region are the result of the deleterious effects of radiation on, e. g., salivary glands, oral mucosa, bone, dentition,

  9. The future of personalised radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudell, Jimmy J; Torres-Roca, Javier F; Gillies, Robert J; Enderling, Heiko; Kim, Sungjune; Rishi, Anupam; Moros, Eduardo G; Harrison, Louis B

    2017-05-01

    Radiotherapy has long been the mainstay of treatment for patients with head and neck cancer and has traditionally involved a stage-dependent strategy whereby all patients with the same TNM stage receive the same therapy. We believe there is a substantial opportunity to improve radiotherapy delivery beyond just technological and anatomical precision. In this Series paper, we explore several new ideas that could improve understanding of the phenotypic and genotypic differences that exist between patients and their tumours. We discuss how exploiting these differences and taking advantage of precision medicine tools-such as genomics, radiomics, and mathematical modelling-could open new doors to personalised radiotherapy adaptation and treatment. We propose a new treatment shift that moves away from an era of empirical dosing and fractionation to an era focused on the development of evidence to guide personalisation and biological adaptation of radiotherapy. We believe these approaches offer the potential to improve outcomes and reduce toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neck proprioception, strength, flexibility, and posture in pilots with and without neck pain history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Clark, Nicholas C; Smalley, Brian W; Wirt, Michael D; Lephart, Scott M

    2014-05-01

    Neck pain (NP) is common among military helicopter pilots. Older age and more flight-hours have been associated with pilots with a history of NP. However, modifiable neuromuscular and musculoskeletal characteristics such as neck proprioception, strength, flexibility, and posture have rarely been investigated in military helicopter pilots with a history of NP. The purpose of the study was to compare demographics, flight characteristics, physical fitness information, neck proprioception, strength, flexibility, and posture between helicopter pilots with and without a history of NP. A total of 27 Army helicopter pilots with NP in the past 12 mo (pain group) were matched based on age with pilots without a history of NP (nonpain group). All pilots had flown at least 100 h in the past 12 mo and were cleared for flight and physical training. All pilots completed a battery of laboratory testing: neck proprioception, neck and scapular muscular strength, neck active range-of-motion (ROM), forward head and shoulder posture, and pectoralis minor length. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon tests were used to compare differences between groups. The pain group had significantly less cervical extension (63.7 +/- 8.5 degrees) and rotation ROM (R rotation: 67.7 +/- 8.8 degrees; L rotation: 67.4 +/- 9.0 degrees) when compared to the nonpain group (extension: 68.3 +/- 7.4 degrees; R rotation: 73.4 +/- 7.4 degrees; L rotation: 72.9 +/- 6.8 degrees). No significant differences were found for other variables. The results demonstrate less neck active ROM in pilots with a history of NP. Operating a helicopter with limited neck ROM or NP may negatively impact flight safety and force readiness. Continued research is warranted.

  11. Quantitative Ultrasonic Nakagami Imaging of Neck Fibrosis After Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofeng [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Yoshida, Emi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Cassidy, Richard J.; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Yu, David S.; Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Liu, Tian, E-mail: tliu34@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of ultrasound Nakagami imaging to quantitatively assess radiation-induced neck fibrosis, a common sequela of radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck. Methods and Materials: In a pilot study, 40 study participants were enrolled and classified into 3 subgroups: (1) a control group of 12 healthy volunteers; (2) an asymptomatic group of 11 patients who had received intensity modulated RT for head and neck cancer and had experienced no neck fibrosis; and (3) a symptomatic group of 17 post-RT patients with neck fibrosis. Each study participant underwent 1 ultrasound study in which scans were performed in the longitudinal orientation of the bilateral neck. Three Nakagami parameters were calculated to quantify radiation-induced tissue injury: Nakagami probability distribution function, shape, and scaling parameters. Physician-based assessments of the neck fibrosis were performed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late morbidity scoring scheme, and patient-based fibrosis assessments were rated based on symptoms such as pain and stiffness. Results: Major discrepancies existed between physician-based and patient-based assessments of radiation-induced fibrosis. Significant differences in all Nakagami parameters were observed between the control group and 2 post-RT groups. Moreover, significant differences in Nakagami shape and scaling parameters were observed among asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. Compared with the control group, the average Nakagami shape parameter value increased by 32.1% (P<.001), and the average Nakagami scaling parameter increased by 55.7% (P<.001) for the asymptomatic group, whereas the Nakagami shape parameter increased by 74.1% (P<.001) and the Nakagami scaling parameter increased by 83.5% (P<.001) for the symptomatic group. Conclusions: Ultrasonic Nakagami imaging is a potential quantitative tool to characterize radiation-induced asymptomatic and symptomatic neck fibrosis.

  12. Is Planned Neck Dissection Necessary for Head and Neck Cancer After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Min; Hoffman, Henry T.; Chang, Kristi; Funk, Gerry F.; Smith, Russell B.; Tan Huaming; Clamon, Gerald H.; Dornfeld, Ken; Buatti, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine regional control of local regional advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), along with the role and selection criteria for neck dissection after IMRT. Methods and Materials: A total of 90 patients with stage N2A or greater HNSCC were treated with definitive IMRT from December 1999 to July 2005. Three clinical target volumes were defined and were treated to 70 to 74 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy, respectively. Neck dissection was performed for selected patients after IMRT. Selection criteria evolved during this period with emphasis on post-IMRT [ 18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in recent years. Results: Median follow-up for all patients was 29 months (range, 0.2-74 months). All living patients were followed at least 9 months after completing treatment. Thirteen patients underwent neck dissection after IMRT because of residual lymphadenopathy. Of these, 6 contained residual viable tumor. Three patients with persistent adenopathy did not undergo neck dissection: 2 refused and 1 had lung metastasis. Among the remaining 74 patients who were observed without neck dissection, there was only 1 case of regional failure. Among all 90 patients in this study, the 3-year local and regional control was 96.3% and 95.4%, respectively. Conclusions: Appropriately delivered IMRT has excellent dose coverage for cervical lymph nodes. A high radiation dose can be safely delivered to the abnormal lymph nodes. There is a high complete response rate. Routine planned neck dissection for patients with N2A and higher stage after IMRT is not necessary. Post-IMRT [ 18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is a useful tool in selecting patients appropriate for neck dissection

  13. Smart materials based on shape memory alloys: examples from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotthardt, R.; Scherrer, P.

    2000-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have become increasingly attractive as embedded actuators in polymers yielding adaptive composite structures. In particular, SMA-elements have been used to actively or passively control shape, elastic modules, internal stress level and damping capacity of such smart composites. In the passive approach, copper-base SMA-plates can be used as temperature-sensitive damping elements, an interesting solution to improve the vibrational behaviour of alpine skis for example. Active materials are obtained by the integration of pre-strained Ni-Ti-base thin wires in polymer matrix composites enabling control of the vibrational behaviour through the recovery-stress tuning technique. In this paper, some results of national research programmes in Belgium and Switzerland, mainly concerning the damping capacity, are shown and a new European project entitled ''adaptive composites with embedded shape memory alloy wires'' is presented in which partners from Belgium, Germany, Greece, Great Britain and Switzerland are collaborating. (orig.)

  14. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overgaard J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jens Overgaard,1 Aleksandar Jovanovic,1 Christian Godballe,2,3 Jesper Grau Eriksen3 1Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Department of ORL – Head and Neck Surgery, 3Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Aim of the database: The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database is a nationwide clinical quality database that contains prospective data collected since the early 1960s. The overall aim of this study was to describe the outcome of the national strategy for multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck cancer in Denmark and to create a basis for clinical trials. Study population: The study population consisted of all Danish patients referred for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, or neck nodes from unknown primary or any histopathological type (except lymphoma of cancer in the nasal sinuses, salivary glands, or thyroid gland (corresponding to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision, classifications C.01–C.11, C.30–C.32, C.73, and C.80. Main variables: The main variables used in the study were symptoms and the duration of the symptoms; etiological factors; pretreatment and diagnostic evaluation, including tumor–node–metastasis classification, imaging, histopathology, and laboratory tests; primary treatment with semidetailed information of radiotherapy, surgery, and medical treatment; follow-up registration of tumor status and side effects; registration of relapse and treatment thereof; and registration of death and cause of death. Main results: Data from >33,000 patients have been recorded during a period of >45 years. In this period, the outcome of treatment improved substantially, partly due to better treatment as a result of a series of continuous clinical trials and subsequent implementation in national guidelines. The database has furthermore been used to describe the effect of reduced waiting time

  15. Hip geometry and femoral neck fractures: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajar, Jonny Karunia; Taufan, Taufan; Syarif, Muhammad; Azharuddin, Azharuddin

    2018-04-01

    Several studies have reported hip geometry to predict the femoral neck fractures. However, they showed inconsistency. To determine the association between hip geometry and femoral neck fractures. Published literature from PubMed and Embase databases (until May 25 th , 2017) was searched for eligible publications. The information related to (1) name of first author; (2) year of publication; (3) country of origin; (4) sample size of cases and controls and (5) mean and standard deviation of cases and controls were extracted. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between hip geometry and femoral neck fractures were assessed using random or fixed effect model. A Comprehensive Meta-analysis software, version 2.0, was used to analyse the data. A total of 11 studies were included in this study. Our results showed that increase in hip axis length (OR 95% CI = 1.53 [1.06-2.21], p  = 0.025), femoral neck angle (OR 95% CI = 1.47 [1.01-2.15], p  = 0.044) and neck width (OR 95% CI = 2.68 [1.84-3.91], p  < 0.001) was associated with the risk of femoral neck fractures, whereas we could not find the correlation between femoral neck axis length and the risk of femoral neck fractures. There is strong evidence that elevated hip axis length, femoral neck angle and neck width are the risk factor for femoral neck fractures. The Translational Potential of this Article : Determining the hip axis length, femoral neck angle and neck width that are most highly associated with femoral neck fracture may allow clinicians to more accurately predict which individuals are likely to experience femoral neck fractures in the future.

  16. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  17. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    intense relational mechanisms provide an effective means for contingency adaptation and therefore reduce the probability of premature termination. However, in situations where relationships are already governed by longer duration contracts, we argue that investments in relational mechanism create...

  18. Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael P; Wedel, Mathew J

    2013-01-01

    The necks of the sauropod dinosaurs reached 15 m in length: six times longer than that of the world record giraffe and five times longer than those of all other terrestrial animals. Several anatomical features enabled this extreme elongation, including: absolutely large body size and quadrupedal stance providing a stable platform for a long neck; a small, light head that did not orally process food; cervical vertebrae that were both numerous and individually elongate; an efficient air-sac-based respiratory system; and distinctive cervical architecture. Relevant features of sauropod cervical vertebrae include: pneumatic chambers that enabled the bone to be positioned in a mechanically efficient way within the envelope; and muscular attachments of varying importance to the neural spines, epipophyses and cervical ribs. Other long-necked tetrapods lacked important features of sauropods, preventing the evolution of longer necks: for example, giraffes have relatively small torsos and large, heavy heads, share the usual mammalian constraint of only seven cervical vertebrae, and lack an air-sac system and pneumatic bones. Among non-sauropods, their saurischian relatives the theropod dinosaurs seem to have been best placed to evolve long necks, and indeed their necks probably surpassed those of giraffes. But 150 million years of evolution did not suffice for them to exceed a relatively modest 2.5 m.

  19. Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Taylor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The necks of the sauropod dinosaurs reached 15 m in length: six times longer than that of the world record giraffe and five times longer than those of all other terrestrial animals. Several anatomical features enabled this extreme elongation, including: absolutely large body size and quadrupedal stance providing a stable platform for a long neck; a small, light head that did not orally process food; cervical vertebrae that were both numerous and individually elongate; an efficient air-sac-based respiratory system; and distinctive cervical architecture. Relevant features of sauropod cervical vertebrae include: pneumatic chambers that enabled the bone to be positioned in a mechanically efficient way within the envelope; and muscular attachments of varying importance to the neural spines, epipophyses and cervical ribs. Other long-necked tetrapods lacked important features of sauropods, preventing the evolution of longer necks: for example, giraffes have relatively small torsos and large, heavy heads, share the usual mammalian constraint of only seven cervical vertebrae, and lack an air-sac system and pneumatic bones. Among non-sauropods, their saurischian relatives the theropod dinosaurs seem to have been best placed to evolve long necks, and indeed their necks probably surpassed those of giraffes. But 150 million years of evolution did not suffice for them to exceed a relatively modest 2.5 m.

  20. Neck muscle vibration can improve sensorimotor function in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinert, Konstantin; Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    People with neck pain display a diminished joint position sense and disturbed postural control, which is thought to be a result of impaired somatosensory afferent activity and/or integration. Afferent processing can be artificially manipulated by vibration and was shown to reduce motor performance in healthy subjects. However, the effect of vibration on sensorimotor function in neck pain patients is scarcely investigated. To assess the effect of neck muscle vibration on joint position sense and postural control in neck pain subjects and healthy controls. Case control study. Thirteen neck pain patients and 10 healthy controls participated in the present study. Cervical joint position sense and dynamic and static postural stability. Short-term, targeted neck muscle vibration with 100 Hz was applied after baseline measurement. Vibration had opposite effects in patients and healthy subjects. Patients showed improved joint position sense (pneck pain. Thus, vibration may be used to counteract sensorimotor impairment of the cervical spine. Potential underlying mechanisms are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Evaluation of document location during computer use in terms of neck muscle activity and neck movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goostrey, Sonya; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the impact on neck movement and muscle activity of placing documents in three commonly used locations: in-line, flat desktop left of the keyboard and laterally placed level with the computer screen. Neck excursion during three standard head movements between the computer monitor and each document location and neck extensor and upper trapezius muscle activity during a 5 min typing task for each of the document locations was measured in 20 healthy participants. Results indicated that muscle activity and neck flexion were least when documents were placed laterally suggesting it may be the optimal location. The desktop option produced both the greatest neck movement and muscle activity in all muscle groups. The in-line document location required significantly more neck flexion but less lateral flexion and rotation than the laterally placed document. Evaluation of other holders is needed to guide decision making for this commonly used office equipment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ipsilateral humeral neck and shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fractures of the proximal humerus or shaft are common, however, ipsilateral neck and shaft humerus fracture is a rare phenomenon. This combination injury is challenging for orthopaedic surgeons because of its complex treatment options at present. The purpose of this study was to review a series of ipsilateral humeral neck and shaft fractures to study the fracture pattern, complications and treatment outcomes of each treatment options used. Methods. A total of six patients (four female and two male with the average age of 42.8 years (range: 36–49 years was collected and reviewed retrospectively. Two of them were treated with double plates and four with antegrade intramedullary nail. According to the Neer’s classification, all proximal fractures were two-part surgical neck fractures. All humeral shaft fractures were located at the middle of one third. Five fractures were simple transverse (A3, one fragmented wedge fracture (B3. One patient had associated radial nerve palsy. Results. All surgical neck fractures except one united uneventfully in the average time span of 8.7 weeks. Four humeral shaft fractures healed in near anatomic alignment. The remaining two patients had the nonunion with no radiological signs of fracture healing. The average University of California, Los Angeles End-Results (UCLA score was 23.1. On the contrary, the average American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon's (ASES score was 73.3. The patients treated with antegrade intramedullary nails presented 70.5 points. The ASES scores were 79 in the double plates group. Conclusions. Ipsilateral humeral shaft and neck fracture is extremely rare. Both antegrade intramedullar nailing and double plates result in healing of fractures. However the risk of complication is lower in the double plating group.

  3. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible...... and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  4. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  5. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....

  6. The tripartite origins of the tonic neck reflex: Gesell, Gerstmann, and Magnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevell, Michael

    2009-03-03

    The standard neurologic examination of the newborn and infant includes the elicitation of the tonic neck reflex. Normally present, its persistence is suggestive of neurologic dysfunction and a prognostic marker highly suggestive of an adverse outcome. Working in different fields, with different approaches and largely independently, three leaders of early 20th century neurosciences (Rudolf Magnus, Josef Gerstmann, and Arnold Gesell) elaborated different aspects of this primitive reflex. Magnus provided the first description in an animal model utilizing a meticulously prepared decerebrate cat correctly identifying the reflex's reliance on proprioceptors in the neck and processing in the upper cervical segment. Gerstmann first described its occurrence in the setting of neurologic disease, providing a meticulous written description in an early description of the index case of what would later be eponymously designated Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. Gesell initially described the reflex's fundamental occurrence in normal young infants, highlighting its adaptive role in early development and its persistence as a hallmark of neurologic pathology.

  7. Selective neck dissection: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagedar, Nitin A; Gilbert, Ralph W

    2009-01-01

    The management of regional metastatic disease in patients with oral cancer is a topic of controversy. Comprehensive neck dissection has been the mainstay of treatment historically, but clinicians have sought alternatives to limit the morbidity of the classic radical neck dissection. This article will review evidence on the applicability of selective neck dissection in two settings: as primary treatment of the clinically positive neck and as salvage treatment of recurrent neck disease after radiotherapy. In the text, for each article cited we supply the level of evidence thereof according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based medicine.

  8. Influence of Cervical Muscle Fatigue on Musculo-Tendinous Stiffness of the Head-Neck Segment during Cervical Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portero, Raphaël; Quaine, Franck; Cahouet, Violaine; Léouffre, Marc; Servière, Christine; Portero, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if the fatigue of cervical muscles has a significant influence on the head-neck segment musculo-tendinous stiffness. Ten men (aged 21.2 ± 1.9 years) performed four quick-release trials of flexion at 30 and 50% MVC before and after the induction of muscular fatigue on cervical flexors. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the sternocleidomastoids (SCM) and spinal erectors (SE), bilaterally. Musculo-tendinous stiffness was calculated through the quick-release method adapted to the head-neck segment. We noticed a significant linear increase of the head-neck segment musculo-tendinous stiffness with the increase of exertion level both before (P fatigue procedure (P fatigue procedure. EMG analysis revealed a significant increase of the root mean square for the right SCM (P = 0.0002), the left SCM (P fatigue. We did not find significant changes in the head-neck segment musculo-tendinous stiffness with fatigue of cervical muscles. We found a significant increase in EMG activity in the SCM and the SE after the induction of fatigue of the SCM. Our findings suggest that with fatigue of cervical flexors, neck muscle activity is modulated in order to maintain the musculo-tendinous stiffness at a steady state.

  9. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  10. Large plastic stability in magnesium alloys: crystalline vs. amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissiere, R.; Puech, S.; Blandin, J.J. [Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG), SIMaP Laboratory - GPM2 group, CNRS/UJF, Domaine Universitaire, Saint-Martin d' Heres (France)

    2008-04-15

    Except if strain induces damage, the plastic stability can be roughly estimated thanks to the value of the strain rate sensitivity parameter m. In conventional magnesium alloys, moderate values of m (typically close to 0.3) can be frequently obtained during high temperature deformation. Such values allow reaching significant elongations to fracture. For alloys displaying fine grains, superplastic properties associated with values of m of about 0.5 or more are achievable leading to large elongations to fracture in optimized conditions for which damage processes remain limited. Quite recently, amorphous magnesium alloys have been produced in bulk conditions. In appropriate conditions of deformation, these alloys display Newtonian behaviour (i.e. m=1). With such rheologies, the plastic stability is expected to be maximal. In this presentation, features in relation with high temperature deformation of amorphous and crystalline magnesium alloys will be compared and apparent similitudes and differences will be discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Novel Treatment of Neck Wrinkles with an Intradermal Radiofrequency Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Moo Yeol; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Myeung Nam; Hong, Chang Kwun; Kim, Hyuk; Koh, Hyun-Ju; Park, Won-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Neck wrinkles commonly develop owing to the aging process. However, recently, the number of patients with neck wrinkles has been increasing. Also, an increasing number of young patients have presented with this condition, possibly because of the effect of the head-down posture that they adopt when using their computer or smartphone. We report two cases of young adults with a prominent neck wrinkle. In case 1, a 29-year-old woman with a neck wrinkle was treated with six intradermal radiofrequency (RF) procedures. Her neck wrinkle was significantly improved with the RF treatment. In case 2, a 32-year-old woman with a wrinkle and generalized light brownish tiny papules on the neck was treated with three intradermal RF procedures simultaneously with 30% glycolic acid peeling. Her wrinkle and skin tone were improved dramatically. We conclude that intradermal RF has a considerable efficacy for reducing neck wrinkles. PMID:25673937

  12. A study of neck and shoulder morbidity following neck dissection: The benefits of cervical plexus preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzaro, Massimiliano; Riva, Giuseppe; Raimondo, Luca; Aghemo, Laura; Giordano, Carlo; Pecorari, Giancarlo

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a study to evaluate the hypothesis that the preservation of cervical root branches of the cervical plexus is associated with greater shoulder mobility, less loss of face and neck sensation, and better quality of life (QoL) following functional neck dissection in which the spinal accessory nerve is spared. We also investigated the impact of postoperative physiotherapy on these three outcomes. Our study population was made up of 54 patients-47 men and 7 women, aged 34 to 78 years (mean: 53.4)-who had undergone functional neck dissection as a treatment for head and neck cancer over a 3-year period at our institution. Patients were divided into two groups: 23 patients whose cervical root branches were preserved during surgery (preservation group) and 31 whose branches were removed (removal group). Shoulder mobility was measured by the Arm Abduction Test (AAT), face and neck sensation was assessed by fingertip touch in eight areas of the head and neck, and QoL was determined by the University of Washington-Quality of Life questionnaire (UW-QoL4). The AAT revealed that the preservation group had significantly better shoulder mobility. The fingertip touch evaluation revealed significantly less loss of sensation in Saffold regions A and D. Analysis of the UW-QoL4 results revealed that the preservation group experienced significantly less pain, significantly fewer shoulder complaints, and significantly fewer limitations on activities and recreation, as well as significantly better health-related and overall QoL. The preservation group also had a significantly better composite score, global score, social function score, and mood and anxiety score on the UW-QoL4 assessment. Finally, we found that physiotherapy improved both QoL and shoulder mobility, although these improvements were not statistically significant. We conclude that preservation of the cervical root branches significantly improves outcomes in patients who undergo functional neck dissection.

  13. Neck muscle atrophy and soft-tissue fibrosis after neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy for oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinu; Shin, Eun Seow; Kim, Jeong Eon; Yoon, Sang Pil [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Suk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Late complications of head and neck cancer survivors include neck muscle atrophy and soft-tissue fibrosis. We present an autopsy case of neck muscle atrophy and soft-tissue fibrosis (sternocleidomastoid, omohyoid, digastric, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and platysma muscles) within the radiation field after modified radical neck dissection type I and postoperative radiotherapy for floor of mouth cancer. A 70-year-old man underwent primary tumor resection of the left floor of mouth, left marginal mandibulectomy, left modified radical neck dissection type I, and reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. The dose to the primary tumor bed and involved neck nodes was 63 Gy in 35 fractions over 7 weeks. Areas of subclinical disease (left lower neck) received 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks. Adjuvant chemotherapy was not administered.

  14. Test Characteristics of Neck Fullness and Witnessed Neck Pulsations in the Diagnosis of Typical AV Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhuja, Rahul; Smith, Lisa M; Tseng, Zian H; Badhwar, Nitish; Lee, Byron K; Lee, Randall J; Scheinman, Melvin M; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Marcus, Gregory M

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Claims in the medical literature suggest that neck fullness and witnessed neck pulsations are useful in the diagnosis of typical AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Hypothesis Neck fullness and witnessed neck pulsations have a high positive predictive value in the diagnosis of typical AVNRT. Methods We performed a cross sectional study of consecutive patients with palpitations presenting to a single electrophysiology (EP) laboratory over a 1 year period. Each patient underwent a standard questionnaire regarding neck fullness and/or witnessed neck pulsations during their palpitations. The reference standard for diagnosis was determined by electrocardiogram and invasive EP studies. Results Comparing typical AVNRT to atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) patients, the proportions with neck fullness and witnessed neck pulsations did not significantly differ: in the best case scenario (using the upper end of the 95% confidence interval [CI]), none of the positive or negative predictive values exceeded 79%. After restricting the population to those with supraventricular tachycardia other than AF or AFL (SVT), neck fullness again exhibited poor test characteristics; however, witnessed neck pulsations exhibited a specificity of 97% (95% CI 90–100%) and a positive predictive value of 83% (95% CI 52–98%). After adjustment for potential confounders, SVT patients with witnessed neck pulsations had a 7 fold greater odds of having typical AVNRT, p=0.029. Conclusions Although neither neck fullness nor witnessed neck pulsations are useful in distinguishing typical AVNRT from AF or AFL, witnessed neck pulsations are specific for the presence of typical AVNRT among those with SVT. PMID:19479968

  15. The burden of neck pain: its meaning for persons with neck pain and healthcare providers, explored by concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Randeraad-van der Zee, Carlijn H; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Swinkels, Raymond A H M; Pool, Jan J M; Batterham, Roy W; Osborne, Richard H; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2016-05-01

    To empirically define the concept of burden of neck pain. The lack of a clear understanding of this construct from the perspective of persons with neck pain and care providers hampers adequate measurement of this burden. An additional aim was to compare the conceptual model obtained with the frequently used Neck Disability Index (NDI). Concept mapping, combining qualitative (nominal group technique and group consensus) and quantitative research methods (cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling), was applied to groups of persons with neck pain (n = 3) and professionals treating persons with neck pain (n = 2). Group members generated statements, which were organized into concept maps. Group members achieved consensus about the number and description of domains and the researchers then generated an overall mind map covering the full breadth of the burden of neck pain. Concept mapping revealed 12 domains of burden of neck pain: impaired mobility neck, neck pain, fatigue/concentration, physical complaints, psychological aspects/consequences, activities of daily living, social participation, financial consequences, difficult to treat/difficult to diagnose, difference of opinion with care providers, incomprehension by social environment, and how person with neck pain deal with complaints. All ten items of the NDI could be linked to the mind map, but the NDI measures only part of the burden of neck pain. This study revealed the relevant domains for the burden of neck pain from the viewpoints of persons with neck pain and their care providers. These results can guide the identification of existing measurements instruments for each domain or the development of new ones to measure the burden of neck pain.

  16. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation......This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  17. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  18. Femoral neck fractures: a changing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, E P; Su, S L

    2014-11-01

    Surgical interventions consisting of internal fixation (IF) or total hip replacement (THR) are required to restore patient mobility after hip fractures. Conventionally, this decision was based solely upon the degree of fracture displacement. However, in the last ten years, there has been a move to incorporate patient characteristics into the decision making process. Research demonstrating that joint replacement renders superior functional results when compared with IF, in the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures, has swayed the pendulum in favour of THR. However, a high risk of dislocation has always been the concern. Fortunately, there are newer technologies and alternative surgical approaches that can help reduce the risk of dislocation. The authors propose an algorithm for the treatment of femoral neck fractures: if minimally displaced, in the absence of hip joint arthritis, IF should be performed; if arthritis is present, or the fracture is displaced, then THR is preferred. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  19. Neodymium alloys and their fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seon, F.; Boudot, B.

    1985-01-01

    Neodymium alloys, particularly neodymium-iron alloys, are prepared by reduction of a neodymium halogenide, preferentially neodymium fluoride by a reducing metal (e.g. Ca) with the addition of the metal M to introduce in the final alloy. From these alloys metallic neodymium can be obtained [fr

  20. Interaction Of Hydrogen With Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Montano, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on interaction of hydrogen with number of metal alloys. Discusses relationship between metallurgical and crystallographic aspects of structures of alloys and observed distributions of hydrogen on charging. Also discusses effect of formation of hydrides on resistances of alloys to hydrogen. Describes attempt to correlate structures and compositions of alloys with their abilities to resist embrittlement by hydrogen.

  1. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Certain Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, K. R.; Dorward, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    SC resistance of new high-strength alloys tested. Research report describes progress in continuing investigation of stress corrosion (SC) cracking of some aluminum alloys. Objective of program is comparing SC behavior of newer high-strength alloys with established SC-resistant alloy.

  2. The role of USG in neck monitoring after surgery of malignant neoplasms of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmeja, Z.; Kordylewska, M.; Dziamska, K.; Szyfter, W.; Kruk-Zagajewska, A.

    1994-01-01

    Metastases to regional lymph nodes of the neck in patients with larynx cancer are a more frequent cause of death in comparison to local recurrence. Thus it is necessary to thoroughly examine the treatment and after the treatment. The ultrasound examination introduced significant diagnostic value in the diagnosis of malignant cancers. Ultrasound monitoring of the lymphatic system after surgical treatment or radiation allows to diagnose early metastases which are not visible in palpation examination. In over 200 patients after surgical treatment of larynx cancer several ultrasound examinations of the neck were carried out. The time following the end of the treatment was 4 months to l 8 years. In the ultrasound examination of the neck changes in the lymphatic system were observed, which were not clinically manifested in 10 patients. Metastases to regional lymph nodes of the neck were most frequently observed in the first year after the operation. Patients who were diagnosed with metastases before operation and patients with supraglottic cancers were at more risk of having metastases. The ultrasound examination of the neck should be a routine, systematically repeated examination in the observation of patients after larynx cancer operation. (author)

  3. Reliability and Agreement of Neck Functional Capacity Evaluation Tests in Patients With Chronic Multifactorial Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneman, M F; Roelofs, M; Schiphorst Preuper, H R

    2017-07-01

    To analyze test-retest reliability and agreement, and to explore the safety of neck functional capacity evaluation (Neck-FCE) tests in patients with chronic multifactorial neck pain. Test-retest; 2 FCE sessions were held with a 2-week interval. University-based outpatient rehabilitation center. Individuals (N=18; 14 women) with a mean age of 34 years. Not applicable. The Neck-FCE protocol consists of 6 tests: lifting waist to overhead (kg), 2-handed carrying (kg), overhead working (s), bending and overhead reaching (s), and repetitive side reaching (left and right) (s). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and limits of agreement (LoA) were calculated. ICC point estimates between .75 and .90 were considered as good, and >.90 were considered as excellent reliability. ICC point estimates ranged between .39 and .96. Ratios of the LoA ranged between 32.0% and 56.5%. Mean ± SD numeric rating scale pain scores in the neck and shoulder 24 hours after the test were 6.7±2.6 and 6.3±3.0, respectively. Based on ICC point estimates and 95% confidence intervals, 3 tests had excellent reliability and 3 had poor reliability. LoA were substantial in all 6 tests. Safety was confirmed. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical and Surgical Anatomy of the Neck

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Russo, Gustavo A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: to bring relevance on morphological details pertaining to medical and surgical applicability and demonstrate its value as an unavoidable mainstay for diagnosis and mangement of head and neck pathology.Materials and method: a. standarized dissections, of preserved adult human corpses, to obtain anatomical pieces for teaching purposes in school of medicine, axial slices and its comparative study with computed tomography (CT) images. b.application of normalized surgical techniques...

  5. Bladder neck disease and kidney damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mudoni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO was first described in men by Marion in 1933. The precise cause of PBNO has not been clearly elucidated. This paper review the theories on etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and treatments for PBNO. Also this paper focuses on management of patients with complications like acute urine retention, hydroureteronephrosis and severe renal failure. The treatment options for men and women with PBNO include careful clinical evaluation, pharmacotherapy with alpha-blockers and surgical intervention.

  6. Femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigsby, Perry W.; Roberts, Heidi L.; Perez, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence and risk factors are evaluated for femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: The radiation therapy records of 1313 patients with advanced and recurrent cancer of the vagina, vulva, cervix, and endometrium, treated at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology from 1954 to 1992, were reviewed. Median follow-up was 12.7 years. From this group, 207 patients were identified who received irradiation to the pelvis and groins with anterposterior-posterior anterior (AP-PA), 18 MV photons. Data were reviewed regarding irradiation dose to the femoral neck and other presumed risk factors including age, primary site, stage, groin node status, menopausal status, estrogen use, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and osteoporosis. Results: The per-patient incidence of femoral neck fracture was 4.8% (10 out of 207). Four patients developed bilateral fractures. However, the cumulative actuarial incidence of fracture was 11% at 5 years and 15% at 10 years. Cox multivariate analysis of age, weight, and irradiation dose showed that only irradiation dose may be important to developing fracture. Step-wise logistic regression of presumed prognostic factors revealed that only cigarette use and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis prior to irradiation treatment were predictive of fracture. Conclusion: Femoral head fracture is a common complication of groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Fracture in our database appears to be related to irradiation dose, cigarette use, and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis. Special attention should be given in treatment planning (i.e., shielding of femoral head/neck and use of appropriate electron beam energies for a portion of treatment) to reduce the incidence of this complication

  7. Radiation Pneumonitis after Radiotherapy of Neck Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Min; Cai, Jun; Tong, Tao; Yu, Shihua; Yang, Yonghua; Zhang, Weijia; Yang, Jiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the effective means for treatment of malignant tumors up to now. Particularly, it is an indispensable effective measure for treatment of some lymphoma patients. In routine work, radiation pneumonitis (RP) is the most significant complication of acute treatment-related toxicities in lung cancer; however, serious radioactive pneumonia is rare for the radiotherapy of neck lymphoma because the volume of the lungs affected by radiation dose was very small. We report a ...

  8. Purse-string platysmaplasty: the third dimension for neck contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Richard D

    2005-11-01

    Techniques and concepts for treatment of the aging neck have been evolving since the late 1960s and rely on two-dimensional anterior approximation with lateral imbrication of the platysma with or without submental fat reduction, However, the medial approximation can sometimes give a "boxy" appearance to the anterior neck, especially if anterior shifting of the platysma recurs after platysmaplasty with laxity redeveloping in this midline location. The "purse-string" platysmaplasty (PSP) is a new concept in neck contouring that facilitates an enhanced definition for the cervicomandibular transition to better simulate the well-defined contour of this transition that is present in youth. It aids in the contouring of difficult poorly defined necks and in male patients. The PSP adds a "third dimension" to neck recontouring by invaginating the platysma with a plication suture and pexing the platysma, without incising it, to deeper neck fascia with a technique that adds support and definition to the neck contour. The PSP can be performed in patients undergoing a full rhytidectomy as well as in individuals having isolated neck rejuvenation. The PSP is especially helpful in rejuvenating the male lower face and neck because of the relatively heavier deeper structures of the male neck and the need to enhance definition along the jawline.

  9. Review of patients with dysphasia after a neck dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Junkichi

    2007-01-01

    The most useful modality for treating neck metastasis is a neck dissection. A neck dissection was previously performed as a radical neck dissection. However, disabilities in shoulder movement and swallowing function often occur after this procedure. Recently, a functional neck dissection has therefore been performed in order to avoid such postoperative complications. The current study for dysphasia after a neck dissection investigates patients with primary unknown neck metastasis and neck recurrence after chemoradiation. Eleven cases of dysphasia occurred after a neck dissection between 2003 and 2006. These cases resected the lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XII), or paralysis of these nerves occurred despite their preservation after surgery. Patients with dysphasia underwent rehabilitation to regain their swallowing function. However, rehabilitation was unsuccessful and the patients were thus required to undergo further surgery. A neck dissection with resection of the lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XII) may sometimes result in dysphasia. Consequently, surgery to prevent dysphasia should be performed simultaneously so that timely postoperative therapy can be carried out. (author)

  10. Quality of life and neck pain in nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Joslin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the association between neck pain and psychological stress in nurses. Material and Methods: Nurses from the Avon Orthopaedic Centre completed 2 questionnaires: the Short Form-36 (SF-36 and 1 exploring neck pain and associated psychological stress. Results: Thirty four nurses entered the study (68% response. Twelve (35.3% had current neck pain, 13 (38.2% reported neck pain within the past year and 9 (26.5% had no neck pain. Subjects with current neck pain had significantly lower mental health (47.1 vs. 70.4; p = 0.002, physical health (60.8 vs. 76.8; p = 0.010 and overall SF-36 scores (56.8 vs. 74.9; p = 0.003. Five (41.7% subjects with current neck pain and 5 (38.5% subjects with neck pain in the previous year attributed it to psychological stress. Conclusions: Over 1/3 of nurses have symptomatic neck pain and significantly lower mental and physical health scores. Managing psychological stress may reduce neck pain, leading to improved quality of life for nurses, financial benefits for the NHS, and improved patient care.

  11. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning.

  12. CT perfusion study of neck lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Liu Jun; Hua Rui; Qiao Hui; Gong Yi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT perfusion features of various lymph nodes in the neck. Methods: Dynamic perfusion CT scanning was performed in 83 neck lymph nodes proved by pathology, including tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes. The shapes, blood flow modes, and perfusion parameters of these lymph nodes were compared among 3 groups. Statistical analysis of L/T and CT perfusion parameters was performed by one-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results: The values of MTT of tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes were (28.13±5.08), (31.08±5.82), and (11.24±5.31) s, respectively. The MTT of metastatic lymph nodes was statistically lower than that of tuberculosis lymph nodes and lymphoma (P -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively. The values of BV were (24.68±2.84), (25.30±3.16), and (25.15± 8.81) ml·100 g -1 respectively. The values of TTP were (40.90±8.85), (40.67±6.45), and (40.98±6.62) s, respectively. There were no significant differences in L/T, BF, BV and TTP among tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes (P>0.05). Conclusion: CT perfusion, especially combination functional imaging with perfusion images may be helpful in judging the nature of neck lymph nodes. (authors)

  13. Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

    2013-01-01

    Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1-3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  14. Updates in Head and Neck Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largo, Rene D; Garvey, Patrick B

    2018-02-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Have a basic understanding of virtual planning, rapid prototype modeling, three-dimensional printing, and computer-assisted design and manufacture. 2. Understand the principles of combining virtual planning and vascular mapping. 3. Understand principles of flap choice and design in preoperative planning of free osteocutaneous flaps in mandible and midface reconstruction. 4. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of computer-assisted design and manufacture in reconstruction of advanced oncologic mandible and midface defects. Virtual planning and rapid prototype modeling are increasingly used in head and neck reconstruction with the aim of achieving superior surgical outcomes in functionally and aesthetically critical areas of the head and neck compared with conventional reconstruction. The reconstructive surgeon must be able to understand this rapidly-advancing technology, along with its advantages and disadvantages. There is no limit to the degree to which patient-specific data may be integrated into the virtual planning process. For example, vascular mapping can be incorporated into virtual planning of mandible or midface reconstruction. Representative mandible and midface cases are presented to illustrate the process of virtual planning. Although virtual planning has become helpful in head and neck reconstruction, its routine use may be limited by logistic challenges, increased acquisition costs, and limited flexibility for intraoperative modifications. Nevertheless, the authors believe that the superior functional and aesthetic results realized with virtual planning outweigh the limitations.

  15. Talar Neck Fracture after United Tibiotalar Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Platt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibiotalar arthrodesis is a well-established treatment for tibiotalar arthritis, for example, in younger high demand patients. Talar neck fractures are less common though well-recognised sequelae of foot ankle trauma. Here we present the clinical case of a 69-year-old male who presented to our institution with a nonunion of a talar neck fracture, having undergone a left tibiotalar fusion 24 years previously. To the authors’ knowledge, this injury has only been described once previously in the literature. However, the original case described a fracture sustained in the very early postoperative period following tibiotalar fusion, postulated to be secondary to postimmobilisation osteopaenia or stress risers from metalwork. The aetiology in this case is likely due to axial compression transmitted to the talar neck via the calcaneus. The predisposing factors for nonunion are discussed, highlighting the importance of vigilance for this injury in any patient with concomitant tibiotalar fusion and foot trauma. The management of this patient is discussed.

  16. Amorphous Semiconductor Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Arun

    1985-08-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) based alloys have attracted a considerable amount of interest because of their applications in a wide variety of technologies. However, the major effort has concentrated on inexpensive photovoltaic device applications and has moved from a laboratory curiosity in the early 1970's to viable commercial applications in the 1980's. Impressive progress in this field has been made since the group at University of Dundee demonstrated that a low defect, device quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) 12 material could be produced using the radio frequency (r.f.) glow discharge in SiH4 gas ' and that the material could be doped n- and p-type.3 These results spurred a worldwide interest in a-Si based alloys, especially for photovoltaic devices which has resulted in a conversion efficiency approaching 12%. There is now a quest for even higher conversion efficiencies by using the multijunction cell approach. This necessitates the synthesis of new materials of differing bandgaps, which in principle amorphous semiconductors can achieve. In this article, we review some of this work and consider from a device and a materials point of view the hurdles which have to be overcome before this type of concept can be realized.

  17. Low Temperature Shape Memory Alloys for Adaptive, Autonomous Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this joint activity between Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC) is to develop and evaluate the applicability of 2-way SMAs in...

  18. Adaptation is...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    vital sector is under threat. While it is far from the only development challenge facing local farmers, extreme variations in the climate of West Africa in the past several decades have dealt the region a bad hand. Drought and flood now follow each other in succession. Adaptation is... “The floods spoiled our harvests and we.

  19. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  20. Adaptation Insights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    be given greater access to relevant information to help them adapt their farming practices and socio- economic strategies to climate change? To address this challenge, the project “InfoClim,” led by Senegal's. Ecological Monitoring Centre. (CSE) with support from the. CCAA program, aims at improving the access of farmers ...

  1. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  2. Ductility of aluminium alloy AA7075 at high strain rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Magd, E.; Brodmann, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Mater. Sci.

    2000-09-01

    Under dynamic loading the stabilising effect of increased strain rate sensitivity of the material restrains neck formation in tension tests and leads to an increase in ductility. On the other hand the adiabatic character of the deformation process reduces the flow stress and promotes instability, localisation and adiabatic shear band initiation. Furthermore, the notch sensitivity of the material increases with increasing strain rate. Dynamic and quasi-static tension and compression tests were carried out on the age hardenable aluminium wrought alloy AA7075. There, dispers distributed precipitations are often the starting point for ductile fracture caused by impact due to the nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids and micro-cracks in case of tension. Neck formation under tensile loading and instabilities like shear bands in case of compression are discussed on the basis of the theory of imperfection under consideration of the increased strain rate sensitivity of the material and the adiabatic character of the deformation process at high strain rates. In case of tensile loading, tests with various notched geometries allowed the study of the influence of degree of multiaxiality. Through combination of experiment and simulation, the influence of strain rate on the local fracture strain could be determined for tensile and compression loading. (orig.)

  3. Morbidity after neck dissection in head and neck cancer patients : a study describing shoulder and neck complaints, and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilgen, Cornelis Paul van

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we are aiming at more insight in morbidity after head and neck cancer treatment (resection of the primary tumour, neck dissection and pre-or post-operative radiation therapy). We will study shoulder complaints and the role of the spinal accessory nerve, pain and the underlying pain

  4. Lightweight Multifunctional Linear Cellular Alloy Ballistic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-26

    densities of 10, 15 and 20 % with the dimensions shown in Table 1. The alloy compositions were high strength maraging steel (M200) and Super Invar ... alloys made from LCA processing3 are shown in Table 3. Super Invar in the as-reduced state is a ductile (25-30%) austenitic alloy . When cooled to...Final Report for Lightweight Multifunctional Linear Cellular Alloy Ballistic Structures from Structured Alloys , Inc. Joe K

  5. Restraining and neck cutting or stunning and neck cutting of veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambooij, E; van der Werf, J T N; Reimert, H G M; Hindle, V A

    2012-05-01

    Brain and heart activities were measured in 31 veal calves during restraining and rotating followed by neck cutting with or without stunning to evaluate welfare. After neck cutting correlation dimension analyses and %power of EEG beta wave fraction decreased gradually to lower values resulting in an induction of unconsciousness lasting on average 80s. Corneal reflex response ceased 135±57s after neck cutting. The CD scores and the %power of beta waves fell immediately after post-cut captive bolt and pre-cut electrical stunning to levels indicating unconsciousness. Heart rate in lairage increased upon entrance to the restrainer and again after rotation, heart rate variability decreased. Rotating the restrainer 90°, 120° or 180° compromised veal calf welfare and should be avoided. It is recommended to use post-cut captive bolt stunning or pre-cut electrical stunning inducing immediate unconsciousness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Oral maxillofacial-head and neck tumor and holistic integrative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C P

    2017-08-09

    The advance of clinical diagnosis and treatment in oral and maxillofacial-head and neck tumors has been through the process of specialization and multidisciplinary cooperation. In most cases, a single discipline cannot meet the requirements of diagnosis and treatment, which needs the cooperation of oral and maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology and oncology approach and therapeutic method such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Holistic integrative medicine aims at integrating the most effective clinical practice experience and patients' individual situation and prognosis, establishing new medical mode conforming to the modern concept and fulfilling the medical system adapting to the specific characteristics of the diseases.

  7. [Radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: State of the art and future directions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, U; Huguet, F; Pointreau, Y; Pradier, O

    2017-10-01

    Therapeutic principles of radiation therapy in head and neck carcinomas will be discussed in this review. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concomitant cisplatin should be standard. In case of contraindication to chemotherapy, cetuximab is an option, while hyperfractionation should be considered in patients unfit for concomitant treatment. Concomitant chemotherapy should be administered in the presence of extracapsular extensions and positive margins in the postoperative setting. Current research areas such as desescalation in human papillomavirus-positive tumours, adaptive radiotherapy, radiomics and immunotherapy will also be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Competition between elements during mechanical alloying in an octonary multi-principal-element alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-L.; Hu, Y.-H.; Hsieh, C.-A.; Yeh, J.-W.; Chen, S.-K.

    2009-01-01

    The competition between the constituent elements of the Cu 0.5 NiAlCoCrFeTiMo alloy system during mechanical alloying was investigated and ranked with their alloying rates in getting alloyed in the mixture. By using XRD analysis, EDS mapping, extended X-ray absorption fine structure technique, and synchrotron radiation diffraction, the alloying sequence for the present alloy system is determined as Al → Cu → Co → Ni → Fe → Ti → Cr → Mo in the order of decreasing alloying rate. The alloying rate is found to correlate best with the melting point of the elements among metallurgical factors. The mechanism for this correlation is explained through the effect of melting point on solid-state diffusion and mechanical disintegration which are critical for the final alloying. This finding is valuable in predicting the alloying sequence of elements, and thus the phase evolution in multi-component alloys during mechanical alloying.

  9. Alloying Solid Solution Strengthening of Fe-Ga Alloys: A First-Principle Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Kuiying; Cheng, Leon M

    2006-01-01

    ... and Co in cubic solid solution of Fe-Ga alloys. Mayer bond order "BO" values were used to evaluate the atomic bond strengths in the alloys, and were then used to assess the alloying strengthening characteristics...

  10. Effects of segregation of primary alloying elements on the creep response in magnesium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Y.D.; Dieringa, H.; Hort, N.

    2008-01-01

    The segregation of primary alloying elements deteriorates the high temperature creep resistance of magnesium alloys. Annealing at high temperatures alleviating their segregations can improve the creep resistance. Present investigation on the effect of segregation of primary alloying elements on t...

  11. Are People With Whiplash-Associated Neck Pain Different From People With Nonspecific Neck Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Ricci; Kongsted, Alice; Kamper, Steven; Hancock, Mark J

    2016-10-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study with cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Background The clinical importance of a history of whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) in people with neck pain remains uncertain. Objective To compare people with WAD to people with nonspecific neck pain, in terms of their baseline characteristics and pain and disability outcomes over 1 year. Methods Consecutive patients with neck pain who presented to a secondary-care spine center answered a comprehensive self-report questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Patients were classified into a group of either those with WAD or those with nonspecific neck pain. We compared the outcomes of baseline characteristics of the 2 groups, as well as pain intensity and activity limitation at follow-ups of 6 and 12 months. Results A total of 2578 participants were included in the study. Of these, 488 (19%) were classified as having WAD. At presentation, patients with WAD were statistically different from patients without WAD for almost all characteristics investigated. While most differences were small (1.1 points on an 11-point pain-rating scale and 11 percentage points on the Neck Disability Index), others, including the presence of dizziness and memory difficulties, were substantial. The between-group differences in pain and disability increased significantly (Pneck pain. Conclusion People referred to secondary care with WAD typically had more self-reported pain and disability and experienced worse outcomes than those with nonspecific neck pain. Caution is required when interpreting the longitudinal outcomes due to lower-than-optimal follow-up rates. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 2. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(10):894-901. Epub 3 Sep 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6588.

  12. Psychometric properties of the Neck OutcOme Score, Neck Disability Index, and Short Form-36 were evaluated in patients with neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Tina; Søgaard, Karen; Davis, Aileen M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess reliability, construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability for Neck OutcOme Score (NOOS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Short Form–36 (SF-36) in neck pain patients. Study Design and Setting: Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach alpha. Test...... correlating subscale scores from NOOS and SF-36 and NDI items. Results: At baseline, 196 neck pain patients were included. Cronbach α was adequate for most NOOS subscales, NDI, and SF-36 with few exceptions. Good to excellent reliability was found for NOOS subscales (ICC 0.88–0.95), for NDI, and for SF-36...... is a reliable, valid, and responsive measure of self-reported disability in neck pain patients, performing at least as well or better than the commonly used SF-36 and NDI....

  13. Rejuvenation of the neck with liposuction and ancillary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, William G; Hanke, C William

    2011-01-01

    An aesthetically pleasing neck is an important component of physical appearance and a frequently targeted area for a variety of rejuvenative procedures. In appropriately selected patients, liposuction of the neck using tumescent local anesthesia can effectively render a more youthful appearance to the anterior and lateral neck by removing superficial adipose tissue and redraping the skin. This article will review all aspects of neck liposuction, including neck and lower face anatomy, proper patient selection and evaluation, necessary equipment, as well as all peri-procedural management. An in-depth discussion of administration of tumescent local anesthesia and proper liposuction technique is also included. Lastly, a number of ancillary techniques to further enhance the appearance of the neck including laser lipolysis, fractional ablative CO(2) resurfacing, and treatment of platysmal banding will be briefly discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Quality of life after neck dissection. Multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nibu, Ken-ichi; Onitsuka, Tetsuo; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    To assess the impact of modifications to radical neck dissection and radiotherapy on the postoperative quality of life, the study group 'Study on Standardization of Treatment for Lymph Node Metastasis of Head and Neck Cancer' performed a multicenter cross-sectional study using our self-administered neck dissection questionnaire and arm abduction test. While sparing levels IV and V improved most postoperative symptoms, such as stiffness and constriction of the neck were avoided as long as the sternocleidmastoid muscle (SCM) and the spinal accessory nerve were preserved. Resection of the SCM and spinal accessory nerve resulted in a drop shoulder and neck pain, respectively. Irradiation with a total dose of 50 Gy or more worsened stiffness of neck and shoulder. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the dynamic and kinematic performance of the THOR dummy: neck performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoofman, M.; Ratingen, M.R. van; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the frontal head-neck performance of the THOR neck with respect to the human frontal head-neck performance and the Hybrid-III frontal head-neck performance. For this purpose, tests were carried out with an isolated THOR and Hybrid-III-neck system on a HyGe

  16. Laser surface alloying on aluminum and its alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yiming; Gu, Guochao; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys have been widely used in aerospace, automotive and transportation industries owing to their excellent properties such as high specific strength, good ductility and light weight. Surface modification is of crucial importance to the surface properties of aluminum and its alloys since high coefficient of friction, wear characteristics and low hardness have limited their long term performance. Laser surface alloying is one of the most effective methods of producing proper microstructure by means of non-equilibrium solidification which results from rapid heating and cooling. In this paper, the influence of different processing parameters, such as laser power and scanning velocity is discussed. The developments of various material systems including ceramics, metals or alloys, and metal matrix composites (MMCs) are reviewed. The microstructure, hardness, wear properties and other behaviors of laser treated layer are analyzed. Besides, the existing problems during laser surface treatment and the corresponding solutions are elucidated and the future developments are predicted.

  17. Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The...

  18. Phase analysis of high-temperature alloys for nuclear application by interference layer metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Nickel, H.

    1984-01-01

    Heat-resistant metallic materials for use in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors are nickel- or ironbase, solid-solution-strengthened, or age-hardened alloys. To control the material behavior and to adapt it to realistic load conditions, they have to be tested and characterized. During recent years, interference layer metallography has become an independent characterization procedure as well as an outstanding method for sample preparation for the application of quantitative image analysis to these refractory alloys. The special problems of characterization of nickel- and iron-base alloys that can now be solved by interference layer metallography and its physical background are reported. Chromatic contrasting and the subsequent phase analysis by way of the example of three common alloys are discussed. Finally, the optimization of interference layer metallography for application in quantitative image analysis is described

  19. Trunnion Failure of the Recalled Low Friction Ion Treatment Cobalt Chromium Alloy Femoral Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urish, Kenneth L; Hamlin, Brian R; Plakseychuk, Anton Y; Levison, Timothy J; Higgs, Genymphas B; Kurtz, Steven M; DiGioia, Anthony M

    2017-09-01

    Gross trunnion failure (GTF) is a rare complication in total hip arthroplasty (THA) reported across a range of manufacturers. Specific lots of the Stryker low friction ion treatment (LFIT) anatomic cobalt chromium alloy (CoCr) V40 femoral head were recalled in August 2016. In part, the recall was based out of concerns for disassociation of the femoral head from the stem and GTF. We report on 28 patients (30 implants) with either GTF (n = 18) or head-neck taper corrosion (n = 12) of the LFIT CoCr femoral head and the Accolade titanium-molybdenum-zirconium-iron alloy femoral stems. All these cases were associated with adverse local tissue reactions requiring revision of the THA. In our series, a conservative estimate of the incidence of failure was 4.7% (n = 636 total implanted) at 8.0 ± 1.4 years from the index procedure. Failures were associated with a high-offset 127° femoral stem neck angle and increased neck lengths; 43.3% (13 of 30) of the observed failures included implant sizes outside the voluntary recall (27.8% [5 of 18] of the GTF and 75.0% [8 of 12] of the taper corrosion cases). Serum cobalt and chromium levels were elevated (cobalt: 8.4 ± 7.0 μg/mL; chromium: 3.4 ± 3.3 μ/L; cobalt/chromium ratio: 3.7). The metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated large cystic fluid collections typical with adverse local tissue reactions. During revision, a pseudotumor was observed in all cases. Pathology suggested a chronic inflammatory response. Impending GTF could be diagnosed based on aspiration of black synovial fluid and an oblique femoral head as compared with the neck taper on radiographs. In our series of the recalled LFIT CoCr femoral head, the risk of impending GTF or head-neck taper corrosion should be considered as a potential diagnosis in a painful LFIT femoral head and Accolade titanium-molybdenum-zirconium-iron alloy THA with unknown etiology. Almost half of the failures we observed included sizes outside of the

  20. Investigation on local ductility of 6xxx-aluminium sheet alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, P.; Liewald, M.; Sindel, M.

    2017-09-01

    Within the scope of this paper influence of localization of loading conditions on the ductility of two different 6xxx-aluminium sheet alloys is investigated. In order to improve the prediction of sheet material crash performance, material parameters based on uniaxial tensile and notched tensile tests are determined with varying consolidation areas. Especially evaluation methods based on the localized necking behaviour in tensile tests are investigated. The potential of local ductility characterisation is validated with results of Edge-Compression Tests (ECT) which applies load conditions that occur in actual crash events.

  1. Experimental and FE simulation validation of sheet thickness optimization in superplastic forming of Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaresan, G.; Jothilingam, A. [Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-07-15

    Superplasticity is the ability of a polycrystalline materials to exhibit very large elongations without necking prior to failure. In this paper, the superplastic forming potential of fine grained 7075 aluminium alloy was studied. The process parameters like pressure, forming time and initial sheet thickness were selected, using the design of experiments technique. The same condition of formation process was attempted in the finite element simulation using ABAQUS software. The deviation of the thickness distribution between the simulation and experiment was made and the variation lies within 8%.

  2. Some aspects of the plastic deformation of phase mixtures with coarse microstructures. [Two-phase alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurland, J.

    1982-10-01

    This paper discusses plastic deformation of two-phase alloys, the partititon of stress and strain between the soft and hard constituents, and the applicability of mixture laws. Dual-phase steels are considered in particular. At all strains, plastic deformation takes place mainly in the ferrite. The martensite resists plastic deformation at low strain but is ductile. The martensite particles supplies the desirable dispersion hardening effect, enhanced strain hardening rate and resistance to plastic instability such as necking, while yielding plastically at high strains. 12 figures. (DLC)

  3. The industrial applications of shape memory alloys in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Schetky D, L.

    2000-01-01

    Literature in the recent past on shape memory effect alloys dwelt principally on the physical metallurgy, crystallography and kinetics of the shape memory phenomenon. By contrast, we now have books and conference proceedings devoted to the engineering aspects of SMAs, their technology and application. The dominant role SMAs now play in the field of medical and orthodontic devices is well documented and will be reviewed by others in this conference. In this paper we will discuss the commercial applications for shape memory alloy devices in the North American market; applications which are in many cases also produced in European countries and Japan. The early success of shape memory alloy couplings for joining tubing and pipe in the late 1960's was not followed by other large volume applications until the advent of shape memory eyeglass frames, brassiere underwires and cellular phone antennas. Many other applications have now evolved into mature markets and these will be reviewed. In addition to the many commercial applications cited, there are a number of other fields in which shape memory alloys are destined to play a major role; these include smart materials and adaptive structures, MEMS devices, infrastructure systems and electrical power generation and distribution. These applications are being developed with private and government funding and will also be briefly discussed. (orig.)

  4. Fossil evidence and stages of elongation of the Giraffa camelopardalis neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowitz, Melinda; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Kortlandt, Victoria; Solounias, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Several evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain the adaptation of the long giraffe neck; however, few studies examine the fossil cervical vertebrae. We incorporate extinct giraffids, and the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebral specimens in a comprehensive analysis of the anatomy and elongation of the neck. We establish and evaluate 20 character states that relate to general, cranial and caudal vertebral lengthening, and calculate a length-to-width ratio to measure the relative slenderness of the vertebrae. Our sample includes cervical vertebrae (n=71) of 11 taxa representing all seven subfamilies. We also perform a computational comparison of the C3 of Samotherium and Giraffa camelopardalis, which demonstrates that cervical elongation occurs disproportionately along the cranial–caudal vertebral axis. Using the morphological characters and calculated ratios, we propose stages in cervical lengthening, which are supported by the mathematical transformations using fossil and extant specimens. We find that cervical elongation is anisometric and unexpectedly precedes Giraffidae. Within the family, cranial vertebral elongation is the first lengthening stage observed followed by caudal vertebral elongation, which accounts for the extremely long neck of the giraffe. PMID:26587249

  5. Information architecture for a patient-specific dashboard in head and neck tumor boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeser, Alexander; Gaebel, Jan; Dietz, Andreas; Wiegand, Susanne; Oeltze-Jafra, Steffen

    2018-03-28

    Overcoming the flaws of current data management conditions in head and neck oncology could enable integrated information systems specifically tailored to the needs of medical experts in a tumor board meeting. Clinical dashboards are a promising method to assist various aspects of the decision-making process in such cognitively demanding scenarios. However, in order to provide extensive and intuitive assistance to the participating physicians, the design and development of such a system have to be user-centric. To accomplish this task, conceptual methods need to be performed prior to the technical development and integration stages. We have conducted a qualitative survey including eight clinical experts with different levels of expertise in the field of head and neck oncology. According to the principles of information architecture, the survey focused on the identification and causal interconnection of necessary metrics for information assessment in the tumor board. Based on the feedback by the clinical experts, we have constructed a detailed map of the required information items for a tumor board dashboard in head and neck oncology. Furthermore, we have identified three distinct groups of metrics (patient, disease and therapy metrics) as well as specific recommendations for their structural and graphical implementation. By using the information architecture, we were able to gather valuable feedback about the requirements and cognitive processes of the tumor board members. Those insights have helped us to develop a dashboard application that closely adapts to the specified needs and characteristics, and thus is primarily user-centric.

  6. The Femoral Neck Mechanoresponse to Hip Extensors Exercise: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is recommended to prevent age-related bone loss. However, the proximal femur mechanoresponse is variable, possibly because of a muscle-dependant mechanoresponse. We compared the proximal femur response with the femoral strain pattern generated by the hip extensor muscles. A healthy participant underwent a six-month unilateral training of the hip extensor muscles using a resistance weight regularly adjusted to the 80% of the one-repetition maximum weight. DXA-based measurements of the areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD in the exercise leg were adjusted for changes in the control leg. The biomechanical stimulus for bone adaptation (BS was calculated using published models of the musculoskeletal system and the average hip extension moment in elderly participants. Volumetric (ΔvBMD and areal (ΔaBMD BMD changes were calculated. The measured and calculated BMD changes consistently showed a positive and negative effect of exercise in the femoral neck (ΔaBMD = +0.7%; ΔvBMD = +0.8% and the trochanter region (ΔaBMD = −4.1%; ΔvBMD = −0.5%, respectively. The 17% of the femoral neck exceeded the 75th percentile of the spatially heterogeneous BS distribution. Hip extensor exercises may be beneficial in the proximal femoral neck but not in the trochanteric region. DXA-based measurements may not capture significant aBMD local changes.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Solidification Microstructure based on Adaptive Octree Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Y.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main work of this paper focuses on the simulation of binary alloy solidification using the phase field model and adaptive octree grids. Ni-Cu binary alloy is used as an example in this paper to do research on the numerical simulation of isothermal solidification of binary alloy. Firstly, the WBM model, numerical issues and adaptive octree grids have been explained. Secondary, the numerical simulation results of three dimensional morphology of the equiaxed grain and concentration variations are given, taking the efficiency advantage of the adaptive octree grids. The microsegregation of binary alloy has been analysed emphatically. Then, numerical simulation results of the influence of thermophysical parameters on the growth of the equiaxed grain are also given. At last, a simulation experiment of large scale and long-time has been carried out. It is found that increases of initial temperature and initial concentration will make grain grow along certain directions and adaptive octree grids can effectively be used in simulations of microstructure.

  8. Shape Morphing Adaptive Radiator Technology (SMART) for Variable Heat Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology leverages the temperature dependent phase change of shape memory alloys (SMAs) to drive the shape of a flexible radiator panel. The opening/closing of the radiator panel, as a function of temperature, passively adapts the radiator's rate of heat rejection in response to a vehicle's needs.

  9. Mechanical alloying of biocompatible Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-De Jesús, F; Bolarín-Miró, A M; Torres-Villaseñor, G; Cortés-Escobedo, C A; Betancourt-Cantera, J A

    2010-07-01

    We report on an alternative route for the synthesis of crystalline Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, which could be used for surgical implants. Co, Cr and Mo elemental powders, mixed in an adequate weight relation according to ISO Standard 58342-4 (ISO, 1996), were used for the mechanical alloying (MA) of nano-structured Co-alloy. The process was carried out at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill using hardened steel balls and vials as milling media, with a 1:8 ball:powder weight ratio. Crystalline structure characterization of milled powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction in order to analyze the phase transformations as a function of milling time. The aim of this work was to evaluate the alloying mechanism involved in the mechanical alloying of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The evolution of the phase transformations with milling time is reported for each mixture. Results showed that the resultant alloy is a Co-alpha solid solution, successfully obtained by mechanical alloying after a total of 10 h of milling time: first Cr and Mo are mechanically prealloyed for 7 h, and then Co is mixed in for 3 h. In addition, different methods of premixing were studied. The particle size of the powders is reduced with increasing milling time, reaching about 5 mum at 10 h; a longer time promotes the formation of aggregates. The morphology and crystal structure of milled powders as a function of milling time were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and XR diffraction.

  10. The Relationship Between Neck Pain and Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Janice; Kajaks, Tara; MacDermid, Joy C.

    2013-01-01

    Neck pain is a significant societal burden due to its high prevalence and healthcare costs. While physical activity can help to manage other forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain, little data exists on the relationship between physical activity and neck pain. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity levels between individuals with neck pain and healthy controls, and then to relate disability, fear of movement, and pain sensitivity measures to physical activity levels in each...

  11. The Neck Disability Index-Russian Language Version (NDI-RU): A Study of Validity and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtadze, Maxim A; Vernon, Howard; Zakharova, Olga B; Kuzminov, Kirill O; Bolotov, Dmitry A

    2015-07-15

    Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric testing. To perform a validated Russian translation and then to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Russian language version of the Neck Disability Index (NDI-RU). Neck pain is highly prevalent and can greatly affect daily activity. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) is the most frequently used scale for self-rating of disability due to neck pain. Its translated versions are applied in many countries. However, the Russian language version of the NDI has not been developed yet. Cross-cultural adaptation of the NDI-RU was performed according to established guidelines. Then, the NDI-RU was evaluated for content validity, concurrent criterion validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, and minimum detectable change. Two hundred thirty-two patients took part in the study in total: 109 in validity (39.5 ± 10 yr), 123 in reliability (38.4 ± 11 yr; 80 in the test-retest phase). A culturally valid translation was achieved. NDI-RU total scores were distributed normally. Floor/ceiling effects were absent. Good values of Cronbach α were obtained for each item (from 0.80 to 0.84) and for the total NDI-RU (0.83). A 2-factor solution was found for the NDI-RU. The average interitem correlation coefficient was 0.53. Intraclass correlation coefficients for test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.65 to 0.92 for different items and 0.91 for the total NDI-RU. Moderate correlation (Spearman rs = 0.62; P Russian language version of the Neck Disability Index resulted in a valid, reliable instrument that can be used both in clinical practice and scientific investigations. 1.

  12. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  13. Adaptive sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  14. Adaptive positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  15. Adaptable positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  16. ADAPTATION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn PETERS, M.Sc.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty subjects with lower limb disabilities participated in a simulator study. The purpose of the study was to investigate how an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC system together with two different hand controls for accelerator and brake influenced workload, comfort and driving behaviour and to further develop a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for drivers with disabilities. The installed ACC system could maintain a constant speed selected and set by the driver and it also adapted speed in order to keep a safe distance to a leading vehicle. Furthermore, it included a stop-and-go function. Two common types of hand controls for accelerator and brake were used. The hand controls were different both with respect to function, single or dual levers, and position, on the steering column or between the front seats. The subjects were all experienced drivers of adapted cars equipped with hand controls. All subjects drove 100km at two occasions, with and without the ACC system available but with the same hand control. Subjective workload was found to be significantly lower and performance better for the ACC condition. The difference in speed variation between manual and ACC supported driving increased with the distance driven which seems to support the previous finding. The subjects thought they could control both speed and distance to leading vehicles better while the ACC was available. ACC driving did not influence reaction time, speed level, lateral position or variation in lateral position. Headway during car following situations was shorter for the ACC condition compared to manual driving. The ACC was well received, trusted and wanted. It was concluded that the ACC system substantially decreased workload, increased comfort and did not influence safety negatively. The only difference found between the two types of hand controls was that drivers using the dual lever system had less variation in lateral position. The applied evaluation method proved

  17. Translation and validation of the German version of the Bournemouth Questionnaire for Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soklic Marina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical outcome measures are important tools to monitor patient improvement during treatment as well as to document changes for research purposes. The short-form Bournemouth questionnaire for neck pain patients (BQN was developed from the biopsychosocial model and measures pain, disability, cognitive and affective domains. It has been shown to be a valid and reliable outcome measure in English, French and Dutch and more sensitive to change compared to other questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to translate and validate a German version of the Bournemouth questionnaire for neck pain patients. Methods German translation and back translation into English of the BQN was done independently by four persons and overseen by an expert committee. Face validity of the German BQN was tested on 30 neck pain patients in a single chiropractic practice. Test-retest reliability was evaluated on 31 medical students and chiropractors before and after a lecture. The German BQN was then assessed on 102 first time neck pain patients at two chiropractic practices for internal consistency, external construct validity, external longitudinal construct validity and sensitivity to change compared to the German versions of the Neck Disability Index (NDI and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD. Results Face validity testing lead to minor changes to the German BQN. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient for the test-retest reliability was 0.99. The internal consistency was strong for all 7 items of the BQN with Cronbach α's of .79 and .80 for the pre and post-treatment total scores. External construct validity and external longitudinal construct validity using Pearson's correlation coefficient showed statistically significant correlations for all 7 scales of the BQN with the other questionnaires. The German BQN showed greater responsiveness compared to the other questionnaires for all scales. Conclusions The German BQN is a valid and

  18. Radiation-induced neck fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Wang Rensheng; Gan Langge; Liu Wenqi; Zhang Yong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the post-irradiation neck fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its related factors. Methods: A total of 267 patients received conventional fractionated radiotherapy with D T 50-72 Gy on the neck a half year to 10 years ago were observed for the changes of cervical shape and functions. Results: Different degrees of post-irradiation neck fibrosis were seen in all patients. The rate of heavy degree of neck radiation fibrosis was 24.34 %, and it was 2.74% when received preventive dose on the neck. There was a very significant difference between patients who received late course of tangential irradiation on the neck and those who didn't receive (P=0.0001). The incidence of post-irradiation neck fibrosis didn't increase when patients received radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy (P=0.2678). The function of cervical muscles turned weak in patients received radiotherapy delivered by 6 MV accelerator in late course of tangential irradiation, whereas skin damage was severer in patients treated with 60 Co γ-rays. Conclusions: The incidence of heavy degree of post-irradiation neck fibrosis is high ,and is related closely to late course of tangential irradiation. The authors should avoid adopting this sort of irradiation on the neck. (authors)

  19. Treatment of Pediatric Head and Neck Cancer - Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find information about prognosis, staging, and treatment for the following head and neck cancer sites in children: esthesioneuroblastoma, larynx and papillomatosis, nasopharynx, oral cavity, and salivary gland.

  20. Femoral neck buttressing: a radiographic and histologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, T.; Benjamin, J.; Lund, P.; Graham, A.; Krupinski, E.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To examine the incidence, radiographic and histologic findings of medial femoral neck buttressing in a consecutive group of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.Design. Biomechanical parameters were evaluated on standard anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 113 patients prior to hip replacement surgery. Demographic information on all patients was reviewed and histologic evaluation was performed on specimens obtained at the time of surgery.Results. The incidence of medial femoral neck buttressing was found to be 50% in a consecutive series of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The incidence was slightly higher in women (56% vs 41%). Patients with buttressing had increased neck-shaft angles and smaller femoral neck diameters than were seen in patients without buttressing. Histologic evaluation demonstrated that the buttress resulted from deposition bone by the periosteum on the femoral neck in the absence of any evidence of femoral neck fracture.Conclusion. It would appear that femoral neck buttressing occurs in response to increased joint reactive forces seen at the hip being transmitted through the femoral neck. The increased joint reactive force can be related to the increased neck shaft angle seen in patients with buttressing. (orig.)

  1. Digital subtraction angiography in head and neck radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, R.F.; Seeger, J.F.; Smith, R.L.; Horsley, W.W.; Miller, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA) was used to evaluate 44 patients with suspected otolaryngologic abnormalities. Sixteen had IVDSA for pulsatile tinnitus or suspected glomus tumor of the petrous bone. Nine patients were evaluated because of pulsatile neck masses, and 12 others had suspected tumors of the neck, face, and paranasal sinuses. Seven had IVDSA following head and neck trauma. The technique of examination is described. The current indications of IVDSA in head and neck radiology are discussed. It is concluded that IVDSA is a suitable substitute for conventional angiography for many otolaryngologic conditions and, because of its safety, can be used more liberally.

  2. Digital subtraction angiography in head and neck radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmody, R.F.; Seeger, J.F.; Smith, R.L.; Horsley, W.W.; Miller, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA) was used to evaluate 44 patients with suspected otolaryngologic abnormalities. Sixteen had IVDSA for pulsatile tinnitus or suspected glomus tumor of the petrous bone. Nine patients were evaluated because of pulsatile neck masses, and 12 others had suspected tumors of the neck, face, and paranasal sinuses. Seven had IVDSA following head and neck trauma. The technique of examination is described. The current indications of IVDSA in head and neck radiology are discussed. It is concluded that IVDSA is a suitable substitute for conventional angiography for many otolaryngologic conditions and, because of its safety, can be used more liberally. (orig.)

  3. Predicting Neck Abscess with Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Lim Seer Yee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neck abscesses are difficult to diagnose and treat. Currently, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT is the imaging modality of choice. The study aims to determine the predictive value of CECT findings in diagnosing neck abscess, causes of neck abscess and the most common neck space involved in the local population. 84 consecutive patients clinically suspected to have neck abscess who underwent CECT and surgical confirmation of pus were included. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. 75 patients were diagnosed as having neck abscess on CECT; out of those 71 patients were found to have pus. Overall CECT findings were found to have a high sensitivity (98.6% and positive predictive value (PPV (94.7% but lower specificity (67.2% in diagnosing neck abscess. The CECT diagnostic criterion with the highest PPV is the presence of rim irregularity (96%. The most common deep neck space involved is the submandibular compartment, which correlates with the finding that odontogenic cause was the most common identifiable cause of abscess in the study population. Thus, in a patient clinically suspected of having neck abscess, CECT findings of a hypodense mass with rim irregularity are helpful in confirming the diagnosis and guiding clinical management.

  4. Basilar artery aneurysm case presented with neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uygar Utku

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neck pain related with disorders of the brain and neck vascular structures is not rare but importance was attached to a condition that is often overlooked. Tension as a sudden onset, radiating to the nape, the neck pain becomes unbearable and within seconds the raging 51-year-old female patient with aneurysm at the distal end of basilar artery was found. Case, the only sign of neck pain with unruptured basilar artery aneurysm is presented in terms of raising awareness on the subject.

  5. Unusual head and neck injury in elevator: autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, B; Türkmen, N; Dokgöz, H

    2012-10-01

    Industrial injuries related to auto-load-carrying vehicles were not frequently reported in the literature. Presented case was, 31-year-old male furniture worker. Deceased was found in awkward position in furniture workshop. Victim was observed on his knees in front of the elevator, head and neck lodged within openings of the elevator, and head and neck structures compressed-guillotined by the lower platform of the elevator were detected. We presented rare case of head and neck compression by elevator. Key words: head - neck - accidents - elevator - autopsy.

  6. Interferential electric stimulation applied to the neck increases swallowing frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Takayuki; Takemura, Masanori; Tsujita, Junzo; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2012-03-01

    Swallowing disorders are a common complaint among the elderly. Recently, surface electrical stimulation applied to the neck region has received increased attention as a new modality to treat pharyngeal dysphagia. Previous reports used pulsed current at a frequency range of 1-120 Hz. Kilohertz-frequency alternating currents (ACs) have not been tested for treating dysphagia. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of interferential currents (IFCs), the most popular modality of amplitude-modulated kilohertz-frequency ACs in clinical practice, on the swallowing reflex in healthy subjects. We found that IFC stimulation at the sensory threshold with 50-Hz modulation significantly increased the number of swallows without any discomfort, but pure AC stimulation at the carrier frequency did not have a significant effect. There was no statistically significant difference in the time course of the number of swallows among 1,000-, 2,000-, 4,000-, and 6,000-Hz carrier frequencies. The number of swallows remained increased during the 15-min IFC stimulation, suggesting that IFC stimulation facilitates the swallowing reflex without adaptation, at least during this stimulation period. We suggest that an IFC stimulation or a low-frequency, modulated kilohertz AC stimulation, which would be more comfortable than pulsed currents, is an alternative stimulation mode for treating pharyngeal dysphagia.

  7. Early-onset dropped head syndrome after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: dose constraints for neck extensor muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Nakamura, Satoshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Kashihara, Tairo; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Murakami, Naoya; Ito, Yoshinori; Igaki, Hiroshi; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a famous but unusual late complication of multimodality treatment for head and neck carcinoma. We reported this early-onset complication and analyzed the dose to the neck extensor muscles. We examined the records of three patients with DHS after radiotherapy. The doses to the neck extensor muscles were compared between three patients with DHS and nine patients without DHS. The mean dose to the neck extensor muscles of the three patients with DHS were 58.5 Gy, 42.3 Gy and 60.9 Gy, while the dose was <50 Gy in all nine patients in the control group. The onset of this syndrome was 5 months, 6 months and 15 months. The early-onset DHS may have something to do with dose to the neck extensor muscles. The proposed dose to the neck extensor muscles might be <46 Gy (or at least <50 Gy)

  8. Management of the neck in Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: University of Miami experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnayder, Yelizaveta; Weed, Donald T; Arnold, David J; Gomez-Fernandez, Carmen; Bared, Anthony; Goodwin, W Jarrard; Civantos, Francisco J

    2008-12-01

    We reviewed management of the cervical lymph nodes in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the head and neck. Records of 15 patients with MCC of the head and neck area were evaluated for the type of surgical treatment, including wide local excision, sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, neck dissection, postoperative radiation therapy, and clinical outcomes. Median follow-up was 24 months (range, 5-84 months). Ten patients were treated with wide local excision plus SLN, with or without neck dissection. Five patients were treated with wide local excision only or wide local excision plus neck dissection. One patient died of distant metastases (7%), and 14 patients remain alive (93%), over a mean follow-up of 24 months. Wide excision and SLN biopsy for primary MCC with N0 neck is feasible for early-stage, previously untreated lesions. SLN biopsy was helpful in determining the nodal levels to be dissected or irradiated. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Correction of the post -- necking true stress -- strain data using instrumented nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Fonseca, Ivan Dario

    The study of large plastic deformations has been the focus of numerous studies particularly in the metal forming processes and fracture mechanics fields. A good understanding of the plastic flow properties of metallic alloys and the true stresses and true strains induced during plastic deformation is crucial to optimize the aforementioned processes, and to predict ductile failure in fracture mechanics analyzes. Knowledge of stresses and strains is extracted from the true stress-strain curve of the material from the uniaxial tensile test. In addition, stress triaxiality is manifested by the neck developed during the last stage of a tensile test performed on a ductile material. This necking phenomenon is the factor responsible for deviating from uniaxial state into a triaxial one, then, providing an inaccurate description of the material's behavior after the onset of necking. The research of this dissertation is aimed at the development of a correction method for the nonuniform plastic deformation (post-necking) portion of the true stress-strain curve. The correction proposed is based on the well-known relationship between hardness and flow (yield) stress, except that instrumented nanoindentation hardness is utilized rather than conventional macro or micro hardness. Three metals with different combinations of strain hardening behavior and crystal structure were subjected to quasi-static tensile tests: power-law strain hardening low carbon G10180 steel (BCC) and electrolytic tough pitch copper C11000 (FCC), and linear strain hardening austenitic stainless steel S30400 (FCC). Nanoindentation hardness values, measured on the broken tensile specimen, were converted into flow stress values by means of the constraint factor C from Tabor's, the representative plastic strainepsilonr and the post-test true plastic strains measured. Micro Vickers hardness testing was carried out on the sample as well. The constraint factors were 5.5, 4.5 and 4.5 and the representative plastic

  10. Dosimetric evaluation of scattered and attenuated radiation due to dental restorations in head and neck radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Azizi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In radiotherapy of head and neck cancer, the presence of high density materials modifies photon dose distribution near these high density materials during treatment. The aim of this study is to calculate the backscatter and attenuation effects of a healthy tooth, Amalgam, Ni-Cr alloy and Ceramco on the normal tissues before and after these materials irradiated by 6 and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. All measurements were carried out in a water phantom with dimension of 50 × 50 × 50 cm3with an ionization chamber detector. Two points before and four points after the dental sample were considered to score the photon dose. The depth dose on the central beam axis was explored in a water phantom for source to surface distance (SSD of 100 cm in a 10 × 10 cm2 field size. The percentage dose change was obtained relative to the dose in water versus depth of water, tooth, Amalgam, Ni-Cr alloy and Ceramco for the photon beams. The absolute dose (cGy was measured by prescription of 100 cGy dose in the water phantom at depth of 2.0 and 3.1 cm for 6 and 15 MV photons, respectively. At depth of 0.6 cm, the maximum percentage dose increase was observed with values of 6.99% and 9.43%for Ni-Cr and lowest percentage dose increase of 1.49% and 2.63% are related to the healthy tooth in 6 and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. The maximum absolute dose of 95.58 cGy and 93.64 cGy were observed at depth of 0.6 cm in presence of Ni-Cr alloy for 6 and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. The presence of dental restorations can cause backscattering dose during head and neck radiation therapy. Introduction of compositions and electron density of high density materials can improve the accuracy of dosimetric calculations in treatment planning systems to deliver the relevant dose to target organ and reduce the backscattering dose in healthy tissues in the surrounding of tooth.

  11. Manufacturing of High Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-07-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion they have high configurational entropy, and thus they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and phase stability. The present study investigates the microstructure of two single-phase face-centered cubic (FCC) HEAs, CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn, with special attention given to melting, homogenization and thermo-mechanical processing. Large-scale ingots were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent in small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was applied to both alloys in order to eliminate segregation due to normal ingot solidification. The alloys fabricated well, with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters being employed.

  12. Magnetoimpedance effect in Nanoperm alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando, B.; Alvarez, P.; Santos, J.D.; Gorria, P.; Sanchez, M.L.; Olivera, J.; Perez, M.J.; Prida, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of isothermal annealing (1 h at 600 deg. C in Ar atmosphere) on the soft magnetic properties and magnetoimpedance (MI) effect has been studied in ribbons of the following Nanoperm alloys: Fe 91 Zr 7 B 2 , Fe 88 Zr 8 B 4 , Fe 87 Zr 6 B 6 Cu 1 and Fe 8 Zr 1 B 1 . A maximum MI ratio of about 27% was measured for the nanocrystalline alloy Fe 87 Zr 6 B 6 Cu 1 at a driving frequency of 0.2 MHz. The thermal annealing led to magnetic softening for this alloy, while a hardening is observed for the Fe 8 Zr 1 B 1 alloy

  13. Multiple allergies to metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Eng Tu

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: Metal alloys may induce multiple metal allergies. Patients suspected of having a metal allergy should be patch tested with an extended series of metals. We recommend adding palladium and gold, at least, to the standard series.

  14. Adaptation of fuel code for light water reactor with austenitic steel rod cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (POLI/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise, Avaliacao e Gerenciamento de Risco

    2015-07-01

    Light water reactors were used with steel as nuclear fuel cladding from 1960 to 1980. The high performance proved that the use of low-carbon alloys could substitute the current zirconium alloys. Stainless steel is an alternative that can be used as cladding. The zirconium alloys replaced the steel. However, significant experiences in-pile occurred, in commercial units such as Haddam Neck, Indian Point, and Yankee experiences. Stainless Steel Types 347 and 348 can be used as cladding. An advantage of using Stainless Steel was evident in Fukushima when a large number of hydrogens was produced at high temperatures. The steel cladding does not eliminate the problem of accumulating free hydrogen, which can lead to a risk of explosion. In a boiling water reactor, environments easily exist for the attack of intergranular corrosion. The Stainless Steel alloys, Types 321, 347, and 348, are stabilized against attack by the addition of titanium, niobium, or tantalum. The steel Type 348 is composed of niobium, tantalum, and cobalt. Titanium preserves type 321, and niobium additions stabilize type 347. In recent years, research has increased on studying the effects of irradiation by fast neutrons. The impact of radiation includes changes in flow rate limits, deformation, and ductility. The irradiation can convert crystalline lattices into an amorphous structure. New proposals are emerging that suggest using a silicon carbide-based fuel rod cladding or iron-chromium-aluminum alloys. These materials can substitute the classic zirconium alloys. Once the steel Type 348 was chosen, the thermal and mechanical properties were coded in a library of functions. The fuel performance codes contain all features. A comparative analysis of the steel and zirconium alloys was made. The results demonstrate that the austenitic steel alloys are the viable candidates for substituting the zirconium alloys. (author)

  15. Adaptation of fuel code for light water reactor with austenitic steel rod cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira; Giovedi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Light water reactors were used with steel as nuclear fuel cladding from 1960 to 1980. The high performance proved that the use of low-carbon alloys could substitute the current zirconium alloys. Stainless steel is an alternative that can be used as cladding. The zirconium alloys replaced the steel. However, significant experiences in-pile occurred, in commercial units such as Haddam Neck, Indian Point, and Yankee experiences. Stainless Steel Types 347 and 348 can be used as cladding. An advantage of using Stainless Steel was evident in Fukushima when a large number of hydrogens was produced at high temperatures. The steel cladding does not eliminate the problem of accumulating free hydrogen, which can lead to a risk of explosion. In a boiling water reactor, environments easily exist for the attack of intergranular corrosion. The Stainless Steel alloys, Types 321, 347, and 348, are stabilized against attack by the addition of titanium, niobium, or tantalum. The steel Type 348 is composed of niobium, tantalum, and cobalt. Titanium preserves type 321, and niobium additions stabilize type 347. In recent years, research has increased on studying the effects of irradiation by fast neutrons. The impact of radiation includes changes in flow rate limits, deformation, and ductility. The irradiation can convert crystalline lattices into an amorphous structure. New proposals are emerging that suggest using a silicon carbide-based fuel rod cladding or iron-chromium-aluminum alloys. These materials can substitute the classic zirconium alloys. Once the steel Type 348 was chosen, the thermal and mechanical properties were coded in a library of functions. The fuel performance codes contain all features. A comparative analysis of the steel and zirconium alloys was made. The results demonstrate that the austenitic steel alloys are the viable candidates for substituting the zirconium alloys. (author)

  16. Conserved bone microstructure in the shells of long-necked and short-necked chelid turtles (Testudinata, Pleurodira)

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Scheyer

    2009-01-01

    Extant and fossil chelids are restricted to South America and Australasia. Based on morphological data, long-necked and short-necked chelids are hypothesised to form natural groups respectively, whereas molecular and serological data indicate South American and Australasian chelids are monophyletic, regardless of neck-length. Here I provide shell bone histological and microanatomical data and character mapping of seven chelid taxa and the Late Jurassic stem-pleurodiran Platychelys oberndorfer...

  17. Measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated. However, a simple translation of the original version doesn't guarantee similar measurement properties. The objective of this study is to critically appraise the quality of the translation process, cross-cultural validation and the measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the translation or evaluation of the measurement properties of a translated version of a neck-specific questionnaire. The methodological quality of the selected studies and the results of the measurement properties were critically appraised and rated using the COSMIN checklist and criteria for measurement properties. Results The search strategy resulted in a total of 3641 unique hits, of which 27 articles, evaluating 6 different questionnaires in 15 different languages, were included in this study. Generally the methodological quality of the translation process is poor and none of the included studies performed a cross-cultural adaptation. A substantial amount of information regarding the measurement properties of translated versions of the different neck-specific questionnaires is lacking. Moreover, the evidence for the quality of measurement properties of the translated versions is mostly limited or assessed in studies of poor methodological quality. Conclusions Until results from high quality studies are available, we advise to use the Catalan, Dutch, English, Iranian, Korean, Spanish and Turkish version of the NDI, the Chinese version of the NPQ, and the Finnish, German and Italian version of the NPDS. The Greek NDI needs cross-cultural validation and there is no methodologically sound information for the Swedish NDI. For all other languages we advise to translate the original version of the NDI. PMID:21645355

  18. Measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vet Henrica C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated. However, a simple translation of the original version doesn't guarantee similar measurement properties. The objective of this study is to critically appraise the quality of the translation process, cross-cultural validation and the measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the translation or evaluation of the measurement properties of a translated version of a neck-specific questionnaire. The methodological quality of the selected studies and the results of the measurement properties were critically appraised and rated using the COSMIN checklist and criteria for measurement properties. Results The search strategy resulted in a total of 3641 unique hits, of which 27 articles, evaluating 6 different questionnaires in 15 different languages, were included in this study. Generally the methodological quality of the translation process is poor and none of the included studies performed a cross-cultural adaptation. A substantial amount of information regarding the measurement properties of translated versions of the different neck-specific questionnaires is lacking. Moreover, the evidence for the quality of measurement properties of the translated versions is mostly limited or assessed in studies of poor methodological quality. Conclusions Until results from high quality studies are available, we advise to use the Catalan, Dutch, English, Iranian, Korean, Spanish and Turkish version of the NDI, the Chinese version of the NPQ, and the Finnish, German and Italian version of the NPDS. The Greek NDI needs cross-cultural validation and there is no methodologically sound information for the Swedish NDI. For all other languages we advise to translate the original version of the NDI.

  19. Castable hot corrosion resistant alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Charles A. (Inventor); Holt, William H. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Some 10 wt percent nickel is added to an Fe-base alloy which has a ferrite microstructure to improve the high temperature castability and crack resistance while about 0.2 wt percent zirconium is added for improved high temperatur cyclic oxidation and corrosion resistance. The basic material is a high temperature FeCrAl heater alloy, and the addition provides a material suitable for burner rig nozzles.

  20. The microstructures of ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, G.M.K.; Ranganathan, S.

    1977-01-01

    The phenomenon of ordering in substitutional alloys confers special properties on them by introducing various types of structures and structural defects. Some of the important structural defects (translational and rotational antiphase boundaries, dissociated antiphase boundaries and superdislocations) and their observation by various microscopical methods, with particular emphasis on the applications of the electron microscope are described with illustrations drawn from the studies on nickel-molybdenum and nickel-tungsten alloys. (M.G.B.)

  1. Electrical conductivity in random alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, A.; Yussouff, M.

    1983-06-01

    Starting from the augmented space formalism by one of us, and the use of the Ward identity and Bethe Salpeter equation, a complete formalism for the calculation of the electrical conductivity in tight-binding models of random binary alloys has been developed. The formalism is practical in the sense that viable calculations may be carried out with its help for realistics models of alloy systems. (author)

  2. Electrical conductivity in random alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, A.; Thakur, P.K.; Yussouff, M.

    1984-12-01

    Based on the augmented space formalism introduced by one of us and the use of the Ward identity and the Bethe-Sapeter equation, a formalism has been developed for the calculation of electrical conductivity for random alloys. A simple application is made to a model case, and it is argued that the formalism enables us to carry out viable calculations on more realistic models of alloys. (author)

  3. Derivative spectrophotometry of cobalt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The method of derivative spectrophotometry is briefly described, and derivative absorption spectra are presented for samarium, cobalt, and commercial Sm-Co alloys. It is shown that the use of derivative spectrophotometry not only improves the accuracy and selectivity of element determinations but also simplifies the analysis of alloys. Results of a statistical evaluation of the metrological characteristics of the analytical procedure described here are presented. 8 references

  4. Microstructural studies on Alloy 693

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, R.; Dutta, R.S. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sengupta, P., E-mail: praneshsengupta@gmail.com [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Samajdar, I. [Dept. of Metall. Engg. and Mater. Sci., Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 072 (India); Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Superalloy 693, is a newly identified ‘high-temperature corrosion resistant alloy’. Present study focuses on microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy prepared by double ‘vacuum melting’ route. In general, the alloy contains ordered Ni{sub 3}Al precipitates distributed within austenitic matrix. M{sub 6}C primary carbide, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} type secondary carbide and NbC particles are also found to be present. Heat treatment of the alloy at 1373 K for 30 min followed by water quenching (WQ) brings about a microstructure that is free from secondary carbides and Ni{sub 3}Al type precipitates but contains primary carbides. Tensile property of Alloy 693 materials was measured with as received and solution annealed (1323 K, 60 min, WQ) and (1373 K, 30 min, WQ) conditions. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness of the alloy are found to drop with annealing. It is noted that in annealed condition, considerable cold working of the alloy can be performed.

  5. Wettability of magnesium based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Victor Manuel

    The premise of this project was to determine the wettability behavior of Mg-based alloys using three different liquids. Contact angle measurements were carried out along with utilizing the Zisman method for obtaining values for the critical surface tension. Adhesion energy values were also found through the use of the Young-Dupre equation. This project utilized the Mg-based alloy Mg-2Zn-2Gd with supplemented alpha-Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), Phosphate Buffer Saline solution (PBS), and distilled water. These three liquids are commonly used in cell cultivation and protein adsorption studies. Supplemented alpha-MEM consisted of alpha-MEM, fetal bovine serum, and penicillin-streptomycin. Mg-2Zn-2Gd was used because of observed superior mechanical properties and better corrosion resistance as compared to conventional Mg-alloys. These attractive properties have made it possible for this alloy to be used in biomedical devices within the human body. However, the successful use of this alloy system in the human body requires knowledge in the response of protein adsorption on the alloy surface. Protein adsorption depends on many parameters, but one of the most important factors is the wettability behavior at the surface.

  6. Recurrence and survival after neck dissections in cutaneous head and neck melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Stemann; Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Thamsborg, Andreas Key Milan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An important prognostic factor in head and neck melanoma is the status of the regional lymph nodes since the presence of metastatic disease in the nodes greatly aggravates the prognosis. There is no consensus on the surgical treatment algorithm for this group. Our aim was to study i...

  7. The role of FDG PET in management of neck metastasis from head-and-neck cancer after definitive radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Min; Smith, Russell B.; Graham, Michael M.; Hoffman, Henry T.; Tan Huaming; Funk, Gerry F.; Graham, Scott M.; Chang, Kristi; Dornfeld, Kenneth J.; Menda, Yusuf; Buatti, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The role of neck dissection after definitive radiation for head-and-neck cancer is controversial. We select patients for neck dissection based on postradiation therapy (post-RT), computed tomography (CT), and [ 18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). We summarize the clinical outcomes of patients treated with this policy to further elucidate the role of FDG PET in decision making for neck dissection after primary radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between December 1999 and February 2004, 53 eligible patients were identified. These patients had stage N2A or higher head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma and had complete response of the primary tumor after definitive radiation with or without chemotherapy. PET or computed tomography (CT) scans were performed within 6 months after treatment. Neck dissection was performed in patients with residual lymphadenopathy (identified by clinical examination or CT) and a positive PET scan. Those without residual lymph nodes and a negative PET were observed without neck dissection. For patients with residual lymphadenopathy, but a negative PET scan, neck dissection was performed at the discretion of the attending surgeon and decision of the patient. There was a total of 70 heminecks available for analysis (17 patients had bilateral neck disease). Results: There were 21 heminecks with residual lymphadenopathy identified on CT imaging or clinical examination and negative PET. Of these, 4 had neck dissection and were pathologically negative. The remaining 17 were observed without neck dissection. There was a total of 42 heminecks without residual lymph nodes on post-RT CT imaging or clinical examination with a negative PET. They were also observed without neck dissection. Seven heminecks had a positive PET scan and residual lymphadenopathy. Six of them had neck dissection and 1 had fine-needle aspiration of a residual node; 3 contained residual viable cancer and 4 were pathologically negative. At

  8. Practical measurement of silicon in low alloy steels by differential pulse stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahier, A.; Lunardi, S.; Triki, C.

    2005-01-01

    A sensitive differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry has been adapted to allow the determination of Si in low-alloy steels using a hanging mercury drop electrode. The method has been qualified using certified ASTM standards and is now running in routine. The present report describes the experimental details, thereby allowing the reader to carry out the measurements precisely. (author)

  9. Alloy dissolution in argon stirred steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Darryl Scott

    Alloying is required for the production of all steel products from small castings to large beams. Addition of large quantities of bulk alloys can result in alloy segregation and inconsistent alloy recovery. The objective of this research was to better understand alloy dissolution in liquid steel especially as it relates to Missouri S&Ts' patented continuous steelmaking process. A 45-kilogram capacity ladle with a single porous plug was used to evaluate the effect of four experimental factors on alloy dissolution: alloy species, alloy size or form, argon flow rate, and furnace tap temperature. Four alloys were tested experimentally including Class I low carbon ferromanganese, nickel and tin (as a surrogate for low melting alloys) and Class II ferroniobium. The alloys ranged in size and form from granular to 30 mm diameter lumps. Experimental results were evaluated using a theoretically based numerical model for the steel shell period, alloy mixing (Class I) and alloy dissolution (Class II). A CFD model of the experimental ladle was used to understand steel motion in the ladle and to provide steel velocity magnitudes for the numerical steel shell model. Experiments and modeling confirmed that smaller sized alloys have shorter steel shell periods and homogenize faster than larger particles. Increasing the argon flow rate shortened mixing times and reduced the delay between alloy addition and the first appearance of alloy in the melt. In addition, for every five degree increase in steel bath temperature the steel shell period was shortened by approximately four percent. Class II ferroniobium alloy dissolution was an order of magnitude slower than Class I alloy mixing.

  10. Adenoid cystic carcinoma in head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) in head and neck region with respect to age, sex, site of origin, histological type, role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in diagnosis, metastasis, various treatment modalities and their effectiveness in local control of disease. Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad from January, 1988 to December 1998. Patients and Methods: Case histories of 26 patients with histologically proven ACC in the head and neck region were selected from the departmental record. Clinical data included age and sex of patient, tumor location, presenting symptoms FNAC reports, predominant histological pattern of tumor, tumor stage, treatment modality, tumor recurrences and metastasis and final clinical status. Results: Among 26 cases, there were 16 males and 10 females. The mean age was 52 years (Range 30-75 years). In 57.7% patients, tumor was located in minor salivary glands whereas in 42.3% , major salivary glands were the site of origin. Plate was the commonest site of origin. FNAC reports showed ACC in 76.9% patients. In 80.8% patients, histopathological reports clearly mentioned the predominant histological type of ACC. Histological pattern was 66.6% cribriform, 23.8% tubular and 9.5% were of solid pattern, Regional lymph node metastasis was found in only 7.6%. Distant metastasis developed in 11.5%, whereas 69.2% patients were treated by surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy, only 11.1% develop recurrence at the primary site. Radiotherapy was given to only one patient (3.8%), who was alive with disease at the time of last follow up. Conclusion: The peak age incidence of ACC in head and neck region was in 5th decade with slight male preponderance. Tumor was more common in minor salivary glands and palate was the commonest site of origin. FNAC was helpful in diagnosis of ACC in majority of

  11. Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) of the neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2006-01-01

    Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) is a rare, malignant periphere nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. One third of described MTT's were located at the head and neck region. One third of these are associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. MTT most often appears in the third decade....... MTT's are very aggressive tumors with early metastases and the overall survival is poor (26%). Therefore, early diagnosis and correct treatment is of utmost importance. We report a case of MTT of the left supraclavicular region in a 41-year-old man. We present the pathological findings, both light...

  12. Writing otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery operative reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laccourreye, O; Rubin, F; Villeneuve, A; Bonfils, P

    2017-09-01

    Only about ten articles devoted to operative reports have been published in the medical literature, but this document is essential, both medically and legally, to ensure optimal management of operated patients. In this technical note, based on published studies on this subject, the authors describe the key features of operating reports after otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery and emphasize the need to write this document during the minutes after the end of the operation, the importance of standardization and its teaching role during surgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of neck pain among cabin crew of Saudi Airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Hesham M; Al-Sultan, Alanood; Al-Shammari, Anwar; Alyousef, Dana; Al-Hamidi, Hager; Al-Dossary, Nafla; Al-Zahrani, Nuha; Al-Abdulqader, Wala

    2015-01-01

    Neck pain is considered to be a major health problem in modern societies. Many previous studies found that certain occupations are related to this problem or are associated with the risk of developing it in future. Although the pain is caused by mechanical factors, it may progress to a serious problem and give rise to other abnormal symptoms such as vertigo, headache, or migraine. To investigate the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crew of Saudi Airlines. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the available Saudi Airlines cabin crews in King Fahad Airport during our visits, using questionnaires and measurements of several parameters. Neck Pain Questionnaires were distributed to the cabin crews on Saudi Airlines and assessment sheets were completed by all participants of the study to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of neck pain. Physical therapy examination of neck motions in different directions and specific tests were performed by all the participants to identify any symptoms. Using these data the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews was calculated. Collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS software calculating the mean, median, and score of the questionnaire. According to the scoring system of the study, 31 (30.09%) of 105 cabin crew staff of Saudi Airlines had neck pain. Our study confirmed a positive correlation between this occupation and neck pain, and in fact found that according to the results of logistic regression analysis, this occupation is the only significant factor that affects the positive compression test. The prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews of Saudi Airlines was emphasized. The results show a high prevalence of neck pain in the participants of the study, with most cases appearing to run a chronic - episodic course. Further research is needed to help us understand more about the long-term course of neck pain and its broader outcomes and impacts.

  14. Conservative Management of Mechanical Neck Pain in a Helicopter Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagha, Babak

    2015-10-01

    Acute and chronic spinal symptoms such as neck pain may limit flying performance significantly and disqualify the pilot from flight duty. Mechanical neck pain is very common among pilots because of their exposure to vibration, +GZ forces, helmet weight, poor neck posture during air combat maneuvers, previous neck injuries, and poor treatment plans for such injuries. Successful treatment of such injuries requires appropriate therapeutic procedures as well as an aeromedical assessment. The aim of this case study was to demonstrate the benefits of conservative procedures such as spinal manipulation and mobilization therapy (SMMT) and exercise therapy (ET) in treating chronic mechanical neck pain in an Iranian commercial helicopter pilot. A 36-yr-old male patient presented to the clinic with moderate, intermittent nonradicular chronic neck pain and limited range of motion over a 2-yr period. The patient was treated with cervical and upper thoracic SMMT followed by home ET for 5 wk. After this period, the patient reported significant recovery and improvement in range of motion in his neck. Mechanical neck pain is very common among helicopter pilots. Although Air Force and Navy waiver guides recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications as well as SMMT and ET, there are currently very few published studies that examine the benefits of manual and exercise therapy for treating mechanical neck pain in commercial and military pilots. Based on the results of this study, it seems that SMMT and ET may be a safe and effective in treatment of uncomplicated mechanical neck pain in helicopter pilots. Alagha B. Conservative management of mechanical neck pain in a helicopter pilot.

  15. Benztropine for the relief of acute non-traumatic neck pain (wry neck): a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Stephen Edward; Kerr, Andrew; Jones, Keryn; McAlpine, Ann

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intra-muscular benztropine on pain and range of motion in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute, non-traumatic neck pain (wry neck). In this two-centre randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group superiority trial, participants were allocated to receive 2 mg intramuscular benztropine or normal saline. Participants were aged 16-65 years, no history of neck disorders and no use of medication that cause dystonia. Randomisation was computer generated, with allocation concealment by opaque sequentially numbered sealed envelopes. Pain scores and neck range of motion were measured immediately before drug administration, and 30 min after. Pain scores, range of motion and adverse effects were compared between the groups. No funding was received. The trial was registered. Thirty participants were enrolled, 15 randomised to placebo and 15 to benztropine. Pain scores at 30 min were lower in those allocated to benztropine, but the difference was neither statistically nor clinically significant (0.6 points, 95% CI -0.8 to 1.8, p=0.40). The range of motion of the cervical spine was greater in those receiving benztropine, but the differences were very small and not statistically significant. Adverse events were more common in those receiving benztropine. Benztropine was ineffective for reducing pain or improving range of motion of the cervical spine in patients suffering from acute, non-traumatic neck pain, but frequently caused anticholinergic side effects. However, as the CI for the primary outcome included the minimum difference considered clinically significant, an important effect of benztropine cannot be ruled out. ANZCTR#12612000354886. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Corrosion Behaviour of New Zr Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolksdorf, E.

    1974-01-01

    Corrosion studies have indicated that the most promising replacements for Zicaloy-2 are ZrCrFe, ZrVFe and probably ZrNbTa, provided they are in their optimized condition. These alloys are conventionally manufactured alloys. An internally oxidized ZrMgO alloy is even superior, from the corrosion...... and hydrogen uptake points of view, to the above-mentioned alloys. This alloy is of particular interest because the addition of MgO leads to no neutron penalty and the dispersion-strengthening entails the possibility of tailoring an alloy with the desired mechanical properties....

  17. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p pain at only neck or only low back did not increase the risk. Impaired postural balance, measured as CEA (p pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain....... Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p low back pain compared...... cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. ISRCTN96241850....

  18. ''Watch-and-see'' policy for the clinically positive neck in head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Akihiro; Furuta, Yasushi; Oridate, Nobuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is becoming more widely used for head and neck cancer. However, there are conflicting theories regarding the best management options for patients with advanced nodal disease. From 1990 to 1999, we treated 96 patients with N1-N2 neck disease by concomitant CRT for organ preservation, using weekly carboplatin or a low daily dose of cisplatin, followed by a ''watch-and-see'' policy for the neck. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the treatment outcome in 63 of these patients who received definitive CRT for primary and neck diseases and were monitored for neck disease for more than 2 years. In 12 of the 22 (55%) N1 patients, CRT successfully controlled the neck disease. CRT was successful in 18 of the 41(44%) patients with N2 disease. In 6 (60%) of 10 patients with residual or recurrent N1 disease, salvage surgery was successful. Of the 23 patients with residual or recurrent N2 disease, salvage surgery was successful in 8 patients (35%). The group of patients who showed a clinical complete response (CCR) to CRT had an overall survival rate of 62.4% (33 patients), whereas for those with a less than complete response (< CCR), the figure was 13.3% (30 patients; P<0.001). Among the < CCR-neck group, patients who underwent neck dissection (ND) as well (n=20) did not have a significantly better overall survival than those who did not undergo ND (n=10; P=0.069). We propose a treatment plan for neck disease that involves observing the neck closely following CRT. ND should be planned only when there is evidence that neck disease exists. (author)

  19. The effectiveness of a neck and shoulder stretching exercise program among office workers with neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunwattanapong, Punjama; Kongkasuwan, Ratcharin; Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of neck and shoulder stretching exercises for relief neck pain among office workers. Randomized controlled trial. An outpatient setting. A total of 96 subjects with moderate-to-severe neck pain (visual analogue score ⩾5/10) for ⩾3 months. All participants received an informative brochure indicating the proper position and ergonomics to be applied during daily work. The treatment group received the additional instruction to perform neck and around shoulder stretching exercises two times/day, five days/week during four weeks. Pain, neck functions, and quality of life were evaluated at baseline and week 4 using pain visual analogue scale, Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire, and Short Form-36, respectively. Both groups had comparable baseline data. All outcomes were improved significantly from baseline. When compared between groups, the magnitude of improvement was significantly greater in the treatment group than in the control group (-1.4; 95% CI: -2.2, -0.7 for visual analogue scale; -4.8; 95% CI: -9.3, -0.4 for Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire; and 14.0; 95% CI: 7.1, 20.9 for physical dimension of the Short Form-36). Compared with the patients who performed exercises exercised ⩾3 times/week yielded significantly greater improvement in neck function and physical dimension of quality of life scores (p = 0.005 and p = 0.018, respectively). A regular stretching exercise program performed for four weeks can decrease neck and shoulder pain and improve neck function and quality of life for office workers who have chronic moderate-to-severe neck or shoulder pain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Photodynamic therapy in head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil H Nelke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a special type of treatment involving the use of a photosensitizer or a photosensitizing agent along with a special type of light, which, combined together, induces production of a form of oxygen that is used to kill surrounding cells in different areas of the human body. Specification of the head and neck region requires different approaches due to the surrounding of vital structures. PDT can also be used to treat cells invaded with infections such as fungi, bacteria and viruses. The light beam placed in tumor sites activates locally applied drugs and kills the cancer cells. Many studies are taking place in order to invent better photosensitizers, working on a larger scale and to treat deeply placed and larger tumors. It seems that PDT could be used as an alternative surgical treatment in some tumor types; however, all clinicians should be aware that the surgical approach is still the treatment of choice. PDT is a very accurate and effective therapy, especially in early stages of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC, and can greatly affect surgical outcomes in cancerous patients. We present a detailed review about photosensitizers, their use, and therapeutic advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Frequency of ipsilateral femoral neck fractures in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ipsilateral associated femoral neck and shaft fractures are reported to occur in 2.5-6% of all femoral shaft fractures. Objective: To establish the frequency of ipsilateral femoral neck fractures amongst all patients presenting with femoral shaft fractures in Mulago Hospital. Methodology: This was a descriptive ...

  2. Delays in diagnosis, referral and management of head and neck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delays in diagnosis, referral and management of head and neck cancer presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ... Vol 83, No 4 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Background: The most important prognostic factor in head and neck cancer is the stage of the disease at presentation.

  3. Planned neck dissection for oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Nobuhiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Terada, Akihiro; Ozawa, Taijiro; Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Kawakita, Daisuke; Maruo, Takashi; Mikami, Shinnji

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the use of chemoradiotherapy for preserving organs in the treatment of head and neck cancer is increasing. However, there is controversy about advanced neck node management in post-chemoradiation cases. We retrospectively analyzed our 119 cases of chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer to examine the effectiveness and indications of planned neck dissection. Regional control rate and survival rate were superior in the neck dissection group. If the cases did not achieve complete response (CR) in imaging, planned neck dissection improved the regional control rate significantly. We should perform planned neck dissection immediately rather than 'wait and see' for this persistent disease. However, in the cases achieving radiological CR, it is possible to omit planned neck dissection because of the high salvage rate of neck disease. However, in these cases, careful observation is essential. We clarified that the presence of pathologically positive lymph node is a prognostic factor. For evaluating persistent disease of cervical lymph nodes, positron emission tomography (PET)-CT was the most accurate method of imaging. (author)

  4. Femoral neck fractures: A prospective assessment of the pattern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To review the pattern of femoral neck fractures, complications and outcome following fixation with Austin-Moore endoprosthesis. METHOD: A two year prospective study in patients who had fracture of the femoral neck based on strict inclusion criteria. All the patients were treated by Austin-Moore ...

  5. Bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture in a renal disease patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous bilateral femoral neck facture in a renal disease patient is not common. We report a case of 47-year-old female patient with chronic renal failure and on regular hemodialysis for the past 5 years who sustained bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture without history of trauma and injury and refused any surgical ...

  6. Unusual Presentation of Meningitis following Stab Neck | Motsitsi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A case report of stab neck presenting at Kalafong Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa with atypical meningitis. The objective was to illustrate the challenge of diagnosing this unusual and late presentation of meningitis. Case Report: A 48 year-old male patient presented to us two days after a stab neck. He was ...

  7. Exercise therapy for trismus in head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.U.; Sterken, M.W.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Roodenburg, J.L.N.; Pater, R.

    The aim of this study was to analyze retrospectively effects of exercise therapy on trismus related to head and neck cancer or as a consequence of its treatment, and to compare these effects with trismus not related to head and neck cancer. Medical records of patients referred to the department of

  8. Head/Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: - Prevention Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:-Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histological subtypes of Head and neck tumour. It consist of 4-5% of all cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in developed and developing nations of America and Africa. Objective:-To describe the epidemiological pattern of Head ...

  9. simultaneous ipsilateral fracture of the femoral neck and shaft

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-04-14

    Apr 14, 1971 ... Eight cases with fractures of The shaft and the neck of the same femur are .... satisfactory reduction of shaft fracture with hitherto unrecognized fracture of neck of femur. and internal fixation employing two compression plates was then .... Examination three weeks later showed good alignment of of the limb ...

  10. 49 CFR 572.133 - Neck assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pendulum's longitudinal centerline between 77 degrees and 91 degrees. During the time interval while the... interval while the rotation is within the specified corridor, the peak moment, measured by the neck... Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female Test Dummy, Alpha Version § 572.133 Neck assembly and test procedure. (a...

  11. Management of twenty patients with neck trauma in Khartoum ENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neck trauma is a great surgical challenge, because there are multi organ and systems involved. Objective: To study the clinical presentation, management and outcome of twenty patients presented to Khartoum ENT Hospital with neck trauma. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted in Khartoum ENT ...

  12. Resonance and Neck Length for a Spherical Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Corning

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the neck length of a spherical resonator and its period of fundamental resonance was investigated. This was done by measuring the frequency of fundamental resonance of the resonator at 6 different neck lengths. It was found that its resonance resembled Helmholtz resonance but was not that of ideal Helmholtz resonance.

  13. frequency of ipsilateral femoral neck fractures in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    closed, middle or upper third; and AO classes A2, C1 and C3. The femoral neck ... associated injuries. - mechanism of injury. (iii) Femoral radiographs: - shaft fracture characteristics. - neck fracture characteristics. The following procedures were used: (i) All patients .... the lower extremity at the scene of accident and during.

  14. The relationship between neck pain and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Janice; Kajaks, Tara; Macdermid, Joy C

    2013-01-01

    Neck pain is a significant societal burden due to its high prevalence and healthcare costs. While physical activity can help to manage other forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain, little data exists on the relationship between physical activity and neck pain. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity levels between individuals with neck pain and healthy controls, and then to relate disability, fear of movement, and pain sensitivity measures to physical activity levels in each of the two participant groups. 21 participants were recruited for each of the two participant groups (n = 42). Data collection included the use of the Neck Disability Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, electrocutaneous (Neurometer® CPT) and pressure stimulation (JTech algometer) for quantitative sensory testing, and 5 days of subjective (Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity) and objective (BioTrainer II) measurements of physical activity. Analysis of Variance and Pearson's Correlation were used to determine if differences and relationships exist between dependent variables both within and between groups. The results show that individuals with mild neck pain and healthy controls do not differ in subjectively and objectively measured physical activity. While participants with neck pain reported higher neck disability and fear of movement, these factors did not significantly relate to physical activity levels. Perceived activity level was related to pain threshold and tolerance at local neck muscles sites (C2 paraspinal muscle and upper trapezius muscle), whereas measured activity was related to generalized pain sensitivity, as measured at the tibialis anterior muscle site.

  15. Is neck circumference measurement an indicator for abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neck circumference (NC) measurement is one of the simple screening measurements which can be used as an index of upper body fat distribution to identify obesity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between neck circumferences and obesity. Methods:A total 411 volunteer ...

  16. Prognostic factors for neck pain in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Jan L.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Devillé, Walter L. J. M.; van der Windt, Daniëlle; Koes, Bart W.; Bouter, Lex M.

    2004-01-01

    Prognostic studies on neck pain are scarce and are typically restricted to short-term follow-up only. In this prospective cohort study, indicators of short- and long-term outcomes of neck pain were identified that can easily be measured in general practice. Patients between 18 and 70 years of age,

  17. Initial conformation of kinesin's neck linker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Yi-Zhao; Yan Shi-Wei; Ji Qing; Liu Shu-Xia

    2014-01-01

    How ATP binding initiates the docking process of kinesin's neck linker is a key question in understanding kinesin mechanisms. By exploiting a molecular dynamics method, we investigate the initial conformation of kinesin's neck linker in its docking process. We find that, in the initial conformation, the neck linker has interactions with β0 and forms a ‘cover-neck bundle’ structure with β0. From this initial structure, the formation of extra turns and the docking of the cover-neck bundle structure can be achieved. The motor head provides a forward force on the initial cover-neck bundle structure through ATP-induced rotation. This force, together with the hydrophobic interaction of ILE327 with the hydrophobic pocket on the motor head, drives the formation of the extra turn and initiates the neck linker docking process. Based on these findings, a pathway from ATP binding-induced motor head rotation to neck linker docking is proposed. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Doing Great Things in Great Neck, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2007-01-01

    This article features Joe Rutkowski, an instrumental music director at Great Neck North School in New York. Rutkowski had been teaching for 17 years at Great Neck North and is quite popular for the way he makes his students deeply involved with music. Rutkowski, who is a fourth-generation musician in a family of instrumentalists, received…

  19. The equine neck and its function during movement and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsoldos, Rebeka R; Licka, Theresia F

    2015-10-01

    During both locomotion and body movements at stance, the head and neck of the horse are a major craniocaudal and lateral balancing mechanism employing input from the visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. The function of the equine neck has recently become the focus of several research groups; this is probably also feeding on an increase of interest in the equine neck in equestrian sports, with a controversial discussion of specific neck positions such as maximum head and neck flexion. The aim of this review is to offer an overview of new findings on the structures and functions of the equine neck, illustrating their interplay. The movement of the neck is based on intervertebral motion, but it is also an integral part of locomotion; this is illustrated by the different neck conformations in the breeds of horses used for various types of work. The considerable effect of the neck movement and posture onto the whole trunk and even the limbs is transmitted via bony, ligamentous and muscular structures. Also, the fact that the neck position can easily be influenced by the rider and/or by the employment of training aids makes it an important avenue for training of new movements of the neck as well as the whole horse. Additionally, the neck position also affects the cervical spinal cord as well as the roots of the spinal nerves; besides the commonly encountered long-term neurological effects of cervical vertebral disorders, short-term changes of neural and muscular function have also been identified in the maximum flexion of the cranial neck and head position. During locomotion, the neck stores elastic energy within the passive tissues such as ligaments, joint capsules and fasciae. For adequate stabilisation, additional muscle activity is necessary; this is learned and requires constant muscle training as it is essential to prevent excessive wear and tear on the vertebral joints and also repetitive or single trauma to the spinal nerves and the spinal cord. The

  20. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.