WorldWideScience

Sample records for alloy bearing surfaces

  1. Low elastic modulus Ti–Ta alloys for load-bearing permanent implants: Enhancing the biodegradation resistance by electrochemical surface engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteven, Jazmin [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Walter, Rhys; Khakbaz, Hadis [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Choe, Han-Choel [Department of Dental Materials, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys (10–30 wt.% Ta) was investigated and compared with conventional implant materials, i.e., commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) and titanium–aluminium–vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloy. Among the three Ti–Ta alloys studied, the Ti20Ta (6.3 × 10{sup −4} mm/y) exhibited the lowest degradation rate, followed by Ti30Ta (1.2 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) and Ti10Ta (1.4 × 10{sup −3} mm/y). All the Ti–Ta alloys exhibited lower degradation rate than that of Cp-Ti (1.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y), which suggests that Ta addition to Ti is beneficial. As compared to Ti6Al4V alloy (8.1 × 10{sup −4} mm/y), the degradation rate of Ti20Ta alloy was lower by ∼ 22%. However, the Ti30Ta alloy, which has closer elastic modulus to that of natural bone, showed ∼ 48% higher degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Hence, to improve the degradation performance of Ti30Ta alloy, an intermediate thin porous layer was formed electrochemically on the alloy followed by calcium phosphate (CaP) electrodeposition. The coated Ti30Ta alloy (3.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) showed ∼ 53% lower degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Thus, the study suggests that CaP coated Ti30Ta alloy can be a viable material for load-bearing permanent implants. - Highlights: • In vitro degradation of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys was studied. • Ta addition to Ti is beneficial for better degradation resistance. • Ti–Ta alloys perform better than commercially pure Ti. • Calcium phosphate coated Ti–Ta alloy is superior to Ti6Al4V alloy.

  2. Lead-free bearing alloys for engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratke, Lorenz; Ågren, John; Ludwig, Andreas; Tonn, Babette; Gránásy, László; Mathiesen, Ragnvald; Arnberg, Lars; Anger, Gerd; Reifenhäuser, Bernd; Lauer, Michael; Garen, Rune; Gust, Edgar

    2005-10-01

    Recent developments to reduce the fuel consumption, emission and air pollution, size and weight of engines for automotive, truck, ship propulsion and electrical power generation lead to temperature and load conditions within the engines that cannot be borne by conventional bearings. Presently, only costly multilayer bearings with electroplated or sputtered surface coatings can cope with the load/speed combinations required. Ecological considerations in recent years led to a ban by the European Commission on the use of lead in cars a problem for the standard bronze-lead bearing material. This MAP project is therefore developing an aluminium-based lead-free bearing material with sufficient hardness, wear and friction properties and good corrosion resistance. Only alloys made of components immiscible in the molten state can meet the demanding requirements. Space experimentation plays a crucial role in optimising the cast microstructure for such applications.

  3. Microstructural features controlling the dry sliding wear response of some bearing alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, B.K.; Yegneswaran, A.H. [Regional Res. Lab. (CSIR), Habibganj Naka (India); Patwardhan, A.K. [Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1997-10-01

    This investigation examines the influence of microstructural features on the dry sliding wear characteristics of some plain bearing alloys. Three different alloys were selected for the study: a leaded-tin bronze, an Al bronze and a Zn-based alloy processed under identical conditions. The wear characteristics of the alloys are explained in terms of the load bearing capability, microcracking tendency, thermal stability and lubricating properties of their microconstituents and the sliding conditions. Wear surfaces, subsurface regions and debris are examined to understand the material removal mechanisms during the process of wear. (orig.) 37 refs.

  4. SURFACE MELTING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Veit, S.; Albert, D; Mergen, R.

    1987-01-01

    The wear properties of aluminium base alloys are relatively poor. Laser surface melting and alloying has proved successful in many alloy systems as a means of significantly improving the surface properties. The present work describes experiments designed to establish the scope of laser treatment of aluminium alloys. Aluminium does not absorb CO2 laser light as well as other metals which necessitated first a general study of absorption caotings. Aluminium alloys offer fewer opportunities than ...

  5. Microstructure and property characterization of a modified zinc-base alloy and comparison with bearing alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. K.; Patwardhan, A. K.; Yegneswaran, A. H.

    1998-02-01

    The microstructure and physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of a modified zinc-base alloy have been characterized. In order to assess its utility as a bearing alloy, its properties have also been compared with those of a similarly processed conventional zinc-base alloy and a leaded-tin bronze (conforming to ZA27 and SAE 660 specifications, respectively) used for bearing applications. The modified zinc-base alloy shows promise in terms of better elevated-temperature strength and wear response at higher sliding speeds relative to the conventional zinc-base alloy. Interestingly, the wear behavior (especially the seizure pressure) of the modified alloy was also comparable to that of the bronze specimens at the maximum sliding speed, and was superior at the minimum sliding speed. The modified alloy also attained lower density and better hardness. Alloy behavior has been linked to the nature and type of the alloy microconstituents.

  6. Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation of Aluminum Alloy Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xian-Hua; MA Yan-Yan

    2004-01-01

    Observation of fatigue crack initiation and propagation during fatigue test in ALSn20Cu bearing has been presented. Journal center orbit, oil film pressure and stress distribution in alloy layer have been calculated and are taken as the basis for theoretically simulating the bearing fatigue process. It is found that the calculated results are in good accordance with the experimental results, which provides a feasible way for investigation of fatigue crack propagation process in the bearing.

  7. Deoxidation Behavior of Alloys Bearing Barium in Molten Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; JIANG Zhou-hua; JIANG Mao-fa; WANG Jun-wen; GU Wen-bing

    2003-01-01

    The deoxidation behaviors of alloys bearing barium in pipe steel were researched with MgO crucible under argon atmosphere in MoSi2 furnace at 1 873 K. The total oxygen contents of molten steel, the distribution, size and morphology of deoxidation products in the steel were surveyed. The metamorphic mechanism for deoxidation products of alloy bearing barium was also discussed. The results show that applying alloy bearing barium to the pipe steel, very low total oxygen contents can be obtained, and deoxidation products, which easily float up from molten steel, can be changed into globular shape and uniformly distributed in steel. The equilibrium time of total oxygen is about 25 min, and the terminal total oxygen contents range from 0.002 0 % to 0.002 2 % after treating with SiCa wire. The best deoxidizers are SiAlBaCa and SiAlBaCaSr.

  8. Analysis of laser alloyed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D.C.; Augustyniak, W.M.; Buene, L.; Draper, C.W.; Poate, J.M.

    1981-04-01

    Surface alloys of precious metals have many advantages over bulk alloys, the most obvious of which is cost reduction due to the reduced consumption of precious metal. There are several techniques for producing surface alloys. In this paper the laser irradiation technique is presented. The following lasers: CW CO/sub 2/, Q-switched Nd-YAG, frequency double Q-switched Nd-YAG, and pulsed ruby were used to irradiate and melt thin solid films of precious metals on metal substrates. This causes the surfaces to melt to a depth of approximately 10,000A. Alloying then takes place in the liquid phase where most metals are miscible. The high quench rates obtainable by this method of melting can result in the forming of metastable alloys. This melting and regrowth process is well understood and has been discussed in the literature over the last few years. This paper deals with two binary alloy systems, Au-Ni and Pd-Ti. Surface alloys of Au-Ni with a wide range of concentrations have been produced by laser irradiation of thin Au films on Ni. These films have been analyzed using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and channeling. Many thin film metals other than Au have also been successfully alloyed using these methods. An example of a potential application is the laser surface alloying of Pd to Ti for corrosion passivation.

  9. Powder Processing of Amorphous Tungsten-bearing Alloys and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS-6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-14-73 Powder Processing of Amorphous Tungsten ...Technology, Boise State University, Army Research Laboratory Project Title: Powder Processing of Amorphous Tungsten -bearing Alloys and Composites...strength, we made them better suited to study the mechanical alloying of tungsten -transition metal couples in which interdiffusion during mechanical

  10. Strengthening mechanism of steels treated by barium-bearing alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhouhua Jiang; Yang Liu

    2008-01-01

    The deoxidation, desulfurization, dephosphorization, microstructure, and mechanical properties of steels treated by barium-bearing alloys were investigated in laboratory and by industrial tests. The results show that barium takes part in the deoxidation reaction at the beginning of the experiments, generating oxide and sulfide compound inclusions, which easily float up from the molten steel, leading to the rapid reduction of total oxygen content to a very low level. The desulfurization and dephosphorization capabilities of calcium-bearing alloys increase with the addition of barium. The results of OM and SEM observations and mechanical property tests show that the structure of the steel treated by barium-bearing alloys is refined remarkably, the iamellar thickness of pearlitic structure decreases, and the pearlitic morphology shows clustering distribution. Less barium exists in steel substrate and the enrichment of barium-bearing precipitated phase mostly occurs in grain boundary and phase boundary, which can prevent the movement of grain boundary and dislocation during the heat treatment and the deformation processes. Therefore, the strength and toughness of barium-treated steels are improved by the effect of grain-boundary strengthening and nail-prick dislocation.

  11. Performance of high speed ball bearings with lead and lead alloy plated retainers in liquid hydrogen at 1.2 million DN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, D. E.; Scibbe, H. W.; Wisander, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Ball bearings with lead- and lead-alloy-coated retainers were operated in liquid hydrogen at 30,000 rpm under a thrust load of 400 lb. Bearing lives were compared using different: (1) lead- and lead-alloy coatings, (2) coating thicknesses, (3) substrate materials, (4) retainer locating surfaces, and (5) plating techniques. Longer bearing run times were achieved using retainers with a lead-tin-copper alloy coating electroplated onto a leaded-bronze material and an aluminum-bronze alloy. Thirty percent of the bearings tested achieved the desired objective of 10 hours. All of the lead-alloy coated retainers exceeded this objective. A coating thickness of at least 0.0014 in. was used for all bearings exceeding the 10-hour goal.

  12. An introduction to surface alloying of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmani, Santosh S; Goyal, Rajendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Surface Alloying of Metals aims to serve as a primer to the basic aspects of surface alloying of metals. The book serves to elucidate fundamentals of surface modification and their engineering applications. The book starts with basics of surface alloying and goes on to cover key surface alloying methods, such as carburizing, nitriding, chromizing, duplex treatment, and the characterization of surface layers. The book will prove useful to students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, as also to researchers and practitioners looking for a quick introduction to surface alloying.

  13. Nickel-Titanium Alloys: Corrosion "Proof" Alloys for Space Bearing, Components and Mechanism Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, 60NiTi (60 wt% Ni, 40 wt% Ti), is shown to be a promising candidate tribological material for space mechanisms. 60NiTi offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. 60NiTi is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, and is non-magnetic. Despite its high Ti content, 60NiTi is non-galling even under dry sliding. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic, encompasses all of these attributes. Since 60NiTi contains such a high proportion of Ti and possesses many metallic properties, it was expected to exhibit poor tribological performance typical of Ti alloys, namely galling type behavior and rapid lubricant degradation. In this poster-paper, the oil-lubricated behavior of 60NiTi is presented.

  14. Laser alloying of bearing steel with boron and self-lubricating addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotkowiak Mateusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 100CrMnSi6-4 bearing steel has been widely used for many applications, e.g. rolling bearings which work in difficult operating conditions. Therefore, this steel has to be characterized by special properties such as high wear resistance and high hardness. In this study laser-boriding was applied to improve these properties. Laser alloying was conducted as the two step process with two different types of alloying material: amorphous boron only and amorphous boron with addition of calcium fluoride CaF2. At first, the surface was coated with paste including alloying material. Second step of the process consisted in laser re-melting. The surface of sample, coated with the paste, was irradiated by the laser beam. In this study, TRUMPF TLF 2600 Turbo CO2 laser was used. The microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of both laser-borided layer and laser-borided layer with the addition of calcium fluoride were investigated. The layer, alloyed with boron and CaF2, was characterized by higher wear resistance than the layer after laser boriding only.

  15. Impact toughness of laser surface alloyed Aluminium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4kW Nd:YAG laser and the impact resistance of the alloys was investigated. The alloying powders were a mixture of Ni, Ti and SiC in different proportions. Surfaces reinforced...

  16. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-ze; XU Zhong; HE Zhi-yong; ZHANG Gao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%.Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  17. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGPing-ze; XUZhong; HEZhi-yong; ZHANGGao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%. Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  18. Surface Tension Calculation of Undercooled Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Butler equation and extrapolated thermodynamic data of undercooled alloys from those of liquid stable alloys, a method for surface tension calculation of undercooled alloys is proposed. The surface tensions of liquid stable and undercooled Ni-Cu (xNi=0.42) and Ni-Fe (xNi=0.3 and 0.7) alloys are calculated using STCBE (Surface Tension Calculation based on Butler Equation) program. The agreement between calculated values and experimental data is good enough, and the temperature dependence of the surface tension can be reasonable down to 150-200 K under the liquid temperature of the alloys.

  19. Compatibility of Anti-Wear Additives with Non-Ferrous Engine Bearing Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Investigate the compatibility of engine lubricant antiwear (AW) additives, specifically conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and newly developed ionic liquids (ILs), with selected non-ferrous engine bearing alloys, specifically aluminum and bronze alloys that are commonly used in connecting rod end journal bearings and bushings, to gain fundamental understanding to guide future development of engine lubricants

  20. The winner in the race of bearing surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yang HU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There are no absolute ’winners’ in this ’race of bearing surface’.Since the mechanical performance of the modern bearing surface used in total hip joint manufacture is satisfactory,it is necessary to take their advantage respectively and treat each patient independently.Patient satisfaction,quality of life,and radiographic analysis should also be considered.Specifically,high crosslinked UHMWPE cup articulating with CoCr alloy and the alternative of ceramic ball are surviving for almost thirty years because of their high wear resistance,no toxicity and comparably low cost.They are more suitable for the patients who are not very young and less active and ask for a relatively lower physical and financial condition of patients.For patients articulating with MOM,they benefit from larger sized heads and low wear and friction,which would produce more stability for more active patients.However,one should be aware of the metal ions released in serum as well as in urine.Therefore,MOM is not fit for patients who are pregnant or suffer from renal insufficiency etc.A random kidney function test should be performed before MOM surgery.Last but not least,the COC bearing surface has all the superiorities mentioned above but with a risk of fracture and a rarely audible squeaking.The fairly high cost makes it not a choice for everyone,but it could be a lifelong choice for younger patients with a lot of high impact activities.More in vitro and long term in vivo studies are needed to prove longer lasting effects to improve bearing surfaces.

  1. Properties of laser alloyed surface layers on magnesium base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galun, R.; Weisheit, A.; Mordike, B.L. (Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Werkstofftechnik)

    1998-01-01

    The investigations have shown that laser surface alloying is a promising process to improve the wear and corrosion properties of magnesium base alloys without affecting the initial bulk properties like the low density. With an alloying element combination of aluminium and nickel the wear rate in the scratch test was reduced by 90% compared to untreated pure magnesium. Additionally the corrosion resistance was improved by laser alloying with this element combination. Because of distortion or crack formation in the case of large area treatments, the laser alloying should be limited to the treatment of smaller areas. In the near future this process could be an interesting alternative to surface coating or to a partially reinforcement with ceramic fibres or particles. (orig.)

  2. Concepts in surface alloying of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh S. Hosmani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface alloying is widely used method in industries to improve the surface properties of metals/alloys. Significance of the various surface engineering techniques to improve the properties of engineering components in various applications, for example, automobile industries, has grown substantially over the many years. The current paper is focused on the fundamental scientific aspects of the surface alloying of metals. Widely used surface alloying elements involved are interstitial elements such as nitrogen, carbon, and substitutional element, chromium. This topic is interdisciplinary in nature and various science and engineering streams can work together for the further development in this topic. This paper has attempted to cover the essential concepts of surface alloying along with some of the interesting results in this research area.

  3. Effects of beryllium and iron additions on iron-bearing phase in A357 aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhongwei

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron is the most deleterious impurity in the Al-Si-Mg casting alloys and can easily form inter-metallic compounds that can significantly affect the subsequent behavior of material properties. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and microstructural analysis, how the Be and Fe additions affect the iron-bearing phase in A357 alloys was investigated. The results show that the iron-bearing phase in A357 alloy comprises mainly the plate-like β-Al5FeSi and a small quantity of the script-type π-Al8FeMg3Si6; and that the plate-like β-Al5FeSi proportion increases with increasing iron content in the alloy. The iron-bearing phase is mostly transformed from the plate-like β-Al5FeSi to the script-type π-Al8FeMg3Si6 with the addition of Be in the alloy. The hardness of alloy samples was also tested. The results show that both the increasing iron content and Be content can increase the hardness of the alloy. This may be contributed to the change of morphology and distribution of the iron-bearing phase in A357 alloy with the addition of iron or Be to the alloy.

  4. Surface Features of Nanocrystalline Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Miglierini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline alloys are prepared by controlled annealing of metallic glass precursors. The latter are obtained by rapid quenching of a melt on a rotating wheel. This process leads to structural deviation of the produced ribbons’ surfaces. Structural features of as-quenched and thermally annealed 57Fe81Mo8Cu1B10 ribbons were studied employing Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectrometry (CEMS and Conversion X-ray Mössbauer Spectrometry (CXMS. Enrichment of the alloy’s composition in 57Fe helped in identification of surface crystallites that were formed even during the production process. Magnetite and bcc-Fe were found at the wheel side of the as-quenched ribbons whereas only bcc-Fe nanocrystals were uncovered at the opposite air side. Accelerated formation of bcc-Fe was observed in this side of the ribbons after annealing. The relative content of magnetite at the wheel side was almost stable in near surface areas (CEMS and in more deep subsurface regions (CXMS. It vanished completely after annealing at 550 °C. No magnetite was observed at the air side of the ribbons regardless the annealing temperature and/or depth of the scanned regions.

  5. Antibacterial effect of copper-bearing titanium alloy (Ti-Cu) against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Memarzadeh, Kaveh; Chang, Bei; Zhang, Yumei; Ma, Zheng; Allaker, Robert P.; Ren, Ling; Yang, Ke

    2016-07-01

    Formation of bacterial biofilms on dental implant material surfaces (titanium) may lead to the development of peri-implant diseases influencing the long term success of dental implants. In this study, a novel Cu-bearing titanium alloy (Ti-Cu) was designed and fabricated in order to efficiently kill bacteria and discourage formation of biofilms, and then inhibit bacterial infection and prevent implant failure, in comparison with pure Ti. Results from biofilm based gene expression studies, biofilm growth observation, bacterial viability measurements and morphological examination of bacteria, revealed antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities of Ti-Cu alloy against the oral specific bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Proliferation and adhesion assays with mesenchymal stem cells, and measurement of the mean daily amount of Cu ion release demonstrated Ti-Cu alloy to be biocompatible. In conclusion, Ti-Cu alloy is a promising dental implant material with antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities and acceptable biocompatibility.

  6. Bearing alloys with hexagonal crystal structures provide improved friction and wear characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.

    1966-01-01

    Bearings of titanium, cobalt, and other hexagonal crystal alloys are used in vacuum and high temperature environments. These temperature-stabilized alloys have reduced friction and wear characteristics and therefore have potential use in aircraft seals, hydraulic equipment, and artificial human joints.

  7. Shape memory alloys applied to improve rotor-bearing system dynamics - an experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    tor-bearing systems have critical speeds and to pass through them is an ongoing challenge in the field of mechanical engineering. The incorporation of shape memory alloys in rotating systems has an increasing importance to improve system performance and to avoid potential damaging situations when passing through critical speeds. In this work, the feasibility of applying shape memory alloys to a rotating system is experimentally investigated. Shape memory alloys can change their stiffness with...

  8. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable highstrength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO2 laser. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloys, over the last years.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la aleación superficial mediante láser de aluminio con metales de transición. El cromo y el molibdeno son particularmente interesantes porque producen aleaciones de alta resistencia y por el bajo coeficiente de difusión y solución sólida en aluminio. Para producir estas aleaciones se ha seguido un procedimiento desarrollado en dos partes. En primer lugar, el material se alea usando una baja velocidad de procesado y en segundo lugar la estructura se modifica mediante un refinamiento posterior. Este procedimiento se ha empleado en la producción de aleaciones Al-Cr, Al-Mo y Al-Nb mediante aleación con láser de CO2 de polvos de Cr, Mo o Nb en aluminio y la aleación 7175. Este trabajo es una revisión del desarrollado en el Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa en los últimos años.

  9. A perspective of microplasma oxidation (MPO) and vapor deposition coatings in surface engineering of aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AWAD Samir Hamid; QIAN Han-cheng

    2004-01-01

    Over the past years, great achievements have been made in the development of coating technologies for surface improvement of aluminum alloys. Despite these achievements, the role in the market strongly depends on the ability of surface coating technology under technical and economic considerations to meet the increased demands for heavy tribological applications of aluminum alloys. Microplasma oxidation (MPO) technology has recently been studied as a novel and effective means to provide thick and hard ceramic coating with improved properties such as excellent load-bearing and wear resistance properties on aluminum alloys. The present work covers the evaluation of the performances of current single and duplex coatings combining MPO, physical vapor deposition (PVD), and plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) coatings on aluminum alloys. It suggests that the MPO coating is a promising candidate for design engineers to apply aluminum alloys to heavy load-bearing applications. The prospective future for the research on MPO coatings is introduced as well.

  10. Shape memory alloys applied to improve rotor-bearing system dynamics - an experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar; Savi, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    tor-bearing systems have critical speeds and to pass through them is an ongoing challenge in the field of mechanical engineering. The incorporation of shape memory alloys in rotating systems has an increasing importance to improve system performance and to avoid potential damaging situations when...... passing through critical speeds. In this work, the feasibility of applying shape memory alloys to a rotating system is experimentally investigated. Shape memory alloys can change their stiffness with temperature variations and thus they may change system dynamics. Shape memory alloys also exhibit...... hysteretic stress-strain relations which may be utilized for damping purposes. These ideas are tested in this study on a dedicated test-rig, consisting of a rigid shaft and disc held vertically by passive magnetic bearings, where the damping is low. The bearing housings is flexibly supported by shape memory...

  11. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  12. Surface energy of metal alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takrori, Fahed M.; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of surface energy of alloy nanoparticles experimentally is still a challenge therefore theoretical work is necessary to estimate its value. In continuation of our previous work on the calculation of the surface energy of pure metallic nanoparticles we have extended our work to calculate the surface energy of different alloy systems, namely, Co-Ni, Au-Cu, Cu-Al, Cu-Mg and Mo-Cs binary alloys. It is shown that the surface energy of metallic binary alloy decreases with decreasing particle size approaching relatively small values at small sizes. When both metals in the alloy obey the Hume-Rothery rules, the difference in the surface energy is small at the macroscopic as well as in the nano-scale. However when the alloy deviated from these rules the difference in surface energy is large in the macroscopic and in the nano scales. Interestingly when solid solution formation is not possible at the macroscopic scale according to the Hume-Rothery rules, it is shown it may form at the nano-scale. To our knowledge these findings here are presented for the first time and is challenging from fundamental as well as technological point of views.

  13. General aspects of surface alloy formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbreiter, Andreas; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Roetter, Ralf T.; Hoster, Harry E.; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Berko, Andras

    2010-07-01

    Surface confined alloys are excellent model systems for studies of structure-property relationships of bimetallic surfaces. They are formed by deposition of a guest metal B onto a substrate A, followed by annealing to a temperature, where place exchange between adatoms and atoms from the underlying surface layer becomes possible and diffusion into the bulk is sufficiently slow. We exemplarily confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy for PtRu/Ru(0001), PdRu/Ru(0001), AuPt/Pt(111), AgPt/Pt(111), and AgPd/Pd(111), surface alloys are obtained for systems where metal B has a negative surface segregation energy within metal A. By exchanging A and B, however, AB surface alloys are most likely overgrown by metal B, which we demonstrate for RuPt/Pt(111) in comparison to PtRu/Ru(0001).

  14. NEW DEVELOPMENT IN DOUBLE GLOW SURFACE ALLOYING TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several kinds of special alloys are produced on the surfaces of iron and steels by using double glow surface alloying technology. Surface Ni-Cr-Mo-Nb alloy,surface precipitation hardening high speed steel and surface precipitation hardening stainless steel are introduced.

  15. Luster Polish Strengthening Treatment for Raceway Surface of Aeroengine Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Si-er; TENG Hong-fei; MA Fu-jian; HAO Jian-jun; CHEN Tao

    2007-01-01

    A new surface strengthening technology, luster polish strengthening treatnent, was proposed to treat the raceway surface of aeroengine bearings (9Cr18Mo) with the centrifugal strengthening machine exclusively designed for luster polish strengthening treatment. The experimental results showed that luster polish strengthening treatment produced a compressive residual stress layer with a depth of over 80 μm below the surface of the bearing raceway, and thus effectively removed the metamorphic layer in the raceway surface. After luster polish strengthening treatment, the average surface hardness of the aeroengine bearing raceway was increased from 61.02 HRC to 63.01 HRC, the surface roughness was reduced from 0.06 μm to 0.03 μm, and the contact fatigue life of the aeroengine bearings was improved by about 90%, with the dispersion of fatigue life being reduced remarkably.Theoretical calculation result agrees with that obtained by experiment.

  16. A Novel Surface Treatment for Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, S. E.; Park, C.; SaintClair, T. L.

    2004-01-01

    High-speed commercial aircraft require a surface treatment for titanium (Ti) alloy that is both environmentally safe and durable under the conditions of supersonic flight. A number of pretreatment procedures for Ti alloy requiring multi-stages have been developed to produce a stable surface. Among the stages are, degreasing, mechanical abrasion, chemical etching, and electrochemical anodizing. These treatments exhibit significant variations in their long-term stability, and the benefits of each step in these processes still remain unclear. In addition, chromium compounds are often used in many chemical treatments and these materials are detrimental to the environment. Recently, a chromium-free surface treatment for Ti alloy has been reported, though not designed for high temperature applications. In the present study, a simple surface treatment process developed at NASA/LaRC is reported, offering a high performance surface for a variety of applications. This novel surface treatment for Ti alloy is conventionally achieved by forming oxides on the surface with a two-step chemical process without mechanical abrasion. This acid-followed-by-base treatment was designed to be cost effective and relatively safe to use in a commercial application. In addition, it is chromium-free, and has been successfully used with a sol-gel coating to afford a strong adhesive bond after exposure to hot-wet environments. Phenylethynyl containing adhesives were used to evaluate this surface treatment with sol-gel solutions made of novel imide silanes developed at NASA/LaRC. Oxide layers developed by this process were controlled by immersion time and temperature and solution concentration. The morphology and chemical composition of the oxide layers were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Bond strengths made with this new treatment were evaluated using single lap shear tests.

  17. Characterization of the wear response of a modified zinc-based alloy vis-à-vis a conventional zinc-based alloy and a bearing bronze at a high sliding speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. K.; Yegneswaran, A. H.; Patwardhan, A. K.

    1996-11-01

    In this investigation, an attempt has been made to examine the wear response of a modified zinc-based alloy at a high speed (4.60 m/s) of sliding over a range of applied pressures. A conventional zinc-based alloy and a bearing bronze have also been subjected to identical tests with a view to assess the working capability of the modified alloy with respect to the existing ones. The wear characteristics of the alloys have been correlated with their microstructural features, while operating wear mechanisms have been studied through analyses of wear surfaces, subsurfaces, and debris particles. The conventional zinc-based alloy attained most inferior wear behavior when compared with that of the modified (zinc-based) alloy and the bronze. Interestingly, the modified alloy exhibited its wear response to be much better than that of the conventional zinc-based alloy due to the presence of nickel/silicon containing (hard and thermally stable) microconstituents. Moreover, the modified alloy also seized at a pressure similar to that of the bronze, although its wear rate prior to seizure was more than that of the latter. The study clearly indicates that it is possible to develop modified versions of zinc-based alloys having much improved wear characteristics over the conventional variety; the information gains special attention in view of the high speed of sliding selected in this study.

  18. Fermi surface effects in terbium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, P.

    1976-10-01

    Work is reported which was conducted to test of the relation of the generalized susceptibility (and therefore, the ordering properties) for Tb to the Fermi energy of Tb. In order to properly analyze the data a simple theory was developed to account for the effects on band structure which accompany alloying and attendant lattice size changes. Using this simple theory, the alloys of Tb with Mg are understood as a combination of Fermi energy lowering and of lattice contraction. The tendency of Th to promote the ferromagnetic structure in Th is understood as a combination of the Fermi energy being raised and of the lattice being expanded. The theory was also useful in explaining the interesting behavior of the Tb with Yb alloys which upon preliminary analysis did not seem to follow the theoretical predictions. After consideration of the volume effect, indeed the Tb with Yb alloys showed promotion of the helical structure as predicted. The complicated behavior of the Tb with Yb alloys is a case where the volume and valence effects compete. Results show that the magnetic ordering properties of the rare earths are intimately related to the Fermi surface geometry through the generalized susceptibility.

  19. Static Performance of Surface Textured Magnetorheological Fluid Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bompos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of journal bearings with artificial texturing on the bearing surface show potential benefits in certain cases. These benefits are usually focused on a specific operating area of the bearing, whereas under certain operating conditions the performance of the bearing is deteriorating due to the surface texturing. Gaining control over the viscosity of the lubricant may become a useful tool in order to take advantage of the surface texturing in a wider range of loads and journal velocities. One way to achieve this control is the use of magnetorheological fluid journal bearings. Magnetorheological fluids are solutions of iron based paramagnetic particles in conventional lubricant. Under the influence of an external magnetic field, these particles form chains, they hinder the flow of the lubricant and they ultimately alter its apparent viscosity. In this work the two techniques are combined in order to optimize the behaviour of the journal bearing in as much a variety of operating conditions as possible. Different shapes applied on the surface texturing will be examined.

  20. The Progress on Laser Surface Modification Techniques of Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Cheng; PAN Lin; Al Ding-fei; TAO Xi-qi; XIA Chun-huai; SONG Yan

    2004-01-01

    Titanium alloy is widely used in aviation, national defence, automobile, medicine and other fields because of their advantages in lower density, corrosion resistance, and fatigue resistance etc. As titanium alloy is higher friction coefficients, weak wear resistance, bad high temperature oxidation resistance and lower biocompatibility, its applications are restricted. Using laser surface modification techniques can significantly improve the surface properties of titanium alloy. a review is given for progress on laser surface modification techniques of titanium alloy in this paper.

  1. Phase diagrams for surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Ruban, Andrei; Stoltze, Per

    1997-01-01

    is based on density-functional calculations using the coherent-potential approximation and on effective-medium theory. We give self-consistent density-functional results for the segregation energy and surface mixing energy for all combinations of the transition and noble metals. Finally we discuss...... in detail the cases Ag/Cu(100), Pt/Cu(111), Ag/Pt(111), Co/Cu(111), Fe/Cu(111), and Pd/Cu(110) in connection with available experimental results....

  2. Advances of Titanium Alloys and Its Biological Surface Modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ke-wei; HUANG Ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the past, present and future of surface modification of titanium alloy from the point of view of preparation of hard tissue replacement implants. The development of titanium alloy is also described.

  3. Advanced Surface Engineering of Titanium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Dong

    2000-01-01

    Despite their outstanding combination of properties, titanium and its alloys are very susceptible to severe adhesive wear in rubbing with most engineering surfaces and can exhibit poorcorrosion resistance in some aggressive environments. Surface engineering research centred at the University of Birmingham has been focused on creating designer surfaces for titanium components via surface engineering.Great progress has been made recently through the development of such advanced surface engineering techniques as thermal oxidation, palladium-treated thermal oxidation, oxygen boost diffusion and duplex systems.Such advances thus provide scope for designing titanium components for a diversified range of engineering application, usually as direct replacements for steel components. By way of example, some of the successful steps towards titanium designer surfaces are demonstrated. To data, the potential of these advanced technologies has been realised first in auto-sport and off-shore industrials.

  4. Geometric and Chemical Composition Effects on Healing Kinetics of Voids in Mg-bearing Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miao; Du, Kui; Wang, Chunyang; Wen, Shengping; Huang, Hui; Nie, Zuoren; Ye, Hengqiang

    2016-05-01

    The healing kinetics of nanometer-scale voids in Al-Mg-Er and Al-Mg-Zn-Er alloy systems were investigated with a combination of in situ transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography at different temperatures. Mg was observed completely healing the voids, which were then rejuvenated to the alloy composition with further aging, in the Al-Mg-Er alloy. On the contrary, Mg51Zn20 intermetallic compound was formed in voids in the Al-Mg-Zn-Er alloy, which leads to complete filling of the voids but not rejuvenation for the material. For voids with different geometrical aspects, different evolution processes were observed, which are related to the competition between bulk and surface diffusion of the alloys. For voids with a large size difference in their two ends, a viscous flow of surface atoms can be directly observed with in situ electron microscopy, when the size of one end becomes less than tens of nanometers.

  5. NiTi Alloys: New Materials that enable Shockproof, Corrosion Immune Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Though steel is the dominant material of choice for mechanical components (bearings and gears) it has intrinsic limitations related to corrosion and plastic deformation. In contrast, dimensionally stable nickel-rich Ni-Ti alloys, such as Nitinol 60, are intrinsically rustproof and can withstand high contact loads without damage (denting). Over the last decade, focused RD to exploit these alloys for new applications has revealed the science behind NiTi's remarkable properties. In this presentation, the state-of-the-art of nickel-rich NiTi alloys will be introduced along with a discussion of how NASA is adopting this new technology inside the space station water recycling system as a pathfinder for more down-to-earth tribological challenges.

  6. Gyroscope Pivot Bearing Dimension and Surface Defect Detection

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Because of the perceived lack of systematic analysis in illumination system design processes and a lack of criteria for design methods in vision detection a method for the design of a task-oriented illumination system is proposed. After detecting the micro-defects of a gyroscope pivot bearing with a high curvature glabrous surface and analyzing the characteristics of the surface detection and reflection model, a complex illumination system with coaxial and ring lights is proposed. The illumin...

  7. Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The famous physicist made for his scholars this riddle. A fellow encountered a bear in a wasteland. There was nobody else there. Both were frightened and ran away. Fellow to the north, bear to the west. Suddenly the fellow stopped, aimed his gun to the south and shot the bear. What colour was the bear?

  8. Microstrucutre and water characteristics of rheocast Al-Pb bearing alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, S.; Agarwala, V.; Ray, S. (University of Roorkee, Roorkee (India))

    1992-09-01

    In this study, a rheocasting unit in which solidifying alloy is agitated at a high speed of 53s[sup -1] was applied to fabricate Al-Pb bearing alloys containing up to 20 mass%Pb. It was found from morphological observation of Al-Pb alloys that a contenuous Pb-rich phase existed between Al-rich phases, the thickness and the length of the Pb-rich phase increased with an increase in Pb content, and the Al-rich phase was refined with increased Pb content. A drastic decrease in bulk wear was observed in Al-Pb alloys even with a small amount of Pb. The bulk wear continuously increased with load, which was caused by the propagation of cracks with an increasing load. With an increase in Pb content in these alloys, a minimum in bulk wear with sliding velocity was obtained. However, with an increase in Pb content for a particular sliding velocity, the bulk wear decreased continuously till about 20 mass%Pb. 30 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Development of a novel shape memory alloy-actuated resettable locking device for magnetic bearing reaction wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Shaowei; Nie, Jingxu

    2014-01-01

    The current investigation proposes a shape memory alloy (SMA)-actuated resettable locking device for magnetic bearing reaction wheel. The device employed two SMA wire-based actuators to realize locking and unlocking. Dual-slope mating surfaces were used on one hand to transmit the motion between a moving part and a clamp, and on the other hand to achieve a self-locking linkage in the locking state. Moreover, geometric parameters of the two SMA wires and corresponding bias springs were also designed. Based on the proposed design scheme, four locking devices were manufactured and assembled. Performance and environmental tests were performed to verify the proposed locking device. Test results show that the locking device can protect the magnetic bearing reaction wheel from launch vibration damage, and can withstand the thermal environment in the launch and on-orbit stage. Moreover, the device can be successfully operated for 76 times, and the response time for the locking and unlocking processes under 7 V power supply is 0.9 s and 5.6 s, respectively. Considering the results obtained from these tests, we conclude that the proposed resettable locking device is an attractive alternative technology to conventional motor-driven or pyrotechnics-based technologies, and can be applied reliably in the magnetic bearing reaction wheel.

  10. Analysis of wear properties of aluminium based journal bearing alloys with and without lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathavan, J. Joy; Patnaik, Amar

    2016-09-01

    Apart from classical bearing materials, Aluminium alloys are used as bearing materials these days because of their superior quality. In this analysis, new Aluminium based bearing materials, with filler metals Si, Ni, and Cr are prepared by metal mould casting in burnout furnace machine, and tribological properties of these alloys with and without lubrication were tested. The experiments for wear with lubrication are conducted on multiple specimen tester and experiments without lubrication is conducted on Pin on disk tribometer. The disc material used was SAE 1050 steel. Wear tests were conducted at a sliding speed of 0.785 m/s and at a normal load of 20 N. Coefficient of friction values, temperature changes and wear of the specimens were plotted on graph according to the above mentioned working conditions. Hardness and weight losses of the specimens were calculated. The obtained results demonstrate how the friction and wear properties of these samples have changed with the % addition of Silicon, Chromium and Nickel to the base metal aluminium.

  11. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-10-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating.

  12. 60NiTi Alloy for Tribological and Biomedical Surface Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, Sudeep

    2013-06-01

    60NiTi is an alloy with 60 wt% of nickel (Ni) and 40 wt% of titanium (Ti). This alloy was developed in the 1950s at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL) along with 55NiTi (55 wt% of Ni and 45 wt% of Ti). Both of these alloys exhibit the shape memory effect to different extents. The unique properties of 60NiTi, which are suitable for surface engineering (tribological) applications, are enumerated here. With appropriate heat treatment, this alloy can achieve high hardness (between Rc 55 and Rc 63). It has very good corrosion resistance and is resilient. Machinable before its final heat treatment, this alloy can be ground to fine surface finish and to tight dimensions. At one time, due to the popularity and wider applications of 55NiTi, the study of 60NiTi suffered. Recently, 60NiTi alloy gained some technological advantages due to advanced materials synthesis processes and progress in surface engineering. A feasibility study of 60NiTi bearings for space application has shown promise for its further development and suitability for other tribological applications. This report focuses on an overview of the properties and potential tribological and biomedical applications of 60NiTi.

  13. Preparation of Scandium-Bearing Master Alloys by Aluminum-Magnesium Thermoreduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锋; 白兰; 尹志民

    2002-01-01

    The new preparation method of scandium-bearing master alloys, in which scandium oxide was fluorinated by reaction with NH4HF2 and then reduced by aluminum-magnesium in fused salt containing alkali and alkaline fluoride under atmosphere, was studied. The effect of sorts of metallic reductive and technique conditions such as reducing temperature and time on the recovery of Sc was discussed. When the liquid aluminum-magnesium was used as the reductive agent, the all-recovery exceeds 80% and the concentration of Sc in master alloy prepared exceeds 1.9%. The best reducing reaction temperature and time are 1100 K and 40 min respectively. The newly produced Sc from reduction combines with Al to produce the stable compound Al3Sc, so the reduction progress is sustained and the recovery of Sc is increased.

  14. New Stainless Steel Alloys for Low Temperature Surface Hardening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The present contribution showcases the possibility for developing new surface hardenable stainless steels containing strong nitride/carbide forming elements (SNCFE). Nitriding of the commercial alloys, austenitic A286, and ferritic AISI 409 illustrates the beneficial effect of having SNCFE present...... in the stainless steel alloys. The presented computational approach for alloy design enables “screening” of hundreds of thousands hypothetical alloy systems by use of Thermo-Calc. Promising compositions for new stainless steel alloys can be selected based on imposed criteria, i.e. facilitating easy selection...

  15. Correlation effects driven by reduced dimensionality in magnetic surface alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Manju

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of electronic properties and correlation effects in manganese-based two-dimensional magnetic surface alloys are discussed. Enhanced correlations resulting from the reduced dimensionality of the surface alloys lead to the modification of the core level and valence band electronic structures resulting in the appearance of distinct satellite features. Apart from this, surface alloying-induced strong modifications in the substrate surface states arising from charge reorganization and electron transfer to the surface states as well as band-gap openings are also discussed.

  16. Microstructure, mechanical, and thermal properties of the Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu solder alloy bearing Fe for electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shnawah, Dhafer Abdul-Ameer, E-mail: dhafer_eng@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Said, Suhana Binti Mohd [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Che Faxing [Institute of Microelectronics, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore)

    2012-08-15

    This work investigates the effect of Fe addition on the microstructural, mechanical, and thermal properties of the Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) solder alloy. The addition of Fe leads to the formation of large circular FeSn{sub 2} intermetallic compound (IMC) particles, which produce a weak interface with the {beta}-Sn matrix. The addition of Fe also leads to the inclusion of Fe in the Ag{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC particles. Moreover, Fe-bearing solders have been shown to form large primary {beta}-Sn grains. The weak interface between the large FeSn{sub 2} IMC particles and the {beta}-Sn matrix together with the presence of the large primary {beta}-Sn grains results in a significant reduction on the elastic modulus and yield strength of the Fe-bearing solders. Moreover, the improved plasticity of the large primary {beta}-Sn grains causes the Fe-bearing solders to exhibit large total elongation. The addition of Fe also significantly reduces the effect of aging. After aging at 100 Degree-Sign C and 180 Degree-Sign C, it has been observed that the Fe-bearing solders significantly suppress the coarsening of the Ag{sub 3}Sn IMC particles; consequently, they exhibit stable mechanical properties. This effect can be attributed to the inclusion of Fe in the Ag{sub 3}Sn IMC particles. In addition, fracture surface analysis indicates that the addition of Fe to the SAC105 solder alloy does not affect the mode of fracture, and all tested solders exhibited large ductile-dimples on the fracture surface. Moreover, the addition of Fe did not produce any significant effect on the melting behavior. As a result, the use conditions of the Fe-bearing solders are consistent with the conditions for conventional Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys.

  17. Oxidized Zirconium Bearing Surfaces in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, Karl Friedrich; Efe, Turgay; Heyse, Thomas J; Haas, Steven B

    2015-10-01

    Polyethylene wear in total knee arthroplasty is a still unsolved problem resulting in osteolysis and long-term failure of knee joint replacement. To address the problem of polyethylene wear, research aimed for an optimal implant design and for an optimal combination of bearing surfaces. Oxidized zirconium was introduced to minimize surface wear and thus potentially increase long-term implant survival. This review comprises the current literature related to in vitro and in vivo studies evaluating performance of oxidized zirconium total knee arthroplasty and results from retrieval analyses.

  18. Steam Initiated Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud

    -friendly alternative processes. In the present work high temperature steam-based process has been investigated as a possible chromate free conversion coating. Investigations in the thesis includes the effect of alloy type, substrate microstructure, surface finish, and various chemistries on the coating formation......, and interface structure of the coatings were analysed using SEM, FIB-SEM,TEM, GI-XRD, FTIR, XPS, AFM, contact angle, and boiling test. Chapter 1 of this thesis provides a background to the work and available literature information. Materials and experimental methods are outlined in chapter 2. The chapters 3...... using autoclave or using spray system, and with or without various chemistries as accelerators. In general, results show the formation of 650 nm – 3000 nm thick conversion coating, where the thickness depend on the treatment parameters and steam chemistry. Further, the formed coating provide good...

  19. On-line surveillance of lubricants in bearings by means of surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Gerhard; Schmitt, Martin; Schubert, Josephine; Krempel, Sandro; Faustmann, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    The acoustic wave propagation in bearings filled with lubricants and driven by pulsed excitation of surface acoustic waves has been investigated with respect to the presence and the distribution of different lubricants. Experimental setups, which are based on the mode conversion between surface acoustic waves and compression waves at the interface between a solid substrate of the bearing and a lubricant are described. The results of preliminary measurements at linear friction bearings, rotation ball bearings and axial cylinder roller bearings are presented.

  20. Surface modification by alkali and heat treatments in titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Baek-Hee; Do Kim, Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hwan Lee, Kyu

    2002-09-01

    Pure titanium and titanium alloys are normally used for orthopedic and dental prostheses. Nevertheless, their chemical, biological, and mechanical properties still can be improved by the development of new preparation technologies. This has been the limiting factor for these metals to show low affinity to living bone. The purpose of this study is to improve the bone-bonding ability between titanium alloys and living bone through a chemically activated process and a thermally activated one. Two kinds of titanium alloys, a newly designed Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy and a commercially available Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy, were used in this study. In this study, surface modification of the titanium alloys by alkali and heat treatments (AHT), alkali treated in 5.0M NaOH solution, and heat treated in vacuum furnace at 600 degrees C, is reported. After AHT, the effects of the AHT on the bone integration property were evaluated in vitro. Surface morphologies of AHT were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical compositional surface changes were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Titanium alloys with surface modification by AHT showed improved bioactive behavior, and the Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy had better bioactivity than the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy in vitro.

  1. Surface modification of Ti alloy by electro-explosive alloying and electron-beam treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Victor, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru; Kobzareva, Tatiana, E-mail: kobzarevatanya@mail.ru; Budovskikh, Evgeniy, E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru; Baschenko, Lyudmila, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru [Siberian State Industrial University, 42, Kirov Str., Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yuryi, E-mail: yufi55@mail.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 4, Akademicheskii Av. Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 30, Lenina Av. Tomsk, 634034 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    By methods of modern physical metallurgy the analysis of structure phase states of titanium alloy VT6 is carried out after electric explosion alloying with boron carbide and subsequent irradiation by pulsed electron beam. The formation of an electro-explosive alloying zone of a thickness up to 50 µm, having a gradient structure, characterized by decrease in the concentration of carbon and boron with increasing distance to the treatable surface has been revealed. Subsequent electron-beam treatment of alloying zone leads to smoothing of the alloying area surface and is accompanied by the multilayer structure formation at the depth of 30 µm with alternating layers with different alloying degrees having the structure of submicro - and nanoscale level.

  2. Surface modification of Ti alloy by electro-explosive alloying and electron-beam treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Victor; Kobzareva, Tatiana; Ivanov, Yuryi; Budovskikh, Evgeniy; Baschenko, Lyudmila

    2016-01-01

    By methods of modern physical metallurgy the analysis of structure phase states of titanium alloy VT6 is carried out after electric explosion alloying with boron carbide and subsequent irradiation by pulsed electron beam. The formation of an electro-explosive alloying zone of a thickness up to 50 µm, having a gradient structure, characterized by decrease in the concentration of carbon and boron with increasing distance to the treatable surface has been revealed. Subsequent electron-beam treatment of alloying zone leads to smoothing of the alloying area surface and is accompanied by the multilayer structure formation at the depth of 30 µm with alternating layers with different alloying degrees having the structure of submicro - and nanoscale level.

  3. Study on microstructure and properties of Mg-alloy surface alloying layer fabricated by EPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dongfeng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AZ91D surface alloying was investigated through evaporative pattern casting (EPC technology. Aluminum powder (0.074 to 0.104 mm was used as the alloying element in the experiment. An alloying coating with excellent properties was fabricated, which mainly consisted of adhesive, co-solvent, suspending agent and other ingredients according to desired proportion. Mg-alloy melt was poured under certain temperature and the degree of negative pressure. The microstructure of the surface layer was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that a large volume fraction of network new phases were formed on the Mg-alloy surface, the thickness of the alloying surface layer increased with the alloying coating increasing from 0.3 mm to 0.5 mm, and the microstructure became compact. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis was used to determine the chemical composition of the new phases. It showed that the new phases mainly consist of β-Mg17Al12, in addition to a small quantity of inter-metallic compounds and oxides. A micro-hardness test and a corrosion experiment to simulate the effect of sea water were performed. The result indicated that the highest micro-hardness of the surface reaches three times that of the matrix. The corrosion rate of alloying samples declines to about a fifth of that of the as-cast AZ91D specimen.

  4. Resilient and Corrosion-Proof Rolling Element Bearings Made from Superelastic Ni-Ti Alloys for Aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical components (bearings, gears, mechanisms) typically utilize hardened construction materials to minimize wear and attain long life. In such components, loaded contact points (e.g., meshing gear teeth, bearing balls-raceway contacts) experience high contact stresses. The combination of high hardness and high elastic modulus often leads to damaging contact stress and denting, particularly during transient overload events such as shock impacts that occur during the launching of space vehicles or the landing of aircraft. In this webinar, Dr. DellaCorte will introduce the results of a research project that employs a superelastic alloy, Ni-Ti for rolling element bearing applications. Bearings and components made from such alloys can alleviate many problems encountered in advanced aerospace applications and may solve many terrestrial applications as well

  5. Surface Modification of a MCFC Anode by Electrochemical Alloying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Considering the properties of the valve metal alloys with specific corrosion resistance and electrocatalytic ac tivity, an investigation was made to examine if nickel-niobium alloy could serve as the anode material for molten carbo nate fuel cell (MCFC). An attempt was made to produce nickel-niobium surface alloy by an electrochemical process in the molten fluorides and to testify its performance required by the MCFC anode. Experimental results indicated that the corrosion resistance as well as polarization performance of the nickel electrode was improved by the surface alloying.As far as the corrosion resistance and polarization performance is concerned, the nickel-niobium surface alloy can be considered as a candidate material for the anode of MCFC.

  6. Liquid phase surface alloying of AZ91D magnesium alloy with Al and Ni powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elahi, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: m.r_elahi@alumni.ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sohi, Mahmoud Heydarzadeh; Safaei, Abdolghayoom [School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, liquid phase surface alloying of AZ91D magnesium alloy was carried out by pre-placing of Al and Ni powder mixture and subsequent tungsten inert gas (TIG) melting process. The effects of TIG processing parameters on both microstructures and resulting hardness were investigated. Microstructures of alloyed layers were studied by optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyzer, and the phases were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The microhardness of the surface alloyed layer was also measured. The surface hardness was increased from 80 HV{sub 0.1} for AZ91D magnesium alloy to as high as 162 HV{sub 0.1} for alloyed sample due to the formation of Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and AlNi{sub 3} intermetallic compounds in the alloyed region and structural refinement. Hardness improvement reduced the wear rate of the surface alloyed layer to almost half of that of the untreated substrate.

  7. Electrochemical and surface characterization of a nickel-titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Dirk; Veldhuizen, AG; de Vries, J; Busscher, HJ; Uges, DRA; van Horn, James

    1998-01-01

    For clinical implantation purposes of shape memory metals the nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy is generally used. In this study, the corrosion properties and surface characteristics of this alloy were investigated and compared with two reference controls, AISI 316 LVM stainless steel a

  8. Electrochemical and surface characterization of a nickel-titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Dirk; Veldhuizen, AG; de Vries, J; Busscher, HJ; Uges, DRA; van Horn, James

    1998-01-01

    For clinical implantation purposes of shape memory metals the nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy is generally used. In this study, the corrosion properties and surface characteristics of this alloy were investigated and compared with two reference controls, AISI 316 LVM stainless steel a

  9. Three body abrasion of laser surface alloyed aluminium AA1200

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available on the composition of the alloying powder mixture. The wear performance of the alloyed surfaces was characterised using an ASTM G65 three body dry abrasion apparatus. A maximum 82% improvement in the wear resistance of the pure aluminium was achieved with a 40 wt% Ni...

  10. Surface Tension of Molten Ni and Ni-Co Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG; Kiyoshi NOGI

    2005-01-01

    Surface tension of molten Ni and Ni-Co (5 and 10 mass fraction) alloys was measured at the temperature range of 1773~1873 K using an improved sessile drop method with an alumina substrate in an Ar+3%H2 atmosphere. The error of the data obtained was analyzed. The surface tension of molten Ni and Ni-Co (5 and 10 mass fraction) alloys decreases with increasing temperature. The influence of Co on the surface tension of Ni-Co alloys is little in the studied Co concentration range.

  11. Surface segregations in platinum-based alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Shunsuke; Asahi, Ryoji; Koyama, Toshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    A phase-field model that describes the radial distributions of the ordered-disordered phase and surface segregation in a single-alloy nanoparticle is introduced to clarify the overall behavior of surface segregation of various Pt-based alloy nanoparticles. One of the obstacles to apply a platinum-transition metal alloy as a cathode electro-catalyst of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is the need to ensure the retention of the designed surface composition in an alloy nanoparticle against the alloy combinations, a particle size, and heat treatment. From the results of calculations for CrPt, FePt, CoPt, NiPt, CuPt, PdPt, IrPt, and AuPt binary nanoparticles with diameters below 10 nm at 973.15 K, the compositional variation within a single particle was found to depend on the balance between the atomic interaction within particles and the surface free energy. In addition, the obtained specific steady-state composition of the surface varied significantly with alloy combination and particle diameter. Based on the general tendencies of a binary system to exhibit segregation, attempts to control the amount of platinum segregation on the surface using a ternary-alloy system were examined.

  12. MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

  13. Microstructural evolution and surface properties of nanostructured Cu-based alloy by ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanov, Auezhan; Cho, In-Sik; Pyun, Young-Sik

    2016-12-01

    A nanostructured surface layer with a thickness of about 180 μm was successfully produced in Cu-based alloy using an ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) technique. Cu-based alloy was sintered onto low carbon steel using a powder metallurgy (P/M) method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization revealed that the severe plastic deformation introduced by UNSM technique resulted in nano-sized grains in the topmost surface layer and deformation twins. It was also found by atomic force microscope (AFM) observations that the UNSM technique provides a significant reduction in number of interconnected pores. The effectiveness of nanostructured surface layer on the tribological and micro-scratch properties of Cu-based alloy specimens was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribometer and micro-scratch tester, respectively. Results exhibited that the UNSM-treated specimen led to an improvement in tribological and micro-scratch properties compared to that of the sintered specimen, which may be attributed to the presence of nanostructured surface layer having an increase in surface hardness and reduction in surface roughness. The findings from this study are expected to be implemented to the automotive industry, in particular connected rod bearings and bushings in order to increase the efficiency and performance of internal combustion engines (ICEs).

  14. Laser surface treatment of magnesium alloys with aluminium oxide powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper was to improve the magnesium cast alloys surface layer by laser surface treatment and to determine the laser treatment parameters.Design/methodology/approach: The laser treatment of magnesium alloys with alloying Al2O3 powder of the particle about 80μm was carried out using a high power diode laser (HPDL. The resulting microstructure in the modified surface layer was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Phase composition was determined by the X-ray diffraction method using the XPert device. The measurements of microhardness of the modified surface layer were also studied.Findings: The alloyed region has a fine microstructure with hard carbide particles. Microhardness of laser surface alloyed layer was significantly improved as compared to an alloy without laser treatment.Research limitations/implications: The investigations were conducted for cast magnesium alloys MCMgAl12Zn1, MCMgAl9Zn1, MCMgAl6Zn1, MCMgAl3Zn1 and Al2O3 powder of the particle size about 80 μm. One has used laser power in the range from 1.2to 2.0 kW.Practical implications: The results obtained in this investigation were promising comparing with the other conventional processes. High Power Diode Laser can be used as an economical substitute of Nd: YAG and CO2 to improve the surface magnesium alloy by feeding the carbide particles.Originality/value: The value of this paper is to define the influence of laser treatment parameters on quality, microstructure and microhardness of magnesium cast alloys surface layer.

  15. Interaction between alloying and hardening of cast iron surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘政军; 郝雪枫; 傅迎庆; 牟力军

    2002-01-01

    To improve wear resistance of surface will increase the service life of gray cast iron directly. This paper presents that gray cast iron surface coated with alloy powder is locally remelted by TIG arc to increase the wear resistance. The influences of arc current and scanning rate etc on surface properties are found. Under different conditions, the microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of remelted layer are analyzed and measured. The results indicate that the gray cast iron surface can be strengthened by TIG arc local remelting treatment. Especially, surface alloying hardening effect is best and surface properties are improved remarkably.

  16. Laser surface alloying fabricated porous coating on NiTi shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Song; ZHANG Chun-hua; MAN Hau-chung; LIU Chang-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Laser surface alloying technique was applied to fabricate a metallic porous coating on a solid NiTi shape memory alloy. By laser surface alloying a 40%TiH2-60%NiTi powder mixture on the surface of NiTi alloy using optimized laser process parameters, a porous but crack-free NiTi layer can be fabricated on the NiTi substrate. The porous coating is metallurgically bonded to the substrate NiTi alloy. The pores are uniformly distributed and are interconnected with each other in the coating. An average pore size of less than 10 μm is achieved. The Ni content of the porous layer is much less than that of the original NiTi surface. The existence of the porous coating on the NiTi alloy causes a 37% reduction of the tensile strength and 55% reduction of the strain as compared with the NiTi alloy. Possible biomedical or other applications for this porous surface with good mechanical strength provided by the substrate are prospective.

  17. Study on the early surface films formed on Mg-Y molten alloy in different atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mirak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the non-isothermal early stages of surface oxidation of liquid Mg-1%Y alloy during casting were studied under UPH argon, dry air, and air mixed with protective fluorine-bearing gases. The chemistry and morphology of the surface films were characterized by SEM and EDX analyses. The results indicate a layer of smooth and tightly coherent oxidation film composed of MgO and Y2O3 formed on the molten Mg-Y alloy surface with 40–60 nm thickness under dry air. A dendritic/cellular microstructure is clearly visible with Y-rich second phases gathered in surface of the melt and precipitated along the grain/cell boundaries under all gas conditions. Under fluorine-bearing gas mixtures, the surface film was a mixed oxide and fluoride and more even; a flat and folded morphology can be seen under SF6 with oxide as dominated phase and under 1, 1, 1, 2-tetra-fluoroethane, a smooth and compact surface film uniformly covering the inner surface of the bubble with equal oxide and fluoride thickness, which results in a film without any major defects. MgF2 phase appears to be the key characteristic of a good protective film.

  18. Gyroscope Pivot Bearing Dimension and Surface Defect Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the perceived lack of systematic analysis in illumination system design processes and a lack of criteria for design methods in vision detection a method for the design of a task-oriented illumination system is proposed. After detecting the micro-defects of a gyroscope pivot bearing with a high curvature glabrous surface and analyzing the characteristics of the surface detection and reflection model, a complex illumination system with coaxial and ring lights is proposed. The illumination system is then optimized based on the analysis of illuminance uniformity of target regions by simulation and grey scale uniformity and articulation that are calculated from grey imagery. Currently, in order to apply the Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN method, structural parameters must be tested and adjusted repeatedly. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, in which the maximum between cluster variance rules is used as fitness function with a linearily reduced inertia factor. This algorithm is used to adaptively set PCNN connection coefficients and dynamic threshold, which avoids algorithmic precocity and local oscillations. The proposed method is used for pivot bearing defect image processing. The segmentation results of the maximum entropy and minimum error method and the one described in this paper are compared using buffer region matching, and the experimental results show that the method of this paper is effective.

  19. Gyroscope pivot bearing dimension and surface defect detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wenqian; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Xudong

    2011-01-01

    Because of the perceived lack of systematic analysis in illumination system design processes and a lack of criteria for design methods in vision detection a method for the design of a task-oriented illumination system is proposed. After detecting the micro-defects of a gyroscope pivot bearing with a high curvature glabrous surface and analyzing the characteristics of the surface detection and reflection model, a complex illumination system with coaxial and ring lights is proposed. The illumination system is then optimized based on the analysis of illuminance uniformity of target regions by simulation and grey scale uniformity and articulation that are calculated from grey imagery. Currently, in order to apply the Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) method, structural parameters must be tested and adjusted repeatedly. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, in which the maximum between cluster variance rules is used as fitness function with a linearily reduced inertia factor. This algorithm is used to adaptively set PCNN connection coefficients and dynamic threshold, which avoids algorithmic precocity and local oscillations. The proposed method is used for pivot bearing defect image processing. The segmentation results of the maximum entropy and minimum error method and the one described in this paper are compared using buffer region matching, and the experimental results show that the method of this paper is effective.

  20. Plasma surface alloying of titanium alloy for enhancing burn-resistant property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-ze; XU Zhong; ZHANG Gao-hui; HE Zhi-yong; YAO Zheng-jun

    2006-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, burn-resistant alloying layers were made on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si titanium alloys by using double glow plasma surface alloying technology (DG Technology). Two typical burn-resistant layers Ti-Cr and Ti-Mo were made by DG plasma chromizing and DG plasma molybdenizing, respectively. Burn-resistant properties were tested by layer ignition method using 2 kW laser machine. Ignition experiments result reveals that the ignition temperature of alloyed layer with Mo and Cr concentration above 10% is about 200℃ higher than ignition temperature of Ti-6Al-4V substrate.

  1. Functional oxide structures on a surface of metals and alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The investigations of the plasma electrolytic processes in our laboratory are aimed to the development of conditions of formation of oxide layers with determined composition, structure and functional properties on the surface of valve metals (Al, Ti) and their alloys.

  2. Porous Squeeze Film Bearing with Rough Surfaces Lubricated by a Bingham Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walicka A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the effect of both bearing surfaces and the porosity of one bearing surface on the pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity of a squeeze film bearing is discussed. The equations of motion of a Bingham fluid in a bearing clearance and in a porous layer are presented. Using the Morgan-Cameron approximation and Christensen theory of rough lubrication the modified Reynolds equation is obtained. The analytical solutions of this equation for a squeeze film bearing are presented. As a result one obtains the formulae expressing pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity. A thrust radial bearing is considered as a numerical example.

  3. Porous Squeeze Film Bearing with Rough Surfaces Lubricated by a Bingham Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka, A.; Walicki, E.; Jurczak, P.; Falicki, J.

    2014-11-01

    In the paper the effect of both bearing surfaces and the porosity of one bearing surface on the pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity of a squeeze film bearing is discussed. The equations of motion of a Bingham fluid in a bearing clearance and in a porous layer are presented. Using the Morgan-Cameron approximation and Christensen theory of rough lubrication the modified Reynolds equation is obtained. The analytical solutions of this equation for a squeeze film bearing are presented. As a result one obtains the formulae expressing pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity. A thrust radial bearing is considered as a numerical example.

  4. Integration of Shape Memory Alloys into Low-Damped Rotor-Bearing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren

    2015-01-01

    to use passive adaptive control through smart materials. Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are interesting candidates in that relation, because of their highly temperature sensitive stiffness and mechanical hysteresis, which can be used for damping purposes. The thesis focuses on three main aspects related...... to the feasibility of integrating SMAs into rotor-bearing systems. The first one involves modelling of the constitutive relations of the metals with emphasis on stabilized cyclic behaviour under controlled temperature conditions. Two well-established phenomenological thermo-mechanical models are employed...... and identifiability, and to call attention to the inherent uncertainties of model predictions. The second aspect concerns design and modelling of machine elements made from SMAs. Different actuation principles of SMAs are covered, and pseudoelastic elements in pre-tension are found to have the most promising...

  5. Enthalpies of Formation of Noble Metal Binary Alloys Bearing Rh or Ir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The modified embedded atom method proposed by authors has been applied to calculating the enthalpies of formationof random alloys and the ordered intermetallic compounds for noble metal binary systems bearing Rh or lr. The presentresults are in good agreement with those of Miedema theory, available experiments and the first-principles quantummechanics calculations. The present results indicate that Cu-Rh, Cu-lr, Ag-Rh, Ag-lr, Au-Rh, Au-lr, Pd-Rh and Pd-lrsystems are repulsive, however, Ni-Rh, Ni-lr, Pt-lr, Pt-Rh and Rh-lr systems form solid solutions and Ni-Rh, Ni-lrand Pt-Rh show ordering tendency.

  6. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Xuming Zhang; Guosong Wu; Xiang Peng; Limin Li; Hongqing Feng; Biao Gao; Kaifu Huo; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface c...

  7. Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautray, Tapash R; Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-05-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. In view of this, the current review casts new light on surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion beam implantation.

  8. Characterization of manganese-bearing particles in the vicinities of a manganese alloy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pellón, Ana; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Ledoux, Frédéric; Courcot, Lucie; Courcot, Dominique

    2017-05-01

    Numerous studies have associated air manganese (Mn) exposure with negative health effects, primarily neurotoxic disorders. Despite there is not a specific European regulation, institutions such as the World Health Organization (WHO) have proposed an annual average guideline value of 150 ng/m(3). Bioaccessibility and toxicity mechanisms of Mn remain unclear, however it is generally agreed that adverse health effects are strongly linked to particle size and morphology, chemical composition and oxidation state. This study aims to deepen the understanding of the physico-chemical characteristics of PM10 and deposition samples collected in an urban area in the proximities of a ferromanganese alloy plant. Total Mn content was determined by ICP-MS after a microwave-assisted acid digestion. The size, morphology and chemical composition of individual particles were studied by SEM-EDX. XRD was used to identify the major crystalline phases. Most of the particles observed by SEM-EDX contain Mn. 60% of Mn-PM10 particles were spheres of small size and were attributed to condensation processes at the smelting unit. Mn-bearing particles present in deposition were characterized by irregular shapes and bigger sizes, most of them consisting of SiMn slags and Mn ores and alloys, and attributed to diffuse emissions from raw material and product handling and processing. Due to the differences in the characteristics of Mn-bearing particles found in the different matrices, further studies on the potential toxicity and health effects of these particles should be done, especially in relation with the small and spherical particles present in PM10, which are expected to be more problematic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface hardening of titanium alloys by oxygen-diffusion-permeation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红岩; 王茂才; 张松; 辛公春; 魏政

    2003-01-01

    The surface oxygen-diffusion-permeation behaviors of Ti based alloys were investigated. MEF4A opticalmicroscopy and HMV-2000 micro-hardness tester were employed to characterize the microstructure and micro-hard-ness of the oxygen-permeated alloys. The results show that the micro-hardness of Ti based alloys are sharply en-hanced by the permeation of oxygen. The microstructure and micro-hardness of oxygen-permeated layer are stronglyrelated to the oxygen-diffusion-permeation techniques. The solid solution of oxygen in α phase can improve thetransformation temperature from α phase to β phase and enlarge the region of α phase so as to improve the micro-hardness of surface layer. Therefore, surface oxygen-diffusion-permeation would be a feasible method to reinforce Tibased alloys based on the solid solution of oxygen in α-Ti. At last, a diffusion-solution model was put forward.

  10. Discovery of Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe intermetallic compounds and S-bearing alloys in the Zhaishang gold deposit, southern Gansu Province and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Examination of ores by optical microscope and EPMA from the Zhaishang gold deposit, southern Gansu Province, has revealed an abundance of rare minerals. These include native metals, Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe polymetallic compounds and S-bearing alloys of Ni, Fe, Zn, Cu and Sn, occurring as native nickel, Zn-Cu alloy, Ni-Zn-Cu alloy, Sn-Zn-Ni-Cu alloy, Zn-Cu-Ni alloy, Zn-Fe-Cu-Sn-Ni alloy, Fe-Ni-S alloy, Sn-Fe-Ni-S alloy, Fe-Zn-Cu-Ni-S alloy, Zn-Ni-Cu-Fe-S alloy and others. Compared with the Zn-Cu alloy minerals discovered previously, these Zn-Cu minerals fall in the α or α+β portion in Zn-Cu alloy phase diagram, and the α portion has higher Cu content. Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe intermetallic compounds and S-bearing alloy minerals have not been previously reported in the literature. These rare alloys formed in a strongly reducing environment with absent oxygen and low sulfur activities.

  11. Discovery of Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe intermetailic compounds and S-bearing alloys in the Zhaishang gold deposit,southern Gansu Province and its geological sisnificance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU JiaJun; MAO GuangJian; MA XingHua; LI LiXing; GUO YuQian; LIU GuangZhi

    2008-01-01

    Examination of ores by optical microscope and EPMA from the Zhaishang gold deposit, southern Gansu Province, has revealed an abundance of rare minerals. These include native metals, Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe polymetallic compounds and S-bearing alloys of Ni, Fe, Zn, Cu and Sn, occurring as native nickel, Zn-Cu alloy, Ni-Zn-Cu alloy, Sn-Zn-Ni-Cu alloy, Zn-Cu-Ni alloy, Zn-Fe-Cu-Sn-Ni alloy, Fe-Ni-S alloy, Sn-Fe-Ni-S alloy, Fe-Zn-Cu-Ni-S alloy, Zn-Ni-Cu-Fe-S alloy and others. Compared with the Zn-Cu alloy minerals discovered previously, these Zn-Cu minerals fall in the α or α+β portion in Zn-Cu alloy phase diagram, and the α portion has higher Cu content. Cu-Ni-Zn-Sn-Fe intermetallic compounds and S-bearing alloy minerals have not been previously reported in the literature. These rare alloys formed in a strongly reducing environment with absent oxygen and low sulfur activities.

  12. Diffusion and surface alloying of gradient nanostructured metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbo Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gradient nanostructures (GNSs have been optimized in recent years for desired performance. The diffusion behavior in GNS metals is crucial for understanding the diffusion mechanism and relative characteristics of different interfaces that provide fundamental understanding for advancing the traditional surface alloying processes. In this paper, atomic diffusion, reactive diffusion, and surface alloying processes are reviewed for various metals with a preformed GNS surface layer. We emphasize the promoted atomic diffusion and reactive diffusion in the GNS surface layer that are related to a higher interfacial energy state with respect to those in relaxed coarse-grained samples. Accordingly, different surface alloying processes, such as nitriding and chromizing, have been modified significantly, and some diffusion-related properties have been enhanced. Finally, the perspectives on current research in this field are discussed.

  13. Investigation of surface properties of high temperature nitrided titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Koyuncu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of paper is to investigate surface properties of high temperature nitrided titanium alloys.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, surface modification of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy was made at various temperatures by plasma nitriding process. Plasma nitriding treatment was performed in 80% N2-20% H2 gas mixture, for treatment times of 2-15 h at the temperatures of 700-1000°C. Surface properties of plasma nitrided Ti6Al4V alloy were examined by metallographic inspection, X-Ray diffraction and Vickers hardness.Findings: Two layers were determined by optic inspection on the samples that were called the compound and diffusion layers. Compound layer contain TiN and Ti2N nitrides, XRD results support in this formations. Maximum hardness was obtained at 10h treatment time and 1000°C treatment temperature. Micro hardness tests showed that hardness properties of the nitrided samples depend on treatment time and temperature.Practical implications: Titanium and its alloys have very attractive properties for many industries. But using of titanium and its alloys is of very low in mechanical engineering applications because of poor tribological properties.Originality/value: The nitriding of titanium alloy surfaces using plasma processes has already reached the industrial application stage in the biomedical field.

  14. Modification of the titanium alloy surface in electroexplosive alloying with boron carbide and subsequent electron-beam treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Victor E.; Budovskikh, Evgeniy A.; Ivanov, Yurii F.; Bashchenko, Lyudmila P.; Wang, Xinli; Kobzareva, Tatyana Yu.; Semin, Alexander P.

    2015-10-01

    The modification of the VT6 titanium alloy surface in electroexplosion alloying with plasma being formed in titanium foil with a weighed powder of boron carbide with subsequent irradiation by a pulsed electron beam has been carried out. An electroexplosive alloying zone of a thickness up to 50 μm with a gradient structure is found to form. The subsequent electron-beam treatment of the alloying zone results in smoothing of the alloying surface and is accompanied by the formation of the multilayer structure with alternating layers of various alloying degree at a depth of 30 μm.

  15. Modification of the titanium alloy surface in electroexplosive alloying with boron carbide and subsequent electron-beam treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Victor E., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru; Budovskikh, Evgeniy A., E-mail: budovskikh-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru; Bashchenko, Lyudmila P., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru; Kobzareva, Tatyana Yu., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru; Semin, Alexander P., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru [Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yurii F., E-mail: yufi55@mail.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Wang, Xinli, E-mail: wangxl520@hotmail.com [Northeastern University, Liaoning, Shenyang 110819 China (China)

    2015-10-27

    The modification of the VT6 titanium alloy surface in electroexplosion alloying with plasma being formed in titanium foil with a weighed powder of boron carbide with subsequent irradiation by a pulsed electron beam has been carried out. An electroexplosive alloying zone of a thickness up to 50 μm with a gradient structure is found to form. The subsequent electron-beam treatment of the alloying zone results in smoothing of the alloying surface and is accompanied by the formation of the multilayer structure with alternating layers of various alloying degree at a depth of 30 μm.

  16. Laser alloying of the plain carbon steel surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Radziszewska

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available As an example of the types of features observed after laser alloying, the addition of Ta to mild carbon steel is described. The system is of interest because such alloying is beneficial in improving surface related properties. The paper describes the microstructure and properties (phase and chemical composition, microhardness of the laser alloyed surface layer. In the investigation the optical microscope, the scanning electron microscope (SEM, chemical (EDS microanalysis composition and microhardness testing methods have been used. Specimens of 0,17 %C plain steel were coated with Ta powder layers. The paints containing organic components were used as the binders during deposition of Ta powder layers on the sample surface. The thickness of Ta deposited layers amounted to 0,16 mm. The specimens were then swept through high power (of nominal power 2,5 kW CW CO2 laser radiation at different speeds.The surface alloyed layers varied in microstructure consisted of fiber like Ta2C + γ eutectics, chemical composition and microhardness. The EDS analyses revealed the enrichment of tantalum in the laser alloyed zone (LAZ. The changes of process parameters had an influence on the hardness of alloyed surface layers: by increasing scanning velocity (from 12 mm/s to 20 mm/s and decreasing laser power (from 1,8 kW to 1,35 kW, the hardness diminished. The wear tests were also carried out which showed that laser alloying of plain carbon steel surface layer led to improvement of their wear resistance.

  17. Resilient and Corrosion-Proof Rolling Element Bearings Made from Superelastic Ni-Ti Alloys for Aerospace Mechanism Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Noebe, Ronald D.; Stanford, Malcolm; Padula, Santo A.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical components (bearings, gears, mechanisms) typically utilize hard materials to minimize wear and attain long life. In such components, heavily loaded contact points (e.g., meshing gear teeth, bearing ball-raceway contacts) experience high contact stresses. The combination of high hardness, heavy loads and high elastic modulus often leads to damaging contact stress. In addition, mechanical component materials, such as tool steel or silicon nitride exhibit limited recoverable strain (typically less than 1 percent). These material attributes can lead to Brinell damage (e.g., denting) particularly during transient overload events such as shock impacts that occur during the launching of space vehicles or the landing of aircraft. In this paper, a superelastic alloy, 60NiTi, is considered for rolling element bearing applications. A series of Rockwell and Brinell hardness, compressive strength, fatigue and tribology tests are conducted and reported. The combination of high hardness, moderate elastic modulus, large recoverable strain, low density, and intrinsic corrosion immunity provide a path to bearings largely impervious to shock load damage. It is anticipated that bearings and components made from alloys with such attributes can alleviate many problems encountered in advanced aerospace applications.

  18. Surface Segregation in Supported Pd-Pt Nanoclusters and Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oetelaar, L.C.A.; Nooij, O.W.; Oerlemans, S.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; Brongersma, H.H.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Roosenbrand, A.G.; van Veen, J.A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Surface segregation processes in Pd-Pt alloys and bimetallic Pd-Pt nanoclusters on alumina and carbon supports (technical catalysts) have been investigated by determining the metal surface composition of these systems by low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). Both Pd-rich (Pd80Pt20) and Pt-rich

  19. Electron beam induced oxidation of Al–Mg alloy surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.; Agterveld, D.T.L. van; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2002-01-01

    Electron beam currents of a few nanoamperes, currently used in nanometer scale scanning Auger/electron microscopy, induces severe oxidation of Al–Mg alloy surfaces at room temperature. Auger peak-to-peak oxygen curves for Al–Mg surfaces support the hypothesis that the electron beam creates

  20. Ligand and ensemble effects in adsorption on alloy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ping; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2001-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide, oxygen and nitrogen on various Au/Pd(111) bimetallic alloy surfaces. By varying the Au content in the surface we are able to make a clear separation into geometrical (or ensemble) effects and electronic (or ligand...

  1. Laser alloying of aluminium to improve surface properties - MSSA 2010

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available and microstructure of the surface without affecting the bulk properties of the material. The process involves melting the substrate surface and injecting the powder of the alloying material into the melt pool. Process parameters such as laser power, beam spot size...

  2. Electron beam induced oxidation of Al–Mg alloy surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.; Agterveld, D.T.L. van; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2002-01-01

    Electron beam currents of a few nanoamperes, currently used in nanometer scale scanning Auger/electron microscopy, induces severe oxidation of Al–Mg alloy surfaces at room temperature. Auger peak-to-peak oxygen curves for Al–Mg surfaces support the hypothesis that the electron beam creates additiona

  3. Diode Laser Surface Alloying of Armor Steel with Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicki D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composite (MMC surface layers reinforced by WC were fabricated on armor steel ARMOX 500T plates via a laser surface alloying process. The microstructure of the layers was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  4. Design of a surface alloy catalyst for steam reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Chorkendorff, Ib; Clausen, B.S.;

    1998-01-01

    Detailed studies of elementary chemical processes on well-characterized single crystal surfaces have contributed substantially to the understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. insight into the structure of surface alloys combined with an understanding of the relation between the surface composition...... and reactivity is shown to lead directly to new ideas for catalyst design, The feasibility of such an approach is illustrated by the synthesis, characterization, and tests of a high-surface area gold-nickel catalyst for steam reforming....

  5. Formation and characterization of Al-Ti-Nb alloys by electron-beam surface alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, S.; Petrov, P.; Lazarova, R.; Bezdushnyi, R.; Dechev, D.

    2016-12-01

    The combination of attractive mechanical properties, light weight and resistance to corrosion makes Ti-Al based alloys applicable in many industrial branches, like aircraft and automotive industries etc. It is known that the incorporation of Nb improves the high temperature performance and mechanical properties. In the present study on Al substrate Ti and Nb layers were deposited by DC (Direct Current) magnetron sputtering, followed by electron-beam alloying with scanning electron beam. It was chosen two speeds of the specimen motion during the alloying process: V1 = 0.5 cm/s and V2 = 1 cm/s. The alloying process was realized in circular sweep mode in order to maintain the melt pool further. The obtained results demonstrate a formation of (Ti,Nb)Al3 fractions randomly distributed in biphasic structure of intermetallic (Ti,Nb)Al3 particles, dispersed in α-Al solid solution. The evaluated (Ti,Nb)Al3 lattice parameters are independent of the speed of the specimen motion and therefore the alloying speed does not affect the lattice parameters and thus, does not form additional residual stresses, strains etc. It was found that lower velocity of the specimen motion during the alloying process develops more homogeneous structures. The metallographic analyses demonstrate a formation of surface alloys with very high hardness. Our results demonstrate maximal values of 775 HV [kg/cm2] and average hardness of 673 HV [kg/cm2].

  6. Characterisation of fresh surface films formed on molten Mg-Nd alloy protected by different atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirak, A. R.; Davidson, C. J.; Taylor, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the early stages of surface oxidation of liquid Mg-3 wt%Nd under UPH argon, dry air, and air mixed with protective fluorine-bearing gases. Each of the gases were introduced as bubbles into solidifying castings. The chemistry and structure of the protective film inside the trapped bubbles were characterized by SEM and EDX analyses. Results show that due to Nd added to Mg alloy under dry air, a dense and wrinkled surface film that contains MgO and Nd2O3 are formed. Under fluorine-bearing gas mixtures, a dense and coherent surface film was found to be a mixed fluoride and oxide. For SF6, the film thickness was 50-100 nm thick while for HFC-R134a it was 35-45 nm. Needle shaped phases distributed in the Mg matrix and flake-like phases segregated on the inner bubble surface in proximity to the interdendritic regions of the alloy were both identified as Nd rich compounds. These were present under all gas conditions. The results obtained lead to a conclusion that HFC-R134a is capable of providing the most effective melt protection. The integrity and protective capability of the early surface film formation on the liquid Mg-Nd alloy was found to be significantly improved compared to pure Mg under identical gas conditions due to formation of a dense and compact MgO/Nd2O3 layer, regardless of whether fluorine species were also present.

  7. In vitro biocompatibility evaluation of surface-modified titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, Cristina; Martinesi, Maria; Stio, Maria; Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Jiménez, José Antonio; López, María Francisca

    2010-03-15

    The present work is aimed to evaluate the effects of a surface modification process on the biocompatibility of three vanadium-free titanium alloys with biomedical applications interest. Chemical composition of alloys investigated, in weight %, were Ti-7Nb-6Al, Ti-13Nb-13Zr, and Ti-15Zr-4Nb. An easy and economic method intended to improve the biocompatibiblity of these materials consists in a simple thermal treatment at high temperature, 750 degrees C, in air for different times. The significance of modification of the surface properties to the biological response was studied putting in contact both untreated and thermally treated alloys with human cells in culture, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) and Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC). The TNF-alpha release data indicate that thermal treatment improves the biological response of the alloys. The notable enhancement of the surface roughness upon oxidation could be related with the observed reduction of the TNF-alpha levels for treated alloys. A different behavior of the two cell lines may be observed, when adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVEC, ICAM-1, and LFA-1 in PBMC) were determined, PBMC being more sensitive than HUVEC to the contact with the samples. The data also distinguish surface composition and corrosion resistance as significant parameters for the biological response.

  8. Performance of 40-millimeter-bore ball bearings with lead- and lead-alloy-plated retainers in liquid hydrogen at 1.2 million DN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, D. E.; Wisander, D. W.; Scribbe, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    Forty-millimeter-bore ball bearings with lead- and lead-alloy-coated retainers were operated in liquid hydrogen at 30,000 rpm under a thrust load of 1780 N (400 lb.) Four different substrate materials were used for the retainer. Longer bearing run times were achieved with a lead-tin-copper alloy coating plated onto a leaded-bronze material (22.5 hr) and an aluminum-bronze alloy (19.3 hr). One bearing with a pure lead coating achieved the desired objective of 10 hr. This bearing had an aluminum - bronze substrate retainer and ran successfully for 12.4 hr. Additions of antimony to the lead provided an alloy coating with better wear resistance than pure lead; however, this coating was abrasive to the outer-race lands.

  9. Atomistic Method Applied to Computational Modeling of Surface Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of surface alloys is a growing research field that, in terms of the surface structure of multicomponent systems, defines the frontier both for experimental and theoretical techniques. Because of the impact that the formation of surface alloys has on surface properties, researchers need reliable methods to predict new surface alloys and to help interpret unknown structures. The structure of surface alloys and when, and even if, they form are largely unpredictable from the known properties of the participating elements. No unified theory or model to date can infer surface alloy structures from the constituents properties or their bulk alloy characteristics. In spite of these severe limitations, a growing catalogue of such systems has been developed during the last decade, and only recently are global theories being advanced to fully understand the phenomenon. None of the methods used in other areas of surface science can properly model even the already known cases. Aware of these limitations, the Computational Materials Group at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field has developed a useful, computationally economical, and physically sound methodology to enable the systematic study of surface alloy formation in metals. This tool has been tested successfully on several known systems for which hard experimental evidence exists and has been used to predict ternary surface alloy formation (results to be published: Garces, J.E.; Bozzolo, G.; and Mosca, H.: Atomistic Modeling of Pd/Cu(100) Surface Alloy Formation. Surf. Sci., 2000 (in press); Mosca, H.; Garces J.E.; and Bozzolo, G.: Surface Ternary Alloys of (Cu,Au)/Ni(110). (Accepted for publication in Surf. Sci., 2000.); and Garces, J.E.; Bozzolo, G.; Mosca, H.; and Abel, P.: A New Approach for Atomistic Modeling of Pd/Cu(110) Surface Alloy Formation. (Submitted to Appl. Surf. Sci.)). Ternary alloy formation is a field yet to be fully explored experimentally. The computational tool, which is based on

  10. Surface modification and fatigue behavior of nitinol for load bearing implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Sheldon A.

    Musculoskeletal disorders are recognized amongst the most significant human health problems that exist today. Even though considerable research and development has gone towards understanding musculoskeletal disorders, there is still lack of bone replacement materials that are appropriate for restoring lost structures and functions, particularly for load-bearing applications. Many materials on the market today, such as titanium and stainless steel, suffer from significantly higher modulus than natural bone and low bioactivity leading to stress shielding and implant loosening over longer time use. Nitinol (NiTi) is an equiatomic intermetallic compound of nickel and titanium whose unique biomechanical and biological properties contributed to its increasing use as a biomaterial. An innovative method for creating dense and porous net shape NiTi alloy parts has been developed to improve biological properties while maintaining comparable or better mechanical properties than commercial materials that are currently in use. Laser engineered net shaping (LENS(TM)) and surface electrochemistry modification was used to create dense/porous samples and micro textured surfaces on NiTi parts, respectively. Porous implants are known to promote cell adhesion and have a low elastic modulus, a combination that can significantly increase the life of an implant. However, porosity can significantly reduce the fatigue life of an implant, and very little work has been reported on the fatigue behavior of bulk porous metals, specifically on porous nitinol alloy. High-cycle rotating bending and compression-compression fatigue behavior of porous NiTi fabricated using LENS(TM) were studied. In cyclic compression loading, plastic strain increased with increasing porosity and it was evident that maximum strain was achieved during the first 50000 cycles and remained constant throughout the remaining loading. No failures were observed due to loading up to 150% of the yield strength. When subjected

  11. Tribological thin films on steel rolling element bearing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ryan David

    Tribological thin films are of interest to designers and end-users of friction management and load transmission components such as steel rolling element bearings. This study sought to reveal new information about the properties and formation of such films, spanning the scope of their technical evolution from natural oxide films, to antiwear films from lubricant additives, and finally engineered nanocomposite metal carbide/amorphous hydrocarbon (MC/a-C:H) films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on the near-surface material (depth gear oil additives. Site-specific thinning of cross-section cone surface sections for TEM analyses was conducted using the focused ion beam milling technique. Two types of oxide surface films were characterized for the cones tested in mineral oil only, each one corresponding to a different lubrication severity. Continuous and adherent antiwear films were found on the cone surfaces tested with lubricant additives, and their composition depended on the lubrication conditions. A sharp interface separated the antiwear film and base steel. Various TEM analytical techniques were used to study the segregation of elements throughout the film volume. The properties of nanocomposite tantalum carbide/amorphous hydrocarbon (TaC/a-C:H) thin films depend sensitively on reactive magnetron sputtering deposition process conditions. TaC/a-C:H film growth was studied as a function of three deposition parameters in designed experiments: acetylene flow rate, applied d.c. bias voltage, and substrate carousel rotation rate. Empirical models were developed for the following film characteristics to identify process-property trend relationships: Ta/C atomic ratio, hydrogen content, film thickness. TaC crystallite size, Raman spectrum, compressive stress, hardness, and elastic modules. TEM measurements revealed the film base structure consisted of equiaxed cubic B1-TaC crystallites (< 5 nm) suspended in an a-C:H matrix. At the nanometer-scale, the

  12. Standard Test Methods for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion in Wrought, Nickel-Rich, Chromium-Bearing Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover two tests as follows: 1.1.1 Method A, Ferric Sulfate-Sulfuric Acid Test (Sections 3-10, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting the boiling ferric sulfate—50 % sulfuric acid test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to intergranular corrosion (see Terminology G 15), which may be encountered in certain service environments. The uniform corrosion rate obtained by this test method, which is a function of minor variations in alloy composition, may easily mask the intergranular corrosion components of the overall corrosion rate on alloys N10276, N06022, N06059, and N06455. 1.1.2 Method B, Mixed Acid-Oxidizing Salt Test (Sections 11-18, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting a boiling 23 % sulfuric + 1.2 % hydrochloric + 1 % ferric chloride + 1 % cupric chloride test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to display a step function increa...

  13. Surface free energy of copper-zinc alloy for energy-saving of boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Man; LIANG Jinsheng; TANG Qingguo; MING Xing; MENG Junping; DING Yan

    2006-01-01

    Cu-Zn, Cu-Zn-Sn, Cu-Zn-Ni alloys were melted by vacuum smelter. The effect factors to the surface free energy of the alloys such as chemical composition, crystal structure and surface crystal lattice distortion etc. were investigated by OCA30 automatic contact angle test instrument, metallography microscope and XRD instrument etc. Results suggests: adding alloy element to Cu may increase its surface free energy, and the more kinds of alloy elements are added, the more surface free energy increases; the alloy element Sn an increase the surface free energy of Cu-Zn alloy; Cu-Zn alloy with fir-tree crystal structure, great phase discrepancy and obvious composition aliquation has greater surface free energy; Cu-Zn alloy with compounds and serious surface crystal lattice distortion has greater surface free energy.

  14. Hardfacing of aluminium alloys by means of metal matrix composites produced by laser surface alloying

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composite layers were formed on an aluminium substrate by means of laser surface alloying method. Aluminium 1200 was used as a host material and TiC particles were used as the reinforcement. The microstructure of the modified layer...

  15. Near-surface alloys for hydrogen fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2006-01-01

    Near-surface alloys (NSAs) possess a variety of unusual catalytic properties that could make them useful candidates for improved catalysts in a variety of chemical processes. It is known from previous work, for example, that some NSAs bind hydrogen very weakly while, at the same time, permitting ...

  16. Functional oxide structures on a surface of metals and alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rudnev; V.; S.; Yarovaya; T.; P.; Boguta; D.; L.; Lukiyanchuk; I.; V.; Tyrina; L.; M.; Morozova; V.; P.; Nedozorov; P.; M.; Vasilyeva; M.; S.; Kondrikov; N.; B.

    2005-01-01

    The investigations of the plasma electrolytic processes in our laboratory are aimed to the development of conditions of formation of oxide layers with determined composition, structure and functional properties on the surface of valve metals (Al, Ti) and their alloys.……

  17. Local Chemical Reactivity of a Metal Alloy Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Scheffler, Matthias

    1995-01-01

    The chemical reactivity of a metal alloy surface is studied by density functional theory investigating the interaction of H2 with NiAl(110). The energy barrier for H2 dissociation is largely different over the Al and Ni sites without, however, reflecting the barriers over the single component metal...

  18. Fabrication of superhydrophobic nanostructured surface on aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, R.; Farzaneh, M. [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, QC (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    A superhydrophobic surface was prepared by consecutive immersion in boiling water and sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon registered) on the surface of an aluminum alloy substrate. Immersion in boiling water was used to create a micro-nanostructure on the alloy substrate. Then, the rough surface was coated with RF-sputtered Teflon film. The immersion time in boiling water plays an important role in surface morphology and water repellency of the deposited Teflon coating. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a ''flower-like'' structure in first few minutes of immersion. And as the immersion time lengthened, a ''cornflake'' structure appeared. FTIR analyses of Teflon-like coating deposited on water treated aluminum alloy surfaces showed fluorinated groups, which effectively reduce surface energy. The Teflon-like coating deposited on a rough surface achieved with five-minute immersion in boiling water provided a high static contact angle ({proportional_to}164 ) and low contact angle hysteresis ({proportional_to}4 ). (orig.)

  19. Surface composition of Pt-Pd alloys treated in hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, A.; Paál, Z.; Szász, A.; Kojnok, J.; Fabian, D. J.

    1989-11-01

    Pd enrichment is observed in Pd-Pt alloy sheets when heated in He and in H 2. The surface composition was monitored by soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) and by work function measurements. A regular solution model is used to calculate the expected composition of the surface atomic layers, with and without adsorbed hydrogen, and the calculated and measured values for Pd-enrichment are compared. The possible effect of subsurface adsorbed hydrogen is discussed.

  20. Study of Titanizing the Surface of Copper Substrates by the Double Glow Discharge Plasma Surface Alloying Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yuefei; Chen Fei; Lü Junxia; Su Yongan; Xu Zhong

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a study in which Ti surface alloying has been performed on copper substrates by means of a double glow discharge plasma surface alloying technique. The micro-structure, the phase structure, the micro-hardness and the distribution of Ti concentration of alloying layer were investigated in detail by XRD, SEM and so on. The effect of process parameters on the alloying layer was studied. The experimental results show that a Ti solid solution with the precipitation Cu4Ti alloying layer has been formed on the copper surface. The thickness of the alloying layer is about 120μm and the surface titanium concentration gradually decreases from w (Ti) = 87% to w (Ti) = 4%. The micro-hardness of the alloying layer is between 300 HV ~ 800 HV. Source sputtering, surface absorption, ion bombarding and high temperature diffusion are the major factors that affect the alloying layer.

  1. Albumin adsorption on CoCrMo alloy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Yang, Hongjuan; Su, Yanjing; Qiao, Lijie

    2015-12-01

    Proteins can adsorb on the surface of artificial joints immediately after being implanted. Although research studying protein adsorption on medical material surfaces has been carried out, the mechanism of the proteins’ adsorption which affects the corrosion behaviour of such materials still lacks in situ observation at the micro level. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on CoCrMo alloy surfaces was studied in situ by AFM and SKPFM as a function of pH and the charge of CoCrMo alloy surfaces. Results showed that when the specimens were uncharged, hydrophobic interaction could govern the process of the adsorption rather than electrostatic interaction, and BSA molecules tended to adsorb on the surfaces forming a monolayer in the side-on model. Results also showed that adsorbed BSA molecules could promote the corrosion process for CoCrMo alloys. When the surface was positively charged, the electrostatic interaction played a leading role in the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption occurred at the isoelectric point (pH 4.7) of BSA.

  2. Fracture characteristics of structural aerospace alloys containing deep surface flaws. [aluminum-titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, J. N.; Bixler, W. D.; Finger, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Conditions controlling the growth and fracture of deep surface flaws in aerospace alloys were investigated. Static fracture tests were performed on 7075-T651 and 2219-T87 aluminum, and 6Ai-4V STA titanium . Cyclic flaw growth tests were performed on the two latter alloys, and sustain load tests were performed on the titanium alloy. Both the cyclic and the sustain load tests were performed with and without a prior proof overload cycle to investigate possible growth retardation effects. Variables included in all test series were thickness, flaw depth-to-thickness ratio, and flaw shape. Results were analyzed and compared with previously developed data to determine the limits of applicability of available modified linear elastic fracture solutions.

  3. Toward a Molecular Understanding of the Antibacterial Mechanism of Copper-Bearing Titanium Alloys against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Ma, Zheng; Zhu, Ye; Xia, Hong; Yao, Mengyu; Chu, Xiao; Wang, Xiaolan; Yang, Ke; Yang, Mingying; Zhang, Yu; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-03-01

    The antibacterial mechanism of the Cu-containing materials has not been fully understood although such understanding is crucial for the sustained clinical use of Cu-containing antibacterial materials such as bone implants. The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus is inactivated through Cu-bearing titanium alloys (Ti6Al4V5Cu). Cu ions released from the alloys are found to contribute to lethal damage of bacteria. They destroy the permeability of the bacterial membranes, resulting in the leakage of reducing sugars and proteins from the cells. They also promote the generation of bacteria-killing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS production is confirmed by several assays including fluorescent staining of intracellular oxidative stress, detection of respiratory chain activity, and measurement of the levels of lipid peroxidation, catalase, and glutathione. Furthermore, the released Cu ions show obvious genetic toxicity by interfering the replication of nuc (species-specific) and 16SrRNA genes, but with no effect on the genome integrity. All of these effects lead to the antibacterial effect of Ti6Al4V5Cu. Collectively, our work reconciles the conflicting antibacterial mechanisms of Cu-bearing metallic materials or nanoparticles reported in the literature and highlights the potential use of Ti6Al4V5Cu alloys in inhibiting bacterial infections.

  4. Alloy Design Workbench-Surface Modeling Package Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Phillip B.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Good, Brian S.; Daugherty, Elaine S.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center's Computational Materials Group has integrated a graphical user interface with in-house-developed surface modeling capabilities, with the goal of using computationally efficient atomistic simulations to aid the development of advanced aerospace materials, through the modeling of alloy surfaces, surface alloys, and segregation. The software is also ideal for modeling nanomaterials, since surface and interfacial effects can dominate material behavior and properties at this level. Through the combination of an accurate atomistic surface modeling methodology and an efficient computational engine, it is now possible to directly model these types of surface phenomenon and metallic nanostructures without a supercomputer. Fulfilling a High Operating Temperature Propulsion Components (HOTPC) project level-I milestone, a graphical user interface was created for a suite of quantum approximate atomistic materials modeling Fortran programs developed at Glenn. The resulting "Alloy Design Workbench-Surface Modeling Package" (ADW-SMP) is the combination of proven quantum approximate Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) algorithms (refs. 1 and 2) with a productivity-enhancing graphical front end. Written in the portable, platform independent Java programming language, the graphical user interface calls on extensively tested Fortran programs running in the background for the detailed computational tasks. Designed to run on desktop computers, the package has been deployed on PC, Mac, and SGI computer systems. The graphical user interface integrates two modes of computational materials exploration. One mode uses Monte Carlo simulations to determine lowest energy equilibrium configurations. The second approach is an interactive "what if" comparison of atomic configuration energies, designed to provide real-time insight into the underlying drivers of alloying processes.

  5. A NEW APPROACH TO CALCULATION OF THE ELLIPTICAL BEARING OF MULTI-SHEARING-SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin GÜLLÜ

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new approach is proposed in the calculation of performance characteristics of elliptic bearings of Multi-Shearing-Surface (MSS type which has widely been used yet. The number of researches available in this area are far below the needs. This paper presents the proposed approach and the performance of bearings without use of superposition.

  6. Process control of laser surface alloying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Meijer, J.; Olde Benneker, Jeroen

    1998-01-01

    In spite of the many advantages of laser surface treatment, such as high production rates and low induced thermal distortion, and its great potential for modifying the surface properties of a wide range of new and existing materials, industrial applications are still limited. This is not only

  7. Optimum surface roughness prediction for titanium alloy by adopting response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aimin; Han, Yang; Pan, Yuhang; Xing, Hongwei; Li, Jinze

    Titanium alloy has been widely applied in industrial engineering products due to its advantages of great corrosion resistance and high specific strength. This paper investigated the processing parameters for finish turning of titanium alloy TC11. Firstly, a three-factor central composite design of experiment, considering the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, are conducted in titanium alloy TC11 and the corresponding surface roughness are obtained. Then a mathematic model is constructed by the response surface methodology to fit the relationship between the process parameters and the surface roughness. The prediction accuracy was verified by the one-way ANOVA. Finally, the contour line of the surface roughness under different combination of process parameters are obtained and used for the optimum surface roughness prediction. Verification experimental results demonstrated that material removal rate (MRR) at the obtained optimum can be significantly improved without sacrificing the surface roughness.

  8. Surface properties of liquid In-Zn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pstruś, J.; Moser, Z.; Gąsior, W.

    2011-02-01

    The measurements of surface tension and density of zinc, indium and liquid In-Zn alloys containing 0.9, 0.85, 0.75, 0.70, 0.60, 0.40, 0.25 and 0.10 mole fraction of In were carried out using the method of maximum pressure in gaseous bubbles (MBP) as well as dilatometric technique. The technique of sessile drop was additionally applied in the measurements of surface tension for pure indium and zinc. The measurements were performed at temperature range 474-1151 K. The isotherms of surface tension calculated based on Butler's equation at 700 and 1100 K corresponded well with the experimental values for zinc content lower than 0.6 mole fraction. The surface tension calculated for alloys of higher zinc concentrations (0.6 < XZn < 0.95) had a positive value of the surface tension temperature coefficient (dσ/dT), which did not coincide with the experimental results. The density as well as molar volume of liquid In-Zn alloys showed almost identical behaviour like the ideal solutions. The observed little deviations were contained within assessed experimental errors.

  9. Surface properties of liquid In-Zn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pstrus, J., E-mail: nmpstrus@imim-pan.krakow.pl [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Moser, Z.; Gasior, W. [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2011-02-15

    The measurements of surface tension and density of zinc, indium and liquid In-Zn alloys containing 0.9, 0.85, 0.75, 0.70, 0.60, 0.40, 0.25 and 0.10 mole fraction of In were carried out using the method of maximum pressure in gaseous bubbles (MBP) as well as dilatometric technique. The technique of sessile drop was additionally applied in the measurements of surface tension for pure indium and zinc. The measurements were performed at temperature range 474-1151 K. The isotherms of surface tension calculated based on Butler's equation at 700 and 1100 K corresponded well with the experimental values for zinc content lower than 0.6 mole fraction. The surface tension calculated for alloys of higher zinc concentrations (0.6 < X{sub Zn} < 0.95) had a positive value of the surface tension temperature coefficient (d{sigma}/dT), which did not coincide with the experimental results. The density as well as molar volume of liquid In-Zn alloys showed almost identical behaviour like the ideal solutions. The observed little deviations were contained within assessed experimental errors.

  10. Effect of whitening toothpaste on titanium and titanium alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Bordin, Angelo Rafael de Vito; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2012-01-01

    Dental implants have increased the use of titanium and titanium alloys in prosthetic applications. Whitening toothpastes with peroxides are available for patients with high aesthetic requirements, but the effect of whitening toothpastes on titanium surfaces is not yet known, although titanium is prone to fluoride ion attack. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare Ti-5Ta alloy to cp Ti after toothbrushing with whitening and conventional toothpastes. Ti-5Ta (%wt) alloy was melted in an arc melting furnace and compared with cp Ti. Disks and toothbrush heads were embedded in PVC rings to be mounted onto a toothbrushing test apparatus. A total of 260,000 cycles were carried out at 250 cycles/minute under a load of 5 N on samples immersed in toothpaste slurries. Surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were evaluated before and after toothbrushing. One sample of each material/toothpaste was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and compared with a sample that had not been submitted to toothbrushing. Surface roughness increased significantly after toothbrushing, but no differences were noted after toothbrushing with different toothpastes. Toothbrushing did not significantly affect sample microhardness. The results suggest that toothpastes that contain and those that do not contain peroxides in their composition have different effects on cp Ti and Ti-5Ta surfaces. Although no significant difference was noted in the microhardness and roughness of the surfaces brushed with different toothpastes, both toothpastes increased roughness after toothbrushing.

  11. Laser Surface Alloying of Copper, Manganese, and Magnesium with Pure Aluminum Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiru, Woldetinsay G.; Sankar, M. Ravi; Dixit, Uday S.

    2016-03-01

    Laser surface alloying is one of the recent technologies used in the manufacturing sector for improving the surface properties of the metals. Light weight materials like aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, and magnesium alloys are used in the locomotive, aerospace, and structural applications. In the present work, an experimental study was conducted to improve the surface hardness of commercially pure aluminum plate. CO2 laser is used to melt pre-placed powders of pure copper, manganese, and magnesium. Microstructure of alloyed surface was analyzed using optical microscope. The best surface alloying was obtained at the optimum values of laser parameters, viz., laser power, scan speed, and laser beam diameter. In the alloyed region, microhardness increased from 30 HV0.5 to 430 HV0.5, while it was 60 HV0.5 in the heat-affected region. Tensile tests revealed some reduction in the strength and total elongation due to alloying. On the other hand, corrosion resistance improved.

  12. Electro-explosive alloying of VT6 alloy surface by boron carbide powder with the subsequent electron-beam treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, D. A.; Raykov, S. V.; Gromov, V. E.; Ivanov, Yu F.

    2015-11-01

    The formation of electro-explosive alloying zone with the thickness up to 50 μm has been revealed. It has been shown that it has a gradient structure, characterized by the decrease of carbon and boron concentration with the increase of the distance up to the treatment surface. The subsequent electron-beam treatment of alloying zone leads to flattening of alloying surface relief and is accompanied by the formation of a multilevel structure at the depth up to 30 μm, characterized by the interchange of some layers with a different level of alloying, having structure of a submicro- and nanoscale level.

  13. Evaluation of Sc-Bearing Aluminum Alloy C557 for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Dicus, Dennis L.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of the Al-Mg-Sc alloy C557 was evaluated to assess its potential for a broad range of aerospace applications, including airframe and launch vehicle structures. Of specific interest were mechanical properties at anticipated service temperatures and thermal stability of the alloy. Performance was compared with conventional airframe aluminum alloys and with other emerging aluminum alloys developed for specific service environments. Mechanical properties and metallurgical structure were evaluated for commercially rolled sheet in the as-received H116 condition and after thermal exposures at 107 C. Metallurgical analyses were performed to de.ne grain morphology and texture, strengthening precipitates, and to assess the effect of thermal exposure.

  14. [INVITED] Laser treatment of Inconel 718 alloy and surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser surface texturing of Inconel 718 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface is achieved by controlling the laser scanning speed and the laser output power. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated surface are analyzed using the analytical tools including optical, electron scanning, and atomic force microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardnes and friction coefficient of the laser treated surface are measured. Residual stress formed in the surface region is determined from the X-ray diffraction data. Surface hydrophobicity of the laser treated layer is assessed incorporating the sessile drop method. It is found that laser treated surface is free from large size asperities including cracks and the voids. Surface microhardness increases significantly after the laser treatment process, which is attributed to the dense layer formation at the surface under the high cooling rates, dissolution of Laves phase in the surface region, and formation of nitride species at the surface. Residual stress formed is compressive in the laser treated surface and friction coefficient reduces at the surface after the laser treatment process. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface results in surface texture composes of micro/nano-poles and pillars, which enhance the surface hydrophobicity.

  15. First principles analysis of hydrogen chemisorption on Pd-Re alloyed overlayers and alloyed surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallassana, Venkataraman; Neurock, Matthew; Hansen, Lars Bruno;

    2000-01-01

    Gradient corrected periodic density functional theory (DFT-GGA) slab calculations were used to examine the chemisorption of atomic hydrogen on various Pd-Re alloyed overlayers and uniformly alloyed surfaces. Adsorption was examined at 33% surface coverage, where atomic hydrogen preferred the three......-fold fcc sites. The binding energy of atomic hydrogen is observed to vary by as much as 0.7 eV due to Pd-Re interactions. The computed adsorption energies were found to be between -2.35 eV [for monolayer Pd-on-Re, i.e., Pd-ML/Re(0001)] and -3.05 eV [for Pd-33 Re-66/Pd(111)]. A d-band weighting scheme...... was developed to extend the Hammer-Norskov surface reactivity model [Surf. Sci. 343, 211 (1995)] to the analysis of bimetallic Pd-Re alloyed systems. The hydrogen chemisorption energies are correlated linearly to the surface d-band center, which is weighted appropriately by the d-band coupling matrix elements...

  16. Study on surface defects in milling Inconel 718 super alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liu; Chengzu, Ren; Guofeng, Wang; Yinwei, Yang; Lu, Zhang [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2015-04-15

    Nickel-based alloys have been extensively used as critical components in aerospace industry, especially in the key section of aero engine. In general, these sections are manufactured by milling process because most of them have complex forms. However, surface defects appear frequently in milling due to periodic impact force, which leads to the deterioration of the fatigue life. We conducted milling experiments under different cutting conditions and found that four kinds of defects, i.e., tear, cavity, build up edge (BUE) and groove, commonly appear on the machined surface. Based on the observed results, the morphology and generation regime of these defects are analyzed and the carbide particle cracking is discussed to explain the appearance of the nickel alloy defects. To study the effect of the cutting parameters on the severity of these surface defects, two qualitative indicators, which are named as average number of the defects per field and average area ratio of the defects per field, are presented and the influence laws are summarized based on the results correspondingly. This study is helpful for understanding the generation mechanism of the surface defects during milling process of nickel based super alloy.

  17. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-11-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  18. Surface magnetic anisotropy in amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, M.; Rubio, H.; Elbaile, L.; Iglesias, R. (Univ. de Oviedo (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)

    1993-11-01

    The total in-plane magnetic anisotropy and the in-plane surface magnetic anisotropy constants have been measured in nearly-zero magnetostrictive amorphous ribbons in as-quenched state. The magnetostatic energy of a two-dimensional square-lattice of parallelepipeds or ellipsoids, whose dimensions are determined by the parameters characterizing the roughness, is evaluated. From the results obtained, they can conclude that the in-plane surface anisotropy can be magnetostatic in origin but it has little influence on the total in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the ribbon.

  19. Surface tension of liquid Au-Bi-Sn alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The surface tension of a promising lead-free solder Au-Bi-Sn alloys was investigated both by the sessile-drop method and calculation. Experimental measurements were carried out for two cross-sections with the constant gold to bismuth ration of 1:1 and 1:2. For all the investigated compositions, decrease of the surface tension is observed with increasing temperature. Meanwhile, the surface tension values were also calculated based on Butler's equation, with using the newest research on thermodynamics data of...

  20. Surface tension of molten Ni-(Cr, Co, W) alloys and segregation of elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; LIU Lan-xiao; YANG Ren-hui; ZHAO Hong-kai; FANG Liang; ZHANG Chi

    2008-01-01

    Surface tension of molten Ni-(Cr, Co, W) alloys was measured at the temperature of 1 773-1 873 K in an Ar+3%H2 atmosphere using an improved sessile drop method. The segregation of Cr, Co and W in alloy was calculated and analyzed using Butler's equation. The results show a good agreement between measured and calculated data. The surface tension of molten Ni-(Cr,Co, W) alloys decreases with increasing temperature. In Ni-(Cr, Co, W) alloys, the element with lower surface tension tends to segregate on the surface of molten alloy while that with higher surface tension tends to segregate inside of the molten alloy. The larger the differences in surface tension, atom radius and electron configuration between solvent and solute are, the more significant the segregation is. As a result, Ni segregates onto the surface and Co and W segregate inside the alloys.

  1. EFFECT OF PLASMA CUTTING PARAMETERS UPON SHAPES OF BEARING CURVE OF C45 STEEL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skoczylas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the effect of plasma cutting technological parameters upon the shape of bearing curves and the parameters of the curve. The topography of surface formed by plasma cutting were analyzed. For measuring surface roughness and determining the bearing curve the appliance T8000 RC120 – 400 by Hommel-Etamic was used together with software.

  2. Wear and Corrosion Properties of Mo Surface-modiifed Layer in TiNi Alloy Prepared by Plasma Surface Alloying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongqian; WANG Zhenxia; YANG Hongyu; SHAN Xiaolin; LIU Xiaoping; YU Shengwang; HE Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance and restrain nickel release of TiNi alloys, the Mo modified layers on TiNi substrates were obtained using the double glow plasma surface alloying technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to investigate the morphology, composition and structure. Microhardness test and scratch test were performed to analyze the microhardness and coating/substrate adhesion. Tribological and electrochemical behaviors of the Mo modified layers on TiNi were tested by the reciprocating wear instrument and electrochemical measurement system. The Ni concentrations in Hanks’ solution where surface electrochemical tests took place were measured by mass spectrometry. The surface-modiifed layer contained a Mo deposition layer and a Mo diffusion layer. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the modiifed layers were composed of Mo, MoTi, MoNi, and Ti2Ni. The microhardnesses of the Mo modiifed layers treated at 900℃and 950℃ were 832.8 HV and 762.4 HV, respectively, which was about 3 times the microhardness of the TiNi substrate. Scratch tests indicated that the modified layers possessed good adhesion with the substrate. Compared with as-received TiNi alloy, the modiifed alloys exhibited signiifcant improvement of wear resistance against Si3N4 with low normal loads during the sliding tests. Mass spectrometry displayed that the Mo alloy layers had successfully inhibited the Ni release into the body.

  3. Tensile and impact behaviour of BATMAN II steels, Ti-bearing reduced activation martensitic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filacchioni, G.; Casagrande, E.; De Angelis, U.; De Santis, G.; Ferrara, D.; Pilloni, L.

    Two series of Reduced Activation Ferrous alloys (RAF) have been produced and studied by Casaccia's Laboratories. These martensitic alloys are named BATMAN steels. They are among the few presently developed RAF materials to exploit Ti as a carbide forming and grain size stabilizing element instead of Ta. In this work their mechanical properties are illustrated.

  4. Process development of making bearings and bushings from continuous-cast SAE 660 bronze alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chill, J. L.

    A process for making bearings and bushings offers considerable potential. The ability to minimize machining and scrap loss, especially for middle and large diameter bearings, should help to lower manufacturing costs appreciably. In addition, the substantial improvement of mechanical properties resulting from rolling offers the increased performance over as-cast SAE 660 bronze bearings in terms of better load carrying ability and wear resistance.

  5. Interface properties and phase formation between surface coated SKD61 and aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Se-Weon CHOI; Young-Chan KIM; Se-Hun CHANG; Ik-Hyun OH; Joon-Sik PARK; Chang-Seog KANG

    2009-01-01

    The intermediate phase formation and surface protection effects between SKD61 die mold alloys and aluminum alloys were investigated during a simulated die-casting process. The surface coatings of SKD61 alloy were carried out via Si pack cementation coatings at 900 ℃ for 10 h and the e-FeSi phase formed. When the coated SKD61 alloy was dipped in the liquid aluminum alloy (ALDC12), the surface coated SKD61 alloys showed better surface properties compared with uncoated SKD61 alloys, i.e., the intermediate phases (FeSiAl compound) were not produced for the coated SKD61 alloy. The coating layer of e-FeSi served as a diffusion barrier for the formation of FeSiAl compounds.

  6. Effect of SPD surface layer on plasma nitriding of Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farokhzadeh, K.; Qian, J.; Edrisy, A., E-mail: edrisy@uwindsor.ca

    2014-01-01

    A severe plastic deformation (SPD) surface layer was introduced by shot peening to enhance the nitriding kinetics in low-temperature (600 °C) plasma nitriding of Ti–6Al–4V alloy. The effect of this pretreatment on the nitrided microstructures and phase compositions was investigated by analytical microscopy techniques e.g. scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Microstructural investigations revealed the formation of a compound layer consisting of a 0.6 µm thick nanocrystalline TiN layer followed by a 0.5 µm thick layer of Ti{sub 2}N with a larger grain size (0.1–0.5 µm). The development of TiN nanograins was attributed to accelerated nitriding kinetics due to the increased preferential nucleation sites in the SPD layer. Furthermore, the thickness of nitrogen diffusion zone (DZ) increased by 50% in the pretreated plasma nitrided alloy when compared with that of the untreated one. This is likely promoted by an increase in density of subsurface microstructural defects, such as twins and grain boundaries. The sliding behaviour and interfacial adhesion of the nitrided surfaces were evaluated by micro-scratch tests within a load range of 1–20 N. Compared with untreated-plasma-nitrided alloy, the pretreated nitrided surfaces exhibited a higher load bearing capacity and better interfacial bonding. They exhibited no chipping or spallation, even after multiple sliding passes at the highest applied load of 20 N in contrary to the untreated plasma nitrided surfaces.

  7. Monitorizing nitinol alloy surface reactions for biofouling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinu, C.Z. [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Photenhauerstrasse 108, Dresden (Germany); Dinca, V.C. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: valentina.dinca@inflpr.ro; Soare, S. [UNIBUC-MICROGEN, University of Bucharest, Centre for Research, Education and Consulting in Microbiology, Genetics and Biotechnology (MICROGEN), Splaiul Independentei, 91-95, RO 76201 Bucharest (Romania); Moldovan, A. [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Photenhauerstrasse 108, Dresden (Germany); Smarandache, D. [UNIBUC-MICROGEN, University of Bucharest, Centre for Research, Education and Consulting in Microbiology, Genetics and Biotechnology (MICROGEN), Splaiul Independentei, 91-95, RO 76201 Bucharest (Romania); Scarisoareanu, N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Barbalat, A. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Birjega, R. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania); DiStefano, V. Ferrari [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Electronics, Rome (Italy)

    2007-07-31

    Growth and deposition of unwanted bacteria on implant metal alloys affect their use as biomedical samples. Monitoring any bacterial biofilm accumulation will provide early countermeasures. For a reliable antifouling strategy we prepared nitinol (NiTi) thin films on Ti-derived substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. As the microstructure of Ti-alloy is dictated by the tensile strength, fatigue and the fracture toughness we tested the use of hydrogen as an alloying element. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigated the crystalline structure, chemical composition and respectively the surface morphology of the nitinol hydrogen and hydrogen-free samples. Moreover, the alloys were integrated and tested using a cellular metric and their responses were systematic evaluated and quantified. Our attractive approach is meant to select the suitable components for an effective and trustworthy anti-fouling strategy. A greater understanding of such processes should lead to novel and effective control methods that would improve in the future implant stability and capabilities.

  8. Monitorizing nitinol alloy surface reactions for biofouling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, C. Z.; Dinca, V. C.; Soare, S.; Moldovan, A.; Smarandache, D.; Scarisoareanu, N.; Barbalat, A.; Birjega, R.; Dinescu, M.; DiStefano, V. Ferrari

    2007-07-01

    Growth and deposition of unwanted bacteria on implant metal alloys affect their use as biomedical samples. Monitoring any bacterial biofilm accumulation will provide early countermeasures. For a reliable antifouling strategy we prepared nitinol (NiTi) thin films on Ti-derived substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. As the microstructure of Ti-alloy is dictated by the tensile strength, fatigue and the fracture toughness we tested the use of hydrogen as an alloying element. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigated the crystalline structure, chemical composition and respectively the surface morphology of the nitinol hydrogen and hydrogen-free samples. Moreover, the alloys were integrated and tested using a cellular metric and their responses were systematic evaluated and quantified. Our attractive approach is meant to select the suitable components for an effective and trustworthy anti-fouling strategy. A greater understanding of such processes should lead to novel and effective control methods that would improve in the future implant stability and capabilities.

  9. Surface hardness behaviour of Ti–Al–Mo alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raja Ram Prasad; Shankar Azad; A K Singh; R K Mandal

    2008-08-01

    The microhardness characteristics of various micro-constituents formed in the Ti–Al–Mo alloys have been investigated. Four alloys having compositions, Ti–40Al–2Mo, Ti–42Al–2Mo, Ti–40Al–6Mo and Ti–42Al–6Mo, have been chosen for this purpose. All of these were heat treated at 1300°C and 1400°C for 1 h and water quenched. All the specimens after above heat treatments have displayed load independent Vickers hardness values (VHN) around 300 g of applied load. The average surface hardness characteristic of the alloys is largely found to be dictated by the phases that are present. The microstructural specific VHN values vary between 600 and 750. The indentation behaviour, however, is governed by the morphologies and length scales of microstructures. The most remarkable finding of the present study pertains to the formation of shear bands around the periphery of the indenter for a finer basket weave microstructure in the Ti–40Al–2Mo. The cluster of finely located slip steps was clearly seen. Such a report is lacking in literature in this class of alloys.

  10. Surface Corrosion Resistance in Turning of Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the issues associated with implant surface modification. We propose a method to form the oxide film on implant surfaces by dry turning to generate heat and injecting oxygen-rich gas at the turning-tool flank. The morphology, roughness, composition, and thickness of the oxide films in an oxygen-rich atmosphere were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical profiling, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Electrochemical methods were used to study the corrosion resistance of the modified surfaces. The corrosion resistance trends, analyzed relative to the oxide film thickness, indicate that the oxide film thickness is the major factor affecting the corrosion resistance of titanium alloys in a simulated body fluid (SBF. Turning in an oxygen-rich atmosphere can form a thick oxide film on the implant surface. The thickness of surface oxide films processed at an oxygen concentration of 80% was improved to 4.6 times that of films processed at an oxygen concentration of 21%; the free corrosion potential shifted positively by 0.357 V, which significantly improved the corrosion resistance of titanium alloys in the SBF. Therefore, the proposed method may (partially replace the subsequent surface oxidation. This method is significant for biomedical development because it shortens the process flow, improves the efficiency, and lowers the cost.

  11. Surface modification of Ni–Ti alloys for stent application after magnetoelectropolishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Puneet; Musaramthota, Vishal; Munroe, Norman [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Datye, Amit [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916 (United States); Dua, Rupak [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Haider, Waseem [Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas-Pan American, TX (United States); McGoron, Anthony [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Rokicki, Ryszard [Electrobright, Macungie, PA 18062 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The constant demand for new implant materials and the multidisciplinary design approaches for stent applications have expanded vastly over the past decade. The biocompatibility of these implant materials is a function of their surface characteristics such as morphology, surface chemistry, roughness, surface charge and wettability. These surface characteristics can directly influence the material's corrosion resistance and biological processes such as endothelialization. Surface morphology affects the thermodynamic stability of passivating oxides, which renders corrosion resistance to passivating alloys. Magnetoelectropolishing (MEP) is known to alter the morphology and composition of surface films, which assist in improving corrosion resistance of Nitinol alloys. This work aims at analyzing the surface characteristics of MEP Nitinol alloys by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wettability of the alloys was determined by contact angle measurements and the mechanical properties were assessed by Nanoindentation. Improved mechanical properties were observed with the addition of alloying elements. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to determine the corrosion susceptibility. Further, the alloys were tested for their cytotoxicity and cellular growth with endothelial cells. Improved corrosion resistance and cellular viability were observed with MEP surface treated alloys. - Highlights: • Magnetoelectropolishing (MEP) reduces the surface asperities of Nitinol alloys and formed stable oxides on the surface. • Improved corrosion resistance and reduced Nickel ion leaching were observed for MEP surfaces. • Ni–Ti alloyed with Cr showed improved mechanical properties. • Enhanced endothelial cell proliferation on ternary Nitinol alloys.

  12. Robust biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingjie; Huang, Tao; Lei, Jinglei; He, Jianxin; Qu, Linfeng; Huang, Peiling; Zhou, Wei; Li, Nianbing; Pan, Fusheng

    2015-01-28

    The following facile approach has been developed to prepare a biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface with high stabilities and strong resistances on 2024 Al alloy that are robust to harsh environments. First, a simple hydrothermal treatment in a La(NO3)3 aqueous solution was used to fabricate ginkgo-leaf like nanostructures, resulting in a superhydrophilic surface on 2024 Al. Then a low-surface-energy compound, dodecafluoroheptyl-propyl-trimethoxylsilane (Actyflon-G502), was used to modify the superhydrophilic 2024 Al, changing the surface character from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. The water contact angle (WCA) of such a superhydrophobic surface reaches up to 160°, demonstrating excellent superhydrophobicity. Moreover, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface shows high stabilities in air-storage, chemical and thermal environments, and has strong resistances to UV irradiation, corrosion, and abrasion. The WCAs of such a surface almost remain unchanged (160°) after storage in air for 80 days, exposure in 250 °C atmosphere for 24 h, and being exposed under UV irradiation for 24 h, are more than 144° whether in acidic or alkali medium, and are more than 150° after 48 h corrosion and after abrasion under 0.98 kPa for 1000 mm length. The remarkable durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface can be attributed to its stable structure and composition, which are due to the existence of lanthanum (hydr)oxides in surface layer. The robustness of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface to harsh environments will open their much wider applications. The fabricating approach for such robust superhydrophobic surface can be easily extended to other metals and alloys.

  13. Study on tribological properties of multi-layer surface texture on Babbitt alloys surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongya; Zhao, Feifei; Li, Yan; Li, Pengyang; Zeng, Qunfeng; Dong, Guangneng

    2016-12-01

    To improve tribological properties of Babbitt alloys, multi-layer surface texture consisted of the main grooves and secondary micro-dimples are fabricated on the Babbitt substrate through laser pulse ablation. The tribological behaviors of multi-layer surface texture are investigated using a rotating type pin-on-disc tribo-meter under variation sliding speeds, and the film pressure distributions on the textured surfaces are simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for elucidating the possible mechanisms. The results suggest that: (i) the multi-layer surface texture can reduce friction coefficient of Babbitt alloy, which has lowest friction coefficient of 0.03, in case of the groove parameter of 300 μm width and 15% of area density; (ii) the improvement effect may be more sensitive to the groove area density and the siding speed, and the textured surface with lower area density has lower friction coefficient under high sliding speed. Based on the reasons of (i) the secondary micro-dimples on Babbitt alloy possesses a hydrophobicity surface and (ii) the CFD analysis indicates that main grooves enhancing hydrodynamic effect, thus the multi-layer surface texture is regarded as dramatically improve the lubricating properties of the Babbitt alloy.

  14. Thermodynamics and surface properties of liquid Al-Ga and Al-Ge alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anusionwu, B.C. [Abdus Salam Int. Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Federal University of Technology, Department of Physics, Owerri (Nigeria); Adebayo, G.A. [Abdus Salam Int. Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); University of Agriculture, Department of Physics, Abeokuta (Nigeria); Madu, C.A. [Federal University of Technology, Department of Physics, Owerri (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    The surface properties of Al-Ga and Al-Ge liquid alloys have been theoretically investigated at a temperature of 1100 K and 1220 K respectively. For the Al-Ga system, the quasi chemical model for regular alloy and a model for phase segregating alloy systems were applied, while for the Al-Ge system the quasi chemical model for regular and compound forming binary alloys were applied. In the case of Al-Ga, the models for the regular alloys and that for the phase segregating alloys produced the same value of order energy and same values of thermodynamic and surface properties, while for the Al-Ge system, the model for the regular alloy reproduced better the thermodynamic properties of the alloy. The model for the compound forming systems showed a qualitative trend with the measured values of the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Ge alloy and suggests the presence of a weak complex of the form Al{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}. The surface concentrations for the alloys show that Ga manifests some level of surface segregation in Al-Ga liquid alloy while the surface concentration of Ge in Al-Ge liquid alloy showed a near Roultian behavior below 0.8 atomic fraction of Ge. (orig.)

  15. Thermodynamics and surface properties of liquid Al-Ga and Al-Ge alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusionwu, B. C.; Adebayo, G. A.; Madu, C. A.

    2009-11-01

    The surface properties of Al-Ga and Al-Ge liquid alloys have been theoretically investigated at a temperature of 1100 K and 1220 K respectively. For the Al-Ga system, the quasi chemical model for regular alloy and a model for phase segregating alloy systems were applied, while for the Al-Ge system the quasi chemical model for regular and compound forming binary alloys were applied. In the case of Al-Ga, the models for the regular alloys and that for the phase segregating alloys produced the same value of order energy and same values of thermodynamic and surface properties, while for the Al-Ge system, the model for the regular alloy reproduced better the thermodynamic properties of the alloy. The model for the compound forming systems showed a qualitative trend with the measured values of the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Ge alloy and suggests the presence of a weak complex of the form Al2Ge3. The surface concentrations for the alloys show that Ga manifests some level of surface segregation in Al-Ga liquid alloy while the surface concentration of Ge in Al-Ge liquid alloy showed a near Roultian behavior below 0.8 atomic fraction of Ge.

  16. Increased Wear Resistance of Surfaces of Rotation Bearings Methods Strengthening-Smoothing Processing

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Trends of modern engineering put forward higher requirements for quality bearings. This is especially true on production of bearings for special purposes with high speeds of rotation and resource. Much more opportunities in the technology management quality surface layers appear in the application of smoothing-strengthening methods, based on superficial plastic deformation. Working models of cutting lathes, grinders and tool smoothing sequence revealed the formation of...

  17. Surface Modification Of The High Temperature Porous Sliding Bearings With Solid Lubricant Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A surface modification of stainless steel bearing sleeves is developed to improve the tribology characteristics at high temperature. Solid lubricant nano- and microparticles are applied for this purpose. To create the quasi-hydrodynamic lubrication regimes, the solid lubricant powder layer is made by developed pressure impregnation technique. Porous sliding bearing sleeve prototypes were made by powder metallurgy technique. The purpose of the paper is to define the friction and wear character...

  18. Electronic structure of disordered alloys, surfaces and interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Šob, Mojmír; Weinberger, Peter

    1997-01-01

    At present, there is an increasing interest in the prediction of properties of classical and new materials such as substitutional alloys, their surfaces, and metallic or semiconductor multilayers. A detailed understanding based on a thus of the utmost importance for fu­ microscopic, parameter-free approach is ture developments in solid state physics and materials science. The interrela­ tion between electronic and structural properties at surfaces plays a key role for a microscopic understanding of phenomena as diverse as catalysis, corrosion, chemisorption and crystal growth. Remarkable progress has been made in the past 10-15 years in the understand­ ing of behavior of ideal crystals and their surfaces by relating their properties to the underlying electronic structure as determined from the first principles. Similar studies of complex systems like imperfect surfaces, interfaces, and mul­ tilayered structures seem to be accessible by now. Conventional band-structure methods, however, are of limited use ...

  19. Surface passivation of aluminum alloy 6061 with gaseous trichlorosilane: A surface investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngongang, Rickielle, E-mail: rickielle.ngongang@airliquide.com [Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme, Air Liquide, 1 Chemin de la Porte des Loges Les-Loges en Josas, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas (France); Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, UMR CNRS 7197, UPMC (Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6), site d’Ivry, 3 rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Marceau, Eric; Carrier, Xavier; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Methivier, Christophe [Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, UMR CNRS 7197, UPMC (Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6), site d’Ivry, 3 rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Blanc, Jean-Luc; Carre, Martine [Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme, Air Liquide, 1 Chemin de la Porte des Loges Les-Loges en Josas, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    2014-02-15

    A molecular-scale investigation of the interaction at room temperature between gaseous trichlorosilane (HSiCl{sub 3}), used as a passivating agent, and surfaces of aluminum alloy AA6061 in a polished or hydroxylated state is conducted. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provide information on the topography and morphology of AA6061 before and after hydroxylation and surface passivation, while surface chemistry has been investigated by Polarization Modulation Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Oxidation and hydroxylation of the polished alloy surface in boiling water strongly modifies the roughness of the surface, with formation of platelets and needles of oxyhydroxide AlOOH. PM-IRRAS and XPS reveal that, upon adsorption, HSiCl{sub 3} dissociates and mainly forms HSiOH{sub n}(OAl){sub 3−n}, HSi(OSi){sub n}(OAl){sub 3−n} and condensed HSiO{sub x} species, by reaction with -OH groups from the AlOOH surface phase. The amount of deposited Si-containing species is larger on the rough surface of the hydroxylated alloy and this deposit is accompanied by a decrease of the amount of free -OH groups evidenced by PM-IRRAS. These results can find applications in the field of functionalization of aluminum alloys. It is suggested that a homogeneous oxidation of the alloy surface prior to exposure to gaseous HSiCl{sub 3} may enhance the adsorption of the passivating agent.

  20. The surface spin polarization of Co-based Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetzer, Roman; Wuestenberg, Jan-Peter; Neuschwander, Sabine; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cinchetti, Mirko [University of Kaiserslautern (Germany). Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS; Jourdan, Martin; Herbort, Christian; Vilanova Vidal, Enrique; Jakob, Gerhard [University of Mainz (Germany). Institute of Physics

    2010-07-01

    Co-based Heusler alloys belong mainly to the family of half-metallic ferromagnets (HMFs). The predicted full spin polarization at the Fermi level due to the minority spin band gap makes this class of materials highly interesting for application in the field of spintronics. Thus, the characterization of the surface of Co-based Heusler compounds is extremely relevant for understanding and improving the performance of Heusler-based spintronics devices, like tunnel-magnetoresistance (TMR) junctions. Using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low energy spin polarized electron photoemission, we systematically studied the correlation between chemical composition and spin polarisation of the surface. For various Co-based Heusler alloys, e.g. Co{sub 2}CrAl, Co{sub 2}MnAl and Co{sub 2}FeGa{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5}, we found different degrees of spin-polarization at the very surface region. Reasons for the distinct deviation from the predicted 100% spin polarization and the dependence on the specific surface preparation procedure are discussed.

  1. Surface Characterization of Laser Surface Melted NiTi Shape Memory Alloy in Hanks' Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUIZhen-duo; ZHUSheng-li; MANHauchung; YANGXian-jin

    2004-01-01

    The surface of Ti-50.8Ni at% shape memory alloy was melted by an Nd-YAG laser. The Ti/Ni and Ti4+/ Tiatomic concentration ratios at the surface were changed significantly. The Ni ion release rate of the laser melted surface was much lower than that of the mechanical polished samples. A calcium-phosphorous layer with high Ca/P ratio was detected after immersion in Hanks' solution.

  2. Surface Characterization of Laser Surface Melted NiTi Shape Memory Alloy in Hanks' Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhen-duo; ZHU Sheng-li; MAN Hauchung; YANG Xian-jin

    2004-01-01

    The surface of Ti-50.8Ni at% shape memory alloy was melted by an Nd-YAG laser. The Ti/Ni and Ti4+/Ti atomic concentration ratios at the surface were changed significantly. The Ni ion release rate of the laser melted surface was much lower than that of the mechanical polished samples. A calcium-phosphorous layer with high Ca/P ratio was detected after immersion in Hanks' solution.

  3. The use of slow strain rate technique for studying stress corrosion cracking of an advanced silver-bearing aluminum-lithium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frefer, Abdulbaset Ali; Abosdell, Alajale M.; Raddad, Bashir S.

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of naturally aged advanced silver-bearing Al-Li alloy in NaCl solution was investigated using slow strain rate test (SSRT) method. The SSRT's were conducted at different strain rates and applied potentials at room temperature. The results were discussed based on percent reductions in tensile elongation in a SCC-causing environment over those in air tended to express the SCC susceptbility of the alloy under study at T3. The SCC behavior of the alloy was also discussed based on the microstructural and fractographic examinations.

  4. The use of slow strain rate technique for studying stress corrosion cracking of an advanced silver-bearing aluminum-lithium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frefer, Abdulbaset Ali; Raddad, Bashir S. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering/Tripoli University, Tripoli (Libya); Abosdell, Alajale M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering/Mergeb University, Garaboli (Libya)

    2013-12-16

    In the present study, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of naturally aged advanced silver-bearing Al-Li alloy in NaCl solution was investigated using slow strain rate test (SSRT) method. The SSRT’s were conducted at different strain rates and applied potentials at room temperature. The results were discussed based on percent reductions in tensile elongation in a SCC-causing environment over those in air tended to express the SCC susceptbility of the alloy under study at T3. The SCC behavior of the alloy was also discussed based on the microstructural and fractographic examinations.

  5. Laser surface alloying of aluminum (AA1200) with Ni and SiC Powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An Nd:YAG laser was used for surface alloying of aluminum AA1200. The alloying powder was a mixture of Ni and SiC in different ratios. A study of the microstructures obtained after alloying was conducted using optical and scanning electron...

  6. Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys for Orthopaedic Applications: A Review on Corrosion, Biocompatibility and Surface Modifications.

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sankalp; Curtin, James; Duffy, Brendan; Jaiswal, Swarna

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been extensively explored as potential biodegradable implant materials for orthopaedic applications (e.g. Fracture fixation). However, the rapid corrosion of Mg based alloys in physiological conditions has delayed their introduction for therapeutic applications to date. The present review focuses on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications of biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Initially, the corrosion behaviour of Mg alloys an...

  7. Constitution modeling and deformation behavior of yttrium bearing TiAl alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuyong; YANG Fei; KONG Fantao; XIAO Shulong

    2011-01-01

    The deformation flow behaviors of Ti-45Al-5.4V-3.6Nb-0.3Y alloy at different temperatures and strain rates were studied by isothermal compressing simulation test. The apparent activation energy of deformation was calculated to be 402.096 kJ/mol and constitutive equation was established to describe the flow behavior. Microstructure and flow softening observations exhibited that Ti-45Al-5.4V-3.6Nb-0.3Y alloy had bad hot workability at low temperature (lower than 1 100 ℃) and high strain rate (higher than 0.5 s-1) characterized by localization deformation and instability. With deformation temperature higher than 1 150 ℃ and strain rate lower than 0.01 s-1, the alloy owned good hot deformability, and plenty of dynamic recrystallized grains could be observed in the deformed microstructures.

  8. Research on depositing Ni45 alloy on titanium alloy surface by electrospark deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Su Guiqiao; You Tao; Zhang Chunhui

    2008-01-01

    Taking Ni45 bar as electrode, a strengthened layer of thickness up to 50 μm was built up on BT20 titanium alloy matrix by means of electrospark deposition. Results of phase analysis by using of X-ray diffraction confirmed that the deposition layer was composed mostly of three phases, NiTi, NiTi2 and Ti. The surface microhardness of the deposition layer was up to 910 HV0.05, about 2.7 times as high as that of the matrix. The hardness at the cross-section of the entire deposition layer showed a...

  9. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity analysis of plasma sprayed coatings on titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zia Ur; Shabib, Ishraq; Haider, Waseem

    2016-10-01

    In the realm of biomaterials, metallic materials are widely used for load bearing joints due to their superior mechanical properties. Despite the necessity for long term metallic implants, there are limitations to their prolonged use. Naturally, oxides of titanium have low solubilities and form passive oxide film spontaneously. However, some inclusion and discontinuity spots in oxide film make implant to adopt the decisive nature. These defects heighten the dissolution of metal ions from the implant surface, which results in diminishing bio-integration of titanium implant. To increase the long-term metallic implant stability, surface modifications of titanium alloys are being carried out. In the present study, biomimetic coatings of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and titanium were applied to the surface of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V. Surface morphology and surface chemistry were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out in order to study their electrochemical behavior. Moreover, cytotoxicity analysis was conducted for osteoblast cells by performing MTS assay. It is concluded that both hydroxyapatite and titanium coatings enhance corrosion resistance and improve cytocompatibility.

  10. Controllable Catalysis with Nanoparticles: Bimetallic Alloy Systems and Surface Adsorbates

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tianyou

    2016-05-16

    Transition metal nanoparticles are privileged materials in catalysis due to their high specific surface areas and abundance of active catalytic sites. While many of these catalysts are quite useful, we are only beginning to understand the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Opening the “black box” of nanoparticle catalysis is essential to achieve the ultimate goal of catalysis by design. In this Perspective we highlight recent work addressing the topic of controlled catalysis with bimetallic alloy and “designer” adsorbate-stabilized metal nanoparticles.

  11. Electrochemical corrosion of a noble metal-bearing alloy-oxide composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X; Ebert, W. L.; Indacochea, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    The effects of added Ru and Pd on the microstructure and electrochemical behaviour of a composite material made by melting those metals with AISI 410 stainless steel, Zr, Mo, and lanthanide oxides were assessed using electrochemical and microscopic methods The lanthanide oxides reacted with Zr to form durable lanthanide zirconates and Mo alloyed with steel to form FeMoCr intermetallics. The noble metals alloyed with the steel to provide solid solution strengthening and inhibit carbide/nitride formation. A passive film formed during electrochemical tests in acidic NaCl solution, but became less effective as corrosion progressed and regions over the intermetallics eventually failed.

  12. Surface integrity after pickling and anodization of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesse, Eric; Mabru, Catherine; Arurault, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    The surface integrity of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was studied at different stages of surface treatments, especially pickling and compact anodization, through surface characteristics potentially worsening fatigue resistance.

  13. Rotor-bearing system integrated with shape memory alloy springs for ensuring adaptable dynamics and damping enhancement-Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2016-01-01

    Helical pseudoelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) springs are integrated into a dynamic system consisting of a rigid rotor supported by passive magnetic bearings. The aim is to determine the utility of SMAs for vibration attenuation via their mechanical hysteresis, and for adaptation of the dynamic ...

  14. Mechanical behavior of aluminum-bearing ferritic alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guria, Ankan

    Nuclear power currently provides about 13% of electrical power worldwide. Nuclear reactors generating this power traditionally use Zirconium (Zr) based alloys as the fuel cladding material. Exothermic reaction of Zr with steam under accident conditions may lead to production of hydrogen with the possibility of catastrophic consequences. Following the Fukushima-Daiichi incident, the exploration of accident-tolerant fuel cladding materials accelerated. Aluminum-rich (around 5 wt. %) ferritic steels such as Fecralloy, APMT(TM) and APM(TM) are considered as potential materials for accident-tolerant fuel cladding applications. These materials create an aluminum-based oxide scale protecting the alloy at elevated temperatures. Tensile deformation behavior of the above alloys was studied at different temperatures (25-500 °C) at a strain rate of 10-3 s-1 and correlated with microstructural characteristics. Higher strength and decent ductility of APMT(TM) led to further investigation of the alloy at various combination of strain rates and temperatures followed by fractography and detailed microscopic analyses. Serrations appeared in the stress-strain curves of APMT(TM) and Fecralloy steel tested in a limited temperature range (250-400 °C). The appearance of serrations is explained on the basis of dynamic strain aging (DSA) effect due to solute-dislocation interactions. The research in this study is being performed using the funds received from the US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP).

  15. Corrosion of Cr bearing low alloy pipeline steel in CO{sub 2} environment at static and flowing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lining, E-mail: xulining@ustb.edu.cn [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Guo, Shaoqiang [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Chang, Wei [CNOOC Research Institute, Beijing 100027 (China); Chen, Taihui [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Hu, Lihua [CNOOC Research Institute, Beijing 100027 (China); Lu, Minxu [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-04-01

    We study the corrosion performance of Cr bearing low alloy pipeline steel (Cr3MoNi) in CO{sub 2} saturated formation water, under both static and flowing conditions. Cross-sectional morphologies of corrosion scales at progressively increased test duration are observed by scanning electron microscopy. The characteristic of the corrosion scales are investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our results show that the corrosion rate of Cr3MoNi steel at flowing condition is higher than that of static condition, and the degree of Cr enrichment in the scales at flowing condition is also higher. Flow also makes ions distribute evenly in the solution close to the specimen, leading to a uniform distribution of Cr compound in the amorphous corrosion scales. In this way, flow suppresses the presence of the potential pits and also leads to a more flat scale/substrate interface.

  16. Investigation of Surface Treatments to Improve the Friction and Wear of Titanium Alloys for Diesel Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cooley, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Melanie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bansal, Dinesh G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    2012-09-20

    This final report summarizes experimental and analytical work performed under an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, and UT-Battelle LLC. The project was directed by Jerry Gibbs, of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Propulsion Materials Program, with management by D. P. Stinton and J. A. Haynes of ORNL. Participants included Peter J. Blau (Principal Investigator), Kevin M. Cooley (senior technician), Melanie J. Kirkham (materials scientist) of the Materials Science and Technology Division or ORNL, and Dinesh G. Bansal, a post doctoral fellow employed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and who, at the time of this writing, is an engineer with Cummins, Inc. This report covers a three-year effort that involved two stages. In the first stage, and after a review of the literature and discussions with surface treatment experts, a series of candidate alloys and surface treatments for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was selected for initial screening. After pre-screening using an ASTM standard test method, the more promising surface treatments were tested in Phase 2 using a variable loading apparatus that was designed and built to simulate the changing load patterns in a typical connecting rod bearing. Information on load profiles from the literature was supplemented with the help of T.C. Chen and Howard Savage of Cummins, Inc. Considering the dynamic and evolving nature of materials technology, this report presents a snapshot of commercial and experimental bearing surface technologies for titanium alloys that were available during the period of this work. Undoubtedly, further improvements in surface engineering methods for titanium will evolve.

  17. Surface analysis, hydrogen adsorption and electrochemical performance of alkali-reduce treated hydrogen storage alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫祥; 徐铸德; 涂江平; 李海洋; 陈石; 袁俊; 鲍世宁

    2002-01-01

    The hydrogen storage alloy powders (MlNi4.0Co0.6Al0.4, Ml=rich-La mischmetal) were treated in a hot 6mol/L KOH+0.02mol/L KBH4 solution, the surface compositions and chemical states of the treated and untreated alloys were analyzed by XPS and EDX, the hydrogen adsorption on the surface of these alloys was evaluated by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), the effects of the surface treatment on the electrochemical performances of the alloy electrodes were investigated. The results show that the hydrogen adsorption is greatly strengthened by the surface modification, and hence leads to marked improvement in the electrocatalytic activity, the treated alloy exhibits higher exchange current density and lower apparent activation energy for the hydrogen electrode reaction than the untreated alloy.

  18. Evolution of Fe Bearing Intermetallics During DC Casting and Homogenization of an Al-Mg-Si Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Grant, P. S.; O'Reilly, K. A. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of iron (Fe) bearing intermetallics (Fe-IMCs) during direct chill casting and homogenization of a grain-refined 6063 aluminum-magnesium-silicon (Al-Mg-Si) alloy has been studied. The as-cast and homogenized microstructure contained Fe-IMCs at the grain boundaries and within Al grains. The primary α-Al grain size, α-Al dendritic arm spacing, IMC particle size, and IMC three-dimensional (3D) inter-connectivity increased from the edge to the center of the as-cast billet; both α c-AlFeSi and β-AlFeSi Fe-IMCs were identified, and overall α c-AlFeSi was predominant. For the first time in industrial billets, the different Fe-rich IMCs have been characterized into types based on their 3D chemistry and morphology. Additionally, the role of β-AlFeSi in nucleating Mg2Si particles has been identified. After homogenization, α c-AlFeSi predominated across the entire billet cross section, with marked changes in the 3D morphology and strong reductions in inter-connectivity, both supporting a recovery in alloy ductility.

  19. Direct Extraction of Ti and Ti Alloy from Ti-Bearing Dust Slag in Molten CaCl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyi; Zhao, Chong; Li, Junqi; Yang, Shufeng

    2016-06-01

    Using process of solid oxygen-ion conducting membrane (SOM), titanium metal and its alloy can be prepared directly from Ti-bearing dust slag by immersing it in the molten CaCl2 at 1,100℃, which has been proposed by constant voltage of 3.5 V for 2-6 h. The dust slag was ball-milled and pressed into pellets, then employed as the cathode, while the liquid copper, which was saturated with graphite powder and encased in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) tube, acted as the anode. The effect of forming pressure and electrolytic time on products was analyzed. The results show that the content of titanium increased with electrolytic time and the characteristic morphology presents as granule. Ti-Fe alloy can be obtained from Ti-Fe residue by 6 h electrolysis. For titanium-rich residue, when the forming pressure of pellets decreased from 6 to 3 MPa, only electrolysis for more than 4 h can completely remove the oxygen, and pure titanium is obtained by 6 h electrolysis. Besides, there is an unprecedented finding that the porous cathode is conducive to the removal of impurity elements.

  20. Using bearing area parameters to quantify early erosive tooth surface changes in enamel: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, James; German, Matthew; Waterhouse, Paula

    2013-11-01

    Most in vitro studies investigate the erosive process using relatively simple roughness parameters such as roughness average (Ra). In isolation, Ra may misrepresent the surface features. Further, few studies report baseline surface characteristics after sample preparation. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that measuring the bearing area parameters in addition to Ra may be useful when qualifying the surface of enamel at baseline and after an erosive challenge. The null hypothesis for this study was that the bearing area parameters provide no more useful information than Ra alone, when qualifying the surface of enamel at baseline and after an erosive challenge. Enamel slabs (n=20) were prepared from human (n=2) and bovine (n=4) incisor teeth and polished with 0.05μm paste. Roughness average (Ra) and bearing parameters (MR1, MR2, Rpk, Rk, Rvk) were used to record baseline characteristics. Specimens were subjected to erosion with 1% citric acid solution for 1min. Profilometric characteristics were recorded post-erosion, along with the maximum height changes within the profile. T-tests were carried out in order to compare baseline surface characteristics between tissue types. Post-erosion, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the effects of tissue type (bovine or human). There was no significant difference in Ra between human and bovine incisor enamel at baseline (human 0.11μm, bovine 0.12μm P>0.05), and no significant difference was observed post-erosion (human 0.23μm, bovine 0.20μm P>0.05). There were significant differences in bearing parameters at baseline and post-erosion that were not identified by the Ra measurement alone. The results suggest that if Ra alone is measured, important differences in surface characteristics may be missed. The null hypothesis is rejected, and the recommendation is made that bearing parameters are included within profile measurements in order to further triangulate the results of surface analysis studies. In

  1. Hydrogen adsorption on bimetallic PdAu(111) surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takehiro, Naoki; Liu, Ping; Bergbreiter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of hydrogen on structurally well defined PdAu-Pd(111) monolayer surface alloys was investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical study, aiming at a quantitative understanding of the adsorption and desorption properties of individual PdAu nanostructures. Combining...... the structural information obtained by high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), in particular on the abundance of specific adsorption ensembles at different Pd surface concentrations, with information on the adsorption properties derived from temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectroscopy...... and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) provides conclusions on the minimum ensemble size for dissociative adsorption of hydrogen and on the adsorption energies on different sites active for adsorption. Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations give detailed insight...

  2. Diffusion properties of Cu(0 0 1)- c(2 × 2)-Pd surface alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeev, S. V.; Rusina, G. G.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2007-09-01

    Structural and diffusion properties of a Cu(0 0 1)- c(2 × 2)-Pd surface and sub-surface ordered alloys are studied by using interaction potentials obtained from the embedded-atom method. The calculated diffusion energies are in agreement with observed kinetics of the surface alloy formation and confirm stability of the underlayer alloy. Activation energy of planar diffusion of palladium at the initial stage of the alloy formation as well as the activation energy of the overlayer-underlayer diffusion of the Pd atoms are in good agreement with those obtained by the scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction measurements, respectively.

  3. Combinatorial Density Functional Theory-Based Screening of Surface Alloys for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2009-01-01

    A density functional theory (DFT)-based, combinatorial search for improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts is presented. A descriptor-based approach to estimate the ORR activity of binary surface alloys, wherein alloying occurs only in the surface layer, is described, and rigorous......, potential-dependent computational tests of the stability of these alloys in aqueous, acidic environments are presented. These activity and stability criteria are applied to a database of DFT calculations on nearly 750 binary transition metal surface alloys; of these, many are predicted to be active...

  4. The Effect of Surface Roughness on Thermohydrodynamic Performance in Misaligned Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohammed K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work an approach has been developed to investigate the influence of surface roughness on thermohydrodynamic performance in aligned and misaligned journal bearings by considering an average flow model and deriving the shear flow factor for various roughness configurations, similar to the pressure flow factor. An average Reynolds equation for rough surfaces is defined in term of pressure and shear flow factors, which can be obtained by numerical flow simulation, though the use of measured or numerically generated rough surfaces. Reynolds, heat conduction and energy equations are solved simultaneously by using a suitable numerical technique (Finite Difference Method to obtain the pressure and temperature distribution through the oil film thickness of the journal bearing. These equations are obtained for isotropic surfaces and for surfaces with directional patterns. The flow factors for these surfaces are expressed as empirical relations in term of normalized oil film thickness (h/σ and surface characteristic (γ defined as the ratio of x and z correlation lengths . The results of this approach showed increase in load carrying capacity and maximum pressure and decrease in maximum temperature in the case of stationary surface roughness (rough bearing and smooth journal with transverse pattern. The results obtained through this work have been compared with that published by other works and found to be in a good agreement.

  5. THE EFFECT OF THE CONDITIONS OF SHOT PEENING THE INCONEL 718 NICKEL ALLOY ON THE GEOMETRICAL STRUCTURE OF THE SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zaleski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research results of roughness and topography of the surface of Inconel 718 nickel alloy after shot peening. Evaluation of stereometric properties of the surface layer of the examined material was performed based on the amplitude, height and Abbott-Firestone curve parametres. The shot peening was carried out on the impulse shot peening stand. The impact energy Ej, distance between the traces xs and the ball diameter dk were changed in the range: Ej = 60 ÷ 240 mJ, xs = 0,15 ÷ 0,5 mm, dk = 3,95 ÷ 12,45 mm. The T8000 RC 120-140 device of the Hommel-Etamic company, along with the software, was used for measuring the surface roughness and for determining the material bearing curve. As a result of the machin-ing, the surface roughness was reduced and the selected functional parameters were improved.

  6. A general scheme for the estimation of oxygen binding energies on binary transition metal surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    A simple scheme for the estimation of oxygen binding energies on transition metal surface alloys is presented. It is shown that a d-band center model of the alloy surfaces is a convenient and appropriate basis for this scheme; variations in chemical composition, strain effects, and ligand effects...... for the estimation of oxygen binding energies on a wide variety of transition metal alloys. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Cement-base bearing pads mortar for connections in the precast concrete: study of surface roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. El Debs

    Full Text Available Bearing pads are used in precast concrete connections to avoid concentrated stresses in the contact area between the precast elements. In the present research, the bearing pads are Portland cement mortar with styrene-butadiene latex (SB, lightweight aggregate (expanded vermiculite-term and short fibers (polypropylene, glass and PVA, in order to obtain a material with low modulus of elasticity and high tenacity, compared with normal Portland cement mortar. The objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of surface roughness on the pads and test other types of polypropylene fibers. Tests were carried out to characterize the composite and test on bearing pads. Characterization tests show compressive strength of 41MPa and modulus of elasticity of 12.8GPa. The bearing pads tests present 30% reduction of stiffness in relation to a reference mortar. The bearing pads with roughness on both sides present a reduction up to 30% in stiffness and an increase in accumulated deformation of more than 120%, regarding bearing pads with both sides smooth.

  8. Surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy part I: Surface roughness and apparent surface free energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yingdi; Chibowski, Emil; Szcześ, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are the most often used implants material in dental treatment and orthopedics. Topography and wettability of its surface play important role in film formation, protein adhesion, following osseointegration and even duration of inserted implant. In this paper, we prepared Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples using different smoothing and polishing materials as well the air plasma treatment, on which contact angles of water, formamide and diiodomethane were measured. Then the apparent surface free energy was calculated using four different approaches (CAH, LWAB, O-W and Neumann's Equation of State). From LWAB approach the components of surface free energy were obtained, which shed more light on the wetting properties of samples surface. The surface roughness of the prepared samples was investigated with the help of optical profilometer and AFM. It was interesting whether the surface roughness affects the apparent surface free energy. It was found that both polar interactions the electron donor parameter of the energy and the work of water adhesion increased with decreasing roughness of the surfaces. Moreover, short time plasma treatment (1min) caused decrease in the surface hydrophilic character, while longer time (10min) treatment caused significant increase in the polar interactions and the work of water adhesion. Although Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been investigated many times, to our knowledge, so far no paper has been published in which surface roughness and changes in the surface free energy of the alloy were compared in the quantitative way in such large extent. This novel approach deliver better knowledge about the surface properties of differently smoothed and polished samples which may be helpful to facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization. Therefore the results obtained present also potentially practical meaning.

  9. Platinum overlayers on Co(0001) and Ni(111): numerical simulation of surface alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, P.; Cabeza, G. F.; Castellani, N. J.

    1999-11-01

    The surface alloying of one and two monolayers (ML) of platinum deposited on Ni(111) and Co(0001) were studied by means of the ECT-BFS method. The 1 ML deposit appears to be very stable on both substrates. Platinum can diffuse at high temperature only, the large activation barrier being represented by the first substrate layer. On the contrary, the stability of the 2 ML deposit is poor so that alloying is easily obtained. In both cases, the platinum diffusion produces metastable states. The lowest-energy states exhibit a propensity for platinum dilution in a limited region below the surface. The initial platinum thickness determines not only the features of the alloyed region, but also the surface concentration. The surface alloys have features qualitatively similar to those reported for the (111) surface of bulk Pt-Ni and Pt-Co alloys: a platinum-rich surface and oscillating concentration profiles.

  10. Adsorbate induced surface alloy formation investigated by near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev; Conradsen, Christian Nagstrup; McCarthy, David Norman

    2014-01-01

    Formation of meta-stable surface-alloys can be used as a way to tune the binding strength of reaction intermediates and could therefore be used as improved catalyst materials for heterogeneous catalysis. Understanding the role of adsorbates on such alloy surfaces can provide new insights for engi...

  11. Diamond-like carbon coatings enhance the hardness and resilience of bearing surfaces for use in joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M E; Whiteside, L A; Xu, J; Katerberg, B J

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating to enhance the hardness and resilience of a bearing surface in joint replacement. The greater hardness of a magnesium-stabilized zirconium (Mg-PSZ) substrate was expected to provide a harder coating-substrate composite microhardness than the cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCr) also used in arthroplasty. Three femoral heads of each type (CoCr, Mg-PSZ, DLC-CoCr and DLC-Mg-PSZ) were examined. Baseline (non-coated) and composite coating/substrate hardness was measured by Vickers microhardness tests, while nanoindentation tests measured the hardness and elastic modulus of the DLC coating independent of the Mg-PSZ and CoCr substrates. Non-coated Mg-PSZ heads were considerably harder than non-coated CoCr heads, while DLC coating greatly increased the microhardness of the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates. On the nanoscale the non-coated heads were much harder than on the microscale, with CoCr exhibiting twice as much plastic deformation as Mg-PSZ. The mechanical properties of the DLC coatings were not significantly different for both the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates, producing similar moduli of resilience and plastic resistance ratios. DLC coatings greatly increased hardness on both the micro and nano levels and significantly improved resilience and resistance to plastic deformation compared with non-coated heads. Because Mg-PSZ allows less plastic deformation than CoCr and provides a greater composite microhardness, DLC-Mg-PSZ will likely be more durable for use as a bearing surface in vivo.

  12. Unconventional Fermi surface spin patterns in the (Bi/Pb/Sb)/Ag(111) surface alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Fabian; Dil, Hugo [Physik Institut Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source PSI (Switzerland); Petrov, Vladimir [Physics Institute St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Patthey, Luc [Swiss Light Source PSI (Switzerland); Osterwalder, Juerg [Physik Institut Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    By a controllable change in the stoichiometry of the long range ordered mixed surface alloy (Bi/Pb/Sb)/Ag(111) the Rashba and Fermi energy can be tuned over a wide range. We show by spin and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy that the spin structure of the individual surface state bands remain unaffected despite the random intermixing of the adatoms. We further report on the observation of unconventional Fermi surface spin textures. These spin textures are found when the Fermi energy lies between the crossing point and the apex of the Rashba type Kramer's pair. The results will be discussed in the context of spin transport.

  13. Surface characterization of titanium alloys sterilized for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández de Gatica, Norma L.; Jones, Gary L.; Gardella, Joseph A.

    1993-05-01

    The high biocompatibility of Ti and Ti-based implants is closely related to the properties of the surface oxide formed during the implant preparation stages. During the machining process, the metal is exposed to the ambient atmosphere and oxidized. This surface oxide layer may be modified during the subsequent implant preparation steps: cleaning and sterilization. In this study, surface elemental and chemical information as well as the thickness of the oxide layer are evaluated for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy before and after different sterilization procedures: UV radiation, steam autoclaving, and radio-frequency glow-discharge (RFGD) treatment in argon atmosphere. The analytical techniques used are: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) and the scanning Auger microprobe (SAM). The results of this study indicate that among steam autoclaving, UV radiation and RFGD treatment, the latter yields cleaner surfaces. Also, depth profiles of the specimens treated with RFGD in argon showed an increase in the oxide layer thickness with respect to the values observed for non-sterilized samples.

  14. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity analysis of plasma sprayed coatings on titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Zia ur; Shabib, Ishraq [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Haider, Waseem, E-mail: haide1w@cmich.edu [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In the realm of biomaterials, metallic materials are widely used for load bearing joints due to their superior mechanical properties. Despite the necessity for long term metallic implants, there are limitations to their prolonged use. Naturally, oxides of titanium have low solubilities and form passive oxide film spontaneously. However, some inclusion and discontinuity spots in oxide film make implant to adopt the decisive nature. These defects heighten the dissolution of metal ions from the implant surface, which results in diminishing bio-integration of titanium implant. To increase the long-term metallic implant stability, surface modifications of titanium alloys are being carried out. In the present study, biomimetic coatings of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and titanium were applied to the surface of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V. Surface morphology and surface chemistry were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out in order to study their electrochemical behavior. Moreover, cytotoxicity analysis was conducted for osteoblast cells by performing MTS assay. It is concluded that both hydroxyapatite and titanium coatings enhance corrosion resistance and improve cytocompatibility. - Highlights: • Surface morphology and surface chemistry were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • The cyclic polarization tests revealed noticeable improvement towards the positive potentials for both Tip coatings. • CpTi-Hap and Ti6Al4V-Hap both demonstrate similar corrosion rate. • High cytotoxicity was observed for Mp when compared with Tip and Hap after 21 days of immersion. • Both Tip and Hap coatings promoted the osteoblast cell adhesion and exhibited stellar morphology.

  15. Journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  16. Gas-phase surface alloying under ''kinetic control'': a novel approach to improving the surface properties of titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, F.; Michal, G.M.; Heuer, A.H. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Oba, F. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, L. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Nanocerox, Inc. Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Blush, J. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Johns Manville Corp. Littleton (United States)

    2006-05-15

    A novel process, ''nitridation under kinetic control of the nitrogen activity'', has been developed for diffusing substantial amounts ({approx} 10at.%) of interstitially dissolved nitrogen into the surface of Ti alloys (Ti-6Al-4V). By operating with a gas phase providing a very small, controlled nitrogen activity, this process generates a homogeneous Ti-N solid solution, free of detrimental titanium nitride precipitates, in which the nitrogen concentration smoothly decreases from the surface towards the interior. The process is conformal (applicable to workpieces of arbitrary shape) and provides a substantial (about twofold) increase in surface hardness. The hardened surface layer appears to possess adequate ductility for many structural applications. The concept of ''surface alloying under kinetic control'' is very general and may also serve to generate well-controlled surface concentration profiles of carbon or oxygen in Ti-base and other structural alloys. (orig.)

  17. Research on depositing Ni45 alloy on titanium alloy surface by electrospark deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Guiqiao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking Ni45 bar as electrode, a strengthened layer of thickness up to 50 μm was built up on BT20 titanium alloy matrix by means of electrospark deposition. Results of phase analysis by using of X-ray diffraction confirmed that the deposition layer was composed mostly of three phases, NiTi, NiTi2 and Ti. The surface microhardness of the deposition layer was up to 910 HV0.05, about 2.7 times as high as that of the matrix. The hardness at the cross-section of the entire deposition layer showed a gradient distribution. The effects of capacitance and deposition time on thickness of deposition layer were also studied, and results showed that with relatively low capacity and short deposition time the deposition layer without cracks can be obtained.

  18. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, A S

    2009-12-01

    The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar/plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.

  19. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants : clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar / plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the 'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.

  20. Influence of Conditioned Surface Textures on Plain Journal Bearing Performance Working on HL Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vélez-Restrepo J.M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As an answer to the need for reducing friction losses on bearings, dynamic seals, piston rings, cutting tools and others, a lot of work has been dedicated to mechanical systems study whose surfaces have been textured in a controlled way. Theoretical models and experimental results have shown improvements on the tribological performance of these systems regarding untextured systems, working under the same conditions. This paper presents a numerical model for getting relationships among the operational conditions (load, speed, and dynamic viscosity, the minimum lubricate film thickness, the friction coefficient and the conditioned micro-topography of a plain sliding bearing working under a hydrodynamic regime. Moreover, regarding other similar works the constructed model allows studying the combined effect of the micro-wedges that work as micro-bearings, and the typical convergent macro-wedge of these study elements.

  1. Surface Plasmons and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectra of Aggregated and Alloyed Gold-Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fleger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of size, morphology, and composition of gold and silver nanoparticles on surface plasmon resonance (SPR and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS are studied with the purpose of optimizing SERS substrates. Various gold and silver films made by evaporation and subsequent annealing give different morphologies and compositions of nanoparticles and thus different position of the SPR peak. SERS measurements of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid obtained from these films reveal that the proximity of the SPR peak to the exciting laser wavelength is not the only factor leading to the highest Raman enhancement. Silver nanoparticles evaporated on top of larger gold nanoparticles show higher SERS than gold-silver alloyed nanoparticles, in spite of the fact that the SPR peak of alloyed nanoparticles is narrower and closer to the excitation wavelength. The highest Raman enhancement was obtained for substrates with a two-peak particle size distribution for excitation wavelengths close to the SPR.

  2. Improving tribological properties of Ti-5Zr-3Sn-5Mo-15Nb alloy by double glow plasma surface alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lili; Qin, Lin; Kong, Fanyou; Yi, Hong; Tang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Molybdenum, an alloying element, was deposited and diffused on Ti-5Zr-3Sn-5Mo-15Nb (TLM) substrate by double glow plasma surface alloying technology at 900, 950 and 1000 °C. The microstructure, composition distribution and micro-hardness of the Mo modified layers were analyzed. Contact angles on deionized water and wear behaviors of the samples against corundum balls in simulated human body fluids were investigated. Results show that the surface microhardness is significantly enhanced after alloying and increases with treated temperature rising, and the contact angles are lowered to some extent. More importantly, compared to as-received TLM alloy, the Mo modified samples, especially the one treated at 1000 °C, exhibit the significant improvement of tribological properties in reciprocating wear tests, with lower specific wear rate and friction coefficient. To conclude, Mo alloying treatment is an effective approach to obtain excellent comprehensive properties including optimal wear resistance and improved wettability, which ensure the lasting and safety application for titanium alloys as the biomedical implants.

  3. Electro-Explosive Doping of VT6 Titanium Alloy Surface by Boron Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobzareva, T. Yu; Gromov, V. E.; Ivanov, Yu F.; Budovskkh, E. A.; Konovalov, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    The studies carried out in this work target detection of changes in the surface layer of titanium alloy VT6 after electro-explosive alloying (EEA) by boron carbide. EEA of VT6 titanium alloy surface is the plasma alloying formed during the electric explosion of foil with the sample powder of boron carbide. Carbon fibers with weight 140 mg were used as an explosive conductor. Sample powder of boron carbide B4C was placed in the area of explosion on the carbon fibers. It was revealed that EEA of the surface layers of titanium alloy samples VT6 leads to the modification of the layer, thickness of which changes from 10 pm to 50 pm. Heterogeneous distribution of alloying elements was found in the treatment zone by the methods of X-ray microanalysis. A significant difference in their concentration in the identified layers leads to difference in their structural and tribological behaviour. It was revealed that after electro-explosive alloying the microhardness of titanium alloy VT6 significantly increases. Electro-explosive alloying leads to the formation of a structure of submicro- and nano-scale level. It allows strength and tribological properties of the treated surface to be increased.

  4. Effects of WC particle size on the wear resistance of laser surface alloyed medium carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin; Li, Fu-hai; Kuang, Min; Ma, Wen-you; Chen, Xing-chi; Liu, Min

    2012-01-01

    The CO2 laser surface alloying technique was used to form wear resistance layers on medium carbon steel with a kind of spherical WC powder. The effects of WC particle size on the abrasive wear resistance were thoroughly investigated. The results indicate that the laser alloyed layer is characterized by dendritic primary phase and ledeburite microstructure, consisting of austenite, martensite and carbides of Fe3W3C, W2C and WC. The laser surface alloying with WC powder could improve the abrasive wear resistance of the medium carbon steel by over 63%. The factors such as the hardness, the amount and the distribution of WC particle determined the laser alloyed samples' wear resistance, and the laser alloyed sample with WC powder of 88-100 μm diameter presented the best wear resistance in this study. Furthermore, the wear resistance mechanisms of the laser alloyed layers were also explored.

  5. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of surface segregation in Pd–Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Feng [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, Nanjing University (China); He, Xiang [Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Chen, Zhao-Xu, E-mail: zxchen@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, Nanjing University (China); Huang, Yu-Gai [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, Nanjing University (China); JiangSu Second Normal University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-11-05

    The knowledge of surface composition and atomic arrangement is prerequisite for understanding of catalytic properties of an alloy catalyst. Gaining such knowledge is rather difficult, especially for those possessing surface segregation. Pd–Cu alloy is used in many fields and possesses surface segregation. In this paper kinetic Monte Carlo method is used to explore the surface composition and structure and to examine the effects of bulk composition and temperature on the surface segregation of Pd–Cu alloys. It is shown that the segregation basically completes within 900 s at 500 K. Below 900 K and within 20 min the enriched surface Cu atoms mainly come from the top five layers. For the first time we demonstrate that there exists a “bulk-inside flocking” or clustering phenomenon (the same component element congregates in bulk) in Pd–Cu alloys. Our results indicate that for alloys with higher Cu content there are small Pd ensembles like monomers, dimers and trimers with contiguous subsurface Pd atoms. - Highlights: • Kinetic Monte Carlo was first used to study surface segregation of Pd–Cu alloys. • Bulk-inside flocking (the same component element congregates in bulk) was observed. • Small Pd ensembles with contiguous subsurface Pd exist on surfaces of Cu-rich alloys.

  6. The Nature of Surface Oxides on Corrosion-Resistant Nickel Alloy Covered by Alkaline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervasio DF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A nickel alloy with high chrome and molybdenum content was found to form a highly resistive and passive oxide layer. The donor density and mobility of ions in the oxide layer has been determined as a function of the electrical potential when alkaline water layers are on the alloy surface in order to account for the relative inertness of the nickel alloy in corrosive environments.

  7. Alloying Au surface with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Kun

    2016-03-30

    © 2016. Various Au-Pd/SiO2 catalysts with a fixed Au loading but different Au:Pd molar ratios were prepared via deposition-precipitation method followed by H2 reduction. The structures were characterized and the catalytic activities in CO oxidation were evaluated. The formation of Au-Pd alloy particles was identified. The Au-Pd alloy particles exhibit enhanced dispersions on SiO2 than Au particles. Charge transfer from Pd to Au within Au-Pd alloy particles. Isolated Pd atoms dominate the surface of Au-Pd alloy particles with large Au:Pd molar ratios while contiguous Pd atoms dominate the surface of Au-Pd alloy particles with small Au:Pd molar ratios. Few synergetic effect of Au-Pd alloy occurs on catalyzing CO oxidation under employed reaction conditions. Alloying Au with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation, and contiguous Pd atoms on the Au-Pd alloy particles are capable of catalyzing CO oxidation while isolated Pd atoms are not. These results advance the fundamental understandings of Au-Pd alloy surfaces in catalyzing CO oxidation.

  8. Surface microstructures and antimicrobial properties of copper plasma alloyed stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiangyu; Huang Xiaobo; Jiang Li; Ma Yong; Fan Ailan [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Tang Bin, E-mail: tangbin@tyut.edu.cn [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces is one of the major reason causing the cross-contamination and infection in many practical applications. An approach to solve this problem is to enhance the antibacterial properties on the surface of stainless steel. In this paper, novel antibacterial stainless steel surfaces with different copper content have been prepared by a plasma surface alloying technique at various gas pressures. The microstructure of the alloyed surfaces was investigated using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The viability of bacteria attached to the antibacterial surfaces was tested using the spread plate method. The antibacterial mechanism of the alloyed surfaces was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that gas pressure has a great influence on the surface elements concentration and the depth of the alloyed layer. The maximum copper concentration in the alloyed surface obtained at the gas pressure of 60 Pa is about 7.1 wt.%. This alloyed surface exhibited very strong antibacterial ability, and an effective reduction of 98% of Escherichia coli (E. coli) within 1 h was achieved by contact with the alloyed surface. The maximum thickness of the copper alloyed layer obtained at 45 Pa is about 6.5 {mu}m. Although the rate of reduction for E. coli of this alloyed surface was slower than that of the alloyed surface with the copper content about 7.1 wt.% over the first 3 h, few were able to survive more than 12 h and the reduction reached over 99.9%. The XPS analysis results indicated that the copper ions were released when the copper alloyed stainless steel in contact with bacterial solution, which is an important factor for killing bacteria. Based on an overall consideration of bacterial killing rate and durability, the alloyed surface with the copper content of 2.5 wt.% and the thickness of about 6.5 {mu}m obtained at the gas pressure of 45 Pa is

  9. Surface microstructures and antimicrobial properties of copper plasma alloyed stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Jiang, Li; Ma, Yong; Fan, Ailan; Tang, Bin

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces is one of the major reason causing the cross-contamination and infection in many practical applications. An approach to solve this problem is to enhance the antibacterial properties on the surface of stainless steel. In this paper, novel antibacterial stainless steel surfaces with different copper content have been prepared by a plasma surface alloying technique at various gas pressures. The microstructure of the alloyed surfaces was investigated using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The viability of bacteria attached to the antibacterial surfaces was tested using the spread plate method. The antibacterial mechanism of the alloyed surfaces was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that gas pressure has a great influence on the surface elements concentration and the depth of the alloyed layer. The maximum copper concentration in the alloyed surface obtained at the gas pressure of 60 Pa is about 7.1 wt.%. This alloyed surface exhibited very strong antibacterial ability, and an effective reduction of 98% of Escherichia coli (E. coli) within 1 h was achieved by contact with the alloyed surface. The maximum thickness of the copper alloyed layer obtained at 45 Pa is about 6.5 μm. Although the rate of reduction for E. coli of this alloyed surface was slower than that of the alloyed surface with the copper content about 7.1 wt.% over the first 3 h, few were able to survive more than 12 h and the reduction reached over 99.9%. The XPS analysis results indicated that the copper ions were released when the copper alloyed stainless steel in contact with bacterial solution, which is an important factor for killing bacteria. Based on an overall consideration of bacterial killing rate and durability, the alloyed surface with the copper content of 2.5 wt.% and the thickness of about 6.5 μm obtained at the gas pressure of 45 Pa is expected

  10. Development of Laser Surface Technologies for Anti-Corrosion on Magnesium Alloys: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rujian; Guan, Yingchun; Zhu, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been increasingly used in industries and biomaterial fields due to low density, high specific strength and biodegradability. However, poor surface-related properties are major factors that limit their practical applications. This paper mainly focuses on laser-based anti-corrosion technologies for Mg alloys, beginning with a brief review of conventional methods, and then demonstrates the feasibility of laser surface technologies including laser surface melting (LSM), laser surface alloying (LSA), laser surface cladding (LSC) and laser shock peening (LSP) in achieving enhancement of corrosion resistance. The mechanism and capability of each technique in corrosion resistance is carefully discussed. Finally, an outlook of the development of laser surface technology for Mg alloy is further concluded, aiming to serve as a guide for further research both in industry applications and biomedical devices.

  11. Surface alloying of Cu with Ti by double glow discharge process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁庆龙; 池成忠; 苏永安; 徐重; 唐宾

    2004-01-01

    The surface of pure copper alloyed with Ti using double glow discharge process was investigated. The morphology, structure and forming mechanism of the Cu-Ti alloying layer were analyzed. The microhardness and wear resistance of the Cu-Ti alloying layer were measured, and compared with those of pure copper. The results indicate that the surface of copper activated by Ar and Ti ions bombardment is favorable to absorption and diffusion of Ti element. In current experimental temperature, as the Ti content increases, the liquid phase occurs between the deposited layer and diffused layer, which makes the Ti ions and atoms easy to dissolve and the thickness of Cu-Ti alloying layer increase rapidly. After cooling, the structure of the alloying layer is composed of CuTi, Cu4 Ti and Cu(Ti) solid solution. The solid solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening effects of Ti result in high surface hardness and wear resistance.

  12. Morphology and Hardness Improvement of Lead Bearing Alloy through Composite Production: 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn/ 15% V/V SiO2 Particulate Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Okon ASUQUO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and hardness improvement of lead bearing alloy through composite production: 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn/ 15%v/v SiO2 particulate composite, was studied. 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn white bearing alloy produced at the foundry shop of National Metallurgical Development Centre Jos was used for the production of the composite using stir-cast method. The reinforcing agent was 63 microns passing particles of silica. This was produced from pulverizing quartz using laboratory ball mill. The specimens of the composite produced were then subjected to metallographic to study the morphology of the structures produced both in the as cast and aged conditions of the composite. The samples were also tested for hardness and the result showed that the as cast composite had a hardness value of 33 HRB which is an improvement over the hardness value of 27.7 HRB for the 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn alloy which was used for the production of the composite. The effect of age hardening on the produced composite was also investigated; the result showed that the maximum hardness of 34 HRB was obtained after ageing for 3 hours. The micrographs revealed inter-metallic compound SbSn, eutectic of two solid solutions-one tin-rich and the other lead-rich, reinforcing particles, and solid solution of β. The results revealed that particle hardening can be used to improve the hardness of 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn white bearing alloy for use as heavy duty bearing material.

  13. Effect of laser treatment on the surface of copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbacz, Halina, E-mail: hgarbacz@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Fortuna-Zalesna, Elzbieta [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Marczak, Jan [Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Koss, Andrzej; Zatorska, Anna [Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, Inter-Academy Institute for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Wybrzeze Kosciuszkowskie 37, 00-379 Warsaw (Poland); Zukowska, Grazyna Z. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Onyszczuk, Tomasz; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents the results of laser cleaning of the archaeological metal objects using two time widths of pulsed laser radiation, which are around 150 {mu}s and around 120 ns. Two archaeological objects made of copper alloys were studied: a bow and a ring. Both objects came from a cemetery which is located in the garden complex of Wilanow Palace in Warsaw and are dated from XII to XIII century. The bow and bronze ring had ornamental longitudinal grooving and were part of burial jewellery. The materials of which these artefacts were made of, as well as corrosion products on these objects, were studied by using a variety of analytical techniques. The phase composition of the corrosion layers was determined by using Raman spectroscopy. The surface topography as well as the chemical composition of the deposits and cleaned surfaces were investigated. The samples were examined using scanning electron microscopes equipped with EDS. The investigations included observations in SE and BSE modes and point analyses of the chemical composition by EDS.

  14. Influence of Conditioned Surface Textures on Plain Journal Bearing Performance Working on HL Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez-Restrepo J.M.; Toro-Botero F.M.; Suárez-Bustamante F.A.

    2012-01-01

    As an answer to the need for reducing friction losses on bearings, dynamic seals, piston rings, cutting tools and others, a lot of work has been dedicated to mechanical systems study whose surfaces have been textured in a controlled way. Theoretical models and experimental results have shown improvements on the tribological performance of these systems regarding untextured systems, working under the same conditions. This paper presents a numerical model for getting relationships among the ope...

  15. Surface Nb-ALLOYING on 0.4C-13Cr Stainless Steel: Microstructure and Tribological Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengwang; You, Kai; Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yihui; Wang, Zhenxia; Liu, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    0.4C-13Cr stainless steel was alloyed with niobium using double glow plasma surface alloying and tribological properties of Nb-alloyed steel such as hardness, friction and wear were measured. Effects of the alloying temperature on microstructure and the tribological behavior of the alloyed steel were investigated compared with untreated steel. Formation mechanisms of Nb-alloyed layers and increased wear resistance were also studied. The result shows that after surface Nb-alloying treatment, the 0.4C-13Cr steel exhibits a diffusion adhesion at the alloyed layer/substrate interface and improved tribological property. The friction coefficient of Nb-alloyed steel is decreased by about 0.3-0.45 and the wear rate after Nb-alloying is only 2-5% of untreated steel.

  16. Microstructures of alloyed and dispersed hard particles in the aluminium surface

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of A1200 aluminium alloy was carried out using a 4.4 kW Nd:YAG laser. Powder mixtures of SiC and TiC hard particles were injected into the laser generated melt pool on the aluminium substrate using a commercial powder feeder...

  17. Adsorption-Driven Surface Segregation of the Less Reactive Alloy Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Jerker; Calle Vallejo, Federico; Rossmeisl, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    Counterintuitive to expectations and all prior observations of adsorbate-induced surface segregation of the more reactive alloy component (the one forming the stronger bond with the adsorbate), we show that CO adsorption at elevated pressures and temperatures pulls the less reactive Cu to the sur......Counterintuitive to expectations and all prior observations of adsorbate-induced surface segregation of the more reactive alloy component (the one forming the stronger bond with the adsorbate), we show that CO adsorption at elevated pressures and temperatures pulls the less reactive Cu...... to the surface of a CuPt near-surface alloy. The Cu surface segregation is driven by the formation of a stable self-organized CO/CuPt surface alloy structure and is rationalized in terms of the radically stronger Pt−CO bond when Cu is present in the first surface layer of Pt. The results, which are expected...... to apply to a range of coinage (Cu, Ag)/Pt-group bimetallic surface alloys, open up new possibilities in selective and dynamical engineering of alloy surfaces for catalysis....

  18. 纯钛表面Zr-N等离子合金化%Zr-N surface alloying layers fabricated in pure titanium substrates by plasma surface alloying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀燕; 唐宾; 王鹤峰; 叶娇荣

    2013-01-01

    为了改善纯钛的表面性能,利用等离子表面合金化技术在纯钛表面形成 Zr−N 改性层。对 Zr−N 改性层的微结构、成分及硬度进行测试,并对改性层形成及表面硬度提高的机理进行分析。利用球−盘磨损试验对表面改性纯钛的摩擦学性能进行研究。结果表明,在纯钛表面形成了均匀致密的 Zr−N 改性层,改性层由表面 Zr−N化合物层和基体内 Zr、N 的扩散层构成。Zr−N 表面改性层显著提高了纯钛的表面硬度,表层的最高硬度约为HK1040。Zr−N表面改性层没有减摩效果,但明显改善了纯钛的磨损性能。%The Zr−N alloying layers were prepared on the surface of pure titanium substrates by plasma surface alloying technique to improve the surface properties. The microstructure, chemical composition, and hardness of Zr−N surface alloying layers were analyzed to understand the mechanisms of surface alloying and hardness improvement. The tribological performance of Zr−N surface alloying layers was studied by ball-on-disc wear machine. The results show that Zr−N alloying layers formed are homogeneous and compact. The Zr−N surface alloying layer consists of an outer nitride layer and an inner diffusion zone of zirconium and nitrogen. The surface treatment enhances the hardness of the surface layers of pure titanium substrates greatly and a surfaces hardness of HK1870 is obtained. Though Zr−N surface alloying layer does not show friction-reducing effect, it improves the wear resistance of pure titanium obviously.

  19. Groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake, Minnesota, through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Bode, Jenifer A.; O'Grady, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the White Bear Lake Conservation District, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and other State, county, municipal, and regional planning agencies, watershed organizations, and private organizations, conducted a study to characterize groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake through 2011. During 2010 and 2011, White Bear Lake and other lakes in the northeastern part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area were at historically low levels. Previous periods of lower water levels in White Bear Lake correlate with periods of lower precipitation; however, recent urban expansion and increased pumping from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer have raised the question of whether a decline in precipitation is the primary cause for the recent water-level decline in White Bear Lake. Understanding and quantifying the amount of groundwater inflow to a lake and water discharge from a lake to aquifers is commonly difficult but is important in the management of lake levels. Three methods were used in the study to assess groundwater and surface-water interactions on White Bear Lake: (1) a historical assessment (1978-2011) of levels in White Bear Lake, local groundwater levels, and their relation to historical precipitation and groundwater withdrawals in the White Bear Lake area; (2) recent (2010-11) hydrologic and water-quality data collected from White Bear Lake, other lakes, and wells; and (3) water-balance assessments for White Bear Lake in March and August 2011. An analysis of covariance between average annual lake-level change and annual precipitation indicated the relation between the two variables was significantly different from 2003 through 2011 compared with 1978 through 2002, requiring an average of 4 more inches of precipitation per year to maintain the lake level. This shift in the linear relation between annual lake-level change and annual precipitation

  20. Sub-surface and surface analysis of high speed machined Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, J.D. Puerta [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM), CNRS FRE 3143, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz (ENIM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Tidu, A., E-mail: tidu@enim.fr [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM), CNRS FRE 3143, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz (ENIM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Bolle, B. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM), CNRS FRE 3143, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz (ENIM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Chevrier, P. [Laboratoire de Mecanique Biomecanique, Polymere Structures (LaBPS), EA 4632 Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Metz (ENIM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France); Fundenberger, J.-J. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM), CNRS FRE 3143, Universite Paul Verlaine de Metz (UPVM), F-57012 Metz Cedex 01 (France)

    2010-04-25

    To understand the effects of cutting the surface integrity is an important goal to control the quality of a work piece. The current paper summarizes an extensive experimental study of the surface integrity and the sub-surface microstructure during high speed machining in orthogonal cutting condition. This study includes measurements of residual stresses and crystallographic texture in addition to electron microscopy observations. Our observations and conclusions are primarily focused on the effect of cutting speed considering a set of constant machining parameters on the microstructure evolution of the sub-surface of the material. The results allow a better understanding of the cutting process in high speed machining of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V.

  1. Thermodynamic and surface properties of Sb-Sn and In-Sn liquid alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Anusionwu

    2006-08-01

    The thermodynamic properties of Sb-Sn and In-Sn liquid alloys have been studied using the quasi-chemical model for compound forming binary alloys and that for simple regular alloys. The concentration fluctuation cc(0) and the Warren-Cowley short-range order parameter (1) were determined for the whole concentration range at a temperature of 770 K. The surface tensions of these liquid alloys were determined for the whole concentration range by using energetics determined from thermodynamic calculations. In all calculations, In{Sn manifested properties very close to alloys of ideal mixing, while Sb-Sn showed properties that are asymmetric about equiatomic composition. Our results suggest that a weak complex of the form SbSn2 could be present in the Sb-Sn alloy at a temperature of about 770 K.

  2. Tests of Lead-bronze Bearings in the DVL Bearing-testing Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, G

    1940-01-01

    The lead-bronze bearings tested in the DVL machine have proven themselves very sensitive to load changes as in comparison with bearings of light metal. In order to prevent surface injuries and consequently running interruptions, the increase of the load has to be made in small steps with sufficient run-in time between steps. The absence of lead in the running surface, impurities in the alloy (especially iron) and surface irregularities (pores) decreases the load-carrying capacity of the bearing to two or three times that of the static load.

  3. Controlled reactions between chromia and coating on alloy surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren

    1996-01-01

    An electrically conducting Sr-doped lanthanum chromite (LSC) coating has been produced by reacting a coating of fine particles of La oxide and Sr oxide with chromia formed as an external scale on a metallic alloy. In addition to the formation of LSC the coating also resulted in much reduced...... buckling of the underlying chromia layer compared with a non-coated alloy....

  4. Understanding the effect of steps, strain, poisons, and alloying: Methane activation on Ni surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    that variations in epsilon(d) can be used to quantitatively describe variations in the activation energy when the surface structure is changed, when the coverage of carbon is changed, when the surface is strained, when the surface is alloyed, and when the surface is poisoned by sulfur. The d-band center is...

  5. Preparation of biomimetic hydrophobic coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hydrophobic coating has been a promising technology for improving surface performance. The surface performance of magnesium alloy has been limited in application. Furthermore, the hydrophobic of magnesium alloy is rarely investigated because magnesium alloy is an active metal alloy. In this paper, inspired by microstructure character of typical plant leaf surface such as lotus, the biomimetic hydrophobic coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy surface were prepared by means of wet-chemical combining electroless. The samples were immersed into AgNO3 solution in wet-chemical method firstly. Then, biomimetic hydrophobic coatings were prepared by electroless after wet-method pretreatment. The microstructure was observed by SEM and the contact angles were measured by contact angle tester. The results indicated that the biomimetic hydrophobic coatings with uniform crystalline and dense structure could be obtained on AZ91D magnesium alloy surface. The results of contact angle revealed that the biomimetic nano-composite coatings were hydrophobic. The wet-chemical method treatment on the AZ91D magnesium alloy substrate provided a rough microstructure, thus improving adhesion of the coating and the substrate.

  6. Surface analysis and electrochemical behavior of Ti–20Zr alloy in simulated physiological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon Moreno, Jose Maria; Vasilescu, Ecaterina; Drob, Paula; Osiceanu, Petre; Vasilescu, Cora; Drob, Silviu Iulian, E-mail: sidrob@chimfiz.icf.ro; Popa, Monica

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: • The advanced Ti–20Zr alloy shows fully lamellar α + β microstructure. • The alloy passive film improves its properties by deposition of HA (XPS, SEM, EDX, Raman, FT-IR). • Alloy revealed lower corrosion rates and higher polarization resistances than Ti. • EIS spectra depicted a more protective passive film on the alloy surface than on Ti. • The passive film is formed by two layers: an inner barrier and an outer porous layer. -- Abstract: An advanced Ti–20Zr alloy was obtained by double vacuum melting in a semi-levitation furnace with cold crucible. The alloy shows fully lamellar α + β microstructure. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves revealed that the alloy passivated easier, more rapid than Ti, having a more stable passive film in Ringer solutions of different pH values, simulating severe functional conditions of an implant. In neutral and alkaline Ringer solutions, the alloy passive film improved its properties in time (1500 h) by the deposition of protective hydroxyapatite, as was demonstrated by XPS, SEM, EDX, Raman and FT-IR measurements. Alloy presented lower corrosion rates and higher polarization resistances (from linear polarization measurements) than those of Ti (tens of times) proving a more resistant passive film. Alloy open circuit potentials had more electropositive values in comparison with Ti and tended to nobler values in time, which denote better passive state and its enhancement in time, due to the new depositions from the physiological solutions. Nyquist and Bode spectra depicted a more protective passive film on the alloy surface than on Ti surface. The passive film is formed by two layers: an inner barrier layer and an outer porous layer. An electric equivalent circuit with two time constants was modeled.

  7. Surface modification of cobalt-chromium-tungsten-nickel alloy using octadecyltrichlorosilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Gopinath [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Feldman, Marc D. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Division of Cardiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); The Department of Veteran Affairs South Texas Health Care System, 7400 Merton Minter Blvd., San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Oh, Sunho [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Agrawal, C. Mauli [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)], E-mail: Mauli.Agrawal@utsa.edu

    2009-03-15

    Cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys have been extensively used for medical implants because of their excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. This first time study reports the formation and stability of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a Co-Cr-W-Ni alloy. SAMs of octadecyltrichlorosilanes (OTS) were coated on sputtered Co-Cr-W-Ni alloy thin film and bulk Co-Cr-W-Ni alloy. OTS SAM coated alloy specimens were characterized using contact angle goniometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Contact angle analysis and FTIR suggested that ordered monolayers were coated on both sputtered and bulk alloy. XPS suggested the selective dissolution of cobalt from the alloy during the formation of OTS SAM. The bonding between the alloy and the OTS SAM was mainly attributed to Si-O-Cr and Si-O-W covalent bonds and a smaller contribution from Si-O-Co bonds. AFM images showed the distribution of islands of monolayers coated on the alloy. The height of monolayers in majority of the islands was closer to the theoretical length of fully extended OTS molecules oriented perpendicular to the surface. The stability of OTS SAM was investigated in tris-buffered saline at 37 {sup o}C for up to 7 days. Contact angle, FTIR, and XPS collectively confirmed that the monolayers remain ordered and bound to the alloy surface under this condition. This study shows that Co-Cr alloys can be surface modified using SAMs for potential biomedical applications.

  8. Bearing splitting and near-surface source ranging in the direct zone of deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Nan; Zhou, Shi-Hong; Peng, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ren-He

    2016-12-01

    Sound multipath propagation is very important for target localization and identification in different acoustical zones of deep water. In order to distinguish the multipath characteristics in deep water, the Northwest Pacific Acoustic Experiment was conducted in 2015. A low-frequency horizontal line array towed at the depth of around 150 m on a receiving ship was used to receive the noise radiated by the source ship. During this experiment, a bearing-splitting phenomenon in the direct zone was observed through conventional beamforming of the horizontal line array within the frequency band 160 Hz-360 Hz. In this paper, this phenomenon is explained based on ray theory. In principle, the received signal in the direct zone of deep water arrives from two general paths including a direct one and bottom bounced one, which vary considerably in arrival angles. The split bearings correspond to the contributions of these two paths. The bearing-splitting phenomenon is demonstrated by numerical simulations of the bearing-time records and experimental results, and they are well consistent with each other. Then a near-surface source ranging approach based on the arrival angles of direct path and bottom bounced path in the direct zone is presented as an application of bearing splitting and is verified by experimental results. Finally, the applicability of the proposed ranging approach for an underwater source within several hundred meters in depth in the direct zone is also analyzed and demonstrated by simulations. Project supported by the Program of One Hundred Talented People of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012 and 41561144006).

  9. The adsorption and reaction of vinyl acetate on Au/Pd(100) alloy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhenjun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Calaza, Florencia C [ORNL; Tysoe, Wilfred [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

    2012-01-01

    The surface chemistry of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) is studied on Au/Pd(100) alloys as a function of alloy composition using temperature-programmed desorption and reflection adsorption infrared spectroscopy. VAM adsorbs weakly on isolated palladium sites on the alloy with a heat of adsorption of ~55 kJ/mol, with the plane of the VAM adsorbed close to parallel to the surface. The majority of the VAM adsorbed on isolated sites desorbs molecularly with only a small portion decomposing. At lower gold coverages (below ~0.5 ML of gold), where palladium palladium bridge sites are present, VAM binds to the surface in a distorted geometry via a rehybridized vinyl group. A larger proportion of this VAM decomposes and this reaction is initiated by C\\O bond scission in the VAM to form adsorbed acetate and vinyl species. The implication of this surface chemistry for VAM synthesis on Au/Pd(100) alloys is discussed.

  10. Nanosized controlled surface pretreatment of biometallic alloy 316L stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M; Loftis, Derek; Mahapatro, Anil

    2011-12-01

    Stainless steel (AISI 316L) is a medical grade stainless steel alloy used extensively in medical devices and in the biomedical field. 316L stainless steel was successfully electropolished via an ecologically friendly and biocompatible ionic liquid (IL) medium based on Vitamin B4 (NB4) and resulting in nanosized surface roughness and topography. Voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests determined optimum polishing conditions for the stainless steel alloy while atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provided surface morphology comparisons to benchmark success of each electropolishing condition. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) combined with SEM revealed significantly smoother surfaces for each alloy surface while indicating that the constituent metals comprising each alloy effectively electropolished at uniform rates.

  11. Contact mechanics and elastohydrodynamic lubrication in a novel metal-on-metal hip implant with an aspherical bearing surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingen; Gao, Leiming; Liu, Feng; Yang, Peiran; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2010-03-22

    Diameter and diametral clearance of the bearing surfaces of metal-on-metal hip implants and structural supports have been recognised as key factors to reduce the dry contact and hydrodynamic pressures and improve lubrication performance. On the other hand, application of aspherical bearing surfaces can also significantly affect the contact mechanics and lubrication performance by changing the radius of the curvature of a bearing surface and consequently improving the conformity between the head and the cup. In this study, a novel metal-on-metal hip implant employing a specific aspherical bearing surface, Alpharabola, as the acetabular surface was investigated for both contact mechanics and elastohydrodynamic lubrication under steady-state conditions. When compared with conventional spherical bearing surfaces, a more uniform pressure distribution and a thicker lubricant film thickness within the loaded conjunction were predicted for this novel Alpharabola hip implant. The effects of the geometric parameters of this novel acetabular surface on the pressure distribution and lubricant thickness were investigated. A significant increase in the predicted lubricant film thickness and a significant decrease in the dry contact and hydrodynamic pressures were found with appropriate combinations of these geometric parameters, compared with the spherical bearing surface.

  12. Laser surface treatment of magnesium alloy with WC and TiC powders using HPDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work was to improve the surface layer cast magnesium alloy EN-MCMgAl6Zn1 by laser surface treatment. The purpose of this work was also to determine the laser treatment parameter.Design/methodology/approach: The laser treatment of an EN-MCMgAl6Zn1 magnesium alloy with alloying WC and also TiC powders was carried out using a high power diode laser (HPDL. The resulting microstructure in the modified surface layer was examinated using scanning electron microscopy. Phase composition was determined by the X-ray diffraction method using the XPert device. The measurements of microhardness of the modified surface layer was also studied.Findings: The alloyed region has a fine microstructure with hard carbide particles. Microhardness of laser surface alloyed layer with both TiC and WC particles was significantly improved as compared to alloy without laser treatment.Research limitations/implications: In this research two powders (WC and TiC were used with the particle size over 5µm This investigation presents different speed rates feed by one process laser power.Practical implications: The results obtained in this investigation were promising to compared other conventional processes. High Power Diode Laser can be used as an economical substitute of Nd:YAG and CO2 to improve the surface magnesium alloy by feeding the carbide particles.Originality/value: The originality of this work is applying of High Power Diode Laser for alloying of magnesium alloy using hard particles like tungsten carbide and titanium carbide.

  13. Surface Modification Of The High Temperature Porous Sliding Bearings With Solid Lubricant Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniewska-Weinert H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A surface modification of stainless steel bearing sleeves is developed to improve the tribology characteristics at high temperature. Solid lubricant nano- and microparticles are applied for this purpose. To create the quasi-hydrodynamic lubrication regimes, the solid lubricant powder layer is made by developed pressure impregnation technique. Porous sliding bearing sleeve prototypes were made by powder metallurgy technique. The purpose of the paper is to define the friction and wear characteristics of the sleeves and to determine the influence of sealing of the sliding interface on these characteristics. It is found that application of WS2 sold lubricant nano- and micro-particles and preservation of a particle leakage out of interface allows to achieve at the high temperature the friction coefficients comparable to those at ambient temperature.

  14. Rashba splitting and dichroism of surface states in Bi/Ag surface alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Guang; Miller, T. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801-3080 (United States); Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801-2902 (United States); Chiang, T.-C., E-mail: tcchiang@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801-3080 (United States); Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801-2902 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The Rashba effect plays an important role in various spin-related phenomena in two-dimensional electronic systems. In this work we present a theoretical analysis of the Rashba effect both analytically and numerically for the prototypical Rashba system Bi/Ag surface alloy, which shows a giant Rashba spin splitting. The results reveal the critical influence of atomic spin-orbit coupling and structural inversion asymmetry. In addition, we demonstrate a theoretical route to interpret the prominent circular dichroic patterns observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in this system. The results reveal a close connection between the experimentally observed dichroic patterns and the Rashba spin texture.

  15. Surface properties and wetting behavior of liquid Ag-Sb-Sn alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyarchuk V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface tension and density measurements of liquid Ag-Sb-Sn alloys were carried out over a wide temperature range by using the sessile drop method. The surface tension experimental data were analyzed by the Butler thermodynamic model in the regular solution approximation. The wetting characteristics of these alloys on Cu and Ni substrates have been also determined. The new experimental results were compared with the calculated values as well as with data available in the literature.

  16. Nanocrystal and surface alloy properties of bimetallic Gold-Platinum nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Mott Derrick; Luo Jin; Smith Andrew; Njoki Peter; Wang Lingyan; Zhong Chuan-Jian

    2006-01-01

    AbstractWe report on the correlation between the nanocrystal and surface alloy properties with the bimetallic composition of gold-platinum(AuPt) nanoparticles. The fundamental understanding of whether the AuPt nanocrystal core is alloyed or phase-segregated and how the surface binding properties are correlated with the nanoscale bimetallic properties is important not only for the exploitation of catalytic activity of the nanoscale bimetallic catalysts, but also to the general exploration of t...

  17. Depletion Gilding: An Ancient Method for Surface Enrichment of Gold Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Ancient objects made of noble metal alloys, that is, gold with copper and/or silver, can show the phenomenon of surface enrichment. This phenomenon is regarding the composition of the surface, which has a percentage of gold higher than that of the bulk. This enrichment is obtained by a depletion of the other elements of the alloy, which are, in some manner, removed. This depletion gilding process was used by pre-Columbian populations for their 'tumbaga', a gold-copper alloy, to give it the luster of gold.

  18. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X; Cheng, Y; Zhang, Z X; Xi, T F; Zhang, D Y

    2009-08-01

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10(5) for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  19. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, Y; Xi, T F [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Z X [Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zhang, D Y, E-mail: gxn139888@pku.edu.c, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.c, E-mail: 8lanqiuxiang@163.co, E-mail: chengyan@pku.edu.c, E-mail: top5460@163.co, E-mail: xitingfei@tom.co, E-mail: zhangdeyuan@lifetechmed.co [Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co. Ltd, Hi-Tech Park, Shenzhen 518000 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10{sup 5} for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  20. Laser surface pretreatment of 100Cr6 bearing steel – Hardening effects and white etching zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buling, Anna, E-mail: a.buling@hs-osnabrueck.de [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences, 49009 Osnabrück (Germany); Sändker, Hendrik; Stollenwerk, Jochen [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, Steinbachstrasse 15, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Krupp, Ulrich; Hamann-Steinmeier, Angela [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences, 49009 Osnabrück (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Laser surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 is performed. • Microstructural changes of the surface are examined by light microscopy and SEM. • Topographical changes are observed using white light interferometry. • Micro-hardness testing show the existence of very hard white etching zones (WEZ). • WEZ are attributed to near-surface reaustenitization and rapid quenching. • Dark etching zones (DEZ) are found at the laser path edges after laser pretreatment. - Abstract: In order to achieve a surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 (1–1.5 wt.% Cr) a laser-based process was used. The obtained modification may result in an optimization of the adhesive properties of the surface with respect to an anticorrosion polymer coating on the basis of PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone), which is applied on the steel surface by a laser melting technique. This work deals with the influence of the laser-based pretreatment regarding the surface microstructure and the micro-hardness of the steel, which has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and automated micro-hardness testing. The most suitable parameter set for the laser-based pretreatment leads to the formation of very hard white etching zones (WEZ) with a thickness of 23 μm, whereas this pretreatment also induces topographical changes. The occurrence of the white etching zones is attributed to near-surface re-austenitization and rapid quenching. Moreover, dark etching zones (DEZ) with a thickness of 32 μm are found at the laser path edges as well as underneath the white etching zones (WEZ). In these areas, the hardness is decreased due to the formation of oxides as a consequence of re-tempering.

  1. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollobrigida, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Basso, V.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), I-10135 Torino (Italy); Borgatti, F. [CNR, Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G. [CNR, Istituto Officina dei Materiali (IOM), Lab. TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Tortora, L. [Laboratorio di Analisi di Superficie, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Università Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Stefani, G.; Offi, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy)

    2014-05-28

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  2. Ab initio atomistic thermodynamics study on the oxidation mechanism of binary and ternary alloy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shi-Yu, E-mail: buaasyliu@gmail.com [College of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu, Shiyang [Institute of Information Optics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China); Li, De-Jun [College of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wang, Sanwu, E-mail: sanwu-wang@utulsa.edu [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Guo, Jing; Shen, Yaogen, E-mail: meshen@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-02-14

    Utilizing a combination of ab initio density-functional theory and thermodynamics formalism, we have established the microscopic mechanisms for oxidation of the binary and ternary alloy surfaces and provided a clear explanation for the experimental results of the oxidation. We construct three-dimensional surface phase diagrams (SPDs) for oxygen adsorption on three different Nb-X(110) (X = Ti, Al or Si) binary alloy surfaces. On the basis of the obtained SPDs, we conclude a general microscopic mechanism for the thermodynamic oxidation, that is, under O-rich conditions, a uniform single-phase SPD (type I) and a nonuniform double-phase SPD (type II) correspond to the sustained complete selective oxidation and the non-sustained partial selective oxidation by adding the X element, respectively. Furthermore, by revealing the framework of thermodynamics for the oxidation mechanism of ternary alloys through the comparison of the surface energies of two separated binary alloys, we provide an understanding for the selective oxidation behavior of the Nb ternary alloy surfaces. Using these general microscopic mechanisms, one could predict the oxidation behavior of any binary and multi-component alloy surfaces based on thermodynamics considerations.

  3. Evolution of Surface Oxide Film of Typical Aluminum Alloy During Medium-Temperature Brazing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程方杰; 赵海微; 王颖; 肖兵; 姚俊峰

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the surface oxide film along the depth direction of typical aluminum alloy under medium-temperature brazing was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the alloy with Mg content below 2.0wt%, whether under cold rolling condition or during medium-temperature brazing process, the en-richment of Mg element on the surface was not detected and the oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the oxide film grew obviously during medium-temperature brazing process, and the thickness was about 80 nm. For the alloy with Mg content above 2.0wt%, under cold rolling condition, the original surface oxide film was pure Al2O3. However, the Mg element was significantly enriched on the outermost surface during medium-temperature brazing process, and MgO-based oxide film mixed with small amount of MgAl2O4 was formed with a thickness of about 130 nm. The alloy-ing elements of Mn and Si were not enriched on the surface neither under cold rolling condition nor during medium-temperature brazing process for all the selected aluminum alloy, and the surface oxide film was similar to that of pure aluminum, which was almost entire Al2O3.

  4. Surface Modification With Zinc and Zn-Ni Alloy Compositionally Modulated Multilayer Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Jing-yin; LIANG Guo-zheng; XIN Wen-li; WANG Wei-kang

    2006-01-01

    Zinc and Zn-Ni alloy compositionally modulated multilayer (CMM) coatings were electrodeposited on to a steel substrate by the successive deposition of zinc and Zn-Ni alloy sublayers from dual baths. The coated samples were evaluated in terms of the surface appearance, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, as well as corrosion resistance. The microstructural characteristics that were examined using the field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) confirmed the layered structure, grain refinement of the zinc and Zn-Ni alloy CMM coatings, and revealed the existence of microcracks caused by the internal stress in the thick Zn-Ni alloy sublayers. The corrosion resistance that was evaluated by means of the salt spray test shows that the zinc and Zn-Ni alloy CMM coatings were more corrosion-resistant than the monolithic coatings of zinc or Zn-Ni alloy of the same thickness. The possible reasons for the better protective performance of Zn-Ni/Zn CMM coatings were given on the basis of the analysis on the micrographic features of zinc and Zn-Ni alloy CMM coatings after the corrosion test. A probable corrosion mechanism of zinc and Zn-Ni alloy CMM coatings was also proposed.

  5. Surface nanotopography of an anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy enhances cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Ping [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Sun, Ying-Sui [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Yang, Wei-En [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzu-Hsin, E-mail: biomaterials@hotmail.com [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Oral Medicine Center, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • An electrochemical anodization was applied to α/β-type Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy surface. • Anodized surface had a nontoxic nanoporous topography. • Anodized surface increased proteins adsorption due to nanotopography. • Anodized surface enhanced cell growth due to nanotopography. • Electrochemical anodization has potential as implant surface treatment. - Abstract: The α/β-type Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy is a potential replacement for α/β-type Ti–6Al–4V alloy, which is widely used in biomedical implant applications. The biological response to implant material is dependent on the surface characteristics of the material. In the present study, a simple and fast process was developed to perform an electrochemical anodization treatment on Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. The proposed process yielded a thin surface nanotopography, which enhanced cell growth on the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. The surface characteristics, including the morphology, wettability, and protein adsorption, were investigated, and the cytotoxicity was evaluated according to International Organization for Standardization 10993-5 specifications. Cell adhesion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the test specimens was observed via fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The anodization process produced a surface nanotopography (pore size <100 nm) on anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy, which enhanced the wettability, protein adsorption, cell adhesion, cell migration, and cell mineralization. The results showed that the surface nanotopography produced using the proposed electrochemical anodization process enhanced cell growth on anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy for implant applications.

  6. Antisite-defect-induced surface segregation in ordered NiPt alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourovskii, L.V.; Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I.A.;

    2003-01-01

    By means of first principles simulations we demonstrate that tiny deviations from stoichiometry in the bulk composition of the NiPt-L1(0) ordered alloy have a great impact on the atomic configuration of the (111) surface. We predict that at T=600 K the (111) surface of the Ni51Pt49 and Ni50Pt50...... alloys corresponds to the (111) truncation of the bulk L1(0) ordered structure. However, the (111) surface of the nickel deficient Ni49Pt51 alloy is strongly enriched by Pt and should exhibit the pattern of the 2x2 structure. Such a drastic change in the segregation behavior is due to the presence...... of different antisite defects in the Ni- and Pt-rich alloys and is a manifestation of the so-called off-stoichiometric effect....

  7. A two-component Frenkel-Kontorowa model for surface alloy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Daruka, I

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown by recent experiments that bulk immiscible metals (e.g. Ag/Cu, Ag/Co and Au/Ni) can form binary alloys on certain surfaces where the substrate mediates the elastic misfits between the two components, thus relieving the elastic strain in the overlayer. These novel surface alloys exhibit a rich phase structure. We formulate a two-component Frenkel-Kontorova model in one dimension to study surface alloy formation. This model can naturally incorporate dislocation formation that plays a crucial role in determining the actual structure of the system. Using energy minimization calculations we provide a phase diagram in terms of average alloy composition and the energy of mixing. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed to study the structure and interaction of the emerging dislocations.

  8. Microstructures of worn surface and wear debris of as-cast Al-17Si-xLa alloys under unlubricated conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易宏坤; 张荻; 范同祥; 吕维洁

    2003-01-01

    The tribological characteristics of hypereutectic Al-17Si-xLa alloys against heat-treated GCr15 bearing steel under unlubricated conditions were investigated using a block-on-ring type wear testing apparatus in air at room temperature. Microstructures and chemical compositions of worn surface and wear debris were characterized by means of SEM with EDS and XRD patterns. XRD results show that wear behaviors of Al-17Si-xLa alloys are similar and the typical worn surface is characterized by smooth region and crater region. The mechanically mixed layer (MML) and the wear debris are very similar in microstructures and chemical compositions, both containing the fine equiaxed aggregates and large plates and blocks from the both sliding counterparts (α(Al) and α-Fe) and some reaction products (ternary oxides, I.e. Al-Fe-O and Fe-Si-O).

  9. Corrosion Behavior and Surface Modification of Mg-Zn Implant Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayad, I. M.; Maamoun, M. A.; Metwally, W. A.; El-Baradie, Z. M.; Abdel-Azim, A. N.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, Mg-Zn alloys (1-4 wt.% Zn) were fabricated with high-purity raw materials using a clean melting process (fluxless method) and a protective atmosphere of CO2 + 0.4 SF6. The as-cast microstructures of the investigated alloys were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopes, EDS and XRD. Corrosion properties of the prepared alloys were examined in simulated body fluid by electrochemical techniques and immersion test (hydrogen evolution method). Surface modification of the prepared alloys was performed using micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. Microstructure observation revealed that Zn was completely dissolved in the α-Mg matrix up to 2 wt.%. Higher Zn content led to a reduction in the grain size and the development of a second phase (MgZn2). Corrosion testing results revealed that Mg-1,2,3 wt.% Zn have almost the same degradation rate, whereas Mg-4Zn has the highest degradation rate. HA coating on MAO-treated magnesium alloys formed a dense and compact layer on the alloy surface, which had largely improved surface properties and enhanced corrosion resistance of the prepared alloys.

  10. PECULIARITIES OF ASSIGNMENT OF ROLLING BEARING MOUNTING AND PARAMETERS OF GEOMETRIC ACCURACY OF MOUNTING SURFACES OF SHAFTS AND FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamenko Yu. І.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The standards and methods concerning assignment of rolling bearing fit with shafts and frames via example of bearing 6-208 are analyzed. We set certain differences of recommendations according to GOST 3325-85, "Rolling bearings. Tolerance zones and technical requirements to mounting surfaces of shafts and frames. Attachment" and by reference of rolling bearing manufacturers. The following factors should be taken into consideration when assigning the mounting with the tension the internal ring of the bearing with shaft and mounting with a gap in the outer ring with a housing bore. The methods of achieving accuracy of mounting surfaces of shafts and frames via form tolerance assignment: roundness tolerance, profile of longitudinal cut, cross section, cylindricity and others. It is possible to limit the bearing rings in different ways, for example appointing the cylindrical mounting surfaces and bead end surfaces the appropriate tolerances, namely: coaxiality tolerance or full radial beat of mounting surfaces, and also perpendicularity tolerance, butt beats and full butt beats of mounting end surfaces. We suggest to expand methods of achieving the accuracy of shafts and frames depending on seriation of production and production operations metrology support.

  11. The surface nanostructures of titanium alloy regulate the proliferation of endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of surface nanostructures on the behaviors of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, surface nanostructured titanium alloy (Ti-3Zr2Sn-3Mo-25Nb, TLM was fabricated by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT technique. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD were employed to characterize the surface nanostructures of the TLM, respectively. The results demonstrated that nano-crystalline structures with several tens of nanometers were formed on the surface of TLM substrates. The HUVECs grown onto the surface nanostructured TLM spread well and expressed more vinculin around the edges of cells. More importantly, HUVECs grown onto the surface nanostructured TLM displayed significantly higher (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05 cell adhesion and viabilities than those of native titanium alloy. HUVECs cultured on the surface nanostructured titanium alloy displayed significantly higher (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05 productions of nitric oxide (NO and prostacyclin (PGI2 than those of native titanium alloy, respectively. This study provides an alternative for the development of titanium alloy based vascular stents.

  12. Influence of additive element on surface oxide film of A356 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Zhi-ying; LIANG Hong-yu; MAO Xie-min; HONG Mei

    2006-01-01

    The influences of RE-modification and Sr-modification on the hydrogen content and surface oxide film of A356 aluminum alloy melt were investigated. The hydrogen content of the melt was measured by reduce pressure test. The phases in the surface oxide film were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and the morphology of the surface oxide film was observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that RE-modification reduces the hydrogen content of A356 aluminum alloy greatly.Contrarily, Sr-modification increases the hydrogen content remarkably. After being treated with RE, a large number of LaAl11O18 consisting of Al2O3 and La2O3, are generated in the surface oxide film of A356 alloy. The surface oxide film of Sr-modification is almost composed of Al2SrO4. According to the results of SEM, the surface oxide film of Sr-modification is very easy to crack,destroy the continuity and compactness of surface oxide film, accelerate the vapor diffusing into the melt, consequently, increase the hydrogen content of A356 alloy melt significantly. But RE-modification makes the surface oxide film compact, and restrains the aluminum exposed to water, so reduces the hydrogen content of A356 alloy melt.

  13. Nanocrystal and surface alloy properties of bimetallic Gold-Platinum nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mott Derrick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe report on the correlation between the nanocrystal and surface alloy properties with the bimetallic composition of gold-platinum(AuPt nanoparticles. The fundamental understanding of whether the AuPt nanocrystal core is alloyed or phase-segregated and how the surface binding properties are correlated with the nanoscale bimetallic properties is important not only for the exploitation of catalytic activity of the nanoscale bimetallic catalysts, but also to the general exploration of the surface or interfacial reactivities of bimetallic or multimetallic nanoparticles. The AuPt nanoparticles are shown to exhibit not only single-phase alloy character in the nanocrystal, but also bimetallic alloy property on the surface. The nanocrystal and surface alloy properties are directly correlated with the bimetallic composition. The FTIR probing of CO adsorption on the bimetallic nanoparticles supported on silica reveals that the surface binding sites are dependent on the bimetallic composition. The analysis of this dependence further led to the conclusion that the relative Au-atop and Pt-atop sites for the linear CO adsorption on the nanoparticle surface are not only correlated with the bimetallic composition, but also with the electronic effect as a result of the d-band shift of Pt in the bimetallic nanocrystals, which is the first demonstration of the nanoscale core-surface property correlation for the bimetallic nanoparticles over a wide range of bimetallic composition.

  14. Nanocrystal and surface alloy properties of bimetallic Gold-Platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Derrick; Luo, Jin; Smith, Andrew; Njoki, Peter N; Wang, Lingyan

    2007-01-01

    We report on the correlation between the nanocrystal and surface alloy properties with the bimetallic composition of gold-platinum(AuPt) nanoparticles. The fundamental understanding of whether the AuPt nanocrystal core is alloyed or phase-segregated and how the surface binding properties are correlated with the nanoscale bimetallic properties is important not only for the exploitation of catalytic activity of the nanoscale bimetallic catalysts, but also to the general exploration of the surface or interfacial reactivities of bimetallic or multimetallic nanoparticles. The AuPt nanoparticles are shown to exhibit not only single-phase alloy character in the nanocrystal, but also bimetallic alloy property on the surface. The nanocrystal and surface alloy properties are directly correlated with the bimetallic composition. The FTIR probing of CO adsorption on the bimetallic nanoparticles supported on silica reveals that the surface binding sites are dependent on the bimetallic composition. The analysis of this dependence further led to the conclusion that the relative Au-atop and Pt-atop sites for the linear CO adsorption on the nanoparticle surface are not only correlated with the bimetallic composition, but also with the electronic effect as a result of the d-band shift of Pt in the bimetallic nanocrystals, which is the first demonstration of the nanoscale core-surface property correlation for the bimetallic nanoparticles over a wide range of bimetallic composition.

  15. Probing adsorption phenomena on a single crystal Pt-alloy surface under oxygen reduction reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondarenko, Alexander S.; Stephens, Ifan E.L.; Bech, Lone;

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption dynamics of *OH and *O species at Pt(111) and Cu/Pt(111) near-surface alloy (NSA) surfaces in oxygen-free and O2-saturated 0.1M HClO4 was investigated. Subsurface Cu modifies the electronic structure at the Pt(111) surface resulting in weaker bonding to adsorbates like *OH, *H or *...

  16. Ceramic-on-ceramic versus ceramic-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongcai; Yang, Xiao; Tan, Yang; Alaidaros, Mohammed; Chen, Liaobin

    2015-04-01

    The choice between ceramic-on-ceramic (COC) and ceramic-on-polyethylene (COP) in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and durability of COC vs COP bearing surfaces in THA. Based on published randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) identified in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the authors performed a meta-analysis comparing the clinical and radiographic outcomes of COC with those of COP. Two investigators independently selected the studies and extracted the data. The methodological quality of each RCT was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals from each trial were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Nine RCTs involving 1575 patients (1747 hips) met the predetermined inclusion criteria. Eight of 9 included RCTs had high methodological quality. The heterogeneity was not significant, and all the results were pooled using a fixed-effects model. The results demonstrated that COC significantly increased the risks of squeaking and total implant fracture compared with COP. No significant differences with respect to revision, osteolysis and radiolucent lines, loosening, dislocation, and deep infection were observed between the COC and COP bearing surfaces. This meta-analysis resulted in no sufficient evidence to identify any clinical or radiographic advantage of COC vs COP bearing surfaces in the short- to mid-term follow-up period. Long-term follow-up is required for further evaluation.

  17. Laser Alloyed Coatings of TiB2/Graphite on 9Cr18 Stainless Steel Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Li-xia; WANG Li-qin; JIA Xiao-mei; GU Le

    2007-01-01

    Modified coatings including carbide of iron, nickel, chromium, silicon, and titanium are obtained on 9Cr18 stainless steel surface by laser alloying. The processing method, the microstructure, the interface, the tribological properties, and the forming mechanisms of the coatings are analyzed. The results show that the microstructure of the alloyed coatings is mainly irregular FeC crystals. Carbides of chromium and iron are around the FeC crystals. Small granular TiC disperses in the alloyed coatings. The microhardness of the alloyed coatings is greatly improved because of the occurrence of carbide with high hardness. At the same time, the wear resistance of the alloyed coatings are higher than that of 9Cr18 stainless steel.

  18. Titanium Alloy Surface Modification by a Spatio-Temporal Atmospheric Pressure DBD Afterglow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.PANOUSIS; F.CLEMENT; J.F.LOISEAU; N.SPYROU; B.HELD1; J.LARRIEU; F.GUERTON

    2007-01-01

    The experimental work reported here is devoted to the study of the modifications inflicted on the surface of titanium alloy specimens by an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge(DBD) reactor in both spatial and temporal afterglow conditions.A commercially available (AcXys Technologies) modified reactor system was used for the surface treatment of the TiA6V4 titanium alloy that is widely used in the aeronautical industry.Wettability surface characterisation and XPS analyses are performed to give a macroscopic and microscopic insight to the surface modifications.Best operating conditions,at constant input energy,were obtained for a duty cycle equal to 10%.

  19. Plasma Niobium Surface Alloying of Pure Titanium and its Oxidation at 900 ℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-bo; ZHONG Xu; HE Zhi-yong; WANG Zhen-xia; ZHANG Ping-ze

    2007-01-01

    A niobium-modified layer on pure titanium surface was obtained by means of double glow plasma surface alloying technique. The modified layer was uniform, continuous, compact and well adhered to the substrate. The niobium composition in the modified layer decreased gradually from the surface to the substrate. The oxidation behavior of the niobium-modified layer was investigated and compared with the untreated surface at 900 ℃ for 100 h. Characterization of the layers was performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, respectively. The test results show that the oxidation behavior of pure titanium was improved by niobium alloying process. Niobium has a positive influence on the oxidation resistance.

  20. THE EFFECT OF THE ALUMINIUM ALLOY SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON THE RESTITUTION COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Bławucki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the effect of the surface roughness of aluminum alloy on its coefficient of restitution. It describes the current method of finishing the workpiece surface layer after cutting and innovative measuring device which was used in the research. The material used in the research was aluminium alloy EN AW 7075. The paper also presents a relationship between the coefficient of restitution and surface roughness of the milled samples as well as impressions left by bead in function of velocity and a sample surface roughness.

  1. The role of electro-explosion alloying with titanium diboride and treatment with pulsed electron beam in the surface modification of VT6 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalov, Sergey, E-mail: konovserg@gmail.com; Gromov, Victor, E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru; Kobzareva, Tatyana; Semina, Olga [Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation); Bataev, Vladimir, E-mail: vabataev@yandex.ru [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, 630073 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yurii, E-mail: yufi55@mail.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The paper presents the results of the investigation of VT6 titanium alloy subjected to electro-explosion alloying with TiB{sub 2} and irradiation with pulsed electron beam. It was established that electro-explosion alloying resulted in a high level of roughness of the surface layer with high adhesion of the modified layer and matrix. Further irradiation of the material with electron beam resulted in the smoothing of the surface of alloying and formation of a porous structure with various scale levels in the surface layer. It was also established that the energetic exposure causes the formation of a gradient structure with a changing elemental composition along the direction from the surface of alloying.

  2. The adsorption of ethylene on Au/Pd(100) alloy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjun; Thuening, Theodore; Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    2016-04-01

    The surface chemistry of ethylene is explored on model Au/Pd(100) alloy surfaces using a combination of temperature-programmed desorption and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy. The heat of adsorption of ethylene on the model alloy surface is found to increase monotonically with increasing palladium coverage in the alloy, from ~ 33 kJ/mol for a completely gold-covered surface to ~ 80 kJ/mol as the gold coverage decreases to zero. A large change in heat of adsorption is found for palladium coverages between 0 and ~ 0.35 monolayers, where previous studies have shown that the surface comprises exclusively isolated palladium sites. The heat of adsorption changes more slowly for higher palladium coverages, when palladium-palladium bridge sites appear. Vinyl species are identified for palladium coverages above ~ 0.8 ML from a vibrational mode at ~ 1120 cm- 1, which disappears when the sample is heated to ~ 250 K, due to vinyl decomposition.

  3. Explosive compact-coating of tungsten–copper alloy to a copper surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xiaojie; Yan, Honghao; Wang, Xiaohong; Miao, Yusong

    2017-03-01

    This study proposed a new method for coating tungsten–copper alloy to copper surface. First, the tungsten–copper alloy powder was pre-compacted to the copper surface. Then, the powder in the hydrogen atmosphere was sintered, and the pre-compacted powder was compacted by explosive compact-coating. Finally, diffusion sintering was conducted to improve the density of the coating layer. The theoretical density of the coating reached 99.3%. Microstructure characteristics indicated that tungsten and copper powders were well mixed. Tungsten particles were larger than copper particles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) fracture surface analysis was different from the traditional fracture of metals. Coating and substrate joint surfaces, which were analyzed by SEM, indicated that the tungsten–copper alloy was sintered on the copper surface. The hardness of the coating layer was 197.6–245.2 HV, and the hardness of the substrate was approximately 55 HV.

  4. Surface integrity after pickling and anodization of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesse, Eric; Mabru, Catherine; Arurault, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The surface integrity of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy was studied at different stages of surface treatments, especially pickling and compact anodization, through surface characteristics potentially worsening fatigue resistance. No significant changes of the equiaxe microstructure were detected between sample core and surface, or after the pickling and anodization steps. Surface hydrogen and oxygen superficial contents were found to remain unchanged. Roughness characteristi...

  5. Shear Bond Strength of a Resin Cement to Different Alloys Subjected to Various Surface Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Ezoji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Micromechanical retention of resin cements to alloys is an important factor affecting the longevity of metal base restorations. This study aimed to compare the bond strength and etching pattern of a newly introduced experimental etchant gel namely Nano Met Etch with those of conventional surface treatment techniques for nickel-chrome (Ni-Cr and high noble alloys. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 discs (8×10×15 mm were cast with Ni-Cr (n=20, high noble BegoStar (n=50 and gold coin alloys (n=50. Their Surfaces were ground with abrasive papers. Ni-Cr specimens received sandblasting and etching. High noble alloy specimens (begoStar and gold coin received sandblasting, sandblasting-alloy primer, etching, etch-alloy primer and alloy primer alone. Cylindrical specimens of Panavia were bonded to surfaces using Tygon tubes. Specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength testing after storing at 37°C for 24 hours.Results: In gold coin group, the highest bond strength was achieved after sandblasting (25.82±1.37MPa, P<0.001 and etching+alloy primer (26.60 ± 5.47 MPa, P<0.01. The lowest bond strength belonged to sandblasting+alloy primer (17.79±2.96MPa, P<0.01. In BegoStar group, the highest bond strength was obtained in the sandblasted group (38.40±3.29MPa, P<0.001 while the lowest bond strength was detected in the sandblast+ alloy primer group (15.38±2.92MPa, P<0.001. For the Ni-Cr alloy, bond strength in the etched group (20.79±2.01MPa was higher than that in the sandblasted group (18.25±1.82MPa (P<0.01.Conclusions: For the Ni-Cr alloy, etching was more efficient than sandblasting but for the high noble alloys, higher Au content increased the efficacy of etching.

  6. Laser controlled melting of pre-prepared inconel 718 alloy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aleem, B. J.; Hashmi, M. S. J.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2011-11-01

    Laser treatment of Inconel 718 alloy surface is carried out. The alloy surface is coated with a carbon layer containing 7% TiC particles prior to the laser treatment. The carbon coating provides increased absorption of the incident laser beam and holds TiC particles. The microstrutural and morphological changes in the laser treated region are examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The microhardness of the surface is measured and the residual stress formed at the surface vicinity is determined from the XRD technique. It is found that partial dissolution of carbide particles takes place at the surface. The composition of fine grains at the surface vicinity, nitride compounds formed, and dissolution of Laves phase at the surface region enhances the hardness at the treated surface. In addition, laser treated surface is free from the micro-crack network and cavities.

  7. Influence of surface structure on hydrogen interaction with Zr–1Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushilina, N.S. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kudiiarov, V.N., E-mail: viktor.kudiiarov@gmail.com [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lider, A.M. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Teresov, A.D. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Zr–1Nb alloy was modified by PEB with different energy density and number of pulses. • Zr–1Nb alloy PEB treatment reduces hydrogen sorption rate and diffusion coefficient. • Hydrogen sorption rate increases with increasing the number of PEB pulses treatment. - Abstract: Modified structural-phase state in the surface layer (∼10 μm) of Zr–1Nb alloy has been formed with the help of high-current pulsed electron beam. Surface treatment was carried out with energy density varied from 10 to 25 J/cm{sup 2} and number of pulses varied from 1 to 10. We studied the dependence of hydrogen sorption and diffusion characteristics of Zr–1Nb alloy on its structure state at room temperature and at 350 °C.

  8. Surface Composition and Corrosion Property of TiNi Alloys Coated with Tantalum Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan CHENG; Wei CAI; Liancheng ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    Multi-arc ion plating method was employed to coat TiNi alloys with Ta in order to improve radiopacity and corrosion resistance property. The surface composition, corrosion resistance property and Ni ions release amount of TiNi alloys coated with Ta films compared with TiNi alloys, are investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), electrochemical measurements and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), respectively. The results show that the coated surface composition is composed of Ta and O and the corrosion resistance is improved, whereas the Ni ions release amount of the coated sample is lower than that of the uncoated samples in the whole immersion period, indicating that Ta coating can improve the biocompatibility of TiNi alloys.

  9. A surface analytical examination of Stringer particles in Al-Li-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, L. A.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1983-01-01

    A surface analytical examination of powder metallurgy processed Al-Li-Cu alloys was conducted. The oxide stringer particles often found in these alloys was characterized. Particle characterization is important to more fully understand their impact on the stress corrosion and fracture properties of the alloy. The techniques used were SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy) and SAM (Scanning Auger Microscopy). The results indicate that the oxide stringer particles contain both Al and Li with relatively high Li content and the Li compounds may be associated with the stringer particles, thereby locally depleting the adjacent matrix of Li solute.

  10. Effects of Surface Structure and Chemical Composition of Binary Ti Alloys on Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Sung Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Binary Ti alloys containing Fe, Mo, V and Zr were micro-arc oxidized and hydrothermally treated to obtain micro- and nano-porous layers. This study aimed to investigate cell differentiation on micro and micro/nanoporous oxide layers of Ti alloys. The properties of the porous layer formed on Ti alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern, microstructural and elemental analyses and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS method. The MTT assay, total protein production and alkaline phosphatase (ALPase activity were evaluated using human osteoblast-like cells (MG-63. Microporous structures of micro-arc oxidized Ti alloys were changed to micro/nanoporous surfaces after hydrothermal treatment. Micro/nanoporous surfaces consisted of acicular TiO2 nanoparticles and micron-sized hydroxyapatite particles. From ICP and MTT tests, the Mo and V ions released from porous oxide layers were positive for cell viability, while the released Fe ions were negative for cell viability. Although the micro/nanoporous surfaces led to a lower total protein content than the polished and microporous Ti surfaces after cell incubation for 7 days, they caused higher ALPase activities after 7 days and 14 days of incubation except for V-containing microporous surfaces. The micro/nanoporous surfaces of Ti alloys were more efficient in inducing MG-63 cell differentiation.

  11. Control of Surface Attack by Gallium Alloys in Electrical Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-28

    and atmospheric control but does not allow visual observation of the contact brushes. This machine is a small homopolar motor built from mild steel...collectors,gallium, homopolar devices,liquid metals,~- is. ABSTRACT ICNI.. .. w 41N"w -~dv.mp.d Wrllt by Itabata" * Electrical contact between a copp’er...32 5 Test rig with felt metal brushes 32 6 Homopolar test apparatus 33 7 Rewetting of alloy track 33 8 Alloy track after running with finger 34 brushes

  12. Effect of Surface Pretreatment on Adhesive Properties of Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinsheng ZHANG; Xuhui ZHAO; Yu ZUO; Jinping XIONG; Xiaofeng ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The lap-shear strength and durability of adhesive bonded AI alloy joints with different pretreatments were studied by the lap-shear test and wedge test. The results indicate that the maximum lap-shear strength and durability of the bonding joints pretreated by different processes are influenced by the grade of abrasive papers and can be obviously improved by phosphoric acid anodizing. Alkali etching can obviously improve the durability of bonding joints although it slightly influences the maximum lap-shear strength. The process which is composed of grit-finishing, acetone degreasing, alkali etching and phosphoric acid anodizing, provides a better adhesive bonding property of AI alloy.

  13. Surface alloy formation of noble adatoms adsorbed on Si(111)-{radical}3x{radical}3-Pb surface: a first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chong; Wang Fei; Sun, Q; Jia Yu, E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn [Center for Clean Energy and Quantum Structures, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2011-07-06

    The geometric structures, stability and electronic properties of initial stages of surface alloy formation for noble atoms adsorbed on Si(111)-{radical}3x{radical}3-Pb surfaces have been comparatively and extensively studied by using first-principles calculations within density functional theory. Our results revealed that an Au trimer rather than a tetramer adsorption induces a surface alloy by combining with Pb atoms in covalent bonds, exhibiting semiconducting characteristics due to the localization of surface states. The stability of the two-dimensional (2D) surface alloy obeys the Hume-Rothery rule. The electronic structures of the 2D surface alloy are sensitive to the number of Au adatoms and can be modulated by the quantity of Au adatoms. Unlike the Au atoms, our further calculations indicated that adsorption of Ag or Cu atoms on the surface cannot form a surface alloy with Pb atoms in the surface layer due to a weaker interaction or smaller radius.

  14. Antimicrobial copper alloy surfaces are effective against vegetative but not sporulated cells of gram-positive Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    San, Kaungmyat; Long, Janet; Michels, Corinne A.; Gadura, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the role of membrane phospholipid peroxidation in the copper alloy mediated contact killing of Bacillus subtilis, a spore-forming gram-positive bacterial species. We found that B. subtilis endospores exhibited significant resistance to copper alloy surface killing but vegetative cells were highly sensitive to copper surface exposure. Cell death and lipid peroxidation occurred in B. subtilis upon copper alloy surface exposure. In a sporulation-defective strain carrying a de...

  15. Characteristics of metal and ceramic total hip bearing surfaces and their effect on long-term ultra high molecular weight polyethylene wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J A

    1993-09-01

    The micromechanics of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear in total hip replacement are very complex. Polyethylene wear from the metal head and debris formation are two common types of wear. There are additional wear-related processes occurring at the metal-bearing surfaces that are not well-known, however. This study outlines these processes, including (1) surface wettability changes, (2) oxidative wear of metal surfaces, (3) microabrasion of metal surfaces from oxide film damage, and (4) surface abrasion from three-body polymethylmethacrylate and bone debris. These processes can contribute to metal ion release and a gradual increase in the roughness of the metal surfaces. This can lead to increased long-term UHMWPE wear. Of the metal alloys currently used in total hip replacements, Co-Cr-Mo alloy is significantly more resistant to roughening processes. Hard, stable, oxide: ceramic surfaces articulating against UHMWPE are essentially immune to these surface-roughening processes, however. In addition, they provide a more wettable surface, further minimizing polyethylene wear relative to metal surfaces. By analyzing metal release rates from metal-polyethylene wear tests, it is shown here that Co-Cr-Mo is gradually removed at a rate of about 0.1 micron per year (10(6) cycles), whereas 316L stainless steel is removed on the order of 0.2 microns per year and Ti-6Al-4V on the order of 1 micron per year. The wear rate of Co-Cr-Mo articulating against itself is reported to be still greater, at about 2-4 microns per year after an initial wear-in period. Because metal is gradually removed with articulation time, surface-hardening methods such as nitrogen ion implantation can be expected to provide only temporary resistance to these metal removal and surface-roughening processes. Hard, stable ceramic surfaces such as Al2O3 and ZrO2, however, can be expected to maintain their initial surface finish and thus minimize UHMWPE wear in the long term.

  16. Nickel-free manganese bearing stainless steel in alkaline media-Electrochemistry and surface chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsener, B., E-mail: belsener@unica.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica ed Analitica, Universita di Cagliari, SS 554 bivio per Sestu, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); ETH Zurich, Institute for Building Materials, ETH Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Addari, D. [Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica ed Analitica, Universita di Cagliari, SS 554 bivio per Sestu, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Coray, S. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Building Materials, ETH Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Rossi, A., E-mail: rossi@unica.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica ed Analitica, Universita di Cagliari, SS 554 bivio per Sestu, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2011-04-30

    Research highlights: {yields} New nickel-free manganese bearing 18Cr18Mn2Mo stainless steel in alkaline media. {yields} XPS analysis shows Mo(VI) enrichment up to 6% in the passive film upon ageing. {yields} No pitting corrosion in alkaline media (pH 13) up to 4 M NaCl (14 wt%). {yields} Promising alternative stainless steel for reinforcement in concrete. - Abstract: The use of austenitic nickel-containing stainless steels as concrete reinforcement offers excellent corrosion protection for concrete structures in harsh chloride bearing environments but is often limited due to the very high costs of these materials. Manganese bearing nickel-free stainless steels can be a cost-effective alternative for corrosion resistant reinforcements. Little, however, is known about the electrochemistry and even less on surface chemistry of these materials in alkaline media simulating concrete pore solutions. In this work a combined electrochemical (ocp = open circuit potential) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) surface analytical investigation on the austenitic manganese bearing DIN 1.4456 (X8CrMnMoN18-18-2) stainless steel immersed into 0.1 M NaOH and more complex alkaline concrete pore solutions was performed. The results show that the passive film composition changes with immersion time, being progressively enriched in chromium oxy-hydroxide becoming similar to the conventional nickel-containing stainless steels. The composition of the metal interface beneath the passive film is strongly depleted in manganese and enriched in iron; chromium has nearly the nominal composition. The results are discussed regarding the film growth mechanism (ageing) of the new nickel-free stainless steel in alkaline solutions compared to traditional austenitic steels. Combining the results from pitting potential measurements with the composition of the passive film and the underlying metal interface, it can be concluded that the resistance against localized corrosion of the new nickel

  17. Effect of laser surface melting on microstructure and corrosion characteristics of AM60B magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cancan [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Liang, Jun, E-mail: jliang@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, Jiansong, E-mail: jszhou@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Lingqian [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Qingbiao [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Laser surface melting was used on AM60B Mg alloy. • The microstructure, composition and corrosion behavior of the as-received and LSM treated specimens were compared. • The laser treated alloy exhibited better corrosion resistance than the as-received one in the long term. • A model of two different corrosion mechanisms was established. - Abstract: Surface modification of laser surface melting (LSM) was applied to the AM60B magnesium alloy using a 10 kW continuous-wave CO{sub 2} laser. The microstructure, composition and corrosion resistance of AM60B magnesium alloy after LSM treatment were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corrosion tests, respectively. Results showed that the LSM treatment produced a continuous and homogeneous modified layer with refined grains, enriched Al element and redistributed intermetallic compounds on AM60B alloy. The corrosion resistance of the AM60B alloy was enhanced by the LSM treatment. The enhancement of the corrosion resistance was mainly attributed to the reduced corrosion susceptibility of Al enriched α-Mg matrix and the barrier effect of uniformly distributed β-phase of the LSM modified layer.

  18. Laser surface infiltration of tungsten-carbide in steel and aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahotre, N.B.; Mukherjee, K. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    It has been demonstrated that surface modification in metals and alloys can be achieved by laser melting in conjunction with injection of particulate alloying elements in the heated zone. In our current experiments the authors have successfully implanted tungsten-carbide particles on the surface of several grades of carbon-steels as well as on the surface of a structural aluminum alloy. In both cases a significant increase in microhardness has been detected. Hardness profile from the interaction zone to the heat affected zone (HAZ) has been determined. The microstructural features of both the implanted zone and HAZ also have been determined. Effect of laser input energy, nature of tungsten-carbide particle size, size distribution and method of powder injection on the hardness profile have been investigated. Some preliminary examination of surface wear of such implanted material is also conducted. These results are discussed in detail.

  19. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloying Antibacterial Silver Coating on Pure Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Naiming; Guo, Junwen; Hang, Ruiqiang; Zou, Jiaojuan; Tang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    In order to endow the commercial pure titanium dental implant material with antibacterial property and aimed at avoiding the invalidation that is caused by bacterial adhesion on the surface, a silver coating was fabricated via double glow plasma surface alloying. The antibacterial property of the silver coating was assessed via in vitro estimation. The results showed that a continuous and compact coating was formed. The silver coating had absolute superiority in antibacterial property to raw commercial pure titanium. Double glow plasma surface alloying with silver on commercial pure titanium dental implant material could be considered as a potentially effective method for preventing bacterial adhesion.

  20. Fabrication of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polymeric coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyong; Luo, Yuting; Sun, Linyu; Wu, Ruomei; Jiang, Haiyun; Liu, Yuejun

    2013-01-01

    We reported the preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via anodizing and polymeric coating. Both the different anodizing processes and different polymeric coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. The results showed that a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after anodizing. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. When the concentration of oxalic acid was 10 g/L, the concentration of NaCl was 1.25 g/L, anodization time was 40 min, and anodization current was 0.4 A, the best superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy with the contact angle (CA) of 162° and the sliding angle of 2° was obtained. On the other hand, the different polymeric coatings, such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the superhydrophobicity was most excellent by coating PP, while the duration of the hydrophobic surface was poor. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved. The morphologies of the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Combined with the material of PP with the low surface free energy, the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  1. Mechanical properties of titanium alloys with strengthened surface layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Pohreliuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of oxinitriding and boriding on the mechanical properties (ultimate strength to destruction at uniaxial tension, plasticity, tendency to delayed destruction, fatigue resistance at bending with rotation, fatigue life at lowcycle pure bending of titanium alloys is studied.

  2. Laser surface pretreatment of 100Cr6 bearing steel - Hardening effects and white etching zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buling, Anna; Sändker, Hendrik; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Krupp, Ulrich; Hamann-Steinmeier, Angela

    2016-08-01

    In order to achieve a surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 (1-1.5 wt.% Cr) a laser-based process was used. The obtained modification may result in an optimization of the adhesive properties of the surface with respect to an anticorrosion polymer coating on the basis of PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone), which is applied on the steel surface by a laser melting technique. This work deals with the influence of the laser-based pretreatment regarding the surface microstructure and the micro-hardness of the steel, which has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and automated micro-hardness testing. The most suitable parameter set for the laser-based pretreatment leads to the formation of very hard white etching zones (WEZ) with a thickness of 23 μm, whereas this pretreatment also induces topographical changes. The occurrence of the white etching zones is attributed to near-surface re-austenitization and rapid quenching. Moreover, dark etching zones (DEZ) with a thickness of 32 μm are found at the laser path edges as well as underneath the white etching zones (WEZ). In these areas, the hardness is decreased due to the formation of oxides as a consequence of re-tempering.

  3. Fabrication of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polymeric coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenyong, E-mail: lwy@iccas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Technology for Packaging, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Luo Yuting; Sun Linyu [College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Wu Ruomei, E-mail: cailiaodian2004@126.com [College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Jiang Haiyun [College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); Liu Yuejun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Technology for Packaging, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China); College of Packaging and Materials Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy fabricated by anodizing and polymeric coating. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anodizing and polymeric coating were used to prepare a superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superhydrophobic surfaces with a high water contact angle of 162 Degree-Sign and a low rolling angle of 2 Degree-Sign were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is facile, and the materials are inexpensive, and is expected to be used widely. - Abstract: We reported the preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via anodizing and polymeric coating. Both the different anodizing processes and different polymeric coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. The results showed that a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after anodizing. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. When the concentration of oxalic acid was 10 g/L, the concentration of NaCl was 1.25 g/L, anodization time was 40 min, and anodization current was 0.4 A, the best superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy with the contact angle (CA) of 162 Degree-Sign and the sliding angle of 2 Degree-Sign was obtained. On the other hand, the different polymeric coatings, such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the superhydrophobicity was most excellent by coating PP, while the duration of the hydrophobic surface was poor. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved. The morphologies of the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed

  4. Wear resistance of TiN(Ti2N)/Ti composite layer formed on C17200 alloy by plasma surface Ti-alloying and nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Shen, H. H.; Liu, X. Z.; Guo, Q.; Meng, T. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Yang, H. J.; Liu, X. P.

    2016-12-01

    The duplex treatment of plasma Ti-alloying and plasma nitriding was applied on the surface of C17200 alloy to improve its wear resistance. C17200 substrate was alloyed with Ti using double glow plasma alloying to form a Ti-alloyed layer in its surface, and then treated by plasma nitriding to make a TiN(Ti2N) alloying layer based on the Ti-alloyed surface. The microstructure and formation mechanism were studied by using GDOES, XRD and SEM. The hardness, tribological property and electrical conductivity of C17200 alloy after plasma alloying and nitriding were investigated by mean of micro-hardness tester, friction and wear testers as well as impedance analyzers. Modulus of elasticity and the adhesive strength of TiN(Ti2N)/Ti composite layer were evaluated by nano-indenter and scratch tester. The result shows that a TiN(Ti2N)-Ti-Be-Cu composite layer with a thickness of 27 μm is formed in the C17200 surface and is mainly composed of TiN, Ti2N, Cu(Ti) solid solution, etc. The composite alloying surface consists of the hard TiN(Ti2N)-rich layer on the top surface and Ti-Cu-Be diffusion layer, showing a strong adhesive strength with the C17200 substrate and a little decrease in the modulus of elasticity. A certain amount of Cu and Be together with TiN/Ti2N exists in the outmost, resulting in a better combination of wear resistance and conductive performance.

  5. Effect of alloy type and surface conditioning on roughness and bond strength of metal brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nergiz, I.; Schmage, P.; Herrmann, W.; Ozcan, M.; Nergiz, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The effect of 5 different surface conditioning methods on bonding of metal brackets to cast dental alloys was examined. The surface conditioning methods were fine (30-µm) or rough (125-µm) diamond bur, sandblasting (50-µm or 110-µm aluminum oxide [Al2O3]), and silica coating (30-µm silica). Fifty

  6. Electrochemical dissolution of surface alloys in acids: Thermodynamic trends from first-principles calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2007-01-01

    A simple procedure is introduced to use periodic Density Functional Theory calculations to estimate trends in the thermodynamics of surface alloy dissolution in acidic media. With this approach, the dissolution potentials for solute metal atoms embedded in the surface layer of various host metals...

  7. Effect of alloy type and surface conditioning on roughness and bond strength of metal brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nergiz, I.; Schmage, P.; Herrmann, W.; Ozcan, M.; Nergiz, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The effect of 5 different surface conditioning methods on bonding of metal brackets to cast dental alloys was examined. The surface conditioning methods were fine (30-µm) or rough (125-µm) diamond bur, sandblasting (50-µm or 110-µm aluminum oxide [Al2O3]), and silica coating (30-µm silica). Fifty di

  8. Laser forming of structures of zinc oxide on a surface of products from copper alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, D. V.; Gorudko, T. N.; Koblov, A. N.; Nogtev, D. S.; Novikova, O. A.

    Laser formation of a protective zinc oxide layer on a surface of products from copper alloys is present. This layer is formed with using of carbon nanotubes. Destructions of the basic material are avoided or minimized at laser nanostructuring of product surfaces. Such laser processing can be made repeatedly. Offered covering have self-clearing and water-repellent properties.

  9. Influence of reconstruction water-bearing levels on surface displacement of post-mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Wojciech; Blachowski, Jan; Grzempowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The phenomenon of secondary deformation characteristic of the post-mining areas is not sufficiently recognized. For ground surfaces phenomenon may be continuous or discontinuous. There is no sufficient information that describes behavior of the rock mass in the long term after end of exploitation. It is considered that this phenomenon is gradually disappears with end of exploitation. Reliable quantitative data comes only from the analysis of direct measurements in selected areas: geodetic and satellites measurements. Analyzing current situation of operating mines can be said that in the near years, more centers will limit the mining of coal mining. This will contribute to separation further of post-mining areas, in which will be required to maintaining a permanent monitoring and making predictions on the impact of ended exploitation of the rock mass surface. This will be particularly important for highly urbanized areas. This study used finite element method (FEM) to describe phenomenon of reconstruction water-bearing levels and its impact on displacement on the ground surface. It was assumed that significant factors that influence the occurrence and size of secondary deformations are: reconstruction of water-bearing levels in the prior drainer rock mass, size of past exploitation, spatial distribution of coal seams and geological and tectonic structure has been assumed. The transversally isotropic model of six elastic constants: E1 = E2, E3, ν = ν12, ν13, G12, G13 has been assumed to describe of rock mass in the numerical calculations. Geometrical models used in the numerical calculations have been developed using GIS tools. For the study two-dimensional and three-dimensional models characterized by different geological conditions and different configuration of mining data have been developed. The results obtained displacements of the ground surface for the period of mining activity has been verified with the results based on the Knothe theory. The results of

  10. Thermal Fatigue Behaviour of Co-Based Alloy Coating Obtained by Laser Surface Melt-Casting on High Temperature Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal fatigue behaviour of C o-based alloy coating obtained by laser surface melt-casting on the high tempe rature alloy GH33 was studied. The results show that after each time of thermal cycling, the final residual stress was formed in the melt-casting layer which is attributed to the thermal stress and structural stress. Through the first 50 times of thermal cycling, the morphology of coating still inherits the laser casting one, but the dendrites get bigger; After the second 50 times of thermal cycling, corrosion pits emerge from coating, and mostly in the places where coating and substrate meet. The fatigue damage type of coating belongs to stress corrosi on.

  11. Oxygen-induced Y surface segregation in a CuPdY ternary alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafen, D N.; Miller, J B.; Dogan, O N.; Baltrus, J P.; Kondratyuk, P

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the segregation behavior of the ternary alloy CuPdY in vacuum (i.e., the clean surface) and in the presence of oxygen. Theoretical prediction shows that for clean surface, yttrium will substitute first for Cu and then for Pd at the subsurface lattice site before segregating to the surface where it substitutes for Cu. XRD characterization of the surface of CuPdY indicates the presence of two major phases, B2 CuPd and Pd{sub 3}Y. In the presence of adsorbed oxygen, theory predicts that Y preferentially occupies surface sites due to its stronger oxygen affinity compared to Cu and Pd. XPS experiments confirm the computational results in the adsorbed oxygen case, showing that surface segregation of yttrium is induced by the formation of Y-oxides at the top-surface of the alloy.

  12. Oxygen-induced Y surface segregation in a CuPdY ternary alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafen, D N.; Miller, J B.; Dogan, O N.; Baltrus, J P.; Kondratyuk, P

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the segregation behavior of the ternary alloy CuPdY in vacuum (i.e., the clean surface) and in the presence of oxygen. Theoretical prediction shows that for clean surface, yttrium will substitute first for Cu and then for Pd at the subsurface lattice site before segregating to the surface where it substitutes for Cu. XRD characterization of the surface of CuPdY indicates the presence of two major phases, B2 CuPd and Pd{sub 3}Y. In the presence of adsorbed oxygen, theory predicts that Y preferentially occupies surface sites due to its stronger oxygen affinity compared to Cu and Pd. XPS experiments confirm the computational results in the adsorbed oxygen case, showing that surface segregation of yttrium is induced by the formation of Y-oxides at the top-surface of the alloy.

  13. Composition-dependent metallic glass alloys correlate atomic mobility with collective glass surface dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc; Zhu, Zhi-Guang; Pringle, Brian; Lyding, Joseph; Wang, Wei-Hua; Gruebele, Martin

    2016-06-22

    Glassy metallic alloys are richly tunable model systems for surface glassy dynamics. Here we study the correlation between atomic mobility, and the hopping rate of surface regions (clusters) that rearrange collectively on a minute to hour time scale. Increasing the proportion of low-mobility copper atoms in La-Ni-Al-Cu alloys reduces the cluster hopping rate, thus establishing a microscopic connection between atomic mobility and dynamics of collective rearrangements at a glass surface made from freshly exposed bulk glass. One composition, La60Ni15Al15Cu10, has a surface resistant to re-crystallization after three heating cycles. When thermally cycled, surface clusters grow in size from about 5 glass-forming units to about 8 glass-forming units, evidence of surface aging without crystal formation, although its bulk clearly forms larger crystalline domains. Such kinetically stable glass surfaces may be of use in applications where glassy coatings stable against heating are needed.

  14. Design and characterisation of a new duplex surface system based on S-phase hardening and carbon-based coating for ASTM F1537 Co-Cr-Mo alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xia; Li, Xiaoying

    2014-02-01

    Co-Cr-Mo alloys are one of the most widely used metallic biomaterials for metal-on-metal joint prostheses. However, concerns over increased revision rates mainly due to nano-sized wear debris have been raised. This study was aimed at enhancing the friction, wear and load-bearing properties of Co-Cr-Mo alloys by developing a new duplex surface system combining super hard and wear-resistant S-phase layer with self-lubricating, low-friction carbon-based coating. To this end, ASTM

  15. Surface characteristics, corrosion and bioactivity of chemically treated biomedical grade NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chembath, Manju; Balaraju, J N; Sujata, M

    2015-11-01

    The surface of NiTi alloy was chemically modified using acidified ferric chloride solution and the characteristics of the alloy surface were studied from the view point of application as a bioimplant. Chemically treated NiTi was also subjected to post treatments by annealing at 400°C and passivation in nitric acid. The surface of NiTi alloy after chemical treatment developed a nanogrid structure with a combination of one dimensional channel and two dimensional network-like patterns. From SEM studies, it was found that the undulations formed after chemical treatment remained unaffected after annealing, while after passivation process the undulated surface was filled with oxides of titanium. XPS analysis revealed that the surface of passivated sample was enriched with oxides of titanium, predominantly TiO2. The influence of post treatment on the corrosion resistance of chemically treated NiTi alloy was monitored using Potentiodynamic Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) solution. In the chemically treated condition, NiTi alloy exhibited poor corrosion resistance due to the instability of the surface. On the other hand, the breakdown potential (0.8V) obtained was highest for the passivated samples compared to other surface treated samples. During anodic polarization, chemically treated samples displayed dissolution phenomenon which was predominantly activation controlled. But after annealing and passivation processes, the behavior of anodic polarization was typical of a diffusion controlled process which confirmed the enhanced passivity of the post treated surfaces. The total resistance, including the porous and barrier layer, was in the range of mega ohms for passivated surfaces, which could be attributed to the decrease in surface nickel content and formation of compact titanium oxide. The passivated sample displayed good bioactivity in terms of hydroxyapatite growth, noticed after 14days immersion in

  16. Reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide on the Al-Mo(110) surface alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorkina, G. S.; Tvauri, I. V.; Kaloeva, A. G.; Burdzieva, O. G.; Sekiba, D.; Ogura, S.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2016-05-01

    Coadsorption and reaction of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) on Al-Mo(110) surface alloy have been studied by means of Auger electron, reflection-absorption infrared and temperature programmed desorption spectroscopies (AES, RAIRS, TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and work function measurements. The Al-Mo(110) surface alloy was obtained by thermal annealing at 800 K of aluminum film deposited on Mo(110) held at room temperature. Upon annealing Al penetrates the surface, most likely forming stoichiometric hexagonal surface monolayer of the compound Al2Mo. The NO and CO adsorb molecularly on this alloy surface at 200 K, unlike totally dissociative adsorption on bare Mo(110) and Al(111) film. Adsorption of CO on NO precovered Al-Mo(110) substrate dramatically affects the state of NO molecules, most probably displacing them to higher-coordinated sites with their simultaneous tilting to the surface plane. Heating to about room temperature (320 K) causes reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide, yielding CO2, and substrate nitridation. This behavior can be associated with the surface reconstruction providing additional Al/Mo interface reaction sites and change of the d-band upon alloying.

  17. Tribological Properties of the Fe-Al-Cr Alloyed Layer by Double Glow Plasma Surface Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xixi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Pingze; Zhou, Keyin; Wang, Zhangzhong

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer was deposited onto the surface of Q235 low-carbon steel via double glow plasma surface metallurgy (DGPSM) to improve the steel's wear resistance. After the DGPSM treatment, the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer grown on the Q235 low-carbon steel was homogeneous and compact and had a thickness of 25 µm. The layer was found to be metallurgically adhered to the substrate. The frictional coefficient and specific wear rate of the sample with a Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer (treated sample) were both lower than those of the bare substrate (untreated sample) at the measured temperatures (25, 250 and 450 °C). The results indicated that the substrate and the alloyed layer suffered oxidative wear and abrasive wear, respectively, and that the treated samples exhibited much better tribological properties than did the substrate. The formation of Fe2AlCr, Fe3Al(Cr), FeAl(Cr), Fe(Cr) sosoloid and Cr23C6 phases in the alloyed layer dramatically enhanced the wear resistance of the treated sample. In addition, the alloyed layer's oxidation film exhibited a self-healing capacity with lubrication action that also contributed to the improvement of the wear resistance at high temperature. In particular, at 450 °C, the specific wear rate of treated sample was 2.524 × 10-4 mm3/N m, which was only 45.2% of the untreated sample.

  18. Laser Surface Alloying of 316L Stainless Steel with Ru and Ni Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Lekala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The surfaces of AISI 316L stainless steel were laser alloyed with ruthenium powder and a mixture of ruthenium and nickel powders using a cw Nd:YAG laser set at fixed operating parameters. The microstructure, elemental composition, and corrosion characteristics of the alloyed zone were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and corrosion potential measurements. The depth of alloyed zone was measured using the AxioVision program and found to be approximately 1.8 mm for all the alloyed specimens. Hardness profile measurements through the surface-substrate interface showed a significant increase from 160 HV for the substrate to a maximum of 247 HV for the alloyed layer. The sample laser alloyed with 80 wt% Ni-20 wt% presented the most noble corrosion potential (Ecorr of −0.18 V and the lowest corrosion current density (icorr.

  19. Influence of yttrium on laser surface alloying organization of 40Cr steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Anqi; LIU Qibin; QIN Shuijie

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of the metal rollers,Mo+Y2O3 alloy powders were used to coat uniformly on the surface of 40Cr steel roller substrates for the laser surface alloying treatment by a CO2 laser,The results showed that many good consequences were obtained after adding the rare earth oxide Y2O3.The crystal grains of the alloy layer were significantly refine& The boundary of crystal grains was strengthened.The uniformity and density of the rnicrostructure were increased.The hardness and wearing resistance of the alloy layer were considerably improved.The valence electron structure analysis of the alloy layer was made by the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET).The calculated results demonstrated that Y should be mixed in the first stage and Fe should be in the eighteenth hybrid bands.The analyzed outcomes illustrated that the electron theory of the solid solution shows the strengthening effect on the alloying layer,which has enhanced bond and confirmed the experimental results.

  20. Characterization of load bearing metrological parameters in reptilian exuviae in comparison to precision finished cylinder liner surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Aal, H A

    2014-01-01

    Design of precise functional surfaces is essential for many future applications. In the technological realm, the accumulated experience with the construction of such surfaces is not sufficient. Nature provides many examples of dynamic surfaces worthy of study and adoption, at least as a concept, within human engineering. In this work, we probe load-bearing features of the ventral skin of snake surfaces. We examine the structure of two snake species that mainly move by rectilinear locomotion. These are Python regius (pythonidae) and Bittis gabonica (Vipridae). To this end, we focus on the load bearing characteristics of the ventral skin surface (i.e. the Rk family of parameters). Therefore, we draw detailed comparison between the reptilian surfaces and two sets of technological data. The first set pertains to an actual commercial cylinder liner, whereas, the second set is a summary of recommended surface finish metrological values for several commercial cylinder liner manufacturers. The results highlight sever...

  1. Surface morphology of highly ordered nanotube formed and laser textured beta titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Un; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to produce and characterize a well-controlled surface texture on Ti-35Nb-xHf alloys to promote osseointegration. Ti-35Nb-xHf (x = 0, 3, 7 and 15 wt.%) alloys were prepared by arc melting and heat treated for 12 hr at 1000 degrees C in an argon atmosphere and then water quenching. For surface texturing, an amplified Ti: sapphire laser system was used for generating 184 femtosecond (FS, 10(-15) sec) laser pulses with the pulse energy over 30 mJ at a 1 kHz repetition rate with a central wavelength of 800 nm. The nanotube formation was achieved by anodizing a Ti-35Nb-xHf alloy in H3PO4 electrolytes containing 0.8 wt.% NaF at room temperature. The surface morphology of nano/micro structure will enhance osseointegration and cell adhesion.

  2. Tensile properties of a nickel-base alloy subjected to surface severe plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Dai, K. [Quality Engineering and Software Technology, East Hartford, CT 06108 (United States); Villegas, J.C. [Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ (United States); Shaw, L. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)], E-mail: leon.shaw@uconn.edu; Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Klarstrom, D.L. [Haynes International, Inc., Kokomo, IN (United States); Ortiz, A.L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    A surface severe plastic deformation (S{sup 2}PD) method has been applied to bulk specimens of HASTELLOY C-2000 alloy, a nickel-base alloy. The mechanical properties of the processed C-2000 alloy were determined via tensile tests and Vickers hardness measurements, whereas the microstructure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. The improved tensile strength was related to the nanostructure at the surface region, the residual compressive stresses, and the work-hardened surface layer, all of which resulted from the S{sup 2}PD process. To understand the contributions of these three factors, finite element modeling was performed. It was found that the improved tensile strength could be interpreted based on the contributions of nano-grains, residual stresses, and work hardening.

  3. Near-Surface Microstructure on Twin-Roll Cast 8906 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Zhou, Xiaorong; Thompson, George E.; Hunter, John A.; Yuan, Yudie

    2015-06-01

    The microstructure of the near-surface region of twin-roll cast foil stock 8906 AlFeSi alloy has been investigated. It was revealed that a near-surface layer with microstructure differing from that of the underlying bulk alloy was generated due to severe surface shear strain during twin-roll casting. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that the near-surface layer consists of nano-sized grains with diameters varying in the range of 50 to 600 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that grain boundaries within the near-surface layer were decorated by aluminum oxide particles and carbon-containing lubricant inclusions. Preferential precipitation of a high population density of cubic α-AlFeSi dispersoids, of 30 to 150 nm diameter, was observed within the near-surface layer. The near-surface layer was associated with shingles on the twin-roll cast alloy surface and the maximum layer thickness of approximately 6 µm was observed at the shingles. Other areas of the surface were either free of the near-surface layer or had a thinner near-surface layer.

  4. Kinetic limitations in surface alloy formation: PtCu/Ru(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstfeld, A. K.; Jung, C. K.; Behm, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the structure and structure formation of two-dimensional PtCu monolayer surface alloys on Ru(0001) as model systems for bimetallic PtCu catalysts and surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The surface alloys were prepared by deposition of Pt and Cu on Ru(0001) and thermal intermixing; different procedures were developed and tested to produce bimetallic surfaces with homogeneous structure, including also a homogeneous distribution of the different surface species, while at the same time intermixing with the Ru(0001) substrate should be inhibited. STM imaging revealed that for Pt concentrations below 65% surface alloys with homogeneous distribution could be formed, while at higher concentrations in the mixed phase, up to 82%, pure Pt or Pt-rich surface areas were formed as well. At Pt contents of 0.20 0.65 line structures were observed, but of different nature. The distribution of surface atoms in the mixed phase was evaluated from STM images with chemical contrast, the related short-range order parameters were determined. The resulting structures and their energetics, the influence of different deposition and annealing procedures and the suitability of these surfaces as model systems for studies of the surface chemistry of bimetallic PtCu surfaces are discussed.

  5. Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

  6. The wear resistance of cobalt free hard surfaced alloys in nuclear power conditions. Literary survey; Kobolttivapaiden pinnoitteiden kulumiskestaevyys ydinvoimalaitosolosuhteissa. Kirjallisuusselvitys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosonen, A.M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-07-01

    Cobalt based alloys are widely used in nuclear power plants despite of the resulting increase of the activity level in primary circuit. The other remarkable source of cobalt is construction materials, in which cobalt is as an impurity element. This report presents the research results from work done in England, USA, Canada, Japan, Sweden and France during the last few years. For example EPRI has funded the research of iron based NOREM surfacing alloys. In Japan iron based CORELOY and Cobaless surfacing alloys as well as ceramic coatings have been investigated. There are plenty of promising results from new cobalt free surfacing alloys in comparison with Stellite 6. The final approvement can be done only when these surfacing alloys have been used in real size valves. When evaluating the behaviour of cobalt free alloys in real circumstances one has to take into account especially the type, size and design of a valve and the welding method. (orig.) (25 refs.).

  7. Bearing Casting Technology of High-strength Aluminum Alloy ZL205A%高强度铝合金ZL205A支座铸造技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔恩强; 王宝兵; 肖旅

    2012-01-01

      Smelting process and heat treatment of high-strength aluminum alloy ZL205A were investigated. According to the characteristics and quality of the support structure requirements, the practical casting process was developed and a bearing casting was poured. The results show that the performance and quality of the high-strength aluminum alloy ZL205A castings meet to the design requirements and it has basically the same reliability with forgings used in bearings, which can be a substitute to reduce the manufacturing cost of the structural parts and shorten the manufacturing cycle.%  对高强度铝合金ZL205A的熔炼工艺、热处理工艺进行了研究,并根据支座的结构特点和质量要求,制定了切实可行的铸造工艺方案,浇注了支座铸件。结果表明,ZL205A高强度铝合金铸件性能和质量满足设计指标要求,且可靠性与锻件基本相同,从而可代替锻件应用于支座,降低结构件制造成本,缩短制造周期。

  8. Effects of Er:YAG laser treatments on surface roughness of base metal alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunt, Göknil Ergün; Güler, Ahmet Umut; Ceylan, Gözlem; Duran, Ibrahim; Ozkan, Pelin; Kirtiloğlu, Tuğrul

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different Er:YAG laser treatments on the surface roughness of base metal alloys. A total of 36 specimens were prepared of two base metal alloys (Wiron 99, Bellabond plus). The surfaces of the specimens were standardized by gradual wet grinding with 320-, 600-, 800- and 1,000-grit silicon carbide paper for 10 s each on a grinding machine at 300 rpm. Specimens of each alloy were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6) comprising a control group (group C), a group sandblasted with Al(2)O(3) powder at 60 psi for 10 s through a nozzle at a distance of 10 mm (group S), and four Er:YAG laser (Fotona AT) treatment groups. The laser treatment groups were as follows: 500 mJ, 10 Hz, 100 μs (group 500MSP); 500 mJ, 10 Hz, 300 μs (group 500SP); 400 mJ, 10 Hz, 100 μs (group 400MSP); and 400 mJ, 10 Hz, 300 μs (group 400SP). Surface roughness measurements (Ra) were performed using a profilometer. The data were analysed by two-way ANOVA, and mean values were compared using Tukey's HSD test (α = 0.05). According to the two-way ANOVA results, the base metal alloys and interaction between base metal alloy and surface treatment were not statistically significant different (p > 0.05), the surface treatments were significantly different (p Er:YAG laser treatment at 400 and 500 mJ/10 Hz is not an alternative method for surface roughening of base metal alloys.

  9. Formation of the BiAg2 surface alloy on lattice-mismatched interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Fattah, Z. M.; Lutz, P.; Piquero-Zulaica, I.; Lobo-Checa, J.; Schiller, F.; Bentmann, H.; Ortega, J. E.; Reinert, F.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the growth of a monolayer-thick BiAg2 surface alloy on thin Ag films grown on Pt(111) and Cu(111). Using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) we show that the surface structure of the 1/3 ML Bi/x -ML Ag/Pt(111) system (x ≥2 ) is strongly affected by the annealing temperature required to form the alloy. As judged from the characteristic (√{3 }×√{3 } )R 30∘ LEED pattern, the BiAg2 alloy is partially formed at room temperature. A gentle, gradual increase in the annealing temperatures successively results in the formation of a pure BiAg2 phase, a combination of that phase with a (2 ×2 ) superstructure, and finally the pure (2 ×2 ) phase, which persists at higher annealing temperatures. These results complement recent work reporting the (2 ×2 ) as a predominant phase, and attributing the absence of BiAg2 alloy to the strained Ag/Pt interface. Likewise, we show that the growth of the BiAg2 alloy on similarly lattice-mismatched 1 and 2 ML Ag-Cu(111) interfaces also requires a low annealing temperature, whilst higher temperatures result in BiAg2 clustering and the formation of a BiCu2 alloy. The demonstration that the BiAg2 alloy can be formed on thin Ag films on different substrates presenting a strained interface has the prospect of serving as bases for technologically relevant systems, such as Rashba alloys interfaced with magnetic and semiconductor substrates.

  10. Secondary Hardening, Austenite Grain Coarsening and Surface Decarburization Phenomenon in Nb-Bearing Spring Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The secondary hardening, the austenite grain coarsening and the surface decarburization phenomenon of Nb-bearing spring steel were investigated, and the effects of niobium on tempered microstructure was studied using scanning electron microscope. The results show that the micro-addition of niobium increases the tempering resistance and produces secondary hardening. The effect of niobium on the size and distribution of cementite particles is one of the primary reasons to increase the hardness after tempering. The grain-coarsening temperature of the spring steel is raised 150 ~C due to Nb-addition. Furthermore, both the secondary hardening and the austenite grain coarsening phenomenon congruously demonstrate niobium begins observably dissolving above 1 100 ℃ in the spring steel. Be- sides, niobium microalloying is an effective and economy means to decrease the decarburization sensitivity of the spring steels.

  11. Sub-surface Fatigue Crack Growth at Alumina Inclusions in AISI 52100 Roller Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerullo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Sub-surface fatigue crack growth at non metallic inclusions is studied in AISI 52100 bearing steel under typical rolling contact loads. A first 2D plane strain finite element analysis is carried out to compute the stress history in the innner race at a characteristic depth, where the Dang Van...... damage factor is highest. Subsequently the stress history is imposed as boundary conditions in a periodic unit cell model, where an alumina inclusion is embedded in a AISI 52100 matrix. Cracks are assumed to grow radially from the inclusion under cyclic loading. The growth is predicted by means...... of irreversible fatigue cohesive elements. Different orientations of the cracks and different matrix-inclusion bonding conditions are analyzed and compared....

  12. Hydrogen adsorption on hydrogen storage alloy surface and electrochemical performances of the M1Ni{sub 4.0}Co{sub 0.6}Al{sub 0.4} alloy electrodes before and after surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.X.; Xu, Z.D. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Chemistry; Tu, J.P. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Li, H.Y.; Chen, S.; Bao, S.N. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Physics; Yuan, J. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). State Key Lab. of Si Material Science

    2001-07-01

    The surfaces of the hydrogen storage alloy powders (MlNi{sub 4.0}Co{sub 0.6}Al{sub 0.4}) before and after surface treating were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP). It was found that a Ni-rich surface layer was produced and the specific surface area was augmented by the surface treatment with a hot 6 MKOH or 6 MKOH+0.02 MKBH{sub 4} solution due to the preferential dissolution of Al and the etching of the hot alkaline solution. The effect of the surface treatments on the hydrogen adsorption on the alloy surface was for the first time evaluated by means of the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). It was found that the surface treatments enhanced the hydrogen adsorption on the alloy surfaces and produced new adsorption states. The untreated alloy had only one hydrogen adsorption peak at about 400 K. There were two hydrogen adsorption states at about 540 and 630 K on the surface of the alloy treated with 6 MKOH. In the case of the alloy treated with 6 MKOH+0.02 MKBH{sub 4} three hydrogen adsorption peaks were observed at about 390, 540 and 630 K, respectively. The results of electrochemical measurements showed that the treated alloy electrodes exhibited higher exchange current density for the hydrogen electrode reaction than the untreated hydrogen alloy. After the surface treatment, the hydrogen adsorption enhancement on the treated alloy surface facilitated the hydrogen electrode reaction process on the alloy electrodes and results in good activation and low polarization resistance. (author)

  13. Hydrogen effect on zirconium alloy surface treated by pulsed electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushilina, N.S.; Lider, A.M. [Department of General Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Kudiiarov, V.N., E-mail: viktor.kudiiarov@gmail.com [Department of General Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Chernov, I.P. [Department of General Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Ivanova, S.V. [National Research Nuclear University “MIFI”, Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Influence of modification by pulsed electron beam (PEB) and hydrogen adsorption in zirconium alloys have been investigated. Treatment of Zr–1Nb alloy by high-current PEB allows for a decrease in the amount of hydrogen absorbed by the samples during the hydrogenation process from gas atmosphere in the temperature range of (350–550 °S). The effect of the PEB surface treatment on the hydrogen adsorption connected with the formation of a protective oxide film after PEB irradiation and also by the formation of a specific hardening structure under the action of irradiation at temperatures exceeding the melting temperature from the subsequent high-speed surface cooling.

  14. Influence of hydrogen electrosorption on surface oxidation of Pd and Pd-noble metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszewski, M.; Kedra, T.; Czerwinski, A. [Warsaw University, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Electrochemical oxidation of freshly deposited Pd and its alloys with other noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh) was compared with the behavior of samples subjected to prior hydrogen absorption/desorption procedure. It was found that surface oxidation of hydrogen-treated Pd and Pd-Pt-Au deposits starts at lower potentials than on non-hydrided electrodes and is accompanied by a negative shift of surface oxide reduction peak. Pd and its alloys with Au, Pt and Rh after hydrogen treatment are also more resistant to electrochemical dissolution than freshly deposited samples. (author)

  15. The mechanism of the surface alloy layer creation for cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Walasek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed description of the process of creation of a surface alloy layer (using high-carbon ferrochromium on the cast steel casting. The mechanism of the surface alloy layer is based on the known theories [5,6]. The proposed course of formation of the layers has been extended to decarburization stage of steel. The research included proving the presence of carbon-lean zone. The experiment included the analysis of the distribution of elements and microhardness measurement.

  16. Experimental and numerical study of surface alloying by femtosecond laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, E.L., E-mail: gurevich@isas.de [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V., Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Strasse 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany); Kittel, S.; Hergenroeder, R. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V., Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Strasse 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Here we report on experimental studies of femtosecond laser induced surface metal alloying. We demonstrate that layers of different metals can be mixed in a certain range of laser pulse energies. Numeric simulations demonstrate that the sub-surface melting and mixing is advantaged through the difference in the electron-phonon coupling constants of the metals in the multi-layer system. Dependence of the depth of the mixed layer on the number of laser pulses per unit area is studied. Numeric simulations illustrate physical picture of the laser alloying process.

  17. Experimental and numerical study of surface alloying by femtosecond laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, E. L.; Kittel, S.; Hergenröder, R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report on experimental studies of femtosecond laser induced surface metal alloying. We demonstrate that layers of different metals can be mixed in a certain range of laser pulse energies. Numeric simulations demonstrate that the sub-surface melting and mixing is advantaged through the difference in the electron-phonon coupling constants of the metals in the multi-layer system. Dependence of the depth of the mixed layer on the number of laser pulses per unit area is studied. Numeric simulations illustrate physical picture of the laser alloying process.

  18. Surface and transport properties of Cu-Sn-Ti liquid alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Novakovic; E. Ricci; S. Amore; T. Lanata

    2006-01-01

    The lack of experimental data and / or limited experimental information concerning both surface and transport properties of liquid alloys often require the prediction of these quantities. An attempt has been made to link the thermophysical properties of a ternary Cu-Sn-Ti system and its binary Cu-Sn, Cu-Ti and Sn-Ti subsystems with the bulk through the study of the concentration dependence of various thermodynamic, structural, surface and dynamic properties in the frame of the statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with the quasi-lattce theory (QLT). This formalism provides valuable qualitative insight into mixing processes that occur in molten alloys.

  19. Effect of coating and surface modification on the corrosion resistance of selected alloys in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Zheng, W. [CANMET, Materials Technology Lab., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cook, W. [Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada); Toivonen, A.; Penttila, S. [VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Guzonas, D.; Woo, O.T. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Liu, P.; Bibby, D. [CANMET, Materials Technology Lab., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Materials selection is one of the key tasks in Gen-IV reactor development. There is no known material that can meet the expected core outlet conditions of the Canadian SCWR concept (625{sup o}C core outlet temperature). High-Cr steels with excellent corrosion resistance are often susceptible to embrittlement due to the precipitation of sigma and other phases in the microstructure. Low-Cr steels such as P91 and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels exhibit good high-temperature mechanical properties, but the lack of sufficient Cr content makes this group alloy corrode too fast. Improvement in this alloy is needed in order for it to be considered as a piping construction material. In this report, the development of a metallic coating on a P91 substrate is discussed. Recent effort on selection of in-core cladding alloys has focused on heat-resistant 3xx series stainless steels. These alloys have higher strength at high-temperature ranges, but corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking resistance are a concern. Metallic coating and surface modification are considered as possible solutions to overcome this challenge. The effects of surface modification on the corrosion rate of austenitic steels were also reported in this paper. As-machined surface showed much better corrosion resistance than polished surface and advanced surface analyses showed distinct differences in the nature and the morphology of the surface layer metal. Possible mechanisms for improved corrosion performance are discussed. (author)

  20. IMPROVING THE SURFACE PROPERTY OF TC4 ALLOY BY LASER NITRIDING AND ITS MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.L. Yang; G.J. Zhao; D. Zhang; C.S. Liu

    2006-01-01

    The mixing technology of laser and heated nitrogen was applied to improve the surface hardaccelerate the nitriding process. Some interested samples were tested with XRD method (X-ray diffraction) to analyze the composition of nitrides, and the surface hardness of HV was measured.The results show that TiN and Ti2N were formed on the surface of Ti alloy with proper nitriding parameters, but TiN is the main composition. The surface hardness increased by three times, which sidered mainly of the activation of nitrogen by laser power and the pre-heated process which accelerated the nitriding process. The nitridation process can be considered as six steps given in detail. The result by analyzing the mechanism of improving the surface property of TiAl alloy shows the improvement of surface property due to two factors: the first reason is the result of laser annealing, and the second one is the formation of TiN.

  1. Influence of Surface Condition on Expulsion in Spot Welding AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yarong WANG; Jicai FENG; Zhongdian ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the influence of surface condition on expulsion during the spot welding of AZ31B Mg alloy. A general electrical contact resistance theory for conductive rough surfaces and the relation between maximum temperature Tm in the contact and voltage-drop V across interface of two surfaces were employed to understand the reason of expulsion in Mg alloy spot welding. The main reason of expulsion is that the high electrical contact resistance induced by large roughness of the surface and oxide film covered on the surface leads to local melting of metal in the interface of two surfaces, and liquid metal of the local area ejected from the specimen under electrode force forms expulsion.

  2. Surface modifications of hydrogen storage alloy by heavy ion beams with keV to MeV irradiation energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Tokuhira, Shinnosuke; Uchida, Hirohisa; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    This study deals with the effect of surface modifications induced from keV to MeV heavy ion beams on the initial reaction rate of a hydrogen storage alloy (AB5) in electrochemical process. The rare earth based alloys like this sample alloy are widely used as a negative electrode of Ni-MH (Nickel-Metal Hydride) battery. We aimed to improve the initial reaction rate of hydrogen absorption by effective induction of defects such as vacancies, dislocations, micro-cracks or by addition of atoms into the surface region of the metal alloys. Since defective layer near the surface can easily be oxidized, the conductive oxide layer is formed on the sample surface by O+ beams irradiation, and the conductive oxide layer might cause the improvement of initial reaction rate of hydriding. This paper demonstrates an effective surface treatment of heavy ion irradiation, which induces catalytic activities of rare earth oxides in the alloy surface.

  3. SISGR: Theoretically relating the surface composition of Pt alloys to their performance as the electrocatalysts of low-temperature fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guofeng

    2010-12-31

    The main goal of this project is to gain fundamental knowledge about the relation between surface composition and catalytic performance of Pt alloy catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Specific objectives are: to develop and improve a first-principles based multiscale computation approach to simulating surface segregation phenomena in Pt alloy surfaces; to evaluate the surface electronic structure and catalytic activity of Pt alloy catalysts and; to relate the surface composition to the catalytic performance of Pt alloy catalysts.

  4. Effect of Laser Feeding on Heat Treated Aluminium Alloy Surface Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labisz K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the investigation results concerning microstructure as well as mechanical properties of the surface layer of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloy after heat treatment alloyed and/ or remelted with SiC ceramic powder using High Power Diode Laser (HPDL. For investigation of the achieved structure following methods were used: light and scanning electron microscopy with EDS microanalysis as well as mechanical properties using Rockwell hardness tester were measured. By mind of scanning electron microscopy, using secondary electron detection was it possible to determine the distribution of ceramic SiC powder phase occurred in the alloy after laser treatment. After the laser surface treatment carried out on the previously heat treated aluminium alloys, in the structure are observed changes concerning the distribution and morphology of the alloy phases as well as the added ceramic powder, these features influence the hardness of the obtained layers. In the structure, there were discovered three zones: the remelting zone (RZ the heat influence zone (HAZ and transition zone, with different structure and properties. In this paper also the laser treatment conditions: the laser power and ceramic powder feed rate were investigated. The surface laser structure changes in a manner, that there zones are revealed in the form of. This carried out investigations make it possible to develop, interesting technology, which could be very attractive for different branches of industry.

  5. Wear-Resistant Alloy for Protection of Contact Surfaces of Working Aircraft Engine Blades from Oxidation at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherepova, T.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wear-resistant and heat-resistant cast cobalt-based alloy for hardening of the contact surfaces of working blades of aircraft gas turbine engines instead of commercial alloys ХТН-61 and ВЖЛ-2 was developed. High levels of heat resistance were achieved by complex doping (modification of the alloy. Based on studies of heat resistance, wear resistance, the structure and melting point of the alloys, the optimum chemical and phase composition of the developed alloy was defined.

  6. A theoretical study of CH4 dissociation on pure and gold-alloyed Ni(111) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratzer, P.; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1996-01-01

    to the surface is responsible for the highest real mode. Alloying the surface with gold also affects the reactivity of the Ni atoms on adjacent surface sites. The dissociation barrier is increased by 16 and 38 kJ/mol for a Ni atom with one or two gold neighbors, respectively. We attribute these changes...... to a shift in the local density of d states at the nickel atoms in the neighborhood of gold. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics....

  7. The impact of microgeometry pistons with a stepped bearing surface for the friction loss of the internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblewski Emil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the results of experimental piston friction losses on stepped bearing surface microgeometry obtained on the test rig. This test rig is equipped with special temperature control system, which provides better stability to temperature than in standard systems. The results of station tests was discussed. Tests was analyzed depending the moment caused by the friction on the oil temperature in the oil sump. Specified conclusions allow to assess the impact of the stepped profile of the pistons bearing surface microgeometry for different values of engine speed and the oil temperature at the friction losses in the main kinematic engine node which is piston-cylinder.

  8. Vibrational properties at the ordered metallic surface alloy system Au(110)-1×2-Pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheffache, Sedik; Chadli, Rabah; Khater, Antoine

    2016-06-01

    We present a calculation for the vibrational properties of the ordered surface alloy Au(110)-1×2-Pd on a crystalline substrate of Au. The surface phonon dispersion curves and the local vibrations densities of states (LDOS) are calculated in the harmonic approximation for the system, using the phase field matching theory (PFMT) method and associated real space Green’s functions. In particular, it is shown that the surface alloy presents optic vibrational modes above the Au bulk bands, along the directions of high-symmetry ΓX¯, XS¯, SY¯ and Y Γ¯ of the corresponding two-dimensional Brillouin zone. Measurements of the surface phonon dispersion branches can hence be made by different techniques such as helium atom scattering (HAS) to compare with. The calculated LDOS for Au and Pd atomic sites in the four top surface atomic layers span a wider range of frequencies than those for the individual Au(110) or Pd(110) metallic surfaces. These LDOS provide a spectral signature for the progressive transition from the surface dynamics to that of the Au crystal bulk. Knowledge of these LDOS for the surface alloy can also serve as an input for modeling the diffusion and reaction rates of chemical species at its surface.

  9. Wetting, prewetting and surface freezing transitions in fluid Ga-based alloys a surface light scattering study

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, W; Mechdiev, I

    2003-01-01

    The surface energy and entropy of liquid Ga-Bi and Ga-Pb alloys have been studied by means of surface light scattering measurements at various compositions and temperatures between the respective eutectic and monotectic points. Analysis of these results using the Gibbs adsorption equation gives evidence for wetting and prewetting transitions in these alloys completely consistent with a tetra-point wetting scenario (Dietrich S and Schick M 1997 Surf. Sci. 382 178). Surface freezing transitions are observed for conditions near the liquidus curves. In view of their viscoelastic properties and their relation with the wetting film characteristics, we suggest a simple explanation for the observed surface freezing phenomena in terms of nucleation of strongly undercooled wetting films.

  10. Surface Modification of Micro-Alloyed High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel by Controlled TIG Arcing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Kumar, Ravindra

    2015-02-01

    Surface modification of micro-alloyed HSLA steel plate has been carried out by autogenous conventional and pulse current tungsten inert gas arcing (TIGA) processes at different welding parameters while the energy input was kept constant. At a given energy input the influence of pulse parameters on the characteristics of surface modification has been studied in case of employing single and multi-run procedure. The role of pulse parameters has been studied by considering their summarized influence defined by a factor Φ. The variation in Φ and pulse frequency has been found to significantly affect the thermal behavior of fusion and accordingly the width and penetration of the modified region along with its microstructure, hardness and wear characteristics. It is found that pulsed TIGA is relatively more advantageous over the conventional TIGA process, as it leads to higher hardness, improved wear resistance, and a better control over surface characteristics.

  11. Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Sandra; Garcés, Gerardo; Pérez, Pablo; Adeva, Paloma

    2014-07-01

    The Mg98.5Gd1Zn0.5 alloy produced by a powder metallurgy route was studied and compared with the same alloy produced by extrusion of ingots. Atomized powders were cold compacted and extruded at 623 K and 673 K (350 °C and 400 °C). The microstructure of extruded materials was characterized by α-Mg grains, and Mg3Gd and 14H-LPSO particles located at grain boundaries. Grain size decreased from 6.8 μm in the extruded ingot, down to 1.6 μm for powders extruded at 623 K (350 °C). Grain refinement resulted in an increase in mechanical properties at room and high temperatures. Moreover, at high temperatures the PM alloy showed superplasticity at high strain rates, with elongations to failure up to 700 pct.

  12. Properties of the Aluminium Alloy EN AC-51100 after Laser Surface Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tański T.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of a laser surface treatment on the structure and properties of aluminium alloy has been determined. The aim of this work was to improve the tribological properties of the surface layer of the EN AC-51100 aluminium alloy by simultaneously melting and feeding silicon carbide particles into the molten pool. The silicon carbide powder was introduced into the liquid metal using a gravity feeder within a constant feed rate of 1 g/min. A high power diode laser (HPDL was used for remelting. Laser beam energies used in experiments were 1.8 kW, 2.0 kW and 2.2 kW, combined with the constant velocity of 50 mm/min. As a result of the laser treatment on the aluminium alloy, a composite layer with greater hardness and wear resistance compared to the based material was obtained.

  13. Oxidation behavior of niobized TiA1 by plasma surface alloying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongdong Chen; Wenhuai Tian; Jian Wang; Xiaoping Liu

    2008-01-01

    Plasma surface alloying of element Nb in TiM-based alloys and the oxidation behavior were studied. The composition and microstructure of the surface alloyed layers were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicate that the diffusion layers are formed on the TiAl substrate during the plasma niobizing process. The result from oxidation resistance investigation shows that plasma niobizing greatly improves the oxidation resistance of TiAl compared with the untreated TiAI. The role of element Nb for improving the oxida-tion resistance is considered to be achieved by strengthening the activity of Al, which is induced by the plasma niobizing process.

  14. Rough surfaces of titanium and titanium alloys for implants and prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conforto, E. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)]. E-mail: egle.conforto@epfl.ch; Aronsson, B.-O. [GAP Biomedical, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Salito, A. [Sulzer-Metco AG, CH-5610 Wohlen (Switzerland); Crestou, C. [CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Caillard, D. [CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2004-11-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys for dental implants and hip prostheses were surface-treated and/or covered by metallic or ceramic rough layers after being submitted to sand blasting. The goal of these treatments is to improve the surface roughness and consequently the osteointegration, the fixation, and the stability of the implant. The microstructure of titanium and titanium alloys submitted to these treatments has been studied and correlated to their mechanical behavior. As-treated/covered and mechanically tested surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structural analyses performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mainly in cross-section, reveal the degree of adherence and cohesion between the surface layer and the substrate (implant). We observed that, although the same convenient surface roughness was obtained with the two types of process, many characteristics as structural properties and mechanical behavior are very different.

  15. Vibrational properties of Cu(100)-c(2×2)-Pd surface and subsurface alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklyadneva, I. Yu.; Rusina, G. G.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2003-07-01

    Using interaction potentials from the embedded-atom method we investigated the structural and vibrational properties of a Cu(100)-c(2×2)-Pd surface alloy and an underlayer c(2×2) alloy with a mixed CuPd second layer. The calculated surface phonon frequencies are in agreement with the experimental values obtained by electron energy-loss spectroscopy. From the calculated local phonon densities of states we find that surface effects are most pronounced in the first two layers for both systems studied. The results also indicate a very strong Pd-Cu bonding accompanied by a weaker bonding of the Cu surface atoms to their nearest neighbors. This has considerable influence on the surface phonon frequencies.

  16. Oxide formation and alloying elements enrichment on TRIP steel surface during inter-critical annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y F; Birosca, S; Kim, H S; De Cooman, B C

    2008-06-01

    The gas atmosphere in continuous annealing and galvanizing lines alters both composition and microstructure of the surface and sub-surface of sheet steels. The alloying element enrichments and the oxide morphology on transformation-induced plasticity steel surfaces are strongly influenced by the dew point of the furnace atmosphere and annealing temperature. The formation of a thin oxide film and enrichment of the alloying elements during annealing may result in surface defects on galvanized sheet products. The present contribution reports on the use of microanalysis techniques such as electron backscatter diffraction, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and electron probe micro-analysis for the detailed surface analysis of inter-critically annealed transformation-induced plasticity steel such as oxide phase determination, microstructure and microtexture evolutions.

  17. Surface modification of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloys by using ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, M., E-mail: miqbalchishti@yahoo.com [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, 45650 (Pakistan); Qayyum, A.; Akhter, J.I. [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, 45650 (Pakistan)

    2011-02-10

    Research highlights: > Ion irradiations of two multicomponent bulk amorphous alloys have been done. Ion irradiation produced crystalline phases in the amorphous matrix due to which mechanical properties enhanced. Considerable increase in hardness and elastic modulus was observed. The results are verified, authentic and confirmed. - Abstract: Surfaces of the [Zr{sub 0.65}Cu{sub 0.18}Ni{sub 0.09}Al{sub 0.08}]{sub 98}M{sub 2} (M = Er and Gd) bulk amorphous alloys were modified by irradiation with energetic singly charged argon (Ar{sup +}) ions. Samples of both the alloys were irradiated with 2.17 x 10{sup 17} argon ions of 10 keV energy. As cast and ion irradiated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Mechanical properties like Vicker's hardness, nanohardness, elastic modulus and elastic recovery were measured. Considerable increase in elastic modulus and hardness was observed because of ion irradiation in these alloys. The ion irradiated samples of the [Zr{sub 0.65}Cu{sub 0.18}Ni{sub 0.09}Al{sub 0.08}]{sub 98}Er{sub 2} alloy showed better properties as compared to [Zr{sub 0.65}Cu{sub 0.18}Ni{sub 0.09}Al{sub 0.08}]{sub 98}Gd{sub 2} alloy. CuZr{sub 2} phase was detected in ion irradiated alloys by XRD and confirmed by EDS. The range of Ar{sup +} ions was found to be approximately 9.3 {+-} 5.4 nm in both alloys.

  18. Deep surface rolling for fatigue life enhancement of laser clad aircraft aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, W., E-mail: wyman.zhuang@dsto.defence.gov.au [Aerospace Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, 506 Lorimer Street, Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207 (Australia); Liu, Q.; Djugum, R.; Sharp, P.K. [Aerospace Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, 506 Lorimer Street, Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207 (Australia); Paradowska, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Deep surface rolling as a post-repair enhancement technology was applied to the laser cladded 7075-T651 aluminium alloy specimens that simulated corrosion damage blend-out repair. • The residual stresses induced by the deep surface rolling process were measured. • The deep surface rolling process can introduce deep and high magnitude compressive residual stresses beyond the laser clad and substrate interface. • Spectrum fatigue test showed the fatigue life was significantly increased by deep surface rolling. - Abstract: Deep surface rolling can introduce deep compressive residual stresses into the surface of aircraft metallic structure to extend its fatigue life. To develop cost-effective aircraft structural repair technologies such as laser cladding, deep surface rolling was considered as an advanced post-repair surface enhancement technology. In this study, aluminium alloy 7075-T651 specimens with a blend-out region were first repaired using laser cladding technology. The surface of the laser cladding region was then treated by deep surface rolling. Fatigue testing was subsequently conducted for the laser clad, deep surface rolled and post-heat treated laser clad specimens. It was found that deep surface rolling can significantly improve the fatigue life in comparison with the laser clad baseline repair. In addition, three dimensional residual stresses were measured using neutron diffraction techniques. The results demonstrate that beneficial compressive residual stresses induced by deep surface rolling can reach considerable depths (more than 1.0 mm) below the laser clad surface.

  19. Characterization of Different on the Oxidation Behaviours Surface States and Its Effects of Alloy 690TT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiming Zhang; Jianqiu Wang; En-Hou Han; Wei Ke

    2012-01-01

    Alloy 690TT samples with four kinds of surface states were prepared: 1) ground to 400 grit; 2) ground to 1500 grit; 3) mechanically polished (MP) and 4) electro-polished (EP). The surface morphologies and the surface skin layers' microstructures of these samples were characterized systematically using various methods and the effects of surface states on the oxidation behaviours of Alloy 690TT were also discussed. The results showed that surface roughness and micro-hardness decreased gradually from the ground to EP surfaces. The grains in the near-surface layers of the ground and MP surfaces had been refined and the residual strains were also very high. The dislocations on the ground surfaces were mainly parallel dislocation lines. The thickness of the superficial cold-worked layers decreased gradually from the ground surfaces to polished surfaces. The oxide morphologies and oxidation rate depended greatly on the surface states of samples. Cold-working by grinding treatments could benefit the outward diffusion of metallic atoms and the nucleation of surface oxides and then accelerate the growth of surface oxide films.

  20. Influence of Surface Segregation on Wetting of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) Series and Pb-Containing Solder Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozack, M. J.; Suhling, J. C.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Z.; Lall, P.

    2011-10-01

    Wetting of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) series solder alloys to solid substrates is strongly influenced by surface segregation of low-level bulk impurities in the alloys. We report in situ and real-time Auger electron spectroscopy measurements of SAC alloy surface compositions as a function of temperature as the alloys are taken through the melting point. A dramatic increase in the amount of surface C (and frequently O) is observed with temperature, and in some cases the alloy surface is nearly 80 at.% C at the melting point. The C originates from low-level impurities incorporated during alloy synthesis and inhibits wetting because C acts as a blocking layer to reaction between the alloy and substrate. A similar phenomenon has been observed over a wide range of (SAC and non-SAC) alloys synthesized by a variety of techniques. That solder alloy surfaces at melting have a radically different composition from the bulk uncovers a key variable that helps to explain the wide variability in contact angles reported in previous studies of wetting and adhesion.

  1. Towards low-friction and wear-resistant plasma sintering dies via plasma surface co-alloying CM247 nickel alloy with V/Ag and N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhenxue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based superalloys have good oxidation and creep resistance and hence they can function under high mechanical stress and high temperatures. However, their undesirable tribological behaviour is the major technical barrier to the challenging high-temperature, lubricant-free plasma sintering tool application. In this study, nickel based CM247 superalloy surfaces were co-alloyed using innovative active screen plasma technology with both interstitial element (e.g. N and substitutional alloying elements (e.g. V and Ag to provide a synergy effect to enhance its tribological properties. The tribological behaviour of the plasma co-alloyed CM247 superalloy surfaces were fully evaluated using reciprocal and pin-on-disc tribometers at temperatures from room temperature to 600 ∘C. The experimental results demonstrate that the co-alloyed surface with N, Ag and V can effectively lower the friction coefficient, which is expected to help demoulding during lubricant-free plasma sintering.

  2. Effects of TIG Surface Melting and Chromium Surface Alloying on Microstructure,Hardness and Wear Resistance of ADI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Amirsadeghi; M Heydarzadeh Sohi; S F Kashani Bozorg

    2008-01-01

    Microhardness and wear resistance of different mierostruetures formed by TIG (tungsten inert gas) surface melting and chromium surface alloying (using ferrochromium) of ADI (austempered ductile iron) were studied.Surface melting resulted in the formation of a ledeburitic structure in the melted zone,and this structure has a hardness up to 896 HV as compared to 360 HV in that of ADI.Moreover,chromium surface alloying resulted in the formation of different structures including:(1) a hypereuteetic structure consisting of primary (Fe,Cr)7C3 carbides and a eutectie matrix of transformed austenite (into martensite and retained austenite),as also (Fe,Cr)7C3 carbides,with a hardness of 1 078 HV;(2) a hypoeutectic structure consisting of the same eutectic along with transformed primary austenite,with a hardness of 755 HV;and (3) a ledeburitic structure with an acieular morphology and a hardness of 896 HV.The results also indicated that surface melting reduced the wear rate of the ADI by approximately 37%.Also,chromium surface alloying yielded a superior wear behavior and reduced the wear rate of the treated specimens by about 38% and 70%,depending on the structures formed.

  3. A DFT theoretical study of CH4 dissociation on gold-alloyed Ni(111) surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Liu; Ruixia Yan; Riguang Zhang; Baojun Wang; Kechang Xie

    2011-01-01

    A density-functional theory (DFT) method has been conducted to systematically investigate the adsorption of CHx (x =0~4) as well as the dissociation of CHx (x =1~4) on (111) facets of gold-alloyed Ni surface.The results have been compared with those obtained on pure Ni(111) surface.It shows that the adsorption energies of CHx (x =1 ~3) are lower,and the reaction barriers of CH4 dissociation are higher in the first and the fourth steps on gold-alloyed Ni(111) compared with those on pure Ni(111).In particular,the rate-determining step for CH4 dissociation is considered as the first step of dehydrogenation on gold-alloyed Ni(111),while it is the fourth step of dehydrogenation on pure Ni(111).Furthermore,the activation barrier in rate-determining step is higher by 0.41 eV on gold-alloyed Ni(111) than that on pure Ni(111).From above results,it can be concluded that carbon is not easy to form on gold-alloyed Ni(111) compared with that on pure Ni(111).

  4. Appearance of anodised aluminium: Effect of alloy composition and prior surface finish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Canulescu, Stela; Dirscherl, Kai

    2014-01-01

    prior to anodising were analysed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The optical appearance of the anodised surface with and without sealing was investigated using a photography setup, photospectrometry and bidirectional reflectance distribution function. It was found...... appearance was kept for alloys of high purity. Sealing made the specular reflection of the mechanically polished specimens more distinct....

  5. Improvement of hardness of aluminium AA1200 by laser surface alloying

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is vastly used in industry due to its low cost, light weight and excellent workability, but lacks in wear resistance and hardness. Laser alloying is used to improve the surface properties such as hardness by modifying the composition...

  6. Surface compositional variations of Mo-47Re alloy as a function of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekje, S.J.; Outlaw, R.A.; Sankaran, S.N.

    1993-12-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium alloys are candidate materials for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) as well as for other applications in generic hypersonics. These materials are expected to be subjected to high-temperature (above 1200 C) casual hydrogen (below 50 torr), which could potentially degrade the material strength. Since the uptake of hydrogen may be controlled by the contaminant surface barriers, a study of Mo-47Re was conducted to examine the variations in surface composition as a function of temperature from 25 C to 1000 C. Pure molybdenum and rhenium were also examined and the results compared with those for the alloy. The analytical techniques employed were Auger electron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy, and x ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The native surface was rich in metallic oxides that disappeared at elevated temperatures. As the temperature increased, the carbon and oxygen disappeared by 800 C and the surface was subsequently populated by the segregation of silicon, presumably from the grain boundaries. The alloy readily chemisorbed oxygen, which disappeared with heating. The disappearance temperature progressively increased for successive dosings. When the alloy was exposed to 800 torr of hydrogen at 900 C for 1 hour, no hydrogen interaction was observed.

  7. Evaluation of surface chemical segregation of semi-solid cast aluminium alloy A356

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available be minimized. The surface liquid segregation phenomenon was investigated on high pressure die cast (HPDC) A356 alloy. SSM slurries were prepared using the CSIR Rheocasting System and plates of 4mm × 80mm × 100mm were HPDC. The chemical composition depth profile...

  8. Laser alloying of Al with mixed Ti and Ni powders to improve surface properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is used in industry for various applications due to its low cost, light weight and excellent workability, but lacks wear resistance and hardness. Laser alloying is used to improve surface properties such as hardness and wear resistance...

  9. Quantitative Analysis on Carbon Migration in Double-Glow Discharge Plasma Surface Alloying Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-xia; WANG Cong-zeng; ZHANG Wen-quan; SU Xue-kuan

    2004-01-01

    Carbon migration is of great significance in double-glow discharge plasma surface alloying process, but literature of quantitative analysis about carbon migration is relatively scarce. In this paper differential equations of the carbon and metal concentration distribution were established. By means of differential equations carbon migration was described and a numerical solution was acquired. The computational results fit the experiment results quite well.

  10. Laser surface alloying of aluminium with WC+Co+NiCr for improved wear resistance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nath, S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, laser surface alloying of aluminium with WC + Co + NiCr (in the ratio of 70:15:15) has been conducted using a 5 kW continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser (at a beam diameter of 0.003 m), with the output power ranging from 3 to 3.5 k...

  11. Effects of surface finishing conditions on the biocompatibility of a nickel-chromium dental casting alloy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Emma Louise

    2011-07-01

    To assess the effects of surface finishing condition (polished or alumina particle air abraded) on the biocompatibility of direct and indirect exposure to a nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) d.Sign®10 dental casting alloy on oral keratinocytes. Biocompatibility was performed by assessing cellular viability and morphology, metabolic activity, cellular toxicity and presence of inflammatory cytokine markers.

  12. Surface modification by electrolytic plasma processing for high Nb-TiAl alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Wanyuan; Hao, Guojian; Liang, Yongfeng; Li, Feng; Liu, Xiao; Lin, Junpin

    2016-12-01

    Metal surface modification by electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) is an innovative treatment widely commonly applied to material processing and pretreatment process of coating and galvanization. EPP involves complex processes and a great deal of parameters, such as preset voltage, current, solution temperature and processing time. Several characterization methods are presented in this paper for evaluating the micro-structure surfaces of Ti45Al8Nb alloys: SEM, EDS, XRD and 3D topography. The results showed that the oxide scale and other contaminants on the surface of Ti45Al8Nb alloys can be effectively removed via EPP. The typical micro-crater structure of the surface of Ti45Al8Nb alloys were observed by 3D topography after EPP to find that the mean diameter of the surface structure and roughness value can be effectively controlled by altering the processing parameters. The mechanical properties of the surface according to nanomechanical probe testing exhibited slight decrease in microhardness and elastic modulus after EPP, but a dramatic increase in surface roughness, which is beneficial for further processing or coating.

  13. Tribological Characteristic of Titanium Alloy Surface Layers Produced by Diode Laser Gas Nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the tribological properties of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V composite surface layers Ti/TiN were produced during laser surface gas nitriding by means of a novel high power direct diode laser with unique characteristics of the laser beam and a rectangular beam spot. Microstructure, surface topography and microhardness distribution across the surface layers were analyzed. Ball-on-disk tests were performed to evaluate and compare the wear and friction characteristics of surface layers nitrided at different process parameters, base metal of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and also the commercially pure titanium. Results showed that under dry sliding condition the commercially pure titanium samples have the highest coefficient of friction about 0.45, compared to 0.36 of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 0.1-0.13 in a case of the laser gas nitrided surface layers. The volume loss of Ti6Al4V samples under such conditions is twice lower than in a case of pure titanium. On the other hand the composite surface layer characterized by the highest wear resistance showed almost 21 times lower volume loss during the ball-on-disk test, compared to Ti6Al4V samples.

  14. Research on depositing Ni45 alloy on titanium alloy surface by electrospark deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Tao; Zhang Chunhui; Su Guiqiao; Yan Ping

    2008-01-01

    Taking Ni45 bar as electrode, a strengthened layer of thickness up to 50 pm was built up on BT20 titanium alloy matrix by means of electrospark deposition. Results of phase analysis by using of X-ray diffraction confirmed that the deposition layer was composed mostly of three phases, NiTi, NiTi2layer was up to 910 HV0.05, about 2.7 times as high as that of the matrix. The hardness at the cross-section of the entire deposition layer showed a gradient distribution. The effects of capacitance and deposition time on thickness of deposition layer were also studied, and results showed that with relatively low capacity and short deposition time the deposition layer without cracks can be obtained.

  15. Fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy substrates by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a method of fabricating super-hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy substrate. The etching of aluminum surfaces has been performed using Beck's dislocation etchant for different time to create micrometer-sized irregular steps. An optimised etching time of 50 s is found to be essential before polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE coating, to obtain a highest water contact angle of 165±2° with a lowest contact angle hysteresis as low as 5±2°. The presence of patterned microstructure as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM together with the low surface energy ultrathin RF-sputtered PTFE films renders the aluminum alloy surfaces highly super-hydrophobic.

  16. Surface properties of nitrogen-ion-implanted TiNi shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surface properties of the N+-ion-implanted TiNi alloy.There is a high nitrogen content region at the outermost surface of the N+-ion-implanted TiNi alloy.The detected nitrogen exists mainly in the form of TiN.Small amounts of Ti3O5 and TiO2 also exist on the surface of the N+-ion-implanted TiNi sample.The modified layer of the N+-ion-implanted sample can work as an obstacle layer of the nickel's dissolution, which obstructs Ni dissolving from the TiNi surface effectively.

  17. Rapidly solidified surface melts of Ni-B-Si-Cr brazing alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, T. R.; Ayers, J. D.

    1981-10-01

    Sintered powder layers of a Ni-based brazing alloy were consolidated by scanned electron beam radiation to produce a continuous fused coating. The surface of this coating was then remelted by laser and electron beams under differing conditions, resulting in a variety of resolidification structures. Alloy BNi2 was chosen for these studies because it exhibits substantial hardening on grain refinement and because it can be prepared in the glassy state relatively easily. Surface microhardness for BNi2 reaches a maximum of about 1200 DPH at a cooling rate approaching 105 K/s. For higher quench rates, hardness decreases and ductility increases. As the cooling rate approaches 107 k/s, overlapping beam scans produce an extended amorphous surface. A solidification rate higher than that needed to produce an amorphous structure in a single melt pass is necessary to avoid surface cracking or crystallization when overlapping melt passes are employed.

  18. On the surface properties of biodegrading magnesium and its alloys: a survey and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. L.; Kirkland, N. T.; Chen, X. B.; Lyndon, J. A.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-03-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloys present exceptional promise as functional implants, as evidenced by the significant research effort associated with the topic in recent years. However, a salient point regarding the degradation of Mg and Mg-alloys—in any aqueous environment, including biological media—is the certain presence and accumulation of surface films, representing dissolution products. The corrosion of Mg does not require that bare metal surfaces be presented to the surrounding environment, it follows that any tissue or cells in the immediate vicinity of a Mg-based implant will therefore be in intimate contact with the dissolution products of Mg. To this end, the present work describes the typical Mg/Mg-alloy surface evolution during dissolution in biological media, and the associated factors which govern the morphology and control of surface films. This combines original research with review, finishing with prospects for further illumination.

  19. Ni-Zr alloys: relationship between surface characteristics and electrocatalytic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini; Antonione; Baricco; Daolio; Fabrizio; Rosalbino

    2000-01-01

    A relationship between electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction and the surface composition of the electrode was established for Ni-Zr crystalline and amorphous alloys by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Electrocatalytic activity was tested by means of cathodic polarization in 1 M KOH at 25 degrees C and the resulting exchange current density has been taken as a measure of catalytic efficiency. Surface activation treatment involved chemical etching in HF solutions; the consequent morphological and compositional surface changes were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical behavior of the pure elements (Ni and Zr) was also considered for comparison. All samples submitted to chemical etching in HF solutions showed an increase in electrocatalytic activity, particularly the alloy with the highest Ni content. The beneficial effect of chemical etching is due to dissolution of the zirconium oxide layer and to the formation of nanocrystalline Ni on the surfaces.

  20. Surface tension of liquid metals and alloys--recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egry, I; Ricci, E; Novakovic, R; Ozawa, S

    2010-09-15

    Surface tension measurements are a central task in the study of surfaces and interfaces. For liquid metals, they are complicated by the high temperatures and the consequently high reactivity characterising these melts. In particular, oxidation of the liquid surface in combination with evaporation phenomena requires a stringent control of the experimental conditions, and an appropriate theoretical treatment. Recently, much progress has been made on both sides. In addition to improving the conventional sessile drop technique, new containerless methods have been developed for surface tension measurements. This paper reviews the experimental progress made in the last few years, and the theoretical framework required for modelling and understanding the relevant physico-chemical surface phenomena.

  1. Characterization of AZ31 magnesium alloy by duplex process combining laser surface melting and plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cancan; Liang, Jun; Zhou, Jiansong; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Lingqian

    2016-09-01

    Top ceramic coatings were fabricated on the laser surface melting (LSM) modified AZ31 alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in a phosphate electrolyte. The effect of LSM treatment on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the bare and PEO treated AZ31 alloy was evaluated. Results showed that LSM treatment produced a homogeneous modified layer with redistributed intermetallic compounds, resulting in enhanced corrosion resistance of AZ31 alloy. The LSM treatment had no obvious influence on the surface and cross-sectional microstructures of the PEO coatings on AZ31 alloy. Besides, MgO was the main constituent for PEO coatings, regardless of LSM pretreatment. However, the long-term corrosion properties of the PEO coated AZ31 alloy with LSM pretreatment revealed large enhancement. Based on the analysis of microstructure and corrosion property, the corrosion mechanisms of the PEO and LSM-PEO coated AZ31 alloy were proposed.

  2. Ceramic coated Y1 magnesium alloy surfaces by microarc oxidation process for marine applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Narulkar; S Prakash; K Chandra

    2007-08-01

    The magnesium alloys occupy an important place in marine applications, but their poor corrosion resistance, wear resistance, hardness and so on, have limited their application. To meet these defects, some techniques are developed. Microarc oxidation is a one such recently developed surface treatment technology under anodic oxidation in which ceramic coating is directly formed on the surface of magnesium alloy, by which its surface property is greatly improved. In this paper, a dense ceramic oxide coating, ∼ 20 m thick, was prepared on an Y1 magnesium alloy through microarc oxidation in a Na3SiO3–Na2WO4–KOH–Na2EDTA electrolytic solution. The property of corrosion resistance of ceramic coating was studied by CS300P electrochemistry–corrosion workstation, and the main impact factor of the corrosion resistance was also analysed. Microstructure and phase composition were analysed by SEM and XRD. The microhardness of the coating was also measured. The basic mechanism of microarc coating formation is explained in brief. The results show that the corrosion resistance property of microarc oxidation coating on the Y1 magnesium surface is superior to the original samples in the 3.5 wt% NaCl solutions. The microarc oxidation coating is relatively dense and uniform, mainly composed of MgO, MgAl2O4 and MgSiO3. The microhardness of the Y1 magnesium alloy surface attained 410 HV, which was much larger than that of the original Y1 magnesium alloy without microarc oxidation.

  3. Nickel Alloy Primary Water Bulk Surface and SCC Corrosion Film Analytical Characterization and SCC Mechanistic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, D.; Lewis, N.; Hanson, M.; Rice, S.; Sanders, P.

    2007-04-18

    Alloy 600 corrosion coupon tests were performed: (1) to quantify the temperature dependency of general corrosion and (2) to characterize the composition and structure of bulk surface corrosion films for comparison with ongoing primary water SCC (PWSCC) crack tip corrosion film analyses. Results suggest that the thermal activation energy of Alloy 600 corrosion is consistent with the thermal activation energy of nickel alloy PWSCC. Analytical investigations of the structure and composition of Alloy 600 bulk surface corrosion oxides revealed a duplex (inner and outer) oxide layer structure. The outer layer is discontinuous and comprised of relatively large (1 to 3 {micro}m) nickel ferrite crystals and smaller ({approx}0.1 {micro}m) chromium containing nickel ferrite crystals. The inner layer consists of a relatively continuous chromite spinel (major phase) and chromia (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} minor phase) which formed through non-selective oxidation. Chromia and dealloyed Alloy 600 (highly Ni enriched metal) were only observed at 337 C (640 F) and only along the boundaries of deformation induced fine grains and subcells. Specimens having deformation free surfaces exhibited continuous uniform inner chromite spinel oxide layers. Specimens with machining induced surface deformation produced non-uniform inner layer oxides (chromite spinel, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and unoxidized material). PWSCC crack tip oxides, in contrast, were fine grain (no duplex structure) and consisted of both chromium rich spinels and ''NiO'' structure oxides. Generally, nickel rich oxides were more abundant under more oxidized conditions (reduced coolant hydrogen) and spinel rich crack tip oxides were favored under more reducing conditions (increased coolant hydrogen). Bulk surface corrosion film thickness did not correlate with observed SCC growth rates. These results suggest that corrosion is not the rate controlling step of PWSCC but rather that PWSCC and corrosion have a common rate

  4. Emeraldine base as corrosion protective layer on aluminium alloy AA5182, effect of the surface microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetto, L; Ambat, Rajan; Davenport, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    AA5182 aluminium alloy cold rolled samples were coated by thin Wlms of emeraldine base (EB) obtained from a 5% solution in N-methylpyrrolidinone. Accelerated corrosion tests prove this coating very eVective for corrosion protection of aluminium alloys in neutral environment. This study underlines......: • a weak redox activity of the polymer which passivate the metal, • a proton involving self-healing process taking place at the polymer–metal interface, which contributes to delay local acidiWcation in Wrst steps of corrosion on EB coated aluminium surfaces....

  5. Corrosion resistance of 15Mo3 in steam boiler pipe surfaced with Inconel 625 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aracic, S.; Samardzic, I.; Krumes, D. [Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Trg Ivane Brlic Mazuranic 18, HR-35000 Slavonski Brod (Croatia)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents accelerated laboratory corrosion resistant investigation results made on steam boiler 15Mo3 steel pipes surfaced with alloy Inconel 625. Surfacing of 15Mo3 pipes was made due to pipes corrosion resistance increase in exploitation conditions which are present in fire box of trash burning plant. Corrosion resistance investigations were made in fire box simulated atmosphere and in salt spray chamber. (authors)

  6. Calculation of absolute concentrations and probability of resonant absorption for iron-bearing precipitates in zirconium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, V. P.; Petrov, V. I.; Lauer, D. E.; Shikanova, Yu. A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to find the absolute concentrations and the probability of resonant absorption, the theoretical dependence of effective thickness from Mossbauer absorption line area has been obtained. Calculations of absolute concentrations of secondary phase precipitate in zirconium alloys with natural ir

  7. Antimicrobial activity of different copper alloy surfaces against copper resistant and sensitive Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Libin; Elguindi, Jutta; Rensing, Christopher; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2012-05-01

    Copper has shown antibacterial effects against foodborne pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of copper surfaces on copper resistant and sensitive strains of Salmonella enterica. Six different copper alloy coupons (60-99.9% copper) were tested along with stainless steel as the control. The coupons were surface inoculated with either S. Enteritidis or one of the 3 copper resistant strains, S. Typhimurium S9, S19 and S20; stored under various incubation conditions at room temperature; and sampled at various times up to 2 h. The results showed that under dry incubation conditions, Salmonella only survived 10-15 min on high copper content alloys. Salmonella on low copper content alloys showed 3-4 log reductions. Under moist incubation conditions, no survivors were detected after 30 min-2 h on high copper content alloys, while the cell counts decreased 2-4 logs on low copper content coupons. Although the copper resistant strains survived better than S. Enteritidis, they were either completely inactivated or survival was decreased. Copper coupons showed better antimicrobial efficacy in the absence of organic compounds. These results clearly show the antibacterial effects of copper and its potential as an alternative to stainless steel for selected food contact surfaces.

  8. Influence of surface coating on Ti811 alloy resistance to fretting fatigue at elevated temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaohua; LIU Daoxin

    2009-01-01

    An extensive study of the composition distribution, bonding strength, hardness, and wear resistance of a 0Cr18Ni9 film deposited on a Ti811 titanium alloy surface by ion beam enhanced deposition (IBED) is presented. Shot peening was introduced to post-treat the modified surface to synergistically improve the fretting fatigue resistance of the Ti811 alloy at 350~C. The results indicate that the 0Cr18Ni9 film with high density, small grain size, low void radio, and high bonding strength can be prepared using IBED. As a result, the hardness, wear resistance, and fretting fatigue resistance of the Ti811 alloy are increased to a remarkable extent. Compared with shot peening treatment or IBED 0Cr18Ni9 film alone, the Ti811 titanium alloy with an IBED 0Cr18Ni9 film combined with shot peening shows a higher fretting fatigue resistance at 350℃. This is due to the synergistic effect of the high wear resistance of the film surface and the residual compressive stress induced by shot peening.

  9. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Surface Structure of 6082 Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, N.; Carlberg, T.

    2017-10-01

    The β-Al5FeSi intermetallic phase and coarse Mg2Si particles have negative effects on extrudability and workability of 6xxx Al alloys billets. To achieve extruded products with a high surface quality, the as-cast billets are heat-treated before extrusion. During heat treatment, the undesired intermetallic particles, i.e., β-AlFeSi platelets are transformed to rounded α-Al(FeMn)Si intermetallic phases. Although the heat treatment of the bulk areas of the 6xxx Al alloys has been the focus of many previous studies, the process of phase transformation at the very surface has not been paid the same attention. In this study, microstructures of a homogenized billet of a 6082 alloy at the area very close to the surface were investigated. By comparing the X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of heat-treated samples as a function of different holding times, the gradual phase transformations could be followed, and using GDOES and map analysis by EDX, the alloying elemental redistribution was analyzed. Partial remelting and porosity growth was detected, and transformation rates were faster than in bulk material and from what is known from industrial processes.

  10. Various categories of defects after surface alloying induced by high current pulsed electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Dian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Guangze, E-mail: oaktang@hit.edu.cn [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma, Xinxin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Gu, Le [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Mingren [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Liqin [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Four kinds of defects are found during surface alloying by high current electron beam. • Exploring the mechanism how these defects appear after irradiation. • Increasing pulsing cycles will help to get good surface quality. • Choosing proper energy density will increase surface quality. - Abstract: High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is an attractive advanced materials processing method which could highly increase the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, how to eliminate different kinds of defects during irradiation by HCPEB especially in condition of adding new elements is a challenging task. In the present research, the titanium and TaNb-TiW composite films was deposited on the carburizing steel (SAE9310 steel) by DC magnetron sputtering before irradiation. The process of surface alloying was induced by HCPEB with pulse duration of 2.5 μs and energy density ranging from 3 to 9 J/cm{sup 2}. Investigation of the microstructure indicated that there were several forms of defects after irradiation, such as surface unwetting, surface eruption, micro-cracks and layering. How the defects formed was explained by the results of electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results also revealed that proper energy density (∼6 J/cm{sup 2}) and multi-number of irradiation (≥50 times) contributed to high quality of alloyed layers after irradiation.

  11. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Field Enhancement of Au/Ag Alloyed Hollow Nanoshells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; YU Xue-Feng; FU Xiao-Feng; HAO Zhong-Hua; LI Kai-Yang

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the nanostructure,surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption and nonlinear enhancement of Au/Ag alloyed hollow nanoshells prepared by the replacement reaction of Ag nanoparticles in a HAuCl4 aqueous solution.As the volume of HA uCl4 increases from 0 mL to 0.5 mL,the SPR band of the Au/Ag alloyed nanoshells is tuned from 430nm to 780nm,and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility is enhanced nearly by an order of magnitude,which indicates a large enhancement of local field in the Au/Ag alloyed hollow nanoshells with hole defects.

  12. Effect of whitening toothpaste on titanium and titanium alloy surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Bordin, Angelo Rafael de Vito; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2012-01-01

    .... Whitening toothpastes with peroxides are available for patients with high aesthetic requirements, but the effect of whitening toothpastes on titanium surfaces is not yet known, although titanium...

  13. Surface Roughness Models and Their Experimental Validation in Micro Milling of 6061-T6 Al Alloy by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the widespread use of high-accuracy miniature and micro features or components, it is required to predict the machined surface performance of the micro milling processes. In this paper, a new predictive model of the surface roughness is established by response surface method (RSM according to the micro milling experiment of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy which is carried out based on the central composite circumscribed (CCC design. Then the model is used to analyze the effects of parameters on the surface roughness, and it can be concluded that the surface roughness increases with the increasing of the feed rate and the decreasing of the spindle speed. At last, based on the model the contour map of the surface roughness and material removal rate is established for optimizing the process parameters to improve the cutting efficiency with good surface roughness. The prediction results from the model have good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. IMPACTS OF MARINE AEROSOLS ON SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY AT BEAR BROOK WATERSHED, MAINE USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The East Bear catchment at Bear Brook Watershed, Maine receives moderate (for the eastern U.S.) amounts of Cl- in wet and dry deposition. In 1989, Cl- in precipitation ranged from 2 to 55 eq/L. Dry, occult, and wet deposition plus evapotranspiration resulted in stream Cl- averagi...

  15. Tribology Behavior of Zr-N Alloying Layer on Ti6Al4V Alloy Surface at Elevated Temperature%Ti6Al4V钛合金表面Zr-N合金化层的抗高温摩擦磨损性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤金钢; 刘道新; 唐长斌; 于首明; 张晓化

    2013-01-01

    The dense Zr-N alloying layers were prepared on the surface of Ti6A14V alloy by two kinds of surface alloying processes to improve the wear resistance of Ti alloy at elevated temperature. One process is Zr-diffusing with nitriding simultaneously (synchronous surface alloying), and the other is nitriding after Zr-diffusing (asynchronous surface alloying). The microstructure and tribological property at elevated temperature of the modified surface layers were investigated. Results show that both the Zr-N diffusion layers consist of ZrN phase, and the asynchronous surface alloying with thick Zr-Ti solid solution layer is beneath the surface. The surface microhardness of the Ti6A14V alloy was significantly increased by both Zr-N alloying layers. With the same time and temperature, the thickness of the asynchronous surface alloying layer was about 6 times of the synchronous surface alloying layer, because the asynchronous surface alloying has excellent solution and low diffusion inhibition. The results of the ball-on-disc wear tests indicate that the wear resistance at 300 ℃ of the synchronous surface alloying layer was not significantly improved because of the shallow diffusion depth. The asynchronous surface alloying reduced the wear rate obviously by two orders and the friction coefficient by 50% due to the high surface hardness, thick depth, good thermal oxidization resistance and big surface load-bearing ability.%为了改善钛合金的高温耐磨性能,采用锆-氮离子共渗与异步渗(渗锆后再氮化处理)两种工艺技术分别在Ti6A14V钛合金表面制备致密的锆-氮合金化改性层,对比研究了合金化层的组织结构特征和高温摩擦磨损性能.结果表明,两种工艺制各的Zr-N合金层表面均由ZrN相组成,异步渗改性层的内层则包含较厚的Zr-Ti固溶体,两种等离子表面合金化层均使钛合金表面硬度显著提高.同样温度和处理时间条件下,异步渗合金化层的厚度约为锆-

  16. Towards low-friction and wear-resistant plasma sintering dies via plasma surface co-alloying CM247 nickel alloy with V/Ag and N

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhenxue; Li Xiaoying; Dong Hanshan; Sánchez Eluxka Almandoz; Fuentes Gonzalo García; Qin Yi

    2015-01-01

    Nickel based superalloys have good oxidation and creep resistance and hence they can function under high mechanical stress and high temperatures. However, their undesirable tribological behaviour is the major technical barrier to the challenging high-temperature, lubricant-free plasma sintering tool application. In this study, nickel based CM247 superalloy surfaces were co-alloyed using innovative active screen plasma technology with both interstitial element (e.g. N) and substitutional alloy...

  17. Surface modification of additive manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy with Ag nanoparticles: wettability and surface morphology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudinova, E.; Surmeneva, M.; Koptioug, A.; Sharonova, A.; Loza, K.; Surmenev, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the use of electrophoretic deposition to modify the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology is reported. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had a spherical shape with a diameter of the metallic core of 100±20 nm and ζ -potential -15 mV. The AgNPs- coated Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical composition and surface morphology, water contact angle, hysteresis, and surface free energy. The results of SEM microphotography analysis showed that the AgNPs were homogeneously distributed over the surface. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed the effect of the deposited AgNPs layer, namely an increased water contact angle and decreased contact angle hysteresis. However, the average water contact angle was 125° for PVP-stabilized-AgNPs-coated surface, whereas ethylene glycol gave the average contact angle of 17°. A higher surface energy is observed for AgNPs-coated Ti6Al4V surface (70.17 mN/m) compared with the uncoated surface (49.07 mN/m).

  18. Surface characteristics and corrosion behaviour of WE43 magnesium alloy coated by SiC film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Cheng, Y.; Zheng, Y. F.; Zhang, X.; Xi, T. F.; Wei, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous SiC film has been successfully fabricated on the surface of WE43 magnesium alloy by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique. The microstructure and elemental composition were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The immersion test indicated that SiC film could efficiently slow down the degradation rate of WE43 alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 1 °C. The indirect toxicity experiment was conducted using L929 cell line and the results showed that the extraction medium of SiC coated WE43 alloys exhibited no inhibitory effect on L929 cell growth. The in vitro hemocompatibility of the samples was investigated by hemolysis test and blood platelets adhesion test, and it was found that the hemolysis rate of the coated WE43 alloy decreased greatly, and the platelets attached on the SiC film were slightly activated with a round shape. It could be concluded that SiC film prepared by PECVD made WE43 alloy more appropriate to biomedical application.

  19. Surface characteristics and corrosion behaviour of WE43 magnesium alloy coated by SiC film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, Y., E-mail: chengyan@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zheng, Y.F. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, X.; Xi, T.F. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei, S.C. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Amorphous SiC film has been successfully fabricated on the surface of WE43 magnesium alloy by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique. The microstructure and elemental composition were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The immersion test indicated that SiC film could efficiently slow down the degradation rate of WE43 alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 {+-} 1 Degree-Sign C. The indirect toxicity experiment was conducted using L929 cell line and the results showed that the extraction medium of SiC coated WE43 alloys exhibited no inhibitory effect on L929 cell growth. The in vitro hemocompatibility of the samples was investigated by hemolysis test and blood platelets adhesion test, and it was found that the hemolysis rate of the coated WE43 alloy decreased greatly, and the platelets attached on the SiC film were slightly activated with a round shape. It could be concluded that SiC film prepared by PECVD made WE43 alloy more appropriate to biomedical application.

  20. Nucleation, wetting and agglomeration of copper and copper-alloy thin films on metal liner surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarbera, Stephanie Florence

    One of the key challenges in fabricating narrower and higher aspect ratio interconnects using damascene technology has been achieving an ultra-thin (˜2 nm) and continuous Cu seed coverage on trench sidewalls. The thin seed is prone to agglomeration because of poor Cu wetting on the Ta liner. Using in-situ conductance measurements, the effect of lowering the substrate temperature during Cu seed deposition has been studied on tantalum (Ta) and ruthenium (Ru) liner surfaces. On a Ta surface, it was found that lowering the deposition temperature to --65°C increases the nucleation rate of the Cu thin film, and reduces the minimum coalescing thickness for Cu on Ta liner from ˜4.5 nm (at room temperature) to ˜2 nm. On a Ru surface, Cu coalesces at wetting angle, coalescing thickness, and agglomeration resistance of thin Cu-3% Au, Cu-3% Mn, and Cu-3% Al layers on a Ta liner surface have been studied. It was found that the alloying increases the wetting angle of Cu on Ta at high temperature, as a result of either reduction in Cu alloy surface energy, solute surface segregation, or solute-liner interactions. In addition, the Cu alloys were found to be less agglomeration resistive as compared to pure Cu; their smaller grain size, interaction with the liner surface, and tendency to oxidize were found to accelerate their agglomeration. The coalescing thickness of the Cu alloys was found to be reduced from that of Cu (˜4.5 nm) to ˜2 nm.

  1. Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jijia [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang, Yaming [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Han, Zhiwu, E-mail: zwhan@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Ren, Luquan [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-09-01

    As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}Si(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro–nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

  2. Surface Roughening Behavior of 6063 Aluminum Alloy during Bulging by Spun Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe surface roughening during the hydroforming of aluminum alloy parts can produce surface defects that severely restrict their application in the automobile and aerospace industry. To understand the relation between strain, grain size and surface roughness under biaxial stress conditions, hydro-bulging tests of aluminum alloy tubes were carried out, and the tubes with different grain sizes were prepared by a spinning and annealing process. The surface roughness was measured by a laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate the surface roughening macroscopical behavior, and the corresponding microstructures were observed using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD to reveal the roughening microscopic behavior. The results obtained show that the surface roughness increased with both strain and grain size under biaxial stress. No surface defects were observed on the surface when the grain size was less than 105 μm if the strain was less than 18%, or when the grain size was between 130 and 175 μm if the strain was less than 15.88% and 7.15%, respectively. The surface roughening microscopic behavior was identified as an inhomogeneous grain size distribution, which became more pronounced with increasing grain size and resulted in greater local deformation. Concentrated grain orientation also results in severe inhomogeneous deformation during plastics deformation, and serious surface roughening.

  3. Growth of Hierarchically Structured High-Surface Area Alumina on FeCrAl Alloy Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Rallan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of metastable alumina phases due to the oxidation of commercial FeCrAl alloy wires (0.5 mm thickness at various temperatures and time periods has been examined. Samples were isothermally oxidised in air using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA. The morphology of the oxidised samples was analyzed using an Electronic Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM and X-ray on the surface analysis was done using an Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX analyzer. The technique of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD was used to characterize the phase of the oxide growth. The entire study showed that it was possible to grow high-surface area gamma alumina on the FeCrAl alloy wire surfaces when isothermally oxidised above 800°C over several hours.

  4. Surface tension and specific heat of liquid Ni70.2Si29.8 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haipeng; WEI Bingbo

    2005-01-01

    The surface tension and specific heat of stable and metastable liquid Ni70.2Si29.8 eutectic alloy were measured by electromagnetic levitation oscillating drop method and drop calorimetry. The surface tension depends on temperature linearly within the experimental undercooling regime of 0-182 K (0.12 TE). Its value is 1.693 N·m-1 at the eutectic temperature of 1488 K, and the temperature coefficient is -4.23×10-4 N·m-1·K-1. For the specific heat measurement, the maximum undercooling is up to 253 K (0.17 TE). The specific heat is determined as a polynomial function of temperature in the experimental temperature regime. On the basis of the measured data of surface tension and specific heat, the temperature-dependent density, excess volume and sound speed of liquid Ni70.2Si29.8 alloy are predicted theoretically.

  5. Tribological Properties of Aluminum Alloy treated by Fine Particle Peening/DLC Hybrid Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanbu H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the adhesiveness of the DLC coating, Fine Particle Peening (FPP treatment was employed as pre-treatment of the DLC coating process. FPP treatment was performed using SiC shot particles, and then AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was DLC-coated. A SiC-rich layer was formed around the surface of the aluminum alloy by the FPP treatment because small chips of shot particles were embedded into the substrate surface. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficients. While the DLC coated specimen without FPP treatment showed a sudden increase in friction coefficient at the early stage of the wear cycles, the FPP/DLC hybrid treated specimen maintained a low friction coefficient value during the test period. Further investigation revealed that the tribological properties of the substrate after the DLC coating were improved with an increase in the amount of Si at the surface.

  6. Surface Chemistry of Aluminium Alloy Slid against Steel Lubricated by Organic Friction Modifier in Hydrocarbon Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Minami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lubrication mechanism of aluminium alloy slid against steel was investigated from the standpoint of surface chemistry. Low friction and low wear were observed using glycerol mono-olate in a hydrocarbon as lubricant. Increase in the silicon content in the aluminium alloy during rubbing was observed by surface analyses using (1 Auger electron spectroscopy, (2 scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and (3 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mild removal of the passive state (aluminium oxide from the uppermost surface by the additive during the running-in process was proposed as the lubrication mechanism. The importance of additive chemistry that improves the running-in process was pointed out.

  7. Surface characterization and cytocompatibility evaluation of silanized magnesium alloy AZ91 for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witecka, Agnieszka; Yamamoto, Akiko; Dybiec, Henryk; Swieszkowski, Wojciech

    2012-12-01

    Mg alloys with high Al contents have superior corrosion resistance in aqueous environments, but poor cytocompatibility compared to that of pure Mg. We have silanized the cast AZ91 alloy to improve its cytocompatibility using five different silanes: ethyltriethoxysilane (S1), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (S2), 3-isocyanatopyltriethoxysilane (S3), phenyltriethoxysilane (S4) and octadecyltriethoxysilane (S5). The surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity was evaluated by water contact angle measurements. X-ray photoelectron analysis was performed to investigate the changes in surface states and chemical composition. All silane reagents increased adsorption of the albumin to the modified surface. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that silanization improved cell growth on AZ91 modified by silane S1. Measurement of the concentration of Mg2+ ions released during the cell culture indicated that silanization does not affect substrate degradation.

  8. Surface characterization and cytocompatibility evaluation of silanized magnesium alloy AZ91 for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Witecka, Akiko Yamamoto, Henryk Dybiec and Wojciech Swieszkowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mg alloys with high Al contents have superior corrosion resistance in aqueous environments, but poor cytocompatibility compared to that of pure Mg. We have silanized the cast AZ91 alloy to improve its cytocompatibility using five different silanes: ethyltriethoxysilane (S1, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (S2, 3-isocyanatopyltriethoxysilane (S3, phenyltriethoxysilane (S4 and octadecyltriethoxysilane (S5. The surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity was evaluated by water contact angle measurements. X-ray photoelectron analysis was performed to investigate the changes in surface states and chemical composition. All silane reagents increased adsorption of the albumin to the modified surface. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that silanization improved cell growth on AZ91 modified by silane S1. Measurement of the concentration of Mg2+ ions released during the cell culture indicated that silanization does not affect substrate degradation.

  9. Alloy formation and chemisorption at Zn/Pt(111) bimetallic surfaces using alkali ISS, XPD, and TPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chih-Sung; Martono, Eddie; Banerjee, Santanu; Roszell, John; Vohs, John; Koel, Bruce E

    2013-11-21

    Alloy formation and chemisorption at bimetallic surfaces formed by vapor-depositing Zn on a Pt(111) single crystal were investigated primarily by using X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy alkali ion scattering spectroscopy (ALISS), low electron energy diffraction (LEED), and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). A wide range of conditions were investigated to explore whether deposition and annealing of Zn films could produce well-defined, ordered alloy surfaces, similar to those encountered for Sn/Pt(111) surface alloys. These attempts were unsuccessful, although weak, diffuse (2 × 2) spots were observed under special conditions. The particular PtZn bimetallic alloy created by annealing one monolayer of Zn on Pt(111) at 600 K, which has a Zn composition in the surface layer of about 5 at. %, was investigated in detail by using XPD and ALISS. Only a diffuse (1 × 1) pattern was observed from this surface by LEED, suggesting that no long-range, ordered alloy structure was formed. Zn atoms were substitutionally incorporated into the Pt(111) crystal to form a near-surface alloy in which Zn atoms were found to reside primarily in the topmost and second layers. The alloyed Zn atoms in the topmost layer are coplanar with the Pt atoms in the surface layer, without any "buckling" of Zn, that is, displacement in the vertical direction. This result is expected because of the similar size of Pt and Zn, based on previous studies of bimetallic Pt alloys. Zn atoms desorb upon heating rather than diffusing deep into the bulk of the Pt crystal. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) measurements show that both CO and NO have lower desorption energies on the PtZn alloy surface compared to that on the clean Pt(111) surface.

  10. Surface Modification of Light Alloys by Low-Energy High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. D. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews results obtained by the research groups developing the low-energy high-current pulsed electron beam (LEHCPEB in Dalian (China and Metz (France on the surface treatment of light alloys. The pulsed electron irradiation induces an ultra-fast thermal cycle at the surface combined with the formation of thermal stress and shock waves. As illustrated for Mg alloys and Ti, this results in deep subsurface hardening (over several 100 μm which improves the wear resistance. The analysis of the top surface melted surface of light alloys also often witnesses evaporation and condensation of chemical species. This phenomenon can significantly modify the melt chemistry and was also suggested to lead to the development of specific solidification textures in the rapidly solidified layer. The potential use of the LEHCPEB technique for producing thermomechanical treatments under the so-called heating mode and, thus, modify the surface crystallographic texture, and enhance solid-state diffusion is also demonstrated in the case of the FeAl intermetallic compound.

  11. Influence of Surface Roughness on Morphology of Aluminum Alloy After Pulsed-Laser Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Wan Soon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of surface roughness on the morphology of aluminum 6061- T6 alloy after irradiation with a Nd:YAG pulsed laser. The test specimen was prepared by a polishing process using a diamond paste (1 {mu}m) and emery polishing papers (100, 220, 600, 2400) to obtain different initial surface roughness. After irradiation with ten pulsed-laser shots, the surface morphology was examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter of the melted zone increased with the surface roughness because the multiple reflections and absorption of the laser beam occurred on the surface because of the surface roughness, so that the absorptance of the laser beam changed. This result was verified using the relative absorptance calculated from the diameter of the melted zone with the surface roughness and the diameter increased with the average surface roughness.

  12. Macrophage responses to 316L stainless steel and cobalt chromium alloys with different surface topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jordan A; Lamichhane, Sujan; Mani, Gopinath

    2016-11-01

    The surface topography of a biomaterial plays a vital role in determining macrophage interactions and influencing immune response. In this study, we investigated the effect of smooth and microrough topographies of commonly used metallic biomaterials such as 316 L stainless steel (SS) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloys on macrophage interactions. The macrophage adhesion was greater on CoCr compared to SS, irrespective of their topographies. The macrophage activation and the secretion of most pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IP-10) were greater on microrough surfaces than on smooth surfaces by day-1. However, by day-2, the macrophage activation on smooth surfaces was also significantly increased up to the same level as observed on the microrough surfaces, with more amount of cytokines secreted. The secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) was significantly increased from day-1 to day-2 on all the alloy surfaces with the effect most prominently observed on microrough surfaces. The production of nitric oxide by the macrophages did not show any major substrate-dependent effect. The foreign body giant cells formed by macrophages were least observed on the microrough surfaces of CoCr. Thus, this study demonstrated that the nature of material (SS or CoCr) and their surface topographies (smooth or microrough) strongly influence the macrophage responses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2658-2672, 2016.

  13. Nanoscale precipitates strengthened lanthanum-bearing Mg-3Sn-1Mn alloys through continuous rheo-rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, R. G.; Shen, Y. F.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2016-01-01

    We elucidate the effect of lanthanum (La) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-3Sn-1Mn-xLa (wt.%) alloy plates processed through continuous rheo-rolling for the first time. At x = 0.2 wt.%, La dissolved completely in the α-Mg matrix. As the La content was increased to 0.6 wt.%, a new plate-shaped three-phase compound composed of La5Sn3, Mg2Sn and Mg17La2 phases was formed with an average length of 380 ± 10 nm and an average width of 110 ± 5 nm. This compound had a pinning effect on the α-Mg grain boundary and on dislocations. With further increase in La-content to 1.0 wt.%, the length of the plate-shaped compound increased to an average length of 560 ± 10 nm, while the width was reduced to 90 ± 5 nm. The particle size of Mg2Sn decreased from 100 nm to 50 nm with increase in La-content from 0.2 to 1.4 wt.%. At La content of 1.0 wt.%, the tensile strength and elongation of the alloy was maximum, with 29% and 32% increase, respectively, compared to the Mg-3Sn-1Mn (wt.%) alloy, and 37% and 89% increase, in comparison to the Mg-3Sn-1Mn-0.87 Ce (wt.%) alloy. PMID:26988533

  14. Effect of Laser Surface Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of FeCrAl-Coated TZM Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Min Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study involves the coating of Titanium-Zirconium-Molybdenum (TZM alloy with FeCrAl through plasma thermal spraying which proved effective in improving the oxidation resistance of the substrate. A post-laser surface melting treatment further enhanced the surface protection of the TZM alloy. Oxidation tests conducted at 1100 °C in air indicated that some Mo oxides were formed at the surface but a relatively small amount of weight reduction was observed for FeCrAl-coated TZM alloys up to 60 min of treatment. The post-laser surface treatment following the plasma thermal spray process apparently delayed the severe oxidation process and surface spalling of the alloy. It was suggested that the slow reduction in weight in the post-laser-treated specimen was related to fewer defects in the coating layer. It was also found that a surface reaction layer formed through the diffusion of Fe into the Mo alloy substrate at high temperature. The layer mainly consisted of Fe-saturated Mo and FeMo intermetallic compounds. In order to observe the corrosion behavior of the laser-treated alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution, electrochemical characteristics were also investigated. A proposed equivalent circuit model for the specimen indicated localized corrosion of coated alloy with some permeable defects in the coating layer.

  15. A study on the surface shape and roughness of aluminum alloy for heat exchanger using ball end milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Kim, Y.; jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    Aluminum alloy is a material with a high strength-weight ratio and excellent thermal conductivity. It neither readily corrodes nor quickly weakens at low temperatures, but can be easily recycled. Because of these features, aluminum heat exchangers are widely used in aluminum alloy. In addition, the aluminum alloy used in other areas is expected to gradually increase. As a result, researchers have been continuously studying the cutting patterns of aluminium alloy. However, such studies are fewer than those on the cutting patterns of ordinary steel. Moreover, the research on ball end milling with aluminium alloys has not received much attention. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to find the optimal cutting pattern among the seven cutting patterns for the machining of the commonly used aluminum alloy using ball end milling for a heat exchanger. The optimal pattern was found by comparing the different shapes and surface roughness values produced by the seven patterns.

  16. Detonation nanodiamonds biofunctionalization and immobilization to titanium alloy surfaces as first steps towards medical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliana P L; Shaikh, Afnan Q; Reitzig, Manuela; Kovalenko, Daria A; Michael, Jan; Beutner, René; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Scharnweber, Dieter; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds are a promising nanoscale material in various applications such as microelectronics, polishing, optical monitoring, medicine and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond characteristics like extreme hardness or high thermal conductivity, they have additional benefits as intrinsic fluorescence due to lattice defects without photobleaching, obtained during the high pressure high temperature process. Further the carbon surface and its various functional groups in consequence of the synthesis, facilitate additional chemical and biological modification. In this work we present our recent results on chemical modification of the nanodiamond surface with phosphate groups and their electrochemically assisted immobilization on titanium-based materials to increase adhesion at biomaterial surfaces. The starting material is detonation nanodiamond, which exhibits a heterogeneous surface due to the functional groups resulting from the nitrogen-rich explosives and the subsequent purification steps after detonation synthesis. Nanodiamond surfaces are chemically homogenized before proceeding with further functionalization. Suspensions of resulting surface-modified nanodiamonds are applied to the titanium alloy surfaces and the nanodiamonds subsequently fixed by electrochemical immobilization. Titanium and its alloys have been widely used in bone and dental implants for being a metal that is biocompatible with body tissues and able to bind with adjacent bone during healing. In order to improve titanium material properties towards biomedical applications the authors aim to increase adhesion to bone material by incorporating nanodiamonds into the implant surface, namely the anodically grown titanium dioxide layer. Differently functionalized nanodiamonds are characterized by infrared spectroscopy and the modified titanium alloys surfaces by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The process described shows an adsorption and

  17. Detonation nanodiamonds biofunctionalization and immobilization to titanium alloy surfaces as first steps towards medical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. L. Gonçalves

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds are a promising nanoscale material in various applications such as microelectronics, polishing, optical monitoring, medicine and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond characteristics like extreme hardness or high thermal conductivity, they have additional benefits as intrinsic fluorescence due to lattice defects without photobleaching, obtained during the high pressure high temperature process. Further the carbon surface and its various functional groups in consequence of the synthesis, facilitate additional chemical and biological modification. In this work we present our recent results on chemical modification of the nanodiamond surface with phosphate groups and their electrochemically assisted immobilization on titanium-based materials to increase adhesion at biomaterial surfaces. The starting material is detonation nanodiamond, which exhibits a heterogeneous surface due to the functional groups resulting from the nitrogen-rich explosives and the subsequent purification steps after detonation synthesis. Nanodiamond surfaces are chemically homogenized before proceeding with further functionalization. Suspensions of resulting surface-modified nanodiamonds are applied to the titanium alloy surfaces and the nanodiamonds subsequently fixed by electrochemical immobilization. Titanium and its alloys have been widely used in bone and dental implants for being a metal that is biocompatible with body tissues and able to bind with adjacent bone during healing. In order to improve titanium material properties towards biomedical applications the authors aim to increase adhesion to bone material by incorporating nanodiamonds into the implant surface, namely the anodically grown titanium dioxide layer. Differently functionalized nanodiamonds are characterized by infrared spectroscopy and the modified titanium alloys surfaces by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The process described shows an

  18. Surface characterization and biocompatibility of titanium alloys implanted with nitrogen by Hardion+ technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, D M; Gloriant, T; Chane-Pane, V; Busardo, D; Mitran, V; Höche, D; Vasilescu, C; Drob, S I; Cimpean, A

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the new Hardion+ micro-implanter technology was used to modify surface properties of biomedical pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy by implantation of nitrogen ions. This process is based on the use of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to produce a multienergetic ion beam from multicharged ions. After implantation, surface analysis methods revealed the formation of titanium nitride (TiN) on the substrate surfaces. An increase in superficial hardness and a significant reduction of friction coefficient were observed for both materials when compared to non-implanted samples. Better corrosion resistance and a significant decrease in ion release rates were observed for N-implanted biomaterials due to the formation of the protective TiN layer on their surfaces. In vitro tests performed on human fetal osteoblasts indicated that the cytocompatibility of N-implanted CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy was enhanced in comparison to that of the corresponding non treated samples. Consequently, Hardion+ implantation technique can provide titanium alloys with better qualities in terms of corrosion resistance, cell proliferation, adhesion and viability.

  19. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, S., E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  20. A Study on Surface Modification of Al7075-T6 Alloy against Fretting Fatigue Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mohseni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft engines, fuselage, automobile parts, and energy saving strategies in general have promoted the interest and research in the field of lightweight materials, typically on alloys based on aluminum. Aluminum alloy itself does not have suitable wear resistance; therefore, it is necessary to enhance surface properties for practical applications, particularly when aluminum is in contact with other parts. Fretting fatigue phenomenon occurs when two surfaces are in contact with each other and one or both parts are subjected to cyclic load. Fretting drastically decreases the fatigue life of materials. Therefore, investigating the fretting fatigue life of materials is an important subject. Applying surface modification methods is anticipated to be a supreme solution to gradually decreasing fretting damage. In this paper, the authors would like to review methods employed so far to diminish the effect of fretting on the fatigue life of Al7075-T6 alloy. The methods include deep rolling, shot peening, laser shock peening, and thin film hard coatings. The surface coatings techniques are comprising physical vapor deposition (PVD, hard anodizing, ion-beam-enhanced deposition (IBED, and nitriding.

  1. Temperature dependence of the bulk and surface properties of liquid Zn-Cd alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E. [University of Ibadan, Department of Physics, Ibadan (Nigeria); Azeez, A.A. [African University of Science and Technology, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2017-05-15

    The effects of temperature on the bulk and surface properties of liquid Zn-Cd alloys have been theoretically investigated, using a combination of self association model, Darken's thermodynamic equation for diffusion, empirical model for viscosity and a statistical mechanics model. The results from this study show that change in temperature resulted in cross-over effects in bulk and surface properties. We also found that with an increase in temperature, a pronounced asymmetry of viscosity isotherm is significantly reduced, and viscosity isotherm exhibited anomalous behaviour. Our results reveal that the homocoordination tendency in Zn-Cd liquid alloys is not strong and reduces with increasing temperature. The study further suggests a pronounced segregation of Cd-atoms at the surface of Zn-Cd liquid alloys and the extent of segregation reduces with temperature. We as well found that, in addition to the reported understanding that size-factor determines the compositional location of asymmetry of the viscosity isotherm, temperature is an operating parameter that has effect, not only on the composition of asymmetry, but also on the magnitude of asymmetry. In all the properties investigated, the most pronounced effect of temperature (52.9 %) is on the viscosity while the least effect (7.1 %) is on the surface tension. (orig.)

  2. The Influence of Laser Surface Remelting on the Microstructure of EN AC-48000 Cast Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piątkowski J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper present a thermal analysis of laser heating and remelting of EN AC-48000 (EN AC-AlSi12CuNiMg cast alloy used mainly for casting pistons of internal combustion engines. Laser optics were arranged such that the impingement spot size on the material was a circular with beam radius rb changes from 7 to 1500 μm. The laser surface remelting was performed under argon flow. The resulting temperature distribution, cooling rate distribution, temperature gradients and the depth of remelting are related to the laser power density and scanning velocity. The formation of microstructure during solidification after laser surface remelting of tested alloy was explained. Laser treatment of alloy tests were perform by changing the three parameters: the power of the laser beam, radius and crystallization rate. The laser surface remelting needs the selection such selection of the parameters, which leads to a significant disintegration of the structure. This method is able to increase surface hardness, for example in layered castings used for pistons in automotive engines.

  3. Laser Nanostructurization of the Metal and Alloy Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavin, Andrei; Kozlovskaya, Natalia; Krokhin, Oleg; Zavestovskaya, Irina

    2010-10-01

    The results from experimental and theoretical investigation of material pulsed laser treatment aimed at obtaining nano- and microstructured surface are presented. An experiment has been performed on the modification of indium surface using a solid-state diode-pumped laser. It has been shown that nano- and micro-size structures are formed under laser melting and fast crystallization of the metal surface. The kinetics of the crystallization of metals under superfast cooling. The distribution function for crystalline nuclei dimensions is analytically found within the framework of the classical kinetic equation in case of superfast temperature changing. The average number of particles in the crystalline nuclei and relative volume of the crystalline phase are determined as functions of thermodynamic and laser treatment regime parameters. Good agreement is observed with experimental results for ultrashort laser pulses induced micro- and nanostructures production.

  4. Surface treatment and history-dependent corrosion in lead alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ning [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)]. E-mail: ningli@lanl.gov; Zhang Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sencer, Bulent H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koury, Daniel [University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2006-06-23

    In oxygen-controlled lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), steel corrosion may be strongly history dependent. This is due to the competition between liquid metal dissolution corrosion and oxidation as a 'self-healing' protection barrier. Such effects can be observed from corrosion testing of a variety of surface-treated materials, such as cold working, shot peening, pre-oxidation, etc. Shot peening of austenitic steels produces surface-layer microstructural damages and grain compression, which could contribute to increased Cr migration to the surface and enhance the protection through an impervious oxide. Pre-oxidation under conditions different from operating ones may form more protective oxides, reduce oxygen and metal ion migration through the oxides, and achieve better protection for longer durations. Corrosion and oxidation modeling and analysis reveal the potential for significantly reducing long-term corrosion rates by initial and early-stage conditioning of steels for Pb/LBE services.

  5. Oxidation of CO and surface properties of well characterized Pt{sub 3}Sn bimetallic alloy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Arenz, M.; Blizanac, B. B.; Ross, P. N.; Markovic, N. M. [University of California-Berkeley, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-04-01

    The Pt{sub 3}Sn alloy is known to be one of the most active systems for carbon monoxide oxidation. This paper continues the effort begun earlier to explore the link between macroscopic level properties of the Pt{sub 3}Sn(hkl) surfaces in an electrochemical environment and in-situ atomic level characterization. Specifically, the work reported here entails a further examination of the Pt{sub 3}Sn(110) interface in an electrochemical environment as part of a detailed study of structural effects on electrocatalysis. Alloy surfaces have been characterized in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) by Auger electron microscopy, low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Surface electrochemistry of carbon monoxide was studied in-situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Result showed that in contrast to the Pt{sub 3}Sn(111) surface, changes in band morphology and vibrational properties are clearly absent on the Pt{sub 3}Sn(110) surface. In the case of the Pt{sub 3}Sn(hkl)-CO interaction, not only electronic effects, but also other factors, such as surface structure and intermolecular repulsion between adsorbed CO species were found to be responsible for high catalytic activity. 40 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Negative dependence of surface magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy on film thickness in Co33Fe67 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Lai; Cui, Ming-Qi; Yang, Dong-Liang; Dong, Jun-Cai; Xu, Wei

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) on the surface of Fe33Co67 alloy film is extracted from x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) experiments. The result indicates that the surface MAE value is negatively correlated with thickness. Through spectrum calculations and analysis, we find that besides the thickness effect, another principal possible cause may be the shape anisotropy resulting from the presence of interface roughness. These two factors lead to different electron structures on the fermi surface with different exchange fields, which produces different spin-orbit interaction anisotropies. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11075176 and 11375131).

  7. A fundamental approach to adhesion: Synthesis, surface analysis, thermodynamics and mechanics. [titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Dwight, D. W.; Wightman, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Various surface preparations for titanium 6-4 alloy were studied. An anodizing method was investigated, and compared with the results of other chemical treatments, namely, phosphate/fluoride, Pasa-Jell and Turco. The relative durability of the different surface treatments was assessed by monitoring changes in surface chemistry and morphology occasioned by aging at 505 K (450 F). Basic electron spectroscopic data were collected for polyimide and polyphenylquinoxaline adhesives and synthetic precursors. Fractographic studies were completed for several combinations of adherend, adhesive, and testing conditions.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE SURFACE PROFILE AND ITS MATERIAL SHARE DURING THE GRINDING INCONEL 718 ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Novák

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grinding is still an important method for surface finishing. At FPTM JEPU research, which deals with this issue is conducted. Experiments are carried out with grinding various materials under different conditions and then selected components of the surface integrity are evaluated. They include roughness Ra, Rm and Rz, Material ratio curve (Abbott Firestone curve and also the obtained roundness. This article deals with grinding nickel Inconel 718 alloy, when selected cutting grinding conditions were used and subsequently the surface profile and the material ratio curve were measured and evaluated.

  9. Piercing mandrel strengthening by surfacing with nickel aluminide-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorin, I. V.; Dubtsov, Yu N.; Sokolov, G. N.; Artem'ev, A. A.; Lysak, V. I.; Elsukov, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    Electrode composite wire (CW) was used for argon-arc surfacing of a thermal-resisting nickel aluminide-based alloy (Ni-Al-Cr-W-Mo-Ta system) on the butt-end surface of the non-water-cooled piercing mandrel. It was shown that multipassing surfacing forms a defect-free deposited metal based on the γ’-Ni3Al phase of various structural origins. Using high-temperature sclerometry and thermal fatigue testing methods, the metal deposited with CW containing ultrafine particle of 0.3-0.4 % wt. WC carbide features increased resistance to thermal and force effects at temperatures up to 1200 °C.

  10. Bulk and surface properties of demixing liquid Al-Sn and Sn-Tl alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odusote, Y. A.; Popoola, A. I.; Oluyamo, S. S.

    2016-02-01

    The energetics of mixing in Al-Sn and Sn-Tl-segregating binary alloys has been explained through the study of surface properties (surface concentrations and surface tension) and various concentration-dependent thermodynamic (free energy of mixing, entropy of mixing and enthalpy of mixing) and transport (chemical diffusion) properties as well as the microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limits and chemical short-range order parameter) using a statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with the self-association model (SAM). The theoretical property values obtained by the SAM were compared to the corresponding experimental values available in literature.

  11. Wettability of Molten Aluminum-Silicon Alloys on Graphite and Surface Tension of Those Alloys at 1273 K (1000 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weiji; Noji, Takayasu; Teshima, Kenichiro; Shinozaki, Nobuya

    2016-06-01

    The wettability of molten aluminum-silicon alloys with silicon contents of 0, 6, 10, and 20 mass pct on graphite substrates by changing the placing sequence of aluminum and silicon and the surface tension of those alloys were investigated at 1273 K (1000 °C) using the sessile drop method under vacuum. The results showed that the wetting was not affected by changing the placing sequence of the Al-Si alloys on the graphite substrates. The wettability was not improved significantly upon increasing the Si content from 0 to 10 mass pct, whereas a notable decrease of 22 deg in the contact angle was observed when increasing the Si content from 10 to 20 mass pct. This was attributed to the transformation of the interfacial reaction product from Al4C3 into SiC, provided the addition of Si to Al was sufficient. It was verified that the liquid Al can wet the SiC substrate very well in nature, which might explain why the occurrence of SiC would improve the wettability of the Al-20 mass pct Si alloy on the graphite substrate. The results also showed that the surface tension values of the molten Al-Si alloys decreased monotonously with an increase in Si content, being 875, 801, 770, and 744 mN/m for molten Al, Al-6 mass pct Si, Al-10 mass pct Si, and Al-20 mass pct Si alloys, respectively.

  12. Finding of Gray Points on the Surface of the Sn-Fe Alloy Layer and Its Effects on the Corrosion Resistance of the Alloy Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    After removing tin coating of tinplates offered by some steel works, we discovered massive, highly disperse gray points outspreading along rolling direction on the surface of the alloy layer. Morphology of the alloy layer was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and many cavities of the alloy layer were found out in the gray point. After analyzing the composition of the alloy layer, we found that content of Fe in the gray points was more than that in the normal alloy layer. Moreover, corrosion resistance of the alloy layer declines with increase of amount of gray points.In addition, the hot-humidity testing was carried out for some plates whose surface has many gray points. After 14 days, there were many rust points occurring in the edge of gray points and in the small gray points. The morphology of rust points was observed by atomic force microscope (AFM). The reason why rust points generated in the edge of gray points and in the small gray points was discussed.

  13. Effects of Ce concentrations on ignition temperature and surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Zhenghua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are well known for their excellent properties, but the potential issues with oxidation and burning during melting and casting largely limit its industrial applications. The addition of Ce in magnesium alloys can significantly raise ignition-proof performance and change the structure of the oxide film on the surface of the molten metal as well as the surface tension values. Surface tension is an important physical parameter of the metal melts, and it plays an important role in the formation of surface oxide film. In this present work, the ignition temperature and the surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy with different Ce concentrations were studied. Surface tensions was measured using the maximum bubble pressure method (MBPM. Ignition temperature was measured using NiCr-NiSi type thermocouples and was monitored and recorded via a WXT-604 desk recording device. The results show that the ignition point of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy can be effectively elevated by adding Ce. The ignition temperature reaches its highest point of 720 ℃ when the addition of Ce is 1wt.%. The surface tension of the molten Mg-9wt.%Al alloy decreases exponentially with the increase of Ce addition at the same temperature. Similarly, the experiment also shows that the surface tension of Mg-9wt.%Al alloy decreases exponentially with the increase of temperature.

  14. Effect of sterilization process on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of pure Mg and MgCa alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.L.; Zhou, W.R.; Wu, Y.H.; Cheng, Y. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zheng, Y.F., E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various sterilization methods on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of MgCa alloy, with pure Mg as a comparison, including steam autoclave sterilization (SA), ethylene oxide steam sterilization (EO), glutaraldehyde sterilization (GD), dry heat sterilization (DH) and Co60 γ ray radiation sterilization (R) technologies. The surface characterizations were performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, water contact angle and surface free energy measurement, whereas the cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility were evaluated by cellular adhesive experiment, platelet adhesion and hemolysis test. The results showed that the five sterilization processes caused more changes on the surface of MgCa alloy than that on the surface of pure Mg. The GD sterilization caused the most obvious changes on the surface of the pure Mg, and the SA sterilization made the largest alteration on the MgCa alloy surface. The GD and DH sterilization processes could cause increases on surface free energy for both pure Mg and MgCa alloys, while the other three sterilization processes reduced the surface free energy. The DH and GD sterilization processes caused the least alteration on the cell adhesion on pure Mg surface, whereas the EO sterilization performed the greatest impact on the cell adhesion on the Mg–Ca alloy surface. The hemolysis percentage of pure Mg and MgCa alloys were reduced by SA sterilization, meanwhile the other four sterilization processes increased their hemolysis percentages significantly, especially for the EO sterilization. - Highlights: • The effect of sterilization on surface chemistry and biocompatibility was studied. • Sterilization caused more surface changes on MgCa alloy than pure Mg. • Co60 γ ray radiation is the most appropriate sterilization process.

  15. Surface segregation energies in transition-metal alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1999-01-01

    We present a database of 24 x 24 surface segregation energies of single transition metal impurities in transition-metal hosts obtained by a Green's-function linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method in conjunction with the coherent potential and atomic sphere approximations including a multipole correction...

  16. The influence of external dynamic loads on the lifetime of rolling element bearings: Experimental analysis of the lubricant film and surface wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, William; Van Hooreweder, Brecht; Boonen, Rene; Sas, Paul; Moens, David

    2016-06-01

    Precise prediction of the lifetime of rolling element bearings is a crucial step towards a reliable design of many rotating machines. For bearings subjected to highly varying loads, recent research emphasises a strong reduction of the actual bearing lifetime w.r.t. the classically calculated bearing lifetime. This paper experimentally analyses the influence of external dynamic loads on the lifetime of rolling element bearings. A novel bearing test rig is introduced. The test rig is able to apply a fully controlled multi-axial static and dynamic load on a single test bearing. Also, different types and sizes of bearings can be tested. Two separate investigations are conducted. First, the behaviour of the lubricant film between the rolling elements and raceways is analysed. Increased metallic contact or breakdown of the film during dynamic excitation is investigated based on the measured electrical resistance through the bearing. The study shows that the lubricant film thickness follows the imposed variations of the load. Variations of the lubricant film thickness are similar to the variations when the magnitude of the static bearing load is changed. Second, wear of the raceway surfaces is analysed. Surface wear is investigated after a series of accelerated lifetime tests under high dynamic load. Due to sliding motion between asperities of the contacting surfaces in the bearing, polishing of the raceway honing structure occurs. This polishing is clearly observed on SEM images of the inner raceway after a test duration of only 0.5% of the calculated L10 life. Polishing wear of the surfaces, such as surface induced cracks and material delamination, is expected when the bearing is further exposed to the high dynamic load.

  17. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Pathology Department, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland); Borowski, Tomasz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Sowińska, Agnieszka [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Pathology Department, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland); Lelątko, Józef [Silesia University, Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Wierzchoń, Tadeusz, E-mail: twierz@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Low temperature plasma nitriding process of NiTi shape memory alloy is presented. • The possibility of treatment details of sophisticated shape. • TiN surface layer has diffusive character. • TiN surface layer increases corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy. • Produced TiN layer modify the biological properties of NiTi alloy. - Abstract: NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications.

  18. Preparation of Sm–Ru bimetallic alloy films on Ru(0001) surface by vapour-deposition and annealing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ranga Rao; H Nozoye

    2001-12-01

    Sm–Ru intermetallic surface alloy films were prepared by vacuum deposition and annealing of rare earth Sm on single crystal Ru(0001) surface. The Ru 3 and Sm 3 core level spectra clearly show the formation of surface alloy layers. XPS measurements on surface alloy film revealed an induced peak in the Ru3 region at lower binding energy by 1 eV compared to the bulk Ru (elemental) suggesting an electronic effect of alloying and Sm–Ru bond formation. The Sm 35/2 photoemission peak of Sm film consists of strong features characteristic of Sm(II) with electron configuration 46 (5\\ 6)2 and Sm(III) with electron configuration 46 (5\\ 6)3. It is observed that the Sm(II) feature decreases in intensity upon alloy formation with surface Ru atoms. Oxidation of these films with carbon monoxide indicates alloy breakdown due to the oxidation of Sm atoms selectively. Alloy oxidation also shows a clear shift of Sm 35/2 feature.

  19. Novel lubricated surface of titanium alloy based on porous structure and hydrophilic polymer brushes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kun; Xiong, Dangsheng, E-mail: xiongds@163.com; Niu, Yuxiang

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lubricated Ti6Al4V was fabricated by anodic oxidation and hydrophilic polymer grafting. • Surface composition and tribological properties were estimated. • Proper surface micropores formed at optimum voltage of 100 V. • Combined effect of porous structure and polymer brushes decreased friction coefficient and wear. • Hydrated lubricating layer and hydrodynamic lubrication contributed to lubricated surface. - Abstract: On the purpose of improving the tribological properties of titanium alloy through mimicking natural articular cartilage, porous structure was prepared on the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy by anodic oxidation method, and then hydrophilic polymer brushes were grafted onto its surface. Surface morphology of porous oxidized film was investigated by metalloscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The composition and structure of modified surface were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (FTIR/ATR), and the wettability was also evaluated. Friction and wear properties of modified alloys sliding against ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were tested by a pin-on-disc tribometer in physiological saline. The results showed that, the optimum porous structure treated by anodic oxidation formed when the voltage reached as high as 100 V. Hydrophilic monomers [Acrylic acid (AA) and 3-dimethyl-(3-(N-methacrylamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate (DMMPPS)] were successfully grafted onto porous Ti6Al4V surface to form polymer brushes by UV radiation. The change of contact angle showed that wettability of modified Ti6Al4V was improved significantly. The friction coefficient of modified Ti6Al4V was much lower and more stable than untreated ones. The lowest friction coefficient was obtained when the sample was anodized at 100 V and grafted with DMMPPS, and the value was 0.132. The wear of modified samples was also obviously improved.

  20. Interaction between mesenchymal stem cells and Ti-30Ta alloy after surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellato, Patricia; Escada, Ana L A; Popat, Ketul C; Claro, Ana P R Alves

    2014-07-01

    In this study, in vitro cytocompatibility was investigated in the Ti-30Ta alloy after two kinds of surfaces treatments: alkaline and biomimetic treatment. Each condition was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Cellular adhesion, viability, protein expression, morphology, and differentiation were evaluated with Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) to investigate the short and long-term cellular response by fluorescence microscope imaging and colorimetric assays techniques. Two treatments exhibited similar results with respect to total protein content and enzyme activity as compared with alloy without treatment. However, it was observed improved of the biomineralization, bone matrix formation, enzyme activity, and MSCs functionality after biomimetic treatment. These results indicate that the biomimetic surface treatment has a high potential for enhanced osseointegration.

  1. Theoretical studies of mutual diffusivities and surface properties in Cd–Ga liquid alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Anusionwu; C A Madu; C E Orji

    2009-06-01

    The mutual diffusion coefficients, activation energy for diffusion, surface concentration and surface tension of the liquid Cd–Ga alloys have been calculated throughout the concentration range using energetics obtained from the theoretical model fits of the experimental thermodynamic data. Our calculations show that Cd–Ga liquid alloys showed immiscibility at a temperature of 723 K between 0.4 and 0.5 atomic fraction of Cd. Within this concentration region and temperature, the mutual diffusion coefficients approached zero values and the activation energy for diffusion reached high peak values of 220 J/mol. It was also observed that within the region of immscibility, the diffusion coefficients do not obey Arrhenius relation over a wide range of temperature.

  2. Morphological Analysis (SEM) of the Surface of a Non-Noble Dental Alloy Subjected to Electrocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, E. R.; Grădinaru, I.; Baciu, M.; Vasluianu, R. I.; Cimpoesu, R.; Baciu, C.; Bejinariu, C.

    2017-06-01

    Corrosion consists in the degradation of a material under the chemical or electrochemical action of the environment where it is placed. The investigations carried out aimed to show the structural modifications produced in Co-Cr-Mo alloy, Robur 400 (Eisenbacher Dental - Waren ED GmbH, Germany) subjected to electrocorrosion in Fusayama-Mayer artificial saliva. The specimens prepared by mechanical polishing were analysed structurally by using a scanning electron microscope. During the tests run we could notice a general corrosion of the surfaces of the specimens made from Robur alloy. Through 2D and 3D microscopy and qualitative determinations of the luminous variation we could notice the effects of electrocorrosion tests on the surface of the metal material.

  3. Bulk and Surface Properties of Liquid Al-Li and Li-Zn Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Marcela; Gancarz, Tomasz; Gasior, Wladyslaw; Pasturel, Alain

    2014-11-01

    Physicochemical properties like density, surface tension, and viscosity of liquid binary Al-Li and Li-Zn alloys have been measured using draining crucible method. The experimentally measured surface-tension values have been compared to theoretical results based either on the Butler model or the compound formation model assuming the existence of the most favored A 1 B 2 and A 2 B 3 clusters. Several models for viscosity calculation have been also applied and discussed in confrontation with measured data. Finally, the clustering effects in the liquid Al-Li and Li-Zn alloys have been examined using two microscopic functions, i.e., the concentration fluctuation function in the long-wavelength limit and the Warren-Cowley short-range order parameter.

  4. Control of surface defects on plasma-MIG hybrid welds in cryogenic aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hee-Keun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lately, high production rate welding processes for Al alloys, which are used as LNG FPSO cargo containment system material, have been developed to overcome the limit of installation and high rework rates. In particular, plasma-metal inert gas (MIG hybrid (PMH welding can be used to obtain a higher deposition rate and lower porosity, while facilitating a cleaning effect by preheating and post heating the wire and the base metal. However, an asymmetric undercut and a black-colored deposit are created on the surface of PMH weld in Al alloys. For controlling the surface defect formation, the wire feeding speed and nozzle diameter in the PMH weld was investigated through arc phenomena with high-speed imaging and metallurgical analysis.

  5. Alloy Thin-films and Surfaces for New Materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprunger, P.T.

    2003-08-10

    Within the framework of a DOE National Laboratory/EPSCoR state partnership, investigations by researchers at Louisiana State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory were focused on revealing the unique nanophase properties of alloy thin-films and bimetallic surfaces. Employing a number of experimental preparation techniques and characterization probes (synchrotron-based angle-resolved and valence/core-level PES and variable-temperature STM/STS), the goal of this program was to elucidate of the interconnecting physical and chemical properties of a variety of alloy surfaces and thin-films, specifically, determining the correlation between atomic structure/composition, electronic structure, and catalytic/chemisorption properties of these nanoscale.

  6. Surface chemical state of Ti powders and its alloys: Effect of storage conditions and alloy composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryha, Eduard; Shvab, Ruslan; Bram, Martin; Bitzer, Martin; Nyborg, Lars

    2016-12-01

    High affinity of titanium to oxygen in combination with the high surface area of the powder results in tremendous powder reactivity and almost inevitable presence of passivation oxide film on the powder surface. Oxide film is formed during the short exposure of the powder to the environment at even a trace amount of oxygen. Hence, surface state of the powder determines its usefulness for powder metallurgy processing. Present study is focused on the evaluation of the surface oxide state of the Ti, NiTi and Ti6Al4V powders in as-atomized state and after storage under air or Ar for up to eight years. Powder surface oxide state was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR SEM). Results indicate that powder in as-atomized state is covered by homogeneous Ti-oxide layer with the thickness of ∼2.9 nm for Ti, ∼3.2 nm and ∼4.2 nm in case of Ti6Al4V and NiTi powders, respectively. Exposure to the air results in oxide growth of about 30% in case of Ti and only about 10% in case of NiTi and Ti6Al4V. After the storage under the dry air for two years oxide growth of only about 3-4% was detected in case of both, Ti and NiTi powders. NiTi powder, stored under the dry air for eight years, indicates oxide thickness of about 5.3 nm, which is about 30% thicker in comparison with the as-atomized powder. Oxide thickness increase of only ∼15% during the storage for eight years in comparison with the powder, shortly exposed to the air after manufacturing, was detected. Results indicate a high passivation of the Ti, Ti6Al4V and NiTi powder surface by homogeneous layer of Ti-oxide formed even during short exposure of the powder to the air.

  7. The influence of cooling techniques on cutting forces and surface roughness during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wstawska, Iwona; Ślimak, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Titanium alloys are one of the materials extensively used in the aerospace industry due to its excellent properties of high specific strength and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, they also present problems wherein titanium alloys are extremely difficult materials to machine. In addition, the cost associated with titanium machining is also high due to lower cutting velocities and shorter tool life. The main objective of this work is a comparison of different cooling techniques during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys. The analysis revealed that applied cooling technique has a significant influence on cutting force and surface roughness (Ra parameter) values. Furthermore, in all cases observed a positive influence of cryogenic machining on selected aspects after turning and milling of titanium alloys. This work can be also the starting point to the further research, related to the analysis of cutting forces and surface roughness during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys.

  8. Microstructuring the surface of silicon carbide ceramic by laser action for reducing friction losses in rolling bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzin, Serguei P.; Balyakin, Valeriy B.

    2017-02-01

    A possibility of microstructuring the surface of silicon carbide ceramic by pulse-periodic laser treatment was determined for reducing the coefficient of friction under actual contact stress conditions that occur in elements of the rolling bearing in operation. Temperature rate conditions for the laser treatment with pulse duration in the millisecond range were found, which lead to a change in the surface microrelief of silicon carbide ceramic obtained by diamond grinding after hot isostatic pressing. The determination of the coefficient of sliding friction was conducted with using the ball-on-disk tribometer at normal loads, which corresponds to the values of contact stresses of (0.5-1)×109 Pa. When the load was increased to the upper limit of measuring range, the friction coefficient decrease after laser treatment was more than 30% compared to the initial structure. Significant reduction of friction in rolling bearings up to this level provides an opportunity to improve efficiency of various machines.

  9. Effect of surface modification, microstructure, and trapping on hydrogen diffusion coefficients in high strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebaraj Johnley Muthuraj, Josiah

    Cathodic protection is widely used for corrosion prevention. However, this process generates hydrogen at the protected metal surface, and diffusion of hydrogen through the metal may cause hydrogen embrittlement or hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking. Thus the choice of a metal for use as fasteners depends upon its hydrogen uptake, permeation, diffusivity and trapping. The diffusivity of hydrogen through four high strength alloys (AISI 4340, alloy 718, alloy 686, and alloy 59) was analyzed by an electrochemical method developed by Devanathan and Stachurski. The effect of plasma nitriding and microstructure on hydrogen permeation through AISI 4340 was studied on six different specimens: as-received (AR) AISI 4340, nitrided samples with and without compound layer, samples quenched and tempered (Q&T) at 320° and 520°C, and nitrided samples Q&T 520°C. Studies on various nitrided specimens demonstrate that both the gamma'-Fe 4N rich compound surface layer and the deeper N diffusion layer that forms during plasma nitriding reduce the effective hydrogen diffusion coefficient, although the gamma'-Fe4N rich compound layer has a larger effect. Multiple permeation transients yield evidence for the presence of only reversible trap sites in as-received, Q&T 320 and 520 AISI 4340 specimens, and the presence of both reversible and irreversible trap sites in nitrided specimens. Moreover, the changes in microstructure during the quenching and tempering process result in a significant decrease in the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen compared to as-received specimens. In addition, density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations yield hydrogen diffusion coefficients through gamma'- Fe4N one order of magnitude lower than through α-Fe, which supports the experimental measurements of hydrogen permeation. The effect of microstructure and trapping was also studied in cold rolled, solutionized, and precipitation hardened Inconel 718 foils. The effective hydrogen

  10. Structure of the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(001) surface alloy by quantitative photoelectron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.; Denlinger, J.; Chen, X. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Surface alloys are two-dimensional metallic systems that can have structures that are unique to the surface, and have no counterpart in the bulk binary phase diagram. A very unusual structure was reported for the Mn-Ni system, based on a quantitative LEED structure determination, which showed that the Mn atoms were displaced out of the surface by a substantial amount. This displacement was attributed to a large magnetic moment on the Mn atoms. The structure of the Mn-Ni surface alloy was proposed to be based on a bulk termination model. Magnetic measurements on the Mn-Ni surface alloys, however, showed conclusively that the magnetic structure of these surface alloys is completely different from the bulk alloy analogs. For example, bulk MnNi is an antiferromagnet, whereas the surface alloy is ferromagnetic. This suggests that the proposed structure based on bulk termination, may not be correct. X-ray Photoelectron Diffraction (XPD) techniques were used to investigate this structure, using both a comparison to multiple scattering calculations and photoelectron holography. In this article the authors present some of the results from the quantitative analysis of individual diffraction patterns by comparison to theory.

  11. One-step electrodeposition process to fabricate corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Chen, Dexin; Kang, Zhixin

    2015-01-28

    A simple, one-step method has been developed to construct a superhydrophobic surface by electrodepositing Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium plate in an ethanol solution containing cerium nitrate hexahydrate and myristic acid. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to characterize the surfaces. The shortest electrodeposition time to obtain a superhydrophobic surface was about 1 min, and the as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces had a maximum contact angle of 159.8° and a sliding angle of less than 2°. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the superhydrophobic surface greatly improved the corrosion properties of magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt % aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, NaClO3, and NaNO3. Besides, the chemical stability and mechanical durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface were also examined. The presented method is rapid, low-cost, and environmentally friendly and thus should be of significant value for the industrial fabrication of anticorrosive superhydrophobic surfaces and should have a promising future in expanding the applications of magnesium alloys.

  12. Surface nanocrystallization of 7A04 aluminium alloy induced by circulation rolling plastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hui-qiong; FAN Xin-min

    2006-01-01

    The surface nanocrystalline microstructures of 7A04 aluminium alloy was obtained by means of circulation rolling plastic deformation(CRPD),the grain refinement behavior and the hardness variation were examined. X-ray diffraction(XRD) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) were applied to characterize the microstructure of the surface layer. The experimental evidences show that,after the CRPD treatment,the mean grain size in the surface layer is about 50 nm. The microhardness of the nanostructured surface layers is enhanced significantly after CRPD compared with that of the matrix,which can be attributed primarily to the grain refinement. The microhardness at the top surface can reach about HV0.05335,while the value of the matrix is HV0.05160 or so. The surface hardening effect is obtained obviously. Besides,the thermal stability of nanocrystalline layer was investigated. The results of the XRD analysis and the microhardness measurement show that the nanocrystalline layer has better thermal-stability than the matrix. And the DSC measurement shows that the synthesis of nanostructured surface layer has influence on the phase transformation of 7A04 aluminum alloy.

  13. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on steel and titanium alloy for tribological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonse, J.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Höhm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.

    2014-10-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) were generated on stainless steel (100Cr6) and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surfaces upon irradiation with multiple femtosecond laser pulses (pulse duration 30 fs, central wavelength 790 nm). The experimental conditions (laser fluence, spatial spot overlap) were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry for the processing of large surface areas (5 × 5 mm2) covered homogeneously by the nanostructures. The irradiated surface regions were subjected to white light interference microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealing spatial periods around 600 nm. The tribological performance of the nanostructured surface was characterized by reciprocal sliding against a ball of hardened steel in paraffin oil and in commercial engine oil as lubricants, followed by subsequent inspection of the wear tracks. For specific conditions, on the titanium alloy a significant reduction of the friction coefficient by a factor of more than two was observed on the laser-irradiated (LIPSS-covered) surface when compared to the non-irradiated one, indicating the potential benefit of laser surface structuring for tribological applications.

  14. Microstructural and Hardness Study of Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Surface Alloyed Aluminum with Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammad; Soltani, Reza; Heydarzadeh Sohi, Mahmoud; Valefi, Zia

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the feasibility of the formation of surface layers containing hard iron aluminides on AA6061-T6 aluminum via pre-plasma spraying with iron and subsequently double surface melting by pulsed Nd:YAG laser is studied. The effects of single and double laser surface melting on microstructure, phase formation, and hardness of the treated layers are examined. Single-step laser treatment resulted in the presence of undissolved iron particles surrounded by lump-like Al5Fe2 and needle-like Al3Fe intermetallic compounds. Double laser surface melting dissolved the retained undissolved irons and resulted in the formation of Al-Al3Fe eutectic structure. Microhardness profiles along cross section and top surface of the treated layers indicated that laser surface alloying with iron enhanced the hardness of the aluminum to more than twice of that of the base material.

  15. Surface integrity after pickling and anodization of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermesse, Eric [Institut Clément Ader (ICA), Université de Toulouse, ISAE, Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS-UPS-INP 5085, Université Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Mabru, Catherine [Institut Clément Ader (ICA), Université de Toulouse, ISAE, Toulouse (France); Arurault, Laurent, E-mail: arurault@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS-UPS-INP 5085, Université Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

    2013-11-15

    The surface integrity of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy was studied at different stages of surface treatments, especially pickling and compact anodization, through surface characteristics potentially worsening fatigue resistance. No significant changes of the equiaxe microstructure were detected between sample core and surface, or after the pickling and anodization steps. Surface hydrogen and oxygen superficial contents were found to remain unchanged. Roughness characteristics (i.e. R{sub a}, R{sub z} but also local K{sub t} factor) similarly showed only slight modifications, although SPM and SEM revealed certain random local surface defaults, i.e. pits about 400 nm in depth. Finally internal stresses, evaluated using X-ray diffraction, highlighted a significant decrease of the compressive internal stresses, potentially detrimental for fatigue resistance.

  16. Orientation dependences of surface morphologies and energies of iron-gallium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcio; Wang, Hui; Hu, Jun; Wu, Ruqian; Na, Suok-Min; Chun, Hyunsuk; Flatau, Alison B.

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the surface energies of several low-index surfaces of the D03-type FeGa alloys (Galfenol), using density functional theory (DFT) simulations and contact angle measurements. DFT calculations predict that (1) the Ga-covered (110) surface of Galfenol is more stable in the Ga-rich condition, while Ga-covered (001) surface of Galfenol become more favorable in Ga-poor condition; and (2) a full Ga overlayer tends to form on top of Galfenol surfaces regardless their orientation, both in agreement with the experimental observation. We also studied Ga segregation in the bcc Fe matrix in order to explore the possibility of Ga precipitation away from Fe. It was found that the Fe-Ga separation is unlikely to occur since Ga diffusion toward the surface is effectively self-stopped once the Ga overlayers form on the facets.

  17. Influence of ceramic surface texture on the wear of gold alloy and heat-pressed ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Nogawa, Hiroshi; Hiraba, Haruto; Akazawa, Nobutaka; Matsumura, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of ceramic surface texture on the wear of rounded rod specimens. Plate specimens were fabricated from zirconia (ZrO2), feldspathic porcelain, and lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDG ceramics). Plate surfaces were either ground or polished. Rounded rod specimens with a 2.0-mm-diameter were fabricated from type 4 gold alloy and heat-pressed ceramics (HP ceramics). Wear testing was performed by means of a wear testing apparatus under 5,000 reciprocal strokes of the rod specimen with 5.9 N vertical loading. The results were statistically analyzed with a non-parametric procedure. The gold alloy showed the maximal height loss (90.0 µm) when the rod specimen was abraded with ground porcelain, whereas the HP ceramics exhibited maximal height loss (49.8 µm) when the rod specimen was abraded with ground zirconia. There was a strong correlation between height loss of the rod and surface roughness of the underlying plates, for both the gold alloy and HP ceramics.

  18. Surface characterisation of Ti–15Mo alloy modified by a PEO process in various suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazek-Kęsik, Alicja [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Dercz, Grzegorz [Institute of Materials Science, University of Silesia, 75 Pułku Piechoty Street 1 A, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); Kalemba, Izabela [Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza Street 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Suchanek, Katarzyna [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego Street 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Kukharenko, Andrey I.; Korotin, Danila M. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Michalska, Joanna [Faculty of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Silesian University of Technology, Krasińskiego Street 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland); Krząkała, Agnieszka; Piotrowski, Jerzy [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kurmaev, Ernst Z. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Cholakh, Seif O. [Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Simka, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.simka@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on the surface modification of a Ti–15Mo alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). This process was carried out in solutions of 0.1 M Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 2}){sub 2} with various concentrations of tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}), wollastonite (CaSiO{sub 3}), or silica (SiO{sub 2}) using voltages of up to 350 V. The surface microstructure (SEM, cross-section of coating), roughness and chemical composition (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thin layer X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy) of the porous oxide layers were investigated. The concentration of powder added to the solution changed the chemical composition and morphology of PEO coatings on the Ti–15Mo alloy surface. Calcium and phosphorous compounds were detected in the coatings formed on the substrate by the PEO process at 300 V. - Highlights: • Porous coatings were formed on β-type Ti–15Mo alloy by PEO process. • Bioactive compounds were incorporated into PEO coatings on the substrate. • Influence of PEO parameters on oxide layer properties was presented.

  19. Surface modification of magnesium alloys developed for bioabsorbable orthopedic implants: a general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Tang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yangde; Wang, Jue; Lai, Yuxiao; Qin, Ling

    2012-08-01

    As a bioabsorbable metal with mechanical properties close to bone, pure magnesium or its alloys have great potential to be developed as medical implants for clinical applications. However, great efforts should be made to avoid its fast degradation in vivo for orthopedic applications when used for fracture fixation. Therefore, how to decease degradation rate of pure magnesium or its alloys is one of the focuses in Research and Development (R&D) of medical implants. It has been recognized that surface modification is an effective method to prevent its initial degradation in vivo to maintain its desired mechanical strength. This article reviews the recent progress in surface modifications for prevention of fast degradation of magnesium or its alloys using in vitro testing model, a fast yet relevant model before moving towards time-consuming and expensive in vivo testing. Pros and cons of various surface modifications are also discussed for the goal to design available products to be applied in clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of laser surface melted Ti6Al4V alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Soderlind, Julie; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Laser surface melting (LSM) of Ti6Al4V alloy was carried out with an aim to improve properties such as microstructure and wear for implant applications. The alloy substrate was melted at 250W and 400W at a scan velocity of 5mm/s, with input energy of 42J/mm(2) and 68J/mm(2), respectively. The results showed that equiaxed α+β microstructure of the substrate changes to mixture of acicular α in β matrix after LSM due to high cooling rates in the range of 2.25×10(-3)K/s and 1.41×10(-3)K/s during LSM. Increasing the energy input increased the thickness of remelted region from 779 to 802µm and 1173 to 1199µm. Similarly, as a result of slow cooling rates under present experimental conditions, the grain size of the alloy increased from 4.8μm to 154-199μm. However, the hardness of the Ti6Al4V alloy increased due to LSM melting and resulted in lowest in vitro wear rate of 3.38×10(-4)mm(3)/Nm compared to untreated substrate with a wear rate of 6.82×10(-4)mm(3)/Nm.

  1. Interfacial chemistry of organic conversion film on AZ61 magnesium alloy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Dingfei

    2008-12-01

    The anodic electrochemical behavior of AZ61 magnesium alloy in sodium hydroxide medium in the absence and presence of p-nitro-benzene-azo-resorcinol (PNBAR) was studied using electrochemical techniques. In the presence of PNBAR, organic conversion film formed on the surface of magnesium alloy. The nature of chemical mechanisms, bonds, and structures at the interface of PNBAR/magnesium alloy was investigated by using energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. An in situ electrochemical deposition was evidenced to produce a corrosion protective barrier by the formation of organic conversion film of magnesium-PNBAR complex and to enhance film adhesion by the covalent bonds of Mg sbnd O sbnd N linkage. The linear sweep voltammetry experiments and the score tests were used to investigate the adhesion and evaluate the potential of corrosion resistance of organic conversion film. The results indicated the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy was improved, the organic conversion film showed excellent adhesion not only to the substrate but also to the outer paint coatings.

  2. Laser surface modification of medical grade alloys for reduced heating in a magnetic resonance imaging environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, O.; Chen, S.-Y.; Kar, A.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale surface modification of medical grade metallic alloys was conducted using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-based dopant diffusion technique. The objective of this approach was to minimize the induction heating by reducing the absorbed radio frequency field. Such an approach is advantageous in that the dopant is diffused into the alloy and is not susceptible to detachment or spallation as would an externally applied coating, and is expected to not deteriorate the mechanical and electrical properties of the base alloy or device. Experiments were conducted using a controlled environment laser system with the ability to control laser properties (i.e., laser power, spot size, and irradiation time) and dopant characteristics (i.e., temperature, concentration, and pressure). The reflective and transmissive properties of both the doped and untreated samples were measured in a radio frequency (63.86 MHz) magnetic field using a system comprising a high power signal generator, a localized magnetic field source and sensor, and a signal analyzer. The results indicate an increase in the reflectivity of the laser-treated samples compared to untreated samples. The effect of reflectivity on the heating of the alloys is investigated through a mathematical model incorporating Maxwell's equations and heat conduction.

  3. Laser surface modification of medical grade alloys for reduced heating in a magnetic resonance imaging environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benafan, O., E-mail: othmane.benafan@nasa.gov, E-mail: raj@ucf.edu; Vaidyanathan, R., E-mail: othmane.benafan@nasa.gov, E-mail: raj@ucf.edu [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), Materials Science and Engineering, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Chen, S.-Y.; Kar, A. [Laser-Advanced Materials Processing Laboratory, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Nanoscale surface modification of medical grade metallic alloys was conducted using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-based dopant diffusion technique. The objective of this approach was to minimize the induction heating by reducing the absorbed radio frequency field. Such an approach is advantageous in that the dopant is diffused into the alloy and is not susceptible to detachment or spallation as would an externally applied coating, and is expected to not deteriorate the mechanical and electrical properties of the base alloy or device. Experiments were conducted using a controlled environment laser system with the ability to control laser properties (i.e., laser power, spot size, and irradiation time) and dopant characteristics (i.e., temperature, concentration, and pressure). The reflective and transmissive properties of both the doped and untreated samples were measured in a radio frequency (63.86 MHz) magnetic field using a system comprising a high power signal generator, a localized magnetic field source and sensor, and a signal analyzer. The results indicate an increase in the reflectivity of the laser-treated samples compared to untreated samples. The effect of reflectivity on the heating of the alloys is investigated through a mathematical model incorporating Maxwell’s equations and heat conduction.

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-11-01

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF2 conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  5. Novel PdAgCu ternary alloy: Hydrogen permeation and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarditi, Ana M.; Braun, Fernando [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (FIQ, UNL-CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Cornaglia, Laura M., E-mail: lmcornag@fiq.unl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (FIQ, UNL-CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-05-15

    Dense PdAgCu ternary alloy composite membranes were synthesized by the sequential electroless plating of Pd, Ag and Cu on top of both disk and tubular porous stainless steel substrates. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were employed to study the structure and morphology of the tested samples. The hydrogen permeation performance of these membranes was investigated over a 350-450 deg. C temperature range and a trans-membrane pressure up to 100 kPa. After annealing at 500 deg. C in hydrogen stream followed by permeation experiments, the alloy layer presented a FCC crystalline phase with a bulk concentration of 68% Pd, 7% Ag and 25% Cu as revealed by EDS. The PdAgCu tubular membrane was found to be stable during more than 300 h on hydrogen stream. The permeabilities of the PdAgCu ternary alloy samples were higher than the permeabilities of the PdCu alloy membranes with a FCC phase. The co-segregation of silver and copper to the membrane surface was observed after hydrogen permeation experiments at high temperature as determined by XPS.

  6. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojaee, Ramin, E-mail: raminrojaee@aim.com [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF{sub 2} conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  7. ANALYSIS OF SURFACE DEFECTS OF ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS WITH A SCANNING KELVIN PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Tyavlovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of probe electrometry in non-destructive testing is constrained by the complexity of measurement results interpretation. An output signal of electrometric probe depends on a number of physical and chemical parameters of surface including chemical composition variations, stresses, dislocations, crystallographic orientation of a surface, etc. The study aims to the use of probe electrometry methods for nondestructive testing and analysis of precision metal surfaces’ defects after different treatment or processing.Control of surface defects of aluminum and its alloys was performed with a scanning Kelvin probe technique. The results of scanning were plotted in a form of contact potential difference (CPD distribution map. Additionally, a histogram of CPD values distribution and statistical characteristics including the expectation of CPD mean value and histogram half-width were calculated either for the whole distribution or for each individual mode in a case of multimodal distribution.The spatial CPD distribution of A99 aluminum and AMG-2 alloy surfaces after electrochemical polishing and diamond finishing was studied. An additional study was held for AMG-2 surface after the formation of 30 microns thick specific nanostructured alumina oxide surface layer. Higher quality surfaces have characterized as more homogeneous distribution of the physical properties (at half-width distribution histogram. Surfaces with higher mechanical strength and overall better mechanical properties found to have lower CPD values that correspond to higher electron work function and surface energy. The presence of the second mode in the CPD distribution histogram indicates the significant proportion of defect areas on the sample surface.Analysis of visualized CPD distribution maps using defined criteria allows detecting and characterizing such defects as residual stress areas, areas with reduced microhardness, surface contamination spots, corrosion

  8. Novel Super-Elastic Materials for Advanced Bearing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Tribological surfaces of mechanical components encounter harsh conditions in terrestrial, marine and aerospace environments. Brinell denting, abrasive wear and fatigue often lead to life-limiting bearing and gear failures. Novel superelastic materials based upon Ni-Ti alloys are an emerging solution. Ni-Ti alloys are intermetallic materials that possess characteristics of both metals and ceramics. Ni-Ti alloys have intrinsically good aqueous corrosion resistance (they cannot rust), high hardness, relatively low elastic modulus, are chemically inert and readily lubricated. Ni-Ti alloys also belong to the family of superelastics and, despite high hardness, are able to withstand large strains without suffering permanent plastic deformation. In this paper, the use of hard, resilient Ni-Ti alloys for corrosion-proof, shockproof bearing and gear applications are presented. Through a series of bearing and gear development projects, it is demonstrated that Ni-Tis unique blend of materials properties lead to significantly improved load capacity, reduced weight and intrinsic corrosion resistance not found in any other bearing materials. Ni-Ti thus represents a new materials solution to demanding tribological applications.

  9. Friction stir surfacing of cast A356 aluminium–silicon alloy with boron carbide and molybdenum disulphide powders

    OpenAIRE

    R. Srinivasu; A.Sambasiva Rao; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2015-01-01

    Good castability and high strength properties of Al–Si alloys are useful in defence applications like torpedoes, manufacture of Missile bodies, and parts of automobile such as engine cylinders and pistons. Poor wear resistance of the alloys is major limitation for their use. Friction stir processing (FSP) is a recognized surfacing technique as it overcomes the problems of fusion route surface modification methods. Keeping in view of the requirement of improving wear resistance of cast alumini...

  10. Self-consistent electronic structure and segregation profiles of the Cu-Ni (001) random-alloy surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I. A.; Kats, D. Ya.

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated the electronic structure and segregation profiles of the (001) surface of random Cu-Ni alloys with varying bulk concentrations by means of the coherent potential approximation and the linear muffin-tin-orbitals method. Exchange and correlation were included within the local-den...... to be oscillatory with a strong preference for Cu to segregate towards the surface of the alloy....

  11. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  12. Surface plasmon resonance in nanocrystalline gold-copper alloy films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S; Datta, Subhadeep; Roy, R K; Pal, A K

    2007-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Au(x)Cu(1-x) films were synthesized by depositing Cu/Au/Cu multilayer in nanocrystalline thin film form with requisite thickness of individual layers onto fused silica substrates by high pressure sputtering technique. The absorbance spectra showed only one surface plasmon peak for all the compositions with the exception that the peak position did not indicate gradual shift as gold concentration was increased. Peak position for the two compositions corresponding to the two superlattice structures, AuCu3 and AuCu, deviated significantly from linear variation. The experimental results have been discussed in light of the existing Mie theory and the Core-shell model.

  13. Moisture permeability of the total surface bearing prosthetic socket with a silicone liner: is it superior to the patella-tendon bearing prosthetic socket?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachisuka, K; Matsushima, Y; Ohmine, S; Shitama, H; Shinkoda, K

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the moisture permeability properties of materials used for total surface bearing (TSB) socket with a silicone liner, a combination of Silicone Suction Socket or Icelandic Roll-On Silicone Socket (ICEROSS) and an acrylic plastic sheet (Degaplast), patella-tendon bearing (PTB) socket, a combination of Pe-Lite and Degaplast, and wooden socket made of poplar. Moisture permeability of the socket materials was measured as the diminution of water in a container after 12 hours in a climatic chamber. Eight containers with their open, top side were uncovered (no material) or sealed with one of the socket materials; the experiment was repeated four times. One-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni's test was applied to examine the differences in moisture permeability. Moisture permeability levels were as follows: no material, 85.9 +/- 1.3 g; poplar, 4.3 +/- 0.4 g; Silicone Suction Socket, 1.1 +/- 0.2 g; ICEROSS, 1.0 +/- 0.2 g; Pe-Lite, 0.8 +/- 0.1 g; 3S + Degaplast, 0.8 +/- 0.1 g; ICEROSS + Degaplast, 0.8 +/- 0.2 g; and Pe-Lite + Degaplast, 0.8 +/- 0.1 g. There were significant differences between the uncovered container and the others, and between poplar and the others (P socket with a silicone liner is not superior to the PTB socket with regard to moisture permeability, and that it is necessary to develop a new prosthetic socket that allows heat release and drainage of sweat.

  14. The Role of Iron-Bearing Minerals in NO 2 to HONO Conversion on Soil Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebede, Mulu A.; Bish, David L.; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Engelhard, Mark H.; Raff, Jonathan D.

    2016-08-16

    Nitrous acid (HONO) accumulates in the nocturnal boundary layer where it is an important source of daytime hydroxyl radicals. Although there is clear evidence for the involvement of heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on surfaces as a source of HONO, mechanisms remain poorly understood. We used coated-wall flow tube measurements of NO2 reactivity on environmentally relevant surfaces [Fe (hydr)oxides, clay minerals, and soil from Arizona and the Saharan Desert] and detailed mineralogical characterization of substrates to show that reduction of NO2 by Fe-bearing minerals in soil can be a more important source of HONO than the putative NO2 hydrolysis mechanism. The magnitude of NO2-to-HONO conversion depends on the amount of Fe2+ present in substrates and soil surface acidity. Studies examining the dependence of HONO flux on substrate pH revealed that HONO is formed at soil pH < 5 from the reaction between NO2 and Fe2+(aq) present in thin films of water coating the surface, whereas in the range of pH 5–8 HONO stems from reaction of NO2 with structural iron or surface complexed Fe2+ followed by protonation of nitrite via surface Fe-OH2+ groups. Reduction of NO2 on ubiquitous Fe-bearing minerals in soil may explain HONO accumulation in the nocturnal boundary layer and the enhanced [HONO]/[NO2] ratios observed during dust storms in urban areas.

  15. Electrochemical corrosion and surface analyses of a ni-cr alloy in bleaching agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Evşen; Aydın, A Kevser; Bilgiç, Semra

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the corrosion behavior of a Ni-Cr dental casting alloy subjected to 10% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching solutions and to determine the composition of the surface oxide layer formed on the alloy specimens. Ten cylindrical specimens (4 mm in diameter × 25 mm in height) were cast from a Ni-Cr alloy (Wiron 99) and divided into two groups (n = 5). A potentiodynamic polarization test was used to compare the corrosion rates of specimens in HP and CP (pH = 6.5). Before cyclic polarization tests, all alloy specimens were allowed to reach a steady open circuit potential (Ecorr ) for a period of 1 hour. Then tests were initiated at 100 mV versus standard calomel electrode (SCE) below Ecorr and scanned at a rate of 1 mV/s in the anodic direction until reaching 1000 mV over the Ecorr value. The scan then was reversed back to the Ecorr of the specimens. The open circuit potentials (Ecorr ) and the current densities (Icorr ) were determined using the anodic Tafel regions extrapolating from the curves. Differences in Ecorr and Icorr were determined using one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). In addition, corrosion rates were calculated from these curves. Before and after polarization tests, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination accompanied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyze the surface morphology. The surface characterization of the passive film formed on alloy specimens was also performed by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In this study, bleaching agents had an effect on the anodic process for two groups. Although no statistical difference was identified between the groups for both corrosion parameters, results indicated that the effect of CP on the corrosion behavior was less than that of HP. These results agreed with the SEM observations. XPS data showed that oxide layers formed on all groups contained mainly Cr2 O3 , NiO, and MoO3 , and the amounts of oxides

  16. Failure Analysis and Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Bearings in the Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Ole H.E.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    A critical premature failure mode of rolling element bearings inside the wind turbine drivetrain is associated with the formation of so called white etching cracks (WECs). So far there is no consensus on the root cause of WEC failure and the exact influence of different drivers and their combinat......A critical premature failure mode of rolling element bearings inside the wind turbine drivetrain is associated with the formation of so called white etching cracks (WECs). So far there is no consensus on the root cause of WEC failure and the exact influence of different drivers...... and their combinations is not well understood. Various types of failed rolling element bearings from different positions inside the wind turbine drivetrain were investigated. Both conventional techniques as reflected light microscopy (RLM), scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy as well as electron...

  17. Surface morphological structures and electrochemical activity properties of iridium–niobium binary alloy electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Toru, E-mail: matsumoto.t@jemai.or.jp [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Sata, Naoaki [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kiyoshi [Advanced Ceramic Group, Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko [High Temperature Materials Unit Functional Structure Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • An Ir–23Nb alloy has the best oxidation capability among other Nb concentrations. • The reason is the Ir–23Nb has a large surface area which results from Ir + Ir{sub 3}Nb. • An Ir–23Nb glucose sensor detects glucose much better than an Ir glucose sensor. -- Abstract: The electrochemical activities of Ir–Nb binary alloys were investigated as functions of the alloy compositions, crystal structures, and surface morphologies for a hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid redox reaction. High activities for the redox reaction of hydrogen peroxide were observed when pure Ir and an alloy with a composition of 77 at% Ir–23 at% Nb (Ir–23Nb) were used. Tests on eight electrodes—Ir, Ir–13Nb, Ir–17Nb, Ir–23Nb, Ir–30Nb, Ir–43Nb, Ir–62Nb, and Nb—showed that at a constant potential difference of 0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the Ir–23Nb electrode had the best hydrogen peroxide oxidation capability: 9.2 μA/mm{sup 2} for 2 mM hydrogen peroxide. Apart from Nb, Ir–23Nb gave the best performance in terms of preferential hydrogen peroxide oxidation against ascorbic acid. Subsequently, the Ir and Ir–23Nb electrodes were used for the fabrication of amperometric glucose sensors. We first coated the two electrodes with a γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane membrane and then with a glucose oxidase membrane. Tests on the Ir and Ir–23Nb electrode glucose sensors showed that the latter had better glucose detection capability than the former: 0.226 μA/(mm{sup 2} mM) for the Ir–23Nb sensor with 1.67 mM glucose. We investigated the relationship between the electrode responses to both hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid and the electrode surface structures.

  18. Optimum design of amphiphilic polymers bearing hydrophobic groups for both cell surface ligand presentation and intercellular cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Masafumi; Li, Cuicui; Matsuda, Masayoshi; Nagai, Hiroko; Hatanaka, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Kishimura, Akihiro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Amphiphilic polymers bearing hydrophobic alkyl groups are expected to be applicable for both ligand presentation on the cell surface and intercellular crosslinking. To explore the optimum design for each application, we synthesized eight different acyl-modified dextrans with varying molecular weight, alkyl length, and alkyl modification degree. We found that the behenate-modified polymers retained on the cell surface longer than the palmitate-modified ones. Since the polymers were also modified with biotin, streptavidin can be presented on the cell surface through biotin-streptavidin recognition. The duration of streptavidin on the cell surface is longer in the behenate-modified polymer than the palmitate-modified one. As for the intercellular crosslinking, the palmitate-modified polymers were more efficient than the behenate-modified polymers. The findings in this research will be helpful to design the acyl-modified polymers for the cell surface engineering.

  19. Study on the Components and Performance of GCr15 Bearing Steel Surface by Gas Multi-elements Penetrating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai; CHEN Fei; YAO Bin; ZHANG Jian-jun; CHEN Li

    2004-01-01

    Gas multi-elements Penetration is a new surface hardening technology to improve the performance of the surface.In this paper, we focus on the study on the influence of multi-elements penetration on hardness of GCr15 bearing steel surface by C-N-O multi-elements penetrating treatment, and analyze the three elements, C, N and O in the surface with an EDX. Analysis of SEM images shows that there forms a penetrated layer 75 μ m or so in thickness over the surface, in which,0-30 μ m is the passivation layer, 30-60 μ m, the bright layer, and 60-75, the transition layer.

  20. Study on the Components and Performance of GCr15 Bearing Steel Surface by Gas Multi-elements Penetrating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUHai; CHENFei; YAOBin; ZHANGJian-jun; CHENLi

    2004-01-01

    Gas multi-elements Penetration is a new surface hardening technology to improve the performance of the surface.In this paper, we focus on the study on the influence of multi-elements penetration on hardness of GCrI5 bearing steel surface by C-N-O multi-elements penetrating treatment, and analyze the three elements, C, N and O in the surface with an EDX. Analysis of SEM images shows that there forms a penetrated layer 75μm or so in thickness over the surface, in which,0-30μm is the passivation layer, 30-60μm, the bright layer, and 60-75, the transition layer.

  1. Diamond-like carbon films synthesized on bearing steel surface by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-xi; TANG Bao-yin; WANG Lang-ping; WANG Xiao-feng; YU Yong-hao; SUN Tao; HU Li-guo

    2004-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) on 9Cr18 bearing steel surface. Influences of working gas pressure and pulse width of the bias voltage on properties of the thin film were investigated. The chemical compositions of the as-deposited films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The micro-hardness, friction and wear behavior, corrosion resistance of the samples were evaluated, respectively. Compared with uncoated substrates, micro-hardness results reveal that the maximum is increased by 88.7%. In addition, the friction coefficient decreases to about 0.1, and the corrosion resistance of treated coupons surface are improved significantly.

  2. IMPACT OF VIBRATORY AND ROTATIONAL SHOT PEENING ONTO SELECTED PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM ALLOY SURFACE LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zaleski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of tests on impact of vibratory and rotational shot peening of the Ti6A12Mo2Cr titanium alloy onto the processed object surface roughness and surface layer microhardness. The external surfaces of ring-shaped samples were shot peened. The preceding process consisted of turning with a cubic boron nitride blade knife. Steel beads, having a diameter of 6 mm, were used as a processing medium. The variable parameters of shot peening were vibrator amplitude and shot peening time. The range of recommended technological parameters for vibratory and rotational shot peening was determined. As a result of shot peening, the surface roughness could be reduced by approximately 4 times and the surface layer could be hardened to the depth of approximately 0.4 mm.

  3. Controllable Deposition of Alloy Clusters or Nanoparticles Catalysts on Carbon Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K.; Ando, Y.; Su, D.; Adzic, R.

    2011-08-15

    We describe a simple method for controllably depositing Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles on carbon surfaces that is mediated by Pb or Cu adlayers undergoing underpotential deposition and stripping during Pt and Ru codeposition at diffusion-limiting currents. The amount of surface Pt atoms deposited largely reflects the number of potential cycles causing the deposition and stripping of the metal adlayer at underpotentials, the metal species used as a mediator, and the scan rate of the potential cycles. We employed electrochemical methanol oxidation to gain information on the catalyst's activities. The catalysts with large amounts of surface Pt atoms have relatively high methanol-oxidation activity. Catalysts prepared using this method enhance methanol-oxidation activity per electrode surface area, while maintaining catalytic activity per surface Pt atom; thus, the amount of Pt is reduced in comparison with conventional methanol-oxidation catalysts. The method is suitable for efficient synthesizing various bimetallic catalysts.

  4. Adherence of extracellular matrix components to modified surfaces of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, C.; Uhlmann, E.; Meinke, M.; Lademann, J.; Hansen, U.

    2009-04-01

    The adherence of biological materials on metal surfaces is of special importance in biology and medicine. The underlying interactions between surface and biological materials (e.g. extracellular matrix components or cells) are responsible for the application as a medical device. Numerous products are made of pure titanium and titanium alloys. This paper shows the influence of a laser production technology on machined surfaces of TiAl6V4 and the resulting adherence of biological material on the basis of the surface characterisation. In this study, different machined TiAl6V4 surfaces were used for coatings with extracellular matrix components. For this process, different coating with collagen I monomers and a complex mixture of extracellular matrix proteins derived from the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone were analysed. The efficiency of the coating was analysed by different methods and the results are presented in this paper.

  5. Investigation of Surface Roughness in High-Speed Milling of Aeronautical Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yong-zhi; AI Xing; ZHAO Jun; WAN Yi

    2008-01-01

    An approach is presented to optimize the surface roughness in high-speed finish milling of 7050-T7451 aeronautical aluminum alloy. In view of this, the multi-linear regression model for surface roughness has been developed in terms of slenderness ratio, cutting speed, radial depth-of-cut and feed per tooth by means of orthogonal experimental design. Variance analyses were applied to check the adequacy of the predictive model and the significances of the independent input parameters. Response contours of surface roughness were generated by using response surface methodology (RSM). From these contours, it was possible to select an optimum combination of cutting parameters that improves machining efficiency without increasing the surface roughness.

  6. Surface-induced ordering and disordering in face-centered-cubic alloys: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweika, W.; Landau, D. P.; Binder, K.

    1996-04-01

    Using extensive Monte Carlo simulations we have studied phase transitions in a fcc model with antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor couplings J in the presence of different free surfaces which lead either to surface-induced order or to surface-induced disorder. Our model is a prototype for CuAu-type ordering alloys and shows a strong first-order bulk transition at a temperature kTcb/||J||=1.738 005(50). For free (100) surfaces, we find a continuous surface transition at a temperature Tcs>~Tcb exhibiting critical exponents of the two-dimensional Ising model. Surface-induced ordering occurs as the temperature approaches Tcb and the surface excess order and surface excess energy diverges logarithmically. For a free (111) surface, the surface order vanishes continuously at Tcb accompanied by surface-induced disorder (SID). In addition to a logarithmic divergence of the excess quantities of order and energy, we find further critical exponents which confirm the actual theory of SID and critical wetting and which can be understood in terms of rough interfaces. For both cases of free surfaces, the asymptotic behavior of the squared interfacial width shows the expected logarithmic divergence.

  7. Oxidation Behavior of Germanium- and/or Silicon-Bearing Near-α Titanium Alloys in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitashima, Tomonori; Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko

    2015-06-01

    The effect of germanium (Ge) and/or silicon (Si) addition on the oxidation behavior of the near-α alloy Ti-5Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo was investigated in air at 973 K (700 °C). Ge addition decreased the oxidation resistance because of the formation of a Ge-rich layer in the substrate at the TiO2/substrate interface, enhancing Sn segregation at the interface. In addition, a small amount of Ge dissolved in the external Al2O3 layer. These results reduced the aluminum activity at the interface, suppressed the formation of Al2O3, and increased the diffusivity of oxygen in the oxide scales. The addition of 0.2 and 0.9 wt pct Si was beneficial for improving oxidation resistance. The effect of germanide and silicide precipitates in the matrix on the oxide growth process was also discussed.

  8. Adhesion of E. coli Bacteria Cells to Prosthodontic Alloys Surfaces Modified by TiO2 Sol-Gel Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Banaszek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the degree of bacteria E. coli adhesion to modified surfaces of the chosen prosthodontic alloys was presented. The study was carried out on Co-Cr (Wironit, Ni-Cr (Fantocer, and Fe-Cr-Ni (Magnum AN alloys. Bare substrate as a control and titanium dioxide coated samples were used. The samples were placed for 24 hours in bacterial culture medium. After incubation period, a number of bacterial cells were evaluated by scanning electron microscope. The study revealed that modification of the alloy surfaces by titanium dioxide coating significantly decreases the amount of bacteria adhering to the surfaces and that additionally bare metal alloy substrates have a different degree of susceptibility to bacterial adhesion.

  9. Electrochemical & osteoblast adhesion study of engineered TiO{sub 2} nanotubular surfaces on titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Zia Ur [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI (United States); Haider, Waseem, E-mail: haide1w@cmich.edu [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI (United States); Pompa, Luis [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas–Pan American, Edinburg, TX (United States); Deen, K.M. [Department of Metallurgy & Materials Engineering, CEET, University of the Punjab, 54590 Lahore (Pakistan); Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were grafted on the surface of cpTi, Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al4V-ELI with the aim to provide a new podium for human pre-osteoblast cell (MC3T3) adhesion and proliferation. The surface morphology and chemistry of these alloys were examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were further characterized by cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The vertically aligned nanotubes were subjected to pre-osteoblast cell proliferation in order to better understand cell–material interaction. The study demonstrated that these cells interact differently with nanotubes of different titanium alloys. The significant acceleration in the growth rate of pre-osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation is also witnessed. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by using a tetrazolium-based bio-assay, MTS. Each group of data was operated for p < 0.05, concluded one way ANOVA to investigate the significance difference. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were grafted on cpTi, Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al4V-ELI via anodization. • MC3T3 cells interact differently with nanotubes of different titanium alloys. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes have a positive impact on the osteoblast cell viability.

  10. Near surface composition of some alloys by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sreemany; T B Ghosh

    2001-10-01

    Chemical compositions of the alloys of CuNi (Cu0.10Ni0.90, Cu0.30Ni0.70, Cu0.70Ni0.30) and BiSb (Bi0.80Sb0.20, Bi0.64Sb0.34, Bi0.55Sb0.45) are determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The stoichiometries are determined and are compared with the bulk compositions. Possible sources of systematic errors contributing to the results are discussed. Errors arising out of preferential etching in these alloys have been investigated. It has been inferred from such studies that the preferential etching does not enrich the surface composition with a particular component for the two systems reported here. Quantitative results of CuNi system indicate that the surface regions of the Cu0.70Ni0.30 alloy is Cu-rich, although no such evidence is observed in case of BiSb system.

  11. Laser surface alloying of commercially pure titanium with boron and carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, N.; Kulka, M.; Dziarski, P.; Przestacki, D.

    2014-06-01

    Laser surface alloying with boron and carbon was applied to produce the composite layers, reinforced by the hard ceramic phases (titanium borides and titanium carbides), on commercially pure titanium. The external cylindrical surface of substrate material was coated by paste containing boron, boron and graphite, or graphite. Then, the laser re-melting was carried out with using the continuous-wave CO2 laser. This enabled the formation of laser-borided, laser-borocarburized, and laser-carburized layers. The microstructure or the re-melted zone consisted of the hard ceramic phases (TiB+TiB2, TiB+TiB2+TiC, or TiC) located in the eutectic mixture of Tiα'-phase with borides, borides and carbides, or carbides, respectively. All the composite layers were characterized by the sufficient cohesion. The significant increase in microhardness and in wear resistance of all the laser-alloyed layers was observed in comparison with commercially pure titanium. The percentage of hard ceramic phases in more plastic eutectic mixture influenced the measured microhardness values. The dominant wear mechanism (abrasive or adhesive) depended on the method of laser alloying, and the type of test used. The wear tests for longer duration, without the change in the counter specimen, created the favourable conditions for adhesive wear, while during the shorter tests the abrasive wear dominated, as a rule.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE AND BULK PROCESSES IN MG-BASED ALLOYS DURING HYDROGEN ABSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Vehovszky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Different Mg-based alloys were tailored and prepared to investigate the surface and bulk processes during hydrogen absorption. Volumetric-, resistance-, XRD-, optical-, and mass measurements were carried out. Heat treatment experiments showed that the short-term thermal stability limits (during heating up at 5 K/min of the amorphous samples were between 125-175 ° C, while long-term stability (during 24h heat treatment is always lower – between 80 and 150°C. Nanocrystalline alloys were stable up to 300°C. Hydrogen absorption measurements were executed between 25 and 300°C. Pd-containing alloys were found to be the fastest absorbers, and 200°C was the optimal temperature regarding absorption rate. Etching the samples previously in HF solution enhances absorption by inducing surface cracking. This phenomenon was thoroughly examined by optical microscopy. The effect of hydrogen on the crystallization properties of MgNiPd sample was determined via in-situ resistance measurements.

  13. Investigation of Surface and Bulk Processes in Mg-based Alloys during Hydrogen Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Vehovszky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Different Mg-based alloys were tailored and prepared to investigate the surface and bulk processes during hydrogen absorption. Volumetric-, resistance-, XRD-, optical-, and mass measurements were carried out. Heat treatment experiments showed that the short-term thermal stability limits (during heating up at 5 K/min of the amorphous samples were between 125-175 ° C, while long-term stability (during 24h heat treatment is always lower – between 80 and 150°C. Nanocrystalline alloys were stable up to 300°C. Hydrogen absorption measurements were executed between 25 and 300°C. Pd-containing alloys were found to be the fastest absorbers, and 200°C was the optimal temperature regarding absorption rate. Etching the samples previously in HF solution enhances absorption by inducing surface cracking. This phenomenon was thoroughly examined by optical microscopy. The effect of hydrogen on the crystallization properties of MgNiPd sample was determined via in-situ resistance measurements.

  14. Relation between emission properties and the surface composition of binary and ternary iridium base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnuchev, N.M.; Gell, A.P.

    1982-12-01

    Changes in the surface composition and emission properties of iridium alloys with 1.8 and 2.7 at. % of cerium as well as Ir - 8% Ce - 5% Mo and Ir - 8% Ce - 15% Re in the process of thermal treatment in the temperature range of 1400-2000 K were studied. Thermoelectron work function and specimen Auger spectra were detected. The investigations were carried on by experimental instruments equipped with three-grid quasi-spherical analyzers of approximately 0.5% resolution. The investigations have shown that heating at 900-2000 K results in marked improvement of emission properties of both two-and three-component alloys. The surface is cleaned from contaminants and its elementary composition and structure reach optimal ones. At the same time intensive cerium evaporation occurs and emission capability of alloys of low cerium content drops at such high temperatures. So, heating of Ir - 1% Ce specimen during several hours at 2000 K resulted in reduction of cerium Auger peak amplitude and increase in work function by 0.3 eV.

  15. AN IN SITU SURFACE COMPOSITE AND GRADIENT MATERIALOF Al-Si ALLOY PRODUCED BY ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.M. Xu; T.X. Li; Z.L. Zhu; Y.H. Zhou

    2001-01-01

    Because of the different conductivities between the primary phase (law electric conductivity) and the metal melt, electromagnetic force scarcely acts on the primary phase.Thus, an electromagnetic repulsive force applied by the metal melt exerts on the primary phase when the movement of the melt in the direction of electromagnetic force is limited. As a result, the repulsive force exerts on the primary phase to push them to move in the direction opposite to that of the electromagnetic force when the metal melt with primary phase solidifies under an electromagnetic force field. Based on this,a new method for production of in situ surface composite and gradient material by electromagnetic force is proposed. An in situ primary Si reinforced surface composite of Al-15wt%Si alloy and gradient material of Al-19wt%Si alloy were produced by this method. The microhardness of the primary Si is HV1320. The reinforced phase size is in the range from 40μm to 100μm. The wear resistance of Al-Si alloy gradient material can be more greatly increased than that of their matrix material.``

  16. Surface Oxidation Phenomena of Ni-Based Alloy 600 in PWR Primary Water Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yun Soo; Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Sung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    There is, nevertheless, growing evidence in support for the internal oxidation model by Scot, in which grain boundary oxidation is responsible for embrittlement and cracking. Grain boundaries can act as an enhanced diffusion path for oxidation, and grain boundary oxidation can be regarded as a precursor for crack initiation. Oxidation of the grain boundary in almost all nickel-based alloys exposed to primary water is known to be detrimental for grin boundary cohesion. Panter et al. showed that the crack initiation time is strongly reduced when the specimens are pre-exposed in a simulated PWR environment in the absence of applied stress. The changes of the grain boundary structure and chemistry owing to oxygen penetration can increase the sensitivity to PWSCC under a load since grain boundary oxidization significantly weakens the grain boundary strength. Most of the important experimental results obtained are believed to correlate with the oxidation penetration into the material. A spinel structure was detected by XRD in the oxide layers. Several different types of oxide scales were found by SEM examination on the corroded surface of Alloy 600 after an immersion test in the primary water environments. Surface grain boundaries were oxidized by oxygen penetration into the matrix through grain boundaries. Grain boundary oxidization is thought to be the main reason for intergranular cracking in this alloy in a primary water environment of a PWR.

  17. Evaluation of magnesium alloys with alternative surface finishing for the proliferation and chondro-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinidad, J; Arruebarrena, G; De Argandona, E Saenz; De Eguino, G Ruiz; Infante, A; RodrIguez, C I, E-mail: jtrinidad@eps.mondragon.edu

    2010-11-01

    Articular cartilage has little capacity for self-repair. As a result, continuous mechanical stress can lead to the degradation of articular cartilage, culminating in progressive damage and joint degeneration. Tissue engineering has arisen as a promising therapeutic approach to cartilage repair. Magnesium alloys are one of the most important metallic biomaterials emerging in this area due to their biocompatibility, bio-absorbability and especially to their mechanical properties. These properties make magnesium alloys a promising biomaterial in the regeneration of cartilage tissue. Objective. This study was undertaken to analyze the influence of surface characteristics of magnesium alloys in the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods. Two commercial magnesium alloys (AZ31B and ZM21) were subjected to different treatments in order to obtain four different surfaces in each alloy. Human MSCs were seeded into the magnesium alloys and analyzed for their proliferation and chondrogenesis differentiation ability. Results. Human MSCs showed a greater proliferation and chondro-differentiation when cultured in the ZM21 magnesium alloy with a surface finishing of fine sanding, polishing, and etching.

  18. Surface topographic characterization for polyamide composite injection molds made of aluminum and copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A; Hernández, P; Martinez, J; Pérez, J A; Mathia, T G

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure flexibility and rapid new product development, the mold industry made use of soft materials for cavity inserts in injection molds. However, materials of this kind are prone to wear. This article analyzes the topographic characterization of the surface and wear processes in injection molds cavities. Two materials have been used to produce the cavities: aluminum alloy EN AW‐6082 T4 and copper alloy Cu Zn39 Pb3. The surface topography was measured with the use of optical interferometry profiling technology; roughness and surface parameters were determined according to ISO 4287, ISO 25178, and EUR 15178N. In order to complete this research, an experimental part with different thicknesses and shapes was designed, and cavity inserts of aluminum and copper were made. Polyamide PA6, with 30% fiberglass reinforcement, was employed in the experimental procedure. Measurements of cavity mold surfaces were performed after 9,200 cycles on each mold and at different locations on the mold. The surface measurement was made with a white light vertical scanning interferometry, also known as coherence scanning interferometry (ISO DIS 25178‐604). The results are analyzed and differences between the two types of cavity inserts materials are discussed.

  19. The magnetic properties of Ce/Pd surface alloys investigated using DFT

    KAUST Repository

    Shuttleworth, I.G.

    2014-06-01

    The surface alloys that form between Ce and Pd(1 1 1), Pd(1 0 0) and both unreconstructed and missing-row type Pd(1 1 0) at low Ce coverage ( θCe=19ML) have shown permanent magnetism that is mediated in part by an RKKY-like delocalized Ce 6s-Pd 5s interaction. The Pd 4d states are significantly affected by alloying and their behavior cannot be explained by a purely spin-dependent Hamiltonian. Experimental observations of changes to the Pd 4d states are explained and the implications of Ce/Pd magnetism in reforming catalysis are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure and magnetic properties of surface alloyed Fe nanocapsules prepared by arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, P. Z.; Choi, C. J.; Brück, E.; Geng, D. Y.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2005-12-01

    C-Fe-Si alloy encapsulating Fe nanocapsules were fabricated by arc evaporating the mixture of Fe and SiC powders. The high temperature of the electric arc results in a surface reaction between SiC and Fe nanoparticles and therefore a uniform encapsulation of the Fe nanoparticles with its alloy. The size of the nanocapsules ranges from 10 to 60 nm while most shells are approximately 7 nm in thickness. Air oxidation to the as-prepared sample does not change the shell/core structure but the saturation magnetization and the coercivity are reduced. The characteristics of the nanocapsules were investigated systematically by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

  1. Measurement of Force Components and Ra Surface Roughness Parameter During Grinding Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdulska A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the measurements of selected parameters during grinding process of aerospace industry alloy. Grinding is one of the most important methods of shaping machine elements. As a result of grinding with high dimensional and shape accuracy as well as with the expected parameters describing the state of the surface layer (SL should be obtained. Grinding difficult to machine materials used in the aerospace industry is an issue currently being examined by various research centres. An excellent example is the analysis of the grinding process of titanium alloys, as these materials have very poor machinability due to the tendency to adherence to abrasive materials, low thermal conductivity, high strength and compliance at elevated temperatures, which may adversely impact on the quality of SL. A number of factors influence on shaping SL. Worth mentioning are mechanical and thermal phenomena, as well as the type of cutting fluid and abrasive materials

  2. INFLUENCE OF PHOSPHATIZED SURFACE LAYER ON CORROSION RESISTANCE OF Mg-Al-RE ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Miková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with evaluation of the corrosion resistance of extruded Mg-2Al-1RE (AE21 magnesium alloy in the state before and after treatment of ground surface by selected phosphatizing procedure. Specimens were exposed to 0.1M NaCl solution for several time periods starting from 5 minutes up-to 168 hours at room temperature of 22 ± 1 °C. Afterwards electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was carried out on the exposed specimens. Based on the results obtained from the electrochemical tests and visual observation of corrosion attack progress, positive or negative impact of selected phosphating process on the corrosion resistance of Mg-2Al-1RE magnesium alloy under given conditions was assessed.

  3. [INVITED] Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti-alloy: Analysis of surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti6Al4V alloy surface is carried out and nitrogen/oxygen mixture with partial pressure of PO2/PN2=1/3 is introduced during the surface treatment process. Analytical tools are used to characterize the laser treated surfaces. The fracture toughness at the surface and the residual stress in the surface region of the laser treated layer are measured. Scratch tests are carried out to determine the friction coefficient of the treated surface. It is found that closely spaced regular laser scanning tracks generates a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer while lowering the stress levels in the treated region. Introducing high pressure gas mixture impingement at the surface results in formation of oxide and nitride species including, TiO, TiO2, TiN and TiOxNy in the surface region. A dense layer consisting of fine size grains are formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer, which enhances the microhardness at the surface. The fracture toughness reduces after the laser treatment process because of the microhardness enhancement at the surface. The residual stress formed is comprehensive, which is in the order of -350 MPa.

  4. Development of Advanced Wear and Corrosion Resistant Systems Through Laser Surface Alloying and Materials Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Martukanitz and S. Babu

    2007-05-03

    Laser surfacing in the form of cladding, alloying, and modifications are gaining widespread use because of its ability to provide high deposition rates, low thermal distortion, and refined microstructure due to high solidification rates. Because of these advantages, laser surface alloying is considered a prime candidate for producing ultra-hard coatings through the establishment or in situ formation of composite structures. Therefore, a program was conducted by the Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop the scientific and engineering basis for performing laser-based surface modifications involving the addition of hard particles, such as carbides, borides, and nitrides, within a metallic matrix for improved wear, fatigue, creep, and corrosion resistance. This has involved the development of advanced laser processing and simulation techniques, along with the refinement and application of these techniques for predicting and selecting materials and processing parameters for the creation of new surfaces having improved properties over current coating technologies. This program has also resulted in the formulation of process and material simulation tools capable of examining the potential for the formation and retention of composite coatings and deposits produced using laser processing techniques, as well as positive laboratory demonstrations in producing these coatings. In conjunction with the process simulation techniques, the application of computational thermodynamic and kinetic models to design laser surface alloying materials was demonstrated and resulted in a vast improvement in the formulation of materials used for producing composite coatings. The methodology was used to identify materials and to selectively modify microstructures for increasing hardness of deposits produced by the laser surface alloying process. Computational thermodynamic calculations indicated that it was possible to induce the

  5. On the performance of surface plasmon resonance based fibre optic sensor with different bimetallic nanoparticle alloy combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj K; Mohr, Gerhard J [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Friedrich-Schiller University, Lessingstrasse 10, 07743 Jena (Germany)], E-mail: anuj.sharma@uni-jena.de

    2008-03-07

    In this work, we have investigated the capability of different bimetallic nanoparticle alloy combinations to be used in fibre optic sensors based on the technique of surface plasmon resonance. The metals considered for this analysis are silver, gold, copper and aluminium. The performance of the sensor with different bimetallic nanoparticle alloy combinations is evaluated and compared numerically. The performance is analysed in terms of three parameters: sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and operating range for the sensing layer refractive index values. On the basis of the comparison and some logistic criteria, the best possible bimetallic alloy combinations along with a requisite alloy composition ratio are predicted. The bimetallic nanoparticle alloy combination is capable of simultaneously providing larger values of sensitivity, SNR and operating range, which is not possible with any single metallic nanoparticle layer.

  6. Morphology Evolution on the Fracture Surface and Fracture Mechanisms of Multiphase Nanostructured ZrCu-Base Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A multiphase nanostructured ZrCu-base bulk alloy which showed a unique microstructure consisting of sub-micrometer scale Zr2Cu solid solution, nano-sized twinned plate-like ZrCu martensite (ZrCu (M, and retained ZrCu (B2 austenite was fabricated by copper mold casting. The observation of periodic morphology evolution on the fracture surface of the multiphase nanostructured ZrCu-base alloys has been reported, which suggested a fluctuant local stress intensity along the crack propagation. It is necessary to investigate the compressive deformation behavior and the fracture mechanism of the multiphase alloy and the relation to the unique microstructures. The results obtained in this study provide a better understanding of the deformation and fracture mechanisms of multiphase hybrid nanostructured ZrCu-based alloys and give guidance on how to improve the ductility/toughness of bulk ZrCu-based alloys.

  7. Transmission electron microscope studies in the surface oxide on the La-containing AB{sub 2} metal hydride alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K., E-mail: kwo.young@basf.com; Chao, B.; Pawlik, D.; Shen, H.T.

    2016-07-05

    La-addition to a Laves-phase based AB{sub 2} metal hydride alloy improves the high-rate discharge and −40 °C charge-transfer resistance significantly. Surface oxide formation and embedded Ni inclusions of the alloy were studied using magnetic susceptibility, BET surface area and pore size measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). BET measurements correlate with the double-layer capacitance measured at −40 °C, indicating a factor 3 increase in surface area with 5 at.% La replacement of Zr. Surface catalytic ability of the same alloy improves by a factor of 13. TEM reveals the surface of the La-free sample as lightly oxidized Ni, Ti, and Zr, while the La-containing sample is randomly distributed and heavily-oxidized (Ni, Cr)O{sub x} coating the grain/oxide channel wall. These catalytic channels are believed to be the source of improvement in the low-temperature performance of these La-containing AB{sub 2} metal hydride alloys. - Highlights: • Surface area and catalytic ability improve with La-addition in an AB{sub 2} MH alloy. • TEM is used to study the surface oxide structure in the La-containing AB{sub 2} MH alloy. • Catalytic ability improvement was linked to the aligned channels in grain boundaries. • The open channel can transport both electrolyte and soluble ions. • Surface Ni-clusters have no direct impact on the La-containing AB{sub 2} MH alloys.

  8. Biofunctionalization of REDV elastin-like recombinamers improves endothelialization on CoCr alloy surfaces for cardiovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Maria Isabel; Zenses, Anne-Sophie; Grau, Anna; Rodríguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Gil, Francisco Javier; Manero, Jose María; Pegueroles, Marta

    2015-03-01

    To improve cardiovascular implant success, metal-based stents are designated to modulate endothelial cells adhesion and migration in order to prevent restenosis and late thrombosis diseases. Biomimetic coatings with extra-cellular matrix adhesive biomolecules onto stents surfaces are a strategy to recover a healthy endothelium. However, the appropriate bioactive sequences to selective promote growth of endothelium and the biomolecules surface immobilization strategy remains to be elucidated. In this study, biofunctionalization of cobalt chromium, CoCr, alloy surfaces with elastin-like recombinamers, ELR, genetically modified with an REDV sequence, was performed to enhance metal surfaces endothelialization. Moreover, physical adsorption and covalent bonding were used as biomolecules binding strategies onto CoCr alloy. Surfaces were activated with plasma and etched with sodium hydroxide previous to silanization with 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane and functionalized with the ELR. CoCr alloy surfaces were successfully biofunctionalized and the use of an ELR with an REDV sequence, allows conferring bioactivity to the biomaterials surface, demonstrating a higher cell adhesion and spreading of HUVEC cells on the different CoCr surfaces. This effect is emphasized as increases the amount of immobilized biomolecules and directly related to the immobilization technique, covalent bonding, and the increase of surface charge electronegativity. Our strategy of REDV elastin-like recombinamers immobilization onto CoCr alloy surfaces via covalent bonding through organosilanes provides a bioactive surface that promotes endothelial cell adhesion and spreading.

  9. Microstructure, Surface Characterization, and Electrochemical Behavior of New Ti-Zr-Ta-Ag Alloy in Simulated Human Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, Cora; Drob, Silviu Iulian; Osiceanu, Petre; Moreno, Jose Maria Calderon; Prodana, Mariana; Ionita, Daniela; Demetrescu, Ioana; Marcu, Maria; Popovici, Ion Alexandru; Vasilescu, Ecaterina

    2017-01-01

    A new Ti-20Zr-5Ta-2Ag alloy was elaborated and characterized regarding its microstructure, its native passive film composition and thickness, its surface wettability, its electrochemical behavior in Ringer solution of different pH values, and its ion release. The new alloy has a bi-phase, α + β, acicular, homogeneous microstructure (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)). Its native passive film (12-nm thicknesses) consists of the protective TiO2, ZrO2, and Ta2O5 oxides, Ti and Ta suboxides, and metallic Ag (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data). The alloy possesses high hydrophilic properties. The main electrochemical parameters of the new alloy are superior to those of Ti as a result of the beneficial influence of Zr, Ta, and Ag alloying elements, which reinforce its native passive film. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) spectra in Ringer solutions for the new alloy displayed better values of impedances and phase angles, proving a more insulate passive film than that on the Ti surface. The main corrosion parameters for the new Ti-20Zr-5Ta-2Ag alloy are more favorable by about 25 to 38 times than those of Ti, confirming extremely resistant passive film. The new Ti-20Zr-5Ta-2Ag alloy releases into Ringer solution low quantities of Ti4+, Zr4+ metallic ions (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS)). The Ag+ ions are released in low quantity, conferring to this alloy's low antibacterial activity. All experimental results show that the new Ti-20Zr-5Ta-2Ag alloy fulfills the requirements for biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and antibacterial protection.

  10. Influence of surface contaminations on the hydrogen storage behaviour of metal hydride alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Mark; Paulus, Hubert; Lammers, Martin; Kiss, Gábor; Réti, Ferenc; Müller, Karl-Heinz

    2008-03-01

    Hydrogen storage in metal hydrides is a promising alternative to common storage methods. The surface of a metal hydride plays an important part in the absorption of hydrogen, since important partial reaction steps take place here. The development of surface contaminations and their influence on hydrogen absorption is examined by means of absorption experiments and surface analysis, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS) and secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS), in this work. All investigations were carried out on a modern AB(2) metal hydride alloy, namely Ti(0.96)Zr(0.04)Mn(1.43)V(0.45)Fe(0.08). Surface analysis (SNMS, XPS) shows that long-term air storage (several months) leads to oxide layers about 15 nm thick, with complete oxidation of all main alloy components. By means of in situ oxygen exposure at room temperature and XPS analysis, it can be shown that an oxygen dose of about 100 Langmuirs produces an oxide layer comparable to that after air storage. Manganese enrichment (segregation) is also clearly observed and is theoretically described here. This oxide layer hinders hydrogen absorption, so an activation procedure is necessary in order to use the full capacity of the metal hydride. This procedure consists of heating (T = 120 degrees C) in vacuum and hydrogen flushing at pressures like p = 18 bar. During the activation process the alloy is pulverized to particles of approximately 20 microm through lattice stretches. It is shown that this pulverization of the metal hydride (creating clean surface) during hydrogen flushing is essential for complete activation of the material. Re-activation of powder contaminated by small doses of air (p approximately 0.1 bar) does not lead to full absorption capacity. In ultrahigh vacuum, hydrogen is only taken up by the alloy after sputtering of the surface (which is done in order to remove oxide layers from it), thus creating adsorption sites for the hydrogen. This

  11. Amorphization of Ni61 Nb39 Alloy by Laser Surface Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-xiang LU; Ran LI; Yan LI; Tao ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    The surface of Ni61 Nb39 crystalline ingot was treated by laser surface melting with different processing parame-ters.A fully amorphous layer with a thickness of approximately 10 μm could be produced on the top surface under optimal parameters.An amorphous-crystalline composite layer with the depth from 10 to 50 μm,consisting of amor-phous matrix and intermetallic phases of Ni3 Nb and Ni6 Nb7 ,could be formed.The micro-hardness (about 831 HV) of the treated surface was remarkably improved by nearly 100% compared with the value of the crystalline substrate caused by the formation of the fully amorphous structure.A finite volume simulation was adopted to evaluate the temperature distribution in the laser-affected zone of Ni6 1 Nb3 9 alloys and to reveal the mechanism of glass formation in the laser-affected zone.

  12. Microstructure evolution during surface alloying of ductile iron and austempered ductile iron by electron beam melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, A.; Akhter, J. I.; Ahmad, M.; Ali, G.; Mahmood, M.; Ajmal, M.

    2009-07-01

    Alloying and microstructural modification of surfaces by electron beam has become popular to tailor the surface properties of materials. Surface modification of as-received ductile iron, Ni-plated ductile iron and Ni-plated austempered ductile iron was carried out by electron beam melting to improve the surface properties. Martensitic structure evolved in the heat affected zone and ledeburite structure was produced in the molten zone of the ductile iron. Microhardness of the melted specimens enhanced considerably as compared to the as-received samples. However the microhardness of melted Ni-plated samples is lower than that of the unplated specimens. X-ray diffraction clearly revealed the formation of an austenite and Fe 3C phases in the electron beam molten zone. The broadening of peaks suggests refinement of the microstructure as well as internal stresses generated during electron beam melting.

  13. Microstructure evolution during surface alloying of ductile iron and austempered ductile iron by electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulzar, A. [Materials Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Akhter, J.I. [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, M., E-mail: maqomer@yahoo.com [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, G. [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mahmood, M. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ajmal, M. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2009-07-30

    Alloying and microstructural modification of surfaces by electron beam has become popular to tailor the surface properties of materials. Surface modification of as-received ductile iron, Ni-plated ductile iron and Ni-plated austempered ductile iron was carried out by electron beam melting to improve the surface properties. Martensitic structure evolved in the heat affected zone and ledeburite structure was produced in the molten zone of the ductile iron. Microhardness of the melted specimens enhanced considerably as compared to the as-received samples. However the microhardness of melted Ni-plated samples is lower than that of the unplated specimens. X-ray diffraction clearly revealed the formation of an austenite and Fe{sub 3}C phases in the electron beam molten zone. The broadening of peaks suggests refinement of the microstructure as well as internal stresses generated during electron beam melting.

  14. Preparation of porous microstructures on NiTi alloy surface with femtosecond laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG ChunYong; YANG Yang; WANG HongShui; YANG JianJun; YANG XianJin

    2008-01-01

    Porous microstructures on Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) alloy surfaces were prepared by linearly polarized femtosecond lasers with moving focal point at a certain speed. It was found that various novel micro-structures from feather-like ripples to cluster-like porous textures could be formed with increasing laser energy. Particularly, when the laser energy was 400 μJ, a periodic porous metal surface was gen-erated. Measurement of X-ray diffraction showed that the grains on the sample surface were refined through femtosecond laser ablation processes, but the crystal structures still kept their original states. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that Ni/Ti on the sample surface was changed with an evident oxidization of titanium element under different laser energies. This investigation pro-vides a new approach to improve the biocompatibility of NiTi-based implant devices.

  15. Characterization and analysis of surface notches on Ti-alloy plates fabricated by additive manufacturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S.

    2015-12-01

    Rectangular plates of Ti-6Al-4V with extra low interstitial (ELI) were fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition techniques that included electron beam melting (EBM) and laser beam melting (LBM). The surface conditions of these plates were characterized using x-ray micro-computed tomography. The depth and radius of surface notch-like features on the LBM and EBM plates were measured from sectional images of individual virtual slices of the rectangular plates. The stress concentration factors of individual surface notches were computed and analyzed statistically to determine the appropriate distributions for the notch depth, notch radius, and stress concentration factor. These results were correlated with the fatigue life of the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloys from an earlier investigation. A surface notch analysis was performed to assess the debit in the fatigue strength due to the surface notches. The assessment revealed that the fatigue lives of the additively manufactured plates with rough surface topographies and notch-like features are dominated by the fatigue crack growth of large cracks for both the LBM and EBM materials. The fatigue strength reduction due to the surface notches can be as large as 60%-75%. It is concluded that for better fatigue performance, the surface notches on EBM and LBM materials need to be removed by machining and the surface roughness be improved to a surface finish of about 1 μm.

  16. A Comparison of Surface Segregation for two semi-Heusler alloys: TiCoSb and NiMnSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, A. N.; Borca, C. N.; Dowben, P. A.; Ristoiu, D.; Nozieres, J. P.

    2002-03-01

    Very different types of surface segregation are found for very similar Heusler alloy materials. We observed significant manganese and antimony segregation to the surfaces of the semi-Heusler alloys NiMnSb and TiCoSb respectively. The Mn and Sb surface enrichment was characterized by angle-resolved core level photoemission. Indications of surface disorder from low energy electron diffraction provide complimentary evidence of segregation. It has been established [1,2] that segregation will significantly affect polarization so surface/interface segregation of the types observed for the half Heusler alloys will have substantial implications for spin-electronic devices made from these nominally high polarization materials. [1] D. Ristoiu, et al., Europhysics Letters 49 (2000) 624-630 [2] C. N. Borca, et al., Europhysics Letters 56 (2001) 722-728

  17. Electrochemical and surface analyses of nanostructured Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn alloys in simulated body solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Li, S J; Hao, Y L; Huang, H H; Bai, Y; Hao, Y Q; Guo, Z; Xue, J Q; Yang, R

    2014-06-01

    The use of nanostructuring to improve the stability of passive thin films on biomaterials can enhance their effectiveness in corrosion resistance and reduce the release of ions. The thickness of the ultrathin films that cover Ti and Ti alloys (only several nanometers) has prevented researchers from establishing systematic methods for their characterization. This study employed a multifunctional biomedical titanium alloy Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (wt.%) as a model material. Coarse-grained (CG) and nanostructured (NS) alloys were analyzed in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37°C. To reveal the details of the passive film, a method of sample preparation producing a passive layer suitable for transmission electron microscope analysis was developed. Electrochemical corrosion behavior was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization tests and Mott-Schottky measurements. Surface depth chemical profile and morphology evolution were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ atomic force microscopy, respectively. A mechanism was proposed on the basis of the point defect model to compare the corrosion resistance of the passive film on NS and CG alloys. Results showed that the protective amorphous film on NS alloy is thicker, denser and more homogeneous with fewer defects than that on CG alloy. The film on NS alloy contains more oxygen and corrosion-resistant elements (Ti and Nb), as well as their suboxides, compared with the film on CG alloy. These characteristics can be attributed to the rapid, uniform growth of the passive film facilitated by nanostructuring.

  18. Surface chemical treatment of ultrafine-grained Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy processed by severe plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, D.P., E-mail: dpedreira@ufscar.br [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos 13565-905, SP (Brazil); Prokofiev, E. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos 13565-905, SP (Brazil); Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, 12 K. Marx Str., Ufa 450000 (Russian Federation); Sanches, L.F.R. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos 13565-905, SP (Brazil); Polyakova, V. [Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, 12 K. Marx Str., Ufa 450000 (Russian Federation); Valiev, R.Z., E-mail: rzvaliev@mail.rb.ru [Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, 12 K. Marx Str., Ufa 450000 (Russian Federation); Botta, W.J.; Junior, A.M.J.; Bolfarini, C. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos 13565-905, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrafine-grained titanium alloys is a good choice for biomedical applications. • Acid phosphoric treatment enhances bioactivity of Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. • Apatite precipitation was increased in ultrafine-grained after surface modification. - Abstract: Ti–6Al–7Nb containing harmless for tissues niobium can be a good choice replacing Ti–6Al–4V for orthopedic implants application. Formation of ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure in metals and alloys by severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques allows for achieving unique mechanical properties. Using equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) UFG structure in Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy with an average size of grains/subgrains of 200 nm was obtained. This UFG Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy has high mechanical (ultimate tensile strength 1470 MPa) and fatigue properties, suitable for practical application. Additionally, surface modifications of titanium alloys aim induce specific responses on osteoblastic cells after implantation. Chemical surface treatments are simple methods to obtain a bioactive for apatite precipitation surface. Phosphoric acid etching combined or not with alkaline treatment presented bioactivity after seven days soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution.

  19. The Effect of Laser Surface Treatment on Structure and Mechanical Properties Aluminium Alloy ENAC-AlMg9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakieła W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of a high power diode laser surface treatment on the structure and properties of aluminium alloy has been determined. The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical and tribological properties of the surface layer of the aluminium alloy by simultaneously melting and feeding tungsten carbide particles into the molten pool. During the process was used high-power diode laser HPDL. In order to remelt the aluminium alloy surface the HPDL laser of 1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 kW laser beam power has been used. The linear laser scan rate of the beam was set 0.5 cm/s. In order to protect the liquid metal during laser treatment was used argon. As a base material was used aluminium alloy ENAC-AlMg9. To improve the surface mechanical and wear properties of the applied aluminium alloy was used biphasic tungsten carbide WC/W2C. The size of alloying powder was in the range 110-210 µm. The ceramic powder was introduced in the remelting zone by a gravity feeder at a constant rate of 8 g/m.

  20. Adsorption of atomic oxygen on PdAg/Pd(111) surface alloys and coadsorption of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Arnold P. [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Reaction Kinetics Research Group, University of Szeged, Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Bansmann, Joachim; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The interaction of dissociated oxygen with structurally well-defined PdAg/Pd(111) surface alloys and the coadsorption of CO was studied by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). After oxygen saturation of the non-modified Pd(111) surface at RT, we observed the formation of a prominent peak in the HREEL spectra at 60 meV corresponding to the perpendicular vibration of oxygen atoms adsorbed in threefold hollow sites. Deposition of small Ag amounts does not change the signal intensity of this peak; it decreases only above 20% Ag. Beyond this Ag content, the peak intensity steeply declines and disappears at around 55-60% Ag. CO coadsorption on the oxygen pre-covered surfaces at 120 K leads to the formation of additional features in HREELS. For a surface alloy with 29% Ag, three loss features due to CO adsorption in on-top, bridge, and threefold-hollow sites can be discriminated already after the lowest CO exposure. Annealing of the co-adsorbed layer to 200 K triggers a decrease of the oxygen concentration due to CO{sub 2} formation. These findings are corroborated by TPD spectra of the CO desorption and CO{sub 2} production.