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Sample records for alloy matrix composite

  1. Solidification processing of monotectic alloy matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frier, Nancy L.; Shiohara, Yuh; Russell, Kenneth C.

    1989-01-01

    Directionally solidified aluminum-indium alloys of the monotectic composition were found to form an in situ rod composite which obeys a lambda exp 2 R = constant relation. The experimental data shows good agreement with previously reported results. A theoretical boundary between cellular and dendritic growth conditions was derived and compared with experiments. The unique wetting characteristics of the monotectic alloys can be utilized to tailor the interface structure in metal matrix composites. Metal matrix composites with monotectic and hypermonotectic Al-In matrices were made by pressure infiltration, remelted and directionally solidified to observe the wetting characteristics of the alloys as well as the effect on structure of solidification in the constrained field of the fiber interstices. Models for monotectic growth are modified to take into account solidification in these constrained fields.

  2. Laser Surface Treatment and Modification of Aluminum Alloy Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass, Muna Khethier

    2018-02-01

    The present work aimed to study the laser surface treatment and modification of Al-4.0%Cu-1.0%Mg alloy matrix composite reinforced with 10%SiC particles produced by stir casting. The specimens of the base alloy and composite were irradiated with an Nd:YAG laser of 1000 mJ, 1064 nm and 3 Hz . Dry wear test using the pin-on -disc technique at different sliding times (5-30 min) at a constant applied load and sliding speed were performed before and after laser treatment. Micro hardness and wear resistance were increased for all samples after laser hardening treatment. The improvement of these properties is explained by microstructural homogenization and grain refinement of the laser treated surface. Modification and refinement of SiC particles and grain refinement in the microstructure of the aluminum alloy matrix (α-Al) were observed by optical and SEM micrographs. The highest increase in hardness was 21.4% and 26.2% for the base alloy and composite sample respectively.

  3. Electrochemical process for the manufacturing of titanium alloy matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Soare

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for precursors’ synthesis of titanium alloys matrix composites through an electrochemical process in molten calcium chloride. The cathode of the cell was made from metallic oxides powders and reinforcement ceramic particles, which were pressed and sintered into disk form and the anode from graphite. The process occurred at 850 °C, in two stages, at 2,7 / 3,2 V: the ionization of the oxygen in oxides and the reduction with calcium formed by electrolysis of calcium oxide fed in the electrolyte. The obtained composite precursors, in a form of metallic sponge, were consolidated by pressing and sintering. Chemical and structural analyses on composites samples were performed.

  4. Application of ceramic short fiber reinforced Al alloy matrix composite on piston for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenqing

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and properties of ceramic short fiber reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite and it’s application on the piston for internal combustion engines are presented. Alumina or aluminosilicate fibers reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite has more excellent synthetical properties at elevated temperature than the matrix alloys. A partially reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite piston produced by squeeze casting technique has a firm interface between reinforced and unreinforced areas, low reject rate and good technical tolerance. As a new kind of piston material, it has been used for mass production of about 400,000 pieces of automobile engines piston. China has become one of a few countries in which aluminum alloy matrix composite materials have been used in automobile industry and attained industrialization.

  5. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

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    B. Bobic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  6. High Porosity Alumina as Matrix Material for Composites of Al-Mg Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gömze, L A; Egész, Á; Gömze, L N; Ojima, F

    2013-01-01

    The sophisticated industry and technologies require higher and higher assumptions against mechanical strength and surface hardness of ceramic reinforced metal alloys and metal matrix composites. Applying the well-known alumina powders by dry pressing technology and some special pore-forming additives and sintering technology the authors have successfully developed a new, high porosity alumina matrix material for composites of advenced Al-Mg alloys. The developed new matrix material have higher than 30% porosity, with homogenous porous structure and pore sizes from few nano up to 2–3 mm depending on the alloys containments. Thanks to the used materials and the sintering conditions the authors could decrease the wetting angles less than 90° between the high porosity alumina matrix and the Al-Mg alloys. Applied analytical methods in this research were laser granulometry, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Digital image analysis was applied to microscopy results, to enhance the results of transformation

  7. Matrix composition effects on the tensile properties of tungsten-molybdenum heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.; German, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    Tungsten-base heavy alloys are liquid-phase sintered from mixed tungsten, nickel, and iron powders. The sintered product is a composite consisting of interlaced tungsten and solidified matrix (W-Ni-Fe) phases. These alloys are most useful in applications requiring high density, strength, and toughness. The design of improved tungsten heavy alloys has been the subject of several research investigations. Much success has taken place through improved processing, but parallel compositional studies have resulted in new microstructure-property combinations. As part of these investigations, the Ni/Fe ratio has been varied, with the general conclusion that optimal strength and ductility occur with a ratio between 2 and 4. Brittle intermetallic phases can form outside of this composition range. Historically, a 7/3 Ni/Fe ratio has been selected for processing studies. Recently, others reported higher ductilities and impact energies for 90 and 93 pct W heavy alloys with the 8/2 Ni/Fe ratio. Alternatively, these alloys can be strengthened by both solid solution and grain size refinement through incorporation of molybdenum, tantalum, or rhenium. These additions are soluble in both the tungsten and matrix phases and retard solution-reprecipitation during liquid phase sintering. In this study, the alloy composition was varied in the nickel/iron ratio and molybdenum was partially substituted for tungsten. The sintered tensile properties are assessed vs these compositional variations

  8. The mechanical properties of magnesium matrix composites reinforced with 10 wt.% W14Al86 alloy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.G.; Ma, X.F.; Zhao, W.; Cai, S.G.; Zhao, B.; Qiao, Z.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Mg-based metal matrix composite reinforced by 10 wt.% W 14 Al 86 alloy particles has been prepared by mechanical alloying and press-forming process. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the formation of the composite. Microstructure characterization of the samples reveals the uniform distribution of fine W 14 Al 86 alloy. Mechanical properties characterization revealed that the reinforcement of W 14 Al 86 alloy lead to a significant increase in hardness and tensile strength of Mg and AZ91

  9. Production of NbC reinforced aluminum matrix composites by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marina Judice; Cardoso, Katia Regina; Travessa, Dilermando Nagle

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum and their alloys are key materials for the automotive and aerospace industries. The dispersion of hard ceramic particles in the Al soft matrix produces lightweight composites with interesting properties, as environmental resistance, high specific strength and stiffness, high thermal and electrical conductivity, and good wear resistance, encouraging their technological use. Powder metallurgy techniques like mechanical alloying (MA) are very attractive to design metal matrix composites, as they are able to achieve a homogeneous distribution of well dispersed particles inside the metal matrix. In this work, pure aluminum has been reinforced with particles of Niobium carbide (NbC), an extremely hard and stable refractory ceramic. NbC is frequently used as a grain growth inhibitor in micro-alloyed steel due to their low solubility in austenite. In the present work, NbC is expected to act as a reinforcing phase by its fine dispersion into the aluminum matrix, produced by MA. Composite powders produced after different milling times (up to 50h), with 10 and 20% (volume) of NbC were characterized by diffraction laser particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by X-ray diffraction (DRX), in order to establish a relationship between the milling time and the characteristics of the powder produced, as size and morphology, crystallite size and reinforcement distribution. This characterization is important in defining the MA process for production of composites for further consolidation by hot extrusion process. (author)

  10. Production of NbC reinforced aluminum matrix composites by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marina Judice; Cardoso, Katia Regina; Travessa, Dilermando Nagle, E-mail: dilermando.travessa@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia

    2014-07-01

    Aluminum and their alloys are key materials for the automotive and aerospace industries. The dispersion of hard ceramic particles in the Al soft matrix produces lightweight composites with interesting properties, as environmental resistance, high specific strength and stiffness, high thermal and electrical conductivity, and good wear resistance, encouraging their technological use. Powder metallurgy techniques like mechanical alloying (MA) are very attractive to design metal matrix composites, as they are able to achieve a homogeneous distribution of well dispersed particles inside the metal matrix. In this work, pure aluminum has been reinforced with particles of Niobium carbide (NbC), an extremely hard and stable refractory ceramic. NbC is frequently used as a grain growth inhibitor in micro-alloyed steel due to their low solubility in austenite. In the present work, NbC is expected to act as a reinforcing phase by its fine dispersion into the aluminum matrix, produced by MA. Composite powders produced after different milling times (up to 50h), with 10 and 20% (volume) of NbC were characterized by diffraction laser particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by X-ray diffraction (DRX), in order to establish a relationship between the milling time and the characteristics of the powder produced, as size and morphology, crystallite size and reinforcement distribution. This characterization is important in defining the MA process for production of composites for further consolidation by hot extrusion process. (author)

  11. Research Progress in Plasma arc welding of Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Li; Yang, Zou; Yongbo, Li; Lei, Jiao; Ruijun, Hou

    2017-11-01

    Magnesium alloys and magnesium matrix composites by means of its excellent performance have wide application prospect in electronics, automotive, biotechnology, aerospace field, and welding technology has become a key of restricting its application. This paper describes the welding characteristics of magnesium, the obvious advantages in the application and the domestic and foreign research advance technology of plasma arc welding of magnesium, and summarizes the existing problems and development trends of plasma arc welding technology of magnesium.

  12. Corrosion behaviour of 2124 aluminium alloy-silicon carbide metal matrix composites in sodium chloride environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nirbhay; Vadera, K.K.; Ramesh Kumar, A.V.; Singh, R.S.; Monga, S.S.; Mathur, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    Aluminium alloy based particle reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) are being considered for a range of applications. Their mechanical properties have been investigated in detail, but more information about their corrosion resistance is needed. In this investigation, the corrosion behaviour of silicon carbide particulates (SiC p )-2124 aluminium metal matrix composites was studied in 3 wt% sodium chloride solution by means of electrochemical technique and optical microscope. The effects of weight percentages and particle size of silicon carbide particulates on corrosion behaviour of the composite were studied in NaCl and it was observed that corrosion rate increases linearly with the increasing weight percentage of SiC p . The corrosion rate of the MMC increases by increasing the size of SiC particles. Anodization improved corrosion resistance of the composites. (author)

  13. Hardfacing of aluminium alloys by means of metal matrix composites produced by laser surface alloying

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available . In these experiments the laser power was varied from 3 to 4.0 kW, the laser scan speed was varied from 0.8 to 2.0 m/min. The powder feed rate was varied from 2 to 5 g/min. The structural characterisation of the metal matrix composite included X-ray diffraction (XRD...

  14. Nanosized-Particle Dispersion-Strengthened Al Matrix Composites Fabricated by the Double Mechanical Alloying Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungseok

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to fabricate an Al metal matrix composite strengthened by nanosized Al3Ti particles via double mechanical alloying process. Several Al-xTi alloys were fabricated, including Al-12%Ti, Al-15%Ti, and Al-12%Ti-1%Y2O3. The lattice parameter of as-milled state was calculated to be 4.0485 Å; after a milling time of 540 min, it was 4.0401 Å. This decrease was induced by Ti solutionizing into the Al matrix. The equivalent size of a coarse Al3Ti particle was 200-500 nm after the heat treatment; however, the particles were uniformly distributed and were refined through the MA2 process. The particle size of a Al3Ti phase was 30 nm or less, and the particles were uniformly distributed. These particles remained in a fine state in the matrix without growth and coarsening, even after the hot extrusion process. The microstructure of hot extruded alloys consisted of a uniform distribution of Al3Ti particles and other dispersoids in the Al matrix.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of ZA-27 alloy matrix composites reinforced with zinc oxide nanoparticles

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    B.O. Fatile

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been carried out on the synthesis and characterization of ZA-27 alloy composites reinforced with zinc oxide nanoparticles. This was aimed at developing high performance ZA-27 matrix nanocomposite with low density. The particle size and morphology of the zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM and the elemental composition was obtained from Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS attached to TEM and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF. ZA-27 nanocomposite samples were developed using 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% of ZnO nanoparticles by double steps stir casting technique. Mechanical properties and Microstructural examination were used to characterize the composite samples produced. The results show that hardness and ultimate tensile strength of the composite samples increased progressively with increase in weight percentage of ZnO nanoparticles. Increase in Ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 10.2%, 21.1%, 22.3%, 35.5%, 33.4% and increase in hardness value of 8.2%, 14.8%, 21.7%, 27.9%, 27.1% were observed for nanocomposites reinforced with 1 wt%, 2 wt%, 3 wt%, 4 wt%, and 5 wt% ZnO nanoparticles respectively in comparison with unreinforced alloy. It was generally observed that composite sample containing 4 wt% of reinforcement has the highest tensile strength and hardness values. However, the fracture toughness and percent elongation of the composites samples slightly decreased with increase in ZnO nanoparticles content. Results obtained from the Microstructural examination using optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM show that the nanoparticles were well dispersed in the ZA-27 alloy matrix.

  16. Microstructure and wear characteristics on Al alloy matrix composite reinforced with Ni perform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Jo; Park, Cheol Hong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Huh, Sun Chul [Gyeongsang National University, Tongyeong, (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Al based composite reinforced with Nickel is used for diesel engine piston, because the thermal properties, strength and corrosion resistant are for better than Al alloy alone. For processing, the intermetallic compounds of Ni and Al improves wear resistance due to its high hardness. Existing process methods for MMC (metal matrix composite) using preform were manufactured under high-pressure. However, this causes deformation of the preform or weaknesses in the completed MMC. Low-pressure infiltration can prevent these problems, and there is an advantage of cost reduction in of production with small-scale of production equipment. In this study, the microstructure and wear characteristics of Al-based composite with Ni preform as reinforcement with low-pressure infiltration was analyzed.

  17. Aluminium EN AW-2124 alloy matrix composites reinforced with Ti(C,N), BN and Al2O3 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Wlodarczyk, A.; Adamiak, M.

    2003-01-01

    Investigation results of the aluminium alloy EN AW-2124 matrix composite materials with particles of the powders Ti(C,N), BN and Al 2 O 3 (15 wt.%) are presented in the paper. In order to obtain uniform distribution of reinforcement particles in aluminium alloy matrix powders of composite components have been milled in the rotary ball-bearing pulverizer. The composites have been pressed in laboratory vertical press at room temperature under the pressure of 500 kN. Obtained die samplings have been heated to the temperature 520-550 o C and extruded. Bars of diameter 8 mm have been received as a final product. Metallographic examination of the composites materials' structure shows non-uniform distribution of reinforced powders in the aluminium alloy matrix banding of reinforcements particles corresponds to the extrusion direction. Particles of reinforcement distribution in aluminium alloy matrix is irregular, some agglomerations of powder of aluminium oxide and porosity of different size have been noticed. Investigations of hardness and ultimate compressive strength show that the particles of reinforcement improve mechanical properties of composite materials. Investigations of compressive strength, carried out at room temperature, enable to compare mechanical properties of matrix and composite. (author)

  18. Improving the corrosion wear resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel by particulate reinforced Ni matrix composite alloying layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Zhuo, Chengzhi; Tao, Jie; Jiang, Shuyun; Liu, Linlin

    2009-01-01

    In order to overcome the problem of corrosion wear of AISI 316L stainless steel (SS), two kinds of composite alloying layers were prepared by a duplex treatment, consisting of Ni/nano-SiC and Ni/nano-SiO2 predeposited by brush plating, respectively, and subsequent surface alloying with Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu by a double glow process. The microstructure of the two kinds of nanoparticle reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layers was investigated by means of SEM and TEM. The electrochemical corrosion behaviour of composite alloying layers compared with the Ni-based alloying layer and 316L SS under different conditions was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results showed that under alloying temperature (1000 °C) conditions, amorphous nano-SiO2 particles still retained the amorphous structure, whereas nano-SiC particles were decomposed and Ni, Cr reacted with SiC to form Cr6.5Ni2.5Si and Cr23C6. In static acidic solution, the corrosion resistance of the composite alloying layer with the brush plating Ni/nano-SiO2 particles interlayer is lower than that of the Ni-based alloying layer. However, the corrosion resistance of the composite alloying layer with the brush plating Ni/nano-SiO2 particles interlayer is prominently superior to that of the Ni-based alloying layer under acidic flow medium condition and acidic slurry flow condition. The corrosion resistance of the composite alloying layer with the brush plating Ni/nano-SiC particles interlayer is evidently lower than that of the Ni-based alloying layer, but higher than that of 316L SS under all test conditions. The results show that the highly dispersive nano-SiO2 particles are helpful in improving the corrosion wear resistance of the Ni-based alloying layer, whereas carbides and silicide phase are deleterious to that of the Ni-based alloying layer due to the fact that the preferential removal of the matrix around the precipitated phase takes place by the chemical

  19. Fabrication and Performance Test of Aluminium Alloy-Rice Husk Ash Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite as Industrial and Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahat Hossain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs used extensively in various engineering fields due to their exceptional mechanical properties. In this present study, aluminium matrix composites (AMCs such as aluminium alloy (A356 reinforced with rice husk ash particles (RHA are made to explore the possibilities of reinforcing aluminium alloy. The stir casting method was applied to produce aluminium alloy (A356 reinforced with various amounts of (2%, 4%, and 6% rice husk ash (RHA particles. Physical treatment was carried out before the rice husk ash manufacturing process. The effect of mechanical strength of the fabricated hybrid composite was investigated. Therefore, impact test, tensile stress, compressive stress, and some other tests were carried out to analyse the mechanical properties. From the experimental results, it was found that maximum tensile, and compressive stress were found at 6% rice husk ash (RHA and aluminium matrix composites (AMCs. In future, the optimum percentages of rice husk ash (RHA to fabricate the hybrid composites will be determined. Also, simulation by finite element method (FEM will be applied for further investigation.

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Microwave Sintered Cu50Ti50 Amorphous Alloy Reinforced Al Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Penchal; Ubaid, F.; Shakoor, R. A.; Mohamed, A. M. A.

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, Al metal matrix composites reinforced with Cu-based (Cu50Ti50) amorphous alloy particles synthesized by ball milling followed by a microwave sintering process were studied. The amorphous powders of Cu50Ti50 produced by ball milling were used to reinforce the aluminum matrix. They were examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microhardness and compression testing. The analysis of XRD patterns of the samples containing 5 vol.%, 10 vol.% and 15 vol.% Cu50Ti50 indicates the presence of Al and Cu50Ti50 peaks. SEM images of the sintered composites show the uniform distribution of reinforced particles within the matrix. Mechanical properties of the composites were found to increase with an increasing volume fraction of Cu50Ti50 reinforcement particles. The hardness and compressive strength were enhanced to 89 Hv and 449 MPa, respectively, for the Al-15 vol.% Cu50Ti50 composites.

  1. Manufacturing techniques for titanium aluminide based alloys and metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Kunal B.

    -sized titanium aluminide powders were rapidly consolidated to form near-net shape titanium aluminide parts in form of small discs and tiles. The rapidly consolidated titanium aluminide parts were found to be fully dense. The microstructure morphology was found to vary with consolidation conditions. The mechanical properties were found to be significantly dependent on microstructure morphology and grain size. Due to rapid consolidation, grain growth during consolidation was limited, which in turn led to enhanced mechanical properties. The high temperature mechanical properties for the consolidated titanium aluminide samples were characterized and were found to retain good mechanical performance up to 700°C. Micron-sized titanium aluminide powders with slightly less Aluminum and small Nb, and Cr additions were rapidly consolidated into near-net shape parts. The consolidated parts were found to exhibit enhanced mechanical performance in terms of ductility and yield strength. The negative effect of Oxygen on the flexural strength at high temperatures was found to be reduced with the addition of Nb. In an effort to further reduce the grain size of the consolidated titanium aluminide samples, the as-received titanium aluminide powders were milled in an attrition mill. The average powder particle size of the powders was reduced by 60% after milling. The milled powders were then rapidly consolidated. The grain size of the consolidated parts was found to be in the sub-micrometer range. The mechanical properties were found to be significantly enhanced due to reduction of grain size in the sub-micrometer range. In order to develop a metal matrix composite based on titanium aluminide matrix reinforced with titanium boride, an experiment to study the effect of rapid consolidation on titanium diboride powders was conducted. Micron-sized titanium diboride powders were consolidated and were found to be 93% dense and exhibited minimal grain growth. The low density of the consolidated part was

  2. Endurance in Al Alloy Melts and Wear Resistance of Titanium Matrix Composite Shot-Sleeve for Aluminum Alloy Die-casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bong-Jae; Kim, Young-Jig; Sung, Si-Young

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the endurance against Al alloy melts and wear resistance of an in-situ synthesized titanium matrix composite (TMC) sleeve for aluminum alloy die-casting. The conventional die-casting shot sleeve material was STD61 tool steel. TMCs have great thermal stability, wear and oxidation resistance. The in-situ reaction between Ti and B4C leads to two kinds of thermodynamically stable reinforcements, such as TiBw and TiCp. To evaluate the feasibility of the application to a TMCs diecasting shot sleeve, the interfacial reaction behavior was examined between Al alloys melts with TMCs and STD61 tool steel. The pin-on-disk type dry sliding wear test was also investigated for TMCs and STD61 tool steel.

  3. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of MWCNT / Nanoclay Reinforced Aluminium alloy Metal Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna Kumar, P. S. Samuel; Robinson Smart, D. S.; Alexis, S. John

    2018-04-01

    Aluminium alloy 5083 (AA5083) is a widely used material in aerospace, marine, defence and structural applications were mechanical and corrosion resistance property plays a vital role. For the present work, MWCNT / Nanoclay (montmorillonite (MMT) K10) mixed with AA5083 for different composition in weight percentage to enhance the mechanical property. Semi-solid state casting method (Compo-casting) was used to fabricate the composite materials. By using Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) the uniform dispersion of the reinforcement and microstructure were studied. Finally, the addition of Nanoclay shows decrease in tensile strength compared to the AA5083 / MWCNT composites and hardness value of the composites (AA5083 / MWCNT and AA5083 / Nanoclay) was found to increase significantly.

  4. Characterization and modeling of three-dimensional self-healing shape memory alloy-reinforced metal-matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, Michele Viola [University of Florida, Gainesville; Zhu, Pingping [Northwestern University, Evanston; Newman, John A. [NASA Langely Research Center (LaRC), Virginia; Wright, M Clara [NASA Kennedy Space Center, FL; Brinson, L Catherine [Northwestern University, Evanston; Kesler, Michael S. [ORNL

    2016-09-10

    In this paper, three-dimensional metal-matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced by shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are modeled and simulated, by adopting an SMA constitutive model accounting for elastic deformation, phase transformation and plastic behavior. A modeling method to create composites with pre-strained SMA wires is also proposed to improve the self-healing ability. Experimental validation is provided with a composite under three-point bending. This modeling method is applied in a series of finite element simulations to investigate the self-healing effects in pre-cracked composites, especially the role of the SMA reinforcement, the softening property of the matrix, and the effect of pre-strain in the SMA. The results demonstrate that SMA reinforcements provide stronger shape recovery ability than other, non-transforming materials. The softening property of the metallic matrix and the pre-strain in SMA are also beneficial to help crack closure and healing. This modeling approach can serve as an efficient tool to design SMA-reinforced MMCs with optimal self-healing properties that have potential applications in components needing a high level of reliability.

  5. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Elevated Temperature Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) Alloy and Its Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, David C. [Eck Industreis, Inc.; Gegal, Gerald A.

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this project was to provide a production capable cast aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy with an operating temperature capability of 250-300°C. Important industrial sectors as well as the military now seek lightweight aluminum alloy castings that can operate in temperature ranges of 250-300°C. Current needs in this temperature range are being satisfied by the use of titanium alloy castings. These have the desired strength properties but the end components are heavier and significantly more costly. Also, the energy requirements for production of titanium alloy castings are significantly higher than those required for production of aluminum alloys and aluminum alloy castings.

  6. Bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi-Yim, H.; Johnson, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Composites with a bulk metallic glass matrix were synthesized and characterized. This was made possible by the recent development of bulk metallic glasses that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the undercooled liquid state. In this letter, experimental methods for processing metallic glass composites are introduced. Three different bulk metallic glass forming alloys were used as the matrix materials. Both ceramics and metals were introduced as reinforcement into the metallic glass. The metallic glass matrix remained amorphous after adding up to a 30 vol% fraction of particles or short wires. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites show only peaks from the second phase particles superimposed on the broad diffuse maxima from the amorphous phase. Optical micrographs reveal uniformly distributed particles in the matrix. The glass transition of the amorphous matrix and the crystallization behavior of the composites were studied by calorimetric methods. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Tensile behaviour at room and high temperatures of novel metal matrix composites based on hyper eutectic Al-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valer, J.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Urcola, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This work shows the improvement obtained on tensile stress at room and high temperatures of hyper eutectic Al-Si alloys. These alloys are produced by a combination of spray-forming, extrusion and thixoforming process, in comparison with conventional casting alloys.Al-25% Si-5%Cu. Al-25%Si-5%Cu-2%Mg and Al-30%Si-5%Cu alloys have been studied relating their microstructural parameters with tensile stress obtained and comparing them with conventional Al-20%Si. Al-36%Si and Al-50%Si alloys. Al-25%Si-5%Cu alloy-was tested before and after semi-solid forming, in order to distinguish the different behaviour of this alloy due to the different microstructure. The properties obtained with these alloys were also related to Al-SiC composites formed by similar processes. (Author) 20 refs

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Behaviour of Stir-Cast Al-Mg-Sl Alloy Matrix Hybrid Composite Reinforced with Corn Cob Ash and Silicon Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwagbenga Babajide Fatile

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, the microstructural and mechanical behaviour of Al-Mg-Si alloy matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC and Corn cob ash (An agro‑waste was investigated. This research work was aimed at assessing the suitability of developing low cost- high performance Al-Mg-Si hybrid composite. Silicon carbide (SiC particulates added with 0,1,2,3 and 4 wt% Corn cob ash (CCA were utilized to prepare 10 wt% of the reinforcing phase with Al-Mg-Si alloy as matrix using two-step stir casting method. Microstructural characterization, density measurement, estimated percent porosity, tensile testing, and micro‑hardness measurement were used to characterize the composites produced. From the results obtained, CCA has great potential to serve as a complementing reinforcement for the development of low cost‑high performance aluminum hybrid composites.

  9. Effect of composition on the matrix transformation of the Co-Re-Cr-Ta-C alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Přemysl; Mukherji, D.; Strunz, Pavel; Gilles, R.; Hofmann, M.; Karge, L.; Dolotko, O.; Rösler, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2016), s. 562-571 ISSN 1598-9623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : alloys * phase transformation * scanning electron microscopy (SEM) * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.889, year: 2016

  10. Study on the fabrication of Al matrix composites strengthened by combined in-situ alumina particle and in-situ alloying elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zanjun; Yang Bin; Cui Hua; Zhang Jishan

    2003-01-01

    A new idea to fabricate aluminum matrix composites strengthened by combined in-situ particle strengthening and in-situ alloying has been proposed. Following the concept of in-situ alloying and in-situ particle strengthening, aluminum matrix composites reinforced by Cu and α-Al 2 O 3 particulate (material I) and the same matrix reinforced by Cu, Si alloying elements and α-Al 2 O 3 particulate (material II) have been obtained. SEM observation, EDS and XRD analysis show that the alloy elements Cu and Si exist in the two materials, respectively. In-situ Al 2 O 3 particulates are generally spherical and their mean size is less than 0.5 μm. TEM observation shows that the in-situ α-Al 2 O 3 particulates have a good cohesion with the matrix. The reaction mechanism of the Al 2 O 3 particulate obtained by this method was studied. Thermodynamic considerations are given to the in-situ reactions and the distribution characteristic of in-situ the α-Al 2 O 3 particulate in the process of solidification is also discussed

  11. Nonequilibrium Alloying of Aluminum for Improving the Corrosion Resistance of Graphite-Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, MMCs, especially Gr reinforced composites, are extremely susceptible to corrosion with severe attack in chloride-containing environments occurring in as little time as several weeks for Gr/Al composites...

  12. Influence of the Sr and Mg Alloying Additions on the Bonding Between Matrix and Reinforcing Particles in the AlSi7Mg/SiC-Cg Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolata A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to perform adequate selection of the phase composition of the composite designated for permanent - mould casting air compressor pistons. The hybrid composites based on AlSi7Mg matrix alloy reinforced with mixture of silicon carbide (SiC and glassy carbon (Cg particles were fabricated by the stir casting method. It has been shown that the proper selection of chemical composition of matrix alloy and its modification by used magnesium and strontium additions gives possibility to obtain both the advantageous casting properties of composite suspensions as well as good bonding between particles reinforcements and matrix.

  13. Development of an Extrusion Process to Ameliorate the Tribological Properties of Heat Treated Al Mg Si (Cu System Alloys Matrix Composites in Consolidated State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Shabani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The developments of AA6061 aluminum matrix composites are of great interest in industrial applications for lighter materials with high specific strength, stiffness and wear resistance. In this article, the dry wear behavior of AA6061 matrix composites was investigated under different sliding speeds and applied loads. It is observed that the composites exhibit higher friction coefficients and greater wear resistances than the Al alloy against the steel disc surface. Low-speed wear rates are associated with abrasive wear,indicating the dominant wear mechanism, though minor, delamination wear may be produced. Abrasive wear associates with the formation of deep scratches on the worn surface in the sliding direction. For a given load and sliding velocity the extent of iron transfer is highest in case of 15 % SiC reinforced Al6061 composite among all the material studied.

  14. Investigation of the Self-Healing Behavior of Sn-Bi Metal Matrix Composite Reinforced with NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Strips Under Flexural Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poormir, Mohammad Amin; Khalili, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Eslami-Farsani, Reza

    2018-06-01

    Utilizing intelligent materials such as shape memory alloys as reinforcement in metal matrix composites is a novel method to mimic self-healing behavior. In this study, the bending behavior of a self-healing metal matrix composite made from Sn-13 wt.% Bi alloy as matrix and NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) strips as reinforcement is investigated. Specimens were fabricated in different reinforcement vol.% (0.78, 1.55, 2.33) and in various pre-strains (0, 2, 6%) and were healed at three healing temperatures (170°C, 180°C, 190°C). Results showed that shape recovery was accomplished in all the specimens, but not all of them were able to withstand second loading after healing. Only specimens with 2.33 vol.% of SMA strips, 1.55 vol.% of SMA, and 6% pre-strain could endure bending force after healing, and they gained 35.31-51.83% of bending force self-healing efficiency.

  15. Tribological Properties of AlSi12-Al₂O₃ Interpenetrating Composite Layers in Comparison with Unreinforced Matrix Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolata, Anna Janina

    2017-09-06

    Alumina-Aluminum composites with interpenetrating network structures are a new class of advanced materials with potentially better properties than composites reinforced by particles or fibers. Local casting reinforcement was proposed to take into account problems with the machinability of this type of materials and the shaping of the finished products. The centrifugal infiltration process fabricated composite castings in the form of locally reinforced shafts. The main objective of the research presented in this work was to compare the tribological properties (friction coefficient, wear resistance) of AlSi12/Al₂O₃ interpenetrating composite layers with unreinforced AlSi12 matrix areas. Profilometric tests enabled both quantitative and qualitative analyses of the wear trace that formed on investigated surfaces. It has been shown that interpenetrating composite layers are characterized by lower and more stable coefficients of friction (μ), as well as higher wear resistance than unreinforced matrix areas. At the present stage, the study confirmed that the tribological properties of the composite layers depend on the spatial structure of the ceramic reinforcement, and primarily the volume and size of alumina foam cells.

  16. The effect of palm kernel shell ash on the mechanical properties of as-cast aluminium alloy matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the effect of palm kernel shell ash (PKSA as reinforcement on the mechanical properties of As-cast aluminium alloy. Recycled aluminium alloy from cylinder of an automotive engine block was degreased by using premium motor spirit (PMS also known as petrol, washed thoroughly with soap and water and sun dried for 5 days. The palm kernel shell was screened of dirt and other unwanted foreign materials before being roasted in furnace. The ash was further pulverized by laboratory ball mill machine followed by sieving to obtain particle sizes of 106 µm and divided into two parts. One portion was treated with NaOH solution while the other part was left as untreated before they are used to reinforced molten aluminium alloy in predetermined proportions. The newly developed composites were characterized with respect to their mechanical properties in response to the tests that were carried out on them. The results indicate that palm kernel shell ash can be used as potential reinforcing material for automobile applications.

  17. The effect of TiB2 reinforcement on the mechanical properties of an Al-Cu-Li alloy-based metal-matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The addition of ceramic particles to aluminum based alloys can substantially improve mechanical properties, especially Young's modulus and room and elevated temperature strengths. However, these improvements typically occur at the expense of tensile ductility. The mechanical properties are evaluated to a metal matrix composite (MMC) consisting of an ultrahigh strength aluminum lithium alloy, Weldalite (tm) 049, reinforced with TiB2 particles produced by an in situ precipitation technique called the XD (tm) process. The results are compared to the behavior of a nonreinforced Weldalite 049 variant. It is shown that both 049 and 049-TiB2 show very attractive warm temperature properties e.g., 625 MPa yield strength at 150 C after 100 h at temperature. Weldalite 049 reinforced with a nominal 4 v pct. TiB2 shows an approx. 8 pct. increase in modulus and a good combination of strength (529 MPa UTS) and ductility (6.5 pct.) in the T3 temper. And the high ductility of Weldalite 049 in the naturally aged and underaged tempers makes the alloy a good, high strength matrix for ceramic reinforcement.

  18. Vacuum brazing of aluminium metal matrix composite (55 vol.% SiC{sub p}/A356) using aluminium-based filler alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Jitai, E-mail: niujitai@163.com [Harbin Institute of Technology (China); Zhengzhou University (China); Luo, Xiangwei; Tian, Hao [Zhengzhou University (China); Brnic, Josip [University of Rijka (Croatia)

    2012-11-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proper filler metal has been developed, especially for contents of Mg and Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pressure device has been designed for specimen in vacuum brazing process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The accurate measurement method for shear strength of lap joint has been found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The brazing temperature of 560 Degree-Sign C has been optimised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The micro-mechanism has been discussed for SiC{sub p}/Al composites' brazing joint. - Abstract: Aluminium matrix composites with high volume fractions of SiC particles, as the reinforcements, are potentially suitable materials for electronic packaging. These composites, due to their poor weldability, however, have very limited applications. The microstructure and shear strengths of the bonds made in 55 vol.% SiC{sub p}/A356 composite, using an aluminium based filler alloy containing Cu, Si, Mg and Ni, were investigated in this paper. The brazing temperature had a clear effect on the bond integrity, and the samples brazed at 560 Degree-Sign C demonstrated good bonding between the filler alloy and the SiC particles. The maximum shear strength achieved in this work was 102 MPa.

  19. Effect of clustering on the mechanical properties of SiC particulate-reinforced aluminum alloy 2024 metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon-Jik; Kim, Hong-Moule; Huh, Dae; Suryanarayana, C.; Chun, Byong Sun

    2003-01-01

    Al 2024-SiC metal matrix composite (MMC) powders produced by centrifugal atomization were hot extruded to investigate the effect of clustering on their mechanical properties. Fracture toughness and tension tests were conducted on specimens reinforced with different volume fractions of SiC. A model was proposed to suggest that the strength of the MMCs could be estimated from the load transfer model approach that takes into consideration the extent of clustering. This model has been successful in predicting the experimentally observed strength and fracture toughness values of the Al 2024-SiC MMCs. On the basis of experimental observations, it is suggested that the strength of particulate-reinforced MMCs may be calculated from the relation: σ y =σ m V m +σ r (V r -V c )-σ r V c , where σ and V represent the yield strength and volume fraction, respectively, and the subscripts m, r, and c represent the matrix, reinforcement, and clusters, respectively

  20. Influence of Thin-Film Adhesives in Pullout Tests Between Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Derek J.; Jana, Sadhan; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2018-01-01

    Strips of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA) and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite (PMC) were bonded together using multiple thin film adhesives and their mechanical strengths were evaluated under pullout test configuration. Tensile and lap shear tests were conducted to confirm the deformation of SMAs at room temperature and to evaluate the adhesive strength between the NiTi strips and the PMC. Optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to examine the interfacial bonding after failure. Simple equations on composite tensile elongation were used to fit the experimental data on tensile properties. ABAQUS models were generated to show the effects of enhanced bond strength and the distribution of stress in SMA and PMC. The results revealed that the addition of thin film adhesives increased the average adhesive strength between SMA and PMC while halting the room temperature shape memory effect within the pullout specimen.

  1. Corrosion of Graphite Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    cathodic protection of G/AI MMCs resulted in overprotection 13. Overprotection resulted from a local increase in pH near cathodic sites during...34Cathodic Overprotection of SiC/6061-T6 and G/6061- T6 Aluminum Alloy Metal Matrix Composites," Scripta Metallurgica, 22 (1988) 413-418. 14. R

  2. METMET fuel with Zirconium matrix alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.; Konovalov, I.; Totev, T.

    2008-01-01

    The novel type of WWER-1000 fuel has been designed at A.A. Bochvar Institute. Instead of WWER-1000 UO 2 pelletized fuel rod we apply dispersion type fuel element with uniformly distributed high uranium content granules of U9Mo, U5Nb5Zr, U3Si alloys metallurgically bonded between themselves and to cladding by a specially developed Zr-base matrix alloy. The fuel meat retains a controllable porosity to accommodate fuel swelling. The optimal volume ratios between the components are: 64% fuel, 18% matrix, 18% pores. Properties of novel materials as well as fuel compositions on their base have been investigated. Method of fuel elements fabrication by capillary impregnation has been developed. The primary advantages of novel fuel are high uranium content (more than 15% in comparison with the standard UO 2 pelletized fuel rod), low temperature of fuel ( * d/tU) and serviceability under transient conditions. The use of the novel fuel might lead to natural uranium saving and reduced amounts of spent fuel as well as to optimization of Nuclear Plant operation conditions and improvements of their operation reliability and safety. As a result the economic efficiency shall increase and the cost of electric power shall decrease. (authors)

  3. Silver Matrix Composites - Structure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phase compositions of composite materials determine their performance as well as physical and mechanical properties. Depending on the type of applied matrix and the kind, amount and morphology of the matrix reinforcement, it is possible to shape the material properties so that they meet specific operational requirements. In the paper, results of investigations on silver alloy matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles are presented. The investigations enabled evaluation of hardness, tribological and mechanical properties as well as the structure of produced materials. The matrix of composite material was an alloy of silver and aluminium, magnesium and silicon. As the reinforcing phase, 20-60 μm ceramic particles (SiC, SiO2, Al2O3 and Cs were applied. The volume fraction of the reinforcing phase in the composites was 10%. The composites were produced using the liquid phase (casting technology, followed by plastic work (the KOBO method. The mechanical and tribological properties were analysed for plastic work-subjected composites. The mechanical properties were assessed based on a static tensile and hardness tests. The tribological properties were investigated under dry sliding conditions. The analysis of results led to determination of effects of the composite production technology on their performance. Moreover, a relationship between the type of reinforcing phase and the mechanical and tribological properties was established.

  4. Microstructure and high-temperature oxidation resistance of TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy surface by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongxi; Wang, Chuanqi; Zeng, Weihua; Jiang, Yehua

    2010-11-01

    A high-temperature oxidation resistant TiN embedded in Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating was fabricated on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V surface by 6kW transverse-flow CO2 laser apparatus. The composition, morphology and microstructure of the laser clad TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). In order to evaluate the high-temperature oxidation resistance of the composite coatings and the titanium alloy substrate, isothermal oxidation test was performed in a conventional high-temperature resistance furnace at 600°C and 800°C respectively. The result shows that the laser clad intermetallic composite coating has a rapidly solidified fine microstructure consisting of TiN primary phase (granular-like, flake-like, and dendrites), and uniformly distributed in the Ti3Al matrix. It indicates that a physical and chemical reaction between the Ti powder and AlN powder occurred completely under the laser irradiation. In addition, the microhardness of the TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating is 844HV0.2, 3.4 times higher than that of the titanium alloy substrate. The high-temperature oxidation resistance test reveals that TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating results in the better modification of high-temperature oxidation behavior than the titanium substrate. The excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance of the laser cladding layer is attributed to the formation of the reinforced phase TiN and Al2O3, TiO2 hybrid oxide. Therefore, the laser cladding TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating is anticipated to be a promising oxidation resistance surface modification technique for Ti6Al4V alloy.

  5. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  6. Search for promising compositions for developing new multiphase casting alloys based on Al-Cu-Mg matrix using thermodynamic calculations and mathematic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotorevskii, V. S.; Pozdnyakov, A. V.; Churyumov, A. Yu.

    2012-11-01

    A calculation-experimental study is carried out to improve the concept of searching for new alloying systems in order to develop new casting alloys using mathematical simulation methods in combination with thermodynamic calculations. The results show the high effectiveness of the applied methods. The real possibility of selecting the promising compositions with the required set of casting and mechanical properties is exemplified by alloys with thermally hardened Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Mg matrices, as well as poorly soluble additives that form eutectic components using mainly the calculation study methods and the minimum number of experiments.

  7. Epoxy resins and low melting point alloy composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ł. Wierzbicki; J. Stabik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this work was to describe manufacturing process of polymer matrix composite materials reinforced with Wood’s alloy particles and to observe changes of structure.Design/methodology/approach: Polymer matrix composite materials reinforced with the Wood’s alloy particles fabricating method was developed during the investigations, making it possible to obtain materials with good mechanical, electrical and thermal properties . Microscopic examination of samples cross- sections ...

  8. Micromechanical modelling of shape memory alloy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.F.; Wang, X.M.; Yue, Z.F. [School of Mechanic, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian, 710072 (China)

    2004-03-01

    An isothermal finite element method (FEM) model has been applied to study the behavior of two kinds of shape memory alloy (SMA) composites. For SMA-fiber reinforced normal metal composites, the FEM analysis shows that the mechanical behavior of the composites depends on the SMA volume fraction. For normal metal-fiber reinforced SMA matrix composites, the SMA phase transformation is affected by the increasing Young's modulus of the metal fiber. The phase transformation was also treated using a simple numerical analysis, which assumes that there are uniform stresses and strains distributions in the fiber and the matrix respectively. It is found that there is an obvious difference between the FEM analysis and the simple numerical assessment. Only FEM can provide reasonable predictions of phase transformations in SMA/normal metal composites. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Polarization Behavior of Squeeze Cast Al2O3 Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, S. H.; Kang, Y. C.; Cho, K. M.; Park, I. M.

    1992-01-01

    Electrochemical polarization behavior of squeeze cast Al 2 O 3 short fiber reinforced Al alloy matrix composites was investigated for the basic understanding of the corrosion properties of the composites. The composites were fabricated with variations of fiber volume fraction and matrix alloys. It was found that the reinforced composites are more susceptible to corrosion attack than the unreinforced matrix alloys in general. Corrosion resistance shows decreasing tendency with increasing Al 2 O 3 fiber volume fraction in AC8A matrix. Effect of the matrix alloys revealed that the AC8A Al matrix composite is less susceptible to corrosion attack than the 2024 and 7075 Al matrix composites. Effect of plastic deformation on electrochemical polarization behavior of the squeeze cast Al/Al 2 O 3 composites was examined after extrusion of AC8A-10v/o Al 2 O 3 . Result shows that corrosion resistance is deteriorated after plastic deformation

  10. Amorphous metal matrix composite ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barczy, P.; Szigeti, F.

    1998-01-01

    Composite ribbons with amorphous matrix and ceramic (SiC, WC, MoB) particles were produced by modified planar melt flow casting methods. Weldability, abrasive wear and wood sanding examinations were carried out in order to find optimal material and technology for elevated wear resistance and sanding durability. The correlation between structure and composite properties is discussed. (author)

  11. Corrosion behaviour of groundnut shell ash and silicon carbide hybrid reinforced Al-Mg-Si alloy matrix composites in 3.5% NaCl and 0.3M H2SO4 solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kanayo ALANEME

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of Al-Mg-Si alloy based composites reinforced with groundnut shell ash (GSA and silicon carbide (SiC was investigated. The aim is to assess the corrosion properties of Al-Mg-Si alloy based hybrid reinforced composites developed using different mix ratios of GSA (a cheaply processed agro waste derivative which served as partial replacement for SiC and SiC as reinforcing materials. GSA and SiC mixed in weight ratios 0:1, 1:3, 1:1, 3:1, and 1:0 were utilized to prepare 6 and 10 wt% of the reinforcing phase with Al‐Mg‐Si alloy as matrix using two‐step stir casting method. Mass loss and corrosion rate measurement was used to study the corrosion behaviour of the produced composites in 3.5% NaCl and 0.3M H2SO4 solutions. The results show that the Al-Mg-Si alloy based composites containing 6 and 10 wt% GSA and SiC in varied weight ratios were resistant to corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution. The composites were however more susceptible to corrosion in 0.3M H2SO4 solution (in comparison with the 3.5% NaCl solution. It was noted that the Al-Mg-Si/6 wt% GSA-SiC hybrid composite grades containing GSA and SiC in weight ratio 1:3 and 3:1 respectively exhibited superior corrosion resistance in the 0.3M H2SO4 solution compared to other composites produced for this series. In the case of the Al-Mg-Si/10 wt% GSA-SiC hybrid composite grades, the corrosion resistance was relatively superior for the composites containing a greater weight ratio of GSA (75% and 100% in 0.3M H2SO4 solution.

  12. Fabrication of tungsten wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Toth, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fabrication methods for tungsten fiber reinforced nickel-base superalloy composites were investigated. Three matrix alloys in pre-alloyed powder or rolled sheet form were evaluated in terms of fabricability into composite monotape and multi-ply forms. The utility of monotapes for fabricating more complex shapes was demonstrated. Preliminary 1093C (2000F) stress rupture tests indicated that efficient utilization of fiber strength was achieved in composites fabricated by diffusion bonding processes. The fabrication of thermal fatigue specimens is also described.

  13. exploration the extrudability of aluminum matrix composite (lm6/tic)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Aluminum matrix composites (LM6/TiC) is a mix of excellent properties of aluminum casting alloy (LM6), and particles of (TiC) which make it the first choice in many applications like airplane and marine industries. During this research the extrudability and mechanical specifications of this composite ...

  14. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  15. Thermal and mechanical behavior of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M. (Editor); Moeller, Helen H. (Editor); Johnson, W. S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses local stresses in metal-matrix composites (MMCs) subjected to thermal and mechanical loads, the computational simulation of high-temperature MMCs' cyclic behavior, an analysis of a ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) flexure specimen, and a plasticity analysis of fibrous composite laminates under thermomechanical loads. Also discussed are a comparison of methods for determining the fiber-matrix interface frictional stresses of CMCs, the monotonic and cyclic behavior of an SiC/calcium aluminosilicate CMC, the mechanical and thermal properties of an SiC particle-reinforced Al alloy MMC, the temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of a graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMC, the fiber/matrix interface bonding strength of MMCs, and fatigue crack growth in an Al2O3 short fiber-reinforced Al-2Mg matrix MMC.

  16. Electroless alloy/composite coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The market for these coatings is expanding fast as the potential applications are on the rise. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review different electroless alloy/composite coatings with respect to bath types and their composition, properties and applications. Different characterisation studies have been ...

  17. Superplasticity in powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.S.; Bieler, T.R.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Superplasticity in powder metallurgy Al alloys and composites has been reviewed through a detailed analysis. The stress-strain curves can be put into 4 categories: classical well-behaved type, continuous strain hardening type, continuous strain softening type and complex type. The origin of these different types of is discussed. The microstructural features of the processed material and the role of strain have been reviewed. The role of increasing misorientation of low angle boundaries to high angle boundaries by lattice dislocation absorption is examined. Threshold stresses have been determined and analyzed. The parametric dependencies for superplastic flow in modified conventional aluminum alloys, mechanically alloyed alloys and Al alloy matrix composites is determined to elucidate the superplastic mechanism at high strain rates. The role of incipient melting has been analyzed. A stress exponent of 2, an activation energy equal to that for grain boundary diffusion and a grain size dependence of 2 generally describes superplastic flow in modified conventional Al alloys and mechanically alloyed alloys. The present results agree well with the predictions of grain boundary sliding models. This suggests that the mechanism of high strain rate superplasticity in the above-mentioned alloys is similar to conventional superplasticity. The shift of optimum superplastic strain rates to higher values is a consequence of microstructural refinement. The parametric dependencies for superplasticity in aluminum alloy matrix composites, however, is different. A true activation energy of superplasticity in aluminum alloy matrix composites, however, is different. A true activation energy of 313 kJ/mol best describes the composites having SiC reinforcements. The role of shape of the reinforcement (particle or whisker) and processing history is addressed. The analysis suggests that the mechanism for superplasticity in composites is interface diffusion controlled grain boundary sliding

  18. Design of powder metallurgy titanium alloys and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Chen, L.F.; Tang, H.P.; Liu, C.T.; Liu, B.; Huang, B.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Low cost and good performance are two major factors virtually important for Ti alloy development. In this paper, we have studied the effects of alloying elements, thermo-mechanical treatment and particle reinforcement on microstructures and mechanical properties of powder metallurgy (PM) Ti alloys and their composites. Our results indicate that low cost PM Ti alloys and their composites with attractive properties can be fabricated through a single compaction-sintering process, although secondary treatments are required for high performance applications. Three new PM Ti alloys and one TiC/Ti composite of high performance are developed, and new design principles are also proposed. For design of PM Ti alloys, addition of alloying elements has the beneficial effect of enhanced sintering and/or improved mechanical properties. For example, Fe element accelerates the sintering process, Mo and Al are good candidates for solution strengthening, and rare earth elements effectively increase the material ductility by scavenging oxygen from the Ti matrix. For the design of Ti-based composites, in situ formation of strengthening particles and solid solution hardening of the matrix both should be considered simultaneously for alloy development. Cr 3 C 2 is found to be a very suitable additive for processing particle reinforced Ti composites

  19. Cellular Magnesium Matrix Foam Composites for Mechanical Damping Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Mansoor, Bilal; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    The damping characteristics of metal alloys and metal matrix composites are relevant to the automotive, aerospace, and marine structures. Use of lightweight materials can help in increasing payload capacity and in decreasing fuel consumption. Lightweight composite materials possessing high damping capabilities that can be designed as structural members can greatly benefit in addressing these needs. In this context, the damping properties of lightweight metals such as aluminum and magnesium and their respective composites have been studied in the existing literature. This review focuses on analyzing the damping properties of aluminum and magnesium alloys and their cellular composites. The damping properties of various lightweight alloys and composites are compared on the basis of their density to understand the potential for weight saving in structural applications. Magnesium alloys are observed to possess better damping properties in comparison to aluminum. However, aluminum matrix syntactic foams reinforced with silicon carbide hollow particles possess a damping capacity and density comparable to magnesium alloy. By using the data presented in the study, composites with specific compositions and properties can be selected for a given application. In addition, the comparison of the results helps in identifying the areas where attention needs to be focused to address the future needs.

  20. Preparation of magnesium metal matrix composites by powder metallurgy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, J.; Satish, K. G., Dr.

    2018-02-01

    Magnesium is the lightest metal used as the source for constructional alloys. Today Magnesium based metal matrix composites are widely used in aerospace, structural, oceanic and automobile applications for its light weight, low density(two thirds that of aluminium), good high temperature mechanical properties and good to excellent corrosion resistance. The reason of designing metal matrix composite is to put in the attractive attributes of metals and ceramics to the base metal. In this study magnesium metal matrix hybrid composite are developed by reinforcing pure magnesium with silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminium oxide by method of powder metallurgy. This method is less expensive and very efficient. The Hardness test was performed on the specimens prepared by powder metallurgy method. The results revealed that the micro hardness of composites was increased with the addition of silicon carbide and alumina particles in magnesium metal matrix composites.

  1. Metal matrix composites. Part 1. Types, properties, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edil da Costa, C.; Velasco Lopez, F.; Torralba Castello, M.

    2000-01-01

    An overview on the state of the art of metal matrix composites used in the automotive and aerospace industries is made. These materials usually are based on light alloys (Al, Ti and Mg) and reinforced with fibres or particles. In this review, it is presented a general scope on the different MMCs families, about their properties and their main applications. (Author) 61 refs

  2. Microstructure, Friction and Wear of Aluminum Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, R. M.

    2018-06-01

    MMCs are made by dispersing a reinforcing material into a metal matrix. They are prepared by casting, although several technical challenges exist with casting technology. Achieving a homogeneous distribution of reinforcement within the matrix is one such challenge, and this affects directly on the properties and quality of composite. The aluminum alloy composite materials consist of high strength, high stiffness, more thermal stability, more corrosion and wear resistance, and more fatigue life. Aluminum alloy materials found to be the best alternative with its unique capacity of designing the materials to give required properties. In this work a composite is developed by adding silicon carbide in Aluminum metal matrix by mass ratio 5%, 10% and 15%. Mechanical tests such as hardness test and microstructure test are conducted.

  3. Titanium Matrix Composite Pressure Vessel, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For over 15 years, FMW Composite Systems has developed Metal Matrix Composite manufacturing methodologies for fabricating silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced titanium...

  4. Preparation and characterization of aluminium-silica metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjuna, G. B.; Basavaraj, E.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum alloys are widely used in aerospace and automobile industries due to their low density and good mechanical properties, better corrosion resistance and wear, low thermal coefficient of expansion as compared to conventional metals and alloys. The excellent properties of these materials and relatively low production cost make them a very attractive for a variety of applications. In this present work, Al alloy LM13-SiO2 composites were produced by stir casting method. The reinforcement SiO2 particle size used for preparation of composites are 106 µm, 150 µm, 250 µm and 355 µm with varying amount of 3 to 12 wt% in steps of 3. The prepared composite specimens were machined as per test standards. Effects of weight percentage of SiO2 particles on wear, tensile strength of Al alloy LM13-SiO2 composites have been investigated. The microstructures of the composites were studied to know the dispersion of the SiO2 particles in matrix. Experimental results shows that there is enhanced mechanical properties, when silica weighing 9% was added to the base aluminium alloy and also similar trend exists in all four different micron size of silica and also it has been observed that addition of SiO2 particles significantly improves wear resistance properties as compared with that of unreinforced matrix.

  5. Interfacial reaction effects on erosion of aluminum matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, J.P.; Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima; Matsumura, M.

    1999-01-01

    Alumina borate (A 18 B 4 O 33 ) whisker reinforced aluminum composites have attracted interest because of their high specific strength, high modulus and low cost. An obvious feature of the microstructure in A 18 B 4 O 33 /Al composite is that an interfacial reaction exists between the whisker and the aluminum alloy. In order to discuss the influence of interface interaction between the whisker and matrix on the erosion resistance of composites, two reaction treatments are conducted. From the results of the treated composites, it can be obtained about the erosion characteristics of the composite materials under steady-state conditions

  6. Intermetallic matrix composites; Proceedings of the MRS Symposium, San Francisco, CA, Apr. 18-20, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, D.L.; Martin, P.L.; Miracle, D.B.; Mcmeeking, R.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume on intermetallic matrix composites discusses the modeling, processing, microstructure/property relationships, and compatibility of intermetallic matrix composites. Attention is given to models for the strength of ductile matrix composites, innovative processing techniques for intermetallic matrix composites, ductile phase toughening of brittle intermetallics, and reactive synthesis of NbAl3 matrix composites. Topics addressed include solidification processing of NbCr2 alloys, Ta and Nb reinforced MoSi2, the microstructure and mechanical behavior of Ni3Al-matrix composites, and ductile-phase toughening of Cr3Si with chromium. Also discussed are dislocation morphologies in TiB2/NiAl, the development of highly impact resistant NiAl matrix composites, the effect of notches on the fatigue life of the SCS-6Ti3Al composite, and the chemical stability of fiber-metal matrix composites

  7. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  8. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  9. Mechanisms of de cohesion in cutting aluminium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichosz, Piotr; Karolczak, Pawel; Kuzinovski, Mikolaj

    2008-01-01

    In this paper properties and applications of aluminium matrix composites are presented with a composite reinforced with saffil fibres selected for topical study. Behavior of matrix and reinforcement during machining with a cutting tool is analyzed. The paper presents an explosive quick-stop device designed to obtain undisturbed machined surface for examination. Meso hardness measurements of deformed structure, resultant chips and built-up-edge were carried out. Scanning micrographs of machined surface are presented with morphology and types of chips analysed. Values of the fibrousness angle ψ and thickening index k h of chip are evaluated. The research performed has enabled the authors to define mechanisms of e cohesion during cutting aluminium matrix composites. The results received for composite material are compared with those pertinent to aluminum alloys.

  10. Microstructure of Matrix in UHTC Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Stackpoole, Margaret; Gusman, Michael I.; Chavez-Garia Jose; Doxtad, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Approaches to controlling the microstructure of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are described.. One matrix material has been infiltrated into carbon weaves to make composite materials. The microstructure of these composites is described.

  11. Indentation creep behaviors of amorphous Cu-based composite alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Defeng; Ma, Xiangdong; Qian, Linfang

    2018-04-01

    This work reports the indentation creep behaviors of two Si2Zr3/amorphous Cu-based composite alloys utilizing nanoindentation technique. By analysis with Kelvin model, the retardation spectra of alloys at different positions, detached and attached regions to the intermetallics, were deduced. For the indentation of detached regions to Si2Zr3 intermetallics in both alloys, very similarity in creep displacement can be observed and retardation spectra show a distinct disparity in the second retardation peak. For the indentation of detached regions, the second retardation spectra also display distinct disparity. At both positions, the retardation spectra suggest that Si elements may lead to the relatively dense structure in the amorphous matrix and to form excessive Si2Zr3 intermetallics which may deteriorate the plastic deformation of current Cu-based composite alloys.

  12. Fabrication Process and Reliability Evaluation of Shape Memory Alloy Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Choi, Il Kook; Park, Young Chul; Lee, Kyu Chang; Lee, Joon Hyun

    2001-01-01

    Shape memory alloy has been used to improve the tensile strength of composite by the occurrence of compressive residual stress in matrix using its shape memory effect. In order to fabricate shape memory alloy composite, TiNi alloy and A16061 were used as reinforcing material and mix, respectively. In this study, TiNi/A16061 shape memory alloy composite was made by using hot press method. However, the specimen fabricated by this method had the bonding problem at the boundary between TiNi fiber and Al matrix when the load was applied to it. A cold rolling was imposed to the specimen to improve the bonding effect. It was found that tensile strength of specimen subjected to cold rolling was more increased than that of specimen which did not underwent cold rolling. In addition, acoustic emission technique was used to quantify the microscopic damage behavior of cold rolled TiNi/A16061 shape memory alloy composite at high temperature

  13. PERSPECTIVES OF NANOPOWDERS APPLICATION FOR MANUFACTURING OF MODIFYING ALLOYING COMPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kalinichenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of nanomaterials for grain refining of metals and its allac is of great interest as it aimis achieveto higher physicalmechanical properties in finished parts. Analysis shows that to gain high effectiveness of nanoparticles it is important to provide proper input of these particles into alloying alloy. The aim of present research is study of initial nanoparticles structure on the base of titanium, boron, yttrium and carbon nanotubes as well as development of method to manufacture alloying alloys containing nanoparticles.Investigations of nanopowders phase compositions on the base of titanium, boron and yttrium have shown that active elements such as boron carbide, titanium carbide and nitride, yttrium oxide are base compounds of these nanopowders. Powder particles are formed by primary structural elements having mainly plate state (titanium and boron carbides and containing equiaxial inclusions with sizes of 5–200 nm. Chemical composition of specimens synthesized is uniform and contains 98.0 – 99.5% of main compound.Results of metal-protector and nanoparticles mixing have revealed that the increase of mixing duration from 2 to 6 hours assist to more uniform elements distribution through the pellet volume. Applying extrusion method specimens of alloying alloys have been produced and elements distribution in cross-section and longitudinal directions were determined.Analysis of research implemented has shown that distribution of active nanopowders in matrix is more uniform in extruded alloying alloys specimens compared to ones produced by methods of sintering or pressing of powder mixtures.

  14. Multiscale Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Mital, Subodh K.; Pineda, Evan J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Results of multiscale modeling simulations of the nonlinear response of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites are reported, wherein the microstructure of the ceramic matrix is captured. This micro scale architecture, which contains free Si material as well as the SiC ceramic, is responsible for residual stresses that play an important role in the subsequent thermo-mechanical behavior of the SiC/SiC composite. Using the novel Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells recursive micromechanics theory, the microstructure of the matrix, as well as the microstructure of the composite (fiber and matrix) can be captured.

  15. The use of Nb in rapid solidified Al alloys and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audebert, F., E-mail: metal@fi.uba.ar [Advanced Materials Group, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1063 (Argentina); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Wheatley Campus, OX33 1HX Oxford (United Kingdom); Galano, M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Saporiti, F. [Advanced Materials Group, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1063 (Argentina)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The use of Nb in RS Al alloys and composites has been reviewed. • Nb was found to improve the GFA of rapid solidified Al–Fe and Al–Ni alloys. • Nb has higher effect in increasing the corrosion resistance than RE in Al–Fe alloys. • Nb improves the stability of the Al–Fe–Cr icosahedral phase. • Nb improves strength, ductility and toughness of nanoquasicrystalline Al matrix composites. - Abstract: The worldwide requirements for reducing the energy consumption and pollution have increased the demand of new and high performance lightweight materials. The development of nanostructured Al-based alloys and composites is a key direction towards solving this demand. High energy prices and decreased availability of some alloying elements open up the opportunity to use non-conventional elements in Al alloys and composites. In this work the application of Nb in rapid solidified Al-based alloys and Al alloys matrix composites is reviewed. New results that clarify the effect of Nb on rapid solidified Al alloys and composites are also presented. It is observed that Nb stabilises the icosahedral Al–Fe/Cr clusters, enhances the glass forming ability and shifts the icosahedral phase decomposition towards higher temperatures. Nb provides higher corrosion resistance with respect to the pure Al and Al–Fe–RE (RE: rare earth) alloys in the amorphous and crystalline states. The use of Nb as a reinforcement to produce new Al alloy matrix composites is explored. It is observed that Nb provides higher strength, ductility and toughness to the nanoquasicrystalline matrix composite. Nb appears as a new key element that can improve several properties in rapid solidified Al alloys and composites.

  16. Internal friction in a new kind of metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Juan, J.; No, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new kind of metal matrix composites, based on powders of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs) surrounded by an indium matrix, specifically designed to exhibit high mechanical damping. The damping properties have been characterized by mechanical spectroscopy as a function of temperature between 150 and 400 K, frequency between 3 x 10 -3 and 3 Hz, and strain amplitude between 5 x 10 -6 and 10 -4 . The material exhibits, in some range of temperature, internal friction as high as 0.54. The extremely high damping is discussed in the light of the microstructure of the material, which has been characterized in parallel

  17. Fabrication of metal matrix composites by powder metallurgy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Guttikonda; Dey, Abhijit; Pandey, K. M.; Maity, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Now a day's metal matrix components are used in may industries and it finds the applications in many fields so, to make it as better performable materials. So, the need to increase the mechanical properties of the composites is there. As seen from previous studies major problem faced by the MMC's are wetting, interface bonding between reinforcement and matrix material while they are prepared by conventional methods like stir casting, squeeze casting and other techniques which uses liquid molten metals. So many researchers adopt PM to eliminate these defects and to increase the mechanical properties of the composites. Powder metallurgy is one of the better ways to prepare composites and Nano composites. And the major problem faced by the conventional methods are uniform distribution of the reinforcement particles in the matrix alloy, many researchers tried to homogeneously dispersion of reinforcements in matrix but they find it difficult through conventional methods, among all they find ultrasonic dispersion is efficient. This review article is mainly concentrated on importance of powder metallurgy in homogeneous distribution of reinforcement in matrix by ball milling or mechanical milling and how powder metallurgy improves the mechanical properties of the composites.

  18. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites with Multifunctional and Hybrid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Morscher, Gregory N.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, and nuclear industries. Potential composite applications differ in their requirements for thickness. For example, many space applications such as "nozzle ramps" or "heat exchangers" require very thin (structures whereas turbine blades would require very thick parts (> or = 1 cm). Little is known about the effect of thickness on stress-strain behavior or the elevated temperature tensile properties controlled by oxidation diffusion. In this study, composites consisting of woven Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers a carbon interphase and CVI SiC matrix were fabricated with different numbers of plies and thicknesses. The effect of thickness on matrix crack formation, matrix crack growth and diffusion kinetics will be discussed. In another approach, hybrid fiber-lay up concepts have been utilized to "alloy" desirable properties of different fiber types for mechanical properties, thermal stress management, and oxidation resistance. Such an approach has potential for the C(sub I)-SiC and SiC(sub f)-SiC composite systems. CVI SiC matrix composites with different stacking sequences of woven C fiber (T300) layers and woven SiC fiber (Hi-Nicalon (trademark)) layers were fabricated. The results will be compared to standard C fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix and Hi-Nicalon reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. In addition, shear properties of these composites at different temperatures will also be presented. Other design and implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.

  19. The effect of TiB2 reinforcement on the mechanical properties of an Al-Cu-Li alloy-based metal-matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, T. J.; Pickens, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    Weldalite 049, an Al-base Cu-Li-Mg-Ag-Zr alloy, achieves 700 MPa tensile strengths in the near-peak-aged temper in virtue of the nucleation of a T(1)-type platelike strengthening precipitate. Attention is presently given to the possibility that the alloy's modulus could be further increased through the addition of high-modulus TiB2 particles, using the 'XD' process, due to TiB2's good wettability with liquid Al. An 8-percent modulus increase is obtained with 4 vol pct TiB2.

  20. Wear Characterization of Aluminium/Basalt Fiber Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites - A Novel Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amuthakkannan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloy based metal matrix composite participate have a wider applications in wear resistance applications. Attempt made in current study is that, basalt fiber reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite have been prepared using stir casting method. Different weight percentage of basalt fiber reinforced with Al (6061 metal matrix composites are used to study the wear resistance of the composites. For wear study, percentage of reinforcement, normal load and sliding velocity are the considered as important parameters. To study the effect of basalt fiber reinforcement on the dry sliding wear of Al6061 alloy composites the Pin On wear tester is used. Initially hardness of the composites was tested, it was found that increasing reinforcement in the composite hardness value of the composites also increased. Based on the Grey relation analysis (GRA the effects of wear resistance of the composites were studied.

  1. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  2. Development and characterization of Powder Metallurgy (PM) 2XXX series Al alloy products and Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) 2XXX Al/SiC materials for high temperature aircraft structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.; Gurganus, T. B.; Walker, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a series of material studies performed by the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company over the time period from 1980 to 1991 are discussed. The technical objective of these evaluations was to develop and characterize advanced aluminum alloy materials with temperature capabilities extending to 350 F. An overview is given of the first five alloy development efforts under this contract. Prior work conducted during the first five modifications of the alloy development program are listed. Recent developments based on the addition of high Zr levels to an optimum Al-Cu-Mg alloy composition by powder metallurgy processing are discussed. Both reinforced and SiC or B4C ceramic reinforced alloys were explored to achieve specific target goals for high temperature aluminum alloy applications.

  3. Improvement of the surface properties of aluminium by the formation of intermetallic phases and metal matrix composites during laser surface alloying

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is widely used in industry due to its low cost, light weight and excellent workability, but is lacking in wear resistance and hardness. Laser alloying is used to improve the surface properties, such as hardness, by modifying...

  4. Experimental Studies on SiC and Rice Husk Ash Reinforced Al Alloy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprakash Y. M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work Aluminium alloy with Cu (4.5% as the major alloying element is used as the matrix in which SiC and Rice Husk Ash (RHA are dispersed to develop a hybrid composite. The dispersion is done by the motorized stir casting arrangement. The composite is fabricated by varying the proportions of the reinforcements in the base alloy. The composite specimens were tested for density changes, hardness and the wear. The microstructure images showed a uniform dispersion of the reinforcements in the matrix and this resulted in higher strength to weight ratio. The increase in strength of the composite is probably attributed to the increase in the dislocation density. Also, the abrasive wear resistance of the produced composite is found to be superior as compared to the matrix alloy because of the hard-ceramic particles in the reinforcements.

  5. Carbide-reinforced metal matrix composite by direct metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novichenko, D.; Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection for industrial applications. The actual objective is to demonstrate the possibility to produce metal matrix composite objects in a single-step process. Powders of Fe-based alloy (16NCD13) and titanium carbide (TiC) are premixed before cladding. Volume content of the carbide-reinforced phase is varied. Relationships between the main laser cladding parameters and the geometry of the built-up objects (single track, 2D coating) are discussed. On the base of parametric study, a laser cladding process map for the deposition of individual tracks was established. Microstructure and composition of the laser-fabricated metal matrix composite objects are examined. Two different types of structures: (a) with the presence of undissolved and (b) precipitated titanium carbides are observed. Mechanism of formation of diverse precipitated titanium carbides is studied.

  6. Corrosion of aluminum alloys as a function of alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1969-10-01

    A study was initiated which included nineteen aluminum alloys. Tests were conducted in high purity water at 360 0 C and flow tests (approx. 20 ft/sec) in reactor process water at 130 0 C (TF-18 loop tests). High-silicon alloys and AlSi failed completely in the 360 0 C tests. However, coupling of AlSi to 8001 aluminum suppressed the failure. The alloy compositions containing iron and nickel survived tht 360 0 C autoclave exposures. Corrosion rates varied widely as a function of alloy composition, but in directions which were predictable from previous high-temperature autoclave experience. In the TF-18 loop flow tests, corrosion penetrations were similar on all of the alloys and on high-purity aluminum after 105 days. However, certain alloys established relatively low linear corrosion rates: Al-0.9 Ni-0.5 Fe-0.1 Zr, Al-1.0 Ni-0.15 Fe-11.5 Si-0.8 Mg, Al-1.2 Ni-1.8 Fe, and Al-7.0 Ni-4.8 Fe. Electrical polarity measurements between AlSi and 8001 alloys in reactor process water at temperatures up to 150 0 C indicated that AlSi was anodic to 8001 in the static autoclave system above approx. 50 0 C

  7. Celsian Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Glass-ceramic matrix reinforced fiber composite materials developed for use in low dielectric applications, such as radomes. Materials strong and tough, exhibit low dielectric properties, and endure high temperatures.

  8. Tungsten wire-nickel base alloy composite development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Moracz, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W-Hf-C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/square meters (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics.

  9. Determination of local constitutive properties of titanium alloy matrix in boron-modified titanium alloys using spherical indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreeranganathan, A.; Gokhale, A.; Tamirisakandala, S.

    2008-01-01

    The constitutive properties of the titanium alloy matrix in boron-modified titanium alloys are different from those of the corresponding unreinforced alloy due to the microstructural changes resulting from the addition of boron. Experimental and finite-element analyses of spherical indentation with a large penetration depth to indenter radius ratio are used to compute the local constitutive properties of the matrix alloy. The results are compared with that of the corresponding alloy without boron, processed in the same manner

  10. Modelling of high temperature interfacial reactions in continuously reinforced Ti/SiC metal matrix composites (MMCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    Previous experimental work by Gundel and Wawner showed that the matrix alloy has a strong effect on reaction layer growth in Ti alloy/SCS-6 composite systems. A finite difference technique was used to model the reaction layer growth, which predicts the same trends as those exhibited by the experimental data. Matrix alloying elements such as Mo and Cr in metastable β alloys will affect the equilibrium compositions and diffusivities in the matrix, but matrix diffusion is not found to be rate controlling. Regular solution thermodynamic models indicate that the main affect of matrix composition is in controlling carbon-flux through the reaction layer by altering equilibrium C-TiC-Ti interfacial compositions. (orig.)

  11. Wear-resistant EBW coatings based on a TiB{sub 2}-Fe SHS composite with a high-alloy matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galchenko, Nina K.; Kolesnikova, Ksenia A.; Belyuk, Sergei I. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Semenov, Grigoriy V., E-mail: Kolesnikova_KsAl@mail.ru [Tomsky Instrument Manufacturing Company, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    In the work, we studied the structure and properties of “titanium diboride – high-chromium cast iron binder” coatings obtained by electron beam welding. It is demonstrated that the phase and structure formation of the composite coatings depends on the content of high-chromium cast iron in the deposited mixture. Varying the volume fraction of the hardening compounds and the chemical composition of the metal binder makes possible wear-resistant coatings with specified operating characteristics. Key words: electron beam technology, composite coatings.

  12. COMPOSITION OF FOWLPOX VIRUS AND INCLUSION MATRIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RANDALL, C C; GAFFORD, L G; DARLINGTON, R W; HYDE, J

    1964-04-01

    Randall, Charles C. (University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson), Lanelle G. Gafford, Robert W. Darlington, and James M. Hyde. Composition of fowlpox virus and inclusion matrix. J. Bacteriol. 87:939-944. 1964.-Inclusion bodies of fowlpox virus infection are especially favorable starting material for the isolation of virus and inclusion matrix. Electron micrographs of viral particles and matrix indicated a high degree of purification. Density-gradient centrifugation of virus in cesium chloride and potassium tartrate was unsatisfactory because of inactivation, and clumping or disintegration. Chemical analyses of virus and matrix revealed significant amounts of lipid, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid, but no ribonucleic acid or carbohydrate. Approximately 47% of the weight of the virus and 83% of the matrix were extractable in chloroform-methanol. The lipid partitions of the petroleum ether extracts were similar, except that the phospholipid content of the matrix was 2.2 times that of the virus. Viral particles were sensitive to diethyl ether and chloroform.

  13. A new method for soldering particle-reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jinbin; Mu, Yunchao [Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Luo, Xiangwei [Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Niu, Jitai, E-mail: niujitai@163.com [Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soldering of 55% SiCp/Al composite and Kovar is first achieved in the world. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nickel plating is required on the surface of the composites before soldering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low welding temperature is set to avoid overheating of the matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical and metallurgical bonding of composites and Kovar is carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High tension strength of 225 MPa in soldering seam has been obtained. - Abstract: Soldering of aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-SiC) to other structural materials, or even to themselves, has proved unsuccessful mainly due to the poor wetting of these composites by conventional soldering alloys. This paper reports a new approach, which improves the wetting properties of these composites by molting solder alloys to promote stronger bonds. The new approach relies on nickel-plating of the composite's faying surface prior to application of a solder alloy. Based on this approach, an aluminum metal matrix composite containing 55 vol.% SiC particles is successfully soldered to a Fe-Ni-Co alloy (commercially known as Kovar 4J29). The solder material is a zinc-based alloy (Zn-Cd-Ag-Cu) with a melting point of about 400 Degree-Sign C. Microscopic examinations of the aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs)-Kovar interfaces show that the nickel-plating, prior to soldering, could noticeably enhance the reaction between the molten solder and composites. The fractography of the shear-tested samples revealed that fracture occurs within the composite (i.e. cohesive failure), indicating a good adhesion between the solder alloy and the Al-SiC composite.

  14. A new method for soldering particle-reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jinbin; Mu, Yunchao; Luo, Xiangwei; Niu, Jitai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Soldering of 55% SiCp/Al composite and Kovar is first achieved in the world. ► The nickel plating is required on the surface of the composites before soldering. ► Low welding temperature is set to avoid overheating of the matrix. ► Chemical and metallurgical bonding of composites and Kovar is carried out. ► High tension strength of 225 MPa in soldering seam has been obtained. - Abstract: Soldering of aluminum metal matrix composites (Al–SiC) to other structural materials, or even to themselves, has proved unsuccessful mainly due to the poor wetting of these composites by conventional soldering alloys. This paper reports a new approach, which improves the wetting properties of these composites by molting solder alloys to promote stronger bonds. The new approach relies on nickel-plating of the composite's faying surface prior to application of a solder alloy. Based on this approach, an aluminum metal matrix composite containing 55 vol.% SiC particles is successfully soldered to a Fe–Ni–Co alloy (commercially known as Kovar 4J29). The solder material is a zinc-based alloy (Zn–Cd–Ag–Cu) with a melting point of about 400 °C. Microscopic examinations of the aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs)–Kovar interfaces show that the nickel-plating, prior to soldering, could noticeably enhance the reaction between the molten solder and composites. The fractography of the shear-tested samples revealed that fracture occurs within the composite (i.e. cohesive failure), indicating a good adhesion between the solder alloy and the Al–SiC composite.

  15. Composition pathway in Fe–Cu–Ni alloy during coarsening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Rajdip; Nestler, Britta; Choudhury, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    In this work the microstructure evolution for a two phase Fe–Cu–Ni ternary alloy is studied in order to understand the kinetic composition paths during coarsening of precipitates. We have employed a quantitative phase-field model utilizing the CALPHAD database to simulate the temporal evolution of a multi-particle system in a two-dimensional domain. The paths for the far-field matrix and for precipitate average compositions obtained from simulation are found to be rectilinear. The trends are compared with the corresponding sharp interface theory, in the context of an additional degree of freedom for determining the interface compositions due to the Gibbs–Thomson effect in a ternary alloy. (paper)

  16. Composition pathway in Fe-Cu-Ni alloy during coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rajdip; Choudhury, Abhik; Nestler, Britta

    2013-10-01

    In this work the microstructure evolution for a two phase Fe-Cu-Ni ternary alloy is studied in order to understand the kinetic composition paths during coarsening of precipitates. We have employed a quantitative phase-field model utilizing the CALPHAD database to simulate the temporal evolution of a multi-particle system in a two-dimensional domain. The paths for the far-field matrix and for precipitate average compositions obtained from simulation are found to be rectilinear. The trends are compared with the corresponding sharp interface theory, in the context of an additional degree of freedom for determining the interface compositions due to the Gibbs-Thomson effect in a ternary alloy.

  17. Investigation on corrosion and wear behaviors of nanoparticles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiang; Tao Jie; Jiang Shuyun; Xu Zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of amorphous SiO 2 particles in corrosion and wear resistance of Ni-based metal matrix composite alloying layer, the amorphous nano-SiO 2 particles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer has been prepared by double glow plasma alloying on AISI 316L stainless steel surface, where Ni/amorphous nano-SiO 2 was firstly predeposited by brush plating. The composition and microstructure of the nano-SiO 2 particles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer were analyzed by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The results indicated that the composite alloying layer consisted of γ-phase and amorphous nano-SiO 2 particles, and under alloying temperature (1000 deg. C) condition, the nano-SiO 2 particles were uniformly distributed in the alloying layer and still kept the amorphous structure. The corrosion resistance of composite alloying layer was investigated by an electrochemical method in 3.5%NaCl solution. Compared with single alloying layer, the amorphous nano-SiO 2 particles slightly decreased the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu alloying layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the passive films formed on the composite alloying consisted of Cr 2 O 3 , MoO 3 , SiO 2 and metallic Ni and Mo. The dry wear test results showed that the composite alloying layer had excellent friction-reduced property, and the wear weight loss of composite alloying layer was less than 60% of that of Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu alloying layer

  18. Low Cost Al-Si Casting Alloy As In-Situ Composite for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloy has been successfully developed at NASA- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that has significant improvement in tensile and fatigue strength at elevated temperatures (500 F-700 F). The alloy offers a number of benefits such as light weight, high hardness, low thermal expansion and high surface wear resistance. In hypereutectic form, this alloy is considered as an in-situ Al-Si composite with tensile strength of about 90% higher than the auto industry 390 alloy at 600 F. This composite is very economically produced by using either conventional permanent steel molds or die casting. The projected material cost is less than $0.90 per pound, and automotive components such as pistons can be cast for high production rate using conventional casting techniques with a low and fully accounted cost. Key Words: Metal matrix composites, In-situ composite, aluminum-silicon alloy, hypereutectic alloy, permanent mold casting, die casting.

  19. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  20. Inventory of alloy composition, microstructures and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inventory of alloy composition, microstructures and mechanical properties of automobile engine parts. ... Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ... This research work investigated the chemical compositions, microstructures and mechanical properties of the ferrous and non-ferrous auto engine parts such ...

  1. Evaluation of dry sliding wear behavior of silicon particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhiqiang; Zhang Di; Li Guobin

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the wear property of powder metallurgy aluminum matrix composites 9Si/Al-Cu-Mg. A on rock wear-testing machine is used to evaluate the wear property of the composites, in which a GCrl5 steel ring is used as the counter face material. The wear behavior of the composites under different conditions is studied. The optical microscope and scanning electron microscope are used to analyze the worn surfaces and the subsurface of the composites in order to research the wear mechanism of the composites. Results indicate that the weight loss of the composite were lower than that of the matrix alloy

  2. Aluminium matrix heterophase composites for air compressor pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Dyzia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of surface test of composite shaped in the permanent mould casting process. As part of the research anddevelopment project realized in the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology, a pilot plant scale stand was built to manufacture of more than 50 kg suspensions in a single technological cycle. Made in industrial conditions castings to form in the five inner core mould mounted in GM110 permanent mould casting machine confirmed the possibility of the shaping the composite pistons. Castings made from composite suspension AlSi7Mg/SiC and AlSi7Mg/SiC + Cg according to the technology procedure were classified as correct and devoted to the proper machining forming working surfaces of the piston to the air compressor. Comparative tests were performed for the casting of unreinforced AlSi7Mg alloy and composite castings. To assess the ability to fill the mold cavity and the accuracy of mapping used in contour shape FRT analysis of the distance between the grooves on the surface of the piston skirt. Studies have confirmed the differences in the fluidity of alloy matrix and composites suspensions. The difference in the accuracy of the dimensional mapping mould does not disqualify of composite materials, all castings are classified as correct and used for machining.

  3. Studies on the optimization of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Tim W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-01-04

    A methodology for the production of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites from hyper-eutectic copper-chromium alloys was developed. This methodology was derived from a basic study of the precipitation phenomena in these alloys encompassing evaluation of microstructural, electrical, and mechanical properties. The methodology developed produces material with a superior combination of electrical and mechanical properties compared to those presently available in commercial alloys. New and novel alloying procedures were investigated to extend the range of production methods available for these material. These studies focused on the use of High Pressure Gas Atomization and the development of new containment technologies for the liquid alloy. This allowed the production of alloys with a much more refined starting microstructure and lower contamination than available by other methods. The knowledge gained in the previous studies was used to develop two completely new families of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites. These composites are based on immissible alloys with yttrium and magnesium matrices and refractory metal reinforcement. This work extends the physical property range available in deformation processed metal metal matrix composites. Additionally, it also represents new ways to apply these metals in engineering applications.

  4. Composition profile determination in isomorphous binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.Y.; Bandeira, I.N.

    1983-07-01

    The inhomogeneity along the growth axis of the pseudo-binary alloys is due to the segregation of the solute which will be mixed in the melt due to convective and diffusive flows. A process for determination of the exact composition profile by measurements of the crystal density, for alloys of the type A sub(1-x) B sub(x), is shown. (Author) [pt

  5. Characterization of B4C-composite-reinforced aluminum alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram; Rai, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    Dry sliding wear tests conducted on Pin-on-disk wear test machine. The rotational speed of disc is ranging from (400-600rpm) and under loads ranging from (30-70 N) the contact time between the disc and pin is constant for each pin specimen of composites is 15 minute. In all manufacturing industries the uses of composite materials has been increasing globally, In the present study, an aluminum 5083 alloy is used as the matrix and 5% of weight percentage of Boron Carbide (B4C) as the reinforcing material. The composite is produced using stir casting technique. This is cost effective method. The aluminum 5083 matrix can be strengthened by reinforcing with hard ceramic particles like silicon carbide and boron carbide. In this experiment, aluminum 5083 alloy is selected as one of main material for making parts of the ship it has good mechanical properties, good corrosion resistance and it is can welded very easily and does have good strength. The samples are tested for hardness and tensile strength. The mechanical properties like Hardness can be increased by reinforcing aluminum 5083alloy 5% boron carbide (B4C) particles and tensile strength. Finally the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis and EDS is done, which helps to study topography of composites and it produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons and the presence of composition found in the matrix.

  6. Piezoelectric ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Composite materials comprising piezoelectric ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the piezoelectric ceramic particulates are subjected to strain, such as the strain experienced during vibration of the material, they generate an electrical voltage that is converted into Joule heat in the surrounding metal matrix, thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The piezoelectric ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to improve the mec...

  7. Magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Julian Fernandez, C. E-mail: dejulian@padova.infm.it; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Battaglin, G.; Gonella, F.; Lascialfari, A.; Lo Russo, S.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.; Gonzalez, J.M.; D' Acapito, F

    2001-04-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles (Ni-Co, Ni-Cu and Co-Cu) formed in a silica matrix by ion implantation is presented. Different ion doses and implantation sequences were realized in order to obtain different nanostructures. The structural and magnetic properties observed for the Cu{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} nanoparticles are similar to those of the Cu{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} bulk alloy. The crystal structure of Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x} (0{<=}x{<=}1) nanoparticles is similar to that of the corresponding bulk alloy. The magnetic properties depend on the ion-implanted dose and on the alloy composition. The samples prepared by implanting a 15x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} total dose contain nanoparticles, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature and their magnetic behavior is influenced by dipolar interparticle interactions. The magnetization of the CoNi samples at high magnetic field is larger than that of the corresponding bulk alloy and follows the same composition dependence of that quantity measured in the alloy.

  8. Magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Julian Fernandez, C.; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Battaglin, G.; Gonella, F.; Lascialfari, A.; Lo Russo, S.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.; Gonzalez, J.M.; D'Acapito, F.

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles (Ni-Co, Ni-Cu and Co-Cu) formed in a silica matrix by ion implantation is presented. Different ion doses and implantation sequences were realized in order to obtain different nanostructures. The structural and magnetic properties observed for the Cu 50 Ni 50 nanoparticles are similar to those of the Cu 60 Ni 40 bulk alloy. The crystal structure of Co x Ni 1-x (0≤x≤1) nanoparticles is similar to that of the corresponding bulk alloy. The magnetic properties depend on the ion-implanted dose and on the alloy composition. The samples prepared by implanting a 15x10 16 ions/cm 2 total dose contain nanoparticles, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature and their magnetic behavior is influenced by dipolar interparticle interactions. The magnetization of the CoNi samples at high magnetic field is larger than that of the corresponding bulk alloy and follows the same composition dependence of that quantity measured in the alloy

  9. CNTs Modified and Enhanced Cu Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Wen-zhong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The composite powders of 2%-CNTs were prepared by wet ball milling and hydrogen annealing treatment-cold pressing sintering was used to consolidate the ball milled composite powders with different modifications of the CNTs. The results show that the length of the CNTs is shortened, ports are open, and amorphous carbon content is increased by ball milling. And after a mixed acid purification, the impurity on the surface of the CNTs is completely removed,and a large number of oxygen-containing reactive groups are introduced; the most of CNTs can be embedded in the Cu matrix and the CNTs have a close bonding with the Cu matrix, forming the lamellar composite structure, then, ultrafine-grained composite powders can be obtained by hydrogen annealing treatment. Shortening and purification of the CNTs are both good for dispersion and bonding of CNTs in the Cu matrix, and the tensile strength and hardness of the composites after shortening and purification reaches the highest, and is 296MPa and 139.8HV respectively, compared to the matrix, up to 123.6% in tensile strength and 42.9% in hardness, attributed to the fine grain strengthening and load transferring.

  10. Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Progar, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

  11. Investigations on Mechanical Behaviour of Micro Graphite Particulates Reinforced Al-7Si Alloy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, N.; Mahendra, K. V.; Nagaral, Madeva

    2018-02-01

    Micro particulates reinforced metal matrix composites are finding wide range of applications in automotive and sports equipment manufacturing industries. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop Al-7Si-micro graphite particulates reinforced composites by using liquid melt method. 3 and 6 wt. % of micro graphite particulates were added to the Al-7Si base matrix. Microstructural characterization was done by using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscope. Mechanical behaviour of Al-7Si-3 and 6 wt. % composites were evaluated as per ASTM standards. Scanning electron micrographs revealed the uniform distribution of micro graphite particulates in the Al-7Si alloy matrix. EDS analysis confirmed the presence of B and C elements in graphite reinforced composites. Further, it was noted that ultimate tensile and yield strength of Al-7Si alloy increased with the addition of 3 and 6wt. % of graphite particulates. Hardness of graphite reinforced composites was lesser than the base matrix.

  12. Mechanical properties of aluminium matrix composites reinforced with intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, B.; Garcia-Escorial, A.; Ibanez, J.; Lieblich, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this work 2124 aluminium matrix composites reinforced with Ni 3 Al, NiAl, MoSi 2 and Cr 3 Si intermetallic powder particles have been investigated. For comparison purposes, un reinforced 2124 and reinforced with SiC have also been studied. In all cases, the same powder metallurgy route was used, i. e. the 2124 alloy was obtained by rapid solidification and the intermetallic particles by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The matrix and the intermetallics were mechanically blended, cold compacted and finally hot extruded. Tensile tests were carried out in T1 and T4 treatments. Results indicate that mechanical properties depend strongly on the tendency to form new phases at the matrix-intermetallic interface during processing and/or further thermal treatments. The materials which present better properties are those that present less reaction between matrix and intermetallic reinforcement, i. e. MoSi 2 and SiC reinforced composites. (Author) 9 refs

  13. Microstructural and mechanical properties analysis of an aluminium matrix composite reinforced with the amorphous alloy Al{sub 87.5}Ni{sub 4}Sm{sub 8.5} consolidated by hot extrusion; Propriedades mecanicas e microestruturais de um composito com matrix de aluminio e reforco amorfo de Al{sub 87.5}Ni{sub 4}Sm{sub 8.5} consolidado por extrusao a quente por extrusao a quente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta, W.J. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Peres, M.M., E-mail: peresmm@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itabira, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work is the microstructure and the mechanical properties analysis of an aluminium matrix composite reinforced with the Al{sub 87.5}Ni{sub 4}Sm{sub 8.5} amorphous alloy. The amorphous alloy was produced by melt-spinning and fragmented in powder particles by milling. Pure aluminium power was moistured with amorphous powder in a proportion of 80:20 (% weight) and processed by milling using 350 rpm during 30 minutes for the generation of a homogeneous composite powder. This product was consolidated by extrusion at 235 deg C, ram speed of 2mm/min and extrusion ratio of 7/1, generating a compact and cylindrical bar with 3 mm of width. The result sample was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Microhardness and compression tests show an improvement on the mechanical properties. (author)

  14. Ceramic matrix composites by microwave assisted CVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currier, R.P.; Devlin, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) processes for producing continuously reinforced ceramic composites are reviewed. Potential advantages of microwave assisted CVI are noted and numerical studies of microwave assisted CVI are reviewed. The models predict inverted thermal gradients in fibrous ceramic preforms subjected to microwave radiation and suggest processing strategies for achieving uniformly dense composites. Comparisons are made to experimental results on silicon-based composite systems. The role played by the relative ability of fiber and matrix to dissipate microwave energy is noted. Results suggest that microwave induced inverted gradients can be exploited to promote inside-out densification. 10 refs., 2 figs

  15. Thermal expansion properties of Bi-2212 in Ag or an Ag-alloy matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenbrink, J.; Krauth, H.

    1994-01-01

    The thermal expansion properties of polycrystalline Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x melt-processed bulk specimens, and Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x monocore as well as multifilamentary round wires in Ag or Ag-alloy matrix have been investigated over the temperature range from -150 to 800 degrees C. Although the thermal expansion of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x is distinctly lower compared with Ag, the thermal expansion properties of the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x -Ag or AgNiMg-alloy composite conductors are essentially governed by the matrix material. The thermal expansion of the encountered oxide-dispersion-strengthened AgNiMg alloys is only slightly lower compared with that of pure Ag. Therefore the thermal expansion of all investigated Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x -Ag or Ag-alloy composite wires was found to be close to that of pure Ag. The reason for this striking behaviour is shown to be related to a surprisingly low elastic modulus of the polycrystalline Bi-2212 wire cores of the order of 10 to a maximum 40 GPa. (author)

  16. A novel Fe–Cr–Nb matrix composite containing the TiB_2 neutron absorber synthesized by mechanical alloying and final hot isostatic pressing (HIP) in the Ti-tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litwa, Przemysław; Perkowski, Krzysztof; Zasada, Dariusz; Kobus, Izabela; Konopka, Gustaw; Czujko, Tomasz; Varin, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The Fe–Cr–Ti-Nb elemental powders were mechanically alloyed/ball milled with TiB_2 and a small quantity of Y_2O_3 ceramic to synthesize a novel Fe-based alloy-ceramic powder composite that could be processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) for a perceived potential application as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors. After ball milling for the 30–80 h duration relatively uniform powders with micrometric sizes were produced. With increasing milling time a fraction of TiB_2 particles became covered with the much softer Fe-based alloy which resulted in the formation of a characteristic “core-mantel” structure. For the final HIP-ing process the mechanically alloyed powders were initially uniaxially pressed into rod-shaped compacts and then cold isostatically pressed (CIP-ed). Subsequently, the rod-shaped compacts were placed in the Ti-tubing and subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150 °C/200 MPa pressure. The HIP-ing process resulted in the formation of the near-Ti and intermediate diffusional layers in the microstructure of HIP-ed samples which formed in accord with the Fe-Ti binary phase diagram. Those layers contain the phases such as α-Ti (HCP), the FeTi intermetallic and their hypo-eutectoid mixtures. In addition, needle-like particles were formed in both layers in accord with the Ti-B binary phase diagram. Nanohardness testing, using a Berkovich type diamond tip, shows that the nanohardness in the intermediate layer areas, corresponding to the composition of the hypo-eutectoid mixture of Ti-FeTi, equals 980.0 (±27.1) HV and correspondingly 1176.9 (±47.6) HV for the FeTi phase. The nanohardness in the sample's center in the areas with the fine mixture of Fe-based alloy and small TiB_2 particles equals 1048.3 (±201.8) HV. The average microhardness of samples HIP-ed from powders milled for 30 and 80 h is 588 HV and 733 HV, respectively. - Highlights: • A Fe–Cr–Nb-based composite with TiB_2 neutron absorbing ceramic was mechanically

  17. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1993-01-01

    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  18. Investigation of Selective Laser Melting Surface Alloyed Aluminium Metal Matrix Dispersive Reinforced Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamburov, V. V.; Dimitrova, R. B.; Kandeva, M. K.; Sofronov, Y. P.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the improvement of mechanical properties and in particular wear resistance of laser surface alloyed dispersive reinforced thin layers produced by selective laser melting (SLM) technology. The wear resistance investigation of aluminium matrix composite layers in the conditions of dry friction surface with abrasive particles and nanoindentation tests were carried out. The process parameters (as scan speed) and their impact on the wear resistant layers have been evaluated. The alloyed layers containing metalized SiC particles were studied by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The obtained experimental results of the laser alloyed thin layers show significant development of their wear resistance and nanohardness due to the incorporated reinforced phase of electroless nickel coated SiC particles.

  19. Role of work hardening characteristics of matrix alloys in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    with increasing prismatic punching of dislocations in the order 7075, 2014, 7010, 2024, 6061 and commercial purity aluminium leading to increased strength increments is noted. Keywords. Metal matrix composites; strengthening; work hardening rate; dislocation density. 1. Introduction. While in continuous fibre composites, ...

  20. Hybrid Ceramic Matrix Fibrous Composites: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslain, R.

    2011-10-01

    Ceramic-Matrix Composites (CMCs) consist of a ceramic fiber architecture in a ceramic matrix, bonded together through a thin interphase. The present contribution is limited to non-oxide CMCs. Their constituents being oxidation-prone, they are protected by external coatings. We state here that CMCs display a hybrid feature, when at least one of their components is not homogeneous from a chemical or microstructural standpoint. Hybrid fiber architectures are used to tailor the mechanical or thermal CMC-properties whereas hybrid interphases, matrices and coatings to improve CMC resistance to aggressive environments.

  1. Hybrid Ceramic Matrix Fibrous Composites: an Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naslain, R

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic-Matrix Composites (CMCs) consist of a ceramic fiber architecture in a ceramic matrix, bonded together through a thin interphase. The present contribution is limited to non-oxide CMCs. Their constituents being oxidation-prone, they are protected by external coatings. We state here that CMCs display a hybrid feature, when at least one of their components is not homogeneous from a chemical or microstructural standpoint. Hybrid fiber architectures are used to tailor the mechanical or thermal CMC-properties whereas hybrid interphases, matrices and coatings to improve CMC resistance to aggressive environments.

  2. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomino, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) SiC fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

  3. Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, James

    2001-01-01

    Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) Sic fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

  4. Fabrication, microstructural characterization and wear characteristics of A380 alloy-alumina composites

    KAUST Repository

    Nurani, Sheikh Jaber

    2016-03-10

    To obtain better mechanical and tribological properties than aluminium alloys aluminium is reinforced with alumina particles making aluminium metal matrix composites. In this work scrap piston A380 alloy was used as the matrix alloy. Alumina particles were added by 5%, 10% and 15% into matrix alloy respectively to form desired composites by stir casting technique. Pin on disc wear testing machine with counter surface as steel disc of hardness HRC 32 and surface roughness of 0.62 μm was used to conduct the wear test. In result composites showed superior wear resistance property over A380 alloy. The effect of load, sliding speed and sliding distance on wear behaviour were also examined in this study. Wear mechanism was identified from the worn surface. Both optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the composites was performed to determine the microstructures. Optical micrograph shows grain size decreases with addition of alumina particles. EDS analysis was performed to confirm the presence of α-Al matrix, primary Si particles and intermetallic. As a general method, phase compositions were analyzed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Optical microstructures were consistent with the SEM micrographs. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Ferroelastic ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Composite materials comprising ferroelastic ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the ferroelastic ceramic particulates are subjected to stress, such as the cyclic stress experienced during vibration of the material, internal stresses in the ceramic cause the material to deform via twinning, domain rotation or domain motion thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The ferroelastic ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to impro...

  6. Composites having an intermetallic containing matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.C.; Brupbacher, J.M.; Christodoulou, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a composite material. It comprises: a dispersion of in-situ precipitated second phase particles selected from the group consisting of borides, carbides, nitrides, and sulfides, in an intermetallic containing matrix selected from the group consisting of the aluminides, silicides, and beryllides of nickel, copper, titanium, cobalt, iron, platinum, gold, silver, niobium, tantalum, zinc, molybdenum, hafnium, tin, tungsten, lithium, magnesium, thorium, chromium, vanadium, zirconium, and manganese

  7. Aspects of fabrication aluminium matrix heterophase composites by suspension method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolata, A. J.; Dyzia, M.

    2012-05-01

    Composites with an aluminium alloy matrix (AlMMC) exhibit several advantageous properties such as good strength, stiffness, low density, resistance and dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, good thermal expansion coefficient and particularly high resistance to friction wear. Therefore such composites are more and more used in modern engineering constructions. Composites reinforced with hard ceramic particles (Al2O3, SiC) are gradually being implemented into production in automotive or aircraft industries. Another application of AlMMC is in the electronics industry, where the dimensional stability and capacity to absorb and remove heat is used in radiators. However the main problems are still: a reduction of production costs, developing methods of composite material tests and final product quality assessment, standardisation, development of recycling and mechanical processing methods. AlMMC production technologies, based on liquid-phase methods, and the shaping of products by casting methods, belong to the cheapest production methods. Application of a suspension method for the production of composites with heterophase reinforcement may turn out to be a new material and technological solution. The article presents the material and technological aspects of the transfer procedures for the production of composite suspensions from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale.

  8. Aspects of fabrication aluminium matrix heterophase composites by suspension method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolata, A J; Dyzia, M

    2012-01-01

    Composites with an aluminium alloy matrix (AlMMC) exhibit several advantageous properties such as good strength, stiffness, low density, resistance and dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, good thermal expansion coefficient and particularly high resistance to friction wear. Therefore such composites are more and more used in modern engineering constructions. Composites reinforced with hard ceramic particles (Al 2 O 3 , SiC) are gradually being implemented into production in automotive or aircraft industries. Another application of AlMMC is in the electronics industry, where the dimensional stability and capacity to absorb and remove heat is used in radiators. However the main problems are still: a reduction of production costs, developing methods of composite material tests and final product quality assessment, standardisation, development of recycling and mechanical processing methods. AlMMC production technologies, based on liquid-phase methods, and the shaping of products by casting methods, belong to the cheapest production methods. Application of a suspension method for the production of composites with heterophase reinforcement may turn out to be a new material and technological solution. The article presents the material and technological aspects of the transfer procedures for the production of composite suspensions from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale.

  9. Fabrication of metal-matrix composites and adaptive composites using ultrasonic consolidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, C.Y.; Soar, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic consolidation (UC) has been used to embed thermally sensitive and damage intolerant fibres within aluminium matrix structures using high frequency, low amplitude, mechanical vibrations. The UC process can induce plastic flow in the metal foils being bonded, to allow the embedding of fibres at typically 25% of the melting temperature of the base metal and at a fraction of the clamping force when compared to fusion processes. To date, the UC process has successfully embedded Sigma silicon carbide (SiC) fibres, shape memory alloy wires and optical fibres, which are presented in this paper. The eventual aim of this research is targeted at the fabrication of adaptive composite structures having the ability to measure external stimuli and respond by adapting their structure accordingly, through the action of embedded active and passive functional fibres within a freeform fabricated metal-matrix structure. This paper presents the fundamental studies of this research to identify embedding methods and working range for the fabrication of adaptive composite structures. The methods considered have produced embedded fibre specimens in which large amounts of plastic flow have been observed, within the matrix, as it is deformed around the fibres, resulting in fully consolidated specimens without damage to the fibres. The microscopic observation techniques and macroscopic functionality tests confirms that the UC process could be applied to the fabrication of metal-matrix composites and adaptive composites, where fusion techniques are not feasible and where a 'cold' process is necessary

  10. The development and mechanical characterization of aluminium copper-carbon fiber metal matrix hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Feroze, M.; Ahmad, T.; Kamran, M.; Butt, M. T. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) come under advanced materials that can be used for a wide range of industrial applications. MMCs contain a non-metallic reinforcement incorporated into a metallic matrix which can enhance properties over base metal alloys. Copper-Carbon fiber reinforced aluminium based hybrid composites were prepared by compo casting method. 4 weight % copper was used as alloying element with Al because of its precipitation hardened properties. Different weight compositions of composites were developed and characterized by mechanical testing. A significant improvement in tensile strength and micro hardness were found, before and after heat treatment of the composite. The SEM analysis of the fractured surfaces showed dispersed and embedded Carbon fibers within the network leading to the enhanced strength.

  11. Characterization and processing of heat treated aluminium matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doifode, Yogesh; Kulkarni, S. G.

    2018-05-01

    The present study is carried out to determine density and porosity of Aluminium bagasse ash reinforced composite produced by powder metallurgy method. Bagasse ash is used as reinforcement material having high silica and alumina contents and varied from 5 weight % to 40 weight%. The manufactured composite is heat treated, the main objective of heat treatment is to prepare the material structurally and physically fit for engineering application. The results showed that the density decreases with percentage increase in reinforcement of bagasse ash from 2.6618 gm/cm3 to 1.9830 gm/cm3 with the minimum value at 40 weight% bagasse ash without heat treatment whereas after heat treatment density of composite increases due filling up of voids and porous holes. Heat treatment processing is the key to this improvement, with the T6 heat treated composite to convene the reduced porosity of composite. Consequently aluminium metal matrix composite combines the strength of the reinforcement to achieve a combination of desirable properties not available in any single material. It may observe that porosity in case of powder metallurgy samples showed more porosity portions compare to the casting samples. In order to achieve optimality in structure and properties of Bagasse ash-reinforcement heat treatment techniques have evolved. Generally, the ceramic reinforcements increase the density of the base alloy during fabrication of composites. However, the addition of lightweight reinforcements reduces the density of the hybrid composites. The results also showed that, the density varies from to with minimum value at 40 wt. % BA. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences among the means of each property of the composites at various levels of BA replacement .It was concluded that bagasse ash can be used as reinforcement and the produced composites have low density and heat treatment reduces porosity which could be used in automobile industry for

  12. Wear and impact resistance of HVOF sprayedceramic matrix composites coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawara, B.; Martides, E.; Priyono, B.; Ardy, H.; Rikardo, N.

    2016-02-01

    Ceramic coating has the mechanical properties of high hardness and it is well known for application on wear resistance, but on the other hand the resistance to impact load is low. Therefore its use is limited to applications that have no impact loading. The aim of this research was to obtain ceramic-metallic composite coating which has improved impact resistance compared to conventional ceramic coating. The high impact resistance of ceramic-metallic composite coating is obtained from dispersed metallic alloy phase in ceramic matrix. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) powder with chrome carbide (Cr3C2) base and ceramic-metal NiAl-Al2O3 with various particle sizes as reinforced particle was deposited on mild steel substrate with High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating. Repeated impact test showed that reinforced metallic phase size influenced impact resistance of CMC coating. The ability of CMC coating to absorb impact energy has improved eight times and ten times compared with original Cr3C2 and hard chrome plating respectively. On the other hand the high temperature corrosion resistance of CMC coating showed up to 31 cycles of heating at 800°C and water quenching cooling.

  13. Lost foam casting of aluminum alloy-SiCp composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalasuburamaniam, R.; Cvetnic, C.; Ravindran, C.

    2002-01-01

    Metal matrix composites are a viable alternative to cast irons in automotive components with possible increase in strength-to-weight ratio. Lost foam casting of aluminum alloy matrix composite containing 20 volume percent SiC was carried out at 690, 730, and 770 o C with a view to determining the effects of cooling rate on microstructure, particle distribution, microporosity and mechanical properties. These results were compared with those for the matrix material cast under similar conditions. The results and the correlations are of particular interest as there is no published literature on lost foam casting of composite materials. (author)

  14. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  15. Dielectric Cure Monitoring of Thermosetting Matrix Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Geun [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dae Gil [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-15

    Cure monitoring can be used to improve the quality and productivity of thermosetting resin matrix composite products during their manufacturing process. In this work, the sensitivity of dielectrometry was improved by adequate separation the efforts of sensor and externals on the measured signal. A new algorithm to obtain the degree of cure during dielectric cure monitoring of glass/polyester and glass/epoxy composites was developed by employing a function of both temperature and dissipation factor, in which five cure monitoring parameters were used to calculate the degree of cure. The decreasing pattern of dissipation factor was compared with the relationships between the degree of cure and the resin viscosity. The developed algorithm might be employed for the in situ cure monitoring of thermosetting resin composites

  16. Dielectric Cure Monitoring of Thermosetting Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Geun; Lee, Dae Gil

    2003-01-01

    Cure monitoring can be used to improve the quality and productivity of thermosetting resin matrix composite products during their manufacturing process. In this work, the sensitivity of dielectrometry was improved by adequate separation the efforts of sensor and externals on the measured signal. A new algorithm to obtain the degree of cure during dielectric cure monitoring of glass/polyester and glass/epoxy composites was developed by employing a function of both temperature and dissipation factor, in which five cure monitoring parameters were used to calculate the degree of cure. The decreasing pattern of dissipation factor was compared with the relationships between the degree of cure and the resin viscosity. The developed algorithm might be employed for the in situ cure monitoring of thermosetting resin composites

  17. Microstructural evolution and strengthening behavior in in-situ magnesium matrix composites fabricated by solidification processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelliah, Nagaraj M., E-mail: cmnraj.7@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar 140001, Punjab (India); Singh, Harpreet, E-mail: harpreetsingh@iitrpr.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar 140001, Punjab (India); Surappa, M.K., E-mail: mirle@materials.iisc.ac.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560012, Karnataka (India)

    2017-06-15

    In-situ magnesium matrix composites with three different matrix materials (including Mg, AZ91 and AE44 Mg-alloys) were fabricated by injecting cross-linked polymer directly into the molten Mg/Mg-alloys, and having it convert to the 2.5 vol% SiCNO ceramic phase using liquid stir-casting method. In-situ chemical reaction took place within the molten slurry tending to produce 42 and 18 vol% Mg{sub 2}Si crystals in Mg and AE44 matrix composites, respectively but not in AZ91 matrix composite. Microstructural evolution of Mg{sub 2}Si crystals was discussed on the basis of availability of heterogeneous nucleation sites and amount of Al-atoms in the molten slurry. The observed micro-hardness and yield strengths are enhanced by factor of four to three as compared to their unreinforced counterparts, and Taylor strengthening was found to be the predominant strengthening mechanism in magnesium and AE44 matrix composites. Summation model predicted the yield strengths of the fabricated composites more preciously when compared to Zhang and Chen, and modified Clyne models. - Highlights: • In-situ magnesium composites were fabricated using liquid stir-casting method. • In-situ pyrolysis of cross-linked polymer has been utilized to obtain ceramic phases. • Mg{sub 2}Si crystals were formed in magnesium and AE44 matrix composites but not in AZ91 matrix composites. • The variation in size and morphology of Mg{sub 2}Si crystals with matrix materials are discussed. • Strengthening mechanisms in in-situ composites are analyzed and discussed.

  18. Coating compositions comprising bismuth-alloyed zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present application discloses (i) a coating composition comprising a particulate zinc-based alloyed material, said material comprising 0.05-0.7% by weight of bismuth (Bi), the D50 of the particulate material being in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (ii) a coated structure comprising a metal structure...... having a first coating of the zinc-containing coating composition applied onto at least a part of the metal structure in a dry film thickness of 5-100 µm; and an outer coating applied onto said zinc-containing coating in a dry film thickness of 30-200 µm; (iii) a particulate zinc-based alloyed material......, wherein the material comprises 0.05-0.7%(w/w) of bismuth (Bi), and wherein the D50 of the particulate material is in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (iv) a composite powder consisting of at least 25%(w/w) of the particulate zinc-based alloyed material, the rest being a particulate material consisting of zinc...

  19. Microstructure Characteristics of Fe-Matrix Composites Reinforced by In-Situ Carbide Particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Song, Yanpei

    2017-10-01

    Carbide particulates reinforced iron-matrix composites were prepared by in-situ synthesis reaction between Ti, V and C on liquid alloys surface. The microstructure of the composite was characterized by SEM, TEM and OM. The results showed that the main phases were α-Fe, carbide particulate; besides, there were small amounts of γ-Fe and graphite (G) in the composite. The carbides were TiVC2 and VC in the shape of short bar and graininess. The matrix consisted of martensite and small amounts of retained austenite.

  20. Ductile alloy and process for preparing composite superconducting wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Gibson, E.D.; Ostenson, J.E.

    An alloy for the commercial production of ductile superconducting wire is prepared by melting together copper and at least 15 weight percent niobium under non-oxygen-contaminating conditions, and rapidly cooling the melt to form a ductile composite consisting of discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles of niobium in a copper matrix. As the wire is worked, the dendritic particles are realigned parallel to the longitudinal axis and when drawn form a plurality of very fine ductile superconductors in a ductile copper matrix. The drawn wire may be tin coated and wound into magnets or the like before diffusing the tin into the wire to react with the niobium. Impurities such as aluminum or gallium may be added to improve upper critical field characteristics.

  1. Friction and wear behavior of TiC particle reinforced ZA43 matrix composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢贤清; 张荻; 刘金水; 吴人洁

    2001-01-01

    TiC/ZA43 composites were fabricated by XDTM and stirring-casting techniques. The tribology properties of the unreinforced ZA43 alloy and the composites were studied by using a block-on-ring apparatus. Experimental results show that the incorporation of TiC particles improves the microstructure of ZA43 matrix alloy. The coefficient of friction μ and the width of worn groove decrease with the increase of TiC volume fraction φ(TiC). The width of worn groove and μ of the composite during wear testing increase with increasing the applied load. Metallographic examinations reveal that unreinforced ZA43 alloy has deep ploughing grooves with obvious adhesion phenomenon, whereas TiC/ZA43 composites have smooth worn surface. Delamination formation is related to the fatigue cracks and the shear cracks on the surface.

  2. Effect of aging hardening on in situ synthesis magnesium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuqing; Liao Lihua; Ma Naiheng; Wang Haowei

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates was synthesized using in situ synthesis technique. The result of XRD revealed the presence of TiC in precursor blocks and TiC/AZ91 composites. Effect of aging hardening on the composites was described using Brinell hardness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that the aging hardening peak of TiC/AZ91 composite appeared earlier comparatively with that of AZ91 magnesium alloy. And the appearance of aging hardening peak was earlier under the higher aging temperature such as 200 deg. C. The precipitating behavior of Mg 17 Al 12 phase in AZ91 alloy and TiC/AZ91 composites was described. Little discontinuous was discovered in the composites, and the amount of continuous precipitate in the composite matrix is smaller comparatively to that of AZ91 alloy. These results were analyzed with the fine grain size, much more interface between TiC and magnesium and high-density dislocation in magnesium matrix, which was contributed to the addition of TiC particulates

  3. Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Propulsion Structures Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Dickens, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program has successfully demonstrated cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) technology in a scramjet engine test. This demonstration represented the world s largest cooled nonmetallic matrix composite panel fabricated for a scramjet engine and the first cooled nonmetallic composite to be tested in a scramjet facility. Lightweight, high-temperature, actively cooled structures have been identified as a key technology for enabling reliable and low-cost space access. Tradeoff studies have shown this to be the case for a variety of launch platforms, including rockets and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Actively cooled carbon and CMC structures may meet high-performance goals at significantly lower weight, while improving safety by operating with a higher margin between the design temperature and material upper-use temperature. Studies have shown that using actively cooled CMCs can reduce the weight of the cooled flow-path component from 4.5 to 1.6 lb/sq ft and the weight of the propulsion system s cooled surface area by more than 50 percent. This weight savings enables advanced concepts, increased payload, and increased range. The ability of the cooled CMC flow-path components to operate over 1000 F hotter than the state-of-the-art metallic concept adds system design flexibility to space-access vehicle concepts. Other potential system-level benefits include smaller fuel pumps, lower part count, lower cost, and increased operating margin.

  4. Non-classical homogeneous precipitation mediated by compositional fluctuations in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, S.; Zheng, Y.; Williams, R.E.A.; Devaraj, A.; Boyne, A.; Wang, Y.; Collins, P.C.; Viswanathan, G.B.; Tiley, J.S.; Muddle, B.C.; Banerjee, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents experimental evidence of homogeneous precipitation of the α-phase within the β matrix of a titanium alloy, and then accounts for this phase transformation by a new, non-classical mechanism involving compositional fluctuations, based on the pseudo-spinodal concept [1]. This mechanism involves local compositional fluctuations of small amplitude which, when of a certain magnitude, can favor thermodynamically certain regions of the β matrix to transform congruently to the α-phase but with compositions far from equilibrium. Subsequently, as measured experimentally using the tomographical atom probe, continuous diffusional partitioning between the parent β- and product α-phases during isothermal annealing drives their compositions towards equilibrium. For a given alloy composition, the decomposition mechanism is strongly temperature dependent, which would be expected for homogeneous precipitation via the compositional fluctuation-mediated mechanism but not necessarily for one based on classical nucleation theory. The applicability of this mechanism to phase transformations in general is noted.

  5. Wear and Reactivity Studies of Melt infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmon, David C.; Ojard, Greg; Brewer, David N.

    2013-01-01

    As interest grows in the use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for critical gas turbine engine components, the effects of the CMCs interaction with the adjoining structure needs to be understood. A series of CMC/material couples were wear tested in a custom elevated temperature test rig and tested as diffusion couples, to identify interactions. Specifically, melt infiltrated silicon carbide/silicon carbide (MI SiC/SiC) CMC was tested in combination with a nickel-based super alloy, Waspaloy, a thermal barrier coating, Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a monolithic ceramic, silicon nitride (Si3N4). To make the tests more representative of actual hardware, the surface of the CMC was kept in the as-received state (not machined) with the full surface features/roughness present. Test results include: scanning electron microscope characterization of the surfaces, micro-structural characterization, and microprobe analysis.

  6. A novel Fe–Cr–Nb matrix composite containing the TiB{sub 2} neutron absorber synthesized by mechanical alloying and final hot isostatic pressing (HIP) in the Ti-tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litwa, Przemysław [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Perkowski, Krzysztof [Department of Nanotechnology, Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Postępu 9, 02-676 Warsaw (Poland); Zasada, Dariusz [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Kobus, Izabela; Konopka, Gustaw [Department of Nanotechnology, Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Postępu 9, 02-676 Warsaw (Poland); Czujko, Tomasz [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Varin, Robert A., E-mail: robert.varin@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-07-25

    The Fe–Cr–Ti-Nb elemental powders were mechanically alloyed/ball milled with TiB{sub 2} and a small quantity of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic to synthesize a novel Fe-based alloy-ceramic powder composite that could be processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) for a perceived potential application as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors. After ball milling for the 30–80 h duration relatively uniform powders with micrometric sizes were produced. With increasing milling time a fraction of TiB{sub 2} particles became covered with the much softer Fe-based alloy which resulted in the formation of a characteristic “core-mantel” structure. For the final HIP-ing process the mechanically alloyed powders were initially uniaxially pressed into rod-shaped compacts and then cold isostatically pressed (CIP-ed). Subsequently, the rod-shaped compacts were placed in the Ti-tubing and subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150 °C/200 MPa pressure. The HIP-ing process resulted in the formation of the near-Ti and intermediate diffusional layers in the microstructure of HIP-ed samples which formed in accord with the Fe-Ti binary phase diagram. Those layers contain the phases such as α-Ti (HCP), the FeTi intermetallic and their hypo-eutectoid mixtures. In addition, needle-like particles were formed in both layers in accord with the Ti-B binary phase diagram. Nanohardness testing, using a Berkovich type diamond tip, shows that the nanohardness in the intermediate layer areas, corresponding to the composition of the hypo-eutectoid mixture of Ti-FeTi, equals 980.0 (±27.1) HV and correspondingly 1176.9 (±47.6) HV for the FeTi phase. The nanohardness in the sample's center in the areas with the fine mixture of Fe-based alloy and small TiB{sub 2} particles equals 1048.3 (±201.8) HV. The average microhardness of samples HIP-ed from powders milled for 30 and 80 h is 588 HV and 733 HV, respectively. - Highlights: • A Fe–Cr–Nb-based composite with TiB{sub 2} neutron

  7. Fracture behaviour of brittle (glass) matrix composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Chlup, Zdeněk; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 482, - (2005), s. 115-122 ISSN 0255-5476. [International Conference on Materials Structure and Micromechanics of Fracture /4./. Brno, 23.06.2004-25.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2041003; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/02/0683 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : Ceramic matrix composites * fracture toughness * toughening effects Subject RIV: JH - Ceramic s, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  8. Characterization of hybrid aluminum matrix composites for advanced applications – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaswinder Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid aluminum matrix composites (HAMCs are the second generation of composites that have potential to substitute single reinforced composites due to improved properties. This paper investigates the feasibility and viability of developing low cost-high performance hybrid composites for automotive and aerospace applications. Further, the fabrication characteristics and mechanical behavior of HAMCs fabricated by stir casting route have also been reviewed. The optical micrographs of the HAMCs indicate that the reinforcing particles are fairly distributed in the matrix alloy and the porosity levels have been found to be acceptable for the casted composites. The density, hardness, tensile behavior and fracture toughness of these composites have been found to be either comparable or superior to the ceramic reinforced composites. It has been observed from the literature that the direct strengthening of composites occurs due to the presence of hard ceramic phase, while the indirect strengthening arises from the thermal mismatch between the matrix alloy and reinforcing phase during solidification. Based on the database for material properties, the application area of HAMCs has been proposed in the present review. It has been concluded that the hybrid composites offer more flexibility and reliability in the design of possible components depending upon the reinforcement's combination and composition.

  9. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium matrix composites with particles in high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amigo, V.; Salvador, M. D.; Ferrer, C.; Costa d, C. E.; Busquets, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aluminium matrix composites materials reinforced by ceramic particles can be elaborated by powder metallurgy techniques, with extrusion processes. These can provide new materials, with a better mechanical behaviour and moreover when we need those properties at higher temperatures. Aluminium alloy reinforced composites with silicon nitride particles by powder extrusion process was done. Their mechanical properties were characterised at room and elevated temperatures. (Author) 28 refs

  10. Machinability study of Al-TiC metal matrix composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa P. N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites have emerged as an advanced class of structural materials have a combination of different, superior properties compared to an unreinforced matrix, which can result in a number of service benefits such as increased strength, higher elastic moduli, higher service temperature, low CTE, improved wear resistance, high toughness, etc. The excellent mechanical properties of these materials together with weight saving makes them very attractive for a variety of engineering applications in aerospace, automotive, electronic industries, etc. Hence, these materials provide as alternative substitutes for conventional engineering materials when specific mechanical properties necessary for required applications. In this work an attempt is made to study the machining parameters of Al6061/TiC MMC. The composite is developed by reinforcing TiC particles in varying proportions of 3, 6, 9 and 12 % weight fractions to the Al6061 matric alloy through stir casting technique. Cutting forces were measured by varying cutting speed and feed rate with constant depth of cut for different % weight fractions. The results showed that the cutting force increases with the increase of feed rate and decreases with the increase of cutting speed for all the weight fractions. Cutting parameters were optimized using Taguchi technique.

  11. Mechanical characterization of SiC particulate & E-glass fiber reinforced Al 3003 hybrid metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, K. S. Lakshmi; Shivanand, H. K.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites constitute a class of low cost high quality materials which offer high performance for various industrial applications. The orientation of this research is towards the study of mechanical properties of as cast silicon carbide (SiC) particulates and Short E-Glass fibers reinforced Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs). The Hybrid metal matrix composite is developed by reinforcing SiC particulates of 100 microns and short E-Glass fibers of 2-3 mm length with Al 3003 in different compositions. The vortex method of stir casting was employed, in which the reinforcements were introduced into the vortex created by the molten metal by means of mechanical stirrer. The mechanical properties of the prepared metal matrix composites were analyzed. From the studies it was noticed that an improvement in mechanical properties of the reinforced alloys compared to unreinforced alloys.

  12. A simple stir casting technique for the preparation of in situ Fe-aluminides reinforced Al-matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta K. Pradhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a simple stir casting technique for the development of Fe-aluminides particulate reinforced Al-matrix composites. It has been demonstrated that stirring of super-heated Al-melt by a mild steel plate followed by conventional casting and hot rolled results in uniform dispersion of in situ Al13Fe4 particles in the Al matrix; the amount of reinforcement is found to increase with increasing melt temperature. With reference to base alloy, the developed composite exhibits higher hardness and improved tensile strength without much loss of ductility; since, composite like base alloy undergoes ductile mode of fracture.

  13. Niobium Carbide-Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travessa, Dilermando Nagle; Silva, Marina Judice; Cardoso, Kátia Regina

    2017-06-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are key materials for the transportation industry as they contribute to the development of lightweight structures. The dispersion of hard ceramic particles in the Al soft matrix can lead to a substantial strengthening effect, resulting in composite materials exhibiting interesting mechanical properties and inspiring their technological use in sectors like the automotive and aerospace industries. Powder metallurgy techniques are attractive to design metal matrix composites, achieving a homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement into the metal matrix. In this work, pure aluminum has been reinforced with particles of niobium carbide (NbC), an extremely hard and stable refractory ceramic. Its use as a reinforcing phase in metal matrix composites has not been deeply explored. Composite powders produced after different milling times, with 10 and 20 vol pct of NbC were produced by high-energy ball milling and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction to establish a relationship between the milling time and size, morphology, and distribution of the particles in the composite powder. Subsequently, an Al/10 pct NbC composite powder was hot extruded into cylindrical bars. The strength of the obtained composite bars is comparable to the commercial high-strength, aeronautical-grade aluminum alloys.

  14. Modeling of Stress Development During Thermal Damage Healing in Fiber-reinforced Composite Materials Containing Embedded Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; de Boer, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite materials are susceptible to damage development through matrix cracking and delamination. This article concerns the use of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires embedded in a composite material to support healing of damage through a local heat treatment. The composite material

  15. Flow mechanisms in creep of a short-fibre AZ91 alloy-based composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pahutová, Marie; Sklenička, Václav; Kuchařová, Květa; Svoboda, Milan; Langdon, T. G.

    43 2005, č. 1 (2005), s. 34-44 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : AZ91 magnesium alloy * metal matrix composite * short fibre reinforcement Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2005

  16. In-situ reactions in hybrid aluminum alloy composites during incorporating silica sand in aluminum alloy melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F. Schultz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain a better understanding of the reactions and strengthening behavior in cast aluminum alloy/silica composites synthesized by stir mixing, experiments were conducted to incorporate low cost foundry silica sand into aluminum composites with the use of Mg as a wetting agent. SEM and XRD results show the conversion of SiO2 to MgAl2O4 and some Al2O3 with an accompanying increase in matrix Si content. A three-stage reaction mechanism proposed to account for these changes indicates that properties can be controlled by controlling the base Alloy/SiO2/Mg chemistry and reaction times. Experimental data on changes of composite density with increasing reaction time and SiO2 content support the three-stage reaction model. The change in mechanical properties with composition and time is also described.

  17. Vacuum brazing of high volume fraction SiC particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dongfeng; Niu, Jitai; Gao, Zeng; Wang, Peng

    2015-03-01

    This experiment chooses A356 aluminum matrix composites containing 55% SiC particle reinforcing phase as the parent metal and Al-Si-Cu-Zn-Ni alloy metal as the filler metal. The brazing process is carried out in vacuum brazing furnace at the temperature of 550°C and 560°C for 3 min, respectively. The interfacial microstructures and fracture surfaces are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy spectrum analysis (EDS). The result shows that adequacy of element diffusion are superior when brazing at 560°C, because of higher activity and liquidity. Dislocations and twins are observed at the interface between filler and composite due to the different expansion coefficient of the aluminum alloy matrix and SiC particles. The fracture analysis shows that the brittle fracture mainly located at interface of filler and composites.

  18. Fracture toughness in metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Ipiña J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluations of the fracture toughness in metal matrix composites (Duralcan reinforced with 15% of Al(20(3 and SiC are presented in this work. The application of Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics is discussed and the obtained values are compared with the ones obtained by means of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics. Results show that J IC derived K JC values are higher than the corresponding values obtained by direct application of the linear elastic methodology. The effect of a heat treatment on the material fracture toughness was also evaluated in which the analyzed approaches showed, not only different toughness values, but also opposite tendencies. A second comparison of the J IC and K JC values obtained in this work with toughness values reported in the literature is presented and discussed.

  19. A study of microstructure and wear behaviour of TiB2/Al metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sreenivasan

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the study of microstructure and wear characteristics of TiB2 reinforced aluminium metal matrix composites (MMCs. Matrix alloys with 5, 10 and 15% of TiB2 were made using stir casting technique. Effect of sliding velocity on the wear behaviour and tribo-chemistry of the worn surfaces of both matrix and composites sliding against a EN24 steel disc has been investigated under dry conditions. A pin-on-disc wear testing machine was used to find the wear rate, in which EN24 steel disc was used as the counter face, loads of 10-60N in steps of 10N and speeds of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 rpm were employed. The results showed that the wear rate was increased with an increase in load and sliding speed for both the materials. However, a lower wear rate was obtained for MMCs when compared to the matrix alloys. The wear transition from slight to severe was presented at the critical applied loads. The transition loads for the MMCs were much higher than that of the matrix alloy. The transition loads were increased with increase in TiB2 and the same was decreased with the increase of sliding speeds. The SEM and EDS analyses were undertaken to demonstrate the effect of TiB2 particles on the wear mechanism for each conditions.

  20. Kinetics of transformation of deformation processed gold-matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpreedee, Kageeporn

    Gold matrix Ḏeformation-processed M&barbelow;etal M&barbelow;etal C&barbelow;omposites (DMMC) have been developed that have better strength and conductivity than conventional gold alloys. However, DMMC possess metastable two-phase microstructures, and their strength and conductivity decrease after prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures. The kinetics of the transformation from the metastable two-phase microstructure to the equilibrium single-phase solid solution is of interest. This document describes a study of the elevated temperature stability of Au DMMC's and the relationship between microstructure and resistivity of three compositions: Au-7 vol %Ag, Au-14 vol %Ag, and Au-vol 7%Pt. DMMC samples were prepared by a powder metallurgy technique and mechanical processes. The smallest final diameter of these wires was 120 mum. Avrami and Arrhenius relations were used to evaluate the kinetic transformation. The extensive deformation used to produce these composites reshaped the initially equi-axed powder particles into a nanofilamentary composite. Electrical resistivity measurements were used to determine the degree of transformation from the initial metastable nano-filamentary composite to the equilibrium solid solution condition. These measurements indicated that this transformation in Au-14 at%Ag, Au-7 at %Ag Au and Au-7 at %Pt DMMC wires proceeded with activation energies of 141, 156, and 167 kJ/mol, respectively. It is thought that these empirically determined activation energies differ from those determined in single crystal, planar interface Au-Ag and Au-Pt diffusion couples due to chemical potential, surface curvature, and strain effects. The DMMC systems reach the equilibrium solid solution condition faster than single crystal, planar interface systems for two reasons: (1) far more defects (dislocations, grain boundaries, vacancies from non-conservative dislocation motion, etc.) are present in the Au-Ag and Au-Pt DMMC composites, and (2) the small

  1. Phase separation and formation of omega phase in the beta matrix of a Ti-V-Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, H.P. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Devaraj, A.; Nag, S. [Center for Advanced Research and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Bettles, C.J. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gibson, M. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Locked Bag 10, Clayton South, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Fraser, H.L. [Center for the Accelerated Maturation of Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Muddle, B.C. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Banerjee, R., E-mail: rajarshi.banerjee@unt.edu [Center for Advanced Research and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The formation of the {omega} phase in the presence of simultaneous development of compositional modulations (or phase separation) within the body-centered cubic {beta} matrix phase of a Ti-10V-6Cu (wt.%) alloy during continuous cooling has been investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. While a water quench from the high-temperature {beta} phase field allows apparently athermal formation of {omega} domains without any significant partitioning of solute or modulation in matrix composition, subsequent annealing at 500 {sup o}C for just 60 s leads to unusually rapid growth of the {omega} domains concurrent with, but apparently independent of, a slower development of finer-scale modulations in solute composition occurring apparently uniformly across both {omega} and {beta} phases. In contrast, on slower air cooling from the solution treatment temperature, there are pronounced compositional fluctuations within the {beta} phase, presumably as a product of spinodal decomposition, that are detectable prior to the formation of {omega} phase. The {omega} phase subsequently forms preferentially in solute-depleted regions of the matrix {beta}, with a composition reflecting the local matrix composition and a solute content significantly lower than the average matrix composition. As a result, it has a cuboidal morphology, distinguishably different from the elliposoidal form that is observed in samples water-quenched and annealed at 500 deg. C.

  2. Effects of chemical composition on the corrosion of dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galo, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Rocha, Luís Augusto; de Mattos, Maria da Glória Chiarello

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the oral environment on the corrosion of dental alloys with different compositions, using electrochemical methods. The corrosion rates were obtained from the current-potential curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of artificial saliva on the corrosion of dental alloys was dependent on alloy composition. Dissolution of the ions occurred in all tested dental alloys and the results were strongly dependent on the general alloy composition. Regarding the alloys containing nickel, the Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Ti alloys released 0.62 mg/L of Ni on average, while the Co-Cr dental alloy released ions between 0.01 and 0.03 mg/L of Co and Cr, respectively.The open-circuit potential stabilized at a higher level with lower deviation (standard deviation: Ni-Cr-6Ti = 32 mV/SCE and Co-Cr = 54 mV/SCE). The potenciodynamic curves of the dental alloys showed that the Ni-based dental alloy with >70 wt% of Ni had a similar curve and the Co-Cr dental alloy showed a low current density and hence a high resistance to corrosion compared with the Ni-based dental alloys. Some changes in microstructure were observed and this fact influenced the corrosion behavior for the alloys. The lower corrosion resistance also led to greater release of nickel ions to the medium. The quantity of Co ions released from the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was relatively small in the solutions. In addition, the quantity of Cr ions released into the artificial saliva from the Co-Cr alloy was lower than Cr release from the Ni-based dental alloys.

  3. Method of forming a ceramic matrix composite and a ceramic matrix component

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego, Peter; Zhang, James

    2017-05-30

    A method of forming a ceramic matrix composite component includes providing a formed ceramic member having a cavity, filling at least a portion of the cavity with a ceramic foam. The ceramic foam is deposited on a barrier layer covering at least one internal passage of the cavity. The method includes processing the formed ceramic member and ceramic foam to obtain a ceramic matrix composite component. Also provided is a method of forming a ceramic matrix composite blade and a ceramic matrix composite component.

  4. Weibull modeling of particle cracking in metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.A.; Withers, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation into the occurrence of reinforcement cracking within a particulate ZrO 2 /2618 Al alloy metal matrix composite under tensile plastic straining has been carried out, special attention being paid to the dependence of fracture on particle size and shape. The probability of particle cracking has been modeled using a Weibull approach, giving good agreement with the experimental data. Values for the Weibull modulus and the stress required to crack the particles were found to be within the range expected for the cracking of ceramic particles. Additional information regarding the fracture behavior of the particles was provided by in-situ neutron diffraction monitoring of the internal strains, measurement of the variation in the composite Young's modulus with straining and by direct observation of the cracked particles. The values of the particle stress required for the initiation of particle cracking deduced from these supplementary experiments were found to be in good agreement with each other and with the results from the Weibull analysis. Further, it is shown that while both the current experiments, as well as the previous work of others, can be well described by the Weibull approach, the exact values of the Weibull parameters do deduced are very sensitive to the approximations and the assumptions made in constructing the model

  5. Influence of cold rolling and fatigue on the residual stress state of a metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanus, E.; Ericsson, T.; Lu, J.; Decomps, F.

    1993-01-01

    The large difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the matrix alloy and the particle in a metal matrix composite gives rise to residual stresses in the material. In the present work the effect of cold rolling and four-point bending fatigue on the residual stress state of a silicon carbide particle reinforced aluminium alloy (AA 2014) has been investigated. The three dimensional stress state measured in both phases: matrix and reinforcement, has been determined by using an X-ray diffraction technique. It was found that cold rolling induces surface compressive macrostresses of about -250 MPa, with a penetration depth around 2 mm. The absolute values of the pseudomacrostresses in both phases are significantly reduced due to the single track rolling. Stress relaxation occurs during four-point bending fatigue. (orig.)

  6. Structure and properties of nanocrystalline soft magnetic composite materials with silicon polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Nowosielski, R.; Konieczny, J.; PrzybyI, A.; WysIocki, J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper concerns investigation of nanocrystalline composites technology preparation. The composites in the form of rings with rectangular transverse section, and with polymer matrix and nanocrystalline metallic powders fulfillment were made, for obtaining good ferromagnetic properties. The nanocrystalline ferromagnetic powders were manufactured by high-energy ball milling of metallic glasses strips in an as-quenched state. Generally for investigation, Co matrix alloys with the silicon polymer were used. Magnetic properties in the form of hysteresis loop by rings method were measured. Generally composite cores showed lower soft ferromagnetic properties than winded cores of nanocrystalline strips, but composite cores showed interesting mechanical properties. Furthermore, the structure of strips and powders on properties of composites were investigated

  7. High power X-ray welding of metal-matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Richard A.; Goeppner, George A.; Noonan, John R.; Farrell, William J.; Ma, Qing

    1997-12-01

    A method for joining metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source is provided. The method involves directing an x-ray to the weld line between two adjacent MMCs materials to create an irradiated region or melt zone. The x-rays have a power density greater than about 10{sup 4} watts/cm{sup 2} and provide the volumetric heat required to join the MMC materials. Importantly, the reinforcing material of the metal-matrix composites remains uniformly distributed in the melt zone, and the strength of the MMCs are not diminished. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys.

  8. A study of the diffusional behavior of a two-phase metal matrix composite exposed to a high temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    The progress of diffusion-controlled filament-matrix interaction in a metal matrix composite where the filaments and matrix comprise a two-phase binary alloy system was studied by mathematically modeling compositional changes resulting from prolonged elevated temperature exposure. The analysis treats a finite, diffusion-controlled, two-phase moving-interface problem by means of a variable-grid finite-difference technique. The Ni-W system was selected as an example system. Modeling was carried out for the 1000 to 1200 C temperature range for unidirectional composites containing from 6 to 40 volume percent tungsten filaments in a Ni matrix. The results are displayed to show both the change in filament diameter and matrix composition as a function of exposure time. Compositional profiles produced between first and second nearest neighbor filaments were calculated by superposition of finite-difference solutions of the diffusion equations.

  9. Synthesizing (ZrAl3 + AlN)/Mg-Al composites by a 'matrix exchange' method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Li, Zengqiang; Hu, Kaiqi; Han, Mengxia; Liu, Xiangfa

    2018-06-01

    A method named 'matrix exchange' to synthesize ZrAl3 and AlN reinforced Mg-Al composite was developed in this paper. By inserting Al-10ZrN master alloy into Mg matrix and reheating the cooled ingot to 550 °C, Al and Mg atoms diffuse to the opposite side. As a result, liquid melt occurs once the interface areas reach to proper compositions. Then dissolved Al atoms react with ZrN, leading to the in-situ formation of ZrAl3 and AlN particles, while the Al matrix is finally replaced by Mg. This study provides a new insight for preparing Mg composites.

  10. Effect of milling time and CNT concentration on hardness of CNT/Al2024 composites produced by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Bustamante, R.; Pérez-Bustamante, F.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Licea-Jiménez, L.; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube/2024 aluminum alloy (CNT/Al 2024 ) composites were fabricated with a combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and powder metallurgy routes. Composites were microstructurally and mechanically evaluated at sintering condition. A homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in the Al matrix was observed by a field emission scanning electron microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed not only the presence of well dispersed CNTs but also needle-like shape aluminum carbide (Al 4 C 3 ) crystals in the Al matrix. The formation of Al 4 C 3 was suggested as the interaction between the outer shells of CNTs and the Al matrix during MA process in which crystallization took place after the sintering process. The mechanical behavior of composites was evaluated by Vickers microhardness measurements indicating a significant improvement in hardness as function of the CNT content. This improvement was associated to a homogeneous dispersion of CNTs and the presence of Al 4 C 3 in the aluminum alloy matrix. - Highlights: ► The 2024 aluminum alloy was reinforced by CNTs by mechanical alloying process. ► Composites were microstructural and mechanically evaluated after sintering condition. ► The greater the CNT concentration, the greater the hardness of the composites. ► Higher hardness in composites is achieved at 20 h of milling. ► The formation of Al 4 C 3 does not present a direct relationship with the milling time.

  11. Influence of Heat Treatment on Abrasive Wear Resistance of Silumin Matrix Composite Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawdzińska K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors attempted at examining the effect of heat treatment on abrasive wear resistance of metal composite castings. Metal matrix composites were made by infiltrating preforms created from unordered short fibers (graphite or silumin with liquid aluminium alloy AlSi12(b. Thus prepared composites were subject to solution heat treatment at a temperature of 520°C for four hours, then aging at a temperature of 220°C for four hours. Abrasion resistance of the material was tested before and after thermal treatment.

  12. A new characterization method of the microstructure by utilizing the macroscopic composition gradient in alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, T.; Koyama, T.; Kobayashi, S.

    1996-01-01

    A new experimental method to determine the phase boundary and phase equilibrium is accomplished by - means of analytical transmission electron microscopy for alloys with a macroscopic composition gradient. The various phase boundaries, i.e. the coherent binodal and spinodal lines, incoherent binodal line and order/disorder transformation line are distinctly determined for the Cu-Ti alloy and the other alloy systems. Furthermore, the equilibrium compositions at the interface of precipitate/matrix can experimentally be obtained for various particle sizes, and thus the Gibbs-Thomson's relation is verified. It is expected that the composition gradient method proposed in the present will become an important experimental method of the microstructural characterization

  13. Mechanical properties of molybdenum alloyed liquid phase-sintered tungsten-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, P.B.; German, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Tungsten-based composites are fabricated from mixed elemental powders using liquid phase sintering, usually with a nickel-iron matrix. During sintering, the tungsten undergoes grain growth, leading to microstructure coarsening that lowers strength but increases ductility. Often the desire is to increase strength at the sacrifice of ductility, and historically, this has been performed by postsintering deformation. There has been considerable research on alloying to adjust the as-sintered mechanical properties to match those of swaged alloys. Prior reports cover many additions, seemingly including much of the periodic table. Unfortunately, many of the modified alloys proved disappointing, largely due to degraded strength at the tungsten-matrix interface. Of these modified alloys, the molybdenum-containing systems exhibit a promising combination of properties, cost, and processing ease. For example, the 82W-8Mo-7Ni-3Fe alloy gives a yield strength that is 34% higher than the equivalent 90W-7Ni-3Fe alloy (from 535 to 715 MPa) but with a 33% decrease in fracture elongation (from 30 to 20% elongation). This article reports on experiments geared to promoting improved properties in the W-Mo-Ni-Fe alloys. However, unlike the prior research which maintained a constant Ni + Fe content and varied the W:Mo ratio, this study considers the Mo:(Ni + Fe) ratio effect for 82, 90, and 93 wt pct W

  14. Metal Matrix Composite Solar Cell Metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilt David M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced solar cells are moving to ever thinner formats in order to save mass and in some cases improve performance. As cells are thinned, the possibility that they may fracture or cleave due to mechanical stresses is increased. Fractures of the cell can degrade the overall device performance if the fracture propagates through the contact metallization, which frequently occurs. To address this problem, a novel semiconductor metallization system based on multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT reinforcement, termed metal matrix composite (MMC metallization is under investigation. Electro-mechanical characterization of MMC films demonstrate their ability to provide electrical conductivity over >40 micron wide cracks in the underlying semiconductor, with the carbon nanotubes bridging the gap. In addition, these materials show a “self-healing” behaviour, electrically reconnecting at ~30 microns when strained past failure. Triple junction (TJ space cells with MMC metallization demonstrated no loss in Jsc after intentional fracture, whereas TJ cells with conventional metallization suffer up to 50% Jsc loss.

  15. Alloys and composites of polybenzoxazines properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rimdusit, Sarawut; Tiptipakorn, Sunan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the unique and fascinating properties of alloys and composites from novel commercialized thermosetting resins based on polybenzoxazines. Their outstanding properties such as processability, thermal, mechanical, electrical properties as well as ballistic impact properties of polybenzoxazine alloys and composites make them attractive for various applications in electronic packaging encapsulation, light weight ballistic armour composites and bipolar plate in fuel cells.

  16. Lead and lead-based alloys as waste matrix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arustamov, A.E.; Ojovan, M.I.; Kachalov, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Metals and alloys with relatively low melting temperatures such as lead and lead-based alloys are considered in Russia as prospective matrices for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel in containers in preparation for final disposal in underground repositories. Now lead and lead-based alloys are being used for conditioning spent sealed radioactive sources at radioactive waste disposal facilities

  17. Application research of ferrous matrix composites in roller ring used in high-speed wire/bar rolling mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yanpei; Li Xiuqing; Bi Shuangxu

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → A composite structure roller rings was fabricated by centrifugal casting. → The roller rings consisted of outer WCP/Fe-C composites layer and inner Fe-C alloy matrix. → Hardness attained to HRA80-85 in the composites layer, and HRA73-76 in inner Fe-C alloy matrix where the toughness was over 8 J/cm 2 . → The wear resistance of the roller rings excelled that of high-speed steel, and approached to that of the WC hard alloy roll. → The production cost of the WCP/Fe-C composites roller ring decreased by 50%. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide particle (WC P ) reinforced ferrous matrix composites roller rings were fabricated by centrifugal casting. The microstructures, properties and application effect of the composites roller rings were investigated by SEM, TEM and various property testers. The experimental results show that the WC P were uniformly distributed in outer reinforced-layer (working-layer) of 20-50 mm in thickness and their volume fraction reached 60-80 vol.%; there was a good interface bonding between WC P and Fe-C alloy without any reaction products; hardness attained to HRA80-85 in working-layer, and HRA73-76 in inner ferrous matrix where the toughness was over 8 J/cm 2 ; the wear resistance of the composites roller rings excels that of high-speed steel; service life of the composites parts approached to that of the WC hard alloy roll when the same WC P -volume-fraction in working-layer were obtained for both of them, but the production cost of the WC P /Fe-C composites roller ring decreased by 50%.

  18. Production and Characterization of WC-Reinforced Co-Based Superalloy Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgün, Özgür; Dinler, İlyas

    2018-05-01

    Cobalt-based superalloy matrix composite materials were produced through the powder metallurgy technique using element powders at high purity and nano-sized wolfram carbide (WC) reinforcement in this study. An alloy that had the same chemical composition as the Stellite 6 alloy but not containing carbon was selected as the matrix alloy. The powder mixtures obtained as a result of mixing WC reinforcing member and element powders at the determined ratio were shaped by applying 300 MPa of pressure. The green components were sintered under argon atmosphere at 1240 °C for 120 minutes. The densities of the sintered components were determined by the Archimedes' principle. Microstructural characterization was performed via X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope examinations, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Hardness measurements and tensile tests were performed for determining mechanical characteristics. The relative density values of the sintered components increased by increasing the WC reinforcement ratio and they could almost reach the theoretical density. It was determined from the microstructural examinations that the composite materials consisted of fine and equiaxed grains and coarse carbides demonstrating a homogeneous dispersion along the microstructure at the grain boundaries. As it was the case in the density values, the hardness and strength values of the composites increased by increasing the WC ratio.

  19. Compaction study of particulate iron-chromium matrix composite reinforced with alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidatulakmar Shamsuddin; Shamsul Baharin Jamaludin; Zuhailawati Hussain; Zainal Arifin Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a sharper focus on cost reduction in producing advanced composites systems has increased and leads to an interest in ferrous matrix composite which is cheaper compared to Cobalt, Nickel and their alloys that are scarce, expensive and their dust is especially harmful. In the present investigation, Fe-Cr-Al 2 O 3 composite was prepared using conventional powder metallurgy technique; mixing, compaction and sintering. Consolidation of particulate materials is dependent on the compaction process. As load is increased, the number of contacting asperities increases and they flatten and grow to form a planar contact surface. These asperities eventually merge to form bonding surfaces between particles. This paper focused on finding the optimum compaction parameter in a uniaxial pressing. Six different pressure were studied; (250, 375, 500, 625, 750 and 875)MPa. experimental results show that the optimum compaction parameter is 750 MPa that produced highest linear shrinkage, highest bulk density, lowest porosity and highest hardness value. Every sample has formed binary alloy of Fe-Cr alloy, confirmed by XRD and alumina are homogeneously distributed in the Fe-Cr matrix revealed by optical micrograph and SEM. from EDX, the composites consist of iron, chromium and alumina. (author)

  20. Wear study of Al-SiC metal matrix composites processed through microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnaiah, C.; Srinath, M. S.; Prasad, S. L. Ajit

    2018-04-01

    Particulate reinforced metal matrix composites are finding wider acceptance in many industrial applications due to their isotropic properties and ease of manufacture. Uniform distribution of reinforcement particulates and good bonding between matrix and reinforcement phases are essential features in order to obtain metal matrix composites with improved properties. Conventional powder metallurgy technique can successfully overcome the limitation of stir casting techniques, but it is time consuming and not cost effective. Use of microwave technology for processing particulate reinforced metal matrix composites through powder metallurgy technique is being increasingly explored in recent times because of its cost effectiveness and speed of processing. The present work is an attempt to process Al-SiC metal matrix composites using microwaves irradiated at 2.45 GHz frequency and 900 W power for 10 minutes. Further, dry sliding wear studies were conducted at different loads at constant velocity of 2 m/s for various sliding distances using pin-on-disc equipment. Analysis of the obtained results show that the microwave processed Al-SiC composite material shows around 34 % of resistance to wear than the aluminium alloy.

  1. Compressive performance and crack propagation in Al alloy/Ti{sub 2}AlC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaor, D.A.H., E-mail: dorian.hanaor@sydney.edu.au [School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hu, L. [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Kan, W.H.; Proust, G. [School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Foley, M. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Karaman, I.; Radovic, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Composite materials comprising a porous Ti{sub 2}AlC matrix and Al 6061 alloy were fabricated by a current-activated pressure assisted melt infiltration process. Coarse, medium and fine meso-structures were prepared with Al alloy filled pores of differing sizes. Materials were subjected to uniaxial compressive loading up to stresses of 668 MPa, leading to the failure of specimens through crack propagation in both phases. As-fabricated and post-failure specimens were analysed by X-ray microscopy and electron microscopy. Quasi-static mechanical testing results revealed that compressive strength was the highest in the fine structured composite materials. While the coarse structured specimens exhibited a compressive strength of 80% relative to this. Reconstructed micro-scale X-ray tomography data revealed different crack propagation mechanisms. Large planar shear cracks propagated throughout the fine structured materials while the coarser specimens exhibited networks of branching cracks propagating preferentially along Al alloy-Ti{sub 2}AlC phase interfaces and through shrinkage pores in the Al alloy phase. Results suggest that control of porosity, compensation for Al alloy shrinkage and enhancement of the Al alloy-Ti{sub 2}AlC phase interfaces are key considerations in the design of high performance metal/Ti{sub 2}AlC phase composites.

  2. Thermal conductivity of microPCMs-filled epoxy matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    Su, J.F.; Wang, X.Y; Huang, Z.; Zhao, Y.H.; Yuan, X.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) have been widely applied in solid matrix as thermal-storage or temperature-controlling functional composites. The thermal conductivity of these microPCMs/matrix composites is an important property need to be considered. In this study, a series of microPCMs have been fabricated using the in situ polymerization with various core/shell ratio and average diameter; the thermal conductivity of microPCMs/epoxy composites were investigated in detai...

  3. Structural and functional polymer-matrix composites for electromagnetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junhua

    This dissertation addresses the science and technology of functional and structural polymer-matrix composite materials for electromagnetic applications, which include electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and low observability (Stealth). The structural composites are continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for airframes. The functional composites are composites with discontinuous fillers and in both bulk and coating forms. Through composite structure variation, attractive electromagnetic properties have been achieved. With no degradation of the tensile strength or modulus, the shielding effectiveness of the structural composites has been improved by enhancing multiple reflections through light activation of the carbon fiber. The multiple reflections loss of the electromagnetic wave increases from 1.1 to 10.2 dB at 1.0 GHz due to the activation. Such a large effect of multiple reflections has not been previously reported in any material. The observability of these composites has been lowered by decreasing the electrical conductivity (and hence decreasing the reflection loss) through carbon fiber coating. The incorporation of mumetal, a magnetic alloy particulate filler (28-40 mum size), in a latex paint has been found to be effective for enhancing the shielding only if the electrical resistivity of the resulting composite coating is below 10 O.cm, as rendered by a conductive particulate filler, such as nickel flake (14-20 mum size). This effectiveness (39 dB at 1.0 GHz) is attributed to the absorption of the electromagnetic wave by the mumetal and the nickel flake, with the high conductivity rendered by the presence of the nickel flake resulting in a relatively high reflection loss of 15.5 dB. Without the nickel flake, the mumetal gives only 3 dB of shielding and 1.5 dB of reflection loss at 1.0 GHz. Nickel powder (0.3-0.5 mum size) has been found to be an effective filler for improving the shielding of polyethersulfone (PES

  4. Effect Of Milling Time On Microstructure Of AA6061 Composites Fabricated Via Mechanical Alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomiczek B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the effect of manufacturing conditions, especially milling time, on the microstructure and crystallite size of a newly developed nanostructural composite material with the aluminium alloy matrix reinforced with halloysite nanotubes. Halloysite, being a clayey mineral of volcanic origin, is characterized by high porosity and large specific surface area. Thus it can be used as an alternative reinforcement in metal matrix composite materials. In order to obtain this goal, composite powders with fine microstructures were fabricated using high-energy mechanical alloying, cold compacting and hot extrusion techniques. The obtained composite powders of aluminium alloy reinforced with 5, 10 and 15 wt% of halloysite nanotubes were characterized with SEM, TEM and XRD analysis. It has been proven that the use of mechanical alloying leads to a high degree of deformation, which, coupled with a decreased grain size below 100 nm and the dispersion of the refined reinforcing particles–reinforces the material very well.

  5. Graphene-Reinforced Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Ashish K.; Xiong, Guoping; Menezes, Pradeep L.

    2018-06-01

    Composites have tremendous applicability due to their excellent capabilities. The performance of composites mainly depends on the reinforcing material applied. Graphene is successful as an efficient reinforcing material due to its versatile as well as superior properties. Even at very low content, graphene can dramatically improve the properties of polymer and metal matrix composites. This article reviews the fabrication followed by mechanical and tribological properties of metal and polymer matrix composites filled with different kinds of graphene, including single-layer, multilayer, and functionalized graphene. Results reported to date in literature indicate that functionalized graphene or graphene oxide-polymer composites are promising materials offering significantly improved strength and frictional properties. A similar trend of improved properties has been observed in case of graphene-metal matrix composites. However, achieving higher graphene loading with uniform dispersion in metal matrix composites remains a challenge. Although graphene-reinforced composites face some challenges, such as understanding the graphene-matrix interaction or fabrication techniques, graphene-reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites have great potential for application in various fields due to their outstanding properties.

  6. Improved Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Metal-Matrix Composites Dispersion-Strengthened by Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii Levashov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Co- and Fe-based alloys produced by powder technology are being widely used as a matrix for diamond-containing composites in cutting, drilling, grinding pplications, etc. The severe service conditions demand that the mechanical and tribological properties of these alloys be improved. Development of metal-matrix composites (MMCs and alloys reinforced with nanoparticles is a promising way to resolve this problem. In this work, we have investigated the effect of nano-sized WC, ZrO2, Al2O3, and Si3N4 additives on the properties of sintered dispersion-strengthened Co- and Fe-based MMCs. The results show an increase in the hardness (up to 10 HRB, bending strength (up to 50%, wear resistance (by a factor of 2–10 and a decrease in the friction coefficient (up to 4-fold of the dispersion-strengthened materials. The use of designed alloys as a binder of cutting diamond tools gave a 4-fold increment in the service life, without reduction in their cutting speed.

  7. Design feasibility study of a divertor component reinforced with fibrous metal matrix composite laminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Fibrous metal matrix composites possess advanced mechanical properties compared to conventional alloys. It is expected that the application of these composites to a divertor component will enhance the structural reliability. A possible design concept would be a system consisting of tungsten armour, copper composite interlayer and copper heat sink where the composite interlayer is locally inserted into the highly stressed domain near the bond interface. For assessment of the design feasibility of the composite divertor concept, a non-linear multi-scale finite element analysis was performed. To this end, a micro-mechanics algorithm was implemented into a finite element code. A reactor-relevant heat flux load was assumed. Focus was placed on the evolution of stress state, plastic deformation and ductile damage on both macro- and microscopic scales. The structural response of the component and the micro-scale stress evolution of the composite laminate were investigated

  8. Design feasibility study of a divertor component reinforced with fibrous metal matrix composite laminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, J.-H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: j.h.you@ipp.mpg.de

    2005-01-01

    Fibrous metal matrix composites possess advanced mechanical properties compared to conventional alloys. It is expected that the application of these composites to a divertor component will enhance the structural reliability. A possible design concept would be a system consisting of tungsten armour, copper composite interlayer and copper heat sink where the composite interlayer is locally inserted into the highly stressed domain near the bond interface. For assessment of the design feasibility of the composite divertor concept, a non-linear multi-scale finite element analysis was performed. To this end, a micro-mechanics algorithm was implemented into a finite element code. A reactor-relevant heat flux load was assumed. Focus was placed on the evolution of stress state, plastic deformation and ductile damage on both macro- and microscopic scales. The structural response of the component and the micro-scale stress evolution of the composite laminate were investigated.

  9. Influence of reinforcement proportion and matrix composition on pitting corrosion behaviour of cast aluminium matrix composites (A3xx.x/SiCp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, A.; Merino, M.C.; Merino, S.; Viejo, F.; Carboneras, M.; Arrabal, R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of silicon carbide (SiCp) proportion and matrix composition on four aluminium metal matrix composites (A360/SiC/10p, A360/SiC/20p, A380/SiC/10p, A380/SiC/20p) immersed in 1-3.5 wt% NaCl at 22 deg C was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization. The kinetics of the corrosion process was studied on the basis of gravimetric measurements. The nature of corrosion products was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion damage in Al/SiCp composites was caused by pitting attack and by nucleation and growth of Al 2 O 3 . 3H 2 O on the material surface. The main attack nucleation sites were the interface region between the matrix and the reinforcement particles. The corrosion process was influenced more by the concentration of alloy elements in the matrix than by the proportion of SiCp reinforcement and saline concentration

  10. Influence of reinforcement proportion and matrix composition on pitting corrosion behaviour of cast aluminium matrix composites (A3xx.x/SiCp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, A. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: anpardo@quim.ucm.es; Merino, M.C. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Merino, S. [Departamento de Tecnologia Industrial, Universidad Alfonso X El Sabio, 28691, Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Viejo, F. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carboneras, M. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arrabal, R. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The influence of silicon carbide (SiCp) proportion and matrix composition on four aluminium metal matrix composites (A360/SiC/10p, A360/SiC/20p, A380/SiC/10p, A380/SiC/20p) immersed in 1-3.5 wt% NaCl at 22 deg C was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization. The kinetics of the corrosion process was studied on the basis of gravimetric measurements. The nature of corrosion products was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion damage in Al/SiCp composites was caused by pitting attack and by nucleation and growth of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} . 3H{sub 2}O on the material surface. The main attack nucleation sites were the interface region between the matrix and the reinforcement particles. The corrosion process was influenced more by the concentration of alloy elements in the matrix than by the proportion of SiCp reinforcement and saline concentration.

  11. HIGH TEMPERATURE EROSION WEAR OF CERMET PARTICLES REINFORCED SELF-FLUXING ALLOY MATRIX HVOF SPRAYED COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Surzhenkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the resistance of high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF sprayed TiC-NiMo and Cr3C2-Ni cermet particles reinforced NiCrSiB self-fluxing alloy matrix coatings to high temperature erosion wear is studied. Microstructure of the coatings was examined by SEM, phase composition was determined by XRD. A four-channel centrifugal particle accelerator was applied to study the high temperature erosion wear of the coatings. The impact angles were 30 and 90 degrees, initial particle velocity was 50 m/s, temperature of the test - 650 degrees. Volume wear of the coatings was calculated and compared to the respective values of the reference materials. Wear mechanisms were studied by SEM.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7617

  12. Microstructure and wear resistance of a laser clad TiC reinforced nickel aluminides matrix composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Wear resistant TiC/(NiAl-Ni 3 Al) composite coating was fabricated on a substrate of electrolyzed nickel by laser cladding using Ni-Al-Ti-C alloy powders. The laser clad coating is metallurgically bonded to the substrate and has a homogenous fine microstructure consisting of the flower-like equiaxed TiC dendrite and the dual phase matrix of NiAl and Ni 3 Al. The intermetallic matrix composite coating exhibits excellent wear resistance under both room- and high-temperature sliding wear test conditions due to the high hardness of TiC coupled with the strong atomic bonds of intermetallic matrix

  13. Consolidation effects on tensile properties of an elemental Al matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, F. [Building 4515, MS 6064, Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)]. E-mail: tangf@ornl.gov; Meeks, H. [Ceracon Inc., 5150 Fairoaks Blvd. 01-330, Carmichael, CA 95628 (United States); Spowart, J.E. [UES Incorporated, AFRL/MLLM Building 655, 2230 Tenth St. Suite 1, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Gnaeupel-Herold, T. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8562, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8562 (United States); Prask, H. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8562, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8562 (United States); Anderson, I.E. [Materials and Engineering Physics Program, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2004-11-25

    In a simplified composite design, an unalloyed Al matrix was reinforced by spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy particles (30 vol.%), using either commercial purity (99.7%) or high purity (99.99%) fine powders (diameter < 10 {mu}m). This composite material was consolidated by either vacuum hot pressing (VHP) or quasi-isostatic forging. The spatial distribution of reinforcement particles in both VHP and forged samples was shown to be almost the same by quantitative characterization with a multi-scale area fraction analysis technique. The tensile properties of all composite samples were tested and the forged materials showed significantly higher strength, while the elastic modulus values of all composite materials were close to the upper bound of theoretical predictions. Neutron diffraction measurements showed that there were high compressive residual stresses in the Al matrix of the forged samples and relatively low Al matrix residual stresses (predominantly compressive) in the VHP samples. By tensile tests and neutron diffraction measurements of the forged samples after annealing, it was shown that the high compressive residual stresses in the Al matrix were relieved and that tensile strength was also reduced to almost the same level as that of the VHP samples. Therefore, it was deduced that increased compressive residual stresses and enhanced dislocation densities in the forged composites raised the tensile strength to higher values than those of the VHP composites.

  14. Enhancing the Hardness and Compressive Response of Magnesium Using Complex Composition Alloy Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Sandar Tun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the development of new magnesium composites containing complex composition alloy (CCA particles. Materials were synthesized using a powder metallurgy route incorporating hybrid microwave sintering and hot extrusion. The presence and variation in the amount of ball-milled CCA particles (2.5 wt %, 5 wt %, and 7.5 wt % in a magnesium matrix and their effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-CCA composites were investigated. The use of CCA particle reinforcement effectively led to a significant matrix grain refinement. Uniformly distributed CCA particles were observed in the microstructure of the composites. The refined microstructure coupled with the intrinsically high hardness of CCA particles (406 HV contributed to the superior mechanical properties of the Mg-CCA composites. A microhardness of 80 HV was achieved in a Mg-7.5HEA (high entropy alloy composite, which is 1.7 times higher than that of pure Mg. A significant improvement in compressive yield strength (63% and ultimate compressive strength (79% in the Mg-7.5CCA composite was achieved when compared to that of pure Mg while maintaining the same ductility level. When compared to ball-milled amorphous particle-reinforced and ceramic-particle-reinforced Mg composites, higher yield and compressive strengths in Mg-CCA composites were achieved at a similar ductility level.

  15. VIBROCASTING CRUCIBLES OF DIFFERENT COMPOSITION FOR FRYING INDUCTION MELTING ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Primachenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that PSC «UKRNIIO them. A.S.Berezhnogo  has developed technologies for a wide range of induction melting temperature alloys and started commercial production of crucibles of different composition.

  16. VIBROCASTING CRUCIBLES OF DIFFERENT COMPOSITION FOR FRYING INDUCTION MELTING ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Primachenko; V. V. Martynenko; I. G. Szulik; S. V. Chaplyanko; L. V. Gritsyuk; L. P. Tkachenko

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that PSC «UKRNIIO them. A.S.Berezhnogo  has developed technologies for a wide range of induction melting temperature alloys and started commercial production of crucibles of different composition.

  17. The Magnetic Properties of Metal-Alloy Glass Composites Prepared by Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julian Fernandez, Cesar de; Mattei, Giovanni; Sada, Cinzia; Maurizio, Chiara; Padovani, Sara; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Sangregorio, Claudio; Gatteschi, Dante

    2003-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Co-Ni, Co-Fe and Ni-Cu alloy nanoparticles formed in silica matrix by sequential ion implantation are presented. These nanoparticles show crystal structure similar to the corresponding bulk alloys. In the Co-Ni and Co-Fe, magnetization saturation and coercive field depend on the the alloy composition, crystal structure and size effects. Ferromagnetic resonance studies show that collective magnetic processes are present and these are determined by the film-like morphology of the implanted region. The temperature dependence of the magnetization of the NixCu100-x samples indicates that their Curie Temperatures are larger than the corresponding bulk ones. This feature is discussed considering the composition of the nanoparticles and the size effects

  18. Microstructural Characterization of Cast Magnesium Matrix Composites by Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cast magnesium matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide particles were investigated by using Raman microscopy. 3C, 4H and6H polytypes of SiC particles were identified in the investigated composites. Additionally, Mg2Si compound was detected by Ramanmicroscopy in the composites microstructure.

  19. Microstructural Characterization of Cast Magnesium Matrix Composites by Raman Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Malika M.A.; Majchrzak K.; Braszczyńska-Malik K.N.

    2013-01-01

    Cast magnesium matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide particles were investigated by using Raman microscopy. 3C, 4H and 6H polytypes of SiC particles were identified in the investigated composites. Additionally, Mg2Si compound was detected by Raman microscopy in the composites microstructure.

  20. Microstructural Characterization of Cast Magnesium Matrix Composites by Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika M.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cast magnesium matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide particles were investigated by using Raman microscopy. 3C, 4H and 6H polytypes of SiC particles were identified in the investigated composites. Additionally, Mg2Si compound was detected by Raman microscopy in the composites microstructure.

  1. Effect of nano size 3% wt TaC particles dispersion in two different metallic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, U.U.; Oliveira, L.A.; Souza, C.P.; Menezes, R.C.; Furukava, M.; Torres, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This work studies the characteristics of two different metallic matrixes composites, ferritic and austenitic steels, reinforced with 3% wt nano size tantalum carbide by powder metallurgy. The starting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of the nano sized carbide dispersion on the matrix microstructures and its consequences on the mechanical properties were identified. The preliminary results showed that the sintering were influenced by morphology and the distribution of carbide and the alloys. (author)

  2. Evolution of Fe environments in mechanically alloyed Fe–Nb–(B) compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blázquez, J.S., E-mail: jsebas@us.es; Ipus, J.J.; Conde, C.F.; Conde, A.

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Nb is rapidly incorporated to the nanocrystalline FeNb(B) matrix. • B inclusions remains even after long milling times. • B is helpful to enhance the comminuting of crystallites. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline alloys of nominal composition Fe{sub 85}Nb{sub 5}B{sub 10} were produced by mechanical alloying from a mixture of elemental powders. Two commercial boron structures were used: amorphous and crystalline. In addition, a third composition Fe{sub 94.4}Nb{sub 5.6} was prepared for comparison. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to describe the evolution of the microstructure and Fe environments as a function of the milling time. Whereas Nb is rapidly incorporated into the nanocrystalline matrix, boron inclusions remain even after long milling times. The presence of boron is found to enhance the comminuting of crystallites.

  3. Effect of matrix constitution on interface of aluminium/δ-Al2O3 and strength of metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, P.; Hutchinson, B.; Savage, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    Aluminium based fiber composites have been made by squeeze casting. The 'saffil' pre-forms used in the work employed aluminium oxide binder or silica binder. Two families of alloys have been used based either on high purity aluminium or 3% copper containing alloys. These were both alloyed with a range of magnesium contents from 0.1% to 5% with the aim of varying the degree of reaction and bonding between the matrix and the reinforcing fibres. Studies of macro- and micro structures have been performed as well as non-destructive testing by X-ray radiography. Tensile testing, three point bend tests on notched bars and wetting studies in a wetting balance are also included in the investigation. The structure of the squeeze cast products shows different zones. The extension and appearance of the zones are dependent on the alloy constitution. In general the surface of the casting have small equiaxed grains. This surface zone is replaced by a columnar grain zone which, in the center, transforms to an equiaxed crystal zone. Defects such as pores, fibre-free zones, and 'pockets' in the interface matrix/fiber have been found. Of these defects, only pores can be detected by X-ray radiography. Evaluation of tensile testing shows a relatively large scatter of results. The results reveal a dominant role of matrix composition on strength level. For the 20 vol% reinforced metals, with performs with silica binder, the maximum measured elongation was 3.5%. With alumina binder approximately half of the above mentioned ductility is obtained. The use of grain-refiner, Al-5Ti-B, decreases the ductility of the composite below 2%, independent of the type of binder. From 3-point bend tests fracture energies are estimated to vary between 0.3 and 0.6 Joule. The toughness is low. Studies of the wetting between pieces of ceramic pre-forms and molten Al-2Mg show that generally the wetting is poor. At the same time, the wettability of d-alumina with silicon oxide as binding medium was slightly

  4. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKigney, Edward Allen; Burrell, Anthony Keiran; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cooke, David Wayne; Ott, Kevin Curtis; Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal; Del Sesto, Rico Emilio; Gilbertson, Robert David; Muenchausen, Ross Edward; McCleskey, Thomas Mark

    2010-03-16

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  5. Pseudomonas biofilm matrix composition and niche biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ethan E.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are a predominant form of growth for bacteria in the environment and in the clinic. Critical for biofilm development are adherence, proliferation, and dispersion phases. Each of these stages includes reinforcement by, or modulation of, the extracellular matrix. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a model organism for the study of biofilm formation. Additionally, other Pseudomonas species utilize biofilm formation during plant colonization and environmental persistence. Pseudomonads produce several biofilm matrix molecules, including polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Accessory matrix components shown to aid biofilm formation and adaptability under varying conditions are also produced by pseudomonads. Adaptation facilitated by biofilm formation allows for selection of genetic variants with unique and distinguishable colony morphology. Examples include rugose small-colony variants and wrinkly spreaders (WS), which over produce Psl/Pel or cellulose, respectively, and mucoid bacteria that over produce alginate. The well-documented emergence of these variants suggests that pseudomonads take advantage of matrix-building subpopulations conferring specific benefits for the entire population. This review will focus on various polysaccharides as well as additional Pseudomonas biofilm matrix components. Discussions will center on structure–function relationships, regulation, and the role of individual matrix molecules in niche biology. PMID:22212072

  6. Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Studies of Fly Ash Reinforced AA-6351 Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uthayakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash particles are potentially used in metal matrix composites due to their low cost, low density, and availability in large quantities as waste by-products in thermal power plants. This study describes multifactor-based experiments that were applied to research and investigation on dry sliding wear system of stir-cast aluminum alloy 6351 with 5, 10, and 15 wt.% fly ash reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs. The effects of parameters such as load, sliding speed, and percentage of fly ash on the sliding wear, specific wear rate, and friction coefficient were analyzed using Grey relational analysis on a pin-on-disc machine. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was also employed to investigate which design parameters significantly affect the wear behavior of the composite. The results showed that the applied load exerted the greatest effect on the dry sliding wear followed by the sliding velocity.

  7. Fabrication of BN/Al(-Mg) metal matrix composite (MMC) by pressureless infiltration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W.G.; Kwon, H. [School of Advanced Materials Eng., Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    BN/Al(-Mg) metal matrix composite (MMC) was fabricated by the pressureless infiltration technique. The phase characterizations of the composites were analyzed using the SEM, TEM, EDS and EPMA on reaction products after the electrochemical dissolution of the matrix. It is confirmed that aluminum nitride (AlN) was formed by the reaction of Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2} and Al alloy melt. Plate type AlN and polyhedral type Mg(-Al) boride were formed by the reaction between Mg{sub 3}N{sub 2}, BN and molten Al in the composite. The reaction mechanism in the fabrication of BN/Al(-Mg) MMC was derived from the phase analysis results and the thermodynamic investigation. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of mechanical properties of aluminium alloy–alumina–boron carbide metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijaya Ramnath, B.; Elanchezhian, C.; Jaivignesh, M.; Rajesh, S.; Parswajinan, C.; Siddique Ahmed Ghias, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of MMC with aluminium alloy–alumina–boron carbide is done. • Different proportions of reinforcements are added. • The effects of varying proportions are studied. • Investigation on mechanical properties above composites is performed. • Failure morphology analysis is done using SEM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the fabrication and mechanical investigation of aluminium alloy, alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and boron carbide metal matrix composites. Aluminium is the matrix metal having properties like light weight, high strength and ease of machinability. Alumina which has better wear resistance, high strength, hardness and boron carbide which has excellent hardness and fracture toughness are added as reinforcements. Here, the fabrication is done by stir casting which involves mixing the required quantities of additives into stirred molten aluminium. After solidification, the samples are prepared and tested to find the various mechanical properties like tensile, flexural, impact and hardness. The internal structure of the composite is observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  9. Overall mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.; Bolt, H.

    2002-01-01

    The high-temperature strength and creep properties are among the crucial criteria for the structural materials of plasma facing components (PFC) of fusion reactors, as they will be subjected to severe thermal stresses. The fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites are a potential heat sink material for the PFC application, since the combination of different material properties can lead to versatile performances. In this article, the overall mechanical properties of two model composites based on theoretical predictions are presented. The matrix materials considered were a precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy and reduced activation martensitic steel 'Eurofer'. Continuous SiC fibers were used for the reinforcement. The results demonstrate that yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, work hardening rate and creep resistance could be extensively improved by the fiber reinforcement up to fiber content of 40 vol.%. The influence of the residual stresses on the plastic behavior of the composites is also discussed

  10. Deformation behavior of Mg-alloy-based composites at different temperatures studied by neutron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farkas, Gergely; Máthis, K.; Pilch, Jan; Minárik, P.; Lukáš, Petr; Vinogradov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 685, FEB (2017), s. 284-293 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : magnesium alloy matrix composite s * neutron diffraction * deformation * twinning Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.094, year: 2016

  11. Wear Resistance of TiC Reinforced Cast Steel Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobula S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wear resistance of TiC-cast steel metal matrix composite has been investigated. Composites were obtained with SHSB method known as SHS synthesis during casting. It has been shown the differences in wear between composite and base cast steel. The Miller slurry machine test were used to determine wear loss of the specimens. The slurry was composed of SiC and water. The worn surface of specimens after test, were studied by SEM. Experimental observation has shown that surface of composite zone is not homogenous and consist the matrix lakes. Microscopic observations revealed the long grooves with SiC particles indented in the base alloy area, and spalling pits in the composite area. Due to the presence of TiC carbides on composite layer, specimens with TiC reinforced cast steel exhibited higher abrasion resistance. The wear of TiC reinforced cast steel mechanism was initially by wearing of soft matrix and in second stage by polishing and spalling of TiC. Summary weight loss after 16hr test was 0,14÷0,23 g for composite specimens and 0,90 g for base steel.

  12. Wear resistance of laser-deposited boride reinforced Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloy composites for orthopedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Sonia; Nag, Soumya; Scharf, Thomas W.; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2008-01-01

    The inherently poor wear resistance of titanium alloys limits their application as femoral heads in femoral (hip) implants. Reinforcing the soft matrix of titanium alloys (including new generation β-Ti alloys) with hard ceramic precipitates such as borides offers the possibility of substantially enhancing the wear resistance of these composites. The present study discusses the microstructure and wear resistance of laser-deposited boride reinforced composites based on Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys. These composites have been deposited using the LENS TM process from a blend of elemental Ti, Nb, Zr, Ta, and boron powders and consist of complex borides dispersed in a matrix of β-Ti. The wear resistance of these composites has been compared with that of Ti-6Al-4V ELI, the current material of choice for orthopedic femoral implants, against two types of counterfaces, hard Si 3 N 4 and softer SS440C stainless steel. Results suggest a substantial improvement in the wear resistance of the boride reinforced Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloys as compared with Ti-6Al-4V ELI against the softer counterface of SS440. The presence of an oxide layer on the surface of these alloys and composites also appears to have a substantial effect in terms of enhanced wear resistance

  13. Modern Nondestructive Test Methods for Army Ceramic Matrix Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strand, Douglas J

    2008-01-01

    .... Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are potentially good high-temperature structural materials because of their low density, high elastic moduli, high strength, and for those with weak interfaces, surprisingly good damage tolerance...

  14. Diffraction measurements of residual stress in titanium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.R.; Bourke, M.A.; Goldstone, J.A.; Lawson, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    Metal matrix composites develop residual strains after consolidation due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the reinforcement fiber and the matrix. X-ray and neutron diffraction measured values for the longitudinal residual stress in the matrix of four titanium MMCs are reported. For thick composites (> 6 plies) the surface stress measured by x-ray diffraction matches that determined by neutron diffraction and therefore represents the stress in the bulk region consisting of the fibers and matrix. For thin sheet composites, the surface values are lower than in the interior and increase as the outer rows of fibers are approached. While a rationale for the behavior in the thin sheet has yet to be developed, accounting for composite thickness is important when using x-ray measured values to validate analytic and finite element calculations of the residual stress state

  15. Exploration the extrudability of aluminum matrix composite (LM6/TIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluminum matrix composites (LM6/TiC) is a mix of excellent properties of aluminum ... ABAQUS/CAE software has been successfully employed for Modeling and ... Experimental results show that, many mechanical properties are improved and ...

  16. Transverse thermal expansion of carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, J. F.; Diefendorf, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal expansion coefficients and moduli of elasticity have been determined experimentally for a series of epoxy-matrix composites reinforced with carbon and Kevlar fibers. It is found that in the transverse direction the difference between the properties of the fiber and the matrix is not as pronounced as in the longitudinal direction, where the composite properties are fiber-dominated. Therefore, the pattern of fiber packing tends to affect transverse composite properties. The transverse properties of the composites tested are examined from the standpoint of the concept of homogeneity defined as the variation of packing (or lack thereof) throughout a sample.

  17. Review on preparation techniques of particle reinforced metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Bin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the investigation status of the techniques for preparation of metal matrix composites and the research outcomes achieved recently. The mechanisms, characteristics, application ranges and levels of development of these preparation techniques are analyzed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each technique are synthetically evaluated. Lastly, the future directions of research and the prospects for the preparation techniques of metal matrix composites are forecasted.

  18. Insight into the Effects of Reinforcement Shape on Achieving Continuous Martensite Transformation in Phase Transforming Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xudong; Ren, Junqiang; Wang, Xiaofei; Zong, Hongxiang; Cui, Lishan; Ding, Xiangdong

    2017-12-01

    A continuous martensite transformation is indispensable for achieving large linear superelasticity and low modulus in phase transforming metal-based composites. However, determining how to accurately condition the residual martensite in a shape memory alloy matrix though the reinforcement shape to achieve continuous martensite transformation has been a challenge. Here, we take the finite element method to perform a comparative study of the effects of nanoinclusion shape on the interaction and martensite phase transformation in this new composite. Two typical samples are compared: one reinforced by metallic nanowires and the other by nanoparticles. We find that the residual martensite within the shape memory alloy matrix after a pretreatment can be tailored by the reinforcement shape. In particular, our results show that the shape memory alloy matrix can retain enough residual martensite phases to achieve continuous martensite transformation in the subsequent loading when the aspect ratio of nanoreinforcement is larger than 20. In contrast, the composites reinforced with spherical or low aspect ratio reinforcement show a typical nonlinear superelasticity as a result of a low stress transfer-induced discontinuous martensite transformation within the shape memory alloy matrix.

  19. Microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum alloy composites produced by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raviathul Basariya, M.; Srivastava, V.C.; Mukhopadhyay, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 6082 Al alloy composite with 2 wt% multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared by milling. • Effect of milling time on structure and property evolution has been studied. • The reinforced composite powders showed a drastic crystallite size refinement. • The presence of carbon nanotube led to a two fold increase in the hardness and modulus. • The composite powder showed good thermal stability studied by DTA. - Abstract: The influence of milling time on the structure, morphology and thermal stability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced EN AW6082 aluminum alloy powders has been studied. After structural and microstructural characterization of the mechanically milled powders micro- and nano-hardness of the composite powder particles were evaluated. The morphological and X-ray diffraction studies on the milled powders revealed that the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were uniformly distributed and embedded within the aluminum matrix. No reaction products were detected even after long milling up to 50 h. Nanotubes became shorter in length as they fractured under the impact and shearing action during the milling process. A high hardness of about 436 ± 52 HV is achieved for the milled powders, due to the addition of MWCNTs, after milling for 50 h. The increased elastic modulus and nanohardness can be attributed to the finer grain size evolved during high energy ball milling and to the uniform distribution of hard CNTs in the Al-alloy matrix. The hardness values of the composite as well as the matrix alloy compares well with that predicted by the Hall–Petch relationship

  20. Rheological Behavior and Microstructure of Ceramic Particulate/Aluminum Alloy Composites. Ph.D. Thesis Final Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hee-Kyung

    1990-01-01

    The rheological behavior and microstructure were investigated using a concentric cylinder viscometer for three different slurries: semi-solid alloy slurries of a matrix alloy, Al-6.5wt percent Si: composite slurries, SiC (sub p) (8.5 microns)/Al-6.5wt percent Si, with the same matrix alloy in the molten state, and composite slurries of the same composition with the matrix alloy in the semi-solid state. The pseudoplasticity of these slurries was obtained by step changes of the shear rate from a given initial shear rate. To study the thixotropic behavior of the system, a slurry was allowed to rest for different periods of time, prior to shearing at a given initial shear rate. In the continuous cooling experiments, the viscosities of these slurries were dependent on the shear rate, cooling rate, volume fraction of the primary solid of the matrix alloy, and volume fraction of silicon carbide. In the isothermal experiments, all three kinds of slurries exhibited non-Newtonian behavior, depending on the volume fraction of solid particles.

  1. Reactive synthesis of NbAl3 matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.; Kim, Y.S.; Gokhale, A.B.; Abbaschian, R.

    1990-01-01

    NbAl 3 matrix composites were synthesized in-situ via reactive hot compaction (RHC) of elemental powders. It was found that the simultaneous application of pressure during synthesis was effective in attaining a near-theoretical density matrix at relatively low temperatures and pressures. Using this technique, two types of composites were produced: matrices containing a uniform dispersion of second phase particles (either Nb 3 Al or Nb 2 Al with an Nb core or Nb 2 Al) and matrices reinforced with coated or uncoated ductile Nb filaments. It was found that a limited amount of toughening is obtained using the first approach, while composites containing coated Nb filaments exhibited a significant increase in the ambient temperature fracture toughness. In this paper, various aspects of RHC processing of NbAl 3 matrix composites, the effect of initial stoichiometry and powder size on the microstructure, as well as the mechanical behavior of the composites are discussed

  2. An Assessment of Mechanical and Tribological Property of Hybrid Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Santosh Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials has huge requirement in the area of automobile, aerospace, and wear resistant applications. This study presents the synthesis of composite reinforced with SiC and Al2O3 using gravity stir casting. Stir casting is the manufacturing process that is incorporated to produce the composite material because of its extreme bonding capacity with base material. The composition of reinforcement with 6061 aluminium matrix is SiC-7.5% and Al2O3 -2.5% respectively. The average size of reinforcement particle is 30-40 microns. The synthesised composite casting is machined using EDM to prepare specimens for various tests. Microstructure study was carried and the microstructure images prove the existence and dispersion of reinforcement particles in the metal matrix. There is no visible porosity is observed. The hardness of the specimen is tested using Vickers hardness tester and found considerable increase when compare with parent alloy Al 6061. Also mechanical and tribological properties of hybrid Aluminium metal matrix composite were employed. The fortifying material, Silicon Carbide is composed of tetrahedral of carbon and silicon atoms with strong bonds in crystal lattice along with its excellent wear resistance property and alumina have high strength and wear resistance. To avoid enormous material wastage and to achieve absolute accuracy, wire-cut EDM process is capitalised to engrave the specimen as per required dimensions. Three Tensile test specimens were prepared, in order to achieve reliability in results as per ASTM- E8 standard, and the values were tabulated. Impact test was carried out and the readings were tabulated. Wear test was carried out using pin on disc wear test apparatus and the results show considerable increase in wear resistant property when compare with parent alloy Al6061.The above work proves the successful fabrication of composite and evaluation of properties.

  3. Effect of matrix cracking and material uncertainty on composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri, P.; Umesh, K.; Ganguli, R.

    2010-01-01

    A laminated composite plate model based on first order shear deformation theory is implemented using the finite element method. Matrix cracks are introduced into the finite element model by considering changes in the A, B and D matrices of composites. The effects of different boundary conditions, laminate types and ply angles on the behavior of composite plates with matrix cracks are studied. Finally, the effect of material property uncertainty, which is important for composite material on the composite plate, is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Probabilistic estimates of damage detection reliability in composite plates are made for static and dynamic measurements. It is found that the effect of uncertainty must be considered for accurate damage detection in composite structures. The estimates of variance obtained for observable system properties due to uncertainty can be used for developing more robust damage detection algorithms.

  4. Friction Stir Processing of Copper-Coated SiC Particulate-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we proposed a novel friction stir processing (FSP to produce a locally reinforced aluminum matrix composite (AMC by stirring copper-coated SiC particulate reinforcement into Al6061 alloy matrix. Electroless-plating process was applied to deposit the copper surface coating on the SiC particulate reinforcement for the purpose of improving the interfacial adhesion between SiC particles and Al matrix. The core-shell SiC structure provides a layer for the atomic diffusion between aluminum and copper to enhance the cohesion between reinforcing particles and matrix on one hand, the dispersion of fine copper in the Al matrix during FSP provides further dispersive strengthening and solid solution strengthening, on the other hand. Hardness distribution and tensile results across the stir zone validated the novel concept in improving the mechanical properties of AMC that was realized via FSP. Optical microscope (OM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM investigations were conducted to investigate the microstructure. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD were explored to analyze the atomic inter-diffusion and the formation of intermetallic at interface. The possible strengthening mechanisms of the AMC containing Cu-coated SiC particulate reinforcement were interpreted. The concept of strengthening developed in this work may open a new way of fabricating of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites.

  5. The Candida albicans Biofilm Matrix: Composition, Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Christopher G; Vila, Taissa; Romo, Jesus A; Montelongo-Jauregui, Daniel; Wall, Gina; Ramasubramanian, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2017-03-01

    A majority of infections caused by Candida albicans -the most frequent fungal pathogen-are associated with biofilm formation. A salient feature of C. albicans biofilms is the presence of the biofilm matrix. This matrix is composed of exopolymeric materials secreted by sessile cells within the biofilm, in which all classes of macromolecules are represented, and provides protection against environmental challenges. In this review, we summarize the knowledge accumulated during the last two decades on the composition, structure, and function of the C. albicans biofilm matrix. Knowledge of the matrix components, its structure, and function will help pave the way to novel strategies to combat C. albicans biofilm infections.

  6. MO-HF-C alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, E.P.; Kalns, E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes, as an article of manufacture, a cast ingot of a molybdenum-hafnium-carbon alloy consisting essentially by weight of about 0.6% to about 1% Hf, about 0.045% to about 0.08% C, and the balance essentially molybdenum. The amount of Hf and C present are substantially stoichiometric with respect to HfC and within about +-15% of stoichiometry. The ingot is characterized in that it has a substantially less tendency to crack compared to alloys containing Hf in excess of about 1% by weight and carbon in excess of 0.08% by weight, without substantial diminution in strength properties of the alloy

  7. The aqueous corrosion behavior of technetium - Alloy and composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, G.; Kolman, D.; Taylor, C.; Goff, G.; Cisneros, M.; Mausolf, E.; Poineau, F.; Koury, D.; Czerwinski, K.

    2013-01-01

    Metal waste forms are under study as possible disposal forms for technetium and other fission products. The alloying of Tc is desirable to reduce the melting point of the Tc-containing metal waste form and potentially improve its corrosion resistance. Technetium-nickel composites were made by mixing the two metal powders and pressing the mixture to make a pellet. The as-pressed composite materials were compared to sintered composites and alloys of identical composition in electrochemical corrosion tests. As-pressed samples were not robust enough for fine polishing and only a limited number of corrosion tests were performed. Alloys and composites with 10 wt% Tc appear to be more corrosion resistant at open circuit than the individual components based on linear polarization resistance and polarization data. The addition of 10 wt% Tc to Ni appears beneficial at open circuit, but detrimental upon anodic polarization. Qualitatively, the polarizations of 10 wt% Tc alloys and composites appear like crude addition of Tc plus Ni. The 1 wt% Tc alloys behave like pure Ni, but some effect of Tc is seen upon polarization. Cathodic polarization of Tc by Ni appears feasible based on open circuit potential measurements, however, zero resistance ammetry and solution measurements are necessary to confirm cathodic protection

  8. The aqueous corrosion behavior of technetium - Alloy and composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G.; Kolman, D.; Taylor, C.; Goff, G.; Cisneros, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mausolf, E.; Poineau, F.; Koury, D.; Czerwinski, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Metal waste forms are under study as possible disposal forms for technetium and other fission products. The alloying of Tc is desirable to reduce the melting point of the Tc-containing metal waste form and potentially improve its corrosion resistance. Technetium-nickel composites were made by mixing the two metal powders and pressing the mixture to make a pellet. The as-pressed composite materials were compared to sintered composites and alloys of identical composition in electrochemical corrosion tests. As-pressed samples were not robust enough for fine polishing and only a limited number of corrosion tests were performed. Alloys and composites with 10 wt% Tc appear to be more corrosion resistant at open circuit than the individual components based on linear polarization resistance and polarization data. The addition of 10 wt% Tc to Ni appears beneficial at open circuit, but detrimental upon anodic polarization. Qualitatively, the polarizations of 10 wt% Tc alloys and composites appear like crude addition of Tc plus Ni. The 1 wt% Tc alloys behave like pure Ni, but some effect of Tc is seen upon polarization. Cathodic polarization of Tc by Ni appears feasible based on open circuit potential measurements, however, zero resistance ammetry and solution measurements are necessary to confirm cathodic protection.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of TiC0.5 reinforced copper matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengqi; Zhai, Hongxiang; Huang, Zhenying; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yang; Li, Shibo; Li, Cuiwei

    2013-01-01

    Cu–Al alloy matrix composites containing in-situ TiC 0.5 particles were fabricated by sintering of a mixture of Cu and Ti 2 AlC powders at 1150 °C for 60 min in Ar atmosphere. The micron-sized Ti 2 AlC particles were decomposed into submicron TiC 0.5 grains during the sintering process, meanwhile, Al atoms entered into Cu to form Cu–Al alloy matrix. It was shown that the Cu–Al alloy matrix also consisted of ultrafine grains. Compression tests indicate TiC 0.5 particles can improve mechanical properties significantly, and the ductility maintains at a comparatively high level. The fracture strength of 40Ti 2 AlC/Cu sample reaches 1126 MPa with 12.8% fracture strain. The 20Ti 2 AlC/Cu and 30Ti 2 AlC/Cu samples keep undamaged even after the strain of 26.7%

  10. In-situ ductile metal/bulk metallic glass matrix composites formed by chemical partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong Paul; Hays, Charles C.; Johnson, William L.

    2004-03-23

    A composite metal object comprises ductile crystalline metal particles in an amorphous metal matrix. An alloy is heated above its liquidus temperature. Upon cooling from the high temperature melt, the alloy chemically partitions, forming dendrites in the melt. Upon cooling the remaining liquid below the glass transition temperature it freezes to the amorphous state, producing a two-phase microstructure containing crystalline particles in an amorphous metal matrix. The ductile metal particles have a size in the range of from 0.1 to 15 micrometers and spacing in the range of from 0.1 to 20 micrometers. Preferably, the particle size is in the range of from 0.5 to 8 micrometers and spacing is in the range of from 1 to 10 micrometers. The volume proportion of particles is in the range of from 5 to 50% and preferably 15 to 35%. Differential cooling can produce oriented dendrites of ductile metal phase in an amorphous matrix. Examples are given in the Zr--Ti--Cu--Ni--Be alloy bulk glass forming system with added niobium.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of TiC{sub 0.5} reinforced copper matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengqi; Zhai, Hongxiang, E-mail: hxzhai@sina.com; Huang, Zhenying; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yang; Li, Shibo; Li, Cuiwei

    2013-12-20

    Cu–Al alloy matrix composites containing in-situ TiC{sub 0.5} particles were fabricated by sintering of a mixture of Cu and Ti{sub 2}AlC powders at 1150 °C for 60 min in Ar atmosphere. The micron-sized Ti{sub 2}AlC particles were decomposed into submicron TiC{sub 0.5} grains during the sintering process, meanwhile, Al atoms entered into Cu to form Cu–Al alloy matrix. It was shown that the Cu–Al alloy matrix also consisted of ultrafine grains. Compression tests indicate TiC{sub 0.5} particles can improve mechanical properties significantly, and the ductility maintains at a comparatively high level. The fracture strength of 40Ti{sub 2}AlC/Cu sample reaches 1126 MPa with 12.8% fracture strain. The 20Ti{sub 2}AlC/Cu and 30Ti{sub 2}AlC/Cu samples keep undamaged even after the strain of 26.7%.

  12. Electrochemical characteristics of a carbon fibre composite and the associated galvanic effects with aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z., E-mail: zuojia.liu@gmail.com; Curioni, M.; Jamshidi, P.; Walker, A.; Prengnell, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Exposed carbon fibres on two defined regions (“front” and “side”) are a focus of the investigation in NaCl electrolyte. • The exposed carbon fibres on the side and front regions are responsible for a high cathodic current density. • The NaCl + CuSO{sub 4} electrolyte was used to investigate the cathodic polarization behaviour of the exposed carbon fibres. • Galvanic coupling behaviour between the composite and aluminium alloys (AA7075-T6 and AA1050) was measured in NaCl electrolyte. • The higher galvanic current density measured on AA1050 alloy introduced a higher dissolution rate than the AA7075-T6 alloy. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced epoxy matrix composite in 3.5% NaCl and 3.5% NaCl + 0.5 M CuSO{sub 4} electrolytes was examined by potentiodynamic polarisation, potentiostatic polarisation and scanning electron microscopy. Exposed carbon fibres on two defined regions (“front” and “side”) are a focus of the investigation. The large size of the exposed carbon fibres on the side region is responsible for a higher cathodic current density than the front region in the NaCl electrolyte. The deposition of copper on the front surface of composite confirmed that the significantly higher cathodic current resulted from the exposure of the fibres to the NaCl electrolyte. Galvanic coupling between the composite and individual aluminium alloys (AA7075-T6 and AA1050) was used to measure galvanic potentials and galvanic current densities. The highly alloyed AA7075-T6 alloy and its high population density of cathodic sites compared to the AA1050 acted to reduce the galvanic effect when coupled to the composite front or side regions.

  13. Mechanical Properties of SiC, Al2O3 Reinforced Aluminium 6061-T6 Hybrid Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S. Senthil; Jegan, V.; Velmurugan, M.

    2018-04-01

    This paper contains the investigation of tensile, compression and impact characterization of SiC, Al2O3 reinforced Aluminium 6061-T6 matrix hybrid composite. Hybrid matrix composite fabrication was done by stir casting method. An attempt has been made by keeping Al2O3 percentage (7%) constant and increasing SiC percentage (10, 15, and 20%). After fabricating, the samples were prepared and tested to find out the various mechanical properties like tensile, compressive, and impact strength of the developed composites of different weight % of silicon carbide and Alumina in Aluminium alloy. The main objective of the study is to compare the values obtained and choose the best composition of the hybrid matrix composite from the mechanical properties point of view.

  14. Aluminum matrix composites reinforced with alumina nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Casati, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the latest efforts to develop aluminum nanocomposites with enhanced damping and mechanical properties and good workability. The nanocomposites exhibited high strength, improved damping behavior and good ductility, making them suitable for use as wires. Since the production of metal matrix nanocomposites by conventional melting processes is considered extremely problematic (because of the poor wettability of the nanoparticles), different powder metallurgy routes were investigated, including high-energy ball milling and unconventional compaction methods. Special attention was paid to the structural characterization at the micro- and nanoscale, as uniform nanoparticle dispersion in metal matrix is of prime importance. The aluminum nanocomposites displayed an ultrafine microstructure reinforced with alumina nanoparticles produced in situ or added ex situ. The physical, mechanical and functional characteristics of the materials produced were evaluated using different mechanical tests and micros...

  15. Experimental study on mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interface in metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Chiang, F.P.

    1994-01-01

    The technique SIEM(Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) was employed to quantitatively measure the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface in SCS-6/Ti-6-4 composite at a microscale level. The displacement field within the fiber/matrix interphase zone was determined by in-situ observation with sensitivity of 0.003(microm). The macro-mechanical properties were compared with micro-mechanical behavior. It is shown that the strength in the interphase zone is weaker than the matrix tensile strength. The deformation process can be characterized by the uniform deformation, interface strain concentration and debond, and matrix plastic deformation

  16. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao

    2016-12-07

    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  17. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  18. Cavitation instabilities between fibres in a metal matrix composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    induced by bonding to the ceramics that only show elastic deformation. In an MMC the stress state in the metal matrix is highly non-uniform, varying between regions where shear stresses are dominant and regions where hydrostatic tension is strong. An Al–SiC whisker composite with a periodic pattern......Short fibre reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are studied here to investigate the possibility that a cavitation instability can develop in the metal matrix. The high stress levels needed for a cavitation instability may occur in metal–ceramic systems due to the constraint on plastic flow...... of transversely staggered fibres is here modelled by using an axisymmetric cell model analysis. First the critical stress level is determined for a cavitation instability in an infinite solid made of the Al matrix material. By studying composites with different distributions and aspect ratios of the fibres...

  19. Effects of thermal residual stresses and fiber packing on deformation of metal-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Suresh, S.

    1993-01-01

    The combined effects of thermal residual stresses and fiber spatial distribution on the deformation of a 6061 aluminum alloy containing a fixed concentration unidirectional boron fibers have been analyzed using detailed finite element models. The geometrical structure includes perfectly periodic, uniformly space fiber arrangements in square and hexagonal cells, as well as different cells in which either 30 or 60 fibers are randomly placed in the ductile matrix. The model involves an elastic-plastic matrix, elastic fibers, and mechanically bonded interfaces. The results indicate that both fiber packing and thermal residual stresses can have a significant effect on the stress-strain characteristics of the composite. The thermal residual stresses cause pronounced matrix yielding which also influences the apparent overall stiffness of the composite during the initial stages of subsequent far-field loading along the axial and transverse direction. Furthermore, the thermal residual stresses apparently elevate the flow stress of the composite during transverse tension. Such effects can be traced back to the level of constraint imposed on the matrix by local fiber spacing. The implications of the present results to the processing of the composites are also briefly addressed

  20. A Brief Research Review for Improvement Methods the Wettability between Ceramic Reinforcement Particulate and Aluminium Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Alaa Mohammed; Majid, Dayang Laila Abang Abdul; Ishak, M. R.; B, Uday M.

    2017-05-01

    The development of new methods for addition fine ceramic powders to Al aluminium alloy melts, which would lead to more uniform distribution and effective incorporation of the reinforcement particles into the aluminium matrix alloy. Recently the materials engineering research has moved to composite materials from monolithic, adapting to the global need for lightweight, low cost, quality, and high performance advanced materials. Among the different methods, stir casting is one of the simplest ways of making aluminium matrix composites. However, it suffers from poor distribution and combination of the reinforcement ceramic particles in the metal matrix. These problems become significantly effect to reduce reinforcement size, more agglomeration and tendency with less wettability for the ceramic particles in the melt process. Many researchers have carried out different studies on the wettability between the metal matrix and dispersion phase, which includes added wettability agents, fluxes, preheating the reinforcement particles, coating the reinforcement particles, and use composting techniques. The enhancement of wettability of ceramic particles by the molten matrix alloy and the reinforcement particles distribution improvement in the solidified matrix is the main objective for many studies that will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Interfacial reaction in cast WC particulate reinforced titanium metal matrix composites coating produced by laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejian; Hu, Peipei; Min, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Laser injection of ceramic particle was conducted to produce particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Cast WC particle (WCp) was used as injection reinforcement to avoid excessive release of carbon atoms into the melt pool. The interfaces and boundaries between WC and Ti matrix were investigated by electron microscopy study. Compared with single crystal WCp, cast WCp was an appropriate solution to control the reaction products (TiC) in the matrix and the total amount of reaction products was significantly reduced. Irregular-shape reaction layers were formed around cast WCp. The reaction layers consist of a W2C layer and a mixed layer of W and TiC. Such reaction layers are effective in load transfer under an external load.

  2. Bulk metallic glass matrix composite for good biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjoub, F; Metiri, W; Doghmane, A; Hadjoub, Z

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement volume fraction effects on acoustical parameters of Zr 41.2 Ti 13.8 Cu 12.5 Ni 10 Be 22.5 matrix composites reinforced by Mg, Ag and Cd metals have been studied via a simulation program based on acoustic microscopy technique. Moreover, acoustical parameters of human bone were compared to those of BMGs in both monolithic and reinforced case. It was found that elastic behavior of BMGs matrix composites in high reinforcement volume fraction is similar of that of human bone. This behavior leads to high biocompatibility and good transfer of stress between composite material and human system.

  3. Development of On-line Monitoring System for Shape Memory Alloy Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Park, Young Chul; Lee, Min Rae; Lee, Dong Hwa; Lee, Kyu Chang

    2003-01-01

    A hot press method was use for the optimal manufacturing condition for a shape memory alloy(SMA) composite. The bonding between the matrix and the reinforcement within the SMA composite by the hot press method was strengthened by cold rolling. In this study, the objective was to develop an on-line monitoring system for the prevention of the crack initiation and propagation by shape memory effort of SMA composite. Shape memory effect was used to prevent the SMA composite from cracking. For the system to be developed, an optimal hE parameter should be determined based on the degree of damage and crack initiation. When the SHA composite was heated by the plate heater attached at the composite, the propagating cracks appeared to be controlled by the compressive force of SMA

  4. Standard Guide for Testing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the application of ASTM standard test methods (and other supporting standards) to continuous-fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite materials. The most commonly used or most applicable ASTM standards are included, emphasizing use of standards of Committee D30 on Composite Materials. 1.2 This guide does not cover all possible standards that could apply to polymer matrix composites and restricts discussion to the documented scope. Commonly used but non-standard industry extensions of test method scopes, such as application of static test methods to fatigue testing, are not discussed. A more complete summary of general composite testing standards, including non-ASTM test methods, is included in the Composite Materials Handbook (MIL-HDBK-17). Additional specific recommendations for testing textile (fabric, braided) composites are contained in Guide D6856. 1.3 This guide does not specify a system of measurement; the systems specified within each of the referenced standards shall appl...

  5. Graphene-reinforced aluminum matrix composites prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-ming Tian; Song-mei Li; Bo Wang; Xin Chen; Jian-hua Liu; Mei Yu

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-reinforced 7055 aluminum alloy composites with different contents of graphene were prepared by spark plasma sinter-ing (SPS). The structure and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Testing results show that the hardness, compressive strength, and yield strength of the composites are improved with the addition of 1wt% graphene. A clean, strong interface is formed between the metal matrix and graphene via metallurgical bonding on atomic scale. Harmful aluminum carbide (Al4C3) is not formed during SPS processing. Further addition of graphene (above 1wt%) results in the deterioration in mechanical properties of the composites. The agglomeration of graphene plates is exacerbated with increasing graphene content, which is the main reason for this deterioration.

  6. Machinability of titanium metal matrix composites (Ti-MMCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, Maryam

    Titanium metal matrix composites (Ti-MMCs), as a new generation of materials, have various potential applications in aerospace and automotive industries. The presence of ceramic particles enhances the physical and mechanical properties of the alloy matrix. However, the hard and abrasive nature of these particles causes various issues in the field of their machinability. Severe tool wear and short tool life are the most important drawbacks of machining this class of materials. There is very limited work in the literature regarding the machinability of this class of materials especially in the area of tool life estimation and tool wear. By far, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tools appear to be the best choice for machining MMCs from researchers' point of view. However, due to their high cost, economical alternatives are sought. Cubic boron nitride (CBN) inserts, as the second hardest available tools, show superior characteristics such as great wear resistance, high hardness at elevated temperatures, a low coefficient of friction and a high melting point. Yet, so far CBN tools have not been studied during machining of Ti-MMCs. In this study, a comprehensive study has been performed to explore the tool wear mechanisms of CBN inserts during turning of Ti-MMCs. The unique morphology of the worn faces of the tools was investigated for the first time, which led to new insights in the identification of chemical wear mechanisms during machining of Ti-MMCs. Utilizing the full tool life capacity of cutting tools is also very crucial, due to the considerable costs associated with suboptimal replacement of tools. This strongly motivates development of a reliable model for tool life estimation under any cutting conditions. In this study, a novel model based on the survival analysis methodology is developed to estimate the progressive states of tool wear under any cutting conditions during machining of Ti-MMCs. This statistical model takes into account the machining time in

  7. Interfacial reactions in intermetallic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, L.B.; Clevenger, E.M.; Perepezko, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal stability of advanced composites is dominated by the behavior of internal interfaces. Analysis of these internal interfaces often involves consideration of at least ternary order phase equilibria. Limited thermodynamic data exists for ternary and higher order systems. However, a combined approach based upon the use of binary data to estimate ternary phase equilibria and experimentally determined reaction pathways is effective in the analysis of interface reactions in composite systems. In blended powder samples, thermal analysis was used to find possible reaction temperatures, while X-ray analysis, EDS, and EPMA of diffusion couples were used to assess interdiffusion reaction pathways. The approach is illustrated by compatibility studies between TiAl and TiSi 2 at 1,100 C, and in-situ reactions between B 4 C and TiAl at 1300 C where multiple reaction sequences have been analyzed to provide guidance for the design of in-situ reaction processing of composites

  8. Microstructural and hardness behavior of graphene-nanoplatelets/aluminum composites synthesized by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Bustamante, R.; Bolaños-Morales, D.; Bonilla-Martínez, J.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pure aluminum was reinforced with graphene-platelets by using mechanical milling. • The composites were studied after sintering condition. • Milling time and graphene-platelet enhance the mechanical behavior of the composites. - Abstract: Graphene can be considered as an ideal reinforcement for the production of composites due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These characteristics offer an increased opportunity for their study in the production of metal matrix composites (MMCs). In this research, the studied composites were produced by mechanical alloying (MA). The employed milling times were of 1, 3 and 5 h. GNPs were added in 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 wt% into an aluminum powder matrix. Milled powders were cold consolidated and subsequently sintered. Composites were microstructurally characterized with Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hardness behavior in composites was evaluated with a Vickers micro-hardness test. A homogeneous dispersion of graphene during MA and the proper selection of sintering conditions were considered to produce optimized composites. The obtained results with electron microscopy indicate a homogeneous dispersion of GNPs into the aluminum matrix. Analyses showed GNPs edges where the structure of the graphene layers conserved after MA is observed

  9. Formation of soft magnetic high entropy amorphous alloys composites containing in situ solid solution phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Sun, Huan; Chen, Chen; Tao, Juan; Li, Fushan

    2018-03-01

    Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy amorphous alloys composites (HEAACs), which containing high entropy solid solution phase in amorphous matrix, show good soft magnetic properties and bending ductility even in optimal annealed state, were successfully developed by melt spinning method. The crystallization phase of the HEAACs is solid solution phase with body centered cubic (BCC) structure instead of brittle intermetallic phase. In addition, the BCC phase can transformed into face centered cubic (FCC) phase with temperature rise. Accordingly, Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy alloys (HEAs) with FCC structure and a small amount of BCC phase was prepared by copper mold casting method. The HEAs exhibit high yield strength (about 1200 MPa) and good plastic strain (about 18%). Meanwhile, soft magnetic characteristics of the HEAs are largely reserved from HEAACs. This work provides a new strategy to overcome the annealing induced brittleness of amorphous alloys and design new advanced materials with excellent comprehensive properties.

  10. Modeling the curing process of thermosetting resin matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    A model is presented for simulating the curing process of a thermosetting resin matrix composite. The model relates the cure temperature, the cure pressure, and the properties of the prepreg to the thermal, chemical, and rheological processes occurring in the composite during cure. The results calculated with the computer code developed on the basis of the model were compared with the experimental data obtained from autoclave-curved composite laminates. Good agreement between the two sets of results was obtained.

  11. Correlation of microstructure and compressive properties of amorphous matrix composites reinforced with tungsten continuous fibers or porous foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Chang-Young; Lee, Sang-Bok; Lee, Sang-Kwan; Kim, Choongnyun Paul; Lee, Sunghak

    2010-01-01

    Zr-based amorphous alloy matrix composites reinforced with tungsten continuous fibers or porous foams were fabricated without pores or defects by liquid pressing process, and their microstructures and compressive properties were investigated. About 65-70 vol.% of tungsten reinforcements were homogeneously distributed inside the amorphous matrix. The compressive test results indicated that the tungsten-reinforced composites showed considerable plastic strain as the compressive load was sustained by fibers or foams. Particularly in the tungsten porous foam-reinforced composite, the compressive stress continued to increase according to the work hardening after the yielding, thereby leading to the maximum strength of 2764 MPa and the plastic strain of 39.4%. This dramatic increase in strength and ductility was attributed to the simultaneous and homogeneous deformation at tungsten foams and amorphous matrix since tungsten foams did not show anisotropy and tungsten/matrix interfaces were excellent.

  12. Effects of composition on the order-disorder transformation in Ni-Cr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marucco, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Ni-Cr based alloys undergo an ordering transformation, due to the formation of an ordered Ni 2 Cr phase, which causes a lattice contraction and it is responsisble for ''negative creep'' or excessive stresses in constrained components. A short-range ordered (SRO) structure develops in the matrix phase after solution treatment and at early stages of ageing, which can transform to a long-range ordered (LRO) structure, depending on the alloy composition and on time and temperature of ageing, upon prolonged annealing below the critical temperature. In stoichiometric Ni 2 Cr alloy LRO forms in a few hours, but in off-stoichiometric alloys the transformation kinetics are very sluggish and LRO takes several tens of thousands of hours to form, when it forms. The ordering behaviours of stoichiometric Ni 2 Cr and Ni 3 Cr were studied by means of isothermal treatments in the temperature range 450-600degC for different ageing times up to 30 000 h, followed by lattice parameter measurements by X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. Similar studies performed on a series of ternary Ni-Cr-Fe alloys revealed the dependence of the degree of order on Cr concentration and a markedly delaying influence of Fe on the ordering kinetics. Finally, long-term microstructural stability of some commercial Ni-Cr based alloys, widely used for high temperature applications, have been studied: the ordering behaviour and associated microstructural changes are discussed in this paper

  13. The effect of composition on volatility from a copper alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K.A.; Smolik, G.R.; Wallace, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    During a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) activated structural material can be mobilized through oxidation. Information on how much material is mobilized in an accident is necessary for performing safety assessments of fusion reactor designs. The Fusion Safety Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has an experimental program to measure mobilized mass as a function of temperature for various oxidizing environments. Materials studied have included beryllium (important because of its toxicity), copper alloys, a niobium alloy, PCA and HT-9 steel, tungsten (pure and an alloy), and a vanadium alloy. Some materials undergo a significant change in composition during irradiation. An example of this is copper (a candidate for the ITER first wall, divertor substrate, and various instrumentation probes and antennas), which can have as much as 1 wt% zinc due to transmutation. Additionally, as the design for ITER evolves, a slightly different copper alloy may be selected. Compositional changes may affect the extent that various elements are volatilized due to such mechanisms as diffusion through the alloy, and penetration and release from oxide layers formed on the material. To accurately calculate offsite doses for various irradiation scenarios, one must understand the effect of composition on volatility

  14. Morphology and dispersion of FeCo alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a matrix of IR pyrolized polyvinyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, A. A.; Dzidziguri, E. L.; Muratov, D. G.; Zhilyaeva, N. A.; Efimov, M. N.; Karpacheva, G. P.

    2018-04-01

    Metal-carbon nanocomposites consisting of FeCo alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a carbon matrix were synthesized by the thermal decomposition method of a precursor based on polyvinyl alcohol and metals salts. The synthesized powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent spectrometry (XRFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface characteristics of materials were measured by BET-method. The morphology and dispersity of metal nanoparticles were studied depending on the metals ratio in the composite.

  15. Tool material effect on the friction stir butt welding of AA2124-T4 Alloy Matrix MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Bozkurt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to study on the effect of material properties tool on friction stir butt welding of AA2124-T4 alloy matrix MMC. Uncoated tool, coated tool with a CrN, and coated tool with AlTiN were used to weld aluminum MMC plates. Macrostructure and microstructure observations, ultimate tensile strength, wear resistance, and chemical analysis were carried out to determine the appropriate tool for joining these composite plates. Results showed that the good welded joints could be obtained when a tool is coated with AlTiN.

  16. Acoustic emission as a screening tool for ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojard, Greg; Goberman, Dan; Holowczak, John

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are composite materials with ceramic fibers in a high temperature matrix of ceramic or glass-ceramic. This emerging class of materials is viewed as enabling for efficiency improvements in many energy conversion systems. The key controlling property of ceramic matrix composites is a relatively weak interface between the matrix and the fiber that aids crack deflection and fiber pullout resulting in greatly increased toughness over monolithic ceramics. United Technologies Research Center has been investigating glass-ceramic composite systems as a tool to understand processing effects on material performance related to the performance of the weak interface. Changes in the interface have been shown to affect the mechanical performance observed in flexural testing and subsequent microstructural investigations have confirmed the performance (or lack thereof) of the interface coating. Recently, the addition of acoustic emission testing during flexural testing has aided the understanding of the characteristics of the interface and its performance. The acoustic emission onset stress changes with strength and toughness and this could be a quality tool in screening the material before further development and use. The results of testing and analysis will be shown and additional material from other ceramic matrix composite systems may be included to show trends.

  17. Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced by Nano-Particles—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Casati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composites reinforced by nano-particles are very promising materials, suitable for a large number of applications. These composites consist of a metal matrix filled with nano-particles featuring physical and mechanical properties very different from those of the matrix. The nano-particles can improve the base material in terms of wear resistance, damping properties and mechanical strength. Different kinds of metals, predominantly Al, Mg and Cu, have been employed for the production of composites reinforced by nano-ceramic particles such as carbides, nitrides, oxides as well as carbon nanotubes. The main issue of concern for the synthesis of these materials consists in the low wettability of the reinforcement phase by the molten metal, which does not allow the synthesis by conventional casting methods. Several alternative routes have been presented in literature for the production of nano-composites. This work is aimed at reviewing the most important manufacturing techniques used for the synthesis of bulk metal matrix nanocomposites. Moreover, the strengthening mechanisms responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties of nano-reinforced metal matrix composites have been reviewed and the main potential applications of this new class of materials are envisaged.

  18. Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, William

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are ceramic materials, such as SiC, that have been reinforced by high strength fibers, such as carbon. Designers are interested in using ceramic matrix composites because they have the capability of withstanding significant loads while at relatively high temperatures (in excess of 1,000 C). Ceramic matrix composites retain the ceramic materials ability to withstand high temperatures, but also possess a much greater ductility and toughness. Their high strength and medium toughness is what makes them of so much interest to the aerospace community. This work concentrated on two different tasks. The first task was to do an extensive literature search into the mechanical behavior of ceramic matrix composite materials. This report contains the results of this task. The second task was to use this understanding to help interpret the ceramic matrix composite mechanical test results that had already been obtained by NASA. Since the specific details of these test results are subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), they are reported in a separate document (Jordan, 1997).

  19. Effect of Forging Parameters on Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Al/Basalt Short Fiber Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with metal matrix composites (MMCs of Al 7075 alloy containing different weight percentage (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 basalt short fiber reinforcement and unreinforced matrix alloy. The samples were produced by the permanent stir casting technique. The casting ingots were cut into blanks to be forged in single stage and double stage, using MN press and graphite-based lubricant. The microstructures and fatigue properties of the matrix alloy and MMC samples were investigated in the as cast state and in the single and double stage forging operations. The microstructure results showed that the forged sample had a uniform distribution of the basalt short fiber throughout the specimens. Evaluation of the fatigue properties showed that the forged samples had higher values than those of the as cast counterparts. After forging, the enhancement of the fatigue strength of the matrix alloy was so significant and high in the case of 2.5 and 5.0 wt. percentage basalt short fiber reinforced MMC, and there was no enhancement in 7.5 and 10 weight percentages short fiber reinforced MMCs. The fracture damage was mainly due to decohesion at the matrix-fiber interface.

  20. Effect of forging parameters on low cycle fatigue behaviour of Al/basalt short fiber metal matrix composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthigeyan, R; Ranganath, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with metal matrix composites (MMCs) of Al 7075 alloy containing different weight percentage (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10) basalt short fiber reinforcement and unreinforced matrix alloy. The samples were produced by the permanent stir casting technique. The casting ingots were cut into blanks to be forged in single stage and double stage, using MN press and graphite-based lubricant. The microstructures and fatigue properties of the matrix alloy and MMC samples were investigated in the as cast state and in the single and double stage forging operations. The microstructure results showed that the forged sample had a uniform distribution of the basalt short fiber throughout the specimens. Evaluation of the fatigue properties showed that the forged samples had higher values than those of the as cast counterparts. After forging, the enhancement of the fatigue strength of the matrix alloy was so significant and high in the case of 2.5 and 5.0 wt. percentage basalt short fiber reinforced MMC, and there was no enhancement in 7.5 and 10 weight percentages short fiber reinforced MMCs. The fracture damage was mainly due to decohesion at the matrix-fiber interface.

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of stir cast ZX51/Al2O3p magnesium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmany-Gorji, Reza; Alizadeh, Ali; Jafari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium matrix composites can overcome the limitations of magnesium and its alloys. This paper investigates the effect of adding Al 2 O 3 microparticles on microstructure and mechanical response of ZX51 alloy-matrix composites. Stir casting process was chosen due largely to its low cost to fabricate the novel ZX51/Al 2 O 3 p composites. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry were used in order to analyze the microstructure of as-cast composites. Tension, compression, and Brinell hardness tests were performed to determine mechanical properties of the composites. It was revealed that the microstructure of matrix alloy is composed of α-Mg grains and (α-Mg+Ca 2 Mg 6 Zn 3 ) eutectic mixture distributed predominantly along grain boundaries. The addition of Al 2 O 3 p brought about a marked grain refinement and also introduced slight amounts of porosity. The results showed that with increasing volume percentage of Al 2 O 3 p, hardness and yield strength increase while tensile strength, compressive strength, and ductility decrease; in consequence, toughness decreases as well.

  2. Fabrication and AE characteristics of TiNi/A16061 shape memory alloy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Chul; Lee, Jin Kyung

    2004-01-01

    TiNi/A16061 Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) composite was fabricated by hot press method to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties. Interface bonding between TiNi reinforcement and A1 matrix was observed by using SEM and EDS. Pre-strain was imposed to generate compressive residual stress inside composite. A tensile test for specimen, which underwent pre-strain, was performed at high temperature to evaluate the variation of strength and the effect of pre-strain. It was shown that interfacial reactions occurred at the bonding between matrix and fiber, creating two inter-metallic layers. And yield stress increased with the amount of pre-strain. Acoustic emission technique was also used to nondestructively clarify the microscopic damage behavior at high temperature and the effect of pre-strain of TiNi/A16061 SMA composite

  3. Improving Turbine Performance with Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Under the new NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, efforts are on-going within the Supersonics Project aimed at the implementation of advanced SiC/SiC ceramic composites into hot section components of future gas turbine engines. Due to recent NASA advancements in SiC-based fibers and matrices, these composites are lighter and capable of much higher service temperatures than current metallic superalloys, which in turn will allow the engines to operate at higher efficiencies and reduced emissions. This presentation briefly reviews studies within Task 6.3.3 that are primarily aimed at developing physics-based concepts, tools, and process/property models for micro- and macro-structural design, fabrication, and lifing of SiC/SiC turbine components in general and airfoils in particular. Particular emphasis is currently being placed on understanding and modeling (1) creep effects on residual stress development within the component, (2) fiber architecture effects on key composite properties such as design strength, and (3) preform formation processes so that the optimum architectures can be implemented into complex-shaped components, such as turbine vanes and blades.

  4. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia C. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiCnp produced by powder metallurgy (PM were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA. In this work, the influence of the amount of SiCnp on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050 anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiCnp. The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiCnp volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiCnp. The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiCnp composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiCnp in the anodic film.

  5. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sonia C.; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A.; Rocha, Luis A.; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiCnp) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiCnp on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiCnp. The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiCnp volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiCnp. The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiCnp composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiCnp in the anodic film. PMID:28788295

  6. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sonia C; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A; Rocha, Luis A; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-12-19

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiC np ) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiC np on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiC np . The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiC np volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiC np . The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiC np composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiC np in the anodic film.

  7. Ceramic matrix composites using polymer pyrolysis and liquid densification processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.O.; Petrak, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The polymer precursor approach for manufacture of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) is both flexible and tailorable to shape and engineering requirements. The tailorability includes a wide range of reinforcements, polymer matrix precursors and fillers. Processing is selected based on cure/pressure requirements to best produce the required shape, radii, fiber volume and fiber orientation. Combinations of tooling used for cure/pressure applications are discussed and fabricated components are shown. ((orig.))

  8. Fatigue and frictional heating in ceramic matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, T.K.; Sørensen, B.F.; Brøndsted, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental technique for monitoring the damage evolution in ceramic matrix composites during cyclic testing. The damage is related to heat dissipation, which may be measured as radiated heat from the surface of the test specimen. In the present experimental set-up an iso......This paper describes an experimental technique for monitoring the damage evolution in ceramic matrix composites during cyclic testing. The damage is related to heat dissipation, which may be measured as radiated heat from the surface of the test specimen. In the present experimental set...... with a high spatial and temperature resolution and changes in the heat dissipation can be measured almost instantaneously. The technique has been tested on uni-directional ceramic matrix composites. Experimental results are shown and the possibilities and the limitations of the technique are discussed....

  9. Tribological characterization of Al7075–graphite composites fabricated by mechanical alloying and hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaquino-Lara, R.; Soltani, N.; Bahrami, A.; Gutiérrez-Castañeda, E.; García-Sánchez, E.; Hernandez-Rodríguez, M.A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Al7075–graphite composites were synthesized by mechanical alloying and hot extrusion. • Effects of graphite content and milling time on the mechanical and wear properties of fabricated composites were analyzed. • Microstructure and worn surfaces of samples were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscope. • The friction coefficient, wear rate and debris thickness of fabricated composite were investigated. - Abstract: Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) are candidate materials for aerospace and automotive industry owing to their large elastic modulus, improved strength and low wear rate. A simple method for fabrication of Al7075–graphite composites produced by mechanical alloying (MI) and hot extrusion is described in this paper. Effects of milling time (0–10 h) and graphite concentration (0–1.5 wt.%) on friction, hardness and wear resistance of the AMC were investigated. Wear resistance was determined by the pin-on-disk wear method using 20 and 40 N normal loads at a 0.367 m/s sliding velocity. The worn surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify distinct topographical features for elucidation of the prevailing wear mechanisms. Experimental results indicated considerable improvement in AMC hardness and wear resistance by adding 1.5% G (wt.) and 10 h of milling, showing homogenous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the Al-base metal-matrix composite. It was found that abrasion is the dominant wear mechanism in all extruded composites, whilst a combination of adhesion and delamination seems to be the governing mechanism for the 7075 aluminum alloy

  10. 4TH International Conference on High-Temperature Ceramic Matrix Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Topic to be covered include fibers, interfaces, interphases, non-oxide ceramic matrix composites, oxide/oxide ceramic matrix composites, coatings, and applications of high-temperature ceramic matrix...

  11. Matrix densification of SiC composites by sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jang, Doo-Hee; Eom, Jung-Hye; Chun, Yong-Seong

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of this research are to develop a process for dense SiC fiber-SiC composites with a porosity of 5% or less and to develop high-strength SiC fiber-SiC composites with a strength of 500 MPa or higher. To meet the above objectives, the following research topics were investigated ; new process development for the densification of SiC fiber-SiC composites, effect of processing parameters on densification of SiC fiber-SiC composites, effect of additive composition on matrix microstructure, effects of additive composition and content on densification of SiC fiber-SiC composites, mechanical properties of SiC fiber-SiC composites, effect of fiber coating on densification and strength of SiC fiber-SiC composites, development of new additive composition. There has been a great deal of progress in the development of technologies for the processing and densification of SiC fiber-SiC composites and in better understanding of additive-densification-mechanical property relations as results of this project. Based on the progress, dense SiC fiber-SiC composites (≥97%) and high strength SiC fiber-SiC composites (≥600 MPa) have been developed. Development of 2D SiC fiber-SiC composites with a relative density of ≥97% and a strength of ≥600 MPa can be counted as a notable achievement

  12. Sputtering induced surface composition changes in copper-palladium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararaman, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, L.; Krishnan, R.

    1981-01-01

    It has been observed that, in general, surface composition is different from bulk composition in multicomponent materials as a result of ion beam sputtering. This compositional difference arises from factors like preferential sputtering, radiation induced concentration gradients and the knock-in effect. In the present work, changes in the surface composition of copper-palladium alloys, brought about by argon ion sputtering, have been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy. Argon ion energy has been varied from 500 eV to 5 keV. Enrichment of palladium has been observed in the sputter-altered layer. The palladium enrichment at the surface has been found to be higher for 500 eV argon ion sputtering compared with argon ion sputtering at higher energies. Above 500 eV, the surface composition has been observed to remain the same irrespective of the sputter ion energy for each alloy composition. The bulk composition ratio of palladium to copper has been found to be linearly related to the sputter altered surface composition ratio of palladium to copper. These results are discussed on the basis of recent theories of alloy sputtering. (orig.)

  13. Progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the laminate behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach accounts for all types of composite behavior, laminate configuration, load conditions, and delamination processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation, and to laminate fracture. Results of laminate fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach.

  14. Ceramic matrix composites -- Advanced high-temperature structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowden, R.A.; Ferber, M.K.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    This symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials was held at the 1994 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 28--December 2. The symposium was sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technology's Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites Program, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and NASA Lewis Research Center. Among the competing materials for advanced, high-temperature applications, ceramic matrix composites are leading candidates. The symposium was organized such that papers concerning constituents--fibers and matrices--were presented first, followed by composite processing, modeling of mechanical behavior, and thermomechanical testing. More stable reinforcements are necessary to enhance the performance and life of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, and to ensure final acceptance of these materials for high-temperature applications. Encouraging results in the areas of polymer-derived SiC fibers and single crystal oxide filaments were given, suggesting composites with improved thermomechanical properties and stability will be realized in the near future. The significance of the fiber-matrix interface in the design and performance of these materials is evident. Numerous mechanical models to relate interface properties to composite behavior, and interpret test methods and data, were enthusiastically discussed. One issue of great concern for any advanced material for use in extreme environments is stability. This theme arose frequently throughout the symposium and was the topic of focus on the final day. Fifty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  15. Composite Matrix Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    This project concerns the design, fabrication and testing of carbon regenerators for use in Stirling power convertors. Radial fiber design with nonmetallic components offers a number of potential advantages over conventional steel regenerators: reduced conduction and pressure drop losses, and the capability for higher temperature, higher frequency operation. Diverse composite fabrication methods are explored and lessons learned are summarized. A pulsed single-blow test rig has been developed that has been used for generating thermal effectiveness data for different flow velocities. Carbon regenerators have been fabricated by carbon vapor infiltration of electroflocked preforms. Performance data in a small Stirling engine are obtained. Prototype regenerators designed for the BP-1000 power convertor were fabricated and delivered to NASA-Lewis.

  16. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, C.J.; Wheeler, D.; Saunders, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the CRADA was to conduct research and development activities to better understand and utilize the electron beam PMC curing technology. This technology will be used to replace or supplement existing PMC thermal curing processes in Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) projects and American aircraft and aerospace industries. This effort involved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc./Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (Contractor), Sandia National Laboratories, and ten industrial Participants including four major aircraft and aerospace companies, three advanced materials companies, and three electron beam processing organizations. The technical objective of the CRADA was to synthesize and/or modify high performance, electron beam curable materials that meet specific end-use application requirements. There were six tasks in this CRADA including: Electron beam materials development; Electron beam database development; Economic analysis; Low-cost Electron Beam tooling development; Electron beam curing systems integration; and Demonstration articles/prototype structures development. The contractor managed, participated and integrated all the tasks, and optimized the project efforts through the coordination, exchange, and dissemination of information to the project participants. Members of the Contractor team were also the principal inventors on several electron beam related patents and a 1997 R and D 100 Award winner on Electron-Beam-Curable Cationic Epoxy Resins. The CRADA achieved a major breakthrough for the composites industry by having successfully developed high-performance electron beam curable cationic epoxy resins for use in composites, adhesives, tooling compounds, potting compounds, syntactic foams, etc. UCB Chemicals, the world's largest supplier of radiation-curable polymers, has acquired a license to produce and sell these resins worldwide

  17. Drilling of metal matrix composites: cutting forces and chip formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Songmene, V.; Balout, B.; Masounave, J.

    2002-01-01

    Particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs) are known for their low weight and their high wear resistance, but also for the difficulties encountered during their machining. New aluminium MMCs containing with both soft lubricating graphite particles and hard particles (silicon carbide or alumina) with improved machinability were developed. This study investigates the drilling of these composites as compared to non-reinforced aluminium. The microstructure of chip, the cutting forces, the shear angles and the friction at tool-chip interface are used to compare the machinability of these composites. It was found that, during drilling of this new family of composites, the feed rate, and the nature of reinforcing particles govern the cutting forces. The mathematical models established by previous researchers for predicting the cutting forces when drilling metals were validated for these composites. The reinforcing particles within the composite help for chip segmentation, making the composite more brittle and easy to shear during the cutting process. (author)

  18. Compressive behavior of wire reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Yub [Department of Materials Science, M/C 138-78, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Lujan Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Uestuendag, Ersan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail: ustundag@iastate.edu; Choi-Yim, Haein [Department of Materials Science, M/C 138-78, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aydiner, C. Can [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Bourke, Mark A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) possess a unique set of mechanical properties that make them attractive structural materials. However, when loaded without constraint, BMGs fracture catastrophically due to formation of macroscopic shear bands and this behavior reduces their reliability. To address this issue, BMG matrix composites have been developed. In this investigation, neutron diffraction was used during uniaxial compressive loading to measure the internal strains in the second phases of various BMG composites reinforced with Ta, Mo, or stainless steel wires. The diffraction data were then employed to develop a finite element model that deduced the in situ constitutive behavior of each phase. It was found that the reinforcements yielded first and started transferring load to the matrix, which remained elastic during the whole experiment. While the present composites exhibited enhanced ductility, largely due to their ductile reinforcements, they yielded at applied stresses lower than those found in W reinforced composites.

  19. Magnesium, magnesium alloys, and magnesium composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, M; Sharon, Nai Mui Ling

    2011-01-01

    ... of science, characteristics, and applications. It emphasizes the properties of magnesium-based composites and the effects of different types of reinforcements, from micron length to nanometer scale, on the properties of the resulting composites...

  20. Matrix Transformation in Boron Containing High-Temperature Co-Re-Cr Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Pavel; Mukherji, Debashis; Beran, Přemysl; Gilles, Ralph; Karge, Lukas; Hofmann, Michael; Hoelzel, Markus; Rösler, Joachim; Farkas, Gergely

    2018-03-01

    An addition of boron largely increases the ductility in polycrystalline high-temperature Co-Re alloys. Therefore, the effect of boron on the alloy structural characteristics is of high importance for the stability of the matrix at operational temperatures. Volume fractions of ɛ (hexagonal close-packed—hcp), γ (face-centered cubic—fcc) and σ (Cr2Re3 type) phases were measured at ambient and high temperatures (up to 1500 °C) for a boron-containing Co-17Re-23Cr alloy using neutron diffraction. The matrix phase undergoes an allotropic transformation from ɛ to γ structure at high temperatures, similar to pure cobalt and to the previously investigated, more complex Co-17Re-23Cr-1.2Ta-2.6C alloy. It was determined in this study that the transformation temperature depends on the boron content (0-1000 wt. ppm). Nevertheless, the transformation temperature did not change monotonically with the increase in the boron content but reached a minimum at approximately 200 ppm of boron. A probable reason is the interplay between the amount of boron in the matrix and the amount of σ phase, which binds hcp-stabilizing elements (Cr and Re). Moreover, borides were identified in alloys with high boron content.

  1. Ceramic fiber reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A slurry of BSAS glass powders is cast into tapes which are cut to predetermined sizes. Mats of continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with these matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite which is heated to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot-pressed to form a BSAS glass-ceramic fiber-reinforced composite.

  2. Metallic-fibre-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevost, F.; Schnedecker, G.; Boncoeur, M.

    1994-01-01

    A refractory metal wire cloth is embedded in an oxide ceramic matrix, using a plasma spraying technology, in order to elaborate composite plates. When mechanically tested, the composite fails with a pseudo-ductile fracture mode whereas the ceramic alone is originally brittle. It exhibits a higher fracture strength, and remains in the form of a single piece even when straining is important. No further heat treatment is needed after the original processing to reach these characteristics. (authors). 2 figs., 2 refs

  3. Neutron activation of chlorine in zirconium and zirconium alloys use of the matrix as comparator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.M.; Gomez, C.D.; Mila, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for neutron activation analysis of chlorine in zirconium and zirconium alloys. Calculation of chlorine concentration is performed relative to zirconium concentration in the matrix in order to minimize effects of differences in irradiation and counting geometry. Principles of the method and the results obtained are discussed. (author)

  4. Characterization of Al-Cu alloy reinforced fly ash metal matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Graphite crucible was used for melting of matrix alloy, and the addition and mixing of particulates were made into ... specimen was cut as per ASTM-E23 by diamond blade using CNC machine. ... there will be no change in the size of the flyash.

  5. Thermosetting Polymer-Matrix Composites for Strucutral Repair Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertzen, William Kirby [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporate of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  6. Part I. Corrosion studies of continuous alumina fiber reinforced aluminum-matrix composites. Part II. Galvanic corrosion between continuous alumina fiber reinforced aluminum-matrix composites and 4340 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun

    Part I. The corrosion performance of continuous alumina fiber reinforced aluminum-matrix composites (CF-AMCs) was investigated in both the laboratory and field environments by comparing them with their respective monolithic matrix alloys, i.e., pure Al, A1-2wt%Cu T6, and Al 6061 T6. The corrosion initiation sites were identified by monitoring the changes in the surface morphology. Corrosion current densities and pH profiles at localized corrosion sites were measured using the scanning-vibrating electrode technique and the scanning ion-selective electrode technique, respectively. The corrosion damage of the materials immersed in various electrolytes, as well as those exposed in a humidity chamber and outdoor environments, was evaluated. Potentiodynamic polarization behavior was also studied. The corrosion initiation for the composites in 3.15 wt% NaCl occurred primarily around the Fe-rich intermetallic particles, which preferentially existed around the fiber/matrix interface on the composites. The corrosion initiation sites were also caused by physical damage (e.g., localized deformation) to the composite surface. At localized corrosion sites, the buildup of acidity was enhanced by the formation of micro-crevices resulting from fibers left in relief as the matrix corroded. The composites that were tested in exposure experiments exhibited higher corrosion rates than their monolithic alloys. The composites and their monolithic alloys were subjected to pitting corrosion when anodically polarized in the 3.15 wt% NaCl, while they passivated when anodically polarized in 0.5 M Na2SO4. The experimental results indicated that the composites exhibited inferior corrosion resistance compared to their monolithic matrix alloys. Part II. Galvanic corrosion studies were conducted on CF-AMCs coupled to 4340 steel since CF-AMCs have low density and excellent mechanical properties and are being considered as potential jacketing materials for reinforcing steel gun barrels. Coupled and

  7. Advanced composite alloys for constructional parts of robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issin, D. K.; Zholdubayeva, Zh D.; Neshina, Y. G.; Alkina, A. D.; Khuangan, N.; Rahimova, G. M.

    2018-05-01

    In recent years all over the world special attention has been paid to the development and implementation of nanostructured materials possessing unique properties and opening fascinating prospects for the development of technical progress in various fields of human activities. A special place can be given to the development of service robots, the market of which is actively developing. There is problem associated mainly with the lack of heat-strengthened alloys which consists in low thermal stability of the alloy properties under the conditions of elevated variable temperatures and loads. The article presents studies to assess the effect of composition, the amounts of refractory nanoscale particles and methods for their introduction into the melt on the structure and properties in nanostructured composite aluminum alloys. The powders of metals, alloys, as well as silicon carbide and aluminum oxide were used to produce the nanostructured powder composite materials. As a result of the research, NPCM compositions containing micro-size particles of transition metals that are carriers of nanosized reinforcing particles and initiators of the formation of an intermetallide of endogenous origin in a melt.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu matrix composites reinforced with AINp. processed by extrusion of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, J. L.; Amigo, V.; Salvador, M. D.; Perz, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents an experimental investigation on the structure and mechanical properties of an Al-Mg-Si-Cu P/M alloy reinforced with 5%, 10% and 15% aluminum nitride, produced by extrusion of cold compacted powders mixtures. Mechanical properties in as extruded and T6 conditions are compared. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Dilatometric analysis were conducted to gain further insight into the precipitation process of these materials. Low cost 6061 Al/AINp composites can be produced with rate and small porosity by extrusion of cold compacted shapes without canning. The mechanical properties of the MMCs obtained by this process have limitations for high particles fractions because of clustering effects. All materials are always harder than the matrix and shows a similar behavior during aging processes but kinetics is changed. Potential applications of dilatometric techniques in the aging investigations of aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites have been established. (Author) 23 refs

  9. Load transfer in short fibre reinforced metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, Gerardo; Bruno, Giovanni; Wanner, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The internal load transfer and the deformation behaviour of aluminium-matrix composites reinforced with 2D-random alumina (Saffil) short fibres was studied for different loading modes. The evolution of stress in the metallic matrix was measured by neutron diffraction during in situ uniaxial deformation tests. Tensile and compressive tests were performed with loading axis parallel or perpendicular to the 2D-reinforcement plane. The fibre stresses were computed based on force equilibrium considerations. The results are discussed in light of a model recently established by the co-authors for composites with visco-plastic matrix behaviour and extended to the case of plastic deformation in the present study. Based on that model, the evolution of internal stresses and the macroscopic stress-strain were simulated. Comparison between the experimental and computational results shows a qualitative agreement in all relevant aspects

  10. Metal matrix composites: History, status, factors and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyriac, Ajith James

    The history, status, and future of metal matrix composites are presented by evaluating the progression of available literature through time. The trends that existed and issues that still prevail are discussed and a prediction of the future for MMCs is presented. The factors that govern the performance of metal matrix composites are also discussed. In many developed countries and in several developing countries there exists continued interest in MMCs. Researchers tried numerous combinations of matrices and reinforcements since work strictly on MMCs began in the 1950s. This led to developments for aerospace and defense applications, but resultant commercial applications were limited. The introduction of ceramic whiskers as reinforcement and the development of 'in-situ' eutectics in the 1960s aided high temperature applications in aircraft engines. In the late 1970s the automobile industries started to take MMCs seriously. In the last 20 years, MMCs evolved from laboratories to a class of materials with numerous applications and commercial markets. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall, prevailing order in the world changed drastically. This effect was evident in the progression of metal matrix composites. The internet connected the world like never before and tremendous information was available for researchers around the world. Globalization and the internet resulted in the transformation of the world to a more level playing field, and this effect is evident in the nature and source of research on metal matrix composites happening around the world.

  11. Analysis of Damage in a Ceramic Matrix Composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Talreja, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Mechanisms of damage and the associated mechanical response are stud ied for a unidirectionally fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite subjected to uniaxial tensile loading parallel to fibers. A multi-stage development of damage is identified, and for each stage the governing mechanisms...

  12. Demineralized dentin matrix composite collagen material for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Yang, Juan; Zhong, Xiaozhong; He, Fengrong; Wu, Xiongwen; Shen, Guanxin

    2013-01-01

    Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) had been successfully used in clinics as bone repair biomaterial for many years. However, particle morphology of DDM limited it further applications. In this study, DDM and collagen were prepared to DDM composite collagen material. The surface morphology of the material was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). MC3T3-E1 cells responses in vitro and tissue responses in vivo by implantation of DDM composite collagen material in bone defect of rabbits were also investigated. SEM analysis showed that DDM composite collagen material evenly distributed and formed a porous scaffold. Cell culture and animal models results indicated that DDM composite collagen material was biocompatible and could support cell proliferation and differentiation. Histological evaluation showed that DDM composite collagen material exhibited good biocompatibility, biodegradability and osteoconductivity with host bone in vivo. The results suggested that DDM composite collagen material might have a significant clinical advantage and potential to be applied in bone and orthopedic surgery.

  13. Determination of Dispersion Curves for Composite Materials with the Use of Stiffness Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barski Marek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elastic waves used in Structural Health Monitoring systems have strongly dispersive character. Therefore it is necessary to determine the appropriate dispersion curves in order to proper interpretation of a received dynamic response of an analyzed structure. The shape of dispersion curves as well as number of wave modes depends on mechanical properties of layers and frequency of an excited signal. In the current work, the relatively new approach is utilized, namely stiffness matrix method. In contrast to transfer matrix method or global matrix method, this algorithm is considered as numerically unconditionally stable and as effective as transfer matrix approach. However, it will be demonstrated that in the case of hybrid composites, where mechanical properties of particular layers differ significantly, obtaining results could be difficult. The theoretical relationships are presented for the composite plate of arbitrary stacking sequence and arbitrary direction of elastic waves propagation. As a numerical example, the dispersion curves are estimated for the lamina, which is made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin. It is assumed that elastic waves travel in the parallel, perpendicular and arbitrary direction to the fibers in lamina. Next, the dispersion curves are determined for the following laminate [0°, 90°, 0°, 90°, 0°, 90°, 0°, 90°] and hybrid [Al, 90°, 0°, 90°, 0°, 90°, 0°], where Al is the aluminum alloy PA38 and the rest of layers are made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin.

  14. Characterisation of Microstructure of We43 Magnesium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryc A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the microstructures of WE43 matrix composites reinforced with carbon fibres have been characterised. The influence of reinforcement type and T6 heat treatment (a solution treatment at 525°C for 8 h, a hot water quench and a subsequent ageing treatment at 250°C for 16 h on microstructure have been evaluated. The light microscope and scanning electron microscope investigations have been carried out. No significant differences in samples reinforced with non-coated textiles have been reported. The substantial changes in sample reinforced with nickel-coated textile have been observed. The segregation of alloying elements to the matrix-reinforcement layer has been identified. The T6 heat treatment caused the appearance of disperse precipitates of β phase, but the process cannot be considered as satisfactory (irregular distribution, low volume fraction, relatively large size.

  15. Die-cast heterophase composites with AlSi13Mg1CuNi matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dyzia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the performed tests, an advantageous interaction of glassy carbon particles in a couple consisting of a heterophase composite and a spheroidal cast iron has been corroborated. It was found that, the presence of glassy carbon in the heterophase composite (SiC+C affects the stabilization of the friction coefficient value as a function of the friction distance and reduces the intensity of the wearing-in stage of the interacting surfaces. Both a decrease of the friction coefficient and the wear of the heterophase composites may be connected with the carbon particles' chipping effect and the deposition of its fragments on the surface of the interacting components of the friction couple, which forms a kind of a solid lubricating agent in the system. This should allow applying of this material to the composite piston - cylinder sleeve system in piston air-compressors. Further works will concern the selection of the matrix alloy composition with the purpose of reducing the phenomenon of particles chipping during machining. It seems that one of the possibilities is the application of a more plastic matrix and optimizing the fraction of reinforcing phases and their gradient distribution in the casting.

  16. Characterization and control of the fiber-matrix interface in ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowden, R.A.

    1989-03-01

    Fiber-reinforced SiC composites fabricated by thermal-gradient forced-flow chemical-vapor infiltration (FCVI) have exhibited both composite (toughened) and brittle behavior during mechanical property evaluation. Detailed analysis of the fiber-matrix interface revealed that a silica layer on the surface of Nicalon Si-C-O fibers tightly bonds the fiber to the matrix. The strongly bonded fiber and matrix, combined with the reduction in the strength of the fibers that occurs during processing, resulted in the observed brittle behavior. The mechanical behavior of Nicalon/SiC composites has been improved by applying thin coatings (silicon carbide, boron, boron nitride, molybdenum, carbon) to the fibers, prior to densification, to control the interfacial bond. Varying degrees of bonding have been achieved with different coating materials and film thicknesses. Fiber-matrix bond strengths have been quantitatively evaluated using an indentation method and a simple tensile test. The effects of bonding and friction on the mechanical behavior of this composite system have been investigated. 167 refs., 59 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Christer.

    1993-01-01

    The large difference in coefficient of thermal expansion of the matrix and particles in a metal matrix composite will introduce residual stresses during cooling from process temperature. These stresses are locally very high, and are known to influence the mechanical behaviour of the material. Changes in the stress state will occur during heat treatments and when the material is loaded due to different elastic, plastic, and creep properties of the constituents. The change of residual stresses in an Al-SiC particulate composite after different degree of plastic straining has been studied. The effect of plastic straining was modelled by an Eshelby model. The model and the measurements both show that the stress in the loading direction decreases for a tensile plastic strain and increases for a compressive plastic strain. By x-ray diffraction the stress response in the matrix and particles can be measured independently. This has been used to determine the stress state under and after heat treatments and under mechanical loading in two Al 15% SiC metal matrix composites. By analysing the line width from x-ray experiment the changes in the microstrains in the material were studied. A finite element model was used to model the generation of thermal residual stresses, stress relaxation during heat treatments, and load sharing during the first load cycle. Calculated stresses and microstrains were found to be in good agreement with the measured values. The elastic behaviour of the composite can be understood largely in terms of elastic load transfer between matrix and particles. However, at higher loads when the matrix becomes plastic residual stresses also become important. 21 refs

  18. Electroless Ni-P/Nano-SiO2 Composite Plating on Dual Phase Magnesium-Lithium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y.; Zhang, Z. W.; Zhang, M. L.

    The application of Mg-Li alloys is restricted in practice due to mainly poor corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Electroless nickel plating is one of the common and effective ways to protect alloys from corrosion. In this study, nano-SiO2 particles with Ni-P matrix have been successfully co-deposited onto dual phase Mg-8Li base alloy through electroless plating, generating homogeneously Ni-P/nano-SiO2 composite coating. The morphology, elemental composition and structures of coatings were investigated. Coating performances were evaluated using hardness tests and electrochemical analysis. The results indicate that the Ni-P/nano-SiO2 composite coating can significantly improve the wear and corrosion resistance.

  19. Nature and morphology of the joints of metal matrix composites to metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, K.

    1997-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with short ceramic fibres (e.g. carbon or Al 2 O 3 fibres) or with other metals (such as e.g., tungsten) show numerous advantages since their properties can be programmed by modifying appropriately their composition and technology. A point of considerable importance is the possibility of joining the composites with metals or their alloys. The major problem here is to choose the appropriate joining technique, such that ensures the formation of a high quality joint resistant to the service conditions, avoids the degradation of the composite microstructure, in particular of the interface layer between the matrix and the reinforcement, and still, is not expensive (1). The paper presents the results of experiments on joining the following composites: 6061Al-based materials containing 15 vol.% of δ-alumina fibres, CuCrl-based materials containing 20 vol.% of carbon fibres (C f ), CuZrl-based materials containing 20 vol.% of C f and Cu-based materials with 10 vol.% of dispersed tungsten powder. The CuCrI-C f and CuZrl-C f composites were joined with austenitic steel, the 6061Al-Al 2 O 3 composite - with the 6061Al alloy and the CuW composite - with copper of 99.99 % purity. The material pairs were chosen so as to take into account their possible application. Several different joining techniques were examined. This paper discusses the results obtained when using diffusion bonding, vacuum brazing and gluing. The morphology and the nature of the interface layer after bonding process between the matrix and the reinforcement and between the MMCs and metal were examined by analysing the distributions of the elements, by SEM and by X-ray techniques. The degree of the degradation of the MMCs structure was taken to be described by the coefficient of the relative content of the reinforcing material RCRM = X/B, where X is the percent content of the reinforcing phase in the composite after the joining process, and B is the percent content of

  20. Copper matrix composites as heat sink materials for water-cooled divertor target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ha You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent high heat flux (HHF qualification tests of ITER divertor target mock-ups and the preliminary design studies of DEMO divertor target, the performance of CuCrZr alloy, the baseline heat sink material for DEMO divertor, seems to only marginally cover the envisaged operation regime. The structural integrity of the CuCrZr heat sink was shown to be affected by plastic fatigue at 20 MW/m². The relatively high neutron irradiation dose expected for the DEMO divertor target is another serious concern, as it would cause significant embrittlement below 250 °C or irradiation creep above 350 °C. Hence, an advanced design concept of the divertor target needs to be devised for DEMO in order to enhance the HHF performance so that the structural design criteria are fulfilled for full operation scenarios including slow transients. The biggest potential lies in copper-matrix composite materials for the heat sink. In this article, three promising Cu-matrix composite materials are reviewed in terms of thermal, mechanical and HHF performance as structural heat sink materials. The considered candidates are W particle-reinforced, W wire-reinforced and SiC fiber-reinforced Cu matrix composites. The comprehensive results of recent studies on fabrication technology, design concepts, materials properties and the HHF performance of mock-ups are presented. Limitations and challenges are discussed.

  1. X-ray tomography investigation of intensive sheared Al–SiC metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Giovanni, Mario; Warnett, Jason M.; Williams, Mark A. [WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Haribabu, Nadendla [BCAST, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Srirangam, Prakash, E-mail: p.srirangam@warwick.ac.uk [WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    X-ray computed tomography (XCT) was used to characterise three dimensional internal structure of Al–SiC metal matrix composites. The alloy composite was prepared by casting method with the application of intensive shearing to uniformly disperse SiC particles in the matrix. Visualisation of SiC clusters as well as porosity distribution were evaluated and compared with non-shearing samples. Results showed that the average particle size as well as agglomerate size is smaller in sheared sample compared to conventional cast samples. Further, it was observed that the volume fraction of porosity was reduced by 50% compared to conventional casting, confirming that the intensive shearing helps in deagglomeration of particle clusters and decrease in porosity of Al–SiC metal matrix composites. - Highlights: • XCT was used to visualise 3D internal structure of Al-SiC MMC. • Al-SiC MMC was prepared by casting with the application of intensive shearing. • SiC particles and porosity distribution were evaluated. • Results show shearing deagglomerates particle clusters and reduces porosity in MMC.

  2. Dual-nanoparticulate-reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hansang; Cho, Seungchan; Kawasaki, Akira; Leparoux, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicon carbide nanoparticles (nano-SiC) were fabricated by mechanical ball milling, followed by hot-pressing. Nano-SiC was used as an active mixing agent for dispersing the CNTs in the Al powder. The hardness of the produced composites was dramatically increased, up to eight times higher than bulk pure Al, by increasing the amount of nano-SiC particles. A small quantity of aluminum carbide (Al 4 C 3 ) was observed by TEM analysis and quantified using x-ray diffraction. The composite with the highest hardness values contained some nanosized Al 4 C 3 . Along with the CNT and the nano-SiC, Al 4 C 3 also seemed to play a role in the enhanced hardness of the composites. The high energy milling process seems to lead to a homogeneous dispersion of the high aspect ratio CNTs, and of the nearly spherical nano-SiC particles in the Al matrix. This powder metallurgical approach could also be applied to other nanoreinforced composites, such as ceramics or complex matrix materials. (paper)

  3. Preparation and mechanical properties of in situ TiC{sub x}–Ni (Si, Ti) alloy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenjuan [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhai, Hongxiang, E-mail: hxzhai@sina.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Chen, Lin; Huang, Zhenying [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Bei, Guoping; Baumgärtner, Christoph; Greil, Peter [Department of Materials Science (Glass and Ceramics), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Martensstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    Novel in situ TiC{sub x} reinforced Ni (Si, Ti) alloy composites with superior mechanical properties were prepared at 1250 °C for 30 min by pressureless sintering Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} (10 and 20 vol%) and Ni as precursors. The Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} particles decomposed into substoichiometric TiC{sub x} phase, while the additional Si and partial Ti atoms derived from Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} diffused into Ni matrix to form Ni (Si, Ti) alloy. The in situ formed TiC{sub x} phases are mainly dispersed on the grain boundaries of the Ni (Si, Ti) alloying, forming a strong skeleton and refining the microstructures of the metal matrix. The hardness, the yield stress σ{sub 0.2%} and ultimate compressive strength of 20.6 vol%TiC{sub x}–Ni(Si, Ti) composite can reach 2.15±0.04 GPa, 466.8±55.8 MPa and 733.3±78.4 MPa, respectively. The enhanced mechanical properties of TiC{sub x}–Ni(Si, Ti) composites are due to the in situ formation of TiC{sub x} skeleton, the refined microstructures of Ni (Si, Ti) alloys and solid solution effects as well as good wettability between TiC{sub x} and Ni (Si, Ti) matrix.

  4. Influence of reinforcement grade and matrix composition on corrosion resistance of cast aluminium matrix composites (A3xx.x/SiCp) in a humid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, A.; Viejo, F.; Carboneras, M. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Merino, M.C. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Tecnologia Industrial, Universidad Alfonso X El Sabio, 28691, Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, M.D. [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28931, Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Merino, S. [Departamento de Tecnologia Industrial, Universidad Alfonso X El Sabio, 28691, Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain)

    2003-05-01

    A study of the influence of the silicon carbide (SiC{sub p}) proportion and the matrix concentration of four aluminium metal matrix composites (A360/SiC/10p, A360/SiC/20p, A380/SiC/10p, A380/SiC/20p) exposed to high relative humid environment was carried out under simulation in a climatic chamber. The matrix of A360/SiC/xxp composites was virtually free of copper while the A380/SiC/xxp matrix contained 3.13-3.45wt% Cu and 1.39-1.44wt% Ni. The kinetics of the corrosion process was studied on the basis of gravimetric tests. The nature of corrosion products was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Low Angle X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) before and after accelerated testing to determine the influence of microstructural changes on corrosion behaviour during exposure to the corrosive environment. The corrosion damage to Al/SiCp composites was low at 80% Relative Humidity (RH) and increased with temperature, SiCp proportion, relative humidity and Cu matrix concentration. The main attack nucleation sites were the interface region between the matrix and the reinforcement particles. The corrosion process was influenced more by the concentration of alloy elements in the matrix than by the proportion of SiCp reinforcement. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Eine Studie zum Einfluss des Siliziumkarbidanteils (SiCp) und der Zusammensetzung des Grundwerkstoffs von vier Aluminiummatrixverbundwerkstoffen (A360/SiC/10p, A360/SiC/20p, A380/SiC/10p, A380/SiC/20p), die in Umgebungen mit relativ hoher Feuchtigkeit ausgelagert waren, wurde unter simulierten Bedingungen in einer Klimakammer durchgefuehrt. Die Matrix des A360/SiC/xxp-Verbundwerkstoffs war praktisch Kupfer-frei waehrend die A380/SiC/xxp Matrix 3,13-3,45 Gew.-% Cu und 1,39-1,44 Gew.-% Ni enthielt. Die Kinetik des Korrosionsprozesses wurde auf der Basis von gravimetrischen Messungen studiert. Die Beschaffenheit der Korrosionsprodukte wurde mittelt REM-Untersuchungen und

  5. A comparison study of polymer/cobalt ferrite nano-composites synthesized by mechanical alloying route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Rashidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of different biopolymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG and polyvinylalcohol (PVA on synthesis and characterization of polymer/cobalt ferrite (CF nano-composites bymechanical alloying method has been systematically investigated. The structural, morphological andmagnetic properties changes during mechanical milling were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, fieldemission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques(VSM, respectively. The polymeric cobalt ferrite nano-composites were obtained by employing atwo-step procedure: the cobalt ferrite of 20 nm mean particle size was first synthesized by mechanicalalloying route and then was embedded in PEG or PVA biopolymer matrix by milling process. Theresults revealed that PEG melted due to the local temperature raise during milling. Despite thisphenomenon, cobalt ferrite nano-particles were entirely embedded in PEG matrix. It seems, PAV is anappropriate candidate for producing nano-composite samples due to its high melting point. InPVA/CF nano-composites, the mean crystallite size and milling induced strain decreased to 13 nm and0.48, respectively. Moreover, milling process resulted in well distribution of CF in PVA matrix eventhough the mean particle size of cobalt ferrite has not been significantly affecetd. FTIR resultconfirmed the attachment of PVA to the surface of nano-particles. Magnetic properties evaluationshowed that saturation magnetization and coercivity values decreased in nano-composite samplecomparing the pure cobalt ferrite.

  6. Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation Tool for Ceramic Matrix and Polymer Matrix Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pineda, Evan J.; Walton, Owen J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic-based, discrete-event progressive damage simulations of ceramic-matrix composite and polymer matrix composite material structures have been enabled through the development of a unique multiscale modeling tool. This effort involves coupling three independently developed software programs: (1) the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC), (2) the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program (CARES/ Life), and (3) the Abaqus finite element analysis (FEA) program. MAC/GMC contributes multiscale modeling capabilities and micromechanics relations to determine stresses and deformations at the microscale of the composite material repeating unit cell (RUC). CARES/Life contributes statistical multiaxial failure criteria that can be applied to the individual brittle-material constituents of the RUC. Abaqus is used at the global scale to model the overall composite structure. An Abaqus user-defined material (UMAT) interface, referred to here as "FEAMAC/CARES," was developed that enables MAC/GMC and CARES/Life to operate seamlessly with the Abaqus FEA code. For each FEAMAC/CARES simulation trial, the stochastic nature of brittle material strength results in random, discrete damage events, which incrementally progress and lead to ultimate structural failure. This report describes the FEAMAC/CARES methodology and discusses examples that illustrate the performance of the tool. A comprehensive example problem, simulating the progressive damage of laminated ceramic matrix composites under various off-axis loading conditions and including a double notched tensile specimen geometry, is described in a separate report.

  7. Fibre-matrix bond strength studies of glass, ceramic, and metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, D. H.; Mandell, J. F.; Hong, K. C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An indentation test technique for compressively loading the ends of individual fibers to produce debonding has been applied to metal, glass, and glass-ceramic matrix composites; bond strength values at debond initiation are calculated using a finite-element model. Results are correlated with composite longitudinal and interlaminar shear behavior for carbon and Nicalon fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics including the effects of matrix modifications, processing conditions, and high-temperature oxidation embrittlement. The data indicate that significant bonding to improve off-axis and shear properties can be tolerated before the longitudinal behavior becomes brittle. Residual stress and other mechanical bonding effects are important, but improved analyses and multiaxial interfacial failure criteria are needed to adequately interpret bond strength data in terms of composite performance.

  8. Carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites: processing routes and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Petitcorps, Y. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Pessac (France). ICMCB; Poueylaud, J.M. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Pessac (France). ICMCB; Albingre, L. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Pessac (France). ICMCB; Berdeu, B. [L`Electrolyse, 33 - Latresne (France); Lobstein, P. [L`Electrolyse, 33 - Latresne (France); Silvain, J.F. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Pessac (France). ICMCB

    1997-06-01

    Copper matrix composites are of interest for applications in the electronic field which requires materials with high thermal conductivity properties. The use of carbon fibres can (1) decrease the density and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material and (2) increase the stiffness and strength to rupture of the resulting composite. In order to produce cheap materials, chemical plating and uniaxial hot pressing processing routes were chosen. 1D-C{sub (P55Thornel)} / Cu prepregs were hot pressed in an argon atmosphere at 750 C during 30 min. The volume fraction of the fibres within the composite was in the range of 10-35%. Physical (density and thermal expansion coefficient) and thermal conductivity properties of the composite were in good agreement with the predictions. However this material exhibits very poor mechanical properties (Young`s modulus and tensile strength). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the surfaces of ruptures have shown that (1) a very weak bonding between the graphite fibres and the copper matrix was formed and (2) the rupture of the composite was initiated in the matrix at the copper grain boundaries. In order to overcome these two difficulties, the carbon fibres were pre-coated with a thin layer (100 nm) of cobalt. The aim of the cobalt was to react with the carbon to form carbide compounds and as a consequence to increase the bonding between the metal and the fibre. The tensile properties ({sigma}{sub c}{sup R} and E{sub c}) of this composite were then increased by 50% in comparison with the former material; however the strain to rupture was still too weak ({epsilon}{sub c}{sup R} = 0.5%). In order to explain the role of each constituents, X-ray profiles and TEM analyses were done at the fibre/matrix interface and at the grain boundaries. Some modifications of the chemical plating steps were done to improve the purity of the copper. (orig.)

  9. Internal damping due to dislocation movements induced by thermal expansion mismatch between matrix and particles in metal matrix composites. [Al/SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girand, C.; Lormand, G.; Fougeres, R.; Vincent, A. (GEMPPM, Villeurbanne (France))

    1993-05-01

    In metal matrix composites (MMCs), the mechanical 1 of the reinforcement-matrix interface is an important parameter because it governs the load transfer from matrix to particles, from which the mechanical properties of these materials are derived. Therefore, it would be useful to set out an experimental method able to characterize the interface and the adjacent matrix behaviors. Thus, a study has been undertaken by means of internal damping (I.D.) measurements, which are well known to be very sensitive for studying irreversible displacements at the atomic scale. More especially, this investigation is based on the fact that, during cooling of MMC's, stress concentrations originating from differences in coefficients of thermal expansion (C.T.E.) of matrix and particles should induce dislocation movements in the matrix surrounding the reinforcement; that is, local microplastic strains occur. Therefore, during I.D. measurements vs temperature these movements should contribute to MMCs I.D. in a process similar to those involved around first order phase transitions in solids. The aim of this paper is to present, in the case of Al/SiC particulate composites, new developments of this approach that has previously led to promising results in the case of Al-Si alloys.

  10. Effects of SiO2 nano-particles on tribological and mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composites by different dispersion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Mahboobeh; Zolfaghari, Mehrdad; Rezanezhad, Saeid; Azadi, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    This study has been presented with mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composites, reinforced by SiO2 nano-particles. The stir casting method was employed to produce various aluminum matrix composites. Different composites by varying the SiO2 nano-particle content (including 0.5 and 1 weight percents) and two dispersion methods (including ball-milling and pre-heating) were made. Then, the density, the hardness, the compression strength, the wear resistance and the microstructure of nano-composites have been studied in this research. Besides, the distribution of nano-particles in the aluminum matrix for all composites has been also evaluated by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Obtained results showed that the density, the elongation and the ultimate compressive strength of various nano-composites decreased by the presence of SiO2 nano-particles; however, the hardness, the wear resistance, the yield strength and the elastic modulus of composites increased by auditioning of nano-particles to the aluminum alloy. FESEM images indicated better wetting of the SiO2 reinforcement in the aluminum matrix, prepared by the pre-heating dispersion method, comparing to ball-milling. When SiO2 nano-particles were added to the aluminum alloy, the morphology of the Si phase and intermetallic phases changed, which enhanced mechanical properties. In addition, the wear mechanism plus the friction coefficient value were changed for various nano-composites with respect to the aluminum alloy.

  11. Thermal ageing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Cu–Mg alloy/bagasse ash particulate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Aigbodion

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal ageing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Cu–Mg alloy/bagasse ash(BAp particulate composites was investigated. The composites were produced by a double stir-casting method by varying bagasse ash from 2 to 10 wt.%. After casting the samples were solution heat-treated at a temperature of 500 °C in an electrically heated furnace, soaked for 3 h at this temperature and then rapidly quenched in water and thermal aged at temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. The ageing characteristics of these grades of composites were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, hardness and tensile test samples obtained from solution heat-treated composites samples subjected to the temperature conditions mentioned above. The results show that the uniform distribution of the bagasse ash particles in the microstructure of both the as-cast and age-hardened Al–Cu–Mg/BAp composites is the major factor responsible for the improvement in mechanical properties. The presence of the bagasse ash particles in the matrix alloy results in a much smaller grain size in the cast composites compared to the matrix alloy. The addition of bagasse ash particles to Al–Cu–Mg (A2009 does not alter the thermal ageing sequence, but it alters certain aspects of the precipitation reaction. Although thermal ageing is accelerated in the composites the presence of bagasse ash particles in A2009 reduces the peak temperatures.

  12. Research Progress on Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Cu-matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAO Jing-mei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The critical issues of CNTs/Cu composites were reviewed. The preparation techniques of the composites were classified, and the research progress on powder metallurgic methods, electrochemical methods and other methods was summarized, with an emphasis on the relationship between preparation methods and properties. The interfacial characteristic of the CNTs/Cu composites was analyzed, and the research progress and existing problems of mechanical properties, electrical properties, thermal properties and wear and friction properties of the composites were also summarized. It was pointed out that the key to increase the comprehensive properties of the composites is to obtain the homogeneous distribution of CNTs and good interfacial bonding between CNTs and the Cu matrix by improving the preparation methods.

  13. Nucleation of dislocation loops during irradiation in binary FCC alloys with different alloy compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Shigenaka, N.; Fuse, M.

    1992-01-01

    Dislocation loop nucleation is analyzed using a rate theory based model for face-centered cubic (fcc) binary alloys containing A- and B-atoms. In order to calculate the nucleation process in concentrated alloys, the model considers three types of interstitial dumbbells composed of A- and B-atoms, AA-, BB-, and AB-type dumbbells. Conversions between these interstitial dumbbells are newly introduced in the formulation in consideration of dumbbell configurations and movements. The model also includes reactions, such as point defect production by irradiation, mutual recombination of an interstitial and a vacancy, and dislocation loop nucleation and growth. Parameter values are chosen based on the atom size of the alloy component elements, and dislocation loop nucleation kinetics are investigated while varying alloy compositions. Two different types of kinetics are obtained in accordance with the dominant loop nucleus type. The migration energy difference of AA- and BB-type interstitial dumbbells is important in the determination of the dominant loop nucleus type. The present model predicts that the dislocation loop concentration decrease with increasing under sized atoms content, but defect production rate and temperature dependences of loop concentration are insensitive to alloy compositions. (author)

  14. Laser cladding of wear resistant metal matrix composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, A.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    2004-01-01

    A number of coatings with wear-resistant properties as well as with a low friction coefficient are produced by laser cladding. The structure of these coatings is determined by required performance and realized as metal matrix composite (MMC), where solid lubricant serves as a ductile matrix (e.g. CuSn), reinforced by appropriate ceramic phase (e.g. WC/Co). One of the engineered coating with functionally graded material (FGM) structure has a dry friction coefficient 0.12. Coatings were produced by coaxial injection of powder blend into the zone of laser beam action. Metallographic and tribological examinations were carried out confirming the advanced performance of engineered coatings

  15. Metal matrix composite fabrication processes for high performance aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, C.

    A survey is conducted of extant methods of metal matrix composite (MMC) production in order to serve as a basis for prospective MMC users' selection of a matrix/reinforcement combination, cost-effective primary fabrication methods, and secondary fabrication techniques for the achievement of desired performance levels. Attention is given to the illustrative cases of structural fittings, control-surface connecting rods, hypersonic aircraft air inlet ramps, helicopter swash plates, and turbine rotor disks. Methods for technical and cost analysis modeling useful in process optimization are noted.

  16. Characterization of selected LDEF polymer matrix resin composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Witte, William G., Jr.; Shen, James Y.

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of selected graphite fiber reinforced epoxy (934 and 5208) and polysulfone (P1700) matrix resin composite materials which received 5 years and 10 months of exposure to the LEO environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility is reported. Resin loss and a decrease in mechanical performance as well as dramatic visual effects were observed. However, chemical characterization including infrared, thermal, and selected solution property measurements showed that the molecular structure of the polymeric matrix had not changed significantly in response to this exposure. The potential effect of a silicon-containing molecular contamination of these specimens is addressed.

  17. Magnesium, magnesium alloys, and magnesium composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, M; Sharon, Nai Mui Ling

    2011-01-01

    "Properties of Magnesium Composites for Material Scientists, Engineers and Selectors is the first book-length reference to provide an insight into current and future magnesium-based materials in terms...

  18. Effect of in-situ TiC particulate on the wear resistance of spray-deposited 7075 Al matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Liu Huimin; Yang Bin

    2005-01-01

    TiC reinforced 7075 Al matrix composites have been fabricated by a melt in-situ reaction spray deposition. The microstructures of spray-deposited alloys were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The dry sliding wear behavior of the alloys was investigated using a pin-on-disc machine under four loads, namely 8.9, 17.8, 26.7 and 35.6 N. It has been found that the wear behavior of the alloys was dependent on the TiC content in the microstructure and the applied load. At a lower load (8.9 N), with increasing TiC content, the wear rate of the alloy was decreased. At a higher loads (26.7, 35.6 N), a spray-deposited 7075 Al alloy exhibited superior wear resistance to the 7075/TiC composites

  19. Influence of in situ formed ZrB2 particles on microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6061 metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinaharan, I.; Murugan, N.; Parameswaran, Siva

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In situ fabrication of aluminium metal matrix composite reinforced ZrB 2 particles. → Colour metallography of composites. → Improvement of matrix properties by ZrB 2 particles. → Sliding wear behaviour of in situ composites. - Abstract: Particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (PMMCs) have gained considerable amount of research emphasis and attention in the present era. Research is being carried out across the globe to produce new combination of PMMCs. PMMCs are prepared by adding a variety of ceramic particles with monolithic alloys using several techniques. An attempt has been made to produce aluminium metal matrix composites reinforced with zirconium boride (ZrB 2 ) particles by the in situ reaction of K 2 ZrF 6 and KBF 4 salts with molten aluminium. The influence of in situ formed ZrB 2 particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6061 alloy was studied in this work. The in situ formed ZrB 2 particles significantly refined the microstructure and enhanced the mechanical properties of AA6061 alloy. The weight percentage of ZrB 2 was varied from 0 to 10 in steps of 2.5. Improvement of hardness, ultimate tensile strength and wear resistance of AA6061 alloy was observed with the increase in ZrB 2 content.

  20. Interfacial characteristics and fracture behavior of spark-plasma-sintered TiNi fiber-reinforced 2024Al matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Wenxian; Chen, Shaoping; Zhou, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Embedding of shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers into materials to fabricate SMA composites has attracted considerable attention because of the potential applicability of these composites in smart systems and structures. In this study, 2024Al matrix composites reinforced by continuous TiNi SMA fibers were fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The interface between the fibers and matrix consisted of a bilayer. The layer close to the fiber consisted of a multiple phase mixture, and the other layer exhibited a periodic morphology resulting from the alternating phases of Al 3 Ti and Al 3 Ni. In addition, a small quantity of TiO 2 phases was also observed in the interface layer. Based on detailed interface studies of the orientation relationships between the Al 3 Ti, Al 3 Ni, and TiO 2 phases and the atomic correspondence at phase boundaries, the effects of the interface phases on the fracture behavior of the composites were demonstrated.

  1. Microstructural study and densification analysis of hot work tool steel matrix composites reinforced with TiB{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedrizzi, A., E-mail: anna.fedrizzi@ing.unitn.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Pellizzari, M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Zadra, M. [K4Sint, Start-up of the University of Trento, Viale Dante 300, 38057 Pergine Valsugana (Italy); Marin, E. [Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Hot work tool steels are characterized by good toughness and high hot hardness but are less wear resistant than other tooling materials, such as high speed steel. Metal matrix composites show improved tribological behavior, but not much work has been done in the field of hot work tool steels. In this paper TiB{sub 2}-reinforced hot work tool steel matrix composites were produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Mechanical alloying (MA) was proposed as a suited process to improve the composite microstructure. Density measurements and microstructure confirmed that MA promotes sintering and produces a fine and homogeneous dispersion of reinforcing particles. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered composites highlighted the formation of equilibrium Fe{sub 2}B and TiC, as predicted by thermodynamic calculations using Thermo-Calc® software. Scanning electron microscopy as well as scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy highlighted the reaction of the steel matrix with TiB{sub 2} particles, showing the formation of a reaction layer at the TiB{sub 2}-steel interface. Phase investigations pointed out that TiB{sub 2} is not chemically stable in steel matrix because of the presence of carbon even during short time SPS. - Highlights: • TiB{sub 2} reinforced steel matrix composites were produced by spark plasma sintering. • TiB{sub 2} was successfully dispersed in the steel matrix by mechanical alloying. • Steel and TiB{sub 2} react during sintering forming equilibrium Fe{sub 2}B and TiC. • The new phases were investigated by means of AFM, Volta potential and XRD analyses.

  2. Composite Ni-Co-fly ash coatings on 5083 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: chpanag@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Georgiou, E.P.; Tsopani, A.; Piperi, L. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were deposited on zincate treated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of the electrodeposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced composite coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were found to consist of a crystalline Ni-Co solid solution with dispersed fly ash particles. In addition, chemical analysis of the Ni-Co matrix showed that it consisted of 80 wt.% Ni and 20 wt.% Co. The co-deposition of fly ash particles leads to a significant increase of the microhardness of the coating. The corrosion behaviour of the Ni-Co-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy, in a 0.3 M NaCl solution (pH = 3.5), was studied by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments.

  3. Effect of Ag micro-alloying on the microstructure and properties of Cu-14Fe in situ composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.M.; Lu, D.P.; Zhou, H.T.; Atrens, A.; Zou, J.; Yang, Y.L.; Zeng, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studied Ag micro-alloying in the deformation-processed Cu-14Fe in situ composite, by a comparison of Cu-14Fe and Cu-14Fe-0.06Ag. Each alloy was prepared by casting and processed into an in situ composite by hot and cold working. The microstructures were documented using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties were measured with a tensile-testing machine. The electrical conductivity was measured with a micro-ohmmeter. For both alloys, the as-cast microstructure consisted of a Cu matrix and Fe dendrites; after hot and cold working the microstructure consisted of a Cu matrix containing Fe fibres elongated in the working direction. The as-cast Ag-containing alloy contained finer Fe dendrites. The Ag-containing in situ composite had thinner Fe fibres, higher tensile strength, higher ductility, and higher conductivity. The cold worked Cu-14Fe-0.06Ag in situ composite with cumulative cold deformation strain η = 7.8 (where η = ln(A 0 /A) and A 0 and A are the original and final cross-section areas, respectively), achieved a tensile strength of 930 MPa and a conductivity of 56%IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard; 17.241 nΩ m is defined as 100%IACS). The Ag micro-alloyed in situ composite had a combination of properties comparable to that of a much more expensive alloy containing much more Ag. After 1 h heat treatment at 300 deg. C, the tensile strength was increased to 950 MPa and the conductivity was increased to 56.4%IACS.

  4. Helium sequestration at nanoparticle-matrix interfaces in helium + heavy ion irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, C.M., E-mail: parishcm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Unocic, K.A.; Tan, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Kondo, S. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011 (Japan); Snead, L.L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hoelzer, D.T.; Katoh, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    We irradiated four ferritic alloys with energetic Fe and He ions: one castable nanostructured alloy (CNA) containing Ti-W-Ta-carbides, and three nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). The NFAs were: 9Cr containing Y-Ti-O nanoclusters, and two Fe-12Cr-5Al NFAs containing Y-Zr-O or Y-Hf-O clusters. All four were subjected to simultaneous dual-beam Fe + He ion implantation (650 °C, ∼50 dpa, ∼15 appm He/dpa), simulating fusion-reactor conditions. Examination using scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) revealed high-number-density helium bubbles of ∼8 nm, ∼10{sup 21} m{sup −3} (CNA), and of ∼3 nm, 10{sup 23} m{sup −3} (NFAs). STEM combined with multivariate statistical analysis data mining suggests that the precipitate-matrix interfaces in all alloys survived ∼50 dpa at 650 °C and serve as effective helium trapping sites. All alloys appear viable structural material candidates for fusion or advanced fission energy systems. Among these developmental alloys the NFAs appear to sequester the helium into smaller bubbles and away from the grain boundaries more effectively than the early-generation CNA.

  5. Solidification microstructures in a short fiber reinforced alloy composite containing different fiber fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JING Qing-xiu

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The solidification microstructures and micro-segregation of a fiber reinforced Al-9 Cu alloy, containing different volume fractions of Al2O3 short fibers about 6 μm diameter and made by squeeze casting have been studied. The results indicate that as volume fraction of fiber Vf increases, the size of final grains becomes finer in the matrix. If λf /λ>1, the fibers have almost no influence on the solidification behavior of the matrix, so the final grains grow coarse, where λf is the average inter-fiber spacing and λ is the secondary dendrite arm spacing. While if λf /λ<1, the growth of crystals in the matrix is affected significantly by the fibers and the grain size is reduced to the value of the inter-fiber spacing. The fibers influence the average length of a solidification volume element L of the matrix and also influence the solidification time θt of the matrix. As a result of fibers influencing L and θt, the micro-segregation in the matrix is improved when the composite contains more fibers, although the level of the improvement is slight. The Clyne-Kurz model can be used to semi-quantitatively analyze the relationship between Vf and the volume fraction fe of the micro-segregation eutectic structure.

  6. Fabrication of metal matrix composite by semi-solid powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yufeng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Various metal matrix composites (MMCs) are widely used in the automotive, aerospace and electrical industries due to their capability and flexibility in improving the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of a component. However, current manufacturing technologies may suffer from insufficient process stability and reliability and inadequate economic efficiency and may not be able to satisfy the increasing demands placed on MMCs. Semi-solid powder processing (SPP), a technology that combines traditional powder metallurgy and semi-solid forming methods, has potential to produce MMCs with low cost and high efficiency. In this work, the analytical study and experimental investigation of SPP on the fabrication of MMCs were explored. An analytical model was developed to understand the deformation mechanism of the powder compact in the semi-solid state. The densification behavior of the Al6061 and SiC powder mixtures was investigated with different liquid fractions and SiC volume fractions. The limits of SPP were analyzed in terms of reinforcement phase loading and its impact on the composite microstructure. To explore adoption of new materials, carbon nanotube (CNT) was investigated as a reinforcing material in aluminum matrix using SPP. The process was successfully modeled for the mono-phase powder (Al6061) compaction and the density and density distribution were predicted. The deformation mechanism at low and high liquid fractions was discussed. In addition, the compaction behavior of the ceramic-metal powder mixture was understood, and the SiC loading limit was identified by parametric study. For the fabrication of CNT reinforced Al6061 composite, the mechanical alloying of Al6061-CNT powders was first investigated. A mathematical model was developed to predict the CNT length change during the mechanical alloying process. The effects of mechanical alloying time and processing temperature during SPP were studied on the mechanical, microstructural and

  7. The study of precipitation hardening of weight heavy alloys matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaczorowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Thc study of rnodcl wcight hcavy atloy (WHA W-Ni-Co-Fc. with somc cxccss or tungsrcn with respcct to its maximum nickcI hascd sol idstate solubility arc prcscntcd. The alloy was melted at the tcmpemturc 1570 "C in hydrogcn atrnosphcrc. Aftet rcmoving thc bottom par1 ofthc cwting where cxcess grains of tungstcn scdimcnt, thc ingot was solulion heat trcatmcnt for 2h at tbc tcmpcra~urc 900°C followed hywater qucnching. Finally. the specimens werc agcd at thc tcrnpcraturc 250. 3IX1 and 350 "C for time up to 48. 36 and 24 rcspcctivcly. Aficrheat trcazment the specimens wcre studicd using hardncss rncasutemcnts and structure investigations. Thc last onc includcd X-raydiffracromctry (XRD. optical metallography. scanning clcct ton microscopy (SEM and ~ransmissionrl cctron micmscopy (TEMb I t wasconcluded that two phase microstructure was not s~lhstantiallyc hangcd during aging. cspially the aging lcad not ta 111tr;l-finc prccipitnzcformation. which would causcd remnrkablc prccipizar ion strcng~hcningo f mn~rixT. hc rcsulzs analysis prompt us to concludc thna thc mainreason of minimal strcngthcning only was thc spccific output strtlcturc aftcr solution heat tscatrnen!. rcsul~cd Fmm to taw tclnpcraturc ofsolution heat treatment,

  8. Inorganic Polymer Matrix Composite Strength Related to Interface Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bridge

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin transfer molding of an inorganic polymer binder was successfully demonstrated in the preparation of ceramic fiber reinforced engine exhaust valves. Unfortunately, in the preliminary processing trials, the resulting composite valves were too brittle for in-engine evaluation. To address this limited toughness, the effectiveness of a modified fiber-matrix interface is investigated through the use of carbon as a model material fiber coating. After sequential heat treatments composites molded from uncoated and carbon coated fibers are compared using room temperature 3-point bend testing. Carbon coated Nextel fiber reinforced geopolymer composites demonstrated a 50% improvement in strength, versus that of the uncoated fiber reinforced composites, after the 250 °C postcure.

  9. Progressive fracture of polymer matrix composite structures: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive fracture of polymer matrix composite structures. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the structural behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach account for all types of composite behavior, structures, load conditions, and fracture processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation and to global structural collapse. Results of structural fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach. Parameters and guidelines are identified which can be used as criteria for structural fracture, inspection intervals, and retirement for cause. Generalization to structures made of monolithic metallic materials are outlined and lessons learned in undertaking the development of new approaches, in general, are summarized.

  10. Preparation technology of 103Pd-110Agm composite alloy membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhuo; Chen Daming; Jin Xiaohai; Li Zhongyong; Guo Feihu; Qin Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of 103 Pd- 110 Ag m alloy membranes was the basis for the production of 103 Pd- 125 I composite sources. Taking 103 Pd and 110 Ag m as trace elements, the method of non-electrolytical plating was chosen to prepare the alloy membrane. A γ-detector and electron microscope (SEM) were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis, respectively. The pre-treatment of the support before the preparation of Palladium-silver composite membranes was discussed in detail. It was found that when the concentration of PdCl 2 was between 0.5 and 2.0 mmol/L the result was good. The effects of various factors were investigated, including the proportion of Pd and Ag, the concentrations of the total metal, ammonium hydroxide hydrazine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, temperature, the time, and the rotation speed. By improving the reaction conditions the alloy membrane with metallic luster was obtained. Besides, the presence of Pd and Ag was observed in the alloy membranes by qualitative analysis. (authors)

  11. The dissimilar brazing of Kovar alloy to SiCp/Al composites using silver-based filler metal foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Xu, Dongxia; Zhai, Yahong; Niu, Jitai

    2017-09-01

    Aluminum metal matrix composites with high SiC content (60 vol.% SiCp/Al MMCs) were surface metallized with a Ni-P alloy coating, and vacuum brazing between the composites and Kovar alloy were performed using rapidly cooled Ag-22.0Cu-15.9In-10.86Sn-1.84Ti (wt%) foil. The effects of Ni-P alloy coating and brazing parameters on the joint microstructures and properties were researched by SEM, EDS, and single lap shear test, respectively. Results show that Ag-Al intermetallic strips were formed in the 6063Al matrix and filler metal layer because of diffusion, and they were arranged regularly and accumulated gradually as the brazing temperature was increased ( T/°C = 550-600) or the soaking time was prolonged ( t/min = 10-50). However, excessive strips would destroy the uniformity of seams and lead to a reduced bonding strength (at most 70 MPa). Using a Ni-P alloy coating, void free joints without those strips were obtained at 560 °C after 20 min soaking time, and a higher shear strength of 90 MPa was achieved. The appropriate interface reaction ( 2 μm transition layer) that occurred along the Ni-P alloy coating/filler metal/Kovar alloy interfaces resulted in better metallurgical bonding. In this research, the developed Ag-based filler metal was suitable for brazing the dissimilar materials of Ni-P alloy-coated SiCp/Al MMCs and Kovar alloy, and capable welding parameters were also broadened.

  12. Deep ultraviolet distributed Bragg reflectors based on graded composition AlGaN alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brummer, Gordie, E-mail: gbrummer@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Nothern, Denis [Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Nikiforov, A. Yu. [Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Moustakas, T. D., E-mail: tdm@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with peak reflectivity at approximately 280 nm, based on compositionally graded Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N alloys, were grown on 6H-SiC substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. DBRs with square, sinusoidal, triangular, and sawtooth composition profiles were designed with the transfer matrix method. The crystal structure of these DBRs was studied with high-resolution x-ray diffraction of the (1{sup ¯}015) reciprocal lattice point. The periodicity of the DBR profiles was confirmed with cross-sectional Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy. The peak reflectance of these DBRs with 15.5 periods varies from 77% to 56% with corresponding full width at half maximum of 17–14 nm. Coupled mode analysis was used to explain the dependence of the reflectivity characteristics on the profile of the graded composition.

  13. Corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. Chemical composition and metallurgical condition's effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N.S.; Rebak, Raul B.

    2009-01-01

    P, may form if Ni-Cr-Mo alloys are exposed for tens of hours in the range of 600 C degrees to 1100 C degrees. These phases could have a detrimental effect upon corrosion resistance and cause a loss of mechanical ductility. The precipitation of TCP phases starts at grain boundaries and for long aging times it progresses to twins boundaries and then the grain bodies. TCP phases are rich in Mo and Cr. Zones in the matrix adjacent to the TCP precipitates may be depleted of Cr and Mo, and the alloy becomes sensitized.The aim of the present work was to compare the general corrosion rate and the crevice corrosion susceptibility of alloys C-22, C-22HS and HYBRID-BC1 in different metallurgical conditions when exposed to hot chloride solutions. The effects of the alloy composition and different heat treatments were assessed. (author)

  14. Silver matrix composites reinforced with galvanically silvered particles

    OpenAIRE

    J. Śleziona; J. Wieczorek,

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents the possibility of the application of metalic layers drifted with the use of the galvanic methods on the ceramic particles surface. The application of the layers was aimed at obtaining the rewetting of the reinforcing particles with the liquid silver in the course of the producing of silver matrix composites with the use of mechanical stirring method. To enable introducing of the iron powder and glass carbon powder to liquid silver the solution of covering the powd...

  15. Fracture Resistance Evaluation of Fibre Reinforced Brittle Matrix Composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Chlup, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 290, - (2005), s. 167-174 ISSN 1013-9826. [Fractography of Advanced Ceramic s /2./. Stará Lesná, 03.10.2004-06.10.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2041003; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/02/0683 Keywords : fibre-reinforced ceramic s * glass matrix composites * chevron notch Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.224, year: 2005

  16. Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites - CRADA Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Dave [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Norris, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.

  17. Matrix-reinforcement reactivity in P/M titanium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amigo, V.; Romero, F.; Salvador, M. D.; Busquets, D.

    2007-01-01

    The high reactivity of titanium and the facility of the same one to form intermetallics makes difficult obtaining composites with this material and brings the need in any case of covering the principal fibres used as reinforcement. To obtain composites of titanium reinforced with ceramic particles ins proposed in this paper, for this reason it turns out to be fundamental to evaluate the reactivity between the matrix and reinforcement. Both titanium nitride and carbide (TiN and TiC) are investigated as materials of low reactivity whereas titanium silicide (TiSi 2 ) is also studied as materials of major reactivity, already stated by the scientific community. This reactivity will be analysed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) there being obtained distribution maps of the elements that allow to establish the possible influence of the sintering temperature and time. Hereby the matrix-reinforcement interactions are optimized to obtain suitable mechanical properties. (Author) 39 refs

  18. Mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of as-cast Mg77TM12Zn5Y6 (TM = Cu, Ni) bulk amorphous matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, K.Q.; Hu, N.N.; Zhang, H.B.; Jiang, W.H.; Ren, Y.L.; Liaw, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative investigations on the microstructures, thermal stability and mechanical properties of Mg 77 Cu 12 Zn 5 Y 6 and Mg 77 Ni 12 Zn 5 Y 6 bulk metallic glass matrix composites were carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DSC and compressive tester. The results show that the microstructure of as-cast samples with 3 mm in diameter for Cu-containing alloy is consisted of Mg flakes and dotted Mg 2 Cu phase in the amorphous matrix, while the as-cast Ni-containing alloy with the same diameter is mainly consisted of Mg flakes in the amorphous matrix. The glass transition temperature and supercooled liquid region are 413 K and 27 K for the Cu-containing, 443 K and 32 K for the Ni-containing amorphous matrix composites, respectively. The fracture strength, yield strength and plastic strain are 532 MPa, 390 MPa and 2.4% for the Cu-containing alloy, 667 MPa, 412 MPa and 7% for the Ni-containing alloy, respectively. Furthermore, the fracture mechanism for the amorphous matrix composites was discussed according to both the fracture surfaces and the stress-strain curves.

  19. Reactive compatibilization in polymer alloys, recyclates and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czvikovszky, T.; Hargitai, H.; Racz, I.; Csukat, G

    1999-05-02

    The efficiency of all composite materials depends on the fiber-matrix interface and its ability to transfer stress from the matrix to the fiber. Radiation treatment is a possible way to bind together the main components of the composite. In our earlier work we applied acrylic oligomer-treated fibers irradiated with low energy electron beam to reinforce recycled polypropylene. In the present work the interaction between the matrix and fibers - PAN and glass fibers - was investigated by ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis). On the other hand, the conventional way of compatibilization - the effect of using maleic anhydride grafted PP as a coupling agent - was examined in flax fiber-PP composites.

  20. Effect of SiC particles on microarc oxidation process of magnesium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Q.; Wang, X.J.; Gong, W.X.; Wu, K.; Wang, F.H.

    2013-01-01

    SiC particles are an important reinforced phase in metal matrix composites. Their effect on the microarc oxidation (MAO, also named plasma electrolytic oxidation-PEO) process of SiC p /AZ91 Mg matrix composites (MMCs) was studied and the mechanism was revealed. The corrosion resistance of MAO coating was also investigated. Voltage–time curves during MAO were recorded to study the barrier film status on the composites. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the existing state of SiC particles in MAO. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical composition of the coating. Corrosion resistance of the bare and coated composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curves in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the integrality and electrical insulation properties of the barrier film on the composites were destroyed by the SiC particles. Consequently, the sparking discharge at the early stage of MAO was inhibited, and the growth efficiency of the MAO coating decreased with the increase in the volume fraction of SiC particles. SiC particles did not exist stably during MAO; they were oxidized or partially oxidized into SiO 2 before the overall sparking discharge. The transformation from semi-conductive SiC to insulating SiO 2 by oxidation restrained the current leakage at the original SiC positions and then promoted sparking discharge and coating growth. The corrosion current density of SiC p /AZ91 MMCs was reduced by two orders of magnitude after MAO treatment. However, the corrosion resistances of the coated composites were lower than that of the coated alloy.

  1. Cermet anode compositions with high content alloy phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschman, Steven C.; Davis, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Cermet electrode compositions comprising NiO-NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 -Cu-Ni, and methods for making, are disclosed. Addition of nickel metal prior to formation and densification of a base mixture into the cermet allows for an increase in the total amount of copper and nickel that can be contained in the NiO-NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 oxide system. Nickel is present in a base mixture weight concentration of from 0.1% to 10%. Copper is present in the alloy phase in a weight concentration of from 10% to 30% of the densified composition. Such cermet electrodes can be formed to have electrical conductivities well in excess of 100 ohm.sup.-1 cm.sup.-1. Other alloy and oxide system cermets having high content metal phases are also expected to be manufacturable in accordance with the invention.

  2. Features of solid solutions composition in magnesium with yttrium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Tarytina, I.E.

    1983-01-01

    Additional data on features of yttrium solid solutions composition in magnesium in the course of their decomposition investigation in the case of aging are obtianed. The investigation has been carried out on the base of a binary magnesium-yttrium alloy the composition of which has been close to maximum solubility (at eutectic temperature) and magnesium-yttrium alloys additionally doped with zinc. It is shown that higher yttrium solubility in solid magnesium than it has been expected, issueing from the difference in atomic radii of these metals indicates electron yttrium-magnesium atoms interaction. In oversaturated magnesium-yttrium solid solutions at earlier decomposition stages Mg 3 Cd type ordering is observed. At aging temperatures up to 250 deg C and long exposures corresponding to highest strengthening in oversaturated magnesium yttrium solid solutions a rhombic crystal lattice phase with three symmetric orientations is formed

  3. Titanium Matrix Composite Ti/TiN Produced by Diode Laser Gas Nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Lisiecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high power direct diode laser, emitting in the range of near infrared radiation at wavelength 808–940 nm, was applied to produce a titanium matrix composite on a surface layer of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by laser surface gas nitriding. The nitrided surface layers were produced as single stringer beads at different heat inputs, different scanning speeds, and different powers of laser beam. The influence of laser nitriding parameters on the quality, shape, and morphology of the surface layers was investigated. It was found that the nitrided surface layers consist of titanium nitride precipitations mainly in the form of dendrites embedded in the titanium alloy matrix. The titanium nitrides are produced as a result of the reaction between molten Ti and gaseous nitrogen. Solidification and subsequent growth of the TiN dendrites takes place to a large extent at the interface of the molten Ti and the nitrogen gas atmosphere. The direction of TiN dendrites growth is perpendicular to the surface of molten Ti. The roughness of the surface layers depends strongly on the heat input of laser nitriding and can be precisely controlled. In spite of high microhardness up to 2400 HV0.2, the surface layers are crack free.

  4. Calculations of the properties of superconducting alloys via the average T-matrix approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, P.

    1980-01-01

    The theoretical formula of McMillan, modified via the multiple-scattering theory by Gomersall and Gyorffy, has been very successful in computing the electron-phonon coupling constant (lambda) and the transition temperature (Tsub(c)) of many superconducting elements and compounds. For disordered solids, such as substitutional alloys, however, this theory fails because of the breakdown of the translational symmetry used in the multiple-scattering theory. Under these conditions the problem can still be solved if the t-matrix is averaged in the random phase approximation (average T-matrix approximation). Gomersall and Gyorffy's expression is reformulated for lambda in the random phase approximation. This theory is applied to calculate lambda and Tsub(c) of the binary substitutional NbMo alloy system at different concentrations. The results appear to be in fair agreement with experiments. (author)

  5. Insight of magnesium alloys and composites for orthopedic implant applications – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Radha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg and its alloys have been widely researched for orthopedic applications recently. Mg alloys have stupendous advantages over the commercially available stainless steel, Co-Cr-Ni alloy and titanium implants. Till date, extensive mechanical, in-vitro and in-vivo studies have been done to improve the biomedical performance of Mg alloys through alloying, processing conditions, surface modification etc. This review comprehensively describes the strategies for improving the mechanical and degradation performance of Mg alloys through properly tailoring the composition of alloying elements, reinforcements and processing techniques. It also highlights the status and progress of research in to (i the selection of nutrient elements for alloying, reinforcement and its effects (ii type of Mg alloy system (binary, ternary and quaternary and composites (iii grain refinement for strengthening through severe plastic deformation techniques. Furthermore it also emphasizes on the importance of Mg composites with regard to hard tissue applications.

  6. Electrochemical Corrosion Behaviour of Alumina-Al 6061 and Silicon Carbide-Al 6061 Metal-Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, K.E.; Gad, M.M.A.; El-Sayed, A.A.; Moustafa, O.H.

    2001-01-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviour of powder metallurgy-processed metal-matrix composites (MMCs)based on Al alloy 6061 reinforced with particulate Al 2 O 3 or Sic has been studied in chloride-containing environment. Also, the corrosion behaviour of the unrein forced Al 6061 produced by the same route investigated. Electrochemical tests were conducted on composites containing 10 and 20 vo l% of both reinforced particulates. Potentiodynamic polarization tests have been carried out in neutral as well as acidic and alkaline de-aerated 10 -3 M Na CI solution. In the neutral environment, the addition of Al 2 O 3 particulates was found to shift both the corrosion potential (E corr ) and the break down potential (E b ) slightly into the positive direction irrespective of the volume fraction added (10 and 20 vo l%). On the other hand , Sic caused a shift of E corr into the active site while the E b value was slightly ennobled. For both composites, the corrosion current values at the break down potentials were almost the same as the unrein forced alloy. In an attempt to further clarify the role of both particulate addition, cathodic polarization runs were conducted in both acidic (ph 3) and alkaline (ph 9)solutions for 20 vo l% of Al 2 O 3 and 20 vo l% Sic composite specimens. This indicated that cathodic current values for Sic composites were higher than those corresponding to the unrein forced alloy 6061, and those for the Al 2 O 3 composites were lower

  7. In vitro performance assessment of new beta Ti–Mo–Nb alloy compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neacsu, Patricia; Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Mitran, Valentina; Gloriant, Thierry; Costache, Marieta; Cimpean, Anisoara

    2015-01-01

    New β-titanium based alloys with low Young's modulus are currently required for the next generation of metallic implant materials to ensure good mechanical compatibility with bone. Several of these are representatives of the ternary Ti–Mo–Nb system. The aim of this paper is to assess the in vitro biological performance of five new low modulus alloy compositions, namely Ti12Mo, Ti4Mo32Nb, Ti6Mo24Nb, Ti8Mo16Nb and Ti10Mo8Nb. Commercially pure titanium (cpTi) was used as a reference material. Comparative studies of cell activity exhibited by MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts over short- and long-term culture periods demonstrated that these newly-developed metallic substrates exhibited an increased biocompatibility in terms of osteoblast proliferation, collagen production and extracellular matrix mineralization. Furthermore, all analyzed biomaterials elicited an almost identical cell response. Considering that macrophages play a pivotal role in bone remodeling, the behavior of a monocyte-macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, was also investigated showing a slightly lower inflammatory response to Ti–Mo–Nb biomaterials as compared with cpTi. Thus, the biological performances together with the superior mechanical properties recommend these alloys for bone implant applications. - Highlights: • Ti–Mo–Nb compositions show a fully β-microstructural state by XRD analysis. • Similar osteoblast growth and differentiation is displayed by β-Ti alloys and cpTi. • Ti–Mo–Nb alloys elicit a slightly lower inflammatory response than cpTi

  8. In vitro performance assessment of new beta Ti–Mo–Nb alloy compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neacsu, Patricia [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91–95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Gordin, Doina-Margareta [INSA Rennes, UMR CNRS 6226 ISCR/Chimie-Métallurgie, 20 avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, F-35043 Rennes, Cedex (France); Mitran, Valentina [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91–95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Gloriant, Thierry [INSA Rennes, UMR CNRS 6226 ISCR/Chimie-Métallurgie, 20 avenue des Buttes de Coësmes, F-35043 Rennes, Cedex (France); Costache, Marieta [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91–95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Cimpean, Anisoara, E-mail: anisoara.cimpean@bio.unibuc.ro [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91–95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-02-01

    New β-titanium based alloys with low Young's modulus are currently required for the next generation of metallic implant materials to ensure good mechanical compatibility with bone. Several of these are representatives of the ternary Ti–Mo–Nb system. The aim of this paper is to assess the in vitro biological performance of five new low modulus alloy compositions, namely Ti12Mo, Ti4Mo32Nb, Ti6Mo24Nb, Ti8Mo16Nb and Ti10Mo8Nb. Commercially pure titanium (cpTi) was used as a reference material. Comparative studies of cell activity exhibited by MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts over short- and long-term culture periods demonstrated that these newly-developed metallic substrates exhibited an increased biocompatibility in terms of osteoblast proliferation, collagen production and extracellular matrix mineralization. Furthermore, all analyzed biomaterials elicited an almost identical cell response. Considering that macrophages play a pivotal role in bone remodeling, the behavior of a monocyte-macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, was also investigated showing a slightly lower inflammatory response to Ti–Mo–Nb biomaterials as compared with cpTi. Thus, the biological performances together with the superior mechanical properties recommend these alloys for bone implant applications. - Highlights: • Ti–Mo–Nb compositions show a fully β-microstructural state by XRD analysis. • Similar osteoblast growth and differentiation is displayed by β-Ti alloys and cpTi. • Ti–Mo–Nb alloys elicit a slightly lower inflammatory response than cpTi.

  9. Dry sliding wear behavior of heat treated hybrid metal matrix composite using Taguchi techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, T.S.; Prasanna Kumar, M.; Basavarajappa, S.; Viswanatha, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZA-27 alloy is used as matrix material and reinforced with SiC and Gr particles. • Heat treatment was carried out for all specimen. • Dry sliding wear test was done on pin-on-disc apparatus by Taguchi technique. • ZA-27/9SiC–3Gr showed superior wear resistance over the base alloy. • Ceramic mixed mechanical layer on contact surface of composite was formed. - Abstract: Dry sliding wear behavior of zinc based alloy and composite reinforced with SiCp (9 wt%) and Gr (3 wt%) fabricated by stir casting method was investigated. Heat treatment (HT) and aging of the specimen were carried out, followed by water quenching. Wear behavior was evaluated using pin on disc apparatus. Taguchi technique was used to estimate the parameters affecting the wear significantly. The effect of HT was that it reduced the microcracks, residual stresses and improved the distribution of microconstituents. The influence of various parameters like applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance on wear behavior was investigated by means and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Further, correlation between the parameters was determined by multiple linear regression equation for each response. It was observed that the applied load significantly influenced the wear volume loss (WVL), followed by sliding speed implying that increase in either applied load or sliding speed increases the WVL. Whereas for composites, sliding distance showed a negative influence on wear indicating that increase in sliding distance reduces WVL due to the presence of reinforcements. The wear mechanism of the worn out specimen was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The analysis shows that the formation and retention of ceramic mixed mechanical layer (CMML) plays a major role in the dry sliding wear resistance

  10. Influence of pH and bath composition on properties of Ni–Fe alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic films have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in ... alloy are used for recording, memory and storage devices. (Romankiw et al 1970; ... Fe–Ni alloys are seriously affected by their compositions and structures ...

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of FeNiCr Matrix-TiC Composite for Polishing CVD Diamond Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuji Jin; Zewei Yuan; Renke Kang; Boxian Dong

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic friction polishing (DFP) is one of the most promising methods appropriate for polishing CVD diamond film with high efficiency and low cost.By this method CVD diamond film is polished through being simply pressed against a metal disc rotating at a high speed utilizing the thermochemical reaction occurring as a result of dynamic friction between them in the atmosphere.However, the relatively soft materials such as stainless steel, cast iron and nickel alloy widely used for polishing CVD diamond film are easy to wear and adhere to diamond film surface, which may further lead to low efficiency and poor polishing quality.In this paper, FeNiCr matrix-TiC composite used as grinding wheel for polishing CVD diamond film was obtained by combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS).The process of ball milling,composition, density, hardness, high-temperature oxidation resistance and wear resistance of the sintered piece were analyzed.The results show that TiC was introduced in MA-SPS process and had good combination with FeNiCr matrix and even distribution in the matrix.The density of composite can be improved by mechanical alloying.The FeNiCr matrix-TiC composite obtained at 1273 K was found to be superior to at 1173 K sintering in hardness, high-temperature oxidation resistance and wearability.These properties are more favorable than SUS304 for the preparation of high-performance grinding wheel for polishing CVD diamond film.

  12. High temperature resin matrix composites for aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Accomplishments and the outlook for graphite-polyimide composite structures are briefly outlined. Laminates, skin-stiffened and honeycomb sandwich panels, chopped fiber moldings, and structural components were fabricated with Celion/LARC-160 and Celion/PMR-15 composite materials. Interlaminar shear and flexure strength data obtained on as-fabricated specimens and specimens that were exposed for 125 hours at 589 K indicate that epoxy sized and polyimide sized Celion graphite fibers exhibit essentially the same behavior in a PMR-15 matrix composite. Analyses and tests of graphite-polyimide compression and shear panels indicate that utilization in moderately loaded applications offers the potential for achieving a 30 to 50 percent reduction in structural mass compared to conventional aluminum panels. Data on effects of moisture, temperature, thermal cycling, and shuttle fluids on mechanical properties indicate that both LARC-160 and PMR-15 are suitable matrix materials for a graphite-polyimide aft body flap. No technical road blocks to building a graphite-polyimide composite aft body flap are identified.

  13. Assessment of hyaline cartilage matrix composition using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukuru, Uday P; McGoverin, Cushla M; Pleshko, Nancy

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are characteristic of injury or disease in cartilage tissue. Various imaging modalities and biochemical techniques have been used to assess the changes in cartilage tissue but lack adequate sensitivity, or in the case of biochemical techniques, result in destruction of the sample. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has shown promise for the study of cartilage composition. In the current study NIR spectroscopy was used to identify the contributions of individual components of cartilage in the NIR spectra by assessment of the major cartilage components, collagen and chondroitin sulfate, in pure component mixtures. The NIR spectra were obtained using homogenous pellets made by dilution with potassium bromide. A partial least squares (PLS) model was calculated to predict composition in bovine cartilage samples. Characteristic absorbance peaks between 4000 and 5000 cm(-1) could be attributed to components of cartilage, i.e. collagen and chondroitin sulfate. Prediction of the amount of collagen and chondroitin sulfate in tissues was possible within 8% (w/dw) of values obtained by gold standard biochemical assessment. These results support the use of NIR spectroscopy for in vitro and in vivo applications to assess matrix composition of cartilage tissues, especially when tissue destruction should be avoided. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Preparation and characterization of aluminum based alloy - mica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.A.; Shamim, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, six pallets each of 2.0 cm dia and 0.5 cm thickness were prepared by powder metallurgy; half of them also contained 1% mica-powder to form a composite. Inclusion of mica resulted in a decreased density and an increased porosity of the sample. Brinell hardness was found to be 21% less for the composite than for the pure alloy. Micro-graphs of different areas of the sample show uniform distribution of mica particles and avoids around them. (author)

  15. Tungsten wire--nickel base alloy composite development. Contractor report, 1 Jun 1974--29 Feb 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brentnall, W.D.; Moracz, D.J.

    1976-03-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed, and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W--Hf--C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/m 2 (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics

  16. Matrix resin effects in composite delamination - Mode I fracture aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunston, Donald L.; Moulton, Richard J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Bascom, Willard D.

    1987-01-01

    A number of thermoset, toughened thermoset, and thermoplastic resin matrix systems were characterized for Mode I critical strain energy release rates, and their composites were tested for interlaminar critical strain energy release rates using the double cantilever beam method. A clear correlation is found between the two sets of data. With brittle resins, the interlaminar critical strain energy release rates are somewhat larger than the neat resin values due to a full transfer of the neat resin toughness to the composite and toughening mechanisms associated with crack growth. With tougher matrices, the higher critical strain energy release rates are only partially transferred to the composites, presumably because the fibers restrict the crack-tip deformation zones.

  17. Mathematical model for choosing the nuclear safe matrix compositions for fissile material immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshtein, A.I.; Matyunin, Yu.I.; Poluehktov, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed for preliminary choice of the nuclear safe matrix compositions for fissile material immobilization. The IBM PC computer software for nuclear safe matrix composition calculations is developed. The limiting concentration of fissile materials in the some used and perspective nuclear safe matrix compositions for radioactive waste immobilization is calculated [ru

  18. Nondestructive characterization of metal-matrix-composites by ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun

    1992-01-01

    Nondestructive characterizations using ultrasonic technique were conducted systematically on Al 2 O 3 short fiber reinforced pure Al and AC8A aluminium metal-matrix composites. In order to determine the elastic moduli of metal-matrix composites(MMCs), Al 2 O 3 /AC8A composites with volume fraction of Al 2 O 3 short fiber varying up to 30% were fabricated by squeeze casting technique. Pure Al and AC8A reinforced with Al 2 O 3 short fiber were also fabricated by changing the fabrication parameters such as the applied pressure, the volume fraction of fiber. The Influences of texture change associated with change of fabrication parameters were investigated using the sophisticated LFB acoustic microscope with the frequency of 225 MHz. Ultrasonic velocities of longitudinal, shear and Rayleigh waves of the composites were measured by pulse-echo method and line-focus-beam(LBF) acoustic microscope. Ultrasonic velocities of the longitudinal, the shear and Rayleigh waves were found to correlate primarily with the volume fraction of Al 2 O 3 . The elastic constants of composites including Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus, Bulk Modulus and Poisson's ratio were determined on the basis of the longitudinal and the shear wave velocities measured by an ultrasonic pulse-echo method. The Young's Modulus of the composites obtained by ultrasonic technique were slightly lower than those measured by 4-point-bend test and also showed relatively good agreements with the calculated results derived from the equal stress condition. The applicability of LFB acoustic microscope on material characterization of the MMCs was discussed on the basis of the relationships between Rayleigh wave velocity as a function of rotated angle of specimen and fabrication parameters of the MMCs.

  19. Three-dimensional nanometer scale analyses of precipitate structures and local compositions in titanium aluminide engineering alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl, Stephan S. A.

    Titanium aluminide (TiAl) alloys are among the fastest developing class of materials for use in high temperature structural applications. Their low density and high strength make them excellent candidates for both engine and airframe applications. Creep properties of TiAl alloys, however, have been a limiting factor in applying the material to a larger commercial market. In this research, nanometer scale compositional and structural analyses of several TiAl alloys, ranging from model Ti-Al-C ternary alloys to putative commercial alloys with 10 components are investigated utilizing three dimensional atom probe (3DAP) and transmission electron microscopies. Nanometer sized borides, silicides, and carbide precipitates are involved in strengthening TiAl alloys, however, chemical partitioning measurements reveal oxygen concentrations up to 14 at. % within the precipitate phases, resulting in the realization of oxycarbide formation contributing to the precipitation strengthening of TiAl alloys. The local compositions of lamellar microstructures and a variety of precipitates in the TiAl system, including boride, silicide, binary carbides, and intermetallic carbides are investigated. Chemical partitioning of the microalloying elements between the alpha2/gamma lamellar phases, and the precipitate/gamma-matrix phases are determined. Both W and Hf have been shown to exhibit a near interfacial excess of 0.26 and 0.35 atoms nm-2 respectively within ca. 7 nm of lamellar interfaces in a complex TiAl alloy. In the case of needle-shaped perovskite Ti3AlC carbide precipitates, periodic domain boundaries are observed 5.3+/-0.8 nm apart along their growth axis parallel to the TiAl[001] crystallographic direction with concomitant composition variations after 24 hrs. at 800°C.

  20. Systematic corrosion investigation of various Cu-Sn alloys electrodeposited on mild steel in acidic solution: Dependence of alloy composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suerme, Yavuz, E-mail: ysurme@nigde.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Nigde University, 51200 Nigde (Turkey); Guerten, A. Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, 80000 Osmaniye (Turkey); Bayol, Emel; Ersoy, Ersay [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Nigde University, 51200 Nigde (Turkey)

    2009-10-19

    Copper-tin alloy films were galvanostatically electrodeposited on the mild steel (MS) by combining the different amount of Cu and Sn electrolytes at a constant temperature (55 deg. C) and pH (3.5). Alloy films were characterized by using the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micrographing techniques. Corrosion behaviours were evaluated with electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS) and electrochemical polarization measurements. Time gradient of electrolysis process was adjusted to obtain same thickness of investigated alloys on MS. The systematic corrosion investigation of various Cu{sub x}-Sn{sub 100-x} (x = 0-100) alloy depositions on MS substrate were carried out in 0.1 M sulphuric acid medium. Results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the alloy coatings depended on the alloy composition, and the corrosion resistance increased at Cu-Sn alloy deposits in proportion to Sn ratio.

  1. The chemical composition and parameters of production processes influence on structure and properties of W-Ni-Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, T.; Przetakiewicz, W.

    2000-01-01

    Tungsten heavy alloys, i.e. tungsten based metal-matrix composites are characterized by unique properties, because except their high hardness, strength and density, they also possess excellent ductility, impact strength, machinability and corrosion resistance. This combination of properties makes these alloys suitable for wide range of engineering applications, e.g. in the mechanical engineering, in the mining, sport and medicine and also in the armament and aviation. Production process of these materials consists of many phases and it is very difficult to accomplish, because properties of heavy alloys are extremely sensitive to processing history. In this article dependence of chemical composition of mixture of powders on structure and mechanical properties of W-Ni-Fe alloys was determined. It was found that increase of tungsten contents and Ni/Fe ratio causes reduction of ductility and increase of growth rate of tungsten particle. There is the maximum ultimate tensile strength of W-Ni-Fe alloys with content of tungsten 93%. The study also presents relationship between these properties and succeeding parameters of production process: composition of sintering atmosphere, time and temperature following heat treatment and plastic working. Using a wet hydrogen atmosphere (with high dew point) causes reduction of porosity and improvement of mechanical properties. With sintering temperature above 1500 o C these parameters decrease. If the sintering time is elongated above 1 h also density and mechanical properties of heavy alloys decrease. Tungsten heavy alloys are also used for production of kinetic energy penetrators and so properties for different range of strain rates were compared. It was found that yield and failure strengths increase with increasing strain rate, failure strain decreases with increasing strain rate. This information can help in optimization the production process of such composites. (author)

  2. Surface modification of 2014 aluminium alloy-Al2O3 particles composites by nickel electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J.M.; Saravanan, R.A.; Narciso, J.; Louis, E.

    2004-01-01

    A method to modify the surface of aluminium matrix composites (AMC) by electrochemical nickel deposition has been developed. Deposition was carried out in a stirred standard Watt's bath, whereas potential and time were varied to optimize coating characteristics. The method, that allowed to overcome the serious difficulties associated to electrochemical deposition of an inherently inhomogeneous material, was used to nickel coat composites of 2014 aluminium alloy-15 vol.% Al 2 O 3 particles. Coats with a good adherence and up to 60 μm thick were easily obtained. In order to improve surface properties, the coated composite was subjected to rather long (from 10 to 47.5 h) heat treatments at a temperature of 520 deg,C. The heat treatments improved the uniformity of the deposited layer and promoted the formation of Al-Ni intermetallics (mainly Al 3 Ni 2 , as revealed by X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX)). Experimental results indicate that growth of the intermetallic layer is diffusion limited

  3. Shape memory alloy wires turn composites into smart structures: I. Material requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrooten, Jan; Michaud, Veronique J.; Zheng, Yanjun; Balta-Neumann, J. Antonio; Manson, Jan-Anders E.

    2002-07-01

    Composites containing thin Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires show great potential as materials able to adapt their shape, thermal behavior or vibrational properties to external stimuli. The functional properties of SMA-composites are directly related to the constraining effect of the matrix on the reversible martensitic transformation of the embedded pre-strained SMA wires. The present work reports results of a concerted European effort towards a fundamental understanding of the manufacturing and design of SMA composites. This first part investigates the transformational behavior of constrained SMA wires and its translation into functional properties of SMA composites. Thermodynamic and thermomechanical experiments were performed on SMA wires. A model was developed to simulate the thermomechanical behavior of the wires. From the screening of potential wires it was concluded that NiTiCu, as well as R-phase NiTi appeared as best candidates. Requirements for the host composite materials were surveyed. A Kevlar-epoxy system was chosen. Finally, the quality of the SMA wire-resin interface was assessed by two different techniques. These indicated that a thin oxide layer seems to provide the best interfacial strength. A temperature window in which SMA composites can be safely used was also defined. The manufacturing and properties of the SMA composites will be discussed in Part II.

  4. Adherence of extracellular matrix components to modified surfaces of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelzer, C; Uhlmann, E; Meinke, M; Lademann, J; Hansen, U

    2009-01-01

    The adherence of biological materials on metal surfaces is of special importance in biology and medicine. The underlying interactions between surface and biological materials (e.g. extracellular matrix components or cells) are responsible for the application as a medical device. Numerous products are made of pure titanium and titanium alloys. This paper shows the influence of a laser production technology on machined surfaces of TiAl 6 V 4 and the resulting adherence of biological material on the basis of the surface characterisation. In this study, different machined TiAl 6 V 4 surfaces were used for coatings with extracellular matrix components. For this process, different coating with collagen I monomers and a complex mixture of extracellular matrix proteins derived from the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone were analysed. The efficiency of the coating was analysed by different methods and the results are presented in this paper

  5. Machinability of Al-SiC metal matrix composites using WC, PCD and MCD inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beristain, J.; Gonzalo, O.; Sanda, A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the machinability of aluminium-silicon carbide Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) in turning operations. The cutting tools used were hard metal (WC) with and without coating, different grades and geometries of Poly-Crystalline Diamond (PCD) and Mono-Crystalline Diamond (MCD). The work piece material was AMC225xe, composed of aluminium-copper alloy AA 2124 and 25% wt of SiC, being the size of the SiC particles around 3 {mu}m. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds and cutting parameters in facing finishing operations, measuring the surface roughness, cutting forces and tool wear. The worn surface of the cutting tool was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was observed that the Built Up Edge (BUE) and stuck material is higher in the MCD tools than in the PCD tools. The BUE acts as a protective layer against abrasive wear of the tool. (Author)

  6. Study of mechanical properties on powdermetalurgy aluminium matrix composites fabricated by stamping or extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquets, D.; Gomez, L.; Amigo, V.; Salvador-Moya, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed composite materials from AA6061 aluminium alloy powders used as matrix and ceramics powders of boron carbide, silicon carbide and boron nitride, used as reinforcements in 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% vol. by mechanical mixing and milling in planetary mill at 360 rpm vial velocity for 4 h followed of hot stamping and extrusion process on green compacts. Mechanical properties obtained from tensile tests are influenced by the heat treatment, reinforcement fractions and nature. Moreover, these mechanical characteristic are dependent from the processing route. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis revealed the microstructure of materials and let describe the tripartite relation; structure-processing-properties, of the developed materials. (Author) 20 refs

  7. Influence of (TiC+TiB) on the microstructure and tensile properties of Ti-B20 matrix alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahoma, H.K.S. [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Precision Heat Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Y.Y., E-mail: yychen@hit.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Precision Heat Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, X.P.; Xiao, S.L. [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Precision Heat Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • After forging, the microstructure was significantly refined and uniform. • The presence of carbide and boride also led to uniform and finer precipitation of α during aging as compared to the matrix alloy. • The size of secondary α phase increased with the increase of aging temperature. This trend leads to the decrease of strength and the increase of ductility. - Abstract: A hybrid of (TiB+TiC) reinforced beta titanium matrix (Ti-B20) were produced by non-consumable arc-melting technology and hot-forging. Microstructures of the composites were observed by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that both the TiB whiskers and TiC particles tend to segregate at β boundaries. The β grain size and secondary α lath width are refined by reinforcements and aging treatment. Evolution of tensile properties shows that enhancement in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength with the addition of reinforcements, as well as the remarkable increase in the ductility can be attributed to aging treatment at 600 °C and 650 °C. The size of secondary α phase increased with the increase of aging temperature. This trend leads to the decrease of strength and the increase of ductility to get good balance of properties. The fracture mechanism of the composite can be attributed to the cracking of the reinforcements.

  8. Effect of Al–Mg Alloy Infiltration on Mechanical and Electrical Properties for Carbon/Carbon Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Cui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Under vacuum Al–Mg alloy, liquids were successfully infiltrated into carbon/carbon (C/C composites at high temperatures. Then, the mechanical properties, the metallographics, the scanning electron microscope images, the transmission electron microscope images, the X-ray diffraction images, and the energy dispersive spectroscopy results of C/C–Al–Mg composites were analyzed. The result showed that the bending property of C/C–Al–Mg composites reached 183 MPa whereas that of C/C composites totaled 165 MPa. The compressive strength of C/C–Al–Mg measured 206 MPa whereas that of C/C composites amounted to 142 MPa. The flexural strength and compressive strengths of the steeped metal sliders measured 121 and 104 MPa, respectively. The alloy liquid infiltrated into the matrix by forming a “network conduction” structure which reduced the resistivity and improved the conductivity of the composites. The resistivity of C/C–Al–Mg totaled 1.63 µΩm whereas that of C/C was 3.56 μΩm. During infiltration, an excellent wettability was observed between Al and the carbon matrix due to the existence of Al4C3. The friction coefficients of C/C, the steeped metal slide, and C/Al–Mg were 0.152, 0.068, and 0.189, respectively. The properties of C/C–Al–Mg composites meet the performance requirements of locomotive pantograph sliders.

  9. Metal Compression Forming of aluminum alloys and metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Porter, W.D.; Brinkman, C.R.; Sabau, A.S.; Purgert, R.M.

    2000-02-01

    Metal Compression Forming (MCF) is a variant of the squeeze casting process, in which molten metal is allowed to solidify under pressure in order to close porosity and form a sound part. However, the MCF process applies pressure on the entire mold face, thereby directing pressure on all regions of the casting and producing a uniformly sound part. The process is capable of producing parts with properties close to those of forgings, while retaining the near net shape, complexity in geometry, and relatively low cost of the casting process.

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of in situ TiC and Nd2O3 particles reinforced Ti-4.5 wt.%Si alloy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinjiang; Li, Yibin; Song, Guangping; Sun, Yue; Peng, Qingyu; Li, Yuxin; He, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → (TiC + Nd 2 O 3 )/Ti-4.5 wt.%Si composites were in situ synthesized. → The phase components and microstructures of the composites were investigated. → In situ reinforcements improve the mechanical properties of the matrix alloy. -- Abstract: (TiC + Nd 2 O 3 )/Ti-4.5 wt.%Si composites were in situ synthesized by a non-consumable arc-melting technology. The phases in the composites were identified by X-ray diffraction. Microstructures of the composites were observed by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The composite contains four phases: TiC, Nd 2 O 3 , Ti 5 Si 3 and Ti. The TiC and Nd 2 O 3 particles with dendritic and near-equiaxed shapes are well distributed in Ti-4.5 wt.%Si alloy matrix, and the fine Nd 2 O 3 particles exist in the network Ti + Ti 5 Si 3 eutectic cells and Ti matrix of the composites. The hardness and compressive strength of the composites are markedly higher than that of Ti-4.5 wt.%Si alloy. When the TiC content is fixed as 10 wt.% in the composites, the hardness is enhanced as the Nd 2 O 3 content increases from 8 wt.% to 13 wt.%, but the compressive strength peaks at the Nd 2 O 3 content of 8 wt.%.

  11. Discontinuously reinforced titanium matrix composites for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, V.; Leguey, T.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Pareja, R.; Victoria, M.

    2002-01-01

    We have reinforced α-Ti with different contents of TiC particles using the in situ technique and conventional casting. Compositional and microstructural characterization of the TiC/Ti composite material was made by XRD and SEM-EDS. Tensile tests at RT, 723 and 973 K have been performed on samples heat treated at 1000 K for 30 min which were prepared from cold rolled material. The effect of the content, size and morphology of the TiC particles on the tensile properties has been investigated. The results indicate that the expected improvement in the mechanical characteristics of TiC/Ti composites is inhibited by the detrimental presence of coarse dendritic particles of TiC. The premature failure of these composites at RT is due to cracking of the coarse TiC particles. Local softening due to inhomogeneous plastic deformation of the Ti matrix appears to contribute to the tensile failure of the TiC/Ti composites deformed at 723 and 973 K.

  12. Discontinuously reinforced titanium matrix composites for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, V. E-mail: mvcastro@fis.uc3m.es; Leguey, T.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Pareja, R.; Victoria, M

    2002-12-01

    We have reinforced {alpha}-Ti with different contents of TiC particles using the in situ technique and conventional casting. Compositional and microstructural characterization of the TiC/Ti composite material was made by XRD and SEM-EDS. Tensile tests at RT, 723 and 973 K have been performed on samples heat treated at 1000 K for 30 min which were prepared from cold rolled material. The effect of the content, size and morphology of the TiC particles on the tensile properties has been investigated. The results indicate that the expected improvement in the mechanical characteristics of TiC/Ti composites is inhibited by the detrimental presence of coarse dendritic particles of TiC. The premature failure of these composites at RT is due to cracking of the coarse TiC particles. Local softening due to inhomogeneous plastic deformation of the Ti matrix appears to contribute to the tensile failure of the TiC/Ti composites deformed at 723 and 973 K.

  13. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  14. Crystallization processes in Ni-Ti-B glassy alloys of near-ternary-eutectic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, N.; Morris, D.G.; Stadelmann, P.

    1987-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics and mechanisms of three Ni-Ti-B glasses have been examined with a view to elucidating the roles of chemical composition and quenched structure on behaviour. Alloys of composition near a ternary-eutectic point have been chosen because they represent a real and complex situation where several crystalline phases may form simultaneously. Crystallization processes are analysed in terms of nucleation and growth stages. Different nucleation mechanisms seem to be best explained in terms of the short range ordered structure of the quenched glass. Analysis of crystal glass interface energies indicates that it is not this energy term which controls the nucleation of crystals on annealing. Crystal growth may involve a eutectic mechanism or a single-phase mechanism controlled by interface or matrix-diffusion kinetics. Crystallization is fastest when eutectic nucleation and growth occurs. Formation of the eutectic colony requires the initial formation of the phase of complex structure followed by the phase of simpler structure

  15. Wear resistance analysis of the aluminum 7075 alloy and the nanostructured aluminum 7075 - silver nanoparticles composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Ruiz R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured composites of the aluminum 7075 alloy and carbon-coated silver nanoparticles were synthetized by the mechanical milling technique using a high-energy mill SPEX 8000M; the powders generated were compacted, sintered and hot-extruded to produce 1 cm-diameter bars. The composites were then subjected to a wear test using a pin-on-disc device to validate the hypothesis that second phase-ductile nanometric particles homogenously distributed throughout the metalmatrix improve the wear resistance of the material. It was found that silver nanoparticles prevent the wear of the material by acting as an obstacle to dislocations movement during the plastic deformation of the contact surface, as well as a solid lubricant when these are separated from the metal-matrix.

  16. Metal Matrix Composite Material by Direct Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novichenko, D.; Marants, A.; Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, P. H.; Smurov, I.

    Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) is a laser cladding process for producing a protective coating on the surface of a metallic part or manufacturing layer-by-layer parts in a single-step process. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the possibility to create carbide-reinforced metal matrix composite objects. Powders of steel 16NCD13 with different volume contents of titanium carbide are tested. On the base of statistical analysis, a laser cladding processing map is constructed. Relationships between the different content of titanium carbide in a powder mixture and the material microstructure are found. Mechanism of formation of various precipitated titanium carbides is investigated.

  17. Baseplates in metallic matrix composites for power and microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massiot, P.

    1997-01-01

    Baseplates for microelectronic devices in fields where transform environments are encountered, such as automotive or airborne must have some fundamental characteristics such as: high thermal conductivity, low density, good mechanical properties and a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) nearly equal to the microelectronic substrates and the components installed on the baseplates. Metallic matrix composites are very good candidates because they perfectly answer to those requirements. In this presentation, with some examples of electronic devices in power and microwave applications we will show the big interest to use this kind of material. (author)

  18. Abrasion of Polymeric Composites on Basis of Machining Splinters from Hardfacing Alloys – Usable in Agrocomplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Valášek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A paper focuses on a description of two-body and three-body abrasion wear of polymeric particle composites with fillers on a basis of machining splinters from hardfacing alloys. The abrasive wear is typical for functional surfaces of agricultural machines processing the soil. One of possibilities of the functional surface renovation is an application of resistant layers in a form of composite systems. Just the inclusion of hard inorganic particles into a polymeric matrix significantly increases its wear resistance. So long as the primary filler is replaced by the waste – by particles from the material machining – the matrix in which the filler is dispersed is a bearer of a material recyclation. This way of the recyclation is inexpensive, economic and sensitive to environment. The paper focuses on the experimental description of the two-body and three-body abrasion and the composites hardness, it describes a production of a prototype for field tests with the functional surface on the basis of the investigated composite system at the same time.

  19. Chemical and microstructural changes at high temperature in tungsten wire reinforced metal-matrix composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, H.C.; Norden, H.

    1985-01-01

    Tungsten wire reinforced metal-matrix composites have been developed as a gas turbine blade material. Initially it was thought desirable to employ nickel or iron based superalloys as the matrix material due to their demonstrated reliability in applications where a high degree of dimensional stability, and thermal and mechanical fatigue resistance are required. It has been found, however, that deleterious fiber/matrix interactions occur in these systems under in-service conditions. These interactions seriously degrade the mechanical properties, and there is an effective lowering of the recrystallization temperature of the tungsten to the degree that grain structure changes can take place at unusually low temperatures. The present communication reports a study of the early stages of these interactions. Several microscopic and analytical techniques are used: TEM, SIMS, FIM, and the field ion atom probe. The nickel/tungsten interaction is thought to involve solute atom transport along grain boundaries. The grain boundary chemistry after short exposures to nickel at 1100 0 C is determined. In this manner the precursor interaction mechanisms are observed. These observations suggest that the strong nickel/tungsten grain boundary interactions do not involve the formation of distinct alloy phases, but instead involve rapid diffusion of essentially unalloyed nickel along the grain boundaries

  20. Bonding of aluminium matrix composites for application in the transport industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena, A.; Gomez de Salazar, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A discontinuously reinforced MMC containing 12 vol % SiC particles in an Al-Cu-Mg alloy (AA 2124) matrix has been diffusion bonded. Thick interlayers of different superplastic aluminium alloys (Al-Li 8090 and Al-Cu SUPRAL) were used to reduce the bonding pressure and ensure complete surface contact. Microstructural studies shown higher continuity in joints bonded with 8090 interlayer than with other alloys. Precipitation of rich-copper intermetallic was detected, after bonding, in the interlayer because diffusion of Cu from 2124 matrix. Results suggest that Li contained in the interlayer favours the partial disruption of the aluminium oxide film, making easier the solid state bonding. (orig.)

  1. Steel-SiC Metal Matrix Composite Development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Don D.

    2005-01-01

    One of the key materials challenges for Generation IV reactor technology is to improve the strength and resistance to corrosion and radiation damage in the metal cladding of the fuel pins during high-temperature operation. Various candidate Gen IV designs call for increasing core temperature to improve efficiency and facilitate hydrogen production, operation with molten lead moderator to use fast neutrons. Fuel pin lifetime against swelling and fracture is a significant limit in both respects. The goal of this project is to develop a method for fabricating SiC-reinforced high-strength steel. We are developing a metal-matrix composite (MMC) in which SiC fibers are be embedded within a metal matrix of steel, with adequate interfacial bonding to deliver the full benefit of the tensile strength of the SiC fibers in the composite. In the context of the mission of the SBIR program, this Phase I grant has been successful. The development of a means to attain interfacial bonding between metal and ceramic has been a pacing challenge in materials science and technology for a century. It entails matching or grading of thermal expansion across the interface and attaining a graded chemical composition so that impurities do not concentrate at the boundary to create a slip layer. To date these challenges have been solved in only a modest number of pairings of compatible materials, e.g. Kovar and glass, titanium and ceramic, and aluminum and ceramic. The latter two cases have given rise to the only presently available MMC materials, developed for aerospace applications. Those materials have been possible because the matrix metal is highly reactive at elevated temperature so that graded composition and intimate bonding happens naturally at the fiber-matrix interface. For metals that are not highly reactive at processing temperature, however, successful bonding is much more difficult. Recent success has been made with copper MMCs for cooling channels in first-wall designs for fusion

  2. The influence of Fe content on spreading ability of tungsten heavy alloys matrix on tungsten surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental study of tungsten spreading ability with W-Ni-Co-Fe matrix are presented. The aim of these investigations was to see how Fe concentration in W – Ni – Co matrix influences the wettability of tungsten grains during liquid phase sintering. Four green compact specimens containing 50%W, 10%Co and Ni + Fe = 40% but with different Ni to Fe ratio were prepared. The cylindrical specimen 5mm diameter and 5mm height were put on clean pure tungsten substrate and then 20 minutes heated at 1520oC in hydrogen atmosphere. After heating the specimens were carefully measured and then the specimens for structure observations were prepared. It was concluded, that increase of Fe content decrease the melting temperature of W – Ni – Co alloy. The melting point decrease caused by Fe content increase substantially the spreading ability of tungsten substrate with W – Ni – Co alloy. Metallography investigations showed some microstructure changes in “reaction zone” identified in tungsten substrate – (WNi40-xCo10Fex interface. The results of the study confirmed our earlier observations that even relative small Fe addition promotes Weight Heavy Alloys (WHA liquid phase sintering.

  3. Metal matrix composites synthesis, wear characteristics, machinability study of MMC brake drum

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Nanjappan; Davim, J Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to composite materials, presenting different synthesis processes, composite properties and their machining behaviour. The book describes also the problems on manufacturing of metal matrix composite components. Among others, it provides procedures for manufacturing of metal matrix composites and case studies.

  4. Discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites via XD synthesis. [exothermal dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. S.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of recent results obtained for discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites produced using the XD process. Intermetallic matrices investigated include NiAl, multiphase NiAl + Ni2AlTi, CoAl, near-gamma titanium aluminides, and Ll2 trialuminides containing minor amounts of second phase. Such mechanical properties as low and high temperature strength, compressive and tensile creep, elastic modulus, ambient ductility, and fracture toughness are discussed as functions of reinforcement size, shape, and volume fraction. Microstructures before and after deformation are examined and correlated with measured properties. An observation of interest in many of the systems examined is 'dispersion weakening' at high temperatures and high strain rates. This behavior is not specific to the XD process; rather similar observations have been reported in other discontinuous composites. Proposed mechanisms for this behavior are presented.

  5. Life Modeling and Design Analysis for Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The primary research efforts focused on characterizing and modeling static failure, environmental durability, and creep-rupture behavior of two classes of ceramic matrix composites (CMC), silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) and carbon fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (C/SiC). An engineering life prediction model (Probabilistic Residual Strength model) has been developed specifically for CMCs. The model uses residual strength as the damage metric for evaluating remaining life and is posed probabilistically in order to account for the stochastic nature of the material s response. In support of the modeling effort, extensive testing of C/SiC in partial pressures of oxygen has been performed. This includes creep testing, tensile testing, half life and residual tensile strength testing. C/SiC is proposed for airframe and propulsion applications in advanced reusable launch vehicles. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the models predictive capabilities as well as the manner in which experimental tests are being selected in such a manner as to ensure sufficient data is available to aid in model validation.

  6. Effect of Fiber Poisson Contraction on Matrix Multicracking Evolution of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longbiao, Li

    2015-12-01

    An analytical methodology has been developed to investigate the effect of fiber Poisson contraction on matrix multicracking evolution of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs). The modified shear-lag model incorporated with the Coulomb friction law is adopted to solve the stress distribution in the interface slip region and intact region of the damaged composite. The critical matrix strain energy criterion which presupposes the existence of an ultimate or critical strain energy limit beyond which the matrix fails has been adopted to describe matrix multicracking of CMCs. As more energy is placed into the composite, matrix fractures and the interface debonding occurs to dissipate the extra energy. The interface debonded length under the process of matrix multicracking is obtained by treating the interface debonding as a particular crack propagation problem along the fiber/matrix interface. The effects of the interfacial frictional coefficient, fiber Poisson ratio, fiber volume fraction, interface debonded energy and cycle number on the interface debonding and matrix multicracking evolution have been analyzed. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data of unidirectional SiC/CAS, SiC/CAS-II and SiC/Borosilicate composites.

  7. Thermal expansion behaviour of high performance PEEK matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, R K; Mulik, U P; Tiwari, A N; Negi, Y S

    2008-01-01

    The thermal expansion behaviour of high performance poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) composites reinforced with micro- (8 μm) and nano- (39 nm) sized Al 2 O 3 particles was studied. The distribution of Al 2 O 3 in the PEEK matrix was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was reduced from 58 x 10 -6 deg. C -1 for pure PEEK to 22 x 10 -6 deg. C -1 at 43 vol% micro-Al 2 O 3 and to 23 x 10 -6 deg. C -1 at 12 vol% nano-Al 2 O 3 composites. For a given volume fraction, nano-Al 2 O 3 particles are more effective in reducing the CTE of composites than that of micro-Al 2 O 3 particles. This may be attributed to the much higher interfacial area or volume of nanocomposites than that of microcomposites. The upper limit and lower limit of the Schapery model separately fit closely the CTE of the micro- and nano-composites, respectively. Other models such as the rule of mixture and Kerner and Turner models were also correlated with the data

  8. Characterisation of phase composition, microstructure and microhardness of electroless nickel composite coating co-deposited with SiC on casting aluminium LM24 alloy substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, M.; Sha, Wei; Malinov, Savko

    2013-01-01

    Electroless Ni-P (EN) and composite Ni-P-SiC (ENC) coatings were developed on cast aluminium alloy, LM24. The coating phase composition, microstructure and microhardness were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microhardness tester, respectively, on as-plated and heat-treated specimens. The original microstructure of the Ni-P matrix is not affected by the inclusion of the hard particles SiC. No formation of Ni-Si phase was observed upto 500°C of ...

  9. Appearance of anodised aluminium: Effect of alloy composition and prior surface finish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Canulescu, Stela; Dirscherl, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Effect of alloy composition and prior surface finish on the optical appearance of the anodised layer on aluminium alloys was investigated. Four commercial alloys namely AA1050, Peraluman 706, AA5754, and AA6082 were used for the investigation. Microstructure and surface morphology of the substrat...

  10. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travelli, Armando

    1988-01-01

    A flat or curved plate structure, to be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, comprises elongated fissionable wires or strips embedded in a metallic continuous non-fissionable matrix plate. The wires or strips are made predominantly of a malleable uranium alloy, such as uranium silicide, uranium gallide or uranium germanide. The matrix plate is made predominantly of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The wires or strips are located in a single row at the midsurface of the plate, parallel with one another and with the length dimension of the plate. The wires or strips are separated from each other, and from the surface of the plate, by sufficient thicknesses of matrix material, to provide structural integrity and effective fission product retention, under neutron irradiation. This construction makes it safely feasible to provide a high uranium density, so that the uranium enrichment with uranium 235 may be reduced below about 20%, to deter the reprocessing of the uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

  11. Microstructural and morphological evaluation of MCrAlY/YSZ composite produced by mechanical alloying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahari, M.; Shamanian, M.; Salehi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The grain size of CoNiCrAlY decreased as milling time increased. Adding YSZ, delayed decrease of grain size of matrix alloy. ► Increase of milling time and YSZ percent resulted in spherical morphology and homogenous distribution of powders. Adding YSZ also delayed cold welding phenomenon. ► At initial stage of milling, CoNiCrAlY powder showed the greatest hardness but with increases milling time powders contained 15% YSZ showed the maximum hardness. - Abstract: This paper investigates CoNiCrAlY/YSZ composite materials produced by mechanical alloying process. Various amounts of YSZ particles (0%, 5%, 10% and 15 wt.%) were mixed with CoNiCrAlY powder and milled for 12, 24 and 36 h. The structural and mechanical evolutions of the mechanically milled powders were executed using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and micro-hardness test. It was observed that by increasing milling time, the internal lattice strain of γ-phase matrix increased while grain size of this phase decreased. Also, addition of YSZ to CoNiCrAlY decreased the rate of grain size reduction. In comparison with milled CoNiCrAlY powders, CoNiCrAlY/YSZ milled powders exhibited more spherical morphology and narrower particle size range. Moreover, the increase in milling time caused the homogenous distribution of ceramic particles in CoNiCrAlY matrix, while the increase in YSZ percent decreased the homogenous distribution of ceramic particles in CoNiCrAlY matrix. Besides, micro-hardness tests illustrated that the effect of milling on hardness is more significant than that of ceramic particles addition.

  12. Development of an oxidation resistant glass-ceramic composite coating on Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Zhu, Shenglong; Chen, Minghui; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Fuhui

    2014-02-01

    Three glass-ceramic composite coatings were prepared on Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy by air spraying technique and subsequent firing. The aim of this work is to study the reactions between glass matrix and inclusions and their effects on the oxidation resistance of the glass-ceramic composite coating. The powders of alumina, quartz, or both were added into the aqueous solution of potassium silicate (ASPS) to form slurries used as the starting materials for the composite coatings. The coating formed from an ASPS-alumina slurry was porous, because the reaction between alumina and potassium silicate glass resulted in the formation of leucite (KAlSi2O6), consuming substantive glass phase and hindering the densification of the composite coating. Cracks were observed in the coating prepared from an ASPS-quartz slurry due to the larger volume shrinkage of the coating than that of the alloy. In contrast, an intact and dense SiO2-Al2O3-glass coating was successfully prepared from an ASPS-alumina-silica slurry. The oxidation behavior of the SiO2-Al2O3-glass composite coating on Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy was studied at 900 °C. The SiO2-Al2O3-glass composite coating acted as an oxygen diffusion barrier, and prevented the inward diffusion of the oxygen from the air to the coating/alloy interface, therefore, decreasing the oxidation rate of the Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy significantly.

  13. Ceramic-intermetallic composites produced by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering

    CERN Document Server

    Cabanas-Moreno, J G; Martínez-Sanchez, R; Delgado-Gutierrez, O; Palacios-Gomez, J; Umemoto, M

    1998-01-01

    Nano-and microcomposites of intermetallic (Co/sub 3/Ti, AlCo/sub 2 /Ti) and ceramic (TiN, Ti(C, N), Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) phases have been produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of powders resulting from mechanical alloying of Al-Co-Ti elemental powder mixtures. The mechanically alloyed powders consisted of mixtures of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases which, on sintering, transformed into complex microstructures of the intermetallic and ceramic phases. For Al contents lower than about 30 at% in the original powder mixtures, the use of SPS led to porosities of 1-2% in the sintered compacts and hardness values as high as ~1700 kg/mm/sup 2/; in these cases, the composite matrix was TiN and Ti(C, N), with the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ phase found as finely dispersed particles in the matrix and the Co /sub 3/Ti and AlCo/sub 2/Ti phases as interdispersed grains. (19 refs).

  14. The Influence of Alloy Composition on the Hot Tear Susceptibility of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jee-Hun; Jo, Jae-Sub; Sim, Woo-Jeong; Im, Hang-Joon

    2012-01-01

    Hot tearing was the most significant casting defect when the castability evaluation of the Al- Zn-Mg-Cu alloy system was conducted. It was related to the solidification range of the alloy. Therefore, the hot tear susceptibility of the AA7075 alloy, whose solidification range is the widest, was evaluated. The hot tear susceptibility was evaluated by using a mold for a hot tearing test designed to create the condition for the occurrence of hot tear in 8 steps. According to the tearing location and shape, a hot tear susceptibility index (HTS) score was measured. The solidification range of each alloy and hot tear susceptibility was compared and thereafter the microstructure of a near tear defect was observed. As a result, the HTS of the AA7075 alloy was found to be 67. Also, the HTS in relation to a change in Zn, Mg, Cu composition showed a difference of about 6-11% compared to the AA7075 alloy.

  15. luminium alloy - rice husk ash composites production and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Mohammed USMAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to produce and analyse the properties of Aluminium Alloy-Rice Husk Ash composites. Rice husk ash (RHA with high silica content of up to 97.095% was used for the study with the RHA varied from 0vol% – 30vol% at intervals of 5vol% in the aluminium alloy as reinforcement. The density and some mechanical properties of the composites including tensile strength, impact strength, hardness and fatigue strength were investigated. The results showed that the density of the composite decreases with the percentage increase of reinforcement from 2840.242 kgm-3 for the control sample to 2402.899 kgm-3 for 30vol% RHA. The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS varies from 164.374 MNm-2 at 0% RHA to 176.837 MNm-2 with maximum value at 10% RHA, impact strength values varies from 84.020kJm-2 at 0% RHA to 155.244 kJm-2 with maximum value at 10% RHA, hardness value varies from 70.467 RHV at 0% RHA to 109.367 RHV with maximum value at 25% RHA and fatigue strength varies from 0.224x106 cycles to 2.582x106 cycles with maximum cycle at 20% RHA. The results of analysis of variance showed that there are significant differences among the means of each property of the composites at different levels of replacement of the ash addition (P<0.05. It was concluded that the produced composites could be used to make engineering components such as automobile body parts, piston and block engine etc.

  16. Influence of tool pin in friction stir welding on activated carbon reinforced aluminium metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    DijuSamuel, G.; Raja Dhas, J. Edwin

    2017-10-01

    This paper focus on impact of tool pin in friction stir welding on activated carbon reinforced aluminium metal matrix composite. For fabrication of metal matrix composite AA6061 is used as matrix and activated carbon is used as reinforcement and it is casted using modified stir casting technique. After casting metal matrix composite has undergone various microstructure tests like SEM,EDAX and XRD. FSW is carried out in this metal matrix composite by choosing various tool pin profile like square,round,Threaded round, hexagon and taper. The quality of welded plates is measured in terms of ultimate tensile strength and hardness.

  17. Influence of Boron on the Creep Behavior and the Microstructure of Particle Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Siebeck

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement of aluminum alloys with particles leads to the enhancement of their mechanical properties at room temperature. However, the creep behavior at elevated temperatures is often negatively influenced. This raises the question of how it is possible to influence the creep behavior of this type of material. Within this paper, selected creep and tensile tests demonstrate the beneficial effects of boron on the properties of precipitation-hardenable aluminum matrix composites (AMCs. The focus is on the underlying microstructure behind this effect. For this purpose, boron was added to AMCs by means of mechanical alloying. Comparatively higher boron contents than in steel are investigated in order to be able to record their influence on the microstructure including the formation of potential new phases as well as possible. While the newly formed phase Al3BC can be reliably detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD, it is difficult to obtain information about the phase distribution by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM investigations. An important contribution to this is finally provided by the investigation using Raman microscopy. Thus, the homogeneous distribution of finely scaled Al3BC particles is detectable, which allows conclusions about the microstructure/property relationship.

  18. Metal Matrix Composite Coatings of Cupronickel Embedded with Nanoplatelets for Improved Corrosion Resistant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey R. Thurber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of metals under the influence of corrosion is a costly problem faced by many industries. Therefore, particle-reinforced composite coatings are being developed in different technological fields with high demands for corrosion resistance. This work studies the effects of nanoplatelet reinforcement on the durability, corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties of copper-nickel coatings. A 90 : 10 Cu-Ni alloy was coelectrodeposited with nanoplatelets of montmorillonite (Mt embedded into the metallic matrix from electrolytic baths containing 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15% Mt. X-ray diffraction of the coatings indicated no disruption of the crystal structure with addition of the nanoplatelets into the alloy. The mechanical properties of the coatings improved with a 17% increase in hardness and an 85% increase in shear adhesion strength with nanoplatelet incorporation. The measured polarization resistance increased from 11.77 kΩ·cm2 for pure Cu-Ni to 33.28 kΩ·cm2 for the Cu-Ni-0.15% Mt coating after soaking in a simulated seawater environment for 30 days. The incorporation of montmorillonite also stabilized the corrosion potential during the immersion study and increased resistance to corrosion.

  19. Analysis of semi-solid processing for metal matrix composite synthesis using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratus Ranieri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal in this work is to conduct a quantitative analysis of the mechanical stir casting process for obtaining particulate metal matrix composites. A combined route of stirring at semi-solid state followed by stirring at liquid state is proposed. A fractional factorial design was developed to investigate the influence and interactions of factors as: time, rotation, initial fraction and particle size, on the incorporated fraction. The best incorporations were obtained with all factors at high levels, as well as that very long stirring periods have no strong influence being particle size and rotation the most important factors on the incorporated fraction. Particle wetting occurs during stirring at semi-solid state, highlighting the importance of the interactions between particles and the alloy globularized phase. The role of the alloying element Mg as a wettability-promoting agent is discussed. The shear forces resulting from the stirring system is emphasized and understood as the effect of rotation itself added to the propeller blade geometry.

  20. Sample preparation technique for transmission electron microscopy anodized Al-Li-SiC metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Thomson, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Along with improved mechanical properties, metal matrix composites (MMC) have a disadvantage of enhanced corrosion susceptibility in aggressive environments. Recent studies on corrosion behaviour of an Al-alloy 8090/SiC MMC, revealed considerably high corrosion rates of the MMC in near neutral solutions containing chloride ions. Anodizing is one of the potential surface treatment for the MMC to provide protective coating against corrosion. The surface and cross section of the anodized MMC can easily be observed using scanning electron microscope. The anodizing behaviour of the MMC can be understood further if the anodized cross section in examined under transmission electron microscope (TEM). However, it is relatively difficult to prepare small (3 mm diameter) electron transparent specimens of the MMC supporting an anodic film. In the present study a technique has been developed for preparing thin electron transparent specimens of the anodized MMC. This technique employed conventional ion beam thinning process but the preparation of small discs was a problem. A MMMC consisting of Al-alloy 8090 with 20 % (by weight) SiC particulate with an average size of 5 Mu m, was anodized and observed in TEM after preparing the samples using the above mentioned techniques. (author)

  1. Development and selection of a matrix alloy for 85Kr encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, R.W.; McClanahan, E.D.; Tingey, G.L.; McDonald, E.L.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and demonstrated a pilot-scale process for stable, long-term storage of radioactive 85 Kr gas from spent nuclear fuel. The process entraps the Kr into a solid metal matrix that can be safely stored at ambient pressure. For this matrix numerous alloys were first screened; those that best satisfied the selection criteria were Cu-Y, Ni-Y, and Ni-La. Of these, Cu-Y alloys containing approximately 20 at.% Y were recommended for use in the pilot-scale system. Reasons for this decision, based on the development work described in Section 5, are summarized here. Thick Cu-Y-Kr deposits (greater than or equal to1 mm) exhibit much better thermal and mechanical stability than do those of Ni-La-Kr and are at least as stable as Ni-Y-Kr deposits. Cu-Y-Kr coatings are very compatible with the sputtering process. They adhere well to the substrate, do not spall significantly during deposition, and can be deposited at higher rates than the Ni-base alloys. This faster deposition helps compensate, in terms of process efficiency, for the lower Kr capacity of Cu-Y-Kr alloys. Another advantage of Cu-Y over Ni-base alloys is the higher vapor pressure of Cu compared to Ni. This reduces the unwanted buildup of Cu on the hot anode surface, whereas deposition of Ni is a problem with Ni-Y, for example. Cu-Y-Kr deposits containing 17 to 20 at. % Y and 6 to 8 at. % Kr compared favorably to Ni 80 La 10 Kr 10 in terms of long-term Kr retention characteristics. The measurements of Cu-Y-Kr by differential scanning calorimetry also indicated stable retention of Kr because rapid release did not occur below approx.650 0 C. Finally, Cu-Y alloys are satisfactory in terms of materials costs and producibility of the sputtering target. 13 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Nanostructure and magnetic properties of CoNi-alloy-based nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Julian, C.; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Battaglin, G.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Lo Russo, S.; D'Orazio, F.; Lucari, F.; De, G.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic behavior of FCC alloy CoNi (1:1) nanoparticles, embedded in a silica matrix and prepared by the ion implantation and sol-gel techniques, is presented. The blocking temperature is related to the size distribution, and, at least for the ion-implanted samples, only an enhanced effective anisotropy explains the experimental results. The hysteretic behavior is explained in terms of the temperature dependence of the anisotropy and of the particle volume fraction that determines the dipolar interactions

  3. Nanostructure and magnetic properties of CoNi-alloy-based nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Julian, C. E-mail: dejulian@padova.infm.it; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Battaglin, G.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Lo Russo, S.; D' Orazio, F.; Lucari, F.; De, G.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P

    2001-05-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic behavior of FCC alloy CoNi (1:1) nanoparticles, embedded in a silica matrix and prepared by the ion implantation and sol-gel techniques, is presented. The blocking temperature is related to the size distribution, and, at least for the ion-implanted samples, only an enhanced effective anisotropy explains the experimental results. The hysteretic behavior is explained in terms of the temperature dependence of the anisotropy and of the particle volume fraction that determines the dipolar interactions.

  4. Creating Stiff, Tough, and Functional Hydrogel Composites with Low-Melting-Point Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Riku; Sun, Tao Lin; Saruwatari, Yoshiyuki; Kurokawa, Takayuki; King, Daniel R; Gong, Jian Ping

    2018-04-01

    Reinforcing hydrogels with a rigid scaffold is a promising method to greatly expand the mechanical and physical properties of hydrogels. One of the challenges of creating hydrogel composites is the significant stress that occurs due to swelling mismatch between the water-swollen hydrogel matrix and the rigid skeleton in aqueous media. This stress can cause physical deformation (wrinkling, buckling, or fracture), preventing the fabrication of robust composites. Here, a simple yet versatile method is introduced to create "macroscale" hydrogel composites, by utilizing a rigid reinforcing phase that can relieve stress-induced deformation. A low-melting-point alloy that can transform from a load-bearing solid state to a free-deformable liquid state at relatively low temperature is used as a reinforcing skeleton, which enables the release of any swelling mismatch, regardless of the matrix swelling degree in liquid media. This design can generally provide hydrogels with hybridized functions, including excellent mechanical properties, shape memory, and thermal healing, which are often difficult or impossible to achieve with single-component hydrogel systems. Furthermore, this technique enables controlled electrochemical reactions and channel-structure templating in hydrogel matrices. This work may play an important role in the future design of soft robots, wearable electronics, and biocompatible functional materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composite Tubes Using a Porous Mullite/Alumina Matrix and Alumina/Mullite Fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radsick, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    ... or from inadequate oxide-based ones. A porous mullite/alumina matrix combined with alumina/mullite fiber reinforcement eliminates the need for an interface coating while producing a strong, tough and oxidation resistant composite...

  6. An analysis of the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the tensile deformation of aluminum-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, C.; Llorca, J.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of superposed hydrostatic pressure on the tensile deformation of particle-reinforced Al-matrix composites was analyzed using a self-consistent approximation. The composite was represented in terms of an interpenetrating network of randomly distributed spheres, which stand for the intact and damaged regions in the composite. Each sphere contained an intact or broken ceramic particle at the center, and the model assumed that the fraction of damaged spheres increased during deformation. The load partitioning between intact and damaged regions in the composite as well as the stress redistribution due to damage was computed through a self-consistent scheme. It was shown that the tensile stresses in the ceramic particles, and thus the fraction of broken particles, were reduced as the hydrostatic pressure increased. This led to a moderate improvement in the composite flow stress but more significant gains were achieved in the strain at the onset of plastic instability. Both magnitudes increased with the hydrostatic pressure until a saturation stress was reached. Particle fracture was completely inhibited at this point, and higher pressures did not have any influence on the composite behavior, which was equivalent to that of the undamaged phase in the absence of hydrostatic pressure. Using reasonable values for the matrix and reinforcement properties, the model predictions for the composite strength and strain at the onset of plastic instability were in good agreement with the experimental data in the literature for high strength Al alloys reinforced with SiC and Al 2 O 3 particles

  7. Refractory metal alloys and composites for space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.R.; Petrasek, D.W.; Titran, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Space power requirements for future NASA and other United States missions will range from a few kilowatts to megawatts of electricity. Maximum efficiency is a key goal of any power system in order to minimize weight and size so that the space shuttle may be used a minimum number of times to put the power supply into orbit. Nuclear power has been identified as the primary power source to meet these high levels of electrical demand. One method to achieve maximum efficiency is to operate the power supply, energy conversion system, and related components at relatively high temperatures. NASA Lewis Research Center has undertaken a research program on advanced technology of refractory metal alloys and composites that will provide base line information for space power systems in the 1900's and the 21st century. Basic research on the tensile and creep properties of fibers, matrices, and composites will be discussed

  8. Homogeneous metal matrix composites produced by a modified stir-casting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.; McCartney, D.G.; Wood, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Al-based metal matrix composites have been made by a novel liquid processing route which is not only cheap and versatile but produces composites with extremely uniform distributions of the reinforcing phase. Particles of TiB 2 , TiC and B 4 C have been spontaneously incorporated, that is without the use of external mechanical agitation, into Al and Al-alloy melts in volume fractions as high as 0.3. This has been achieved through the use of wetting agents which produce K-Al-F based slags on the melt surface. Spontaneous particle entry and the chemistry of the slag facilitate the generation of good distributions of the reinforcing phase in the solidified composite castings. Non-clustered, near homogeneous distributions have been achieved irrespective of the casting conditions and the volume fraction, type or size of the reinforcement. The majority of the reinforcement becomes engulfed into the solid metal grains during solidification rather than, what is more commonly the case, being pushed to the inter-granular regions. This intra-granular distribution of the reinforcement is likely to improve the mechanical properties of the material

  9. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear fuel-containing plate structure for a nuclear reactor is described; such structure comprising a pair of malleable metallic non-fissionable matrix plates having confronting surfaces which are pressure bonded together and fully united to form a bonded surface, and elongated malleable wire-like fissionable fuel members separately confined and fully enclosed between the matrix plates along the interface to afford a high fuel density as well as structural integrity and effective retention of fission products. The plates have separate recesses formed in the confronting surfaces for closely receiving the wire-like fissionable fuel members. The wire-like fissionable fuel members are made of a maleable uranium alloy capable of being formed into elongated wire-like members and capable of withstanding pressure bonding. The wire-like fissionable fuel members are completely separated and isolated by fully united portions of the interface

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of stir cast ZX51/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}p magnesium matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmany-Gorji, Reza, E-mail: r_rahmany@ymail.com [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alizadeh, Ali [Faculty of Materials and Manufacturing Processes, MUT, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Hassan [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-30

    Magnesium matrix composites can overcome the limitations of magnesium and its alloys. This paper investigates the effect of adding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} microparticles on microstructure and mechanical response of ZX51 alloy-matrix composites. Stir casting process was chosen due largely to its low cost to fabricate the novel ZX51/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}p composites. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry were used in order to analyze the microstructure of as-cast composites. Tension, compression, and Brinell hardness tests were performed to determine mechanical properties of the composites. It was revealed that the microstructure of matrix alloy is composed of α-Mg grains and (α-Mg+Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}) eutectic mixture distributed predominantly along grain boundaries. The addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}p brought about a marked grain refinement and also introduced slight amounts of porosity. The results showed that with increasing volume percentage of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}p, hardness and yield strength increase while tensile strength, compressive strength, and ductility decrease; in consequence, toughness decreases as well.

  11. Alloy composition dependence of formation of porous Ni prepared by rapid solidification and chemical dealloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Zhen [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Zhonghua [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: zh_zhang@sdu.edu.cn; Jia Haoling [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Qu Yingjie [Shandong Labor Occupational Technology College, Jingshi Road 388, Jinan 250022 (China); Liu Guodong; Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-03-20

    In this paper, the effect of alloy composition on the formation of porous Ni catalysts prepared by chemical dealloying of rapidly solidified Al-Ni alloys has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and N{sub 2} adsorption experiments. The experimental results show that rapid solidification and alloy composition have a significant effect on the phase constituent and microstructure of Al-Ni alloys. The melt spun Al-20 at.% Ni alloy consists of {alpha}-Al, NiAl{sub 3} and Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 3}, while the melt spun Al-25 and 31.5 at.% Ni alloys comprise NiAl{sub 3} and Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 3}. Moreover, the formation and microstructure of the porous Ni catalysts are dependent upon the composition of the melt spun Al-Ni alloys. The morphology and size of Ni particles in the Ni catalysts inherit from those of grains in the melt spun Al-Ni alloys. Rapid solidification can extend the alloy composition of Al-Ni alloys suitable for preparation of the Ni catalysts, and obviously accelerate the dealloying process of the Al-Ni alloys.

  12. Mechanical alloying and sintering of nanostructured tungsten carbide-reinforced copper composite and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff, Mahani; Othman, Radzali; Hussain, Zuhailawati

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → W 2 C phase was formed at short milling time while WC only appears after longer milling time. → Cu crystallite size decreased but internal strain increased with increasing milling time. → Increasing milling time induced more WC formation, thus improving the hardness of the composite. → Electrical conductivity is reduced due to powder refinement and the presence of carbide phases. -- Abstract: Elemental powders of copper (Cu), tungsten (W) and graphite (C) were mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill with different milling durations (0-60 h), compacted and sintered in order to precipitate hard tungsten carbide particles into a copper matrix. Both powder and sintered composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and assessed for hardness and electrical conductivity to investigate the effects of milling time on formation of nanostructured Cu-WC composite and its properties. No carbide peak was detected in the powder mixtures after milling. Carbide WC and W 2 C phases were precipitated only in the sintered composite. The formation of WC began with longer milling times, after W 2 C formation. Prolonged milling time decreased the crystallite size as well as the internal strain of Cu. Hardness of the composite was enhanced but electrical conductivity reduced with increasing milling time.

  13. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  14. A standards-based method for compositional analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry using multivariate statistical analysis: application to multicomponent alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Monika; Ahrenkiel, S P; Carapella, J J; Wanlass, M W

    2013-02-01

    Given an unknown multicomponent alloy, and a set of standard compounds or alloys of known composition, can one improve upon popular standards-based methods for energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry to quantify the elemental composition of the unknown specimen? A method is presented here for determining elemental composition of alloys using transmission electron microscopy-based EDX with appropriate standards. The method begins with a discrete set of related reference standards of known composition, applies multivariate statistical analysis to those spectra, and evaluates the compositions with a linear matrix algebra method to relate the spectra to elemental composition. By using associated standards, only limited assumptions about the physical origins of the EDX spectra are needed. Spectral absorption corrections can be performed by providing an estimate of the foil thickness of one or more reference standards. The technique was applied to III-V multicomponent alloy thin films: composition and foil thickness were determined for various III-V alloys. The results were then validated by comparing with X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence analysis, demonstrating accuracy of approximately 1% in atomic fraction.

  15. Friction stir welding of Aluminium matrix composites – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanya Prabhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW is established as one of the prominent welding techniques to join aluminium matrix composites (AMCs. It is a solid state welding process, takes place well below the melting temperature of the material, eliminates the detrimental effects of conventional fusion welding process. Although the process is capable to join AMCs, challenges are still open that need to be fulfill to widen its applications. This paper gives the outline of the friction stir welding technique used to join AMCs. Effect of process variables on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints, behavior of reinforcing materials during welding, effect of tool profiles on the joint strength are discussed in detail. Few improvements and direction for future research are also proposed.

  16. Design Concepts for Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Turbine Vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This project demonstrated that higher temperature capabilities of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) can be used to reduce emissions and improve fuel consumption in gas turbine engines. The work involved closely coupling aerothermal and structural analyses for the first-stage vane of a high-pressure turbine (HPT). These vanes are actively cooled, typically using film cooling. Ceramic materials have structural and thermal properties different from conventional metals used for the first-stage HPT vane. This project identified vane configurations that satisfy CMC structural strength and life constraints while maintaining vane aerodynamic efficiency and reducing vane cooling to improve engine performance and reduce emissions. The project examined modifications to vane internal configurations to achieve the desired objectives. Thermal and pressure stresses are equally important, and both were analyzed using an ANSYS® structural analysis. Three-dimensional fluid and heat transfer analyses were used to determine vane aerodynamic performance and heat load distributions.

  17. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos G. Dassios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography (IRT and acoustic emission (AE are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material’s performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately.

  18. Oxidation resistant coatings for ceramic matrix composite components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaubert, V.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hirschfeld, D.A. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Corrosion resistant Ca{sub 0.6}Mg{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} (CMZP) and Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} (CS-50) coatings for fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix composite heat exchanger tubes have been developed. Aqueous slurries of both oxides were prepared with high solids loading. One coating process consisted of dipping the samples in a slip. A tape casting process has also been created that produced relatively thin and dense coatings covering a large area. A processing technique was developed, utilizing a pre-sintering step, which produced coatings with minimal cracking.

  19. Development of in-Situ Al-Si/CuAl₂ Metal Matrix Composites: Microstructure, Hardness, and Wear Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, Mahmoud M; Mahmoud, Essam R I

    2016-06-02

    In the present work, in-situ metal matrix composites were fabricated through squeeze casting. The copper particles were dispersed with different weight percentages (3%, 6%, 10%, and 15%) into Al-12% Si piston alloy. Also, heat treatments were performed at 380 °C and 450 °C for holding times of 6 and 18 h. The microstructures, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern, hardness, and wear characteristics were evaluated. The results showed that these copper particles have reacted with the aluminum under all of the aforementioned processing conditions resulting in the formation of fine copper aluminide intermetallics. Most of the intermetallics were CuAl₂, while AlCu appeared in a small ratio. Additionally, these intermetallics were homogenously distributed within the alloy matrix with up to 6% Cu addition. The amounts of those intermetallics increased after performing heat treatment. Most of these intermetallics were CuAl₂ at 380 °C, while the Cu-rich intermetallics appeared at 450 °C. Increasing the holding time to 18 h, however, led to grain coarsening and resulted in the formation of some cracks. The hardness of the resulting composite materials was improved. The hardness value reached to about 170 HV after heat treating at 380 °C for 8 h. The wear resistance of the resulting composite materials was remarkably improved, especially at lower additions of Cu and at the lower heat treatment temperature.

  20. Development of in-Situ Al-Si/CuAl2 Metal Matrix Composites: Microstructure, Hardness, and Wear Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Tash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, in-situ metal matrix composites were fabricated through squeeze casting. The copper particles were dispersed with different weight percentages (3%, 6%, 10%, and 15% into Al-12% Si piston alloy. Also, heat treatments were performed at 380 °C and 450 °C for holding times of 6 and 18 h. The microstructures, X-ray diffractometer (XRD pattern, hardness, and wear characteristics were evaluated. The results showed that these copper particles have reacted with the aluminum under all of the aforementioned processing conditions resulting in the formation of fine copper aluminide intermetallics. Most of the intermetallics were CuAl2, while AlCu appeared in a small ratio. Additionally, these intermetallics were homogenously distributed within the alloy matrix with up to 6% Cu addition. The amounts of those intermetallics increased after performing heat treatment. Most of these intermetallics were CuAl2 at 380 °C, while the Cu-rich intermetallics appeared at 450 °C. Increasing the holding time to 18 h, however, led to grain coarsening and resulted in the formation of some cracks. The hardness of the resulting composite materials was improved. The hardness value reached to about 170 HV after heat treating at 380 °C for 8 h. The wear resistance of the resulting composite materials was remarkably improved, especially at lower additions of Cu and at the lower heat treatment temperature.

  1. Composite superconductors with copper-aluminum stabilizing matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keilin, V.E.; Anashkin, O.P.; Krivikh, A.V.; Kiriya, I.V.; Kovalev, I.A.; Dolgosheev, P.I.; Rychagov, A.V.; Sytnikov, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    A new type of composite superconductors has been developed. They consist of one or several (cabled) multifilamentary wires with low Cu-to-Sc ratio which are embedded and soldered into grooves made in matrix of rectangular cross-section. The latter consists of aluminum core metallurgically plated with a thin copper sheath. Such conductors combine the advantages of both aluminum and copper as stabilizing materials. They have low density, exhibit almost not magnetoresistance, are relatively cheap and can be produced in very long pieces. Copper plating offers the possibility of soft soldering thus ensuring good electrical and thermal contact between superconducting wires and stabilizing matrix, and helping to join pieces to each other. the properties of two Nb-Ti conductors (3.5 x 2 mm 2 and 7x4 mm 2 ) are described in more detail. The first is used in SC coils for whole-body magnetoresonance tomography, and the second will be used in a open-quotes thinclose quotes coil for charged particles detector. The influence of aluminum purity on SC magnet behavior is also briefly discussed

  2. Poling of PVDF matrix composites for integrated structural load sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh; Greminger, Michael A.; Zhao, Ping

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to create and evaluate a smart composite structure that can be used for integrated load sensing and structural health monitoring. In this structure, PVDF films are used as the matrix material instead of epoxy resin or other thermoplastics. The reinforcements are two layers of carbon fiber with one layer of Kevlar separating them. Due to the electrical conductivity properties of carbon fiber and the dielectric effect of Kevlar, the structure acts as a capacitor. Furthermore, the piezoelectric properties of the PVDF matrix can be used to monitor the response of the structure under applied loads. In order to exploit the piezoelectric properties of PVDF, the PVDF material must be polarized to align the dipole moments of its crystalline structure. The optimal condition for poling the structure was found by performing a 23 factorial design of experiment (DoE). The factors that were studied in DoE were temperature, voltage, and duration of poling. Finally, the response of the poled structure was monitored by exposing the samples to an applied load.

  3. Advanced Measurements of Silicon Carbide Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhad Farzbod; Stephen J. Reese; Zilong Hua; Marat Khafizov; David H. Hurley

    2012-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is being considered as a fuel cladding material for accident tolerant fuel under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program sponsored by the Nuclear Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Silicon carbide has many potential advantages over traditional zirconium based cladding systems. These include high melting point, low susceptibility to corrosion, and low degradation of mechanical properties under neutron irradiation. In addition, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) made from SiC have high mechanical toughness enabling these materials to withstand thermal and mechanical shock loading. However, many of the fundamental mechanical and thermal properties of SiC CMCs depend strongly on the fabrication process. As a result, extrapolating current materials science databases for these materials to nuclear applications is not possible. The “Advanced Measurements” work package under the LWRS fuels pathway is tasked with the development of measurement techniques that can characterize fundamental thermal and mechanical properties of SiC CMCs. An emphasis is being placed on development of characterization tools that can used for examination of fresh as well as irradiated samples. The work discuss in this report can be divided into two broad categories. The first involves the development of laser ultrasonic techniques to measure the elastic and yield properties and the second involves the development of laser-based techniques to measurement thermal transport properties. Emphasis has been placed on understanding the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of SiC CMCs in regards to thermal and mechanical properties. The material properties characterized within this work package will be used as validation of advanced materials physics models of SiC CMCs developed under the LWRS fuels pathway. In addition, it is envisioned that similar measurement techniques can be used to provide process control and quality assurance as well as measurement of

  4. Development of antifriction composites based on polypyromellitimide matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olifirov, L.K., E-mail: M80786@yandex.ru [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS» (Russian Federation); Kaloshkin, S.D.; Tcherdyntsev, V.V. [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS» (Russian Federation); Danilov, V.D. [Blagonravov Institute of Machines Science of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Polypyromellitimide powder from waste of production polyimide films were obtained. • Structure of polypyromellitimide strongly changes after high energy ball milling. • Addition of commercial polyimide powder improve moldability of polypyromellitimide. • Polypyromellitimide based composites show good tribological properties in dry friction mode. -- Abstract: A method of polypyromellitimide powder production from PM-A film was proposed and a possibility of fabricating bulk composites based on polypyromellitimide matrix was investigated. The powders were prepared by the treatment of PM-A films in a planetary ball mill. The compositions based on polypyromellitimide containing additives of Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 23}Fe{sub 12} quasicrystals, graphite, polytetrafluoroethylene and PI-PR-20 polyimide were prepared by the solid-state mixing in an IKA M20 batch mill. The bulk samples were fabricated by the compression molding technique. Thus produced materials were characterized by using the methods of sieve analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamo-mechanical analysis and tribological tests. It was found that the PM-A polypyromellitimide powder had a low sinterability and, therefore, the bulk samples of unfilled PM-A and also the composites based on PM-A containing additives of Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 23}Fe{sub 12} quasicrystals, graphite and polytetrafluoroethylene exhibited a high brittleness and show unstable behavior in the tribological tests. It was found that an addition of 15 wt.% PI-PR-20 polyimide improved the sinterability of PM-A and also provides excellent antifriction properties.

  5. Structure evolutions in a Ti–6Al–4V matrix composite reinforced with TiB, characterised using high energy X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropars, Ludovic; Dehmas, Moukrane; Gourdet, Sophie; Delfosse, Jérôme; Tricker, David; Aeby-Gautier, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ high energy X-ray diffraction used during different thermal treatments. • Kinetics of phase evolutions characterised for the matrix and for the borides. • Conversion from TiB 2 to TiB-B27 via a metastable structure TiB-B f . • Strong effect of the process on the matrix phases evolutions and microstructure. - Abstract: A titanium matrix composite reinforced with TiB was produced using powder metallurgy. A Ti–6Al–4V alloy was chosen to be the matrix, and 12 wt.% of TiB 2 was used as the boron source for the solid state formation of TiB. The TiB 2 to TiB conversion reaction was studied using an in situ high energy X-ray diffraction technique while heat treating the composite. The TiB 2 (space group: P6/mmm) converts into TiB-B27 (Pnma), via TiB-B f (Cmcm). The metastable character of B f is confirmed here; it is the first phase formed during the conversion and it progressively converts into B27 during elevated temperature heat treatment. A modification of the phase transformation kinetics in the matrix and of the composite β transus temperature (T β = 1275 °C) was also observed, mainly due to gas contamination and intensive work hardening as a result of the mechanical alloying process used to manufacture the material and to a modification of the matrix equilibria

  6. Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Microstructure and Micro Hardness of Aluminium (LM25 - SiC Metal Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Elango

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this paper is to increase awareness amongst the researchers and to draw their attention towards the present approach to deal with the cryogenic treatment for the nonferrous metals. Cryogenic treated nonferrous metals will exhibit longer wear and more durability. During metal making process, when solidification takes place, some molecules get caught in a random pattern. The molecules do move about at subzero and deep cryogenic treatment slowly. In this experimental study, the effect of cryogenic treatment on microstructure changes and the hardness properties varies for LM25 alloy and LM25-SiC metal matrix composite at -196°C. It is analyzed for different durations. The execution of cryogenic treatment on both alloy and MMCs changed the distribution of

  7. Simultaneous multielement analysis of zirconium alloys by chlorination separation of matrix/ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kaneharu

    1990-01-01

    An analytical method combined chlorination separation of matrix with ICP-AES has been developed for reactor grade Zr alloys (Zircaloy-2). A sample (1 g) is taken into a Pt boat and chlorinated with HCl gas of 100 ml/min in a glass reaction tube at ca. 330degC. Matrix Zr of the sample is volatilized and separated as ZrCl 4 . The analytic elements remaining quantitatively as chlorination residue are dissolved in a mixture of mineral acids (6 M HCl 3 ml+conc. HNO 3 0.5 ml+conc. H 2 SO 4 0.2 ml) and diluted to 20 ml with distilled water after filtration. ICP-AES was used for simultaneous multielement determination using a calibration curve method. The present method has the following advantages: simple sample preparation procedure; applicability to any form of samples to determine multielements; simple ICP-AES calibration procedure. This method was successfully applied to the determination of Fe, Ni, Cu, Co, Mn and Pb in the Zr alloys of JAERI CRM's and NBS SRM's. (author)

  8. Laser Cladding of Composite Bioceramic Coatings on Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Han, Jiege; Wang, Chunming; Huang, Anguo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, silicon nitride (Si3N4) and calcium phosphate tribasic (TCP) composite bioceramic coatings were fabricated on a Ti6Al4V (TC4) alloy using Nd:YAG pulsed laser, CO2 CW laser, and Semiconductor CW laser. The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, mechanical properties, and biological behavior were carefully investigated. These investigations were conducted employing scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and other methodologies. The results showed that both Si3N4 and Si3N4/TCP composite coatings were able to form a compact bonding interface between the coating and the substrate by using appropriate laser parameters. The coating layers were dense, demonstrating a good surface appearance. The bioceramic coatings produced by laser cladding have good mechanical properties. Compared with that of the bulk material, microhardness of composite ceramic coatings on the surface significantly increased. In addition, good biological activity could be obtained by adding TCP into the composite coating.

  9. Deformation behavior of Mg-alloy-based composites at different temperatures studied by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Gergely [Department of Metal Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu, 5, CZ-121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, v. v. i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Máthis, Kristian [Department of Metal Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu, 5, CZ-121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Pilch, Ján [Nuclear Physics Institute, v. v. i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Minárik, Peter [Department of Metal Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu, 5, CZ-121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Lukáš, Petr [Nuclear Physics Institute, v. v. i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Vinogradov, Alexei, E-mail: alexei.vinogradov@ntnu.no [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology - NTNU, Trondheim N-7491 (Norway); Institute of Advanced Technologies, Togliatti State University, 445020 (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-08

    The influence of the reinforcement short Saffil fibers on the deformation behavior of Mg-Al-Ca alloy-based composite with two different fiber plane orientations is investigated and clarified using in-situ neutron diffraction at room and elevated temperatures. The measured lattice strain evolution points to a more efficient reinforcing effect of fibers at parallel fiber plane orientation, which decreases at elevated temperature. A significant decrement of compressive lattice strain was incidentally observed in the matrix in the direction of load axis when deformation due to the elevated temperature occurred. Electron microscopy revealed the influence of the temperature and fiber orientation on fiber cracking. The EBSD observations corroborated neutron diffraction results highlighting significant twin growth at elevated testing temperatures.

  10. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

    1993-09-14

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  11. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on bonding strength between Co-Cr alloy and citric acid-crosslinked gelatin matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Motoki; Sasaki, Makoto; Katada, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2014-02-01

    Novel techniques for creating a strong bond between polymeric matrices and biometals are required. We immobilized polymeric matrices on the surface of biometal for drug-eluting stents through covalent bond. We performed to improve the bonding strength between a cobalt-chromium alloy and a citric acid-crosslinked gelatin matrix by ultraviolet irradiation on the surface of cobalt-chromium alloy. The ultraviolet irradiation effectively generated hydroxyl groups on the surface of the alloy. The bonding strength between the gelatin matrix and the alloy before ultraviolet irradiation was 0.38 ± 0.02 MPa, whereas it increased to 0.48 ± 0.02 MPa after ultraviolet irradiation. Surface analysis showed that the citric acid derivatives occurred on the surface of the cobalt-chromium alloy through ester bond. Therefore, ester bond formation between the citric acid derivatives active esters and the hydroxyl groups on the cobalt-chromium alloy contributed to the enhanced bonding strength. Ultraviolet irradiation and subsequent immobilization of a gelatin matrix using citric acid derivatives is thus an effective way to functionalize biometal surfaces.

  12. Wear mechanisms in powder metallurgy high speed steels matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordo, E.; Martinez, M. A.; Torralba, J. M.; Jimenez, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The development of metal matrix composites has a major interest for automotive and cutting tools industries since they possess better mechanical properties and wear resistance than corresponding base materials. One of the manufacturing methods for these materials includes processing by powder metallurgy techniques. in this case, blending of both, base material and reinforcement powders constitute the most important process in order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of second phase particles. in the present work, composite materials of M3/2 tool steel reinforced with 2.5,5 and 8 vol% of niobium carbide have been prepared. In order to ensure a homogeneous mix, powders of both materials were mixed by dry high-energy mechanical milling at 200 r.p.m. for 40 h. After a recovering annealing, two routes for consolidate were followed die pressing and vacuum sintering, and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Pin-on-disc tests were carried out to evaluate wear behaviour in all the materials. Results show that ceramic particles additions improve wear resistance of base material. (Author) 9 refs

  13. Elastic modulus of Al-Si/SiC metal matrix composites as a function of volume fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh Kumar, S; Rajasekharan, T [Powder Metallurgy Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh PO, Hyderabad-500 058 (India); Seshu Bai, V [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Central University PO, Hyderabad-500 046 (India); Rajkumar, K V; Sharma, G K; Jayakumar, T, E-mail: dearsanthosh@gmail.co [Non-Destructive Evaluation Division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Chennai-603 102 (India)

    2009-09-07

    Aluminum alloy matrix composites have emerged as candidate materials for electronic packaging applications in the field of aerospace semiconductor electronics. Composites prepared by the pressureless infiltration technique with high volume fractions in the range 0.41-0.70 were studied using ultrasonic velocity measurements. For different volume fractions of SiC, the longitudinal velocity and shear velocity were found to be in the range of 7600-9300 m s{sup -1} and 4400-5500 m s{sup -1}, respectively. The elastic moduli of the composites were determined from ultrasonic velocities and were analysed as a function of the volume fraction of the reinforcement. The observed variation is discussed in the context of existing theoretical models for the effective elastic moduli of two-phase systems.

  14. The influence of matrix composition and reinforcement type on the properties of polysialate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, James A.

    There is a critical need for the development of materials for eliminating fire as a cause of death in aircraft accidents. Currently available composites that use organic matrices not only deteriorate at temperatures above 300°C but also emit toxic fumes. The results presented in this dissertation focus on the development of an inorganic matrix that does not burn or emit toxic fumes. The matrix, known as polysialate, can withstand temperatures in excess of 1000°C. The matrix behaves like a ceramic, but does not need high curing temperatures, so it can be processed like many common organic matrices. The major parameters evaluated in this dissertation are: (i) Influence of reinforcement type, (ii) Matrix formulation for both wet-dry durability and high temperature resistance, (iii) Influence of processing variables such as moisture reduction and storage, (iv) Tensile strain capacity of modified matrices and matrices reinforced with ceramic microfibers and discrete carbon fibers, and (v) analytical modeling of mechanical properties. For the reinforcement type; carbon, glass, and stainless steel wire fabrics were investigated. Carbon fabrics with 1, 3, 12, and 50k tows were used. A matrix chemical formulation that can withstand wetting and drying was developed. This formulation was tested at high temperatures to ascertain its stability above 400°C. On the topic of processing, shelf life of prepregged fabric layers and efficient moisture removal methods were studied. An analytical model based on layered reinforcement was developed for analyzing flexural specimens. It is shown that the new inorganic matrix can withstand wetting and drying, and also high temperature. The layered reinforcement concept provides accurate prediction of strength and stiffness for composites reinforced with 1k and 3k tows. The prepregged fabric layers can be stored for 14 days at -15°C without losing strength.

  15. Heterogeneous coarsening of Pb phase and the effect of Cu addition on it in a nanophase composite of Al-10 wt%Pb alloy prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, M.; Liu, X.; Wu, Z.F.; Ouyang, L.Z.; Zeng, M.Q.

    2009-01-01

    A nanophase composite of Al-10 wt%Pb alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying. The coarsening behavior of Pb phase in the composite during heating process was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nanoindentation test. The present work shows that the Pb phase grew substantially and had two different size distributions when the heating temperature was above 823 K. The different size distributions of Pb phase were owing to different grain size ranges of Al matrix in different regions, which led to the different growth rates of the Pb phase in those regions. It has been proposed that the different size ranges of Al grain appeared upon heating were originated from a statistical size distribution of Al grains in the as-milled powder. With the addition of a small amount of Cu, the heterogeneous growth of Pb phase can be suppressed, and the coarsening of Pb phase shows two distinct rates. This indicates that the coarsening is mainly governed by grain boundary diffusion and lattice diffusion of Al matrix in the initial stage and the later one, respectively

  16. Vacuum brazing of electroless Ni-P alloy-coated SiCp/Al composites using aluminum-based filler metal foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Xu, Dongxia; Niu, Jitai

    2016-12-01

    Using rapidly cooled (Al-10Si-20Cu-0.05Ce)-1Ti (wt%) foil as filler metal, the research obtained high-performance joints of electroless Ni-P alloy-coated aluminum matrix composites with high SiC particle content (60 vol%, SiCp/Al-MMCs). The effect of brazing process on joint properties and the formation of Al-Ni and Al-Cu-Ni intermetallic compounds were investigated, respectively. Due to the presence of Ni-P alloy coating, the wettability of liquid filler metal on the composites was improved obviously and its contact angle was only 21°. The formation of Al3Ni2 and Al3(CuNi)2 intermetallic compounds indicated that well metallurgical bonding occurred along the 6063Al matrix alloy/Ni-P alloy layer/filler metal foil interfaces by mutual diffusion and dissolution. And the joint shear strength increased with increasing the brazing temperature from 838 to 843 K or prolonging the soaking time from 15 to 35 min, while it decreased a lot because of corrosion occurring in the 6063Al matrix at high brazing temperature of 848 K. Sound joints with maximum shear strength of 112.5 MPa were obtained at 843 K for soaking time of 35 min. In this research, the beneficial effect of surface metallization by Ni-P alloy deposits on improving wettability on SiCp/Al-MMCs was demonstrated, and capable welding parameters were broadened as well.

  17. The influence of chemical composition on the properties and structure Al-Si-Cu(Mg) alloys

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kaczorowski; A. Krzyńska

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of different chemical composition AlSiCuMg type cast alloys after precipitation hardening are presented. The aim of the study was to find out how much the changes in chemistry of aluminum cast alloys permissible by EN-PN standards may influence the mechanical properties of these alloys. Eight AlSi5Cu3(Mg) type cast alloys of different content alloying elements were selected for the study. The specimens cut form test castings were subjected to precipitation hardening ...

  18. Microstructures and properties of ceramic particle-reinforced metal matrix composite layers produced by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingmao; He, Jingjiang; Liu, Wenjin; Zhong, Minlin

    2005-01-01

    Different weight ratio of titanium, zirconium, WC and Fe-based alloy powders were mixed, and cladded onto a medium carbon steel substrate using a 3kW continuous wave CO2 laser, aiming at producing Ceramic particles- reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) layers. The microstructures of the layers are typical hypoeutectic, and the major phases are Ni3Si2, TiSi2, Fe3C, FeNi, MC, Fe7Mo3, Fe3B, γ(residual austenite) and M(martensite). The microstructure morphologies of MMCs layers are dendrites/cells. The MC-type reinforcements are in situ synthesis Carbides which main compositions consist of transition elements Zr, Ti, W. The MC-type particles distributed within dendrite and interdendritic regions with different volume fractions for single and overlapping clad layers. The MMCs layers are dense and free of cracks with a good metallurgical bonding between the layer and substrate. The addition ratio of WC in the mixtures has the remarkable effect on the microhardness of clad layers.

  19. Structural and thermophysical properties characterization of continuously reinforced cast Al matrix composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gordon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the process of manufacturing a continuously reinforced cast Al matrix composite and its properties are presented. The described technology permits obtaining a structural material of competitive properties compared to either heat treatable aluminum alloys or polymer composites for several types of applications. The examined thermophysical properties and structural characterization, including material anisotropy, coupled with the results of previous measurements of the mechanical properties of both Al2O3 reinforcing filaments and metallic prepregs have proven the high quality of this material and the possibility of its operation under special loading modes and environmental conditions. Microscopic examinations (LM, SEM were carried out to reveal the range of morphological homogeneity of the microstructure, the anisotropy of the filament band distribution, and simultaneously the adhesive behavior of the metal/fiber interface. The 3D morphology of the chosen microstructure components was revealed by computed tomography. The obtained results indicate that special properties of the examined prepreg materials have been strongly influenced, on the one hand, by the geometry of its internal microstructure, i.e. spatial distribution and volume fraction of the Al2O3 reinforcing filaments and, on the other hand, by a very good compatibility obtained between the individual metal prepreg components.

  20. Influence of thermal residual stress on behaviour of metal matrix composites reinforced with particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, R. E.; Hernández Arroyo, E.

    2016-02-01

    The properties of a metallic matrix composites materials (MMC's) reinforced with particles can be affected by different events occurring within the material in a manufacturing process. The existence of residual stresses resulting from the manufacturing process of these materials (MMC's) can markedly differentiate the curves obtained in tensile tests obtained from compression tests. One of the themes developed in this work is the influence of residual stresses on the mechanical behaviour of these materials. The objective of this research work presented is numerically estimate the thermal residual stresses using a unit cell model for the Mg ZC71 alloy reinforced with SiC particles with volume fraction of 12% (hot-forging technology). The MMC's microstructure is represented as a three dimensional prismatic cube-shaped with a cylindrical reinforcing particle located in the centre of the prism. These cell models are widely used in predicting stress/strain behaviour of MMC's materials, in this analysis the uniaxial stress/strain response of the composite can be obtained through the calculation using the commercial finite-element code.

  1. Strength and fracture behavior of aluminide matrix composites with ceramic fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M.; Suganuma, K.; Niihara, K.

    1999-07-01

    This paper investigates the fracture behavior of FeAl and Ni{sub 3}Al matrix composites with ceramic continuous fibers 8.5--10 {micro}m in diameter. When stress is applied to these composites, multiple-fracture of fibers predominantly occurs before matrix cracking, because the load carried by the fibers reaches their fracture strength. Fragments which remain longer than the critical length can provide significant strengthening through load bearing even though fiber breaking has occurred. The ultimate fracture strength of the composites also depends on stress relaxation by plastic deformation of the matrix at a crack tip in the multiple-fractured fibers. Ductilizing of the matrix by B doping improves the ultimate strength at ambient temperatures in both composites. However, their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures are quite different. In the case of Ni{sub 3}Al matrix composites, embrittlement of the matrix is undesirable for high strength and reliability at 873--973 K.

  2. Physical and chemical grounds of electrolytic fabrication of aluminium-strontium alloying composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    It was revealed via study of literature sources that usage of alloying composition of strontium (not of sodium) is more expedient in modification of silumin-type alloys. In this case modification effect is keeping during long holdings and in repeated meltings. Electrolytic decomposition of strontium chloride with usage of liquid aluminium cathode is the most simple and cheap method for fabrication of alloying composition. The operation scheme for production of Al-Sr alloy was proposed in this work on the base of thermodynamic analysis

  3. Economical Fabrication of Thick-Section Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Jason; Ramachandran, Gautham; Williams, Brian; Benander, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed for producing thick-section [>2 in. (approx.5 cm)], continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Ultramet-modified fiber interface coating and melt infiltration processing, developed previously for thin-section components, were used for the fabrication of CMCs that were an order of magnitude greater in thickness [up to 2.5 in. (approx.6.4 cm)]. Melt processing first involves infiltration of a fiber preform with the desired interface coating, and then with carbon to partially densify the preform. A molten refractory metal is then infiltrated and reacts with the excess carbon to form the carbide matrix without damaging the fiber reinforcement. Infiltration occurs from the inside out as the molten metal fills virtually all the available void space. Densification to thick-section components required modification of the conventional process conditions, and the means by which the large amount of molten metal is introduced into the fiber preform. Modification of the low-temperature, ultraviolet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process used to apply interface coatings to the fiber preform was also required to accommodate the high preform thickness. The thick-section CMC processing developed in this work proved to be invaluable for component development, fabrication, and testing in two complementary efforts. In a project for the Army, involving SiC/SiC blisk development, nominally 0.8 in. thick x 8 in. diameter (approx. 2 cm thick x 20 cm diameter) components were successfully infiltrated. Blisk hubs were machined using diamond-embedded cutting tools and successfully spin-tested. Good ply uniformity and extremely low residual porosity (41 ksi (approx. 283 MPa) flexural strength.

  4. CaO-matrix processing of MnBi alloys for permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gabay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to suppress agglomeration of MnBi alloy particles during milling and their unwanted sintering during subsequent annealing was explored by embedding the particles in CaO through co-milling. A 15 h annealing of the micron-sized MnBi particles embedded in the CaO matrix at 300 °C is not accompanied by sintering or growth of the particles while it significantly increases their coercivity – presumably by healing the milling-induced crystal defects. After separation from the CaO matrix, the annealed MnBi powder combines a calculated energy product of 10 MGOe with a room-temperature coercivity of 14.4 kOe. At the same time, the partial loss and degradation of the MnBi low-temperature phase during warm compaction of the powders makes the effect of the CaO-matrix annealing less pronounced in the case of fully dense magnets; the residue from the solvents employed for the removal of the CaO might have contributed to the decline of the properties. Still, a relatively high room-temperature coercivity of 8.5 kOe was obtained for the fuslly-dense MnBi magnet exhibiting an energy product of 5.3 MGOe.

  5. In-situ deformation studies of an aluminum metal-matrix composite in a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, M.; Lewandowski, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Tensile specimens made of a metal-matrix composite (cast and extruded aluminum alloy-based matrix reinforced with Al2O3 particulate) were tested in situ in a scanning electron microscope equipped with a deformation stage, to directly monitor the crack propagation phenomenon. The in situ SEM observations revealed the presence of microcracks both ahead of and near the crack-tip region. The microcracks were primarily associated with cracks in the alumina particles. The results suggest that a region of intense deformation exists ahead of the crack and corresponds to the region of microcracking. As the crack progresses, a region of plastically deformed material and associated microcracks remains in the wake of the crack.

  6. Impact Strength of Composite Materials Based on EN AC-44200 Matrix Reinforced with Al2O3 Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurzawa A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of impact strength of aluminum alloy EN AC-44200 based composite materials reinforced with alumina particles. The research was carried out applying the materials produced by the pressure infiltration method of ceramic preforms made of Al2O3 particles of 3-6μm with the liquid EN AC-44200 Al alloy. The research was aimed at determining the composite resistance to dynamic loads, taking into account the volume of reinforcing particles (from 10 to 40% by volume at an ambient of 23°C and at elevated temperatures to a maximum of 300°C. The results of this study were referred to the unreinforced matrix EN AC-44200 and to its hardness and tensile strength. Based on microscopic studies, an analysis and description of crack mechanics of the tested materials were performed. Structural analysis of a fracture surface, material structures under the crack surfaces of the matrix and cracking of the reinforcing particles were performed.

  7. Microstructure characteristics of nickel reinforced metal matrix composites (Ni/AC8A) by low-pressure metal infiltration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jun; Rong, Hua Wei; Jun, Ji Ang; Park, Sung Ho; Huh, Sun Chul; Park, Won Jo [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    MMCs(Metal Matrix Composites) can obtain mechanical characteristics of application purposes that a single material is difficult to obtain. Al alloy composite material that nickel is added by reinforcement is used for piston of diesel engine, because high temperature properties, strength, corrosion resistant are improved excellently than existent Al alloy. And, in case of processing, interface between Ni and Al improves wear resistant by intermetallic compound of high hardness. Also, in the world, industrial circles are proceeding research to apply excellent composite material. Existent process methods of MMC using preform were manufactured by high-pressure. But, it cause deformation of preform or fault of completed MMC. Using low-pressure as infiltration pressure can prevent this problem, and there is an advantage that is able to reduce the cost of production by small scale of production equipment. Accordingly, process methods of MMC have to consider low-pressure infiltration for the strength of preform, and nowadays, there are many studies about reducing infiltration pressure. In this study produced Al composite material that Ni is added by reinforcement by low-pressure infiltration, and observed microstructure of completed MMCs.

  8. Evaluation of metal matrix composite to replace spheroidal graphite iron for a critical component, steering knuckle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayarangan, S.; Rajamanickam, N.; Sivananth, V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A FE model is developed to study the suitability of MMC for steering knuckle. ► Structural analysis of steering knuckle is carried out for 12 load cases. ► The cross section of the critical region is optimized using genetic algorithm. ► The life of the MMC (Al-10 wt.% TiC) knuckle is compared before and after optimization. ► MMC material could replace SG iron for automotive steering knuckle. -- Abstract: Steering knuckle is considered as one of the critical component in automotive suspension system. It is subjected to time varying loads during its service life, leading to fatigue failure. Therefore, its design is an important aspect in the product development cycle. Currently, spheroidal graphite (SG) iron is widely used to manufacture steering knuckle in the commercial automobile sector. It has been observed from the knuckle manufacturers that advanced materials and weight reduction are the real need for the current automobile industry. Due to their high strength to weight ratio, Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have the potential to meet the demanded design requirements of the automotive industry, compared to conventional materials. In this work, an aluminum alloy reinforced with titanium carbide particulate is suggested as an alternate material in place of existing SG iron. Structural analysis of steering knuckle made of alternate material Al-10 wt.% TiC was performed using commercial code ANSYS. The results of steering knuckle made of MMC (Al-10 wt.% TiC) were compared with that of aluminum alloy and SG iron steering knuckles for its performance based on real time load cases. It is found from this analysis, the knuckle strut region has maximum stress and deflection during its life time. The critical strut region cross section area of knuckle was analyzed and geometrically optimized for minimum bending stress and deflection using genetic algorithm available in MatLab. Since, the knuckle experiences time varying loads, fatigue analysis also

  9. Creep Forming of Carbon-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Wallace L.; Scotti, Stephan J.; Ashe, Melissa P.; Connolly, Liz

    2007-01-01

    A set of lecture slides describes an investigation of creep forming as a means of imparting desired curvatures to initially flat stock plates of carbon-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite (C-CMC) materials. The investigation is apparently part of a continuing effort to develop improved means of applying small CCMC repair patches to reinforced carbon-carbon leading edges of aerospace vehicles (e.g., space shuttles) prior to re-entry into the atmosphere of the Earth. According to one of the slides, creep forming would be an intermediate step in a process that would yield a fully densified, finished C-CMC part having a desired size and shape (the other steps would include preliminary machining, finish machining, densification by chemical vapor infiltration, and final coating). The investigation included experiments in which C-CMC disks were creep-formed by heating them to unspecified high temperatures for time intervals of the order of 1 hour while they were clamped into single- and double-curvature graphite molds. The creep-formed disks were coated with an oxidation- protection material, then subjected to arc-jet tests, in which the disks exhibited no deterioration after exposure to high-temperature test conditions lasting 490 seconds.

  10. Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramic Matrix Composites - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang; van Roode, Mark; Kashyap, Tania; Zhu, Dongming; Wiesner, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) are increasingly being considered as structural materials for advanced power generation equipment because of their light weight, higher temperature capability, and oxidation resistance. Limitations of SiC/SiC CMCs include surface recession and component cracking and associated chemical changes in the CMC. The solutions pursued to improve the life of SiC/SiC CMCs include the incorporation of coating systems that provide surface protection, which has become known as an Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC). The development of EBCs for the protection of gas turbine hot section CMC components was a continuation of coating development work for corrosion protection of silicon-based monolithics. Work on EBC development for SiC/SiC CMCs has been ongoing at several national laboratories and the original gas turbine equipment manufacturers. The work includes extensive laboratory, rig and engine testing, including testing of EBC coated SiC/SiC CMCs in actual field applications. Another EBC degradation issue which is especially critical for CMC components used in aircraft engines is the degradation from glassy deposits of calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) with other minor oxides. This paper addresses the need for and properties of external coatings on SiC/SiC CMCs to extend their useful life in service and the retention of their properties.

  11. Milling of Nanoparticles Reinforced Al-Based Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alokesh Pramanik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the face milling of nanoparticles reinforced Al-based metal matrix composites (nano-MMCs using a single insert milling tool. The effects of feed and speed on machined surfaces in terms of surface roughness, surface profile, surface appearance, chip surface, chip ratio, machining forces, and force signals were analyzed. It was found that surface roughness of machined surfaces increased with the increase of feed up to the speed of 60 mm/min. However, at the higher speed (100–140 mm/min, the variation of surface roughness was minor with the increase of feed. The machined surfaces contained the marks of cutting tools, lobes of material flow in layers, pits and craters. The chip ratio increased with the increase of feed at all speeds. The top chip surfaces were full of wrinkles in all cases, though the bottom surfaces carried the evidence of friction, adhesion, and deformed material layers. The effect of feed on machining forces was evident at all speeds. The machining speed was found not to affect machining forces noticeably at a lower feed, but those decreased with the increase of speed for the high feed scenario.

  12. A study on the composition optimization and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si cast alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.H.; Su, G.C.; Han, Y.Y.; Ai, X.H.; Yan, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si cast alloys with different chemical compositions were investigated using an orthogonal test method. The optimized chemical compositions of Al alloy are given in wt% as follows: 7.0%Si-0.35%Mg-2.0%Cu-0.2%Mn-0.2%Ni-0.1%V-0.8%RE-89.35%Al. The optimized Al-Mg-Si alloy with metal mold casting had excellent mechanical properties. The softening resistance of the optimized alloy was better than that of ZL101 at elevated temperatures. The scanning electron microscopy fractographs of the tensile samples of ZL101 and optimized Al alloy at different magnifications revealed that all the specimens were fractured in a ductile manner, consisting of well-developed dimples over the entire surface. The alloys failed in a mixed-mode fracture, comprised predominantly of transgranular shears and a small amount of quasi-cleavages.

  13. Radiation-induced evolution of austenite matrix in silicon-modified AISI 316 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Brager, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The microstructures of a series of silicon-modified AISI 316 alloys irradiated to fast neutron fluences of about 2-3 and 10 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV at temperatures ranging from 400 0 C to 600 0 C have been examined. The irradiation of AISI 316 leads to an extensive repartition of several elements, particularly nickel and silicon, between the matrix and various precipitate phases. The segregation of nickel at void and grain boundary surfaces at the expense of other faster-diffusing elements is a clear indication that one of the mechanisms driving the microchemical evolution is the Inverse Kirkendall effect. There is evidence that at one sink this mechanism is in competition with the solute drag process associated with interstitial gradients

  14. Processing and characterization of aluminium alloys or composites exhibiting low-temperature or high-rate superplasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Wide applications of superplastic forming still face several problems, one is the high temperature that promotes grain growth, another is the low forming rate that makes economically inefficient. The current study is intended to develop a series of fabrication and thermomechanical processing, so as to result in materials possessing either low temperature superplasticity (LTSP) or high rate superplasticity (HRSP). The former has been achieved in the cast Al alloys, while the latter was accomplished in powder-metallurgy aluminium matrix composites. The aluminium alloys, after special thermomechanical processes, exhibited LTSP from 300 to 450 degree C with elongations varying from 300 to 700 %. The LTSP sheets after 700 % elongation at 350 degree C still possessed fine grains 3.7 μm size and narrow surface solute depletion zones 11 μm in with, resulting in a post-SP T6 strength of 500 MPa, significantly higher than that of the HTSP superplasticity alloys tested at 525 degree C or above. Meanwhile, it was found that LTSP materials may be transferred into HTSP materials simply by adding a preloading at 300-400 degree C for a small amount of work. As for the endeavor in making HRSP materials, 2024Al/SiC, 6061Al/SiC and Al/Al 3 Ti systems processed by powder metallurgy or mechanical alloying methods are under investigation. The average sizes of the reinforcing SiC or A13Ti particles, as well as the grain size are all around 1 μm. The aluminium composites have exhibited HRSP at 525-620 degree C and 10 -2 -10 -1 s -l , with elongations varying from 150 to 350 %. This ultimate goal is to produce an alloy or composite exhibiting low temperature and high strain rate superplasticity (LT and HRSP). (author)

  15. Mechanical and corrosion behaviors of developed copper-based metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manvandra Kumar; Gautam, Rakesh Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv; Ji, Gopal

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates mechanical properties and corrosion resistances of cast copper-tungsten carbide (WC) metal matrix composites (MMCs). Copper matrix composites have been developed by stir casting technique. Different sizes of micro and nano particles of WC particles are utilized as reinforcement to prepare two copper-based composites, however, nano size of WC particles are prepared by high-energy ball milling. XRD (X-rays diffraction) characterize the materials for involvement of different phases. The mechanical behavior of composites has been studied by Vickers hardness test and compression test; while the corrosion behavior of developed composites is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions. The results show that hardness, compressive strength and corrosion resistance of copper matrix composites are very high in comparison to that of copper matrix, which attributed to the microstructural changes occurred during composite formation. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) reveals the morphology of the corroded surfaces.

  16. Fundamental studies of low velocity impact resistance of graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to relate the impact resistance of graphite fiber reinforced composites with matrix properties through gaining an understanding of the basic mechanics involved in the deformation and fracture process, and the effect of the polymer matrix structure on these mechanisms. It was found that the resin matrix structure influences the composite impact resistance in at least two ways. The integration of flexibilizers into the polymer chain structure tends to reduce the T/sub G/ and the mechanical properties of the polymer. The reduction in the mechanical properties of the matrix does not enhance the composite impact resistance because it allows matrix controlled failure to initiate impact damage. Linear polymers, which contain no active groups for cross-linking, do not toughen composites because the fiber-matrix interfacial bond is not of sufficient strength to prevent interfacial failure from occurring. Toughness must be built into the basic polymer backbone and cross-linking structure

  17. FORMATION REGULARITIES OF PHASE COMPOSITION, STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES DURING MECHANICAL ALLOYING OF BINARY ALUMINUM COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Lovshenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigation results pertaining to  ascertainment of formation regularities of phase composition and structure during mechanical alloying of binary aluminium composites/substances. The invetigations have been executed while applying a wide range of methods, devices and equipment used in modern material science. The obtained data complement each other. It has been established that presence of oxide and hydro-oxide films on aluminium powder  and introduction of surface-active substance in the composite have significant effect on mechanically and thermally activated phase transformations and properties of semi-finished products.  Higher fatty acids have been used as a surface active substance.The mechanism of mechanically activated solid solution formation has been identified. Its essence is  a formation of  specific quasi-solutions at the initial stage of processing. Mechanical and chemical interaction between components during formation of other phases has taken place along with dissolution  in aluminium while processing powder composites. Granule basis is formed according to the dynamic recrystallization mechanism and possess submicrocrystal structural type with the granule dimension basis less than 100 nm and the grains are divided in block size of not more than 20 nm with oxide inclusions of 10–20 nm size.All the compounds  with the addition of  surface-active substances including aluminium powder without alloying elements obtained by processing in mechanic reactor are disperse hardened. In some cases disperse hardening is accompanied by dispersive and solid solution hardnening process. Complex hardening predetermines a high temperature of recrystallization in mechanically alloyed compounds,  its value exceeds 400 °C.

  18. Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Patino, Carlos Alberto

    2001-07-01

    A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The process involves three steps: (1) modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, (2) forming a particulate porous compact; and (3) introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and silicon carbide were successfully coated with nickel and copper in preparation for infiltration with molten aluminum. Electroless Ni and Cu deposition was used since it enhances the wettability of the reinforcements for composite fabrication. While Cu deposits were polycrystalline, traces of phosphorous co-deposited from the electroless bath gave an amorphous Ni-P coating. The effect of metal coating on wetting behavior was evaluated at 800°C on plain and metal-coated ceramic plates using a sessile drop technique. The metallic films eliminated the non-wetting behavior of the uncoated ceramics, leading to equilibrium contact angles in the order of 12° and below 58° for Ni and Cu coated ceramics, respectively. The spreading data indicated that local diffusion at the triple junction was the governing mechanism of the wetting process. Precipitation of intermetallic phases in the drop/ceramic interface delayed the formation of Al4C3. Infiltration with molten Al showed that the coated-particulates are suitable as reinforcing materials for fabricating MMCs, giving porosity-free components with a homogeneously distributed reinforcing phase. The coating promoted easy metal flow through the preform, compared to the non-infiltration behavior of the uncoated counterparts. Liquid state diffusion kinetics due to temperature dependent viscosity forces controlled the infiltration process. Microstructural analysis indicated the formation of intermetallic phases such as CuAl 2, in the case of Cu coating, and Ni2Al3 and NiAl 3 when Ni-coated powders were infiltrated. The

  19. Oxide nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed oxide dispersion strengthened steel: crystallographic structure and interface with ferrite matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Oxide nanoparticles are quintessential for ensuring the extraordinary properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. In this study, the crystallographic structure of oxide nanoparticles, and their interface with the ferritic steel matrix in an Al-alloyed ODS steel, i.e. PM2000, were...

  20. Cast AlSi9Cu4 alloy with hybride strenghtened by Fe{sub x}Al{sub y}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatkowski, J [Department of Materials Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Krasinskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland); Formanek, B, E-mail: jaroslaw.piatkowski@polsl.pl, E-mail: boleslaw.formanek@polsl.pl [Department of Materials Science, Silesian University of Technology, Krasinskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    The main objective of the study was to develop a technology of dispersion strenghtened hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy. The article presented the materials and technology conception for producing aluminium matrix composite AlSi9Cu4Fe alloy with hybride reinforcement of Al{sub x}Fe{sub y} intermetallic and aluminium oxide powders. Composite powder obtained in mechanical agllomerisation mixture of elemental powders. Changes in the structure were confirmed by TA and ATD thermal analyses plotting the solidification curves, which showed a decrease in temperature T{sub liq} compared to the unmodified alloy and an exothermic effect originating from the crystallisation of eutectics with alloying elements. The examinations carried out by SEM and BSE as well as the determination of local chemical composition by EDX technique have characterised the structure of the alloy as containing some binary Al-Si-Al-Cu and Al-Fe eutectics and multicomponent eutectics.

  1. Interactions between tungsten carbide (WC) particulates and metal matrix in WC-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, D.; Hellman, J.; Luhulima, D.; Liimatainen, J.; Lindroos, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    A variety of experimental techniques have been used to investigate the interactions between tungsten carbide (WC-Co 88/12) particulates and the matrix in some new wear resistant cobalt-based superalloy and steel matrix composites produced by hot isostatic pressing. The results show that the chemical composition of the matrix has a strong influence on the interface reaction between WC and matrix and the structural stability of the WC particulates in the composite. Some characteristics of the interaction between matrix and reinforcement are explained by the calculation of diffusion kinetics. The three-body abrasion wear resistance of the composites has been examined based on the ASTM G65-91 standard procedure. The wear behavior of the best composites of this study shows great potential for wear protection applications

  2. Support Services for Ceramic Fiber-Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.P.

    2000-06-06

    Structural and functional materials used in solid- and liquid-fueled energy systems are subject to gas- and condensed-phase corrosion and erosion by entrained particles. For a given material, its temperature and the composition of the corrodents determine the corrosion rates, while gas flow conditions and particle aerodynamic diameters determine erosion rates. Because there are several mechanisms by which corrodents deposit on a surface, the corrodent composition depends not only on the composition of the fuel, but also on the temperature of the material and the size range of the particles being deposited. In general, it is difficult to simulate under controlled laboratory conditions all of the possible corrosion and erosion mechanisms to which a material may be exposed in an energy system. Therefore, with funding from the Advanced Research Materials Program, the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is coordinating with NCC Engineering and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to provide researchers with no-cost opportunities to expose materials in pilot-scale systems to conditions of corrosion and erosion similar to those occurring in commercial power systems. The EERC has two pilot-scale solid-fuel systems available for exposure of materials coupons. The slagging furnace system (SFS) was built under the DOE Combustion 2000 Program as a testing facility for advanced heat exchanger subsystems. It is a 2.5-MMBtu/hr (2.6 x 10{sup 6} kJ/hr) solid-fuel combustion system with exit temperatures of 2700 to 2900 F to ensure that the ash in the main combustor is molten and flowing. Sample coupons may be exposed in the system either within the slagging zone or near the convective air heater at 1800 F (980 C). In addition, a pilot-scale entrained-bed gasifier system known as the transport reactor development unit (TRDU) is available. Also operating at approximately 2.5 MMBtu/hr (2.6 x 10{sup 6} kJ/hr), it is a pressurized unit

  3. Interfacial characteristics and fracture behavior of spark-plasma-sintered TiNi fiber-reinforced 2024Al matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Peng, E-mail: dongpeng@tyut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Shanxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Magnesium-Based Materials, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Zhe [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Wenxian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Shanxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Magnesium-Based Materials, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Chen, Shaoping [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhou, Jun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University Erie, Erie, PA 16563 (United States)

    2017-04-13

    Embedding of shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers into materials to fabricate SMA composites has attracted considerable attention because of the potential applicability of these composites in smart systems and structures. In this study, 2024Al matrix composites reinforced by continuous TiNi SMA fibers were fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The interface between the fibers and matrix consisted of a bilayer. The layer close to the fiber consisted of a multiple phase mixture, and the other layer exhibited a periodic morphology resulting from the alternating phases of Al{sub 3}Ti and Al{sub 3}Ni. In addition, a small quantity of TiO{sub 2} phases was also observed in the interface layer. Based on detailed interface studies of the orientation relationships between the Al{sub 3}Ti, Al{sub 3}Ni, and TiO{sub 2} phases and the atomic correspondence at phase boundaries, the effects of the interface phases on the fracture behavior of the composites were demonstrated.

  4. Improvement of Tribological Properties of Metal Matrix Composites by Means of Slide Burnishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr BEDNARSKI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Burnishing of metal surfaces can affect positively tribological and mechanical properties such as fatigue strength, wear resistance, contact stiffness and bearing capacity. Burnishing affects the entire surface topography, including surface roughness, radii of curvature of peaks and valleys, slope angles and more. We have studied A1Mg1SiCu (6xxx series aluminum matrix composites with a reinforcing phase of Al2O3 which exhibits good workability but poor machinability. The second series studied was based on an AlSi alloy (A-390 reinforced with SiC – this one characterized by poor workability but good machinability. Materials have been prepared by mixing metal powders with the reinforcement, cold pressing, sintering, hot extrusion and heat treatment. We have determined surface roughness with a Hommel tester; the arithmetical mean for A1Mg1SiCu (A6061 + Al2O3 was ~1 µm before burnishing and ~0.15 mm after burnishing. We have also determined the bearing capacity at 50 % with the same tester: before burnishing 2.30 µm and 0.47 µm afterwards for A6061 + Al2O3; before 2.30 µm, afterwards 0.37 µm for A390 + SiC. Vickers microhardness at the surface with respect to the core increases 30 % for the Al2O3 containing composite and 50 % for the SiC containing composite.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2404

  5. Influence of Composition on the Environmental Impact of a Cast Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Gómez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of alloy composition on the environmental impact of the production of six aluminum casting alloys (Al Si12Cu1(Fe, Al Si5Mg, Al Si9Cu3Zn3Fe, Al Si10Mg(Fe, Al Si9Cu3(Fe(Zn and Al Si9 has been analyzed. In order to perform a more precise environmental impact calculation, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA with ReCiPe Endpoint methodology has been used, with the EcoInvent v3 AlMg3 aluminum alloy dataset as a reference. This dataset has been updated with the material composition ranges of the mentioned alloys. The balanced, maximum and minimum environmental impact values have been obtained. In general, the overall impact of the studied aluminum alloys varies from 5.98 × 10−1 pts to 1.09 pts per kg, depending on the alloy composition. In the analysis of maximum and minimum environmental impact, the alloy that has the highest uncertainty is AlSi9Cu3(Fe(Zn, with a range of ±9%. The elements that contribute the most to increase its impact are Copper and Tin. The environmental impact of a specific case, an LED luminaire housing made out of an Al Si12Cu1(Fe cast alloy, has been studied, showing the importance of considering the composition. Significant differences with the standard datasets that are currently available in EcoInvent v3 have been found.

  6. Influence of Composition on the Environmental Impact of a Cast Aluminum Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Patricia; Elduque, Daniel; Sarasa, Judith; Pina, Carmelo; Javierre, Carlos

    2016-05-25

    The influence of alloy composition on the environmental impact of the production of six aluminum casting alloys (Al Si12Cu1(Fe), Al Si5Mg, Al Si9Cu3Zn3Fe, Al Si10Mg(Fe), Al Si9Cu3(Fe)(Zn) and Al Si9) has been analyzed. In order to perform a more precise environmental impact calculation, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with ReCiPe Endpoint methodology has been used, with the EcoInvent v3 AlMg3 aluminum alloy dataset as a reference. This dataset has been updated with the material composition ranges of the mentioned alloys. The balanced, maximum and minimum environmental impact values have been obtained. In general, the overall impact of the studied aluminum alloys varies from 5.98 × 10 -1 pts to 1.09 pts per kg, depending on the alloy composition. In the analysis of maximum and minimum environmental impact, the alloy that has the highest uncertainty is AlSi9Cu3(Fe)(Zn), with a range of ±9%. The elements that contribute the most to increase its impact are Copper and Tin. The environmental impact of a specific case, an LED luminaire housing made out of an Al Si12Cu1(Fe) cast alloy, has been studied, showing the importance of considering the composition. Significant differences with the standard datasets that are currently available in EcoInvent v3 have been found.

  7. A Study of Phase Composition and Structure of Alloys of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailybaeva, A. D.; Zolotorevskii, V. S.; Smagulov, D. U.; Islamkulov, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The Thermo-Calc software is used to compute the phase transformations occurring during cooling of alloys. Polythermal and isothermal sections of the phase diagram of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe system are plotted. The phase composition and the structure of aluminum alloys in cast condition and after a heat treatment are studied experimentally.

  8. High-Temperature Tensile Strength of Al10Co25Cr8Fe15Ni36Ti6 Compositionally Complex Alloy (High-Entropy Alloy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, H. M.; Manzoni, A. M.; Wanderka, N.; Glatzel, U.

    2015-06-01

    Homogenizing at 1220°C for 20 h and subsequent aging at 900°C for 5 h and 50 h of a novel Al10Co25Cr8Fe15Ni36Ti6 compositionally complex alloy (high-entropy alloy) produces a microstructure consisting of an L12 ordered γ' phase embedded in a face-centered cubic solid-solution γ matrix together with needle-like B2 precipitates (NiAl). The volume fraction of γ' phase is ~46% and of needle-like B2 precipitates database; Thermo-Calc Software, Stockholm, Sweden). The high-temperature tensile tests were carried out at room temperature, 600°C, 700°C, 800°C, and 1000°C. The tensile strength as well as the elongation to failure of both heat-treated specimens is very high at all tested temperatures. The values of tensile strength has been compared with literature data of well-known Alloy 800H and Inconel 617, and is discussed in terms of the observed microstructure.

  9. Mechanical spectroscopy study on the Cu54Zr40Al6 amorphous matrix alloy at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, P.W.B.; Chaves, J.M.; Silva, P.S.; Florêncio, O.; Moreno-Gobbi, A.; Aliaga, L.C.R.; Botta, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu 54 Zr 40 Al 6 alloy was characterized by mechanical spectroscopy at low temperature. • Flexural and ultrasonic methods showed peaks associated to rearrangement of clusters. • The peaks less stable were associated with annihilation of Zr or Cu clusters. • MHz range can be favors the formation of Cu an Al-centered icosahedral structures. • TEM images show an increase in the size and number of crystal in amorphous matrix. - Abstract: A mechanical spectroscopy study of Cu 54 Zr 40 Al 6 bulk metallic glasses composites was carried out in the kHz and MHz frequency ranges, by means of flexural and ultrasonic methods, respectively, in the temperature interval 150–300 K. In internal friction and attenuation curves at low temperature were observed peaks which were associated with distortions in the configuration of atomic clusters, which absorbed different quantities of energy due to short and medium order rearrangements. Changes within the clusters or atomic jumps between clusters occurring in the specimen induced the onset of polyamorphic peaks, since electronic interactions and bonding changed abruptly

  10. Research and Development Progress of National Key Laboratory of Advanced Composites on Advanced Aeronautical Resin Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Bintai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Applications and research progress in advanced aeronautical resin matrix composites by National Key Laboratory of Advanced Composites (LAC were summarized. A novel interlaminar toughening technology employing ultra-thin TP non-woven fabric was developed in LAC, which significantly improved the compression after impact (CAI performances of composite laminates.Newly designed multilayer sandwich stealth composite structures exhibited a good broadband radar absorbing properties at 1-18 GHz.There were remarkable developments in high toughness and high temperature resin matrix composites, covering major composite processing technologies such as prepreg-autoclave procedure, liquid composite molding and automation manufacture, etc. Finally, numerical simulation and optimization methods were deliberately utilized in the study of composites curing behavior, resin flow and curing deformation. A composite material database was also established.In conclusion, LAC has been a great support for the development of aeronautical equipment, playing such roles as innovation leading, system dominating, foundation supporting and application ensuring of aerocomposites.

  11. Effect of Cutting Parameters on Thrust Force and Surface Roughness in Drilling of Al-2219/B4C/Gr Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, V. M.; Basavarajappa, G. S. Shiva Shankar S.; Suresh, R.

    2016-09-01

    In aluminium matrix composites, reinforcement of hard ceramic particle present inside the matrix which causes tool wear, high cutting forces and poor surface finish during machining. This paper focuses on effect of cutting parameters on thrust force, surface roughness and burr height during drilling of MMCs. In the present work, discuss the influence of spindle speed and feed rate on drilling the pure base alloy (Al-2219), mono composite (Al- 2219+8% B4C) and hybrid composite (Al-2219+8%B4C+3%Gr). The composites were fabricated using liquid metallurgy route. The drilling experiments were conducted by CNC machine with TiN coated HSS tool, M42 (Cobalt grade) and carbide tools at various spindle speeds and feed rates. The thrust force, surface roughness and burr height of the drilled hole were investigated in mono composite and hybrid composite containing graphite particles, the experimental results show that the feed rate has more influence on thrust force and surface roughness. Lesser thrust force and discontinuous chips were produced during machining of hybrid composites when compared with mono and base alloy during drilling process. It is due to solid lubricant property of graphite which reduces the lesser thrust force, burr height and lower surface roughness. When machining with Carbide tool at low feed and high speeds good surface finish was obtained compared to other two types of cutting tool materials.

  12. Fracture Toughness of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Metal- and Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.L.; Liu, B.; Hwang, K.C.; Chen, Y.L.; Huang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical analysis of the fracture toughness enhancement of carbon nanotube- (CNT-) reinforced hard matrix composites is carried out on the basis of shear-lag theory and fracture mechanics. It is found that stronger CNT/matrix interfaces cannot definitely lead to the better fracture toughness of these composites, and the optimal interfacial chemical bond density is that making the failure mode just in the transition from CNT pull-out to CNT break. For hard matrix composites, the fracture toughness of composites with weak interfaces can be improved effectively by increasing the CNT length. However, for soft matrix composite, the fracture toughness improvement due to the reinforcing CNTs quickly becomes saturated with an increase in CNT length. The proposed theoretical model is also applicable to short fiber-reinforced composites.

  13. Fracture Toughness of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Metal- and Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical analysis of the fracture toughness enhancement of carbon nanotube- (CNT- reinforced hard matrix composites is carried out on the basis of shear-lag theory and facture mechanics. It is found that stronger CNT/matrix interfaces cannot definitely lead to the better fracture toughness of these composites, and the optimal interfacial chemical bond density is that making the failure mode just in the transition from CNT pull-out to CNT break. For hard matrix composites, the fracture toughness of composites with weak interfaces can be improved effectively by increasing the CNT length. However, for soft matrix composite, the fracture toughness improvement due to the reinforcing CNTs quickly becomes saturated with an increase in CNT length. The proposed theoretical model is also applicable to short fiber-reinforced composites.

  14. On Poisson's ratio for metal matrix composite laminates. [aluminum boron composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakovich, C. T.; Shuart, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition of Poisson's ratio for nonlinear behavior of metal matrix composite laminates is discussed and experimental results for tensile and compressive loading of five different boron-aluminum laminates are presented. It is shown that there may be considerable difference in the value of Poisson's ratio as defined by a total strain or an incremental strain definition. It is argued that the incremental definition is more appropriate for nonlinear material behavior. Results from a (0) laminate indicate that the incremental definition provides a precursor to failure which is not evident if the total strain definition is used.

  15. High Temperature Degradation Mechanisms in Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Ronan A.

    1996-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in demanding structural applications in which they may be exposed to harsh environments. The durability of such materials is a major concern, potentially limiting both the integrity of the structures and their useful lifetimes. The goal of the current investigation is to develop a mechanism-based model of the chemical degradation which occurs, such that given the external chemical environment and temperatures throughout the laminate, laminate geometry, and ply and/or constituent material properties, we can calculate the concentration of diffusing substances and extent of chemical degradation as functions of time and position throughout the laminate. This objective is met through the development and use of analytical models, coupled to an analysis-driven experimental program which offers both quantitative and qualitative information on the degradation mechanism. Preliminary analyses using a coupled diffusion/reaction model are used to gain insight into the physics of the degradation mechanisms and to identify crucial material parameters. An experimental program is defined based on the results of the preliminary analysis which allows the determination of the necessary material coefficients. Thermogravimetric analyses are carried out in nitrogen, air, and oxygen to provide quantitative information on thermal and oxidative reactions. Powdered samples are used to eliminate diffusion effects. Tests in both inert and oxidative environments allow the separation of thermal and oxidative contributions to specimen mass loss. The concentration dependency of the oxidative reactions is determined from the tests in pure oxygen. Short term isothermal tests at different temperatures are carried out on neat resin and unidirectional macroscopic specimens to identify diffusion effects. Mass loss, specimen shrinkage, the formation of degraded surface layers and surface cracking are recorded as functions of exposure time. Geometry effects

  16. Effect of Iron Impurity on the Phase Composition, Structure and Properties of Magnesium Alloys Containing Manganese and Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, E. F.

    2017-07-01

    Results of a study of the interaction between iron impurity and manganese and aluminum alloying elements during formation of phase composition in alloys of the Mg - Mn, Mg - Al, Mg - Al - Mn, and Mg - Al - Zn - Mn systems are presented. It is proved that this interaction results in introduction of Fe into the intermetallic phase. The phase compositions of model magnesium alloys and commercial alloys MA2-1 and MA5 are studied. It is shown that both manganese and aluminum may bind the iron impurity into phases. Composite Fe-containing intermetallic phases of different compositions influence differently the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.

  17. Design and analysis of variable-twist tiltrotor blades using shape memory alloy hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-Sang; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Jung, Sung Nam; Lee, Myeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    The tiltrotor blade, or proprotor, acts as a rotor in the helicopter mode and as a propeller in the airplane mode. For a better performance, the proprotor should have different built-in twist distributions along the blade span, suitable for each operational mode. This paper proposes a new variable-twist proprotor concept that can adjust the built-in twist distribution for given flight modes. For a variable-twist control, the present proprotor adopts shape memory alloy hybrid composites (SMAHC) containing shape memory alloy (SMA) wires embedded in the composite matrix. The proprotor of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) Smart Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV), which is based on the tiltrotor concept, is used as a baseline proprotor model. The cross-sectional properties of the variable-twist proprotor are designed to maintain the cross-sectional properties of the original proprotor as closely as possible. However, the torsion stiffness is significantly reduced to accommodate the variable-twist control. A nonlinear flexible multibody dynamic analysis is employed to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the proprotor such as natural frequency and damping in the whirl flutter mode, the blade structural loads in a transition flight and the rotor performance in hover. The numerical results show that the present proprotor is designed to have a strong similarity to the baseline proprotor in dynamic and load characteristics. It is demonstrated that the present proprotor concept could be used to improve the hover performance adaptively when the variable-twist control using the SMAHC is applied appropriately

  18. Design and analysis of variable-twist tiltrotor blades using shape memory alloy hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Sang; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Jung, Sung Nam; Lee, Myeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    The tiltrotor blade, or proprotor, acts as a rotor in the helicopter mode and as a propeller in the airplane mode. For a better performance, the proprotor should have different built-in twist distributions along the blade span, suitable for each operational mode. This paper proposes a new variable-twist proprotor concept that can adjust the built-in twist distribution for given flight modes. For a variable-twist control, the present proprotor adopts shape memory alloy hybrid composites (SMAHC) containing shape memory alloy (SMA) wires embedded in the composite matrix. The proprotor of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) Smart Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV), which is based on the tiltrotor concept, is used as a baseline proprotor model. The cross-sectional properties of the variable-twist proprotor are designed to maintain the cross-sectional properties of the original proprotor as closely as possible. However, the torsion stiffness is significantly reduced to accommodate the variable-twist control. A nonlinear flexible multibody dynamic analysis is employed to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the proprotor such as natural frequency and damping in the whirl flutter mode, the blade structural loads in a transition flight and the rotor performance in hover. The numerical results show that the present proprotor is designed to have a strong similarity to the baseline proprotor in dynamic and load characteristics. It is demonstrated that the present proprotor concept could be used to improve the hover performance adaptively when the variable-twist control using the SMAHC is applied appropriately.

  19. Strain evolution after fiber failure in a single-fiber metal matrix composite under cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanan, Jay C. [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: jay.hanan@okstate.edu; Mahesh, Sivasambu [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Uestuendag, Ersan [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: ersan@caltech.edu; Beyerlein, Irene J. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Swift, Geoffrey A. [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brown, Donald W. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bourke, Mark A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    The evolution of in situ elastic strain with cyclic tensile loading in each phase of a single Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-fiber/aluminum-matrix composite was studied using neutron diffraction (ND). An analytical model appropriate for metal matrix composites (MMCs) was developed to connect the measured axial strain evolution in each phase with the possible micromechanical events that could occur during loading at room temperature: fiber fracture, interfacial slipping, and matrix plastic deformation. Model interpretation showed that the elastic strain evolution in the fiber and matrix was governed by fiber fracture and interface slipping and not by plastic deformation of the matrix, whereas the macroscopic stress-strain response of the composite was influenced by all three. The combined single-fiber composite model and ND experiment introduces a new and quick engineering approach for qualifying the micromechanical response in MMCs due to cyclic loading and fiber fracture.

  20. Strain evolution after fiber failure in a single-fiber metal matrix composite under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Mahesh, Sivasambu; Uestuendag, Ersan; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Swift, Geoffrey A.; Clausen, Bjorn; Brown, Donald W.; Bourke, Mark A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of in situ elastic strain with cyclic tensile loading in each phase of a single Al 2 O 3 -fiber/aluminum-matrix composite was studied using neutron diffraction (ND). An analytical model appropriate for metal matrix composites (MMCs) was developed to connect the measured axial strain evolution in each phase with the possible micromechanical events that could occur during loading at room temperature: fiber fracture, interfacial slipping, and matrix plastic deformation. Model interpretation showed that the elastic strain evolution in the fiber and matrix was governed by fiber fracture and interface slipping and not by plastic deformation of the matrix, whereas the macroscopic stress-strain response of the composite was influenced by all three. The combined single-fiber composite model and ND experiment introduces a new and quick engineering approach for qualifying the micromechanical response in MMCs due to cyclic loading and fiber fracture

  1. Mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of as-cast Mg{sub 77}TM{sub 12}Zn{sub 5}Y{sub 6} (TM = Cu, Ni) bulk amorphous matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, K.Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110178 (China)], E-mail: kqqiu@yahoo.com.cn; Hu, N.N.; Zhang, H.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110178 (China); Jiang, W.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37990 (United States); Ren, Y.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110178 (China); Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37990 (United States)

    2009-06-10

    Comparative investigations on the microstructures, thermal stability and mechanical properties of Mg{sub 77}Cu{sub 12}Zn{sub 5}Y{sub 6} and Mg{sub 77}Ni{sub 12}Zn{sub 5}Y{sub 6} bulk metallic glass matrix composites were carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DSC and compressive tester. The results show that the microstructure of as-cast samples with 3 mm in diameter for Cu-containing alloy is consisted of Mg flakes and dotted Mg{sub 2}Cu phase in the amorphous matrix, while the as-cast Ni-containing alloy with the same diameter is mainly consisted of Mg flakes in the amorphous matrix. The glass transition temperature and supercooled liquid region are 413 K and 27 K for the Cu-containing, 443 K and 32 K for the Ni-containing amorphous matrix composites, respectively. The fracture strength, yield strength and plastic strain are 532 MPa, 390 MPa and 2.4% for the Cu-containing alloy, 667 MPa, 412 MPa and 7% for the Ni-containing alloy, respectively. Furthermore, the fracture mechanism for the amorphous matrix composites was discussed according to both the fracture surfaces and the stress-strain curves.

  2. Effect of composition on the superplasticity of aluminium scandium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.L. III; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Several aluminum alloys have been shown to exhibit superplasticty in the as-rolled condition. Previous work has shown that aluminum-scandium alloys also exhibit this behavior, but only with the addition of ternary alloying elements such as lithium and magnesium. These additions raised the strain-rate sensitivity of these alloys to 0.4-0.5 for selected strain rates at temperatures above 400 degrees C. A systematic study was undertaken of five Al-Sc alloys with varying lithium and magnesium concentrations in order to fully characterize the high temperature deformation mechanism. Specimens were deformed at a constant strain rate to predetermined true strains for textural and microstructural characterization. In this paper work is presented that will elucidate the effect of these different ternary additives on the superplastic deformation mechanism in these alloys

  3. Effect of the type of radiation on the degradation behavior of polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egusa, Shigenori

    1992-01-01

    Four kinds of polymer matrix composites (filler: E-glass or carbon fiber cloth; matrix; epoxy or polyimide resin) were irradiated with neutrons and 60 Co γ-rays at room temperature or at 5 K. Three-point bend tests were then carried out at 77 K. Comparison of the neutron and γ-ray irradiation effects shows that the radiation sensitivity of the glass/epoxy and glass/polyimide composites is 1.8-2.6 times higher to neutrons than to γ-rays, indicating a higher sensitivity of the epoxy and polyimide matrix resins to recoil protons than to γ-rays. Absorbed dose calculations, on the other hand, show that the spatial distribution of the microscopic energy deposition in polymer matrix composites is inhomogeneous for neutrons, although almost homogeneous for γ-rays. In addition, the neutron irradiation of boron-containing E-glass fiber composites produces additional radiation damage due to a 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction in the glass fibers, thus significantly enhancing a decrease in the composite strength. These facts indicate that as far as polymer matrix composites are concerned, the irradiation effects of neutrons will be rather difficult to simulate with different types of radiation such as protons and carbon ions from an ion accelerator. Thus, it may be prudent that such simulation irradiation be carried out mainly for pure resins to be used as matrix in polymer matrix composites. (author)

  4. The influence of chemical composition on the properties and structure Al-Si-Cu(Mg alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaczorowski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of different chemical composition AlSiCuMg type cast alloys after precipitation hardening are presented. The aim of the study was to find out how much the changes in chemistry of aluminum cast alloys permissible by EN-PN standards may influence the mechanical properties of these alloys. Eight AlSi5Cu3(Mg type cast alloys of different content alloying elements were selected for the study. The specimens cut form test castings were subjected to precipitation hardening heat treatment. The age hardened specimens were evaluated using tensile test, hardness measurements and impact test. Moreover, the structure investigation were carried out using either conventional light Metallography and scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy. The two last methods were used for fractography observations and precipitation process observations respectively. It was concluded that the changes in chemical composition which can reach even 2,5wt.% cause essential differences of the structure and mechanical properties of the alloys. As followed from quantitative evaluation and as could be predicted theoretically, copper and silicon mostly influenced the mechanical properties of AlSi5Cu3(Mg type cast alloys. Moreover it was showed that the total concentration of alloying elements accelerated and intensifies the process of decomposition of supersaturated solid solution. The increase of Cu and Mg concentration increased the density of precipitates. It increases of strength properties of the alloys which are accompanied with decreasing in ductility.

  5. Evaluation of HEBM Mechanical Alloying of Al2O3— 356/7075 Powder Mixture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Particle reinforced aluminium alloy metal matrix composites (MMC) have proven to be one of the advanced materials capable of replacing conventional structural alloys. However, the demand for such materials has been confined to high cost applications...

  6. Mechanical properties of Fe-Mn-Cu-Al alloy systems and optimization of their composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, I.F.; Baranov, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Studied is the separate and combined effect of Cu and Al on mechanical properties of the Fe-Mn-Al-Cu system alloys using a simplex- lattice method of experiment planning. Heat treated specimens in the form of plates have been subjected to mechanical tests. It is shown that mechanical properties of studied alloys change sufficiently in the result of tempering in heterogeneous (α+γ) region. Studied alloys have the most favourable conbination of characteristics of strength, plasticity and impact strength after tempering at 630 deg C during 2 hours. Diagrams are obtained which characterizes dependence of mechanical properties of alloys on their composition. They permit to select optimum compositions of alloys with the necessary combination of strength, plasticity and impact strength [ru

  7. Size and composition tunable Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles by replacement reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingbo; Lee, J Y; Yang Jun; Boothroyd, Chris; Zhang Jixuan

    2007-01-01

    Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles with tunable size and composition were prepared by a replacement reaction between Ag nanoparticles and HAuCl 4 at elevated temperatures. The formation of homogeneous alloy nanoparticles was confirmed by selected-area energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SAEDX), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction. This method leverages upon the rapid interdiffusion of Ag and Au atoms in the reduced dimension of a nanoparticle, elevated temperatures and the large number of vacancy defects created in the replacement reaction. This method of preparation has several notable advantages: (1) independent tuning of the size and composition of alloy nanoparticles; (2) production of alloy nanoparticles in high concentrations; (3) general utility in the synthesis of alloy nanoparticles that cannot be obtained by the co-reduction method

  8. A study on the manufacturing conditions of metal matrix composites by low pressure infiltration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Jo; Hessian, Md Anowar; Park, Sung Ho [Gyeongsang National University, Tongyoung (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Sun Chul [Gyeongsang National University, JinJu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Metal fiber preform reinforced aluminum alloy composite as made by the infiltration of molten metal under low pressure casting process. The infiltration behavior of filling pattern and the velocity profile with low-pressure casting process was investigated. The thermocouple was inserted into the preform in order to observe the infiltration behavior. The infiltration of applied pressure time, 1, 2 and 5 s under constant pressure of 0.4 MPa was completely filled during 0.4 s. In these conditions, molten aluminum alloy has successfully infiltrated to FeCrSi metal fiber preform by low-pressure casting process. It was observed the porosity of composites for reliability of composites. The automobile piston was developed with FeCrSi reinforced aluminum alloy that is 0% porosity by the optimal applied pressure and applied pressure time.

  9. Equal channel angular pressing of powder processed Al6061/SiC nano metal matrix composites and study of its wear properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongale, Arunkumar M.; Kumar, Satish

    2018-03-01

    Nano Metal Matrix Composites were fabricated by a novel approach by combining powder metallurgy and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using aluminium alloy 6061 (Al6061) as matrix phase and 2, 4 and 6 wt% of silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiCnp) as reinforcements. Alloying elements of Al6061 in their elemental form are blended together using high energy planetary ball mill and calculated wt% of SiCnp were mixed with it. Thus formed composite powder mixture is compacted in a uniaxial compaction die and then subjected to ECAP up to three passes. Density and porosity of samples were estimated using Archimedes’ principle. Pin on disc setup is used to evaluate the wear properties of the composites under different speed and loading conditions. Tests revealed that increase in wt% of SiCnp reduces the wear rate of the composites whereas increasing the load and speed increases wear rate of the composite samples. SEM micrographs of worn surfaces indicated different types of wear mechanism responsible for wear of the specimens under different testing conditions. Also, wt% of SiCnp and the number of passes through ECAP were found to increase the hardness value of the composite material.

  10. Impact toughness of laser alloyed aluminium AA1200 alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ),. 559-563. [2] T. Tomida, K. Nakata, S. Saji, T. Kubo, T, Formation of metal matrix composite layer on aluminium alloy with TiC-Cu powder by laser surface alloying process; Surface and Coatings Technology; vol. 142-144, 2001, 585-589. [3] L. A. B...

  11. The effect of heat treatment on microstructure evolution in artificially aged carbon nanotube/Al2024 composites synthesized by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Bustamante, R.; Pérez-Bustamante, F.; Maldonado-Orozco, M.C.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2017-01-01

    Although carbon nanotubes/aluminum (CNT/Al) composites are promising materials in the production of structural components, their mechanical behavior under overaging conditions has not been considered. In this paper the effect of CNTs on the microstructural and mechanical behavior of a 2024 aluminum alloy (Al2024) synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) and powder metallurgy routes is discussed, as well as the effect of aging heat treatments at different temperatures and aging times. The mechanical behavior of composites was screened by hardness measurements as function of aging time. After 96 h of aging time, composites showed mechanical stability in their hardness performance. Images from transmission electron microscopy showed that the mechanical stability of composites was due to a homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in the aluminum matrix and a subsequent alteration in the kinetics of precipitation is due to their presence in the aluminum matrix. Even though strengthening precipitation took place during aging, this was not the main strengthening mechanism observed in composites. - Highlights: • Dispersion of carbon nanotubes during mechanical alloying • Microstructural evolution observed by HRTEM. • Mechanical performance evaluated through micro-hardness test. • Increased mechanical performance at high working temperatures • Acceleration of kinetics of precipitation due to CNTs, and milling conditions

  12. The effect of heat treatment on microstructure evolution in artificially aged carbon nanotube/Al2024 composites synthesized by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Bustamante, R. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Pérez-Bustamante, F. [Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua (UACH), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Circuito No. 1 Nuevo Campus Universitario, C.P. 31125 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Maldonado-Orozco, M.C. [Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua (UACH), Facultad de Ingeniería, Circuito No. 1 Nuevo Campus Universitario, C.P. 31125 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Martínez-Sánchez, R., E-mail: roberto.martinez@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2017-04-15

    Although carbon nanotubes/aluminum (CNT/Al) composites are promising materials in the production of structural components, their mechanical behavior under overaging conditions has not been considered. In this paper the effect of CNTs on the microstructural and mechanical behavior of a 2024 aluminum alloy (Al2024) synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) and powder metallurgy routes is discussed, as well as the effect of aging heat treatments at different temperatures and aging times. The mechanical behavior of composites was screened by hardness measurements as function of aging time. After 96 h of aging time, composites showed mechanical stability in their hardness performance. Images from transmission electron microscopy showed that the mechanical stability of composites was due to a homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in the aluminum matrix and a subsequent alteration in the kinetics of precipitation is due to their presence in the aluminum matrix. Even though strengthening precipitation took place during aging, this was not the main strengthening mechanism observed in composites. - Highlights: • Dispersion of carbon nanotubes during mechanical alloying • Microstructural evolution observed by HRTEM. • Mechanical performance evaluated through micro-hardness test. • Increased mechanical performance at high working temperatures • Acceleration of kinetics of precipitation due to CNTs, and milling conditions.

  13. Mechanism of radiation-induced degradation in mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egusa, Shigenori

    1988-01-01

    Four kinds of polymer matrix composites (filler, E-glass or carbon fibre cloth; matrix, epoxy or polyimide resin) and pure epoxy and polyimide resins were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays or 2 MeV electrons at room temperature. Mechanical tests were then carried out at 77K and at room temperature. Following irradiation, the Young's (tensile) modulus of these composites and pure resins remains practically unchanged even at 170 MGy for both test temperatures. The ultimate strength, however, decreases appreciably with increasing dose. The dose dependence of the composite strength depends not only on the combination of fibre and matrix in the composite but also on the test temperature. A relationship is found between the composite ultimate strain and the matrix ultimate strain, thus indicating that the dose dependence of the composite strength is virtually determined by a change in the matrix ultimate strain due to irradiation. Based on this finding, we propose a mechanism of radiation-induced degradation of a polymer matrix composite in order to explain the dose dependence of the composite strength measured at 77 K and at room temperature. (author)

  14. Numerical Modeling of Macroscopic Behavior of Particulate Composite with Crosslinked Polymer Matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Máša, B.; Hutař, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 465, - (2011), s. 129-132 ISSN 1013-9826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Particle reinforced composites * polymer matrix composite * mechanical response Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  15. Searching for Next Single-Phase High-Entropy Alloy Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Alman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable technological interest in high-entropy alloys (HEAs since the initial publications on the topic appeared in 2004. However, only several of the alloys investigated are truly single-phase solid solution compositions. These include the FCC alloys CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi based on 3d transition metals elements and BCC alloys NbMoTaW, NbMoTaVW, and HfNbTaTiZr based on refractory metals. The search for new single-phase HEAs compositions has been hindered by a lack of an effective scientific strategy for alloy design. This report shows that the chemical interactions and atomic diffusivities predicted from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations which are closely related to primary crystallization during solidification can be used to assist in identifying single phase high-entropy solid solution compositions. Further, combining these simulations with phase diagram calculations via the CALPHAD method and inspection of existing phase diagrams is an effective strategy to accelerate the discovery of new single-phase HEAs. This methodology was used to predict new single-phase HEA compositions. These are FCC alloys comprised of CoFeMnNi, CuNiPdPt and CuNiPdPtRh, and HCP alloys of CoOsReRu.

  16. NewIn-situ synthesis method of magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiuqing

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates was prepared using a new in-situ synthesis method of remelting and dilution technique. And measurements were performed on the composites. The results of x ray diffraction (XRD analysis confirmed that TiC particulates were synthesized during the sintering process, and they retained in magnesium matrix composites after the remelting and dilution processing. From the microstructure characterization and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA, we could see that fine TiC particulates distributed uniformly in the matrix material.

  17. Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramic Matrix Composites - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang; Zhu, Dongming; Wiesner, Valerie Lynn; van Roode, Mark; Kashyap, Tania; Zhu, Dongming; Wiesner, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) are increasingly being considered as structural materials for advanced power generation equipment. Broadly speaking the two classes of materials are oxide-based CMCs and non-oxide based CMCs. The non-oxide CMCs are primarily silicon-based. Under conditions prevalent in the gas turbine hot section the water vapor formed in the combustion of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons reacts with the surface-SiO2 to form volatile products. Progressive surface recession of the SiC-SiC CMC component, strength loss as a result of wall thinning and chemical changes in the component occur, which leads to the loss of structural integrity and mechanical strength and becomes life limiting to the equipment in service. The solutions pursued to improve the life of SiC-SiC CMCs include the incorporation of an external barrier coating to provide surface protection to the CMC substrate. The coating system has become known as an Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC). The relevant early coatings work was focused on coatings for corrosion protection of silicon-based monolithic ceramics operating under severely corrosive conditions. The development of EBCs for gas turbine hot section components was built on the early work for silicon-based monolithics. The first generation EBC is a three-layer coating, which in its simplest configuration consists of a silicon (Si) base coat applied on top of the CMC, a barium-strontium-aluminosilicate (BSAS) surface coat resistant to water vapor attack, and a mullite-based intermediate coating layer between the Si base coat and BSAS top coat. This system can be represented as Si-Mullite-BSAS. While this baseline EBC presented a significant improvement over the uncoated SiC-SiC CMC, for the very long durations of 3-4 years or more expected for industrial operation further improvements in coating durability are desirable. Also, for very demanding applications with higher component temperatures but shorter service lives more rugged EBCs

  18. 3-D FEM Modeling of fiber/matrix interface debonding in UD composites including surface effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupurs, A; Varna, J

    2012-01-01

    Fiber/matrix interface debond growth is one of the main mechanisms of damage evolution in unidirectional (UD) polymer composites. Because for polymer composites the fiber strain to failure is smaller than for the matrix multiple fiber breaks occur at random positions when high mechanical stress is applied to the composite. The energy released due to each fiber break is usually larger than necessary for the creation of a fiber break therefore a partial debonding of fiber/matrix interface is typically observed. Thus the stiffness reduction of UD composite is contributed both from the fiber breaks and from the interface debonds. The aim of this paper is to analyze the debond growth in carbon fiber/epoxy and glass fiber/epoxy UD composites using fracture mechanics principles by calculation of energy release rate G II . A 3-D FEM model is developed for calculation of energy release rate for fiber/matrix interface debonds at different locations in the composite including the composite surface region where the stress state differs from the one in the bulk composite. In the model individual partially debonded fiber is surrounded by matrix region and embedded in a homogenized composite.

  19. Magnesium secondary alloys: Alloy design for magnesium alloys with improved tolerance limits against impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blawert, C., E-mail: carsten.blawert@gkss.d [GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Fechner, D.; Hoeche, D.; Heitmann, V.; Dietzel, W.; Kainer, K.U. [GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Zivanovic, P.; Scharf, C.; Ditze, A.; Groebner, J.; Schmid-Fetzer, R. [TU Clausthal, Institut fuer Metallurgie, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The development of secondary magnesium alloys requires a completely different concept compared with standard alloys which obtain their corrosion resistance by reducing the levels of impurities below certain alloy and process depending limits. The present approach suitable for Mg-Al based cast and wrought alloys uses a new concept replacing the {beta}-phase by {tau}-phase, which is able to incorporate more impurities while being electro-chemically less detrimental to the matrix. The overall experimental effort correlating composition, microstructure and corrosion resistance was reduced by using thermodynamic calculations to optimise the alloy composition. The outcome is a new, more impurity tolerant alloy class with a composition between the standard AZ and ZC systems having sufficient ductility and corrosion properties comparable to the high purity standard alloys.

  20. Low Energy Contrast of Metal Matrix Composite in SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Luděk; Matsuda, K.; Hrnčiřík, Petr; Müllerová, Ilona

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 9, Sup. 3 (2003), s. 328 - 329 ISSN 1431-9276. [MC 2003. Dresden, 07.09.2003-12.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1065304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : low energy contrasts * scanning electron microscope * aluminium alloys Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2003