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Sample records for alloy az31 sheet

  1. Annealing behavior of rolled AZ31 alloy sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Wei-ping; LI Pei-jie; ZENG Pan

    2006-01-01

    The annealed microstructures of the rolled AZ31 alloy sheets were examined by using light optical microscopy. The mechanical properties were measured by tensile testing, with their crystal orientations analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). After the annealing treatment, the elongated grains were transformed to equiaxed grains with uniform and homogeneous structures. The changes of microstructure decreased the yield strength and enhanced the elongation. The analysis of XRD shows that the AZ31 alloy sheet possesses intense basal-texture, which is weakened during the recrystallization while reinforced during the grain growth. The intense basal-texture induces low ductility, which hence makes the further rolling more difficult. The results indicate that the optimum annealing treatment during AZ31 alloys sheet rolling is at about 300 ℃ for 60-120 min.

  2. The Formablity of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lingyun; LU Zhiwen; ZHAO Yazhong; QIU Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    The forming limit diagrams(FLD)of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet were tested by means of the electro etching grid method based on the forming experiment of magnesium alloy sheet carried out with a BCS-30D sheet forming testing machine and the strain testing analysis made with an advanced ASAME automatic strain measuring system. Experiments show that, at room temperature, the mechanical properties and deep drawing performance of AZ31B cold-rolled magnesium alloy sheet were so poor that it failed to test the forming limit diagrams without an ideal forming and processing capacity, while the hot-rolled magnesium alloy sheet was of a little better plasticity and forming performance after testing its forming limit diagrams. It can be concluded that the testing of the forming limit curves (FLC)offers the theoretical foundation for the drawing of the deep drawing and forming process of magnesium alloy sheet.

  3. Effects of organic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.;

    2010-01-01

    mu m of the contaminated surface was required to reach corrosion rates less than 1 mm/year in salt spray condition. Among the three organic acids examined, acetic acid is the best choice. Oxalic acid can be an alternative while citric acid is not suitable for cleaning AZ31 sheet, because......Organic acids were used to clean AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet and the effect of the cleaning processes on the surface condition and corrosion performance of the alloy was investigated. Organic acid cleanings reduced the surface impurities and enhanced the corrosion resistance. Removal of at least 4...

  4. A study on the boss forming process of AZ31 Mg alloy sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Eon; Kim, Hyung Rae; Ahn, Sang Ho; Chang, Young Won

    2009-06-01

    A series of boss forming tests has been carried out using an AZ31 Mg alloy sheet at 250 °C, 300 °C, and 350 °C with various lubrication conditions to obtain optimum process conditions. The Mg alloy sheet had a homogeneous distribution of very fine sized grains. Surface defects generated during boss forming process could be reduced by changing the friction conditions, as prescribed by FEM analysis using the DEFORM 2D program. The modified boss forming process, lubricating only on the front side, was found to be successful in manufacturing the boss without defects.

  5. Finite element simulation on press forging of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Press forging of rectangular box of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets was investigated at elevated temperatures.The characteristics of metal flow were analyzed on the basis of finite element method(FEM)and experiments.Effects of friction factor and sidewall thickness on metal flow and boss forming were investigated by FEM.The results indicate that the bosses and the sidewall of the rectangular box are formed unevenly due to the uneven flow of the metal.The increase in friction factor at die/sheet interface improves the metal flow pattem and the efficiency of boss forming,but reduces the sidewall uniformity.Decrease in sidewall thickness enhances boss forming efficiency,whereas the punch load increases in this case.The present work can provide rcasonable parameters and design guideline for the practical press foxing process of magnesium alloy sheets.

  6. Deformation behaviors of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet in cold deep drawing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lian-fa; MORI Ken-ichiro; TSUJI Hirokazu

    2008-01-01

    To investigate how the popular magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet (aluminum 3%, zinc 1%) behaves in cold working, deep drawing experiments at room temperature, along with finite element(FE) simulation,were performed on the cold forming sheet of the AZ31 alloy after being annealed under various conditions. The activities were focused on the fracture pattern, limit drawing ratio(LDR), deformation load, thickness distribution, anisotropic effect, as well as the influences of the annealing conditions and tool configuration on them. The results display that punch shoulder radius instead of die clearance, has much influence on the thickness distribution. The anisotropy is remarkable in cold working, which adversely impacts the LDR. The fracture often happens on the side wall at an angle to axis of the deformed specimen. The results also imply that the LDR for the material under present experimental conditions is 1.72, and annealing the material at 450 ℃ for 1 h may be preferable for the cold deep drawing.

  7. Research on Thermal Deep-drawing Technology of Magnesium Alloy(AZ31B) Sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sfihong ZHANG; Kun ZHANG; Zhongtang WANG; Chuanfu YU; Yi XU; Qiang WANG

    2004-01-01

    Forming technology of Mg alloy (AZ31B) sheets can be investigated by thermal deep drawing experiments. In the experiments,the blank holder and die contacting with the blank were heated to the same temperature as the blank by using the heating facility. The circular blank heated in an oven is formed at a temperature range of 100~400℃ to obtain the optimum forming temperature range and the effects of major technical parameters on the workpiece quality. It is found that the blank is brittle at temperatures lower than 200℃. Temperatures higher than 400℃ are not suitable for forming of the sheets because of severe oxidation and wrinkling. AZ31B shows an excellent formability at temperatures from 300 to 350℃ and can be formed into a workpiece with good quality. When the blank holder force is 99 Kn, extruded sheets with a thickness of 1 mm can be formed into cups without wrinkling. Workpieces show strong anisotropic deformation behavior on the flanges.

  8. Failure analysis of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets based on the extended GTN damage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-ze; Chen, Zhang-hua; Li, Yu-jie; Dong, Chao-fang

    2013-12-01

    Based on the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model and Hill's quadratic anisotropic yield criterion, a combined experimental-numerical study on fracture initiation in the process of thermal stamping of Mg alloy AZ31 sheets was carried out. The aim is to predict the formability of thermal stamping of the Mg alloy sheets at different temperatures. The presented theoretical framework was implemented into a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. Internal damage evolution due to void growth and coalescence developed at different temperatures in the Mg alloy sheets was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the thermal effects on the void growth, coalescence, and fracture behavior of the Mg alloy sheets were analyzed by the extended GTN model and forming limit diagrams (FLD). Parameters employed in the GTN model were determined from tensile tests and numerical iterative computation. The distribution of major and minor principal strains in the specimens was determined from the numerical results. Therefore, the corresponding forming limit diagrams at different stress levels and temperatures were drawn. The comparison between the predicted forming limits and the experimental data shows a good agreement.

  9. Failure analysis of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets based on the extended GTN damage model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-ze Wang; Zhang-hua Chen; Yu-jie Li; Chao-fang Dong

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model and Hill’s quadratic anisotropic yield criterion, a combined experimental-numerical study on fracture initiation in the process of thermal stamping of Mg alloy AZ31 sheets was carried out. The aim is to predict the formability of thermal stamping of the Mg alloy sheets at diff erent temperatures. The presented theoretical framework was implemented into a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. Internal damage evolution due to void growth and coalescence developed at diff erent temperatures in the Mg alloy sheets was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the thermal eff ects on the void growth, coalescence, and fracture behavior of the Mg alloy sheets were analyzed by the extended GTN model and forming limit diagrams (FLD). Parameters employed in the GTN model were determined from tensile tests and numerical iterative computation. The distribution of major and minor principal strains in the specimens was determined from the numerical results. Therefore, the corresponding forming limit diagrams at diff erent stress levels and temperatures were drawn. The comparison between the predicted forming limits and the experimental data shows a good agreement.

  10. Microstructure evolution and fracture behavior in superplastic deformation of hot-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, D.L.; Zhang, K.F.; Wang, G.F. [School of Material Science and Technology, Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China)

    2005-07-01

    Fine-grained AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets were prepared through hot rolling process. The superplastic properties of hot-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy was examined by uniaxial tensile tests at a temperature range 250{proportional_to}450 C and strain rate range 0.7 x 10{sup -3}{proportional_to}1.4 x 10{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Optical and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to observe the microstructure evolution and fracture behavior in superplastic deformation of AZ31 Mg alloy and the values of deformation activation energy at various temperatures were calculated. It is demonstrated that, the hot-rolled AZ31 alloy begins to exhibit superplasticity from 300 C and a maximum elongation of 362.5% is obtained at 400 C and 0.7 x 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}. In the temperature range 300{proportional_to}400 C, the dominant superplastic deformation mechanism is grain boundary sliding (GBS) controlled by grain boundary diffusion and the influence of temperature on the fracture behavior of AZ31 Mg alloy is characterized by the change from dimple-aggregating type to intercrystalline one. (orig.)

  11. Damage and Failure Analysis of AZ31 Alloy Sheet in Warm Stamping Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a combined experimental-numerical investigation on the failure of AZ31 Mg alloy sheet in the warm stamping process was carried out based on modified GTN damage model which integrated Yld2000 anisotropic yield criterion. The constitutive equations of material were implemented into a VUMAT subroutine for solver ABAQUS/Explicit and applied to the formability analysis of mobile phone shell. The morphology near the crack area was observed using SEM, and the anisotropic damage evolution at various temperatures was simulated. The distributions of plastic strain, damage evolution, thickness, and fracture initiation obtained from FE simulation were analyzed. The corresponding forming limit diagrams were worked out, and the comparison with the experimental data showed a good agreement.

  12. Warm Deep Drawing of Rectangular Parts of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet Adopting Variable Blank Holder Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying-hong, Peng; Qun-feng, Chang; Da-yong, Li; Xiao-qin, Zeng

    2007-05-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet with good shape and formability is fabricated by warm cross rolling. Uniaxial tensile tests are conducted using a Gleeble 3500 thermal - mechanical simulator, and the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet are analyzed. A warm deep drawing process of square part is also simulated by the finite element method. The influences of blank holder force on the formability are numerically investigated. A double-action hydraulic press that can realize adjustable blank holder forces is developed and its working principle and control system are introduced. Some warm deep drawing experiments of square parts of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet are also performed. Different variation schemes of the blank holder force with the stroke of the punch are tested, and the experiment results are compared. Results show that the suitable blank holder force variation scheme is a ladder curve with the punch stroke. Adopting the variable blank holder force technique can improve 13.2% of the drawing depth of square parts of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet.

  13. Lap Fillet Welding of Thin Sheet AZ31 Magnesium Alloy with Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Mahadzir; Yamasaki, Kazuhiko; Maekawa, Katsuhiro

    In recent years, reducing the size and weight of consumer products requires the joining of thin sheets of magnesium alloys with both thickness and joining area of less than 1mm, especially for packaging purposes. Conventional welding processes are difficult to joint a thin sheet magnesium alloy because of high heat input, which in turns leads to various problems such as burn through and cracks. In this study, lap fillet welding of thin sheet magnesium alloy AZ31B with a thickness of 0.3 mm has been carried out using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam. The influences of gap, laser beam center location and scan speed on joint appearances have been investigated. It was found that defects were significantly reduced when the gap width was less than 35 µm when the laser beam center was located just on the edge of the upper specimen (x=0), and scan speed was varied from 400 to 450 m/min. Wider bond width at average value of 300 µm was achieved when the beam center was at x=0 with a wide range of scan speeds from 250 to 450 mm/min compared with the cases at x=-0.1 and -0.2 mm from edge. Increases in bond width and minimal defects at x=0 improve fracture load by 68% compared with those at x=-0.1 mm.

  14. Incremental forming of free surface with magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet at warm temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The formability of AZ31 sheet begins to increase drastically at 150 ℃. The incremental forming technique was thus applied to AZ31 sheet at 150 ℃ to utilize the formability to its fullest capacity at the lowest possible temperature for forming applications. A surface scanning technique was used followed by the tool path generation to incrementally form an egg surface. After thorough examination of various tool paths, the surface was most successfully produced by forming an intermediate shape followed by a series of tool paths. Flexible scale stickers were devised to improve the accuracy in the measurement of grid deformation.

  15. Effect of microalloying (Ca, Sr, and Ce) on elevated temperature tensile behavior of AZ31 magnesium sheet alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, L., E-mail: lihong.shang@mail.mcgill.ca [McGill University, Dept. of Materials Eng., Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Yue, S. [McGill University, Dept. of Materials Eng., Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Verma, R.; Krajewski, P. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI 48090 (United States); Galvani, C.; Essadiqi, E. [Natural Resources Canada-CANMET, Ottawa, ON K1A 0G1 (Canada)

    2011-04-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Hot tensile behavior of AZ31 sheet microalloyed with Ca, Sr and Ce was investigated. {yields} Under superplastic conditions the formability is notably improved by microalloying. {yields} Second phase particles resist grain coarsening and retard cavitations' development. {yields} Under the high Z conditions the deformation is controlled by the dislocation creep. {yields} Under the low Z conditions the deformation is controlled by grain boundary sliding. - Abstract: The effect of microalloying with calcium, strontium, and cerium on the microstructure and the elevated temperature deformation behavior of magnesium sheet alloy AZ31 was investigated. Base composition and microalloyed AZ31 materials were cast and rolled into wrought sheet by an identical thermo-mechanical process. A series of hot tensile tests (temperatures of 300 deg. C, 400 deg. C, and 450 deg. C; constant true strain rates of 0.1 s{sup -1}, 0.01 s{sup -1}, 0.001 s{sup -1}, and 0.0003 s{sup -1}) were performed to characterize the deformation behavior of the sheet alloys. Interrupted tensile tests were used to study microstructural evolution with strain. A well-dispersed and thermally stable second phase produced by microalloying refines, stabilizes the grain structure, and significantly enhances hot formability of AZ31 sheet. The enhancement is most pronounced under deformation conditions of 450 deg. C and; 0.0003 s{sup -1} strain rate, with tensile elongation increasing from 347% for the base alloy, to 406% with Ca only, 437% with Ca and Ce, and 552% with Ca, Sr and Ce for microalloyed AZ31 alloys. The second phase particles resist grain coarsening, promote grain boundary sliding, retard strain localization or necking, and postpone cavitation to higher strain levels to achieve this improvement in formability.

  16. Influence of rolling parameters on dynamically recrystallized microstructures in AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional rolling experiments via the embedded pin in rolling sheet method were carried out at different reduction rates, starting rolling temperatures, and rolling speeds, and the effects of rolling parameters (i.e., temperature, equivalent strain, and rolling time on dynamically recrystallized (DRX microstructures of AZ31 alloy during hot rolling were studied quantitatively. The temperature-strain dependence of the high-angle grain boundary fraction (HAGB% was examined through electron backscattered diffraction. Results showed that as-rolled microstructures with high HAGB% may be obtained under average rolling temperatures of 270–320 °C, equivalent strains higher than 0.8, and a rolling speed of 246 mm/s. These results may be related to the DRX kinetics and dynamic recovery which are controlled by deformation temperature and strain. HAGB% decreased with increasing rolling time (decreasing rolling speed, which is attributed to dynamic recovery, and the recrystallized grain size decreased as rolling time increased. However, further increases in rolling time increased average grain sizes but decreased mean subgrain sizes; these results are attributed to increases in the low-angle grain boundary (LAGB length per unit area with rolling time. LAGB formation was controlled by dynamic recovery, which consistently follows polygonization or formation of new subgrains inside larger grains; hence, average subgrain sizes decreased with the rolling time. The effect of dynamic recovery on HAGB and LAGB formation and their related mechanisms over a wide range of strains and temperatures were discussed in detail.

  17. Influence of Tension-Compression Asymmetry on the Mechanical Behavior of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheets in Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Beeh, Elmar; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium alloys are promising materials for lightweight design in the automotive industry due to their high strength-to-mass ratio. This study aims to study the influence of tension-compression asymmetry on the radius of curvature and energy absorption capacity of AZ31B-O magnesium alloy sheets in bending. The mechanical properties were characterized using tension, compression, and three-point bending tests. The material exhibits significant tension-compression asymmetry in terms of strength and strain hardening rate due to extension twinning in compression. The compressive yield strength is much lower than the tensile yield strength, while the strain hardening rate is much higher in compression. Furthermore, the tension-compression asymmetry in terms of r value (Lankford value) was also observed. The r value in tension is much higher than that in compression. The bending results indicate that the AZ31B-O sheet can outperform steel and aluminum sheets in terms of specific energy absorption in bending mainly due to its low density. In addition, the AZ31B-O sheet was deformed with a larger radius of curvature than the steel and aluminum sheets, which brings a benefit to energy absorption capacity. Finally, finite element simulation for three-point bending was performed using LS-DYNA and the results confirmed that the larger radius of curvature of a magnesium specimen is mainly attributed to the high strain hardening rate in compression.

  18. Effect of rolling process on microstructures and mechanical properties of AZ31B alloy sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Qi-chi; ZHANG Zhi-qiang; CUI Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    AZ31B magnesium extruded slabs prepared from LFEC were rolled at fairly lower temperature at 3, 6 and 16 m/min rolling speeds into 1 mm thickness. The results indicate that the microstructures achieved by rolling at low temperature or at low rolling speed are composed of many prismatic regions divided by shear strips due to pile-up of twin crystals; the prismatic regions increase at elevated rolling temperature or at high rolling speed, and finally all are composed of equiaxed crystals without twin crystals due to dynamic recrystallization. After optimizing control of rolling process, excellent mechanical properties would be acquired. The mechanical properties of AZ31B sheet are σb=350 MPa, σ0.2=300 MPa, and δ=12.0% when rolled at 6 m/min. At the same time, the difference of mechanical properties between transverse and longitudinal direction reduced markedly.

  19. Forming of a super plastic sheet metal made of MgAZ31 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Adnan I. O.; Al-Matari, Mustafa A. A.; Nazzal, M. A. H.

    2016-08-01

    Metal forming industries are constantly looking for advanced innovation, economical and energy efficient techniques. Superplastic forming has a great potential to be one of those advanced forming methods. It is a near net shape forming process which uses a unique type of materials where elongation exceeds 200% during a controlled forming conditions, e.g. temperature, pressure, and strain rate. Most of superplastic materials are formed by gas technique at elevated temperature. The main objectives of the research work in this paper were: to study the effects of the forming schemes on the forming time and thickness distribution of the formed and device a method to improve the forming part thickness and its uniformity distribution and the forming time. In this paper, a hydraulic and heating system were designed and manufactured to facilitate the experimental investigation. The superplastic magnesium alloy AZ31, Mg AZ31, was formed at 350°C with different strain rates to investigate the effect of the forming pressure profiles on the thickness uniformity of the superplastic formed part. The pressure profiles were generated based on Dutta and Mukherjee analytical approach. Finally, a variable strain rate method is modified to improve the uniformity of the thickness distribution of the formed part and reduce the forming time; which is a major limitation of superplastic forming.

  20. Statistical analysis on static recrystallization texture evolution in cold-rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Ho; Ahn, Tae-Hong; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Chung, Jung-Man; Kim, Dong-Ik; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Han, Heung Nam

    2013-08-01

    Cast AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy, comprising Mg with 3.27 wt% Al and 0.96 wt% Zn, was cold rolled and subsequently annealed. Global texture evolutions in the specimens were observed by X-ray diffractometry after the thermomechanical processing. Image-based microstructure and texture for the deformed, recrystallized, and grown grains were observed by electron backscattered diffractometry. Recrystallized grains could be distinguished from deformed ones by analyzing grain orientation spread. Split basal texture of ca. ±10-15° in the rolling direction was observed in the cold-rolled sample. Recrystallized grains had widely spread basal poles at nucleation stage; strong {0001} basal texture developed with grain growth during annealing.

  1. Effect of Rolling Route on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Twin-Roll Casting AZ31 Mg Alloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Luo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Twin-roll casting AZ31 Mg alloy sheets have been fabricated by normal unidirectional-rolling, head-to-tail rolling, and clock-rolling, respectively. It has been demonstrated that head-to-tail rolling is the most effective to refine the microstructure and weaken the basal texture among the three rolling routes. Excellent integrated tensile properties can be obtained by the head-to-tail rolling. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and plastic elongation are 196 MPa, 301 MPa, and 28.9%, respectively. The strength can benefit from the fine grains (average value of 4.0 μm of the AZ31 alloy processed by the head-to-tail rolling route, while the excellent plastic elongation is achieved owing to the weakened basal texture besides the fine grains. Results obtained here can be used as a basis for further study of some simple rolling methods, which is critical to the development of Mg alloys with high strength and plasticity.

  2. Superplastic Deformation Behavior of Hot-rolled AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet at Elevated Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kaifeng; YIN Deliang; WANG Guofeng; HAN Wenbo

    2006-01-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out in the temperature range of 250-450 ℃ and the strain rate range of 0.7×10-3-1.4×10-1s-1 to evaluate the superplasticity of AZ31 Mg alloy. The threshold stress which characterizes the difficulty for grain boundary sliding was calculated at various temperatures. The surface relieves of superplastically deformed specimens were observed by using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Results show that, at the temperature of 400 ℃ and strain rate of 0.7×10-3 s-1, the strain rate sensitivity exponent, i e, m value reaches 0.47 and the maximum elongation of 362.5% is achieved. Grain boundary sliding (GBS) is the primary deformation mechanism and characterized by a pronounced improvement in the homogeneity with increasing temperatures. A large number of filaments were formed at the end of deformation and intergranular cavities were produced with the necking and fracture of filaments. Finally, the model for the formation of intergranular cavities was proposed.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Deformation Mechanism in AZ31B Mg Alloy Sheets Under Pulsed Electric-Assisted Tensile and Compressive Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwoo; Kim, Se-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Gyu; Song, Jung Han; Choi, Seogou; Han, Heung Nam; Kim, Daeyong

    2016-06-01

    The uniaxial tensile and compressive stress-strain responses of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet under pulsed electric current are reported. Tension and compression tests with pulsed electric current showed that flow stresses dropped instantaneously when the electric pulses were applied. Thermo-mechanical-electrical finite element analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of Joule heating and electro-plasticity on the flow responses of AZ31B sheets under electric-pulsed tension and compression tests. The proposed finite element simulations could reproduce the measured uniaxial tensile and compressive stress-strain curves under pulsed electric currents, when the temperature-dependent flow stress hardening model and thermal properties of AZ31B sheet were properly described in the simulations. In particular, the simulation results that fit best with experimental results showed that almost 100 pct of the electric current was subject to transform into Joule heating during electrically assisted tensile and compressive tests.

  4. Fatigue behavior of friction stir spot welded AZ31 Mg alloy sheet joints%AZ31镁合金板材搅拌摩擦点焊连接件的疲劳行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗天骄; 史宝良; 段启强; 付俊伟; 杨院生

    2013-01-01

      利用拉压疲劳实验研究 AZ31板材搅拌摩擦点焊连接件的疲劳行为。结果表明:AZ31镁合金板材搅拌摩擦点焊连接件的疲劳失效均发生在搅拌区,疲劳裂纹均起源于搅拌区外侧边缘,位于上下板之间。当循环加载等于1 kN 时,疲劳裂纹沿着热影响区和热机械区界面且垂直载荷的方向扩展;而当循环载荷等于3 kN时,疲劳裂纹则沿着搅拌区直径方向扩展,并最终发生剪切断裂。另外,断口横截面显微分析显示,在AZ31板间搅拌区外侧存在一个“舌状区”,“舌状区”的方向是沿搅拌区向外,疲劳裂纹均起源于“舌状区”。%The fatigue behavior of friction stir spot welded (FSSW) AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet joints was investigated by tension−compression of fatigue test. The results suggest that all the fatigue failures occur at the stir zone of the FSSW AZ31 sheet joints, and all cracks initiate at the stir zone outer edge between the upper and lower sheet. When the cycle force equals 1 kN, the crack propagates along the interface of heat-affected zone and thermo-mechanical zone, simultaneously across the direction of force;while the cycle force equals 3 kN, the crack propagates along the diameter of stir zone and shear failure occurs finally. Moreover, the transverse microsections indicate that there is a tongue-like region at the outer edge of stir zone between the two AZ31 sheets, and the direction of tongue-like region is toward outside of the stirred zone and all fatigue cracks initiate at the tongue-like region.

  5. Mechanical Behavior of AZ31B Mg Alloy Sheets under Monotonic and Cyclic Loadings at Room and Moderately Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Trung Nguyen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-strain monotonic and cyclic loading tests of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets were performed with a newly developed testing system, at different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 250 °C. Behaviors showing significant twinning during initial in-plane compression and untwinning in subsequent tension at and slightly above room temperature were recorded. Strong yielding asymmetry and nonlinear hardening behavior were also revealed. Considerable Bauschinger effects, transient behavior, and variable permanent softening responses were observed near room temperature, but these were reduced and almost disappeared as the temperature increased. Different stress–strain responses were inherent to the activation of twinning at lower temperatures and non-basal slip systems at elevated temperatures. A critical temperature was identified to account for the transition between the twinning-dominant and slip-dominant deformation mechanisms. Accordingly, below the transition point, stress–strain curves of cyclic loading tests exhibited concave-up shapes for compression or compression following tension, and an unusual S-shape for tension following compression. This unusual shape disappeared when the temperature was above the transition point. Shrinkage of the elastic range and variation in Young’s modulus due to plastic strain deformation during stress reversals were also observed. The texture-induced anisotropy of both the elastic and plastic behaviors was characterized experimentally.

  6. AZ31镁合金板材差温拉深数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Differential Temperature Drawing of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小兵; 李建明; 刘伟成

    2013-01-01

    为了获得AZ31镁合金深拉伸的力学性能,在不同温度和应变速率条件下进行了单向拉伸试验.把实验数据导入到Deform-2D软件,采用温差及恒温模型对AZ31镁合金圆筒件拉深工艺进行了模拟.结果表明,温差拉深模型能较好地改善拉深性能;随着拉深速度的增加,拉深深度降低,危险截面产生移动;当速度为1 mm/s时,圆筒件能够顺利成形.在改变冲头温度后,拉深深度随冲头温度的增加而增加.而当冲头温度为60℃时,拉深深度达到最大.

  7. Grain size dependence of dynamic mechanical behavior of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet under compressive shock loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, H., E-mail: hamed.asgari@usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Odeshi, A.G.; Szpunar, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Zeng, L.J.; Olsson, E. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    The effects of grain size on the dynamic deformation behavior of rolled AZ31B alloy at high strain rates were investigated. Rolled AZ31B alloy samples with grain sizes of 6, 18 and 37 μm, were subjected to shock loading tests using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar at room temperature and at a strain rate of 1100 s{sup −} {sup 1}. It was found that a double-peak basal texture formed in the shock loaded samples. The strength and ductility of the alloy under the high strain-rate compressive loading increased with decreasing grain size. However, twinning fraction and strain hardening rate were found to decrease with decreasing grain size. In addition, orientation imaging microscopy showed a higher contribution of double and contraction twins in the deformation process of the coarse-grained samples. Using transmission electron microscopy, pyramidal dislocations were detected in the shock loaded sample, proving the activation of pyramidal slip system under dynamic impact loading. - Highlights: • A double-peak basal texture developed in all shock loaded samples. • Both strength and ductility increased with decreasing grain size. • Twinning fraction and strain hardening rate decreased with decreasing grain size. • ‘g.b’ analysis confirmed the presence of dislocations in shock loaded alloy.

  8. Theorical study on mechanical properties of AZ31B Magnesium alloy Sheets under multiaxial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Znaidi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation by plastic deformation of the shaping processes currently has a large industrial interest. It allows you to shorten the time of design and construction related products and tools to analyze and to optimize processes. An essential part of simulation tools is the constitutive law used to describe the material used. The activity of characterization and modeling of material behavior of the plastic deformation shaping remains a very important research field of activity; the objective of proposing laws of behavior used in computer codes, essentially based on finite element is sufficiently to represent the real behavior of materials. Considering the nature of the materials used and the stresses they experience the behavior laws account for several requirements which make them increasingly complicated. Among these requirements, we cite in particular plastic anisotropy, the great transformations, the complexity and diversity of loads, etc. The complexity of these laws makes them more difficult to implement and in particular to identify: the classic tests are no longer sufficient for identification. The objective of this work is based on two essential points: Suggest a construction strategy, particularly of identifying laws elastoplastic behavior anisotropic operational for the numerical simulation of plastic deformation shaping processes with particular attention to sheet metal magnesium. Magnesium sheet metal manufacturing process involves rolling operation. In a cost-cutting goal, this operation now takes place cold, implying a very marked anisotropy of the material at the output of the mill

  9. Self-piercing Riveting of Friction-heated AZ31 Alloy Sheet%摩擦加热AZ31镁合金板材的自冲铆接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜越; 王明星; 刘忠侠; 韩高锟; 杨连捷; 刘志勇

    2011-01-01

    采用摩擦加热的方法对2 mmAZ31镁合金板材进行加热,然后对其进行自冲铆接.对摩擦加热过程中板材的温度变化、板材的表面损伤、自冲铆接效果以及铆接接头的剪切和疲劳性能进行了研究.结果表明,摩擦加热可以将板材的温度迅速提高到自冲铆接所需要的温度,加热过程会对板材表面造成一定损伤,但损伤程度轻微;将镁合金板材摩擦加热至180℃以上再进行自冲铆接可以有效避免板材的开裂,消除裂纹,增加铆钉与板材之间的互锁量,因而可获得具有优良剪切及疲劳性能的自冲铆接接头.与电热板加热同类型镁合金板材的自冲铆接接头相比,摩擦加热自冲铆接接头的剪切强度及疲劳性能均有所增加,这表明摩擦加热对板材表面造成的轻微损伤对铆接接头的力学性能几乎没有影响.%The self-piercing riveting (SPR) of the 2 mm AZ31 alloy sheet was preheated using friction-heating method. The temperature variation and surface damage of the sheet during the fiction-heating, the riveting effect, the shear and fatigue properties of the SPR joints were investigated. The results show that the friction-heating can rapidly increase the temperature of the sheet up to the temperature required for SPR, and the surface of the sheets was slightly damaged. When the SPR was done for the magnesium alloy sheet fiction-heated up to 180℃ and above, the cracking of the riveted sheets can effectively avoided. The fiction-heating yet can increase the interlock volume between the rivets and the riveted sheets. In short, the magnesium alloy SPR joints with excellent shear and fatigue properties can be produced by the fiction-heating. Compared with the SPR joints of the magnesium alloy sheet preheated using the electric-heating plate, the shear and fatigue properties of the SPR joints of the friction-heated magnesium alloy sheet are higher. The slight surface damage caused by the fiction

  10. Study of effects of initial texture on the microstructure and texture for hot rolled AZ31 Mg alloy sheet using EBSD%初始织构对高温轧制AZ31镁合金板显微组织与织构影响的EBSD研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晋如; GODFREYAndrew; 刘伟; 辛仁龙; 刘庆

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the heavily hot-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy sheets produced from different initial AZ31 Mg alloy plate with different texture using EBSD technique, and analyze the effects of the initial texture on the AZ31 Mg alloy 9heet hot-rolled at 300 ℃. The microstructure, texture and grain boundary feature of products were compared and discussed. The results show that the influence of different initial texture is a minor effect on the grain size and texture of rolled AZ31 Mg alloy sheet; however it affects the deformation mechanism during rolling and so to the distribution of grain boundaries of products. A few { 1012 | tensile twins can be found in the rolled product which has a initial texture with c-axes perpendicular to the compression direction, while the other product which has a initial texture with c-axes parallel to the compression direction are absent of tensile twins. AZ31 Mg alloy sheets with the mean grain size under 5 μm can be obtained through heavily hot rolling to 69% at 300 ℃ from different initial plate which has different texture, and EBSD is found to be a powerful technique for rapid material characterize.%本文采用EBSD方法表征分析了不同初始取向的AZ31镁合金原料板材经300℃热轧69%后得到的终轧产品的显微组织与织构差异,考察了热轧变形条件下原料的初始织构对热轧成品板材的影响.结果表明,原料的初始织构对终轧板材的显微组织与织构影响不大,但对材料的显微组织界面分布有一定影响.通过高温大变形量变形,不同初始织构的原料均可制得平均晶粒度小于5μm的AZ31镁合金板材.

  11. Hot Deformation Kinetics of Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lingyun; HUANG Guangjie; FAN Yonge; LU Zhiwen; PAN Fusheng

    2006-01-01

    The flow stress at elevated temperatures for magnesium alloy AZ31 was studied using isothermal compression testing. The effect of deformation parameters on the flow stress was studied as well. The kinetics of elevated temperature deformation was expressed by means of some empirical rate equations. The activation parameter has been calculated. A mechanism for the dynamic softening of AZ31 alloy in a hot deformation experiment was identified to be the dynamic recrystallization.

  12. Preliminary study of biodegradation of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yibin; HUANG Jingjing; ZHANG Bingchun; YANG Ke

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential to be developed as a new type of biodegradable implant material by use of their active corrosion behavior.Both in vitro and in vivo biodegradation properties of an AZ31B magnesium alloy were investigated in this work.The results showed that AZ31B alloy has a proper degradation rate and much lower hydrogen release in Hank's solution,with a degradation rate of about 0.3 mm/year and hydrogen release below 0.15mL/cm2.The animal implantation test showed that the AZ31B alloy could slowly biodegrade in femur of the rabbit and form calcium phosphate around the alloy sample,with the Ca/P ratio close to the natural bone.

  13. Environmentally friendly anodization on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel anodization which is environmentally friendly,low voltage and lOW energy consumption was developed to improve corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy.The corrosion resistance of the anodic films was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS)and potentiodynamic polarization techniques.The microstructure and compositions of films were examined by SEM,XPS and XRD.A new kind of organic additive used in the electrolyte is friendly to the environment.The compact,intact and uniform coating with high hardness can be prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy by the environmentally friendly anodization,which enhances the corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy significantly.

  14. Corrosion behavior of friction stir welded AZ31B Mg alloy - Al6063 alloy joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ratna Sunil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, AZ31B Mg alloy and Al6063 alloy-rolled sheets were successfully joined by friction stir welding. Microstructural studies revealed a sound joint with good mechanical mixing of both the alloys at the nugget zone. Corrosion performance of the joint was assessed by immersing in 3.5% NaCl solution for different intervals of time and the corrosion rate was calculated. The joint has undergone severe corrosion attack compared with both the base materials (AZ31B and Al6063 alloys. The predominant corrosion mechanism behind the high corrosion rate of the joint was found to be high galvanic corrosion. From the results, it can be suggested that the severe corrosion of dissimilar Mg–Al joints must be considered as a valid input while designing structures intended to work in corroding environment.

  15. AZ31镁合金铸轧板热变形过程的空洞演化%Cavity characteristics of twin-roll casting AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets during hot deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵虎; 何良菊; 李培杰; 李华伦; 许月旺

    2011-01-01

    分析了AZ31镁合金铸轧板在200-400℃、4×10-4 s-1变形条件下的空洞形核和长大机制.采用原位拉伸试验观察空洞形核位置和长大过程.通过电子背散射衍射技术观察了不同变形条件下AZ31镁合金铸轧板的晶界取向差.在低温变形条件下,空洞尺寸较小,呈圆形,在高温变形条件下,空洞在变形过程中被拉长,其尺寸较大.空洞首先在晶界或三叉晶界处形核之后长大.AZ31镁合金铸轧板中大角晶界相对分数大于80%.尺寸小于2μm的空洞呈球形,其长大机制为扩散控制长大机制.大尺寸空洞在变形过程中发生聚合,其长大机制受塑性和超塑性扩散机制控制.

  16. Evolution of microstructure and texture of AZ31 magnesium alloy extrusion sheet by hot rolling with falling temperature%AZ31镁合金挤出板降温热轧的组织和织构的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲家惠; 岳明凯; 黄涛

    2009-01-01

    The evolution law of microstructure and texture in extruded sheets of magnesium alloy AZ31 during the hot rolling falling temperature process was studied. The results show that slipping and twinning are the major deforming and orientational hardening mechanism before annealing while the sliding of long grain in combination with the diffusing transfer of fine equiaxed grain boundary becomes a major deforming one after annealing. With increasing the reduction, the precipitation falls to pieces and spreads around. And the basal plane texture component has a maximum mutation value of orientation density with reductions of 70%-80%. So a basal plane texture component {0001} is formed, which has stronger orientation density that can be greatly reduced by softening annealing. A sheet of 0.5 mm in thickness can be made from magnesium alloy AZ31 by one 67% reduction pass and one softening annealing pass.%研究AZ31镁合金挤出板坯在降温热轧过程中的组织和织构的演变规律.结果表明:退火前滑移和孪生是主要的变形机制和取向硬化机制;退火后长条晶的滑移和细小等轴晶晶界扩散迁移的共同作用成为主要的变形机制;随着压下量的增大,析出物开始破碎和分散,压下量在70%~80%之间时,基面织构组分的取向密度存在突变最大值,形成硬取向较强的{0001}基面织构,软化退火能大幅减弱硬取向;通过一道67%大压下量和一次软化退火可顺利地将AZ31镁合金轧制成厚0.5 mm的薄板.

  17. Investigation on hot deformation behavior of AZ31 madnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凌云; HUANG; Guangsheng; 等

    2002-01-01

    The hot compressive deformation of extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy with the mass fractions of Al and Zn equal to 3%and 1% respectively is studied by a Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator over the temperature range from 200℃to 400℃ and the strain rate from 10-3 s-1 to 100s-1.The true stress-strain curves of the strain of 65% are tested.The deformation activation energy is obtained and the flow stress model is established by analyzng the effects of strain rate and temperature on the flow stress.Zener-Hollomon parameter is introduced to describe the softening behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy resulted from dynamic recrystallization during the hot compressive deformation,whose natural logarithm is linear with the critical strain of dynamic recrystallization.

  18. Tube extrusion of AZ31 alloy with Sr additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Alireza, E-mail: Alireza.Sadeghi@mail.mcgill.ca [McGill University, Department of Mining and Materials Science, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Hoseini, Majid; Pekguleryuz, Mihriban [McGill University, Department of Mining and Materials Science, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bending and unbending of material flow during extrusion tilts the basal pole from the center of the pole figure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Circumferential movement of material inside the welding zone forms two extra texture components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of Sr removes Al from {alpha}-Mg as a result grains could deform more easily in the circumferential directions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By increasing level of Sr, maximum intensity of the ODFs decreases while the extra texture components strengthen. - Abstract: Three Mg alloys (AZ31, and AZ31 + 0.4 and 0.8 wt%Sr) were successfully hot extruded into tubes at 400 Degree-Sign C through a porthole die. Strontium (Sr) additions to AZ31 alloy reduced twining and the dynamically recrystallized grain size. However, Sr also increased the surface cracking tendency during extrusion. It was noted that the complex deformation path in the porthole die distributes the Sr-rich precipitates homogeneously across the microstructure and stringer formation is effectively avoided. The material flow in the die resembles that seen in multiple equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) routes and similar and significant effects on the final texture are observed. The material flow curvatures in the extrusion direction rotate the basal poles 25 Degree-Sign from the radial direction. Two other texture components ({delta}{sub 1}, {delta}{sub 2}) are also formed in the welding zone by the circumferential flow of material. The maximum intensity of the orientation distribution function (ODF) is reduced with increasing level of Sr. Noteworthy, the maximum intensity in AZ31 + 0.8Sr occurs at the {delta}{sub 1} component while for AZ31 and AZ31 + 0.4Sr, the maximum intensity is located at the basal components. With Sr, alloying, Al is depleted from Mg solid solution and grains deform more easily in the circumferential direction. As a result, selective workhardening

  19. Microstructure and Tensile Properties of AZ31B Alloy and AZ31B-SiCp Deformed Through a Multi-step Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, M. J.; Wang, X. J.; Ying, T.; Zhang, M. F.; Wu, K.

    2016-10-01

    The 15 vol.% micron SiC particle (SiCp)-reinforced AZ31B magnesium matrix composite (AZ31B-SiCp) prepared with semisolid stirring-assisted ultrasonic vibration was subjected to a multi-step process. The influence of the multi-step processing route on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the AZ31B-SiCp was investigated. For comparison, the monolithic AZ31B alloy was also processed under the same conditions. The results showed that the grain sizes of the AZ31B alloy and the AZ31B-SiCp were gradually decreased with increasing the processing step. Compared with the AZ31B-SiCp, the grain size of the AZ31B alloy was much larger, and the grain size distribution was inhomogeneous at the same processing condition. The particles of the AZ31B-SiCp were dispersed uniformly through the multi-step processing. Moreover, the tensile properties of the materials were gradually improved with increasing the processing step. In particular, the strength of AZ31B-SiCp and the ductility of AZ31B alloy improved significantly based on the room-temperature tensile test results.

  20. Cavity evolution behavior of twin-roll-cast AZ31 alloy sheet during hot deformation%AZ31镁合金铸轧板材的热变形空洞演化行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志文; 彭伟平; 李培杰; 雷丽萍

    2009-01-01

    通过疲劳试验机/扫描电镜的原位观察、以及扫描电镜/图像分析软件的定量分析,研究AZ31镁合金铸轧板材热变形过程中的空洞演化行为.结果表明:镁合金板材热变形过程中,空洞首先在晶界尤其是在三叉交界处形核,随后不断长大和聚合,导致材料断裂;空洞的长大具有方向选择性,与拉伸轴方向垂直的空洞容易长大.空洞长大机制的理论模型计算与试验结果对照表明:孔径小于2 μm小空洞的圆度系数接近1,其主要长大机制为晶界扩散;孔径大于2 μm大空洞的圆度系数和取向角均比较分散,其主要长大机制是塑性变形.

  1. Finite Element Simulation of Extrusion Process of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys Sheet Based on Deform%基于Deform的AZ31镁合金板材挤压工艺的有限元模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德辉; 赵松涛; 陶华

    2015-01-01

    为了研究温度对镁合金板材挤压的影响,通过Deform-3D对挤压速度10 mm/min和挤压温度300、350、400、450℃以及挤压温度400℃和挤压速度10、50、100、200 mm/min条件下的AZ31镁合金板材成形过程进行了数值模拟.结果显示,随着挤压温度升高,有效应变增大,流变应力减小.随着挤压速度增大,有效应变增大,有效应力随之增大.板材挤压过程中,板材的边部出现卷曲现象,距中心越远的部位有效应变越小,挤压变形也不均匀.因此,在挤压时需要根据实际情况选择合适的挤压温度.

  2. Microstructure and texture evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy during rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The production of magnesium alloy sheets normally involves several processing stages including hot rolling, cold rolling and intermediate annealing. The microstructure and texture evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets in different processing states were investigated by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that the microstructure of hot-rolled sheets is dominated by recrystallized equiaxed grains, while that of cold-rolled sheets is dominated by deformation twins. With final annealing applied on the cold-rolled sheets, fine recrystallization grains are obtained and ductility of the samples is increased. It is also found that the texture of magnesium alloy sheets prefers the basal texture, and other compositions of texture are relatively weak. Moreover,final annealing does not significantly affect texture distribution. The results of this study provide useful guidelines for optimizing the processing of magnesium alloys.

  3. Hot Cracking in AZ31 and AZ61 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.J. Huang; C.M. Cheng; C.P. Chou; F.H. Chen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the impact of the number of thermal cycles and augmented strain on hot cracking in AZ31 and AZ61 magnesium alloy. Statistical analyses were performed. Following observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was used for component analysis. Results showed that Al content in magnesium alloy has an effect on hot cracking susceptibility. In addition, the nonequilibrium solidification process produced segregation in Al content, causing higher liquid Mg-alloy rich Al content at grain boundaries, and resulting into liquefied grain boundaries of partially melted zone (PMZ). In summary, under multiple thermal cycles AZ61 produced serious liquation cracking. AZ61 has higher (6 wt%) Al content and produced much liquefied Mg17Al12 at grain boundaries under multiple thermal cycles. The liquefied Mg17Al12 were pulled apart and hot cracks formed at weld metal HAZ due to the augmented strain. Since AZ31 had half the Al content of AZ61, its hot-cracking susceptibility was lower than AZ61. In addition, AZ61 showed longer total crack length (TCL) in one thermal cycle compared to that in three thermal cycles. This phenomenon was possibly due to high-temperature gasification of Al during the welding process, which resulted in lower overall Al content. Consequently, shorter hot cracks exhibited in three thermal cycles. It was found the Al content of AZ31 and AZ61 can be used to assess the hot-cracking susceptibility.

  4. Enhancing Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31-MWCNT Nanocomposites through Mechanical Alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jayakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs reinforced Mg alloy AZ31 nanocomposites were fabricated by mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy technique. The reinforcement material MWCNTs were blended in three weight fractions (0.33%, 0.66%, and 1% with the matrix material AZ31 (Al-3%, zinc-1% rest Mg and blended through mechanical alloying using a high energy planetary ball mill. Specimens of monolithic AZ31 and AZ31-MWCNT composites were fabricated through powder metallurgy technique. The microstructure, density, hardness, porosity, ductility, and tensile properties of monolithic AZ31 and AZ31-MWCNT nano composites were characterized and compared. The characterization reveals significant reduction in CNT (carbon nanoTube agglomeration and enhancement in microstructure and mechanical properties due to mechanical alloying through ball milling.

  5. Microstructure and texture evolution in multi-pass warm rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Di

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD is employed to characterize the microstructure and texture established during the process of warm rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets. The grain size was refined from 17.4 μm to 3.8 μm after 4 pass rolling. Texture of as-rolled sheets was expressed by (0002 basal texture, and the texture intensity was increased with the rolling pass increasing. The mechanical properties of as-rolled sheets were greatly improved by warm rolling.

  6. Recrystallization in AZ31 magnesium alloy during hot deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essadiqi, E.; Liu, W.J.; Kao, V. [Natural Resources Canada, Materials Technology Lab., CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Yue, S. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Verma, R. [General Motors, Materials and Processes Lab, Warren, MI (United States)

    2005-07-01

    In this study, isothermal torsion tests were carried out on magnesium AZ31B alloy under constant strain rate conditions, in the range of 250 to 400 C at 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 s{sup -1}. Alloy flow stress dependence on strain rate and temperature can be described by a power law with activation energy of 130 kJ/mol. Microstructural examination of hot deformed samples shows very fine recrystallized grains decorating grain boundaries of larger gains in the form of a necklace. These fine grains are produced by dynamic recrystallization at the grain boundaries of original grains. Microstructure evolution, based on samples quenched at different strain levels, indicates that increasing deformation strain has little effect on recrystallized grain size but widens the recrystallized region, with full recrystallization achieved at a certain high strain level. Recrystallized grain size increases with increasing deformation temperature and strain rate. The latter suggests recrystallization in AZ31 to be essentially a time dependant phenomenon. (orig.)

  7. MICROSTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF FRICTION STIR WELDED AZ31 MAGNESIUM ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Zhang; S.B.Lin; L.Wu; J.C.Feng

    2004-01-01

    Friction stir welding achieves the weld in solid phase by locally introducing frictional heating and plastic flow arising from rotation of the welding tool, which results in changes in the local microstructure of magnesium alloy. The purpose in the paper is to study the microstructures of friction stir welded AZ3I magnesium alloy. Residual microstructures,including dynamic re-crystallization zone and nugget structures have been systematically investigated utilizing optical microscopy (OM), scanning electric microscopy (SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-hardness. AZ31 magnesium alloy has been successfully friction stir welded and exhibits the variations of microstructure including dynamically recrystallized,equaxied grains in the weld nugget. Residual hardness in the nugget was found slightly lower than the parent but not too obvious.

  8. Simulation of cylindrical cup drawing of AZ31 sheet metal with crystal plasticity finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiqin; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Shaorui; Peng, Yinghong

    2013-12-01

    As a light-weight structural material, magnesium alloys show good potential in improving the fuel efficiency of vehicles and reducing CO2 emissions. However, it is well known that polycrystalline Mg alloys develop pronounced crystallographic texture and plastic anisotropy during rolling, which leads to earing phenomenon during deep drawing of the rolled sheets. It is vital to predict this phenomenon accurately for application of magnesium sheet metals. In the present study, a crystal plasticity model for AZ31 magnesium alloy that incorporates both slip and twinning is established. Then the crystal plasticity model is implemented in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS/Explicit through secondary development interface (VUMAT). Finally, the stamping process of a cylindrical cup is simulated using the developed crystal plasticity finite element model, and the predicting method is verified by comparing with experimental results from both earing profile and deformation texture.

  9. Friction stir welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林三宝; 张华; 吴林; 冯吉才; 戴鸿滨

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is an new solid-phase joining technology which has more advantages over fusion welding methods in welding of aluminum and other non-ferrous metals. The effects of welding parameters on mechanical properties and microstructure during friction stir welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy were studied in this paper. Microstructures and mechanical properties of the joints were investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electric microscopy (SEM), micro-hardness analysis, and tensile test. Experimental results show that the magnesium alloy can be successfully welded by FSW method, and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of FSW joint reaches up to 90 percent of base metal. The microstructures of welded joints exhibit the variation from dynamically recrystallized fine grains to greatly deformed grains. Hardness in nugget zone was found lower than the base metal but not too obvious.

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy added with cerium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于思荣; 陈显君; 黄志求; 刘耀辉

    2010-01-01

    The AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet added with 0.5 wt.% Ce was welded with friction stir welding(FSW).The microstructures and mechanical properties of the welded joint were investigated.The results showed that the microstructures in the weld nugget zone were uniform and with small equiaxed grains.The grains in the heat-affected zone and the thermo-mechanical affected zone were coarser than those in the base metal zone and the weld nugget zone.The ultimate tensile strength of AZ31B magnesium alloy added with 0.5...

  11. Forging of Mg-alloys AZ31 and AZ80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehweger, B.; Karabet, A.; Duering, M. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Lightweight Materials ' ' Panta Rhei' ' , Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 17, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Schaeffer, L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2005-05-01

    Mg-wrought alloys recently became an engineer material of constantly increasing interest. The mechanical properties of extruded Mg-feedstock of the alloys AZ80 and AZ31 indicate their suitability for automotive applications in form of high-quality forgings. Therefore a detailed knowledge about the forming behaviour is of particular importance. In order to compare mechanical properties of available Mg-feedstock qualities compression tests at room temperature have been carried out by applying batches of AZ31- and AZ80-feedstock. Cylindrical specimens were made out of received continuously casted as well as extruded AZ31- and AZ80 - rods. A quantitative analysis of Mg-feedstock's microstructure has been carried out. The characterization of the deformability of applied Mg-feedstock under hot working conditions could be performed by means of uniaxial plain strain upsetting tests at temperatures between 300 and 450 C as well as logarithmic strain rates of 10{sup -1}, 1 and 10s{sup -1}. It is shown that the chosen parameter range ensures an enhanced deformability of continuously as well as extruded Mg-feedstock. The subsequently carried out determination of microstructural evolution could be related to obtained flow stress curves of applied batches of Mg-feedstock. Furthermore, FVM/FEM-systems have been employed in order to design a simplified geometry of heated forging dies suitable for forging tests. The tests have been carried out by means of a hydraulic press. During the tests their punch velocity has been varied between 1 and 40 mm/s. Hence numerically simulated results could be confirmed by practical tests. Exemplary forgings of a simplified shape were made out of all applied batches of Mg-feedstock. No remarkable failures have been detected. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Das Interesse an Mg-Knetlegierungen als Konstruktionswerkstoff fuer automobile Anwendung ist in juengster Zeit stark gewachsen. Daher ist eine detaillierte

  12. Influence of hot extrusion on microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ling; TIAN Su-gui; MENG Fan-lai; DU Hong-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Extrusion treatment is a common method to refine the grain size and improve the mechanical properties of metal material. The influence of hot extrusion on microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy was investigated. The results show that the mechanical properties of AZ31 alloy are obviously improved by extrusion treatment. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of AZ31 alloy at room temperature is measured to be 222 MPa, and is enhanced to 265.8 MPa after extrusion at 420℃. The yield tensile strength (YTS) of AZ31 alloy at room temperature is measured to be 84 MPa, and is enhanced to 201 MPa after extrusion at 420℃. The effective improvements on mechanical properties result from the formation of the finer grains during extrusion and the finer particles precipitated by age treatment. The features of the microstructure evolution during hot extruded of AZ31 alloy are dislocation slipping on the matrix and occurrence of the dynamic recrystallization.

  13. Effect of rolling temperature of the magnesium alloy AZ31B formability; Efeito da temperatura de laminacao na deformabilidade da liga de magnesio AZ31B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catorceno, L.L.C.; Zimmermann, A.J.O.; Padilha, A.F., E-mail: litzy.catorceno@poli.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMM/EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The magnesium alloy AZ31B presents an interesting set of properties, which makes it potential candidate for applications in automotive and aeronautics. The main limitation of magnesium alloys is the low capacity of plastic forming at room temperature. The main motivation of this project is to understand and control the microstructure and crystallographic texture of magnesium alloys, to improve their formability. The effect of rolling temperature on the formability of the alloy was studied in this stage of the project. The alloy in the form of annealed and recrystallized sheets (2 mm thick) was deformed by rolling at four different temperatures: 25, 100, 200 and 250 deg C. The microstructural characterization was achieved using several complementary techniques of microstructural analysis, such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray analysis by energy dispersive, X-ray diffraction and microhardness. Results about the effect of rolling temperature on the alloy formability were presented and discussed. (author)

  14. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by Al-Ti-C-Y master alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chunxiang; LU Binfeng; L(U) Zhengling; LIANG Wei

    2008-01-01

    Al-Ti-C-Y master alloy was prepared by combining SHS technique and melting-casting method. The microstructure of master alloy and its grain-refining effect on AZ31 alloy were investigated by means of OM, XRD, SEM and EDS. Experimental results indicated that the prepared master alloy consisted of α-Al, TiAl3, TiC and Al3Y phases, and exhibited good grain-refining performance of AZ31 alloy. Morphology of α-Mg changed from coarse dendritic to fine equiaxed and the average grain size of α-Mg matrix reduced from the original 580 to 170 μm after adding 1.0 wt.% master alloy. The grain refining efficiency of Al-Ti-C-Y master alloy on AZ31 alloy was mainly attributed to heterogeneous nucleation of TiC particles and grain growth restriction of Al-Y compound or TiC at grain boundaries.

  15. Grain refinement in magnesium alloy AZ31 during hot deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xuyue; Miura, H.; Sakai, T. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Intelligent Systems, Univ. of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The deformation behavior and structure changes of magnesium alloy AZ31 were studied in compression at temperatures ranging from 523 K to 673 K and at a strain rate of 3 x 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}. They depend sensitively on deformation temperature. At high temperatures, grain fragmentation takes place due to frequent formation of kink bands initially at corrugated grain boundaries and then in grain interiors, followed by full development of new grains in high strain. At lower temperatures, in contrast, twinning takes place in rather coarse grains and kink bands are formed mainly in finer original ones in low strain. It is concluded that new grain evolution can be controlled by a deformation-induced continuous reaction resulting in grain fragmentation by kink bands, i.e. continuous dynamic recrystallization (cDRX). The latter is discussed comparing with conventional, i.e. discontinuous, DRX. (orig.)

  16. Effect of Annealing on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of 5052/AZ31/5052 Clad Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Huihui; Liang, Wei; Chi, Chengzhong; Li, Xianrong; Fan, Haiwei; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-05-01

    Three-layered 5052Al/AZ31Mg/5052Al (5052/AZ31/5052) clad sheets were fabricated by four-pass rolling and annealed under different conditions. Under the optimal annealing condition, homogeneous and equiaxial grains with an average AZ31 grain size of 5.24 µm were obtained and the maximum values of ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the clad sheet reached 230 MPa and 18%, respectively. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis showed that the AZ31 layer had a typical rolling texture with its c-axis parallel to the normal direction. The fraction of low-angle grain boundaries in the 5052 layer was nearly four times more than that in the AZ31 layer because of different deformation extent and recrystallization driving forces. The textures of Al3Mg2 and Mg17Al12 were similar to that of 5052 because of the deformation coordination during the rolling and recrystallization process. The orientation relationship between Mg17Al12 and AZ31 seemed to be (110) Mg17Al12//(10-11) AZ31.

  17. Characteristics of AZ31 Mg alloy joint using automatic TIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-tao; Zhou, Ji-xue; Zhao, Dong-qing; Liu, Yun-teng; Wu, Jian-hua; Yang, Yuan-sheng; Ma, Bai-chang; Zhuang, Hai-hua

    2017-01-01

    The automatic tungsten-inert gas welding (ATIGW) of AZ31 Mg alloys was performed using a six-axis robot. The evolution of the microstructure and texture of the AZ31 auto-welded joints was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. The ATIGW process resulted in coarse recrystallized grains in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and epitaxial growth of columnar grains in the fusion zone (FZ). Substantial changes of texture between the base material (BM) and the FZ were detected. The {0002} basal plane in the BM was largely parallel to the sheet rolling plane, whereas the c-axis of the crystal lattice in the FZ inclined approximately 25° with respect to the welding direction. The maximum pole density increased from 9.45 in the BM to 12.9 in the FZ. The microhardness distribution, tensile properties, and fracture features of the AZ31 auto-welded joints were also investigated.

  18. Microstructural development of high temperature deformed AZ31 magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahbeigi Roodposhti, Peiman, E-mail: pshahbe@ncsu.edu; Sarkar, Apu; Murty, Korukonda Linga

    2015-02-25

    Due to their significant role in automobile industries, high temperature deformation of Mg–Al–Zn alloys (AZ31) at constant stress (i.e. creep) were studied at a wide range of stresses and temperatures to characterize underlying deformation mechanism, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and dislocation density evolution. Various microstructures (e.g. grain growth & DRX) are noted during steady-state creep mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding (GBS), dislocation glide creep (DGC) and dislocation climb creep (DCC). Although a combination of DRX and grain growth is characteristic of low stacking fault energy materials like Mg alloys at elevated temperatures, observation reveals grain growth at low strain-rates (GBS region) along with dynamic recovery (DRV) mechanism. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a decrease in dislocation density during GBS region while it increased under dislocation based creep mechanisms which could be related to the possible DRV and DRX respectively. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) characterization of the fracture surface reveals more inter-granular fracture for large grains (i.e. GBS region with DRV process) and more dimple shape fracture for small grains (i.e. DGC & DCC region with DRX)

  19. Joining of AZ31 and AZ91 Mg alloys by friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ratna Sunil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two dissimilar magnesium (Mg alloy sheets, one with low aluminium (AZ31 and another with high aluminium (AZ91 content, were successfully joined by friction stir welding (FSW. The effect of process parameters on the formation of hot cracks was investigated. A sound metallurgical joint was obtained at optimized process parameters (1400 rpm with 25 mm/min feed which contained fine grains and distributed β (Mg17Al12 phase within the nugget zone. An increasing trend in the hardness measurements has also confirmed more amount of dissolution of aluminium within the nugget zone. A sharp interface between nugget zone and thermo mechanical affected zone (TMAZ was clearly noticed at the AZ31 Mg alloy side (advancing but not on the AZ91 Mg alloy side (retreating. From the results it can be concluded that FSW can be effectively used to join dissimilar metals, particularly difficult to process metals such as Mg alloys, and hot cracking can be completely eliminated by choosing appropriate process parameters to achieve sound joint.

  20. Corrosion resistance of biodegradable polymeric layer-by-layer coatings on magnesium alloy AZ31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lan-Yue; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Zhu, Xiao-Xiao; Pang, Ting-Ting; Li, Shuo-Qi; Zhang, Fen

    2016-06-01

    Biocompatible polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) and polysiloxane hybrid coatings were prepared to improve the corrosion resistance of biodegradable Mg alloy AZ31. The PEMs, which contained alternating poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), were first self-assembled on the surface of the AZ31 alloy substrate via electrostatic interactions, designated as (PAH/PSS)5/AZ31. Then, the (PAH/PSS)5/AZ31 samples were dipped into a methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) solution to fabricate the PMTMS films, designated as PMTMS/(PAH/PSS)5/AZ31. The surface morphologies, microstructures and chemical compositions of the films were investigated by FE-SEM, FTIR, XRD and XPS. Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and hydrogen evolution measurements demonstrated that the PMTMS/(PAH/PSS)5/AZ31 composite film significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the AZ31 alloy in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). The PAH and PSS films effectively improved the deposition of Ca-P compounds including Ca3(PO4)2 and hydroxyapatite (HA). Moreover, the corrosion mechanism of the composite coating was discussed. These coatings could be an alternative candidate coating for biodegradable Mg alloys.

  1. Effects of grain refinement on mechanical properties and microstructures of AZ31 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cerium was added in AZ31 alloy with the contents of 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% respectively to produce experimental alloys.The grain refinement of Ce in the as-east and rolled AZ31 alloy were studied by using Polyvar-MET optical microscope with a VSM2000 quantitative analysis system, KYKY2000 SEM and Tecnai G2 20 TEM. And the mechanical properties of AZ31+Ce alloy were tested on a CSS-44100 testing system with computerized data acquisition. The results show that the cerium has a good grain refinement effect on the as-cast AZ31 alloy because cerium can build up a solute enriched zone rapidly during the solidification process. The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) grains less than 10 μm can be obtained in hot rolled AZ31+Ce alloy. A cold rolling deformation degree over than 20% and a following annealing at 400 ℃ for 1h will lead to refine and uniform grains with the sizes of about 25μm. The cerium can form dispersed and thermally stable Al4Ce phase that can prohibit the coarsening of grains in AZ31 +Ce alloy during the hot rolling and annealing process.

  2. Rapid coating of AZ31 magnesium alloy with calcium deficient hydroxyapatite using microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yufu, E-mail: Yufu.Ren@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Zhou, Huan [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Nabiyouni, Maryam [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Due to their unique biodegradability, magnesium alloys have been recognized as suitable metallic implant materials for degradable bone implants and bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. However, the extremely high degradation rate of magnesium alloys in physiological environment has restricted its practical application. This paper reports the use of a novel microwave assisted coating technology to improve the in vitro corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg alloy AZ31. Results indicate that a dense calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) layer was uniformly coated on a AZ31 substrate in less than 10 min. Weight loss measurement and SEM were used to evaluate corrosion behaviors in vitro of coated samples and of non-coated samples. It was seen that CDHA coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of AZ31 alloy after 7 days of immersion in SBF. In addition, the prompt precipitation of bone-like apatite layer on the sample surface during immersion demonstrated a good bioactivity of the CDHA coatings. Proliferation of osteoblast cells was promoted in 5 days of incubation, which indicated that the CDHA coatings could improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. All the results suggest that the CDHA coatings, serving as a protective layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys. Furthermore, this microwave assisted coating technology could be a promising method for rapid surface modification of biomedical materials. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted coating process for biodegradable Mg alloy. • CDHA coatings were successfully developed on AZ31 alloy in minutes. • The as-deposited CDHA coatings significantly reduced the degradation rate of AZ31 alloy. • The CDHA coated AZ31 alloy showed good bioactivity and biocompatibility in vitro. • The microwave assisted coating process can be used as rapid surface modification for bioimplants.

  3. In Vitro Studies on the Degradability, Bioactivity, and Cell Differentiation of PRP/AZ31B Mg Alloys Composite Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more methods have been developed to improve the bioactivity of the biodegradable materials in bone tissue regeneration. In present study, we used rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs to evaluate the outcomes of Mg alloys (AZ31B, Magnesium, and Aluminum and Platelet-rich plasma (PRP/Mg alloys on rMSCs biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. Water absorption experiments indicated that both bare AZ31B and PRP/AZ31B were capable of absorbing large amounts of water. But the water absorption ratio for PRP/AZ31B was significantly higher than that for bare AZ31B. The degradability experiments implied that both samples degraded at same speed. rMSCs on the surface of AZ31B distributed more and better than those on the AZ31B scaffold. In ALP activity experiment, the activity of rMSCs on the PRP/AZ31B was markedly higher than that on the AZ31B scaffolds on the 7th day and 14th day. qRT-PCR also showed that OPN and OCN were expressed in both samples. OPN and OCN expression in PRP/AZ31B sample were higher than those in bare AZ31B samples. In summary, the in vitro study implied that AZ31B combined with PRP could remarkably improve cell seeding, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation.

  4. In Vitro Studies on the Degradability, Bioactivity, and Cell Differentiation of PRP/AZ31B Mg Alloys Composite Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian; Xu, Hongwei; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, more and more methods have been developed to improve the bioactivity of the biodegradable materials in bone tissue regeneration. In present study, we used rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) to evaluate the outcomes of Mg alloys (AZ31B, Magnesium, and Aluminum) and Platelet-rich plasma (PRP)/Mg alloys on rMSCs biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. Water absorption experiments indicated that both bare AZ31B and PRP/AZ31B were capable of absorbing large amounts of water. But the water absorption ratio for PRP/AZ31B was significantly higher than that for bare AZ31B. The degradability experiments implied that both samples degraded at same speed. rMSCs on the surface of AZ31B distributed more and better than those on the AZ31B scaffold. In ALP activity experiment, the activity of rMSCs on the PRP/AZ31B was markedly higher than that on the AZ31B scaffolds on the 7th day and 14th day. qRT-PCR also showed that OPN and OCN were expressed in both samples. OPN and OCN expression in PRP/AZ31B sample were higher than those in bare AZ31B samples. In summary, the in vitro study implied that AZ31B combined with PRP could remarkably improve cell seeding, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. PMID:28337451

  5. Characterization of AZ31 magnesium alloy by duplex process combining laser surface melting and plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cancan; Liang, Jun; Zhou, Jiansong; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Lingqian

    2016-09-01

    Top ceramic coatings were fabricated on the laser surface melting (LSM) modified AZ31 alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in a phosphate electrolyte. The effect of LSM treatment on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the bare and PEO treated AZ31 alloy was evaluated. Results showed that LSM treatment produced a homogeneous modified layer with redistributed intermetallic compounds, resulting in enhanced corrosion resistance of AZ31 alloy. The LSM treatment had no obvious influence on the surface and cross-sectional microstructures of the PEO coatings on AZ31 alloy. Besides, MgO was the main constituent for PEO coatings, regardless of LSM pretreatment. However, the long-term corrosion properties of the PEO coated AZ31 alloy with LSM pretreatment revealed large enhancement. Based on the analysis of microstructure and corrosion property, the corrosion mechanisms of the PEO and LSM-PEO coated AZ31 alloy were proposed.

  6. Effect of fiber laser parameters on laser welded AZ31B Magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Salleh Naqiuddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of Magnesium (Mg alloys has been hugely applied in the industrial application such as in automotive, marine, and electronic due to its advantages of recyclability and lightweight. This alloys required low heat input to be weld since it is easily evaporated due to the Magnesium Oxide (MgO at the surface and it also possesses lower melting point compared to steel. Laser welding is more convenient to weld Mg alloys due to its high power and lower heat input. AZ31B was selected since it has strong mechanical properties among others Mg alloys due to the major alloying elements; Aluminium (Al and Zinc (Zn. Low power fiber laser machine with wavelength of 900 nm was used in this experiment. The intention of this work was to investigate the effect of low power fiber laser parameters and effect of shielding gas on weld penetration and microstructure. Another aim in this work was to produce the joint for this thin sheets metal. Penetration depth and microstructure evaluation were emphasized in the analysis section. Bead-on-Plate (BOP and laser lap welding was conducted on AZ31B with thicknesses of 1.0 mm and 0.6 mm for feasibility study using pulsed wave (PW mode. Defocusing features was used in order to find better focal position, which has less occurrence of evaporation (underfill. The effect of different angle of irradiation was also investigated. Two types of shielding gases, Argon (Ar and Nitrogen (N2 were used in order to study the effect of shielding gas. Lastly, the effect of pulsed energy on penetration types and depth of BOP welded samples was investigated. Focus point was found at focal length of 156 mm with 393.75 μm. For BOP experiment, higher pulsed energy used contributes to melt through defect. Meanwhile, Ns shielding gas proved to be better shielding gas in laser welding the AZ31B. Higher angle of irradiation could reduce the underfill defect. Fillet Lap joint of similar metal was successfully done where 2.0 J of

  7. 激光重熔处理对AZ31镁合金表面特性的影响%Effects of Laser Cladding Treatment on Surface Performance of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫中山; 刘六法

    2011-01-01

    Effects of laser cladding treatment on surface performance of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet were observed by the help of Nd-YAG laser. Rapid melting-solidification occurs on the surface of the AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet, and treated surface is composed of re-melting zone and heat history zone.Grain size is apparently refined in the re-melting zone, and hardness is increased by 5 % compared to that of the matrix. Immersing corrosion experiment shows that corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy with laser cladding treatment is greatly improved in 3.5 % NaC1 solution, which is attributed to grain refinement in re-melting zone and enrichment of Al element in cladding surface.%使用Nd-YAG激光器对AZ31镁合金板材表面进行了激光重熔处理,分析了激光重熔处理对其表面特性的影响.在激光扫描时,试样表面发生了快速熔凝,处理层可分为重熔区、热影响区两部分.重熔区的晶粒得到明显细化,硬度比基体提高5%.腐蚀试验表明,AZ31镁合金在激光重熔处理后,在3.5%的NaCl溶液中的耐蚀性得到明显改善.重熔区晶粒细化和Al元素富集是激光重熔表面处理提高其耐蚀性的主要因素.

  8. Effect of Neodymium on As-Cast Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Wrought Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Mingzhao; Fan Jinping; Zhang Junyuan; Liu Xuguang; Xu Bingshe

    2007-01-01

    Nd in the form of powder or intermediate alloy was added to AZ31 wrought alloy. The as-obtained alloy was characterized and tested with respect to its microstructure and mechanical properties. The relationship between the microstructure, mechanical properties and tensile fracture mechanism were discussed, with relevant alloys as reference for comparison. Experimental results show that the same quantity of Nd was added into AZ31 in powder form or in intermediate alloy, the absorption rate of Nd reached only 10.8% for the former case and as high as 95% for the later case. Pure Nd powder was added, no new compound was detected, but it served as reductant and purified alloy melt, resulting in improving the tensile strength while Nd was added into AZ31 as Mg-Nd intermediate alloy. The compound Al2Nd and Mg12 Nd were formed in magnesium alloy, which were distributed in the matrix in the shapes of strip and particle, evidently refined the as-cast structure. The as-cast tensile strength (228MPa) of adding pure Nd powder approximated to the figure (245MPa) of adding Mg-Nd intermediate alloy. The tensile fracture mchanism of as-cast AZ31 transformed from cleavage fracture into quasi-cleavage fracture.

  9. Qualitative Research of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Aircraft Brackets Produced by a New Forging Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziubińska A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a selection of numerical and experimental results of a new closed-die forging method for producing AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib. The numerical modelling of the new forming process was performed by the finite element method.The distributions of stresses, strains, temperature and forces were examined. The numerical results confirmed that the forgings produced by the new forming method are correct. For this reason, the new forming process was verified experimentally. The experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical results. The produced forgings of AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib were then subjected to qualitative tests.

  10. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic stirring under effect of grain-refiner

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Y Gao; Q C Le; Z Q Zhang; J Z Cui

    2012-08-01

    The effects of electromagnetic stirring and Al4C3 grain refiner on the grain refinement of semicontinuously cast AZ31 magnesium alloy were discussed in this investigation. The results indicate that electromagnetic stirring has an effective refining effect on the grain size of AZ31 magnesium alloy under the effect of Al4C3 grain refiner. Electromagnetic stirring can `activate’ the Al4C3 particles, resulting in more heterogeneous nucleation sites for the primary -Mg grains. But, longer holding time can `deactivate’ the Al4C3 particles and poison the grain refining effect.

  11. In vitro Study on Biodegradable AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Fibers Reinforced PLGA Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.H.Wu; N.Li; Y.Cheng; Y.F.Zheng; Y.Han

    2013-01-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy fibers reinforced poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composites were prepared and their mechanical property,immersion corrosion behavior and biocompatibility were studied.The tensile test showed that with the addition of AZ31 fibers,the composites had a significant increment in tensile strength and elongation.For the direct cell attachment test,all the cells showed a healthy morphology and spread well on the experimental sample surfaces.The immersion results indicated that pH values of the immersion medium increased with increasing AZ31 fiber contents.All the in vitro experimental results indicated that this new kind of magnesium alloy fibers reinforced PLGA composites show a potential for future biomedical applications.

  12. Deformation behaviour and microstructure development of magnesium AZ 31 alloy during hot and semi-hot deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawalla, R.; Stolnikov, A. [Institut fuer Metallformung, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Deformation properties and microstructure development between 20 and 450 C were investigated for Magnesium AZ31 alloy. It was found that this alloy softens preferably by dynamic recrystallisation. This process starts at suitable deformation conditions above 150 C. However, the temperature region above 250 C is more interesting for the production process the semi-finished products. The recrystallised grain size depends heavily on the deformation temperature. A grain size with a mean diameter smaller than 10 {mu}m can be created below 300 C. For further processing of Magnesium sheets, temperatures above 100 C are suitable, but temperatures above 300 C are responsible for superplasticity. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Tensile properties of AZ31 sheet/bar and effects of texture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qing; G. ITOH; Y. MOTOHASHI

    2006-01-01

    For understanding the deformation mechanism of AZ31 Mg alloy, two kinds of specimen, hot-rolled sheet and extruded bar were tested in tension at room temperature. Relatively small grain sizes ranging from 32 to 8.7 (m are obtained by annealing at several temperatures. And then they were further cold-rolled with rolling angles of 0-, 45- and 90-, which is the angle between the rolling and the longitude direction of as-received specimen, and annealed at a temperature in recrystallization field. The yield stress were found from the stress-strain curve. The grain size dependence of the yield stress is found not in agreement with the Hall-Petch relationship. The texture of (0002) pole figure of each kind of specimen was tested by X-ray diffractometer. The specimen with strong basal texture shows large yield stress and low work-hardening rate, while the specimen with weak basal texture shows low yield stress and rapid work-hardening rate. These results are interpreted by the slip system activated in the different textures. A combined slip system was used to interpret the yield stress variation with the texture and the deformation mechanism was discussed.

  14. Comparison of corrosion behaviors of AZ31, AZ91,AM60 and ZK60 magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ying-liang; QIN Ting-wei; WANG Hui-min; ZHANG Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion behaviours of four kinds of rolled magnesium alloys of AZ31, AZ91, AM60 and ZK60 were studied in 1 mol/L sodium chloride solution. The results of EIS and potentiodynamic polarization show that the corrosion resistance of the four materials is ranked as ZK60>AM60>AZ31>AZ91. The corrosion processes of the four magnesium alloys were also analyzed by SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS). The results show that the corrosion patterns of the four alloys are localized corrosion and the galvanic couples formed by the second phase particles and the matrix are the main source of the localized corrosion of magnesium alloys. The corrosion resistance of the different magnesium alloys has direct relationship with the concentration of alloying elements and microstructure of magnesium alloys. The ratio of the β phase in AZ91 is higher than that in AZ31 and the β phase can form micro-galvanic cell with the alloy matrix, as a result, the corrosion resistance of AZ31 will be higher than AZ91. The manganese element in AM60 magnesium alloy can form the second phase particle of AlMnFe, which can reduce the Fe content in magnesium alloy matrix, purifying the microstructure of alloy, as a result, the corrosion resistance of AM60 is improved. However, due to the more noble galvanic couples of AlMnFe and matrix, the microscopic corrosion morphology of AM60 is more localized. The zirconium element in ZK60 magnesium alloy can refine grain, form stable compounds with Fe and Si, and purify the composition of alloy, which results in the good corrosion resistance of ZK60 magnesium alloy.

  15. Phosphating process of AZ31 magnesium alloy and corrosion resistance of coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ying-liang; WU Hai-lan; CHEN Zhen-hua; WANG Hui-min; LI Ling-ling

    2006-01-01

    Zinc phosphate films were formed on AZ31 magnesium alloy by immersing into a phosphatation bath to enhance the corrosion resistance of AZ31. Different films were prepared by changing the processing parameters such as immersing time and temperature. The corrosion protection of the coatings was studied by electrochemical measurements such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and the structure of the films were studied by metalloscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that, the film formed at 80 ℃, 10 min has the highest corrosion resistance. The XRD patterns show that the film consists of hopeite (Zn3(PO4)2·xH2O).

  16. Transition in Deformation Mechanism of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy during High-Temperature Tensile Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Noda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys can be used for reducing the weight of various structural products, because of their high specific strength. They have attracted considerable attention as materials with a reduced environmental load, since they help to save both resources and energy. In order to use Mg alloys for manufacturing vehicles, it is important to investigate the deformation mechanism and transition point for optimizing the material and vehicle design. In this study, we investigated the transition of the deformation mechanism during the high-temperature uniaxial tensile deformation of the AZ31 Mg alloy. At a test temperature of 523 K and an initial strain rate of 3×10−3 s-1, the AZ31 Mg alloy (mean grain size: ~5 μm exhibited stable deformation behavior and the deformation mechanism changed to one dominated by grain boundary sliding.

  17. Investigation of the passive behaviour of AZ31B alloy in alkaline solutions

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fattah-alhosseini; M. Sabaghi Joni

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the passivity of AZ31B alloy in NaOH solutions was studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott–Schottky analysis. Potentiodynamic polarization results indicated that decreasing NaOH concentration leads to decrease the corrosion rate of this alloy. EIS results showed that the reciprocal capacitance (1/C) of the passive film is directly proportional to its thickness which increases with decreasing NaOH concentration. Therefore, it...

  18. Torsional and axial damping properties of the AZ31B-F magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anes, V.; Lage, Y. E.; Vieira, M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Freitas, M.; Reis, L.

    2016-10-01

    Damping properties for the AZ31B-F magnesium alloy were evaluated for pure axial and pure shear loading conditions at room temperature. Hysteretic damping results were measured through stress-strain controlled tests. Moreover, the magnesium alloy viscous damping was measured with frequency response functions and free vibration decay, both results were obtained by experiments. The axial and shear damping ratio (ASDR) has been identified and described, specifically for free vibration conditions.

  19. Magnetic force improvement and parameter optimization for magnetic abrasive polishing of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic force acting on workpieee to be machined plays a significantly important role in magnetic abrasive polishing process.But in a case of polishing nonferrous materials,the strength of magnetic force is very low and it leads lower polishing efficiency.The magnesium alloy that has superior mechanical properties for industrial application such as a lightweight and high specific strength is one of the most famous nonferrous materials.An improving strategy of the magnetic force for me AZ31 magnesium alloy installed with a permanent magnet was proposed and experimental verification Was carded out.For the proposed strategy,the effect of process parameters on the surface roughness of the AZ31 magnesium alloy Was evaluated by a design of experimental method.

  20. AZ31镁合金热变形过程中的流变应力%The Flow Stress During Hot Deformation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆; 林金保; 黄庆学; 王翀

    2014-01-01

    在Gleeble-1500热模拟试验机和UTM5305实验机上以不同的变形条件对AZ31镁合金进行高温热变形试验,研究该材料在高温热变形过程中的真应力应变。研究结果证明:在变形过程中的AZ31镁合金的真应力随应变速率增大、变形温度降低而升高。在压缩变形过程中的真应力峰值、真应变和动态再结晶与拉伸变形过程相比有明显差异;该镁合金热变形过程中的真应力为用包含Arrhenius项的Zener-Hollomon参数来描述,其压缩拉伸变形激活能分别为132.38 kJ/mol和Q=255.26 kJ/mol.%The behaviors of flow stress of alloy AZ31 Magnesium Alloy during high-temperature deformation were studied by isothermal deformation test on Gleeble-1500 and UTM5305 thermal mechanical simulator. The results show that the true stress increases with the strain rate and decreases with temperature. Compared with the tensile deformation process,the peak of true stress,true strain and dynamic recrystallization of compression process has a significant difference. The flow stress of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy during hot deformation can be described by using Zener-Hollomon parameter including Arrhenius item,and the compression deformation activation energy is 132. 38 kJ/mol,the tensile deformation activation energy is 255. 26 kJ/mol.

  1. Hot deformation behavior of a spray-deposited AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongbing; CHEN Yunbo; CUI Hua; DING Jie; ZUO Lingli; ZHANG Jishan

    2009-01-01

    The flow stress behavior of an as-spray-deposited AZ31 magnesium alloy with fine grains was investigated by means of compression tests with a Gleeble 1500 thermal mechanical simulator at isothermal constant strain rates of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 s-1; the testing temperatures ranged from 623 to 723 K. It is demonstrated that a linear equation can be fitted between the Zemer-Hollomon parameter Z and stress in a double-log scale. The effect of deformation parameters on the behavior of recrystallization was analyzed. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) generally occurs at a higher temperature and at a lower strain rate. The constitutive equation of the spray-deposited AZ31 magnesium alloy is elevated temperatures due to the fine grain, which provides a large amount of nucleation sites and a high-diffnsivity path for the atom.

  2. Corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy treated with La3+ modified 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane conversion film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔英杰; 李文鹏; 王桂香; 张晓红

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated the influence of addition concentration of La3+ on the anti-corrosion behavior of a 3-methacry-loxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) film formed on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The morphology and surface chemistry of the samples were evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the pre-treated AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied during immersion in 0.1 mol/L NaCl solution, using poten-tiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). In comparison to MPS film, the low concentration of La3+ ion modified silane layer exhibited a better anti-corrosion performance, nevertheless, the high concentration of La3+ ion modified was worse. Results showed that the preferable addition concentration of La3+ ion in the silane film was 5×10–4 mol/L in this experi-ment.

  3. Jnhmicro-texture of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in Situ Tracking During Compressing Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-texture evolvement mechanism of AZ31 magnesium alloy during compressing deformation had been studied in situ tracking method by EBSD(Electron backscatter diffraction. The micro-texture at same observation areas, which compressed three times continually at different deformation degree, had been investigated. The results presented that the micro-texture of AZ31 magnesium alloy rolling state is typical (0001 basic texture. When deformation degree was 11% and the temperature was 170ଌ, grains orientation changed remarkably, and most grains had been twined fully and little grains twined partially. The initial basical rolling texture weakened gradually, and twined grains tropism accorded with $ \\lt 10\\bar 10 \\gt $ and 86.3° $ \\lt \\bar 12\\bar 10 \\gt $ orientation.

  4. Theoretical and experimental research of hammer forging process of RIM from AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gontarz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of theoretical analysis and experimental tests of hammer forging process of rim part from AZ31 magnesium alloy are presented in this paper. On the basis of numerical simulation results, the analysis of limiting phenomena was made. These phenomena include: possibility of overlapping presence, not filling of die impression, overheating of material and cracks. The results of theoretical analysis provided the support for planning of experimental tests in industrial conditions. Forging tests were conducted in one of Polish forming plants, applying steam-air hammer of blow energy 63 kJ. On the basis of experimental verification, it was stated that it is possible to obtain rim forging from AZ31 alloy of assumed quality in the hammer forging process.

  5. Electrodeposition of a protective copper/nickel deposit on the magnesium alloy (AZ31)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gfehu@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Wang, T.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Weirich, T. [Gemeinschaeftslabor fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Neubert, V. [Zentrum fuer Funktionswerkstoe GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    An environmental-friendly Cu electrodeposition process was proposed for the Magnesium alloy (AZ 31). Experimental results show that a good bonding between Cu deposit and Mg alloy surface can be achieved with a pretreatment of galvanostatic etching and then copper electrodeposition in the alkaline copper-sulfate plating bath. Microstructures between Cu deposit and Mg alloy substrate were examined with scanning electron and energy-filtering transmission electron microscopes (SEM and EF-TEM). The Cu-deposited Mg alloy can be further electroplated in acidic Cu and Ni plating baths to acquire a protective Cu/Ni deposit.

  6. Simulation of deformation twins and deformation texture in an AZ31 Mg alloy under uniaxial compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon 540-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shihoon@sunchon.ac.kr; Shin, E.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Physics Department, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, B.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Physics Department, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    To investigate deformation twins and the evolution of deformation texture during plastic deformation, uniaxial compression tests on a hot-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy were carried out at 200 deg. C. Cylindrical specimens were then compressed in both the rolling and the normal directions. The findings revealed that texture evolution, work hardening and macroscopic anisotropy are strongly dependent on the loading direction. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis was used to examine the orientation of parent grains and twin bands in the AZ31 Mg alloy under uniaxial compression. A viscoplastic self-consistent model (VPSC) was theoretically employed to calculate the relative activities of slip and twin systems in polycrystalline hexagonal aggregates under uniaxial compression. Each deformed grain exhibited an independent number and type of twin variants under uniaxial compression. Neutron diffraction was used to measure the macroscopic texture of the AZ31 Mg alloy. The VPSC model was used to simulate texture evolution, work hardening and macroscopic anisotropy during the uniaxial compression. A modified predominant twin reorientation (PTR) scheme was suggested to explain the gradual increase in twin volume in deformed grains.

  7. Microstructure and texture evolution during warm compression of the magnesium alloy AZ31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jia; GODFREYB Andy; LIU Qing

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and texture with strain during compression at 150℃ of the mag-nesium alloy AZ31 has been investigated using the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) tech-nique. The initial samples were chosen to have a strong basal plane texture with the crystal c-axes perpendicular to the compression direction. The EBSD data provide evidence concerning the relative activity of both {10-12} extension twinning and slip, and suggest that non-basal <c+a> slip is important in samples deformed to a strain of more than 0.2. The relative contributions of the twinning and the slip during deformation have been discussed based on the results above.AZ31, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), texture, slip, twinning.

  8. Chemical conversion coating on AZ31B magnesium alloy and its corrosion tendency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hualan JIN; Xiangjie YANG; Ming WANG

    2009-01-01

    The morphology change of the magnesium matrix after pre-treatment and the mor-phology as well as the phase composition of chemical conversion coating formed by phosphate were studied using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion resistance of the coating was studied by salt spray and damp test, and the corrosion tendency during salt immersion test was analyzed. The results show that the phase composition before and after pre-treatment is almost change- less, and the deep microflaw appears between α and β phases during acidic pickling. The phosphate conversion coating is mainly composed of Mg, MgO, and some amor-phous phase, and it can provide a good protection for the AZ31B alloy. Results from corrosive morphology indicate that the growth and the corrosion resistance of the phosphate conversion coating are related to the forming process of the AZ31B matrix.

  9. Ballistic Evaluation of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    S. Burkins, and William A. Gooch Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Richard D. DeLorme Magnesium Elektron North America, Inc...ballistic properties. In order to fill this gap, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Magnesium Elektron North America (MENA), Inc., conducted a...plate (H24 condition). The magnesium plate was alloyed, cast, rolled, thermally treated and tensile tested by Magnesium Elektron North America (MENA

  10. Recycling of AZ31 Mg alloy with high purity Mg deposition layer by hot working (solid recycling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chino, Y.; Mabuchi, M. [Inst. for Structural and Engineering Materials, National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Yamamoto, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Tsubakino, H. [Div. of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Himeji Inst. of Tech., Himeji (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Solid recycling of AZ31 Mg alloy with vapor deposition coating layer of high purity Mg was evaluated. In the open die forging experiments, two AZ31 Mg alloy specimens with the pure Mg layer were sufficiently bonded by forging at 673 K. Furthermore, the Al and Zn of the AZ31 substrate diffused up to the center of the pure Mg layer. By the theoretical analysis, it is suggested that the grain boundary diffusion enhanced by grain refinement due to hot forging contributes to the solid state bonding of the specimens. Also, the solid recycled specimen was fabricated from the AZ31 Mg substrate with pure Mg layer by hot extrusion at 673 K. The solid recycled specimen showed almost the same tensile properties as the virgin extruded specimen. This is probably related not only to the grain boundary diffusion but also severe plastic deformation by hot extrusion. (orig.)

  11. Mechanical properties of homogenized twin-roll cast and conventionally cast AZ31 magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Zimina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of mechanical properties of magnesium alloys nowadays is very important, because of the variety of industrial applications. For this goal, the number of casting techniques and further treatments were developed. Among the continuous casting techniques, which allow producing long strips of the alloys, is twin-roll casting. Using this process one can get the magnesium alloy with finest microstructure and higher specific strength. In this paper the comparison of tensile properties of conventionally cast and twin-roll cast AZ31 magnesium alloys was made. Tensile tests were carried out with constant strain rate 10-3 s-1 at temperatures ranging from 100 to 300 °C. Both materials were tested in as-cast state and after homogenization treatment at 450 °C for 10 hours. The investigation showed that there are no significant changes in ductility of AZ31 conventionally cast alloy even after heat treatment, while the ductility of twin-roll cast alloy increases.

  12. Microstructural Aspects of Damage and Fracture in AZ31 Sheet Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jidong; Wilkinson, David S.; Mishra, Raja K.; Embury, J. David; Essadiqi, Elhachmi; Javaid, Amjad

    2013-05-01

    There are considerable data in the literature dealing with deformation mechanisms in AZ31 sheets. However, there is little information on the damage and fracture processes in this material. In this contribution, digital image correlation is used to follow deformation patterns occurring during tensile and v-bending tests at room temperature. A variety of surface analysis techniques and three-dimensional x-ray tomography have been used to examine the relationship between deformation, damage initiation, and the final fracture processes. The results show that premature diffuse necking occurs in the tensile tests without transit into localized necking. Deformation twins cluster by an autocatalytic process to form shear bands serving as preferential sites for strain localization and crack initiation. Damage appears in the form of microcracks within the shear bands at a late stage of necking and lead to the final fracture. The presence and the distribution of second-phase particles and their distributions help accelerate the final fracture processes.

  13. AZ31B镁合金TIG焊接件应力腐蚀性能研究%Research on the Properties of Stress Corrosion Cracking for Tungsten Inert-Gas Arc Welded AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛茂忠; 项建云; 张永康

    2013-01-01

    为了研究AZ31B镁合金钨极氩弧焊接件应力腐蚀性能,室温下采用三点加载的方式,在去离子水中对试样进行应力腐蚀试验.利用光学显微镜(OM)观测试样微观结构,利用扫描电镜(SEM)观测应力腐蚀断口,利用X-350A型X射线应力仪和CHI660B型电化学工作站分别测定试样表面残余应力和动电位极化曲线.试验结果表明:采用单面焊双面成型工艺,在45~50 A的焊接电流及合适的焊接速度条件下,焊接2.2 mm厚AZ31B镁合金薄板时,钨极氩弧焊能够获得理想的焊接接头,抗拉强度达到209 MPa;焊接件热影响区表面残余拉应力为60 MPa;同母材相比,焊接件自腐蚀电位减小27 mV,腐蚀电流增大了41.4%,从而增加焊接件腐蚀倾向;AZ31B焊接件在去离子水中浸没192 h后出现应力腐蚀开裂,属于穿晶型脆性断裂,这表明AZ31B镁合金焊接件在去离子水中具有很高的应力腐蚀敏感性.%In order to study the properties of the stress corrosion cracking (SCO for the tungsten inert-gas (TIG) arc welded AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets, the SCC susceptibility of the welded samples was assessed by three points loading method in deionized water at room temperature. The microstructure of specimens and fracture surfaces were analyzed by OM and SEM, respectively. Surface residual stress and potentiodynamic polarization behaviors of the welded samples were examined by using X-ray diffraction technology and a CHI660B electrochemical workstation, respectively. The results show that when TIG arc welding was used to weld AZ31B Mg alloy plates with the thickness of 2. 2 mm by using single-side welding double-side molding process, the ideal welding joints can be obtained at the welding current range from 45 A to 50 A and appropriate welding speed, the ultimate tensile strength of the welded joints is 209 Mpa; The residual tensile stress is 60 Mpa in the surface of heat effected zone of the welded joints; corrosion potential

  14. Tailoring degradation of AZ31 alloy by surface pre-treatment and electrospun PCL fibrous coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanas, T. [Medical Materials Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut, Kerala 673601 (India); Sampath Kumar, T.S., E-mail: tssk@iitm.ac.in [Medical Materials Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Perumal, Govindaraj; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology - Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2016-08-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy was coated with polycaprolactone (PCL) nano-fibrous layer using electrospinning technique so as to control degradation in physiological environment. Before coating, the alloy was treated with HNO{sub 3} to have good adhesion between the coating and substrate. To elucidate the role of pre-treatment and coating, samples only with PCL coating as well as HNO{sub 3} treatment only were prepared for comparison. Best coating adhesion of 4B grade by ASTM D3359–09 tape test was observed for pre-treated samples. The effect of coating on in vitro degradation and biomineralization was studied using supersaturated simulated body fluid (SBF 5 ×). The weight loss and corrosion results obtained by immersion test showed that the combination of HNO{sub 3} pre-treatment and PCL coating is very effective in controlling the degradation rate and improving bioactivity. Cytotoxicity studies using L6 cells showed that PCL coated sample has better cell adhesion and proliferation compared to uncoated samples. Nano-fibrous PCL coating combined with prior acid treatment seems to be a promising method to tailor degradation rate with enhanced bioactivity of Mg alloys. - Highlights: • PCL electrospun coating on HNO{sub 3} pre-treated AZ31 alloy controls biodegradation. • Acid pre-treatment stabilizes the substrate - coating interface. • Electrospun porous coating improves biomineralization. • Coating similar to extracellular matrix enhances cell adhesion.

  15. The relation between severe plastic deformation microstructure and corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hamu, G. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Eliezer, D. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Clausthal (Germany)], E-mail: deliezer@bgu.ac.il; Wagner, L. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, TU Clausthal (Germany)

    2009-01-22

    The quest for ever, higher performance in structural applications has resulted in the outgoing development of new or improved materials with novel crystallographic textures, microstructures, and compositions. However, commercial applicability of such materials depends heavily on the development of economical and robust manufacturing methods. Due to the promise of excellent properties, such as superplasticity, high strength, good ductility, enhanced high cycle fatigue life, and good corrosion resistance, interest has grown in nanostructure bulk materials. Those materials are defined most often as materials exhibiting nanocrystalline grain structures and particle sizes below 100 nm in at least one dimension. In recent years, bulk nanostructure materials processed by methods of severe plastic deformation (SPD) such as equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) have attracted the growing interest of specialists in materials science. The main object of this research is to compare the microstructural changing and corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy AZ31 after extrusion and severe plastic deformation by ECAE process. The ECAE process can produce intense and uniform deformation by simple shear and provides a convenient procedure for introducing an ultra fine grain size into a material. The samples were prepared by using hot extrusion methods. Hardness and AC and DC polarization tests were carried out on the extruded rods, and the microstructure was examined using optical, electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and EDS. The results showed that the severe plastic deformation process affected both the microstructure and the corrosion behavior of AZ31 Mg alloy. These results can be explained by the effects of the process on microstructure of AZ31 Mg alloy such as grain size and dislocation density caused by the change in recrystallization behavior.

  16. Research status and development tendency of welding technology of AZ31B magnesium alloy%AZ31B镁合金焊接技术研究现状及发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奋军; 王憨鹰

    2013-01-01

    Welding characteristics of magnesium alloy are analyzed,and welding processes of AZ31B magnesium alloy are introduced,including laser welding,brazing,diffusion welding,friction stir welding,TIG,electron beam welding and so on. The future directions of welding technology of AZ31B magnesium alloy are pointed out.%分析镁合金的焊接特点,综述了近年来AZ31B镁合金的焊接方法,包括激光焊、钎焊、扩散焊、搅拌摩擦焊、TIG焊、电子束焊等,展望了AZ31B镁合金的焊接研究方向。

  17. Semiconducting behavior of the anodically passive films formed on AZ31B alloy

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fattah-alhosseini; M. Sabaghi Joni

    2014-01-01

    This work includes determination of the semiconductor character and estimation of the dopant levels in the passive film formed on AZ31B alloy in 0.01 M NaOH, as well as the estimation of the passive film thickness as a function of the film formation potential. Mott–Schottky analysis revealed that the passive films displayed n-type semiconductive characteristics, where the oxygen vacancies and interstitials preponderated. Based on the Mott–Schottky analysis, it was shown that the calculated do...

  18. Hot deformation mechanisms and microstructural control in high-temperature extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Y.V.R.K.; Rao, K.P. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (China)

    2007-07-15

    A Processing map has been developed for Magnesium alloy AZ31 extruded at 450 C which revealed that the extruded rods may be further processed into components industrially at 400 C and at a strain rate of 10 s{sup -1}. If processed at lower strain rates in the vicinity of 0.1 s{sup -1}, unusual grain size variations with temperature and strain rate are observed, suggesting that grain size control will be difficult. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Relationships between deformation mechanisms and initial textures in polycrystalline magnesium alloys AZ31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping(杨平); CUI Fen-ge(崔凤娥); BIAN Jian-hua(边建华); G Gottstein

    2003-01-01

    Microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and EBSD analysis were applied to inspect the relationships between deformation mechanisms and initial textures in polycrystalline magnesium alloys AZ31. It is found that different deformation mechanisms proceed according to theoretic prediction. Basal slips occur when basal planes of grains are tilted toward normal direction(ND) around transverse direction(TD); prism slips dominate when basal planes are perpendicular to TD. {1012} twinning was favored when basal planes are normal to rolling direction(RD) and {1011} twinning is analyzed to be related to the basal orientation of grains.

  20. Residual Stresses in Microarc Oxidation Ceramic Coatings on Biocompatible AZ31 Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yanhong; Xiong, Wenming; Ning, Chengyun; Zhang, Jing

    2012-06-01

    Ceramic coatings have been successfully prepared on biocompatible AZ31 magnesium alloy substrates using microarc oxidation (MAO) technique. Residual stresses attributed to the MgO constituent of the coatings at different oxidation voltages have been evaluated by x-ray diffraction using the sin2 ψ method. It is found that tensile residual stresses were present in the coatings, and they decreased from 1418 to 545 MPa as the oxidation voltages increased from 250 to 350 V. Correlations between the residual stresses and microstructural morphology have been discussed. The residual stress characteristics are attributed to the microcracks and the new phase formation during the MAO process.

  1. Hot-deformation behaviors of AZ31 alloys with different initial states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The hot-deformation behaviors of three types of AZ31 samples, extruded sheet, hot rolled sheet and east rod were studied.These samples had different initial grain size and texture. Compression deformation of these samples was carried out using a Gleeble 1500D under a series of thermal deformation conditions. Mierostructure and texture of the initial and deformed samples were examined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The flow curves for all these three types of samples shifted upward with strain rate increasing. Significant grain refinement was noticed in the hot rolled sheet sample. The grain size was reduced to 3.7 μm after 50% (ε=0.69) compression. The DRX grains in both the extruded rod and hot rolled sheet samples presented the same basal plane texture, irrespective of the difference in the initial texture of the samples.

  2. Experimental study of fluoride coating on the degradation of magnesium alloy AZ31B in vitro%氟涂层对AZ31B镁合金植入初期降解作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟丽芳; 李洪洋; 王秋旭; 艾红军

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察氟涂层对AZ31B镁合金植入初期降解速度的影响.方法 分别将无涂层(对照组)和氟涂层(观察组)的AZ31B镁合金浸泡于骨细胞培养基DMEM溶液(模拟体液),分别于浸泡1、3、5、7、14 d时后观察两组模拟体液pH值,扫描电镜下观察两组浸泡前和浸泡7 d时AZ31B镁合金材料表面形貌.结果 对照组镁合金浸泡1、3、5、7、14 d模拟体液pH值分别为7.51±0.15、8.32±0.10、9.36±0.10、9.79±0.09、9.87±0.09,呈升高趋势,观察组分别为7.29±0.07、7.44±0.06、7.47±0.11、7.65±0.11、7.74±0.08,各时点pH值相比,P均>0.05.对照组浸泡前镁合金表面相对光滑,观察组镁合金表面致密、光滑,有一些同向的纹理;浸泡7 d后,无涂层AZ31B镁合金表面呈龟裂状;氟涂层AZ31B镁合金表面无明显改变,可见散在腐蚀凹陷.结论 氟涂层可以在一定程度上抑制AZ31B镁合金植入初期的降解作用.%Objective To study the viability of using magnesium alloy AZ31B coated with fluoride as biodegradable bone scaffolds materials.Methods Pieces of magnesium alloy AZ31B uncoated and coated with fluoride were immersed in DMEM culture medium respectively.The changes of the DMEM culture medium's pH valules and morphology of magnesium alloy AZ31B uncoated or coated were evaluated after immersion.Results The pH values of DMEM solution immersed by magnesium alloy AZ31B uncoated after 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 d were 7.51 ±0.15, 8.32 ±0.10, 9.36 ±0.10, 9.79 ±0.09,9.87 ± 0.09, while that immersed by magnesium alloy AZ31B ooated with flouride were 7.29 ± 0.07, 7.44 ± 0.06, 7.47 ± 0.11,7.65 ± 0.1 1, 7.74 ± 0.08 ( all P > 0.05 ).Before immersed, the surface of magnesium alloy AZ31B was smooth,while magnesium alloy AZ31B coated with fluoride was density and smooth texture.After immersed for 7 d, the surface of magnesium alloy AZ31B uncoated was corroded severely and the surface of magnesium alloy AZ31B coated with fluoride changed a little and

  3. TiO2 Deposition on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO has been used in the past as a useful surface treatment technique to improve the anticorrosion properties of Mg alloys by forming protective layer. Coatings were prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy in phosphate electrolyte with the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO. This present work focuses on developing a TiO2 functional coating to create a novel electrophotocatalyst while observing the surface morphology, structure, composition, and corrosion resistance of the PEO coating. Microstructural characterization of the coating was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM followed by image analysis and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX. The corrosion resistance of the PEO treated samples was evaluated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and DC polarization tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl. The XRD pattern shows that the components of the oxide film include Mg from the substrate as well as MgO and Mg2TiO4 due to the TiO2 nanoparticle addition. The results show that the PEO coating with TiO2 nanoparticles did improve the corrosion resistance when compared to the AZ31 substrate alloy.

  4. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, S., E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  5. Effects of RE on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Hot-Extruded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 陈维平; 张卫文; 张大童; 李元元

    2004-01-01

    Effects of rare earth (RE) additions on microstructure and mechanical properties of the wrought AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated. The results show that, by adding 0.3%, 0.6% and 1.0% RE elements, the as-cast microstructure can be refined, and the as-cast alloys′ elongation and tensile strength can be improved. After extrusion, the alloy with 0.3% and 0.6% RE additions obtain a finer microstructure and the best mechanical properties, but the alloy with 1.0% RE addition has the coarse Al-RE compound particles in grain boundaries which decreased elongation and tensile properties. Usually, Rare earth (RE) elements were used to improve the creep properties of aluminium-containing magnesium pressure die cast alloys at elevated temperatures. In this paper, it is also found that the high temperature strength of extruded materials can be increased by RE elements additions.

  6. 挤压态AZ31镁合金高周疲劳行为%High Cycle Fatigue Properties of Extruded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武艳军; 朱荣; 卢田; 王经涛

    2011-01-01

    为探讨镁合金拉/压强度不对称对疲劳性能的影响,对AZ31镁合金进行了室温应力控制疲劳实验,研究应变幅、峰值应变、循环能量参数随周次的演化,并采用光学显微镜观察表面形貌.结果表明:疲劳初期AZ31镁合金滞后环呈现不对称,200周次后不对称消失;峰值压缩应变随周次增加而变小,在约200周次时转变为拉伸应变;裂纹在材料表面孪晶带处形核,并沿孪晶面扩展.由于AZ31镁合金独特的织构与晶格特点,疲劳过程中交替出现的孪生与去孪生导致了滞后环的不对称,孪晶在裂纹形核及扩展中具有重要作用.%A number of uniaxial stress-controlled cyclic loading experiments are conducted for extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy in order to investigate the influence of tension-compression asymmetry on fatigue properties. The cyclic strain amplitude, peak strain and energy parameter are studied. The results show that the hysteresis loops exhibit asymmetry during initial fatigue cycles ,but this asymmetry vanishes after 200 cycles. The peak compressive strain gradually decreases, and it reverses to tensile strain at about 200 cycle. Fatigue crack initiates at the twin bands in the surface,and the crack propagates along with specific twin boundaries. Twining and detwinning behaviors are often observed in the fatigue process due to texture and deformation mechanism, leading to the hysteresis loop asymmetry. The twins are crucial to the crack initiation and propagation.

  7. 挤压AZ31B镁合金多轴疲劳寿命预测%MULTIAXIAL FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION FOR EXTRUDED AZ31B MAGNESIUM ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊缨; 程利霞

    2012-01-01

    采用挤压AZ31B镁合金薄壁圆筒试样,分别进行了单轴和多轴加载下的对称应变控制疲劳实验,研究了不同加载路径对疲劳寿命的影响.单轴加载包括对称拉压和扭转路径,多轴加载包括45°比例加载和90°非比例加载路径.结果表明,在加载的等效应变幅值为0.3% 0.55%附近,4种加载路径下的应变-寿命曲线均出现了不连续的拐点;比例加载路径在等效应变幅大于0.45%时疲劳寿命最高,拉压路径在等效应变幅小于0.45%时疲劳寿命最高;非比例加载路径的疲劳寿命最低.使用基于临界平面法的多轴疲劳模型FS,SWT以及修正SWT分别预测了各个路径加载下的疲劳寿命.预测结果表明,SWT模型对于拉压和循环扭转加载下寿命预测结果误差较大;FS模型与修正SWT模型可以较好地预测挤压AZ31B镁合金各个路径加载下的疲劳寿命.%Magnesium alloy components were widely used in automobile and aircraft industries, due to their light weight, high specific strength, stiffness, damping capacity, machinability, and recyclability. Engineering components subjected cyclic loading inevitably and led to fatigue failure. Most studies on magnesium alloy were focus on uniaxial fatigue, very limited work has been done of magnesium alloys under multiaxial loading. In this study, strain-controlled multiaxial fatigue experiments were conducted on extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy using thin-walled tubular specimens in ambient air. Four loading paths, including fully reversed tension-compression, cyclic torsion, 45° in-phase axial-torsion and 90° out-of-phase axial-torsion, were adopted in the fatigue experiments. It is observed that the strain-life curve displays a distinguishable kink under each loading path at the equivalent strain amplitude around 0.3% to 0.55%. The fatigue life -under the proportional loading path is the highest when equivalent strain amplitudes higher than 0.45%, and the fatigue

  8. Effects of Hot Rolling Processes onMicrostructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy%热轧工艺对AZ31镁合金组织和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴健旗; 颜永松; 陈强; 吴桂林

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of three different hot rolling processes and subsequent annealing on microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy. AZ31 sheets were fabricated by large strain hot rolling (LSHR),accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) and normal hot rolling and subsequent annealing. Tensile test were conducted on the samples with different states. The EBSD and optical microscope were used to analyze the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of the samples. The results showed that excellent mechanical properties can be achieved by serve plastic deformation process and a suitable heat treatment. LSHR was proved a dependable method to produce ultra-fine microstructure as well as ARB,the yield stress and elongation of LSHRed samples are 298 MPa and 7%,respectively. The mechanical properties of samples produced by LSHR are much better than the samples produced by normal hot rolling. The samples after serve plastic deformation and low temperature annealing hasexcellent mechanical properties,the strength of the sample is slightly lower than the deformed samples,andductilityis similar to fully annealed sample the or even better.%目的:研究大变形量热轧、累积叠轧和普通热轧3种不同加工工艺及后续热处理对AZ31镁合金的组织及室温力学性能的影响。方法将均匀化处理后的AZ31原始样品采用大变形热轧、累积叠轧和普通热轧3种不同加工工艺制备成板材,并进行了后续热处理。利用EBSD技术和力学性能测试,解释了其组织和性能的关系。结果剧烈塑性变形工艺及适宜的热处理工艺,可使AZ31镁合金保持高强度的同时还可兼顾优良的室温延伸率。大变形量热轧工艺制备的AZ31镁合金板材的细晶组织及室温拉伸性能,可与累积叠轧等传统剧烈塑性变形工艺相媲美,屈服强度达到289 MPa,延伸率为7%。结论与普通热轧工艺制得的AZ31

  9. Friction stir welding of AZ31 magnesium alloys processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bing; YUAN Shouqian; WANG Xunhong

    2008-01-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is an effective thermo-mechanical process to make ultrafine grains.An investigation was carried out on the friction stir welding (FSW) of ECAPed AZ31 magnesium alloys with a thickness of 15 mm.For different process parameters,the optimum FSW conditions of ECAPed AZ31 magnesium alloys were examined.The basic characterization of weld formation and the mechanical properties of the joints were discussed.The results show that the effect of welding parameters on welding quality was evident and welding quality was sensitive to welding speed.Sound joints could be obtained when the welding speed was 37.5 mm/min and the rotation speed of the stir tool was 750 r/min.The maximum tensile strength (270 MPa) of FSW was 91% that of the base materials.The value of microhardness varied between advancing side and retreating side because of the speed field near the pin of the stir tool,which weakened the deformed stress field.The value of microhardness of the welding zone was lower than that of the base materials.The maximum value was located near the heat-affected zone (HAZ).Remarkable ductile character was observed from the fracture morphologies of welded joints.

  10. Effects of hot extrusion and annealing treatment on microstructures,properties and texture of AZ31 Mg alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; YAN Yun-qi; WENG Wen-ping; ZHONG Hao; CHEN Qi

    2006-01-01

    Effects of extrusion deformation and heat treatment on microstructures, mechanical properties and texture of AZ31 Mg alloy were investigated.The results show that the microstructures of as-cast AZ31 alloy are markedly refined after hot extruding, the average grain size is about 25 μm and strong fiber texture exists in the extruded AZ31 alloy. The mechanical properties are improved obviously. The grain size is somewhat inhomogeneous and strip structure emerges along the extrusion direction due to incomplete dynamic recrystallization during the extrusion process. With increasing annealing temperature, the small grain grows up and turns into equiaxed grain, and the texture is weakened with the visible growing up of grains.

  11. Effect of filler wire on the joint properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys using CO2 laser welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongying; Li Zhijun

    2007-01-01

    Laser welding with filler wire of AZ31 magnesium alloys is investigated using a CO2 laser experimental system. The effect of three different filler wires on the joint properties is researched. The results show that the weld appearance can be effectively improved when using laser welding with filler wire. The microhardness and tensile strength of joints are almost the same as those of the base metal when ER AZ31 or ER AZ61 wire is adopted. However, when the filler wire of ER 5356 aluminum alloy is used, the mechanical properties of joints become worse. For ER AZ31 and ER AZ61 filler wires, the microstructure of weld zone shows small dendrite grains. In comparison, for ER 5356 filler wire, the weld shows a structure of snowy dendrites and many intermetallic compounds and eutectic phases distribute in the dendrites. These intermetallic constituents with low melting point increase the tendency of hot crack and result in fragile joint properties. Therefore, ER AZ31 and ER AZ61 wire are more suitable filler material than ER 5356 for CO2 laser welding of AZ31 magnesium alloys.

  12. Improvement of corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy by anodizing with co-precipitation of cerium oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salah Abdelghany SALMAN; Ryoichi ICHINO; Masazumi OKIDO

    2009-01-01

    Anodizing of AZ31 Mg alloy in NaOH solution by co-precipitation of cerium oxide was investigated. The chemical composition and phase structure of the coating film were determined via optical microscopy, SEM and XRD. The corrosion properties of the anodic film were characterized by using potentiodynamic polarization curves in 17 mmol/L NaCl and 0.1 mol/L Na2SO4 solution at 298 K. The corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy is significantly improved by adding cerium oxide to alkaline solution. In addition, the surface properties are enhanced and the film contains no crack.

  13. Mechanical properties and texture evolution during hot rolling ofAZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-fei; LIANG Shu-jin; WANG Er-de

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical properties and texture evolutions of the as-rolled AZ31 Mg sheets were investigated. The results show that the grains of the sheets are significantly refined after hot rolling. The mechanical properties of the as-rolled samples are enhanced due to the grain size refinement. The intensity of basal texture decreases with the increase of deformation ratio, and double-peak type basal texture is discovered in the intermediate and large strain hot rolling processes. The formation of the texture is ascribed to the activities of prismatic and non-basal slips, which is the same as the 30% rolled and 50% rolled samples. The incline of basal planes exerts an effect on the mechanical anisotropy during tension along rolling direction (RD) and transverse direction (TD) at room temperature.

  14. Mechanical properties of AZ31 alloy processed by a green metallurgy route; Propiedades mecanicas de la aleacion AZ31 procesada por una ruta eco-sostenible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Enrico, F.; Garces, G.; Hofer, M.; Kim, S. K.; Perez, P.; Cabeza, S.; Adeva, P.

    2013-07-01

    Recently it has been proved that molding of defect-free components of various commercial alloys of magnesium can be carried out successfully when small amounts of CaO are added to the melt, making unnecessary the use of SF{sub 6} coverage. In the case of AZ alloys, this process also remarkably improves their mechanical properties not only by the greater cleaning of alloys but also by the formation of CaAl{sub 2} phase. This work, part of the Green project Metallurgy (http://www.green-metallurgy.eu) funded by the European Union (LIFE+2009), studies the influence of different CaO additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 Eco-Mg alloy. The alloy was processed by a conventional route involving extrusion of as-cast rods as well as by a powder metallurgy route (PM) using chips as starting material. The objective was to analyze the viability of recycling machining chips to manufacture components for the automobile industry and transportation in general, because of its low cost and environmental impact. It has been demonstrated that alloys processed from chips exhibit the highest tensile stress values, close to 320 MPa. (Author)

  15. Influence of Surface Condition on Expulsion in Spot Welding AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yarong WANG; Jicai FENG; Zhongdian ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the influence of surface condition on expulsion during the spot welding of AZ31B Mg alloy. A general electrical contact resistance theory for conductive rough surfaces and the relation between maximum temperature Tm in the contact and voltage-drop V across interface of two surfaces were employed to understand the reason of expulsion in Mg alloy spot welding. The main reason of expulsion is that the high electrical contact resistance induced by large roughness of the surface and oxide film covered on the surface leads to local melting of metal in the interface of two surfaces, and liquid metal of the local area ejected from the specimen under electrode force forms expulsion.

  16. Grain size and texture changes of magnesium alloy AZ31 during multi-directional forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Grain size and texture changes of magnesium alloy AZ31 were studied in multidirectional forging(MDF) under decreasing temperature conditions. MDF was carried out up to large cumulative strains of 4.8 with changing the loading direction during decrease in temperature from pass to pass. MDF can accelerate the uniform development of fine-grained structures and increase the plastic workability at low temperatures. As a result, the MDFed alloy shows excellent higher strength as well as moderate ductility at room temperature even at the grain size below 1 μm. Superplastic flow takes place at 423 K and depends on the anisotropy of MDFed samples. The mechanisms of strain-induced free-grained structure development and of the plastic deformation were discussed in detail.

  17. Surface Properties of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy by Oxygen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Chunbei; GONG Chunzhi; TIAN Xiubo; YANG Shiqin; Ricky K.Y.Fu; Paul K.CHU

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation(PIII)has been conducted on AZ31B magnesium alloy using different bias voltages.The modified layer is mainly composed of MgO and some MgAl2O4.Results form Rutherford backscattering spectrometry(RBS)and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS)indicate that the bias voltage has a significant impact on the structure of the films.The oxygen implant fluences and the thickness of the implanted layer increase with higher bias voltages.A high bias voltage such as 60 kV leads to an unexpected increments in the oxygen-rich layer's thickness compared to those of the samples implanted at 20 kV and 40 kV.The hardness is hardly enhanced by oxygen PIII.The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy may be improved by a proper implantation voltage.

  18. Corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ31 screws is dependent on the implantation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willbold, E. [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Strasse 1-7, D - 30625 Hannover (Germany); Kaya, A.A. [Mugla University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Mugla (Turkey); Kaya, R.A. [MedicalPark Hospital, Kueltuer Sok No:1, 34160 Bahcelievler, Istanbul (Turkey); Beckmann, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str.1, D - 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Witte, F., E-mail: witte.frank@mh-hannover.de [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Strasse 1-7, D - 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The corrosion of biodegradable materials is a crucial issue in implant development. Among other materials, magnesium and magnesium based alloys are one of the most promising candidates. Since the corrosion of biodegradable materials depends on different physiological parameters like pH or ion concentrations, the corrosion might be different in different biological environments. To investigate this issue, we produced screws from magnesium alloy AZ31 and implanted them into the hip bone of 14 sheep. After 3 and 6 months, the screws were explanted and analyzed with synchrotron-radiation based micro-computed tomography and hard tissue histology. We found considerable differences in the corrosion behavior of the magnesium screws with respect to its original tissue location. However, we could detect a normal immunological tissue response.

  19. Microstructure, mechanical properties and texture evolution of AZ31 alloy containing trace levels of strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sadeghi@mail.mcgill.ca; Pekguleryuz, Mihriban

    2011-08-15

    The effect of low levels of Sr (0.01, 0.03, 0.05 wt.%) on the microstructure, mechanical properties and texture of AZ31 magnesium alloy has been investigated. Thermodynamic modeling has been used to study the effect of Sr on phase precipitation at different temperatures. Cooling curve analysis reveals a decrease in solidification superheat with the addition of 0.03 wt.% Sr to AZ31. The as-cast microstructures of the alloys have been studied using optical microscopy (OM) and electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). Results show the refining effect of Sr on the grain size and on the {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} precipitates through growth poisoning and inoculation, respectively. To investigate the mechanical properties of the alloys, as-cast samples were compression tested at elevated temperatures. Hot compression peak stress ({sigma}{sub max}) and critical strain before recrystallization ({epsilon}{sub c}) initially drop but then increase. {sigma}{sub max} first decreases due to the depletion of Al from solid solution and then increases when the amount of the Al-Sr precipitates reach a significant amount. {epsilon}{sub c} drops due to the acceleration of dynamic recrystallization kinetics as a result of grain refinement. It increases with increasing Sr when the concentration Sr in solid solution is increased leading to dislocation pinning and retardation of recrystallization. X-ray texture measurements on the hot compressed and extruded samples show a decrease in maximum intensity of the basal pole figures with increasing Sr as a result of reduced twining and the changes in Al and Sr concentrations in solid solution. - Research Highlights: {yields} Microstructures/precipitates of AZ31+trace levels of Sr were examined by OM and EPMA. {yields} Thermodynamic calculations and cooling curve analysis were used to predict ppt formation. {yields} It has been shown that Sr refines the grains and Mg17Al12 precipitates. {yields} Mechanical properties and texture were studied using

  20. Residual Stresses and Tensile Properties of Friction Stir Welded AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy in Lap Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Bhukya Srinivasa; Cao, Xinjin; Wanjara, Priti; Friedman, Jacob; Chen, Daolun

    2015-08-01

    AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy sheets with a thickness of 2 mm were friction stir welded in lap configuration using two tool rotational rates of 1000 and 1500 rpm and two welding speeds of 10 and 20 mm/s. The residual stresses in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the weldments were determined using X-ray diffraction. The shear tensile behavior of the lap joints was evaluated at low [233 K (-40 °C)], room [298 K (25 °C)], and elevated [453 K (180 °C)] temperatures. The failure load was highest for the lower heat input condition that was obtained at a tool rotational rate of 1000 rpm and a welding speed of 20 mm/s for all the test temperatures, due to the smaller hooking height, larger effective sheet thickness, and lower tensile residual stresses, as compared to the other two welding conditions that were conducted at a higher tool rotational rate or lower welding speed. The lap joints usually fractured on the advancing side of the top sheet near the interface between the thermo-mechanically affected zone and the stir zone. Elevated temperature testing of the weld assembled at a tool rotational rate of 1000 rpm and a welding speed of 20 mm/s led to the failure along the sheet interface in shear fracture mode due to the high integrity of the joint that exhibited large plastic deformation and higher total energy absorption.

  1. AZ31镁合金热变形流动应力预测模型%PREDICTED CONSTITUTIVE MODELING OF HOT DEFORMATION FOR AZ31 MAGNESIUM ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙朝阳; 栾京东; 刘赓; 李瑞; 张清东

    2012-01-01

    采用近等温单轴压缩实验获得了AZ31镁合金变形温度为523-723K,应变速率为0.01-10s-1条件下的流动应力,分析了变形温度和应变速率对流动应力的影响规律.结果表明,AZ31镁合金变形过程中发生了动态再结晶,523K时形成细小组织;而723K时动态再结晶和长大的晶粒沿径向拉长.考虑实验过程塑性变形功和摩擦功引起的温度升高,在高应变速率条件下采用温度补偿修正了流动应力.在此基础上,建立了基于双曲正弦模型的峰值流动应力和统一本构关系,该模型利用材料参数耦合应变来描述流动应力的应变敏感性,进一步获得了合金热变形过程中流动应力与变形温度,应变速率和应变的定量关系.采用该本构关系模型预测流动应力具有较高的精度,预测值与实测值相关系数为0.976,平均相对误差为5.07%,实验条件范围内预测的流动应力与实验值几乎能保持一致.%The uniaxial compression tests of AZ31 magnesium alloy at different strain rates of 0.01—10 s-1 and different deformation temperatures of 523—723 K were performed by using Gleeble-1500 simulator with a maximum strain of 0.916. The influences of deformation temperature and strain rate on the flow stress were investigated. The fine microstructure is attributed to dynamic recrystallization during compression process at 523 K. The stretched grains of dynamic recrystallization and growth up along radial direction were founded in microscopic observation at 723 K. Considering plasticity deformation and friction induced temperature rise, the flow stress was corrected at high strain rate by using temperature compensation. The peak flow stress and unified constitutive model were established based on hyperbolic sine model. Strain sensitivity of flow stress was studied to describe the coupling of materials parameters on the strain, and then the relationship between deformation temperature, strain rate and strain

  2. 脉冲电流轧制对AZ31镁合金微观组织与力学性能的影响%Effect of electropulsing rolling on mechanical properties and microstructure of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春; 李亚楠; 饶晓华

    2014-01-01

    对比研究脉冲电流轧制工艺与温轧工艺对AZ31镁合金板材的力学性能、织构、微观组织与沉淀相等方面的影响。结果表明:脉冲电流具有促进冷轧AZ31镁合金低温再结晶能力的作用。脉冲电流轧制后的镁合金板材组织由细小的等轴再结晶粒与析出相构成,没有发现孪晶组织,并且完全再结晶,原始晶粒均被细小的再结晶晶粒取代,再结晶晶粒内的位错密度低。而温轧镁合金组织则由稍拉长变形孪晶、粗大的再结晶晶粒和析出相构成,再结晶的晶粒内位错密度高。两种轧制方式下的镁合金析出相均为Mg17Al12。脉冲电流轧制后镁合金的织构具有典型基面织构的特征,而脉冲电流轧制镁合金的织构则出现横向偏转;脉冲电流轧制后镁合金的屈服强度与伸长率均比温轧镁合金的大,但抗拉强度正好相反。%Electropulsing rolling (ER) and warm rolling (WR) processes were performed to roll AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets. Mechanical properties, microstructure and texture evolution of these specimens were investigated after rolling. The results indicate that electropulsing accelerates the recrystallization of AZ31 alloy sheets during hot rolling. After electropulsing rolling at a relatively low temperature, the microstructure of the sample shows fine equiaxed recrystallized grains with a lower density of dislocations and precipitates. In contrast, the microstructure of the sample after warm rolling shows elongated grain, numerous deformed twins, and a high density of dislocation and precipitates. Electropulsing rolling helps weaken the basal fiber texture. Although both the alloy sheets (ER and WR) have typical basal fiber texture, the maximum pole intensity of basal in ER sample is weaker. ER sheet has higher yield strength and elongation compared to WR sheet. As a promising technique, electropulsing rolling can be used to improve the microstructure and mechanical

  3. AZ31B镁合金表面氟涂层的生物相容性和抗菌性能%Biocompatibility and Antibacterial Property of a Fluoride Coating on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绮; 刘新杰; 王泽庆; 颜廷亭; 谭丽丽; 张炳春; 杨柯

    2011-01-01

    采用化学转化方法在AZ31B镁合金表面制备氟涂层,系统研究了氟涂层的表面形貌,体外生物相容性和抗菌性能.结果表明:AZ31B镁合金表面的氟涂层均匀致密;氟涂层镁合金的溶血率明显降低,且无细胞毒性,可满足生物医用材料的要求.同时,氟涂层镁合金的抗凝血性能与316L不锈钢相当,并具有显著的抗菌功能.%A fluoride coating was prepared on AZ31B magnesium alloy by chemical conversion treatment in order to control the biodegradation rate and further increase the biocompatibility of AZ31B alloy. The surface morphology, in vitro biocompatibility and antibacterial property of the coated alloy were investigated in the study. The result showed that the fluoride coating was compact and presented obvious decrease of the hemolytic rate and non- cytotoxicity, meeting the requirement on biomaterials. The result also showed a better behavior against blood coagulation of the coated AZ31B alloy than that of 316L stainless steel, as well as an excellent antibacterial ability.

  4. Microstructure and properties of hot extruded AZ31-0.25%Sb Mg-alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effects of hot extrusion treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31-0.25%Sb Mg alloy were mvestlgated by means of mechanical properties measurement and microstructure observation.The results show that the (UTS) and yield tensile strength(YTS) of the alloy are obviously enhanced by hot extrusion treatment,and the enhanced extent of UTS and YTS increases with the decrease of hot extrusion temperature,moreover,the YTS value of the alloy at RT,after extruded at 220℃,increases up to 131.4%,which attributes to the finer grains resulted from the dynamic recrystallization occurred during hot extrusion.As not extrusion goes on,the slipping and concentration of dislocations continue to occur within the finer grains,which promotes the formation of the subgrains in the alloy.The deformation features of the extruded alloy during tensile deformation at RT are the twinning deformation and dislocation slipping in the twinning regions.Moreover,the deformation mechanisms of the alloy are a dislocation activation on the basal plane and a+c dislocation activation on the pyramidal planes.

  5. Semiconducting behavior of the anodically passive films formed on AZ31B alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fattah-alhosseini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work includes determination of the semiconductor character and estimation of the dopant levels in the passive film formed on AZ31B alloy in 0.01 M NaOH, as well as the estimation of the passive film thickness as a function of the film formation potential. Mott–Schottky analysis revealed that the passive films displayed n-type semiconductive characteristics, where the oxygen vacancies and interstitials preponderated. Based on the Mott–Schottky analysis, it was shown that the calculated donor density increases linearly with increasing the formation potential. Also, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS results indicated that the thickness of the passive film was decreased linearly with increasing the formation potential. The results showed that decreasing the formation potential offer better conditions for forming the passive films with higher protection behavior, due to the growth of a much thicker and less defective films.

  6. Warm deformation behavior of hot-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, D.L. [Key Laboratory of Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: d_l_yin2000@hit.edu.cn; Zhang, K.F. [Key Laboratory of Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, G.F. [Key Laboratory of Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Han, W.B. [Key Laboratory of Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2005-02-15

    Uniaxial tensile test was employed to evaluate the warm deformation properties of hot-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy at a temperature range of 50-200 deg. C and a strain rate range of 1.4 x 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}-1.4 x 10{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and twinning during the warm deformation were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). It is shown that twinning characterized by a compound mode with differently oriented twins intersecting each other is the dominant deformation mechanism at low temperatures and initial deformation stage. The distortion energy accumulated by twinning is the reason for the occurrence of DRX.

  7. Application of Anand's constitutive model on twin roll casting process of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-dong; JU Dong-ying

    2006-01-01

    Twin-roll thin strip casting process combines casting and hot rolling into a single process,in which thermal stress and thermal mechanical stress were involved. Considering the high temperature gradient,the existing of liquid and solid regions and rolling deformation,suitable constitutive model is the key to describe the process. Anand's model is a temperature-dependent,rate-dependent and unified of creep and plasticity model and the Jaumann derivative was employed in Anand's model which makes the constitutive model frame-indifferent or objective,therefore the highly nonlinearities behavior in the twin-roll casting process can be simulated. The parameters of the Anand's model were regressed based on the compression tests of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The simulation results reveal that the Anand's model can well describe the deformation characteristics of twin-roll casting process. Based on the simulation results,the form of evolution equations in Anand's model was discussed.

  8. Microstructural evolution during hot rolling of an AZ31 Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, J.A. del; Perez-Prado, M.T.; Ruano, O.A. [Dept. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The microstructural evolution of a AZ31 Mg alloy during hot rolling has been investigated using optical microscopy and texture (macro and micro) analysis as the main characterization tools. In particular, the differences between the microstructure obtained by unidirectional rolling (UR) and cross rolling (CR) are studied. Significant twinning activity is observed in both cases. Additionally, after cross rolling, a rather heterogeneous microstructure develops, with scattered regions populated by very fine grains. The strong basal fiber texture of the as-received material remains present after both hot rolling schemes. The impossibility to obtain accurate EBSD measurements within the twinned regions suggests that significant localized deformation takes place in those areas. Thus, these regions become preferential sites for the onset of recrystallization due to the increase in the local strain energy. (orig.)

  9. Influence of initial textures on dynamic recrystallization and textures in AZ31 magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping(杨平); CUI Feng-e(崔凤娥); MA Shi-cai(马世才); G Gottstein

    2003-01-01

    Microscopy and X-ray diffractometry were applied to inspect the influence of initial texture on dynamic recrystallization and texture formation in AZ31 magnesium alloys during channel die compression. The results show that stress-strain curves, microstructures and textures depend on initial textures. Two types of nucleation sites are detected which are in different proportions depending on initial textures. Dynamic recrystallization proceeds faster in samples with more inhomogeneity. When the basal planes of grains are parallel to rolling plane of sample with scattering around transverse direction, no new texture component occurs and texture is strengthened together with dynamic recrystallization. By other initial textures there are texture changes during hot deformation. New grains rotate gradually to basal orientation at heavy strain.

  10. Effect of cerium and lanthanum additives on plasma electrolytic oxidation of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈德久; 马豪杰; 郭长虹; 蔡景瑞; 李国龙; 何东磊; 杨庆祥

    2013-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings on AZ31 magnesium (Mg) alloy were developed using the aqueous solution with alkaline silicate and sodium hydroxide as a base electrolyte system. The effects of cerium (Ce) nitrate and lanthanum (La) nitrate additives on the voltage response, microstructure, compositions and corrosion resistance of PEO coatings were investigated by scan-ning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and potentiodynamic polarization tests, etc. The results showed that Ce and La additives increased the stable voltage and compactness of the PEO coatings, while, those did not change the compositions of the PEO coatings. The corrosion resistance of the PEO coating obtained in solutions with La nitrate of 0.1 g/L was the best, followed by that with Ce nitrate of 0.1 g/L and that without additives.

  11. Microstructure and texture evolution during warm compression of the magnesium alloy AZ31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GODFREYB; Andy

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and texture with strain during compression at 150℃ of the magnesium alloy AZ31 has been investigated using the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. The initial samples were chosen to have a strong basal plane texture with the crystal c-axes perpendicular to the compression direction. The EBSD data provide evidence concerning the relative activity of both {10-12} extension twinning and slip, and suggest that non-basal slip is important in samples deformed to a strain of more than 0.2. The relative contributions of the twinning and the slip during deformation have been discussed based on the results above.

  12. Effects of deformation parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of magnesium alloy AZ31B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shaoming; YANG Bicheng; XU Jun; SHI Likai; CHEN Guoliang

    2006-01-01

    Plastic deformation and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviors of magnesium alloy AZ31B during thermal compression and extrusion processes were studied.In addition, effects of deformation temperature and rates on the microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated.The results show that the DRX grains nucleate initially at the primary grain boundaries and the twin boundaries, and the twinning plays an important role in the grain refinement.The DRX grain size depends on the deformation temperature and strain rate The average grain size is only 1 μm when the strain rate is 5 s-1 and temperature is 250 ℃.It is also found that the DRX grain can grow up quickly at the elevated temperature.The microstructure of extruded rods was consisted of tiny equal-axis DRX grains and some elongated grains.The rods extruded slowly have tiny grains and exhibit good mechanical properties.

  13. HIGH STRAIN RATE BEHAVIOUR OF AN AZ31 + 0.5 Ca MAGNESIUM ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Pešička

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports behaviour of magnesium alloy AZ31 (nominal composition 3 % Al - 1 % Zn – balance Mg with an addition of 0.5 wt. % Ca at high strain rates. Samples were prepared by the squeeze cast technology. Dynamic compression Hopkinson tests were performed at room temperature with impact velocities ranging from 11.2 to 21.9 m.s-1. A rapid increase of the flow stress and the strain rate sensitivity was observed at high strain rates. Transmission electron microscopy showed extremely high dislocation density and mechanical twins of two types. Adiabatic shear banding is discussed as the reason for the observed behaviour at high strain rates.

  14. Processing map for hot working of as extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Guang-sheng; HUANG Guang-jie; WANG Ling-yun; PAN Fu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The deformation behavior of AZ31B magnesium alloy as extruded under hot compression conditions was characterized in the temperature range of 200 - 400 ℃ and strain rate range of 0. 001 - 1 s-1. The processing maps were obtained at different strains. The results show that the map exhibits flow instabilities as two domains. The domain at beyond 300 ℃ and strain rate of 1 s-1 appears with a peak efficiency of power dissipation about 56% occurring. This domain is expected to happen in a hot process, such as hot rolling, hot extrusion and hot forging. There is high efficiency of power dissipation at temperature beyond 350 ℃ and strain rate 0. 001 s-1. Such domains suggest the occurrence of superplastic deformation.

  15. On twinning and anisotropy in rolled Mg alloy AZ31 under uniaxial tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiaoqian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Elastic Visco-Plastic Self-Consistent (EVPSC model, with the recently developed Twinning and De-Twinning (TDT description, is applied to study the mechanical behaviour of hot-rolled Mg alloy AZ31 under uniaxial tension. Numerical results are compared to the experimental uniaxial tensile tests reported earlier by Chapuis et al. [29] for the out-of-plane directions of a thick plate along angles of α = 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° between the normal direction and longitudinal specimen axis. It is shown that accounting for the initial texture and calibrating the EVPSC-TDT model by using uniaxial tension tests along the rolling direction and normal direction permits prediction of the strength anisotropy and strain hardening behavior along all five tensile directions, i.e. for cases in which the contribution of twinning is dominating, negligible or intermediate.

  16. Effects of Sr,Y on Microstructure and Mechanical Properities of AZ31 Alloy%Sr,Y对AZ31镁合金显微组织与力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢卫东; 宁旭; 王春光; 彭晓东

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Sr, Y on the microstructure and mechanical properties of metal mold casting AZ31 alloy were investigated by OM, SEM, EDS, XRD and tensile testing.The results show that the grain of AZ31 alloy can be refined by adding a small amount of Sr and a rod-like phase forms along the grain boundaries.While adding slight Y and Sr into AZ31 alloy, the size of α-Mg grain dramaticlly decreases, Al2Y phase precipitates in the grain and β-Mg17Al12 disappears.With the addition of Sr and Y, the tensile strength at ambient and high temperature obviously enhances.%用金属型铸造法制备了不同Sr、Y含量的AZ31镁合金试样,借助光学显微镜、扫描电镜、能谱分析、XRD、力学性能测试等方法研究了Sr、Y对AZ31镁合金显微组织和力学性能的影响.结果表明,微量Sr的添加可细化AZ31镁合金的显微组织,并且在晶界处有杆状的Al4Sr形成;微量的Sr、Y复合添加可使AZ31镁合金显微组织更加细化,晶内有颗粒状的Al2Y析出,同时β-Mg17Al12相消失;合金的常温和高温力学性能随Sr、Y的添加有明显提高.

  17. Microstructural evolution during the hot deformation of magnesium alloy AZ31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosvenor, A.; Davies, C.H.J. [Cooperative Research Centre for Cast Metals Mfg. (CAST), School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Monash Univ., Vic. (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    The market for wrought magnesium alloys has lingered around 5000 to 7000 tonnes per year for the past fifteen years or so, and this is partly because of deficiencies in our understanding of the microstructural behaviour which influences formability. This paper examines microstructural evolution in the magnesium alloy AZ31 during hot working. Compression tests were conducted on homogenised AZ31 at three true strain rates -0.01 s{sup -1}, 0.1 s{sup -1}, and 1 s{sup -1} - and five temperatures in 50 C intervals from 200 C to 400 C. In addition, strain rate jump tests were conducted between strain rates of 0.1 s{sup -1}, and 1 s{sup -1} at constant work hardening rate, both in the 'upward' and in the 'downward' sense. Compression tests to a strain of one yielded flow stress curves which are typical of a metal which undergoes dynamic recrystallization, and the presence of the phenomenon was confirmed by metallographic examination of specimens taken from interrupted tests. Twinning was also found to occur at low temperatures and high strain rates, and work hardening curves were found to display a region with little change in gradient, which seemed to confirm this. The strain rate sensitivity was found to decrease with temperature from a value of approximately 0.12 at 400 C to close to 0.02 at 200 C. Colour metallography was used to reveal gross orientation changes with deformation. (orig.)

  18. Corrosion mechanism of micro-arc oxidation treated biocompatible AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Li; Fang Lu; Honglong Li; Wenjun Zhu; Haobo Pan; Guoxin Tan; Yonghua Lao; Chengyun Ning; Guoxin Ni

    2014-01-01

    The rapid degradation of magnesium (Mg) based alloys has prevented their further use in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention, and therefore it is essential to investigate the corrosion mechanism for improving the corrosion resistance of these alloys. In this work, the effect of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with different voltages were carried out to obtain biocompatible ceramic coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy. The ...

  19. Mechanical and corrosion properties of Al/Ti film on magnesium alloy AZ31B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong-Chang; Jiang, Ke; Li, Shuo-Qi; Zhang, Fen; Cui, Hong-Zhi; Han, En-Hou

    2015-03-01

    Preparation of titanium film on magnesium substrate faces a challenge due to non-Fickian inter-diffusion between titanium and magnesium. Aluminum can build a bridge between titanium and magnesium. Al/Ti duplex coatings were deposited on magnesium alloy AZ31B using magnetron sputtering (MS). The low temperature diffusion bonding behavior of the Mg/Al/Ti coating was investigated through SEM and its affiliated EDS. The phase structure and critical load of the coatings were examined by means of XRD and scratch tests, respectively. The results demonstrated that the bonding strength was significantly improved after a post heat treatment (HT) at a temperature of 210°C. The diffusion mechanism of the interfaces of Mg/Al and Al/Ti in the coating was discussed based on the analysis of formation energy of vacancies and diffusion rates. The Al/Ti dual layer enhanced the corrosion resistance of the alloy. And the HT process further increased the corrosion resistance of the coated alloy. This result implies that a post HTat a lower temperature after MS is an effective approach to enhance the bonding strength and corrosion resistance of the Al/Ti film on Mg alloys.

  20. A Study on Compressive Anisotropy and Nonassociated Flow Plasticity of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in Hot Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of anisotropy in compression is studied on hot rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a three-dimensional constitutive model based on the quadratic Hill48 yield criterion and nonassociated flow rule (non-AFR. The constitutive model is characterized by compressive tests of AZ31 billets since plastic deformations of materials are mostly caused by compression during rolling processes. The characterized plasticity model is implemented into ABAQUS/Explicit as a user-defined material subroutine (VUMAT based on semi-implicit backward Euler's method. The subroutine is employed to simulate square-bar rolling processes. The simulation results are compared with rolled specimens and those predicted by the von Mises and the Hill48 yield function under AFR. Moreover, strip rolling is also simulated for AZ31 with the Hill48 yield function under non-AFR. The strip rolling simulation demonstrates that the lateral spread generated by the non-AFR model is in good agreement with experimental data. These comparisons between simulation and experiments validate that the proposed Hill48 yield function under non-AFR provides satisfactory description of plastic deformation behavior in hot rolling for AZ31 alloys in case that the anisotropic parameters in the Hill48 yield function and the non-associated flow rule are calibrated by the compressive experimental results.

  1. Biodegradation behavior of micro-arc oxidized AZ31 magnesium alloys formed in two different electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfoori, A. [School of Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirdamadi, Sh., E-mail: Mirdamadi@iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khavandi, A.; Raufi, Z. Seyed [School of Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphate coating has lesser degradation rate than silicate coating in r-SBF solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Farringtonite phase is chemically more stable than forsterite phase in SBF solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apatite forming ability of forsterite containing coating is better than farringtonite containing film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrophilisity nature of silicate film on magnesium alloy with respect to its roughness, is greater than phosphate film. - Abstract: Degradation behavior of coated magnesium alloys is among most prominent factors for their biomedical applications. In this study, bio-corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidized magnesium AZ31 alloys formed in silicate and phosphate baths was investigated in r-SBF medium. For this purpose polarization behavior and open circuit profile of the coated samples were achieved by electrochemical and immersion tests, respectively. Moreover, the morphology and composition of the coatings were evaluated before and after immersion test using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that the phosphate film had better corrosion resistance and greater thickness than silicate film and, in turn, the lesser degradability in SBF solution, so that Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} containing compounds were more abundant on silicate film than phosphate film. Moreover phosphate film had greater surface roughness and lesser hydrophilic nature.

  2. Connection of AZ31B Magnesium Alloys and TC4 Titanium Alloy Via Resistance Spot Welding%AZ31B镁合金与TC4钛合金之间的电阻点焊连接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈芬芳; 谢志雄; 杜康; 梅张强

    2013-01-01

    In order to make it became realistic that welding of AZ31B magnesium alloys and TC4 titanium alloy via resistance spot welding, in this work the theory of diffusion welding was used. The welding technology of AZ31B magnesium alloys and TC4 titanium alloy aluminum was discussed. In the process, aluminium foil and aluminium powder were used. The property and microstructure of welding spot were analysised by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersion spectroscope (EDS). The results indicate that the mechanical performace of welding sopt is better when aluminiun powder as additive, the diffusion of elements and alloying reaction are conducive to improve the machanical property of welding spot.%为实现AZ31B镁合金与TC4钛合金异种材料的电阻点焊连接,借助扩散焊原理,探讨了在其之间添加铝箔和铝粉的电阻点焊工艺,并对焊点的力学性能及微观结构进行了分析.结果表明,以铝粉作为添加物,可以获得力学性能较好的焊点,元素间的扩散及合金化反应是焊点性能得以提高的主要原因.

  3. Plastic anisotropy and fracture behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy%AZ31镁合金的各向异性及断裂行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培; 信运昌; 刘庆

    2011-01-01

    研究织构和异常长大晶粒对热轧AZ31镁合金力学各向异性和断裂行为的影响.在拉伸轴与板材的法向方向分别呈0°、15°、30°、45°、60°、75°和90°下进行单轴拉伸实验,观察不同角度下样品的拉伸各向异性.结果表明:由于{1012}孪晶的出现,在0°-30°时样品表现出较低的屈服强度;当角度大于45°时,样品的主要的变形机制为基面和柱面滑移;当角度低于60°时,宏观断口平行于大晶粒拉长的方向;在75°和90°时样品的宏观断口呈锯齿状.%The effects of texture and abnormal large grains on the plastic anisotropy and fracture behavior of hot-rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated. Uniaxial tensile deformation behaviors of samples with tensile axis tilting 0°, 15°, 30° 45°, 60°,75° and 90° to normal direction (ND) respectively were addressed. Tensile deformation anisotropy was observed for samples with different angles to ND. The results show that the specimens with the angle from 0~ to 30~ exhibit relatively lower yielding strength due to the {1012} extension twinning. However, basal slip and prismatic slip are the dominant deformation modes for the specimens with angles larger than 45°. Macro-fractures are parallel to the length direction of abnormal large grains in the specimens with angles less than 60°, while those are serrated fracture edge for specimens with angles 75° and 90°.

  4. The fluoride coated AZ31B magnesium alloy improves corrosion resistance and stimulates bone formation in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Guangdao; Tan, Lili; Yang, Ke; Ai, Hongjun

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fluorine coated Mg alloy and clarify its mechanism in bone formation. We implanted the fluorine coated AZ31B Mg alloy screw (group F) in rabbit mandibular and femur in vivo. Untreated AZ31B Mg alloy screw (group A) and titanium screw (group T) were used as control. Then, scanning electron microscopy, the spectral energy distribution analysis, hard and decalcified bone tissues staining were performed. Immunohistochemistry was employed to examine the protein expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and collagen type I in the vicinity of the implant. Compared with the group A, the degradation of the alloy was reduced, the rates of Mg corrosion and Mg ion release were slowed down, and the depositions of calcium and phosphate increased in the group F in the early stage of implantation. Histological results showed that fluorine coated Mg alloy had well osteogenic activity and biocompatibility. Moreover, fluoride coating obviously up-regulated the expressions of collagen type I and BMP-2. This study confirmed that the fluorine coating might improve the corrosion resistance of AZ31B Mg alloy and promote bone formation by up-regulated the expressions of collagen type I and BMP-2.

  5. Effect of Fluoride Conversion Treatment on Bio-Corrosion Behavior of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy%氟处理对AZ31B镁合金生物耐蚀降解行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绮; 刘新杰; 颜廷亭; 谭丽丽; 张炳春; 杨柯

    2011-01-01

    采用低温化学方法在AZ31B镁合金表面制备出氟涂层,并研究了涂层的表面特征,氟处理后AZ31B镁合金在模拟体液中的腐蚀行为.结果表明,氟涂层均匀致密,与基体结合良好.经氟处理后的AZ31B镁合金的耐蚀性能有较大提高,其在模拟体液中的降解缓慢,合金浸泡后溶液的pH值保持在7.5~8.8之间,有效降低了合金降解而引起的碱性增强趋势.氟涂层在模拟体液中会逐渐转化为Ca3(PO4)2,新生成的表面膜会继续起到保护合金基体的作用.%Fluoride-coating was prepared on AZ31B magnesium alloy by an immersion treatment in hydrofluoric acid at room temperature, and the surface morphology, composition, corrosion resistance and degradation mechanism of the coated alloy were studied. The results show that the conversion coating is compact with good bonding to the alloy. The corrosion resistance of the fluoride coated AZ31B alloy is obviously improved, and its degradation in simulated body fluid (SBF) is slow. The pH value of the SBF (the coated alloy immersed in) keeps in a range of 7.5 to 8.8, which can effectively reduce the alkalization caused by the biodegradation of the alloy. The fluoride coating gradually transform into Ca3(PO4)2 in SBF, which will continue protect the alloy from the corrosion.

  6. Investigation of the passive behaviour of AZ31B alloy in alkaline solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fattah-alhosseini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the passivity of AZ31B alloy in NaOH solutions was studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and Mott–Schottky analysis. Potentiodynamic polarization results indicated that decreasing NaOH concentration leads to decrease the corrosion rate of this alloy. EIS results showed that the reciprocal capacitance (1/C of the passive film is directly proportional to its thickness which increases with decreasing NaOH concentration. Therefore, it is clear that dilute NaOH solutions offer better conditions for forming the passive films with higher protection behaviour, due to the growth of a much thicker and less defective films. The Mott–Schottky analysis revealed that the passive films displayed n-type semiconductive characteristics, where the oxygen vacancies and interstitials (over the cation vacancies preponderated. Also, Mott–Schottky results showed that the donor densities evaluated from Mott–Schottky plots are in the range of 1020 cm−3 and decreased with decreasing NaOH concentration.

  7. Dynamic recrystallization and texture development during hot deformation of magnesium alloy AZ31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xu-yue; JI Ze-sheng; H. MIURA; T. SAKAI

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic recrystallization(DRX) and texture development, taking place during hot deformation of magnesium alloy AZ31 with a strong wire texture, were studied in compression at 673 K (0.73 Tm). Two kinds of samples were machined parallelly to the extruded and transverse directions of Mg alloy rods. New fine grains are evolved at original grain boundaries corrugated at low strains and develop rapidly in the medium range of strain, finally leading to a roughly full evolution of equiaxial fine grains. Kink bands are evolved at grain boundaries corrugated and also frequently in grain interiors at low strains. The boundary misorientations of kink band increase rapidly with increasing strain and approach a saturation value in high strain. The average size of the regions fragmented by kink band is almost the same as that of new grains evolved in high strain. These characteristics of new grain evolution process are not changed by the orientation of the samples, while the flow behaviors clearly depend on it. It is concluded that new grain evolution can be controlled by a deformation-induced continuous reaction, i.e. continuous dynamic recrystallization(DRX). The latter is discussed by comparing with conventional, i.e. discontinuous DRX.

  8. Dynamic recrystallization and texture development during hot deformation of a magnesium alloy AZ31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.; Miura, H.; Sakai, T. [Univ. of Electro-Communications, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Intelligent Systems, Chofu, Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: Sakai@mce.uec.ac.jp

    2002-07-01

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and texture development, taking place during hot deformation of a magnesium alloy AZ31 with a strong wire texture, was studied in compression at 673K (0.73T{sub m}). Two kinds of samples were machined parallel to the extruded and transverse direction of the Mg alloy rods. New fine grains are evolved at original grain boundaries corrugated at low strains and developed rapidly in the medium range of strain, finally leading to a roughly full evolution of equiaxial fine grains. Kink bands are evolved at grain boundaries corrugated and also frequently in grain interiors at low strains. The boundary misorientations of kink band increase rapidly with increasing strain and approach a saturation value in high strain. The average size of the regions fragmented by kink band is almost the same as that of new grains evolved in high strain. These characteristics of new grain evolution process are not changed by the orientation of the samples, while the flow behaviors clearly depend on it. It is concluded that new grain evolution can be controlled by a deformation-induced continuous reaction, i.e. continuous dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The latter is discussed comparing with conventional, i.e. discontinuous, DRX. (author)

  9. Dynamic tensile behavior of AZ31B magnesium alloy at ultra-high strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Changjian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The samples having {0001} parallel to extruding direction (ED present a typical true stress–true strain curve with concave-down shape under tension at low strain rate. Ultra-rapid tensile tests were conducted at room temperature on a textured AZ31B magnesium alloy. The dynamic tensile behavior was investigated. The results show that at ultra-high strain rates of 1.93 × 102 s−1 and 1.70 × 103 s−1, the alloy behaves with a linear stress–strain response in most strain range and exhibits a brittle fracture. In this case, {10-12}  extension twinning is basic deformation mode. The brittleness is due to the macroscopic viscosity at ultra-high strain rate, for which the external critical shear stress rapidly gets high to result in a cleavage fracture before large amounts of dislocations are activated. Because {10-12} tension twinning, {10-11} compressive twinning, basal slip, prismatic slip and pyramidal slip have different critical shear stresses (CRSS, their contributions to the degree of deformation are very differential. In addition, Schmid factor plays an important role in the activity of various deformation modes and it is the key factor for the samples with different strain rates exhibit various mechanical behavior under dynamic tensile loading.

  10. AZ31变形镁合金化学镀前无铬酸洗工艺研究%An Investigation of Chromium-Free Pickling Process for Electroless Nickel Plating on AZ 31 Wrought Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦铁男; 马立群; 贺忠臣; 姚妍; 丁毅

    2011-01-01

    主要研究了AZ 31变形镁合金化学镀前的磷酸-硝酸-氢氟酸混合酸洗工艺及各组分对镁合金基体的腐蚀失重表面形貌、镀层与基体的截面形貌和结合力的影响.结果表明:氢氟酸的加入可以有效降低酸洗反应速率并防止新鲜的镁合金基体表面的再次氧化;硝酸的体积分数对镁合金表面形貌的改变有较大影响;当磷酸-硝酸-氢氟酸的体积分数分别为300 mL/L,60 mL/L和100 mL/L时,镀层与基体的结合力最好.%A phosphoric acid-nitric acid-hydrofuoric acid mixed acid pickling process was studied for electroless nickel plating on AZ 31 wrought magnesium alloy sheet. The effects of pickle components on corrosion weight loss, surface morphology, cross section morphology and adhesion strength between the substrate and coating were investigated. The results show that addition of hydrofluoric acid can effectively reduce the rate of pickling reaction and protect the fresh substrate from being Oxidized again. The volume fraction of nitric acid has a great impact on changes of the surface morphology of magnesium substrate. The best adhesion strength between the substrate and the coating is achieved when the pickle solution contains 300 mL/L phosphoric acid, 60 mL/L nitric acid and 100 mL/L hydrofluoric acid.

  11. In vitro degradation, hemolysis, and cytocompatibility of PEO/PLLA composite coating on biodegradable AZ31 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongling; Tian, Peng; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhou, Bangxin

    2015-02-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have large potential as degradable and absorbable biomaterials because of their mechanical properties and biocompatibility. However, their corrosion resistance is usually inadequate especially in physiological environment, which limits their broad applications in biomedical areas. In this work, plasma electrolytic oxidized/poly(l-lactide) (PEO/PLLA) composite coating was successfully fabricated on biodegradable AZ31 alloy by combing PEO process and sealing with PLLA. The microstructure, elemental composition, and phase composition of the PEO/PLLA composite coating were investigated. The in vitro degradation of the PEO/PLLA composite coating in simulated body fluid (SBF) was also systematically evaluated. The results revealed that the PEO/PLLA composite coating improved the corrosion resistance of AZ31 alloy significantly. The corrosion potential shifted from -1.663V to more positive position -1.317 V and the corrosion current density was reduced with six-order of magnitude. The Mg(2+) ions, hydrogen release, and pH value change of solution caused by degradation were all decreased significantly. Moreover, the PEO process played a critical role in sustaining the integrity of the implant in long-term service. The result of hemolysis test showed that the PEO/PLLA composite coating vested AZ31 alloy a low hemolysis ratio (0.806 ± 0.771)%, which is much lower than the safe value of 5% according to ISO 10993-4. For the cytocompatibility test, compared with bare AZ31 alloy and PEO coating, MC3T3-E1 cells showed much better adhesion and proliferation on the PEO/PLLA composite coating with nearly 4-fold increase of cells after 7-day cultivation, indicating that the PEO/PLLA composite coating has good biocompatibility for biomedical applications.

  12. Research on Process Parameters of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Profile Expanding Extrusion%AZ31镁合金型材宽展挤压工艺参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐

    2012-01-01

    在某镁业有限公司的挤压车间进行了AZ31镁合金型材宽展挤压温度、挤压速度和变形程度等工艺参数的研究,在某铝业有限公司进行了AZ31镁合金型材宽展挤压.通过对挤压温度、挤压速度和变形程度进行控制,有效地提高了出品速度和成品率,对于镁合金型材宽展挤压技术具有实践意义.%Extruding process parameters of AZ31 magnesium alloy profile expanding width were researched at a magnesium co., ltd., such as extrusion temperature, extrusion speed, deformation degree, etc., and AZ31 magnesium alloy profile expanding extrusion were implemented at as aluminium w,, ltd. Producing speed and finished product ratio were effectively elevated by effective control of extrusion temperature, extrusion speed and deformation degree. The research has practical significance for magnesium alloy profile expanding extrusion.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of wrought magnesium alloy AZ31B welded by laser-TIG hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎明; 宋刚; 王继锋; 梁国俐

    2004-01-01

    The laser-TIG hybrid welding was mainly used to weld the wrought magnesium alloy AZ31B. The technical characteristics of laser-TIG hybrid welding process was investigated and the interactional mechanism between laser and arc was discussed, at the same time the microstructure and mechanical properties of the wrought magnesium alloy AZ31B using laser-TIG hybrid welding were analyzed by optical microscope, EPMA, SEM, tensile machine, hardness machine. The experimental results show that the presence of laser beam boosts up the stability of the arc during high speed welding and augments the penetration of weld; the crystal grains of magnesium alloy weld are fine without porosity and cracks in the best welding criterion and the microstructure of HAZ does not become coarse obviously. The elements profile analysis reveals that Mg content in the weld is lower than that of the base metal, but Al content is higher slightly. Under this experimental condition, the wrought magnesium alloy AZ31B joint can be achieved using laser-TIG hybrid process and the tensile strength of the joint is equivalent to that of the base metal.

  14. Development of Rolling Schedules for Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE)-Processed AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE...processed AZ31 magnesium plates have been developed. Using a temperature of 300 °C and a 10% reduction per rolling pass, the initially 9-mm-thick plates were... measured ductility along the longitudinal and transverse directions, respectively, than does texture C. 15. SUBJECT TERMS magnesium, AZ31, ECAE

  15. Cytotoxicity studies of AZ31D alloy and the effects of carbon dioxide on its biodegradation behavior in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiali, E-mail: wangjialicsu@yahoo.cn [Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Musculoskeletal Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Qin, Ling [Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Musculoskeletal Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wang, Kai [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208 (China); Wang, Jue; Yue, Ye [Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Li, Yangde [Guangdong Innovation Team for Biodegradable Magnesium and Medical Implants, E-ande, Dongguan 523660 (China); Tang, Jian [Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Li, Weirong [Guangdong Innovation Team for Biodegradable Magnesium and Medical Implants, E-ande, Dongguan 523660 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Magnesium alloys have been advocated as potential artificial bone materials due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The understanding of their corrosive mechanism in physiological environments is therefore essential for making application-orientated designs. Thus, this in vitro study was designed to assess the effects of CO{sub 2} on corrosive behavior of AZ31D to mimic in vivo special ingredient. Electrochemical technologies accompanied with Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, Energy dispersive spectroscopy and hydrogen evolution measurement were employed to analyze corrosive rates and mechanisms of AZ31D. Moreover, the biocompatibility of AZ31D was assessed with a direct cell attachment assay and an indirect cytotoxicity test in different diluted extracts. The ion concentrations in extracts were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to offer explanations on the differences of cell viability in the indirect test. The results of the direct cytotoxicity assay showed that the corrosive rate of AZ31D was too rapid to allow for cell adhesion. Extracts diluted less than 20 times would cause adverse effects on cell proliferation, likely due to excessive ions and gas release. Moreover, the presence of CO{sub 2} did not cause significant differences on corrosive behavior of AZ31D according to the results of electrochemical testing and hydrogen evolution measurement. This might be caused by the simultaneous process of precipitation and dissolution of MgCO{sub 3} due to the penetration role of CO{sub 2}. This analysis of corrosive atmospheres on the degradation behavior of magnesium alloys would contribute to the design of more scientific in vitro testing systems in the future. - Highlights: • We evaluate the effects of CO{sub 2} on corrosion behavior of magnesium alloys. • We assess the feasibility of commercial AZ31D alloy as potential implants. • CO{sub 2} is not the key factor to minimize

  16. Numerical and experimental evaluation of Nd:YAG laser welding efficiency in AZ31 magnesium alloy butt joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintilla, Leonardo Daniele; Tricarico, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, energy aspects related to the efficiency of laser welding process using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser were investigated and reported. AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets 3.3 mm thick were butt-welded without filler using Helium and Argon as shielding gases. A three-dimensional and semi-stationary finite element model was developed to evaluate the effect of laser power and welding speed on the absorption coefficient, the melting and welding efficiencies. The modeled volumetric heat source took into account a scale factor, and the shape factors given by the attenuation of the beam within the workpiece and the beam intensity distribution. The numerical model was calibrated using experimental data on the basis of morphological parameters of the weld bead. Results revealed a good correspondence between experiment and simulation analysis of the energy aspects of welding. Considering results of mechanical characterization of butt joints previously obtained, the optimization of welding condition in terms of mechanical properties and energy parameters was performed. The best condition is represented by the lower laser power and higher welding speed that corresponds to the lower heat input given to the joint.

  17. Evaluation of self-healing ability of Ce–V conversion coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of cerium nitrate in vanadate solutions on the properties of Ce–V conversion coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloys, and evaluated the self-healing behavior of the Ce–V conversion coating for AZ31 magnesium alloy. The results showed that the additions of cerium nitrate prevented pentavalent vanadium from reducing to tetravalent vanadium in the coatings during conversion reaction process. Adding appropriate cerium nitrate to vanadate solution led to a thicker coating with a more compact CeVO4 layer. The corrosion behavior of the Ce–V conversion coating was investigated by the electrochemical tests and the scratch immersion test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The self-healing ability of the coating was confirmed from all tests. The surface analysis revealed that the self-healing effect of the Ce–V conversion coating was only provided by the release and migration of vanadium compounds.

  18. A Crystalline Plasticity Finite Element Method for Simulation of the Plastic Deformation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dayong; Zhang, Shaorui; Tang, Weiqin; Huang, Shiyao; Peng, Yinghong

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, a constitutive framework based on a crystalline plasticity model is employed to simulate the plastic deformation of AZ31 magnesium alloy, which posses the hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal structure. Dislocation slip and mechanical twinning are taken into account in the model. The successive integration method is used to determine the active slip systems, and the contribution of twinning to the grain reorientation is treated by the PTR method. The FE model is introduced into ABAQUS/Explicit through a user material subroutine (VUMAT). Three deformation processes of AZ31 magnesium alloy, including tension, compression and a stamping process, are simulated with the present method. The simulation results are compared with experiment and those presented in the literature.

  19. Effects of CH3OH Addition on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongyi; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Zhang, Yalei

    2015-09-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films on AZ31 magnesium alloys were prepared in alkaline silicate electrolytes (base electrolyte) with the addition of different volume concentrations of CH3OH, which was used to adjust the thickness of the vapor sheath. The compositions, morphologies, and thicknesses of ceramic layers formed with different CH3OH concentrations were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the oxide films was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests. PEO coatings mainly comprised Mg, MgO, and Mg2SiO4. The addition of CH3OH in base electrolytes affected the thickness, pores diameter, and Mg2SiO4 content in the films. The films formed in the electrolyte containing 12% CH3OH exhibited the highest thickness. The coatings formed in the electrolyte containing different concentrations of CH3OH exhibited similar corrosion resistance. The energy consumption of PEO markedly decreased upon the addition of CH3OH to the electrolytes. The result is helpful for energy saving in the PEO process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21376088), the Project of Production, Education and Research, Guangdong Province and Ministry of Education (Nos. 2012B09100063, 2012A090300015), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects of China (No. 2014Y2-00042)

  20. Microstructural development of the hot extruded magnesium alloy AZ31 under cyclic testing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppmann, Michael; Stark, Sebastian; Reimers, Walter [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. Metallic Materials

    2010-11-15

    A study of the internal strain (stress) evolution during uni-axial cyclic deformation along the prior extrusion axis with fully reversed total constant strain amplitudes {epsilon}{sub A} (0.5% < {epsilon}{sub A} < 5%) was investigated by using in-situ high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The deformation is dominated by {l_brace}10 anti 12{r_brace} left angle 10 anti 11 right angle twinning and detwinning mechanisms within the textured hot extruded magnesium alloy AZ31. The results show a strong load partitioning between the internal stresses of (10 anti 10) and (11 anti 20) parent grains and of the (0002) twinned daughter grains that are relaxed. Following the evolution of the twinning/detwinning behavior and the hkil dependent microstresses as a function of cycling numbers, two different regimes were observed whereby it was found that the transition between these regimes is marked by an applied strain amplitude of {epsilon}{sub A} = 0.625%. (orig.)

  1. Hot Deformation Mechanisms in AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Extruded at Different Temperatures: Impact of Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Ulrich Kainer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The hot deformation characteristics of AZ31 magnesium alloy rod extruded at temperatures of 300 °C, 350 °C and 450 °C have been studied in compression. The extruded material had a fiber texture with  parallel to the extrusion axis. When extruded at 450 °C, the texture was less intense and the  direction moved away from the extrusion axis. The processing maps for the material extruded at 300 °C and 350 °C are qualitatively similar to the material with near-random texture (cast-homogenized and exhibited three dynamic recrystallization (DRX domains. In domains #1 and #2, prismatic slip is the dominant process and DRX is controlled by lattice self-diffusion and grain boundary self-diffusion, respectively. In domain #3, pyramidal slip occurs extensively and DRX is controlled by cross-slip on pyramidal slip systems. The material extruded at 450 °C exhibited two domains similar to #1 and #2 above, which moved to higher temperatures, but domain #3 is absent. The results are interpreted in terms of the changes in  fiber texture with extrusion temperature. Highly intense  texture, as in the rod extruded at 350 °C, will enhance the occurrence of prismatic slip in domains #1 and #2 and promotes pyramidal slip at temperatures >450 °C (domain #3.

  2. Growth and Corrosion Characteristics of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Ceramic Films Formed on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 陈砺; 严宗诚; 王红林; 彭家志

    2009-01-01

    The growth characteristics of oxide ceramic films formed on AZ31 magnesium alloy with plasma electrolytic oxidation(PEO)technique in alkaline silicate solution Were investigated.The composition,slructure and morphology of the coatings were detected by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope and scanning electron microscope.The amount of dissolved magnesium in the electrolytes during PEO process was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry.The results indicated that the growth process of PEO films had three stages when applied with constant voltage mode.In the first stage,the growth rate of PEO films was low,and concentrations of elements O.Mg and Si varied slightly.Atter sparking occurred(the second stage).the PEO films showed higher growth rate due to the high transfer rate of ionS and electrons,and the existoncc of plasma reactions.When the growth rate tended to maintain stable with time,the third stage happened.PEO films exhibited different uniform and pitting.corrosion characteristiCS in difierent reaction stages.The films formed at 300 V for 30 min performed best corrosion resistance and the phase of ceramic films was mainly composed of MgSiO3 and forsterite Mg2SiO4.

  3. Influence of chemical liquids on the fatigue crack growth of the AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhang-Zhong; He, Xian-Cong; Bai, Yun-Qiang; Ba, Zhi-Xin; Dai, Yu-Ming; Zhou, Heng-Zhi

    2012-03-01

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of an AZ31 magnesium alloy was investigated by comparing the effect of zirconate and phosphate chemical liquids. The morphology, components, and phase compositions of the chemical depositions at the fatigue crack tip were analyzed by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. For samples with and without the chemical liquids, their stress-intensity factor values at the fatigue crack tip were compared by using a stress-strain gauge. The results demonstrated that a zirconate film (Zr x O y ·Zn x O y ) and a phosphate film (Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O and MgZnP2O7) could be formed on the fatigue crack-surface at the fatigue crack tip. The stress distribution was changed because of the chemical depositions and the causticity of the chemical liquids. This could decrease the stress-intensity factor value and thus effectively cause fatigue crack closure, which reduces the fatigue crack growth rate. Moreover, it was found that the fatigue crack closure effect of zirconates was more positive than that of phosphates.

  4. Wettability and corrosion of alumina embedded nanocomposite MAO coating on nanocrystalline AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheytani, M.; Aliofkhazraei, M., E-mail: maliofkh@gmail.com; Bagheri, H.R.; Masiha, H.R.; Rouhaghdam, A. Sabour

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, micro- and nanocrystalline AZ31B magnesium alloy were coated by micro-arc oxidation method. In order to fabricate nanocrystalline surface layer, surface mechanical attrition treatment was performed and nano-grains with average size of 5–10 nm were formed on the surface of the samples. Coating process was carried out at different conditions including two coating times and two types of electrolyte. Alumina nanoparticles were utilized as suspension in electrolyte to form nanocomposite coatings by micro-arc oxidation method. Potentiodynamic polarization, percentage of porosity, and wettability tests were performed to study various characteristics of the coated samples. The results of scanning electron microscope imply that samples coated in silicate-based electrolyte involve much lower surface porosity (∼25%). Besides, the results of wettability test indicated that the maximum surface tension with deionized water is for nanocrystalline sample. In this regard, the sample coated in silicate-based suspension was 4 times more hydrophilic than the microcrystalline sample. - Highlights: • MAO in phosphate electrolyte needs higher energy as compared to silicate electrolyte. • Less porosity and finer grain size on free surface of the silicate-based coatings. • Observed porosity from top surface of coating shows the effect of the final MAO sparks. • SMAT affects surface roughness and accelerates growth kinetics.

  5. Microstructural effects on the spall properties of ECAE and SWAP magnesium alloys: AZ31B-4E and AMX602

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. L.; Farbaniec, L.; Kecskes, L.; Bradley, J.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of microstructure on the spall properties of two magnesium alloys fabricated via Equal-Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) and Spinning Water Atomization Process (SWAP) were investigated. The Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) for both AZ31B-4E and AMX602 magnesium alloys were found to be approximately 0.181±0.003 GPa and 0.187±0.012 GPa, respectively. The spall strengths extracted from the free surface velocity profiles were found to decrease by approximately 4% for AZ31B-4E between 1.7 GPa to 4.6 GPa shock stress. Although this reduction in spall strength may lie within the experimental error, the microstructure of the post-shocked magnesium alloy show that manganese intermetallic inclusions in the AZ31B-4E magnesium were perhaps responsible for the reduction in spall strength as a function of shock stress. On the contrary, the spall strength for AMX602 was found to be random for the same shock stress range studied. This random behavior of the AMX602 was likely due to the incomplete sintering during mechanical processing. The fracture surfaces of both materials were dominated by nanovoids and the AMX602 fracture surface was found to be striated. A more in-depth study is needed to better understand the spall behavior of both materials.

  6. The influence of the recrystallization mechanisms and grain growth on the texture of a hot rolled AZ31 sheet during subsequent isochronal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria-Hernandez, J., E-mail: jose.victoria-hernandez@hzg.de; Yi, S.; Bohlen, J.; Kurz, G.; Letzig, D.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The rolling texture of a twin roll cast AZ31 shows broad off-basal orientations. • Prismatic and pyramidal slip, and secondary twins influence the rolling texture. • Discontinuous recrystallization is promoted in grains deformed by pyramidal slip. • Recovery and extended recovery are promoted in grains deformed by prismatic slip. • Fast growing grain with orientation close to (0 0 0 1) lead the formation of a basal texture. - Abstract: The texture development during isochronal annealing at 250, 300 and 350 °C for 30 min of a hot rolled Mg AZ31 sheet produced by twin-roll casting was studied in this work. It was found that the rolling texture shows some features that resemble the textures that develop in rolled Mg alloys with rare earth additions. During further heat treatment, special attention was given to the deformation and recrystallization mechanisms, and grain growth that control the texture development. It was found that at 250 and 300 °C extended recovery and discontinuous recrystallization influence the texture by generating strain free grains with off-basal orientation. Conversely, during annealing at 350 °C growth of grains with their c-axis close to the (0 0 0 1) leads to the formation of the well-known basal type texture.

  7. Effects of Solution Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy at Elevated Temperature%固溶处理对AZ31合金组织与高温力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 张敏刚; 孙述利; 孙钢; 柴跃生

    2012-01-01

    Influences of solution treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated by Zeiss microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results show that the tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy is increased from 69. 7 Mpa to 86. 6 Mpa with solid solution treatment at 688K from 6 h to 12 h. The β-Mg17 Al12 phase in the microstructure of the AZ31 magnesium is gradually dissolved into the matrix phase after solid solution at 688 K for 12 h. With increasing in the solution time, the static recrystallization in the magnesium alloy can be fully undergone, and a large a-mount of fine recrystallization grains with the average size of 10 μm are generated at the boundary of the AZ31 magnesium alloy after the solid solution at 688 K for 12 h.%采用Zeiss金相显微镜、XRD射线衍射仪研究了不同固溶处理条件对AZ31镁合金的组织及性能的影响.结果表明,AZ31合金的抗拉强度随着固溶时间的延长得到明显提高(由688 K固溶处理6h的69.7 MPa升至12 h的86.6MPa);经过688 K×12h固溶处理的AZ31合金组织中的β-Mg17Al12相逐渐溶解,最后完全溶入基体中;固溶时间的延长保证了再结晶过程的充分进行,688 K固溶处理12h的合金组织晶界处产生了大量平均尺寸为10 μm的细小再结晶晶粒.

  8. AZ31镁合金高温变形行为及本构模型%Deformation Behavior and Constitutive Equation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy at Elevated Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢雅琳; 李兴成; 李小平; 朱福先

    2011-01-01

    Using Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator, hot compression test for AZ31 magnesium alloy at deformation temperatures of 523~723 K and strain rates of 0.01 ~ 10.00 s-1 were carried out under maximum strain of 60%.The experimental results show that flow stress increases apparently with strain.Above a critical peak value, flow stress decreases gradually to be a steady state.The characteristic with the dynamic recrystallization occurs during hot compression of AZ31 magnesium alloy.The effects of deformation temperature and strain rate on flow stress are dominating.In this paper, a constitutive equation with Arrheniues item is established to describe the deformation behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy at elevated temperature.%采用Gleeble-3500热模拟实验机,对AZ31镁合金在变形温度为523~723 K、应变速率为0.01~10.00 s-1、最大变形程度为60%的条件下进行热压缩实验.结果表明,流变应力随应变的增加而显著增大,到达峰值后逐渐降低并趋于稳态,变形呈明显的动态再结晶特征.变形温度和应变速率对流变应力影响显著,本文采用包含Arrheniues项的本构方程来描述AZ31镁合金的高温变形行为.

  9. Effect of β-TCP coating on degradation of AZ31B magnesium alloy%β-TCP涂层对AZ31B镁合金降解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟丽芳; 李洪洋; 王秋旭; 艾红军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of AZ31B magnesium alloy coated with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as biodegradable bone scaffold material. Methods The AZ31B magnesium alloy uncoated (group A) and coated with β-TCP(group B) were immersed in DMEM culture medium, respectively. The changes of pH valules in the medium and superficial morphology of materials were evaluated after immersion. Results Compared with pre-immersion,on the 3rd day after immersion, the pH. Value was increased in group A(P<0. 05), but was not obviously changed in group B. On the 7th day after immersion, the surface presented crack-like appearance in group A, while the bulk crystal was gradually spheroidized and part of the crystal was dissolved into globus structure in group B. Conclusion Coated with β-TCP can control the early biodegradation of AZ31B magnesium alloy,which is a satisfactory bone scaffold material.%目的 探讨采用β-磷酸三钙(β-TCP)涂层的AZ31B镁合金作为可降解骨支架材料的可行性.方法将无涂层(A组)及β-TCP涂层(B组)AZ31B镁合金浸泡于骨细胞培养基DMEM溶液中,观察模拟体液pH值变化及材料表面形貌的改变.结果 与浸泡前相比,A组浸泡3d时pH值升高(P<0.05),而B组无明显变化.浸泡7d后,A组表面呈龟裂状,而B组表面块状晶体逐渐发生球化,部分晶体有溶解迹象呈团状.结论 β-TCP涂层能控制AZ31B镁合金初期降解速度,β-TCP涂层AZ31B镁合金是一种良好的可降解骨支架材料.

  10. Systematic understanding of corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation treated AZ31 magnesium alloy using a mouse model of subcutaneous implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yongseok [Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials (ERC-RMB), North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27411 (United States); Tan, Zongqing [Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, OH 45211 (United States); Jurey, Chris [Luke Engineering, Wadsworth, OH 44282 (United States); Collins, Boyce [Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials (ERC-RMB), North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27411 (United States); Badve, Aditya [Business and Biology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (United States); Dong, Zhongyun [Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, OH 45211 (United States); Park, Chanhee; Kim, Cheol Sang [Department of Bio-nano System Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Sankar, Jagannathan [Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials (ERC-RMB), North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27411 (United States); Yun, Yeoheung, E-mail: yyun@ncat.edu [Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials (ERC-RMB), North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27411 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the differences between corrosion rates, corrosion types, and corrosion products in different physiological environments for AZ31 magnesium alloy and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treated AZ31 magnesium alloy. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and mice for 12 weeks, respectively. The corrosion rates of both AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy were calculated based on DC polarization curves, volume of hydrogen evolution, and the thickness of corrosion products formed on the surface. Micro X-ray computed tomography (Micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze morphological and chemical characterizations of corrosion products. The results show that there is more severe localized corrosion after in vitro test in HBSS; however, the thicknesses of corrosion products formed on the surface for AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy in vivo were about 40% thicker than the thickness of corrosion products generated in vitro. The ratio of Ca and P (Ca/P) in the corrosion products also differed. The Ca deficient region and higher content of Al in corrosion product than AZ31 magnesium alloy were identified after in vivo test in contrast with the result of in vitro test. - Highlights: • Effects of plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 in vitro and in vivo • Retardation of degradation via plasma electrolytic oxidation in vitro and in vivo • Differentiation of in vitro and in vivo corrosion types and products.

  11. The fluoride coated AZ31B magnesium alloy improves corrosion resistance and stimulates bone formation in rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Guangdao [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tan, Lili; Yang, Ke [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Ai, Hongjun, E-mail: aihongjuna@sina.com [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fluorine coated Mg alloy and clarify its mechanism in bone formation. We implanted the fluorine coated AZ31B Mg alloy screw (group F) in rabbit mandibular and femur in vivo. Untreated AZ31B Mg alloy screw (group A) and titanium screw (group T) were used as control. Then, scanning electron microscopy, the spectral energy distribution analysis, hard and decalcified bone tissues staining were performed. Immunohistochemistry was employed to examine the protein expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and collagen type I in the vicinity of the implant. Compared with the group A, the degradation of the alloy was reduced, the rates of Mg corrosion and Mg ion release were slowed down, and the depositions of calcium and phosphate increased in the group F in the early stage of implantation. Histological results showed that fluorine coated Mg alloy had well osteogenic activity and biocompatibility. Moreover, fluoride coating obviously up-regulated the expressions of collagen type I and BMP-2. This study confirmed that the fluorine coating might improve the corrosion resistance of AZ31B Mg alloy and promote bone formation by up-regulated the expressions of collagen type I and BMP-2. - Highlights: • Fluoride coating inhibited the degradation of the alloy in the early implantation. • Fluorine coating could slow down the rate of Mg corrosion and Mg ion release. • Fluorine coating could promote the deposition of Ca and P in vivo. • Fluorine coated Mg alloy had well osteogenic activity and biocompatibility. • Fluorine coating up-regulated the expression of BMP-2 and collagen type I protein.

  12. Mussel-inspired functionalization of PEO/PCL composite coating on a biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Peng; Xu, Demin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-05-01

    The rapid degradation of magnesium-based implants in physiological environments in vivo not only will quickly deteriorate their mechanical strengths but will also lead to a severe change of the micro-environment around the implants, which may cause the final failure of magnesium-based implants. In this work, a polycaprolactone (PCL) layer was prepared to seal the plasma electrolytic oxidization coating (PEO) to form a PEO/PCL composite coating on a biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy, followed by further surface functionalization with polydopamine. The in vitro degradation behaviors of the bare AZ31 alloy and coated samples were evaluated in a simulated body fluid (SBF) using the potentiodynamic polarization curve test and the static immersion test. The bioactivity of the samples was investigated using the SBF soaking test. The cytocompatibility of all samples was evaluated using the cytotoxicity test and analysis of the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) directly cultivated on the sample surface. The results showed that the PCL layer successfully sealed the pores of the PEO coating, and then the polydopamine layer formed on its surface. The in vitro degradation tests showed that the PEO/PCL composite coating improved the corrosion resistance of the AZ31 alloy in SBF with a more positive corrosion potential and a lower corrosion current density. Due to the protection of the PEO/PCL composite coating, the surrounding environment showed nearly no influence on the degradation of the coated sample, which led to no obvious local alkalization and hydrogen evolution. Moreover, compared with the AZ31 alloy and PEO coating, the PEO/PCL composite coating was more suitable for cell adhesion and proliferation. After further surface functionalization by polydopamine, the corrosion resistance of the composite coating was maintained, while its bioactivity was significantly enhanced with a large amount of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on its surface after

  13. Electrophoretic painting on AZ31 Mg alloy pretreated in cerium conversion coating solutions prepared in ethanol-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Phuong, Nguyen; Fazal, Basit Raza; Moon, Sungmo

    2017-01-01

    Electrophoretic painting (E-paint) was prepared on AZ31 Mg alloy samples pretreated in cerium conversion coating (CeCC) solutions with various ratios of ethanol and water mixture and its characteristics, adhesion and corrosion resistance were investigated. It was found that CeCC formed on AZ31 Mg alloy in a CeCC solution without ethanol was partly cracked structure and mainly consisted of Mg(OH)2/MgO, which exhibited weak adhesion with E-painting layer after water immersion test, and low corrosion resistance, as indicated by rapid formation of blisters and paint delamination during salt spray test. The addition of ethanol promoted the growth of a fine nano-crystalline CeO2 layer over the entire substrate surface. The E-paint on AZ31 pretreated in the CeCC solutions with addition of ethanol showed also improved corrosion resistance, as represented by the delayed time for paint delamination and blister formation. The E-paint layers on the CeCC layers formed in solutions containing 50-80 vol% ethanol showed stronger adhesion and better corrosion resistance than those formed on the samples treated in a non-ethanol containing CeCC solution.

  14. Influence of artificial biological fluid composition on the biocorrosion of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31, AZ91 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen, L J, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.c [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shengyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110023 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The electrochemical behavior of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31 and AZ91 alloys was studied in Hank's solution, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and serum-containing medium (DMEM adding 10% fetal bovine serum (DMEM+FBS)) over a 7 day immersion period. The biocorrosion of the above three alloys for various immersion time intervals was investigated by linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). After 7 day immersion, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out and the surface morphologies of experimental samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation complemented by energy-disperse spectrometer (EDS) analysis. It was shown that the corrosion of magnesium alloys was influenced by the composition of the solution. The results indicated that chloride ion could reduce the corrosion resistance and the hydrocarbonate ions could induce rapid surface passivation. The adsorbed amino acid on the experimental magnesium alloys' surface increased their polarization resistance and reduced current densities. The influence of the serum protein on corrosion was found to be associated with the magnesium alloy compositions. A Mg-Ca alloy exhibited an increased corrosion rate in the presence of serum protein. An AZ31 alloy showed an increased corrosion rate in DMEM+FBS in the initial 3 day immersion and the corrosion rate decreased thereafter. An AZ91 alloy, with high Al content, showed a reduced corrosion rate with the addition of FBS into DMEM.

  15. Influence of artificial biological fluid composition on the biocorrosion of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31, AZ91 alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Chen, L J

    2009-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of potential orthopedic Mg-Ca, AZ31 and AZ91 alloys was studied in Hank's solution, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and serum-containing medium (DMEM adding 10% fetal bovine serum (DMEM+FBS)) over a 7 day immersion period. The biocorrosion of the above three alloys for various immersion time intervals was investigated by linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). After 7 day immersion, potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out and the surface morphologies of experimental samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation complemented by energy-disperse spectrometer (EDS) analysis. It was shown that the corrosion of magnesium alloys was influenced by the composition of the solution. The results indicated that chloride ion could reduce the corrosion resistance and the hydrocarbonate ions could induce rapid surface passivation. The adsorbed amino acid on the experimental magnesium alloys' surface increased their polarization resistance and reduced current densities. The influence of the serum protein on corrosion was found to be associated with the magnesium alloy compositions. A Mg-Ca alloy exhibited an increased corrosion rate in the presence of serum protein. An AZ31 alloy showed an increased corrosion rate in DMEM+FBS in the initial 3 day immersion and the corrosion rate decreased thereafter. An AZ91 alloy, with high Al content, showed a reduced corrosion rate with the addition of FBS into DMEM.

  16. Crystal plasticity simulation on earing during deep drawing of AZ31 magnesium alloy%AZ31镁合金板材冲压成形制耳的晶体塑性模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐伟琴; 李大永; 彭颖红

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict the earing behavior during deep drawing of magnesium alloy accurately, a crystal plasticity theory combined with finite element method was proposed. First of all, based on the microscopic nature of plastic deformation during warm forming, a crystal plasticity constitutive model coupling slip and twinning was established for magnesium alloy with hexagonal close packed (HCP) structure. Then, in order to establish crystal plasticity finite element model for large deformation, the secondary development interface (VUMAT) of the commercial finite element software ABAQUS/Explicit and Fortran programming language were used, the deformation modes and model parameters were determined by combining the theory, simulation and experiments. Finally, the commercial rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets were simulated during deep cup drawing using the HCP crystal plasticity finite element model, and the predicting method is validated by comparing with experimental results from both earing profile and deformation texture. Both the experimental and simulated results show significant earings at 45° away from rolling direction and texture components of (0001) 〉〈10 1 0 and tensile twinning.%针对AZ31镁合金板材深冲过程中的制耳现象,提出一种基于晶体塑性理论的镁合金板材冲压制耳行为的预测方法。首先,从镁合金温成形时的塑性变形机理(即滑移和孪生共同作用)出发,建立耦合滑移和孪生的适合密排六方结构(HCP)金属的晶体塑性本构模型;在此基础上,编制相关程序,通过结合理论、模拟和实验的方法确定镁板微观变形机制组合和多晶体模型参数两个关键因素,构建了适用于镁合金板材大变形的晶体塑性有限元仿真模型;最后,采用HCP板材大变形晶体塑性有限元模型对AZ31镁合金板材的杯形件冲压过程进行有限元仿真,并利用实验结果从制耳轮廓和变形织构两方面验证 HCP 晶

  17. Mg-Gd-Y与AZ31两种变形镁合金的冲击波响应%Shock-Loading Response of Mg-Gd-Y and AZ31 Wrought Magnesium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 郝敏; 谭成文; 于晓东; 王富耻; 才鸿年

    2012-01-01

    The Mg-Cd-Y and AZ31 magnesium alloys were subjected to shock wave loading by using the plain symmetry impact experiment Then, the uniaxial compression tests were carried out on the recovered shock-deformed samples. Optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe the microstructure. The increased magnitude of the yield strength of the samples for the solutionized and peak-aged Mg-Gd-Y alloy was 21 Mpa and 4 Mpa, respectively. Therefore, the precipitate phase P' in the peak-aged condition was responsible for the decreased shock strengthening. In contrast, the AZ31 alloy showed a more notable shock-strengthening. The'difference of the mechanical behavior between Mg-Gd-Y and AZ31 under shock wave loading was dependent on the discrepancy of deformation mechanisms. The twinning volume fraction for the shock-deformed Mg-Gd-Y alloy was low, indicating that the dominant deformation mechanism was dislocation slip. Whereas, there existed plenty of twinning in the shock deformed AZ31 alloy. The notable shock-strengthening was attributed to the twinning boundary being the obstacles of the dislocation glide in the post-shock reload process.%利用平行平面正碰撞方法产生的冲击波对Mg-Gd-Y与AZ31两种典型变形镁合金加载,并对回收后的材料进行准静态压缩实验,采用金相显微镜和透射电子显微镜进行微观组织分析.冲击波加载后,原始固溶态Mg-Gd-Y合金的屈服强度增加了21 MPa,而时效峰状态合金的屈服强度仅增加4 MPa,时效处理后产生的析出相β’使合金的屈服强度增加幅度明显减少;然而,AZ31镁合金的屈服强度增加了40 MPa.Mg-Gd-Y与AZ31镁合金的冲击波加载后力学响应的差异取决于冲击波过程中两者所具有的不同变形机制,冲击波变形后Mg-Gd-Y合金中的孪晶体积分数非常少,其变形机制以位错滑移为主.相比之下,冲击波加载后的AZ31合金中产生了大量孪晶,孪生是该合

  18. Hot workability, microstructural control and rate-controlling mechanisms in cast-homogenized AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Yellapregada Venkata Rama Krishna; Rao, Kamineni Pitcheswara [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Hong Kong (China)

    2009-03-15

    Optimum conditions for microstructural control in industrial hot working of cast and homogenized AZ31 magnesium alloys are evaluated by using a processing map. The recommended window for bulk metal working of this alloy is the domain in the temperature range 300-450 C and strain rate range 1-10 s{sup -1}, and the optimum processing parameters are 400 C and 10 s{sup -1}, where grain-boundary self diffusion is the rate-controlling mechanism. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Hydroxyapatite coating on biodegradable AZ31 and Mg-Ca alloys prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhametkaliyev, T.; Surmeneva, M.; Surmenev, R.; Mathan, B. K.

    2015-11-01

    A thin film of hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on AZ31 and Mg-Ca alloys by using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The thickness of the HA coating was determined to be 750 nm. The phase composition, microstructure, and surface morphology of the HA coatings were investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro degradation behaviour of the HA coated alloys was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and 3.5wt.% NaCl solution using electrochemical method. The coatings homogeneously covered the entire surface of the substrates. The coating structure corresponded to a nanostructured HA. The ultrathin coating significantly improved the degradation resistance of the alloy. Nanocrystalline HA coating significantly improved the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca and AZ31 magnesium alloys. The polarization resistance (Rp) of the coated Mg-Ca alloy was more than two-order of magnitude higher and the corrosion current density Icorr reduced by ˜ 98% as compared to the base alloy.

  20. Hydroxyapatite coating on biodegradable AZ31 and Mg-Ca alloys prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhametkaliyev, T., E-mail: mtm91@mail.ru; Surmeneva, M., E-mail: feja-mari@yandex.ru; Surmenev, R., E-mail: rsurmenev@gmail.com [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Mathan, B. K., E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [James Cook University, Townsville (Australia)

    2015-11-17

    A thin film of hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on AZ31 and Mg-Ca alloys by using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The thickness of the HA coating was determined to be 750 nm. The phase composition, microstructure, and surface morphology of the HA coatings were investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro degradation behaviour of the HA coated alloys was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and 3.5wt.% NaCl solution using electrochemical method. The coatings homogeneously covered the entire surface of the substrates. The coating structure corresponded to a nanostructured HA. The ultrathin coating significantly improved the degradation resistance of the alloy. Nanocrystalline HA coating significantly improved the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca and AZ31 magnesium alloys. The polarization resistance (Rp) of the coated Mg-Ca alloy was more than two-order of magnitude higher and the corrosion current density I{sub corr} reduced by ∼ 98% as compared to the base alloy.

  1. Poly(L-lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite/collagen composite coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Lin; Yan, Yu-Hua; Wan, Tao; Yang, Hui

    2013-10-01

    Surface modification of biomedical magnesium alloy using composite coating shows an attemptable approach for the development of Mg-based biomaterials with excellent cytocompatibility. Hydroxyapatite/collagen composite was preliminarily fabricated by biomineralization, the bioactive poly(l-lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite/collagen composite coatings were spin coated on AZ31 magnesium alloy using poly(l-lactic acid) solution mixed with hydroxyapatite/collagen particles, and the resultant materials and coatings were characterized in structure and related properties; furthermore, the in vitro degradation behavior of modified magnesium alloy in 1.5-fold Hank's solution was investigated. The results show that hydroxyapatite/collagen composite achieved chemical bonding between hydroxyapatite and collagen similar to natural bone; composite coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy retained the bioactive functional groups of the componential materials and improved the corrosion resistance of Mg alloy; the mass fraction of hydroxyapatite/collagen particles incorporated into the composite affected the porous structure, interfacial adhesion and thus the corrosion resistance of the composite coating due to phase separation as well as volume concentration effects of polymer solution. Composite coatings suppressed the sharp rising of pH value and the released Mg(2+) from substrate to extensive degree, and the degradation behavior of the modified magnesium alloy was supposed to be correlated to microstructure of the coating as well as the synergistic reactions among alkaline- and acidic-degraded products.

  2. 纳米晶AZ31镁合金粉末制备的研究%Preparation of Nanocrystalline AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宇; 刘广东

    2010-01-01

    研究了AZ31镁合金粉末在氢化一脱氢过程中的组织结构与粉末形貌演变规律,在350℃的条件下进行真空脱氢处理,MgH2转变为Mg,获得晶粒尺寸约为40nm的纳米晶镁合金粉末.

  3. Effect of Schiff base as corrosion inhibitor on AZ31 magnesium alloy in hydrochloric acid solution%席夫碱作为缓蚀剂对盐酸溶液中AZ31镁合金的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. THIRUGNANASELVI; S. KUTTIRANI; Amali Roseline EMELDA

    2014-01-01

    Schiff base derived from the condensation reaction of analar grade 1-amino-2-naphthol 4-sulphonic acid with cinnamaldehyde was prepared under microwave condition. The Schiff base was analysed by infrared spectroscopy. This Schiff base as a corrosion inhibitor of AZ31 magnesium alloy in 0.05 mol/L HCl solution was studied. The inhibition effect of the Schiff base compound (4Z)-4-(3-phenyl allylidene amino)-3-hydroxy naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (AC) on AZ31 magnesium alloy corrosion was studied using mass loss, potentiodynamic polarization technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. The potentiodynamic polarization curve shows that Schiff base AC inhibits both anodic and cathodic reactions at all concentration, which indicates it is a mixed type inhibitor. EIS results indicate that as the additive concentration is increased, the polarization resistance increases whereas double-layer capacitance decreases. The adsorption of AC on the AZ31 magnesium alloy surface in 0.05 mol/L HCl obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.%在微波条件下,通过高纯度1-氨基-2萘酚4-磺酸与肉桂醛的缩合反应制备席夫碱(4Z)-4-(3-苯基烯丙叉氨基)-3-羟基萘-1-磺酸(AC)。采用红外光谱对制备的席夫碱进行分析。研究席夫碱作为缓蚀剂对AZ31镁合金在0.05 mol/L 盐酸中的缓蚀作用。通过质量损失法、动电位极化法和电化学交流阻抗谱(EIS)研究席夫碱化合物在 AZ31镁合金腐蚀过程中的抑制作用。动电位极化曲线表明:席夫碱在所有浓度下能抑制阳极和阴极反应,是一种混合型缓蚀剂。EIS结果表明:随着添加剂浓度的增加,极化电阻增加而双电层电容减少。在0.05 mol/L盐酸中,席夫碱AC对AZ31镁合金表面的吸附符合Langmuir吸附等温式。

  4. Effects of Modification by Ca and Hot Extrusion on Microstructure of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy%Ca变质及热挤压对AZ31镁合金组织的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林继兴

    2009-01-01

    研究了金属Ca变质处理及热挤压变形对镁合金组织、晶粒大小的影响.结果表明:0.4%的Ca能使AZ31镁合金的β-Mg_(17)Al_(12)组织明显球化,均匀化处理后晶粒尺寸由变质前的546μm降至147μm;另外,400℃下热挤压也能强烈地细化组织,平均晶粒尺寸降至20μm以下,其机理是发生了动态再结晶与孪生变形.%The effects of modification by Ca and hot extrusion on microstructure and grain size of AZ31magnesium alloy were investigated. The results show that the shape of β-Mg_(17)Al_(12) spheroidize is obvious with the addition of 0.4% Ca in the alloy, and the grain size reduces from 546 μm to 147 μm after homogenization treatment. Meanwhile, because of the dynamic recrystallization and twinning deformation, the microstructure of AZ31 magnesium alloy would be refined by hot extrusion under 400℃, and the average grain size decreases, to below 20 μm.

  5. In vitro degradation behavior and cytocompatibility of biodegradable AZ31 alloy with PEO/HT composite coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Peng; Liu, Xuanyong; Ding, Chuanxian

    2015-04-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-based implants have attracted much attention recently in orthopedic applications because of their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. However, their rapid degradation in vivo will not only reduce their mechanical strength, but also induce some side effects, such as local alkalization and gas cavity, which may lead to a failure of the implant. In this work, a hydroxyapatite (HA) layer was prepared on plasma electrolytic oxidization (PEO) coating by hydrothermal treatment (HT) to fabricate a PEO/HT composite coating on biodegradable AZ31 alloy. The in vitro degradation behaviors of all samples were evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and their surface cytocompatibility was also investigated by evaluating the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1). The results showed that the HA layer consisted of a dense inner layer and a needle-like outer layer, which successfully sealed the PEO coating. The in vitro degradation tests showed that the PEO/HT composite coating improved the corrosion resistance of AZ31 alloy in SBF, presenting nearly no severe local alkalization and hydrogen evolution. The lasting corrosion resistance of the PEO/HT composite coating may attribute to the new hydroxyapatite formation during the degradation process. Moreover, compared with AZ31 alloy and PEO coating, PEO/HT composite coating was more suitable for cells adhesion and proliferation, indicating improved surface cytocompatibility. The results show that the PEO/HT composite coating is promising as protective coating on biodegradable magnesium-based implants to enhance their corrosion resistance as well as improve their surface cytocompatibility for orthopedic applications.

  6. 粉末冶金法制备超细晶AZ31镁合金及超塑性变形研究%Powder Metallurgy Prepared Ultra-fine Grain AZ31 Alloy and Its Superplastic Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莺莺; 胡杰仁

    2013-01-01

    采用粉末冶金法制备超细晶AZ31镁合金材料,并对其微观组织形貌及相成分进行研究;利用单向拉伸试验研究了该材料在不同条件下超塑性变形.结果表明,采用球磨、冷压制坯和热挤压法可获得晶粒尺寸在1微米以下的超细晶组织,该材料在250℃,1×10-3s-1的应变速率条件下获得了最大伸长率,基本达到超塑性状态.%Ultra-fine grain AZ31 alloy bars were fabricated by power metallurgy process,and the microstructure and phase composition were also researched.The superplastic deformation was studied by simple tension test.According to the results,AZ31 alloy with the grain size under 1 μm was prepared by the process of high energy ball milling,cold compacting and hot extrusion.The superplastic deformation was achieved under the temperature of 250 ℃ and strain rate of 1 × 10-3 s-1.

  7. The study of microstructure and mechanical properties of twin-roll cast AZ31 magnesium alloy after constrained groove pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimina, M.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D.; Kurz, G.; Cieslar, M.; Zník, J.

    2014-08-01

    Microstructure investigation and microhardness mapping were done on the material with ultra-fine grained structure prepared by constrained groove pressing of twin-roll cast AZ31 magnesium strips. The microstructure observations showed significant drop of the grain size from 200 gm to 20 gm after constrained groove pressing. Moreover, the heterogeneities in the microhardness along the cross-section observed in the as-cast strip were replaced by the bands of different microhardness in the constrained groove pressed material. It is shown that the constrained groove pressing technique is a good tool for the grain refinement of magnesium alloys.

  8. High Temperature Tension-compression Asymmetry of As-cast AZ31 Alloy%铸态AZ31镁合金高温拉-压不对称性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官磊; 成波

    2012-01-01

    利用Gleeble-1500在250~500℃和应变速率0.001~1 s-1对铸态AZ31镁合金进行热压缩及热拉伸试验,对热变形过程中拉-压不对称性进行研究;基于Hollomon公式,分析了铸态AZ31镁合金热拉伸-压缩过程中应变硬化指数的变化规律.结果表明:铸态镁合金在热拉伸-压缩过程中,存在明显拉-压不对称性,热拉伸应变硬化指数均比热压缩应变硬化指数大;升高形变温度及降低应变速率有利于减小铸态镁合金的拉-压不对称性.%The high temperature tension-compression asymmetry of as-cast AZ31 alloy was studied at 250-500℃ with various strain rates 0.001-ls-1 by Gleeble-1500 dynamic material testing machine. The strain hardening exponents during high temperature tension-compression asymmetry were analyzed by introducing Hollomon equation. The results indicate that during the high temperature tension-compression of as-cast AZ31 alloy, the tension-compression asymmetry is obvious, and the strain hardening exponent of tension is bigger than those of compression. The higher deformation temperature and slower strain rate can decrease the tension-compression asymmetry.

  9. 渗注锆酸盐对AZ31镁合金疲劳裂纹扩展速率的影响%Effects of the Zirconate Deposition on Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺显聪; 王章忠; 白允强; 巴志新; 周衡志; 沈鸿烈

    2011-01-01

    The zirconate deposition behavior and effects of the zirconate on fatigue crack growth rate at the fatigue crack tip of AZ31 magnesium alloy under alternate loads were investigated. The morphology and components of the zirconate deposition at the fatigue crack tip were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), respectively. The stress intensity factors at the fatigue crack tips with and without zirconate deposition were measured by taking advantage of strain gauge. The results show that the zirconate (ZrxOy ZnxOy) films can be formed at the fatigue crack tips of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The stress intensity factor value is decreased about 40%, which effectively yields fatigue crack closure, reduce or even vanishes the fatigue crack growth rate.%研究交变载荷作用下,在AZ31镁合金疲劳裂纹尖端渗注锆酸盐的沉积行为及其对疲劳裂纹扩展速率的影响.用扫描电镜(SEM)、能谱仪(EDS)及X射线衍射仪(XRD)观察分析裂纹尖端的形貌和物相成分,采取贴应变片方法确定渗注锆酸盐前后应力强度因子的变化.结果表明:锆酸盐转化液能在AZ31镁合金疲劳裂纹尖端形成锆酸盐ZrxOyZnxOy覆层;渗注锆酸盐后裂纹尖端应力强度因子降低约40%,能有效增强疲劳裂纹闭合效应,降低或延滞其疲劳裂纹扩展速率.

  10. AZ31镁合金表面聚吡咯的化学氧化合成及其耐蚀性能%Chemical Oxidative Polymerization of Polypyrrole and Its Corrosion Resistance on the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荣; 陈明安; 路学斌

    2011-01-01

    以对甲苯磺酸钠为掺杂剂,三氯化铁为氧化剂,用化学氧化聚合法在AZ31镁合金表面制备聚吡咯(PPy)膜.采用傅里叶变换红外(FTIR)光谱分析了镁合金表面聚吡咯膜结构,通过电化学极化曲线、电化学阻抗谱(EIS)研究了其耐蚀性能,通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、X射线能量散射谱(EDS)分析了表面形貌和成分.和镁合金裸样相比,聚吡咯膜对镁合金腐蚀有一定的抑制作用.硅烷预处理改善了镁合金/聚吡咯体系的耐腐蚀性能,使腐蚀电位较镁合金裸样正移了110 mV,电流密度减小了约2个数量级.%Polypyrrole (PPy) was chemically synthesized from pyrrole using sodium p-toluenesulfonate as a doping agent and ferric chloride as an oxidant on the surface of the AZ31 magnesium alloy.Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for structural characterization of the PPy film.The corrosion behavior of the PPy coated AZ31 Mg alloy was studied using an electrochemical polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) were used to observe the surface morphology and for elemental analysis of the film, respectively.The PPy film showed a certain corrosion inhibition on the AZ31 magnesium alloy.Silane pretreatment can improve the corrosion protection performance of the Mg/PPy system causing a positive shift of the corrosion potential by 110 mV and a decrease in the corrosion current density by two orders of magnitude compared with that of AZ31 Mg alloy.

  11. Study on Deformation and Toughening of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy%AZ31镁合金变形与强韧化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智文; 李德富; 马志新; 张治民

    2006-01-01

    研究了AZ31镁合金组织的演变过程和力学性能,结果表明:通过挤压变形及动态再结晶,可以显著细化合金晶粒,其尺寸可由约100μm减少到5 μm;二次变形可以提高镁合金的抗拉强度.可见塑性变形是同时实现镁合金构件成形和强韧化的有效途径.

  12. Influence of Hot Deformation on Microstructure of AZ31 Alloy%热变形对AZ31镁合金显微组织的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 桑玉博; 赵立伟

    2006-01-01

    利用Gleeble1500热模拟材料实验机,在高温不同变形条件下对AZ31镁合金铸态试样进行压缩变形,采用金相显微镜对其组织演变规律进行了分析,结果表明,在350~450℃以10 s-1的应变速率压缩变形可以得到均匀细小的显微组织.

  13. Electrochemical characteristics of calcium-phosphatized AZ31 magnesium alloy in 0.9 % NaCl solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzima, Branislav; Mhaede, Mansour; Pastorek, Filip

    2014-05-01

    Magnesium alloys suffer from their high reactivity in common environments. Protective layers are widely created on the surface of magnesium alloys to improve their corrosion resistance. This article evaluates the influence of a calcium-phosphate layer on the electrochemical characteristics of AZ31 magnesium alloy in 0.9 % NaCl solution. The calcium phosphate (CaP) layer was electrochemically deposited in a solution containing 0.1 M Ca(NO3)2, 0.06 M NH4H2PO4 and 10 ml l(-1) of H2O2. The formed surface layer was composed mainly of brushite [(dicalcium phosphate dihidrate (DCPD)] as proved by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Immersion test was performed in order to observe degradation of the calcium phosphatized surfaces. The influence of the phosphate layer on the electrochemical characteristics of AZ31, in 0.9 % NaCl solution, was evaluated by potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results were analysed by the Tafel-extrapolation method and equivalent circuits method. The results showed that the polarization resistance of the DCPD-coated surface is about 25 times higher than that of non-coated surface. The CaP electro-deposition process increased the activation energy of corrosion process.

  14. Sliding wear behaviour of AZ31B magnesium alloy and nano-composite%AZ31B镁合金及其纳米复合材料的滑动磨损行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SRINIVASAN; C.LOGANATHAN; M.KAMARAJ; Q.B.NGUYE; M.GUPTA; R.NARAYANASAMY

    2012-01-01

    AZ31B magnesium alloy and nano-composite were manufactured by hybrid casting process and hot extruded at 350 ℃.The sliding wear behaviour of alloy and nano-composite was estimated at room temperature using the standard pin-on-disc wear test equipment.The tests were conducted under a normal load of 10 N at different sliding speeds ranging from 0.60 to 1.2 m/s for distance up to 2000 m.The wear mechanisms of the wom out surface were studied using SEM analysis.The influence of test parameters on wear rate of the pins was established using a linear regression model statistically.Compared with the AZ31B magnesium alloy,the nano-composite shows lower wear rates due to higher hardness improvement caused by the reinforcement.The wear mechanism appears to be a mix-up of ploughing,rows of furrows,delamination and oxidation.%采用复合铸造工艺制备AZ31B镁合金及其纳米复合材料,再对所得材料在350℃进行热挤压.采用标准的销-盘式摩擦磨损试验机对AZ31B镁合金及其纳米复合材料的室温滑动磨损行为进行研究.实验条件为法向载荷10 N、滑移速度0.60~1.2 m/s、滑移距离2000 m.采用SEM观察来研究磨损表面的磨损机理.通过构建一个线性回归模型来研究试验参数对磨销磨损率的影响.与AZ31B镁合金相比,由于增强体的作用而导致的硬度增强使复合材料表现出低的磨损率.犁削、犁沟、分层和氧化构成混合的磨损机理.

  15. The Effect of Mg-Sr-Y Master Alloy on the As-cast Structure of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy%Mg—Sr—Y中间合金对AZ31镁合金铸态组织的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓霞; 陈刚; 屈卫棋; 范培耕; 彭晓东; 马宏

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, OM, SEM and EDS were used to research the as-cast structures and phase of Mg-Sr-Y master alloy, AZ31-0.6% Sr alloy and AZ31-0.5% Sr-1.5%Y alloy. The results indicate that the structure of Mg-Sr-Y master alloy are comprised of α-Mg phase and dendritic eutectic (Mg17Sr2+Mg11Y)along the grain boundary. The effect of Mg-Sr-Y master alloy on AZ31 alloy depends on the amount of Sr and Y.%采用光学金相显微镜、扫描电子显微镜、能谱仪、XRD等对Mg—Sr-Y中间合金、AZ31-0.5%Sr和AZ31-0.5%Sr-1.5%Y的组织、相结构进行研究。结果表明,Mg—Sr—Y中间合金的组织由基体α—Mg相、沿晶界分布的枝晶状的共晶组织(Mg17Sr2+Mg11Y)组成,Sr、Y可以细化AZ31镁合金晶粒,其细化效果与Sr、Y含量有关。

  16. Finite Element Analysis on Backward Extrusion Process for Vacuum Cup Inner Cylinder of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy%AZ31镁合金保温杯内筒反挤压成形模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟兵

    2012-01-01

    运用DEFORM-3D有限元分析软件模拟了AZ31镁合金保温杯内筒反挤压过程,分析了温度和挤压速度对AZ31镁合金反挤压过程中的等效应力、挤压力的影响.模拟结果表明:凸模圆角处的等效应力值最大;随着温度的升高,所需要的最大挤压力变小;挤压速度越大,最大挤压力越大.%The backward extrusion process for the vacuum cup inner cylinder of AZ31 magnesium alloy was simulated by DEFORM-3D finite element software. The effects of the temperature and the extrusion speed on the equivalent stress and extrusion force were analyzed. The results show that the maximum equivalent stress was mainly concentrated around the punch round. With temperature increasing, the maximum extrusion force decreases. The greater the extrussion speed, the larger the maximum extrusion force.

  17. Texture Evolution of Extruded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy under Tensile Testing%挤压态AZ31镁合金拉伸变形织构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诗昌; 梅秋平; 田甜; 杨倩

    2013-01-01

    The inverse pole figures of grain face were calculated with X-ray diffraction patterns to understand the texture evolution of the extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy during tensile deformation. The results show that the strong basal texture (0002) appears, and some grains arranged with C axis are inclined 16°—21° to the extruded direction in the as-extruded samples. The tensile deformation weakens the basal texture and makes the prismatic (1010) plane rotate 45° with C axis.%根据X射线衍射图谱绘制了晶面反极图,研究了拉伸变形对挤压态AZ31镁合金织构的影响.结果表明,挤压态AZ31镁合金具有明显的(0002)基面织构,且存在C轴与挤压方向呈16°~21°角分布的倾斜基面织构.拉伸变形使基面织构弱化,(1010)柱面沿C轴发生了45°角的转动.

  18. The Influence of Novel Alloying Additions on the Performance of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    alloys are based on a rather small group of alloying elements, there are often limited differences between them in properties (strength, corrosion ...Research Laboratory (ARL). Initially, the discussions focused on ways to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium ( Mg ) alloys to increase the...elements display little tendency to alter precipitates or otherwise adversely influence the corrosion performance of the base alloy . Based on these

  19. EBSD技术在研究AZ31镁合金挤压织构中的应用%Application of EBSD technique on the study of the texture of extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜丽; 黄光杰; 刘庆

    2011-01-01

    AZ31镁合金挤压棒材在传统正挤压变形过程中易于形成很强的挤压纤维织构.本文利用EBSD技术对AZ31镁合金挤压棒材的挤压组织进行了表征,发现AZ31镁合金挤压棒材在挤压时形成的织构不是均匀的(0002)基面平行于挤压方向的环状纤维织构,而是由(10-10)棱柱面垂直于挤压方向和(11-20)棱柱面垂直于挤压方向的两个不同的纤维织构组分组成的.因此(0002)极图不足以表达该织构的足够信息,必须用沿挤压方向的反极图表示.纤维织构的存在使得挤压样品具有明显的拉伸各向异性.%AZ31 magnesium alloy was easy to form strong fiber texture during conventional forward extrusion. In this study, a typical extrusion microstructure was characterized by EBSD technique. The result showed the texture of the extruded sample was not a uniform ring fiber texture with all the (0002) basal plane parallel to extrusion direction, but a fiber texture consists of two different texture component with (10 10) prismatic plan perpendicular to extrusion direction and (11 20) prismatic plane perpendicular to extrusion direction. Hence,(0002) pole figure could not show all the information of the texture, while inverse pole figure in extrusion direction was a more appropriate method. Anisotropy of tensile properties was caused by the fiber texture.

  20. Effects of benzotriazole on anodized film formed on AZ31B magnesium alloy in environmental-friendly electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xinghua [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); An Maozhong, E-mail: mzan@hit.edu.c [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Yang Peixia; Li Haixian; Su Caina [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2009-08-12

    An environmental-friendly electrolyte of silicate and borate, which contained an addition agent of 1H-benzotriazole (BTA) with low toxicity (LD50 of 965 mg/kg), was used to prepare an anodized film on AZ31B magnesium alloy under the constant current density of 1.5 A/dm{sup 2} at room temperature. Effects of BTA on the properties of the anodized film were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), loss weight measurement, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results demonstrated that anodized growth process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependant on the BTA concentration, which might be attributed to the formation of an BTA adsorption layer on magnesium substrate surface. When the BTA concentration was 5 g/L in the electrolyte, a compact and thick anodized film could provide excellent corrosion resistance for AZ31B magnesium alloy.

  1. The effect of high-intensity pulsed ion beam on surface structures of MAO film on magnesium alloy AZ31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, X.G.; Zhu, F. [Transportation Equipments and Ocean Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Zhu, X.P.; Lei, M.K. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Xu, J.J., E-mail: jjxu@dlmu.edu.cn [Transportation Equipments and Ocean Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) films on AZ31 magnesium alloy were modified by high-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) irradiation with ion energy of 300 keV at 200 A/cm{sup 2} with up to 10 shots. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and micro-hardness testers were used to characterize the surface properties of the irradiated MAO films. The thickness of remelted layer increased and then decreased, and the maximal value of 10 μm was obtained at 200 A/cm{sup 2} with 5 shots. The phase structure of the ablated surface still consisted of Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and MgO, which are the same as that of the original ones. Surface roughness of the ablated surface increased and then decreased with the increase of shot number. The surface roughness for the original MAO film is about 2.10 μm, it decreased to 1.18 μm with 1 shot irradiation and then increased to 4.13 μm with irradiation shots up to 10. Correspondingly, the surface energy of the ablated surface augmented, resulting in the tedious decrease of static contact angle from 145.9° for original film to 49.7° for the film with 10 shots. The ablation modification enhanced the continuity and compaction of the MAO films on AZ31 magnesium alloy.

  2. The Effect of SiC Particle Addition During FSW on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M.; Abdollahzadeh, A.; Bagheri, B.; Omidvar, H.

    2015-12-01

    Welding and joining of magnesium alloys exert a profound effect on magnesium application expansion, especially in ground and air transportations where large-size, complex components are required. Due to specific physical properties of magnesium, its welding requires great control. In general, the solid-state nature of friction stir welding (FSW) process has been found to produce a low concentration of defects. In the current research, specimens from AZ31 magnesium alloy were welded together using the friction stir process with previously inserted SiC powder particles in the nugget zone. In other words, during the FSW process, the pre-placed SiC particles were stirred throughout the nugget zone of the weld. The results indicated that proper values of rotation and translation speeds led to good appearance of weld zone and suitable distribution of SiC particles producing increased weld strength. The comparison of the microstructures and mechanical properties of FS-welded AZ31 with those of FS-welded one using pre-placed SiC particles showed that the addition of SiC particles decreased the grain size and increased the strength and the formability index.

  3. Microtexture evolution in Mg-Y and AZ31 Mg alloy during hot deformation%Mg-Y及AZ31镁合金高温变形过程中微观织构的演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨续跃; 张雷; 姜育培; 朱亚坤

    2011-01-01

    在温度为723 K、应变速度为3×10-3 s-1的条件下,对Mg-Y及AZ31镁合金挤压棒材进行单向压缩变形,利用OM、SEM和EBSD观察、分析Y对挤压棒材动态再结晶和微观织构的影响.结果表明:AZ31镁合金在真应变ε=0.2时发生明显的动态再结晶,在ε=0.5时,动态再结晶晶粒的体积分数高达80%以上;而Mg-Y合金在真应变ε=0.4时,动态再结晶体积分数尚不足10%,Y对镁合金动态再结晶有显著的阻碍作用;AZ31镁合金变形时,几乎所有晶粒的基面趋向于由变形前平行于压缩方向转至垂直于压缩方向,导致基面织构在ε=1.2时发生近90°的转动;Mg-Y合金则只有小部分晶粒发生转动,转动所形成的择优取向在动态再结晶后显著弱化,并导致取向分布更加随机;Y的添加可导致镁合金基面织构在动态再结晶后显著弱化.%The effects of Y on the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and microtexture evolution of hot deformed Mg alloy were studied by optical, SEM and EBSD microscopy.For this purpose, AZ31 and Mg-Y alloy bars were compressed at strain rate of 3× 10-3 s-1 and at temperature of 723 K.The results show that DRX frequently takes place in AZ31 Mg alloy just after being compressed to strained ε=0.2 and the volume fraction of DRX grains is more than 80% after further being compressed to strained 0.5.Whereas alloying by Y retarded DRX, the fraction of DRX in Mg-Y alloy is less than 10%even at the strain of 0.4.In AZ31 Mg alloy, the alignment of the basal planes initially parallel to the compression direction is rotated gradually by compression and approaches perpendicular to the compression direction in high strain and the basal texture is rotated by about 90° at the strain of 1.2.But in Mg-Y alloy, only a few grains rotate to be perpendicular to the compression direction with increasing strain.The basal texture caused by the rotated grains is significantly weakened and the orientation distribution becomes more random

  4. Recrystallization during and following hot working of magnesium alloy AZ31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, M.R. [School of Engineering and Technology, Deakin Univ., Geelong, Vic. (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    The microstructures of magnesium AZ31 are examined following hot compression testing and annealing. The grain size, fraction dynamically recrystallized and, in a couple of cases, the crystallographic texture are reported. It was found that the progress of dynamic recrystallization is strongly sensitive to processing conditions but that the dynamically recrystallized grain size was less sensitive to stress than in other metals. It was also found that, for structures containing between 80 and 95% dynamic recrystallization, abnormal grain growth occurs during annealing. The crystallographic texture produced is also sensitive to the deformation conditions. (orig.)

  5. Research on the Hot-Deformation Characteristics for AZ31 Magnesium Alloy%AZ31镁合金热变形特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光杰; 钱宝华

    2007-01-01

    通过MTS试验机进行等温压缩实验,变形温度范围473~623 K、应变速率范围0.001~1 s-1,研究了AZ31镁合金的流变应力行为及其微观组织的演变规律.结果表明,变形温度、应变速率与峰值应力之间的相互关系可用指数模型来描述,其激活能约为138.13kJ/mol,而动态再结晶则是该合金在热变形过程中的主要软化机制和晶粒细化手段.

  6. AZ31镁合金热压缩变形行为分析%Analysis on Hot Compression Deformation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓓蓓; 蔡庆伍; 魏松波; 丁睿; 毛燕

    2007-01-01

    在平面应变条件下研究了不同温度、不同变形速率以及不同变形程度对AZ31镁合金流变应力和组织的影响.结果表明:高温时,由于柱面滑移以及锥面滑移系也被启动,而且发生动态再结晶,导致流变应力显著减小;变形速率增加产生的加工硬化使得流变应力也增加;变形温度和变形速率对镁合金变形过程中孪晶的生成有显著的影响,低温或者是大变形速率下容易生成孪晶.

  7. In vitro degradation, cytocompatibility and hemolysis tests of CaF2 doped TiO2-SiO2 composite coating on AZ31 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Yang, Wenzhong; Yin, Xiaoshuang; Liu, Ying

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a CaF2 doped TiO2-SiO2 composite coating was successfully coated onto AZ31 alloy by sol-gel method. Electrochemical tests, in vitro degradation, direct cellular experiment and hemolysis tests were conducted and the results showed that the CaF2 doped TiO2-SiO2 composite coating can not only improve the corrosion resistance, but also enhance the biocompatibility of AZ31 alloy. XRD, SEM and EDX were also performed to characterize the crystalline structures, morphologies and chemical compositions of the coatings.

  8. Effect of heat input on microstructure and properties of welded joint in magnesium alloy AZ31B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎明; 苗玉刚; 宋刚; 梁国俐

    2004-01-01

    Using the optical microscope, tensile test machine and micro-hardness meter, the effect of heat input on the microstructure and mechanical properties in fusion welding joints of AZ31B wrought alloys was investigated systematically, the mechanism on joint properties losing was analyzed, and a valid method to improve joint properties of the magnesium alloy fusion welding was explored. The results show that the heat input has an obvious effect on the microstructure and properties. Under the condition of penetration, with the heat input decreasing, the crystal grain in the weld and heat-affected zone (HAZ) becomes fine, the width of HAZ becomes obviously narrow, and the molding of the weld is improved, so the tensile strength and elongation are increased and the hardness of joints is improved. When the heat input reaches 60 J/mm, the high quality joints can be gained.

  9. Effect of Sr addition on texture evolution of Mg-3Al-1Zn (AZ31) alloy during extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Alireza, E-mail: Alireza.Sadeghi@mail.mcgill.ca [McGill University, Department of Mining and Materials Science, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Hoseini, Majid; Pekguleryuz, Mihriban [McGill University, Department of Mining and Materials Science, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Hot compression tests were conducted on AZ31(0-1)Sr alloys at different temperatures. {yields} Micro-mechanisms were divided into 4 sections (high and low T, high and low Sr). {yields} A general micro mechanism map has been plotted based on the texture result. {yields} The map is divided into two bulging and PSN regions and a mixed region in between. {yields} The extremes of the two regions are limited by surface cracking and twining. - Abstract: An experimental investigation of texture evolution during the elevated temperature extrusion of AZ31 alloys containing strontium (Sr) additions is reported. The crystallographic texture of hot extruded alloys containing different levels of Sr has been examined. Hot compression tests have been carried out in order to investigate the hot deformation behavior of the as-cast alloys. It was seen that, at different extrusion temperatures and levels of Sr, different dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mechanisms become dominant which affect the final texture. At lower temperatures and at low levels of Sr, the bulging of grain boundaries was activated, resulting in a necklaced grain structure. Furthermore, a strong deformation texture of <10.0> parallel to extrusion direction was developed as a result of bulging at the grain boundaries. Twining which was activated in the early stages of deformation, acted as nucleation sites for DRX. In contrast, at high temperatures and high levels of Sr, particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) becomes significant resulting in the weakening of the overall texture with the recrystallization of new grains of random orientation. In order to prevent the surface cracking in the extruded sample, a limit for Sr concentration and deformation temperature was determined. A shoulder region was found in between the bulging and PSN-dominant areas where both mechanisms are active.

  10. Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Equal Channel Angular on AZ31 Alloy%AZ31镁合金等径角变形与断裂行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康锋; 程平; 吴海英

    2012-01-01

    研究了AZ31镁合金在150~250℃、等效应变速率0.001~0.25 s-1内一道次等温等径角变形(ECAP)过程中的变形与断裂行为.剪切带和剪切断裂的观察结果可由量化应力集中趋势的局部流变集中参数α来预测.结果表明,AZ31镁合金在ECAP变形过程中极易发生局部剪切,而均匀变形只发生在高温和低应变率条件下;通过材料性能对局部流变趋势的影响,可选择最优的加工方案,以获得材料的均匀变形.%The deformation and fracture characteristics of AZ31 alloy during equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) were investigated at temperatures between 150 ℃ and 250 ℃ and ram speeds producing average effective strain rates between 0.001 s-1 and 0.25 s-1. Observations of shear banding and shear fracture were interpreted in terms of the tendency for strata concentration as quantified by the flow localization 'α ' parameter, or the ratio of the normalized flow softening rate to the strain-rate sensitivity. The results show that A231 alloy is particularly susceptible to shear localization during ECAP; the uniform flow occurs only at high temperatures and low strain raws. These conclusions of tbe effects of material properties on flow localization tendency are helpful for the selection of optimum processing parameters, and then the uniform deformation can be obtained during ECAP.

  11. DRX Mechanism of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy during Hot Rolling%AZ31镁合金热轧变形的动态再结晶机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付雪松; 陈国清; 王中奇; 周文龙

    2011-01-01

    AZ31 Mg alloy was rolled at the temperature ranging from 603 K to 703 K. With reduction from 20% to 40% and strain rate from 4 s"1 to 16 s"1. The effect of reduction per pass, strain rate and rolling temperature on the microstructure of the deformed Mg alloy was studied. The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mechanism of AZ31 Mg alloy during hot rolling was investigated. The results demonstrate that the strain rate and the temperature not only affect the extent of DRX, but also change the mode of DRX or nucleation mechanism. When the strain rate is e= 13.9 s"1, the DRX mode is twinning-induced DRX at T=603 K; but there appear some new chain-like grains along the original grain boundaries at T=703 K. When the temperature is T= 673 K, DRX is mainly twinning-induced DRX at the strain rate I= 11.35 s"1, while with the strain rate decreasing to e= 4 s"', the DRX mode turns into rotation DRX.%在轧制温度603~703 K、轧制压下量20%~40%、应变速率4~16 s-1下对AZ31镁合金进行轧制变形,研究轧制压下量、应变速率和变形温度对AZ31镁合金变形组织的影响,分析了镁合金的动态再结晶机制.结果表明:应变速率和变形温度不仪影响动态再结晶进行的程度,而且能够改变再结晶的方式或形核机制.当轧制应变速率(ε)=13.9 s-1,变形温度T=603 K时,再结晶方式为孪生动态再结晶;变形温度升高到703 K时,沿晶界有链状新晶粒出现.当变形温度T=673 K,应变速率(ε)=11,35 s-1时,再结晶方式以孪生动态再结晶为主;应变速率降低到(ε)=4s-1时,再结晶方式以旋转动态再结晶为主.

  12. Effect of twin boundary on static recrystallization of AZ31 magnesium alloy%孪晶界对AZ31镁合金静态再结晶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁雪征; 刘天模; 陈建; 张瑜; 卢立伟

    2013-01-01

      对铸态AZ31镁合金进行不同变形量的锻造或压缩室温变形,然后经过不同温度和时间的退火保温,研究孪晶界对合金静态再结晶过程的影响。结果表明,锻造产生的孪晶较短且取向错乱,而压缩变形产生的孪晶则较狭长,同取向的孪晶大量聚集、平行排列,这与锻造和压缩两种变形方式的形变速率不同有关。退火保温实验结果表明,在相同条件下,锻造变形镁合金孪晶处比压缩变形镁合金孪晶处更易发生再结晶。研究不同孪晶处的形核方式,提出低温“孪晶界凸出形核”机理,发现某些孪晶变体即二次孪晶处并不是优先形核的位置,这与经典的孪生形核理论的观点不同。%The effect of twin boundary during static recrystallization of the as­cast AZ31 magnesium alloy annealed at different temperatures for different times was studied after being forged or compressed with certain proportion. The results show that the twins produced by forging are short and their orientations are disordered, but twins produced by compression are narrow and long and exist with groups that have the same orientation. The morphology differences of diverse deformation are related to the difference of deformation rate of the forging and compression. Annealing experiments results show that under the same condition, the recrystallization at twin boundaries of the forged AZ31 magnesium alloy occurs more easily than that of the compressed AZ31 magnesium alloy. Moreover, the nucleation ways in the diverse areas of twin boundary were studied. A new nucleation theory of “twin boundary bulge nucleation mechanism” at low temperature was proposed. The results indicate that some twin variants are not the positions for priority nucleation, which is different from the classic twin nucleation theory.

  13. ECAP对粗晶AZ31镁合金的晶粒细化机制的影响%Effect of Equal Channel Angular Pressing on Grain-refining Mechanism of Coarse-grained AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严凯; 孙扬善; 白晶; 薛烽

    2011-01-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was performed on AZ31 magnesium alloy and the microstructure and hardness distribution of the sample processed by ECAP was systematically studied. The results reveal that the twinning can coordinate grain deformation in the beginning of ECAP and provides the nucleation positions for the dynamic recrystallization in the later stage of ECAP. The grain refining mechanism of AZ31 magnesium alloy is inhomogeneity in the processing of ECAP because recrystallization nucleation mainly occurs in twin boundaries, which generates a bimodal grain size distribution. The big grains at the top of the sample are more than that at the bottom, and the difference of microstructure is caused by the variation of stress in the each position of the sample during static recrystallization, which cna explain the different ECAP routes affect the uniformity of Mg alloy.%采用等通道转角挤压(ECAP)方法对AZ31镁合金进行挤压加工,并研究了变形过程中试样各部位的显微组织和硬度的变化.显微组织分析表明,孪晶在剪切变形阶段可以协调晶粒变形,而且在变形后成为动态再结晶晶粒形成的中心.ECAP过程中AZ31镁合金的组织是以一种非均匀的方式细化的,再结晶晶粒主要在孪晶界上形核,这形成了双模态的晶粒分布.研究还发现,经过ECAP后的试样纵截面上部残留的大晶粒明显多于下部的,这是由于在静态再结晶阶段试样各部位受力状态的不同造成的,这很好地解释了ECAP不同路径对镁合金均匀性的影响.

  14. Ram speed profile design for isothermal extrusion of AZ31 magnesium alloy by using FEM simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the conventional hot extrusion of metallic materials,the temperature of the workpiece varies during the whole extrusion process,leading to the non-uniformity of the product dimension,microstructure and properties.In the present research,a simulation model based on the principle of PID control was developed to establish ram speed profiles that can suppress the temperature evolution during the process to allow for isothermaI extrusion.With this simulation model,the real-time extrusion ram speed was adjusted according to the simulated exit temperature.The results show that temperature homogeneity is significantly improved not only along the extrudate length but also on its cross section in the case of extrusion in the isothermal mode with a designed ram speed profile in the extrusion process of AZ31 magnesium.In addition,die temperature varies over a more narrow range in comparison with extrusion in the conventional iso-speed mode.

  15. Microstructure and creep behaviors of hot extrusion AZ31 magnesium alloy%热挤压AZ31镁合金的组织结构与蠕变行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙泰礼; 谢君; 郭华; 王岭; 田素贵

    2012-01-01

    By means of microstructure observation,internal frictional stress and creep properties measurement,an investigation has been made into the microstructure and creep properties of hot extraction AZ31 alloy.Results show that the microstructure of hot extruded AZ31 alloy possesses strip-like feature which distribute along the extruded direction,and the β-Mg17Al12 particles are dispersedly precipitated in the alloy.During creep,the internal frictional stress values of dislocation movement possess an obvious sensitivity on the applied temperature,and the value of internal frictional stress decrease as the temperature increases,which result in the alloy possessing larger strain rate during creep at high temperature.Significant amount of dislocations activated in the alloy is thought to be the main deformed mechanism in the initial stage of creep.During steady state creep,the denser dislocations are concentrated to form the cells structure,and gradually transformed into the fine subgrain structure due to the occurrence of the dynamic recrystallization.Once the micro-cracks initiate along the grain boundary,the creep of the alloy turns into the tertiary stage.As creep goes on,the cracks are viscously propagated along the boundary,which is thought to be the fracture mechanism of the alloy during creep.%通过对热挤压态AZ31镁合金进行组织形貌观察、内摩擦应力测定及蠕变性能测试,研究了热挤压AZ31合金的组织结构和蠕变行为.结果表明:热挤压AZ31镁合金的组织具有带状结构特征,并沿轧制方向分布,且有β-Mg17Al12相在合金中弥散析出.蠕变期间,位错运动的内摩擦力有较强的温度敏感性,随温度增加,内应力值明显降低,致使合金具有较高的蠕变速率.合金在蠕变期间,大量位错的形成与运动是蠕变初期的变形机制;蠕变稳态阶段,高密度位错逐渐束集形成位错胞,进一步发生蠕变期间的动态再结晶.随裂纹在晶界处萌生使蠕变进

  16. Hot Deformation Behavior and Processing Maps of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy%AZ31镁合金的热变形行为及加工图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖梅; 周正; 黄光杰; 汪炳叔

    2010-01-01

    用Gleeble-1500D型热模拟试验机对AZ31镁合金在变形温度为473~723 K,应变速率为0.001~1 s-1下的热变形行为进行了试验研究;用双曲正弦关系式描述了该合金在热变形过程中的稳态流变应力;根据合金动态模型,计算并分析了该合金的加工图.结果表明:利用加工图可确定出该合金热变形的流变失稳区,并且得到试验条件下热变形的最佳工艺参数,即变形温度为473~523 K,应变速率为0.01 s-1左右;当变形温度为623~673 K、应变速率为0.001~0.006 s-1时可进行超塑性加工;当变形温度高于673 K后可在较宽的应变速率范围进行热加工.

  17. Comparison of the microstructure and thermal stability of an AZ31 alloy processed by ECAP and large strain hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddahbi, M. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valle, J.A. del [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Prado, M.T. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: tpprado@cenim.csic.es; Ruano, O.A. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-25

    The aim of this work is to compare the microstructure, the texture, as well as the thermal stability of an AZ31 Mg alloy processed via two different severe plastic deformation processing techniques, namely large strain hot rolling (LSHR) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructure was characterized by optical microscopy and the texture was measured both by X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The microstructure obtained via LSHR has average grain sizes around 3 {mu}m, but it is quite heterogeneous. Additionally, a well-defined basal texture develops. ECAP gives rise to a more homogeneous and slightly coarser microstructure, with an average grain size of 7 {mu}m and a shear type texture. The higher resistance of the extruded sample to secondary recrystallization after severe post-deformation annealing is attributed to a texture effect.

  18. Mechanisms of plastic deformation in AZ31 magnesium alloy investigated by acoustic emission and transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecek, Milos [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, CZ-121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: janecek@met.mff.cuni.cz; Kral, Robert [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, CZ-121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Dobron, Patrik [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, CZ-121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Chmelik, Frantisek [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, CZ-121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Supik, Vladimir [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Technology, Technical University of Brandenburg at Cottbus, D-03010 Cottbus (Germany); Hollaender, Frank [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Technology, Technical University of Brandenburg at Cottbus, D-03010 Cottbus (Germany)

    2007-07-25

    The effect of deformation conditions on plastic deformation and acoustic emission (AE) in hot-rolled magnesium alloy AZ31 has been investigated in the temperature range of 20-200 deg. C by constant strain rate tensile tests. Two sets of samples differing in the preheating temperature before individual passes of hot rolling have been studied. Both the yield stress and the tensile strength decrease with increasing temperature of deformation. The ductility was found to increase significantly with increasing temperature of deformation in both specimens. Unstable plastic deformation (Portevin-Le Chatelier effect) has been observed for all used strain rates both at room and elevated temperatures. Plastic instabilities were accompanied by a pronounced AE activity. The AE bursts were correlated with the individual regions of plastic instabilities on the deformation curve. Mechanisms controlling plastic instabilities are suggested respecting the microstructure evolution as observed by optical and transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Friction Stir Welding Effect on Transverse Rigidity and Sound Transmission Characteristics of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zhi; Hao Zhiyong; Ni Dingrui; Zheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    AZ31B magnesium alloy was subjected to friction stir welding withvarious welding parameters. The equivalent Young’s moduli of the friction stir welded samples and the base material were obtained by the three-point method, and their transverse rigidities were obtained as well. Furthermore, the sound transmission characteristics of those samples were experimentally studied by four-microphone impedance tube method. The experimental results indicate that the transverse rigidities of the friction stir welded samples were only 79%, 83% and 92% of thoseof the base material, respectively. The sound transmission losses of the processed samples were also lower, which was largely due to the reduction of transverse rigidities induced by the decrease of equivalent Young’s moduli.

  20. Effect of Second Phase Particles on Grain Growth for Nanocrystalline AZ31 Mg Alloy by Phase Field Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The grain growth of nanocrystalline AZ31 magnesium alloy containing spherical particles with different sizes is simulated by phase field methods. It is shown that the role of pinning effect of the second phase particles during grain growth is interesting. There is a critical particle size to affect the grain growth in nanostructure. If the size of particles is lower than the critical value, the effect of pinning for grain growth will be increased with further decreasing the size. If the size is larger than the critical value, the particles nearly have no pinning effects. The critical value is 200 nm when the content of particles is 10%. It is found that the grain growth exponents in kinetic equation decrease when the sizes of particles increase in nanostructure with the same volume fraction of the particles, and the pinning effect of particles on the grain growth is decreased as well.

  1. Effect of welding speed on the material flow patterns in friction stir welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; Wu Huiqiang; Huang Jihua; LIN Sanbao; WU Lin

    2007-01-01

    The clear zigzag-line pattern on transverse cross sections can be used to explain the formation mechanism of the weld nugget when friction stir welded AZ31 magnesium alloy without any other insert material is used as mark. It provides a simple and useful method to research the joining mechanism of friction stir welding. The rotation speed is kept at 1000 r/min and the welding speed changes from 120 mm/min to 600 mm/min. The macrostructure on the transverse cross section was divided into several parts by faying surface. The results show that the shape and formation procedure of the weld nugget change with the welding speed. There are two main material flows in the weld nugget: one is from the advancing side and the other is from the retreating side. A simple model on the weld nugget formation of FSW is presented in this article.

  2. Research on backward extrusion for AZ31 magnesium alloy based on servo press%基于伺服压力机的AZ31镁合金反挤压成形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程永奇; 郭强; 刘易凡; 许仕宁

    2012-01-01

    为探讨挤压速度模式对AZ31镁合金杯形件反挤压成形的影响,对伺服压力机反挤压成形进行有限元分析与实验,并与普通曲柄压力机和液压机反挤压成形进行比较.有限元分析结果表明,反挤压终了阶段,伺服挤压和液压挤压最大损伤值分别为3.41和3.30,远低于普通挤压的最大损伤值6.08;挤压过程中杯形件最大温差伺服挤压为45℃,而普通挤压和液压挤压分别为127℃和70℃.实验结果表明,在1100kN伺服压力机上,采用伺服挤压模式,可成功获得壁厚为3mm的AZ31镁合金反挤压杯形件,而采用普通挤压模式,在杯形件边缘则出现破裂.实验与有限元分析结果基本吻合.%In order to explore the effect of the velocity mode on backward extrusion forming of AZ31 magnesium alloy cup, the finite element method and experiment were used to analyze the procedure on servo press, which was compared with the forming on ordinary crank press and hydraulic press. The results of finite element analysis indicated that the maximum damage of backward extrusion for servo press and hydraulic press at the final forming stage were 3. 41 and 3. 30 respectively, which were lower than 6. 08 for ordinary crank press. The maximum difference temperature was only 45*C for servo press, 127℃ for ordinary crank press and 70 ℃ for hydraulic press. The experimental results proved that the backward extrusion cup of AZ31 magnesium alloy with the thickness of 3mm could be formed under the 1100kN servo press, while the fracture appeared at the flange under the ordinary crank press. The experimental results were agreed with the numerical results.

  3. Enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of AZ31 Mg alloy using PCL/ZnO NPs via electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwoo; Mousa, Hamouda M.; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2017-02-01

    In the efforts to improve corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloys, polycarprolactone (PCL) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) composite coatings were applied onto AZ31 Mg alloys via electrospinning technique in this study. The PCL/ZnO composite coatings on Mg alloys were characterized by using FE-SEM, EDX, XPS, and FT-IR. Moreover, coating adhesion test, electrochemical corrosion test, and biocompatibility test in vitro were performed to measure coating performance. Our results revealed that the increase in the content of ZnO NPs in the composite coatings not only improved the coating adhesion of composite coatings on Mg alloys, but also increased the corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts of the PCL/ZnO composite coated samples was superior to the biocompatibility of the bare samples. Such data suggest that applying PCL/ZnO composite coating to the magnesium alloys has suitable potential in biomedical applications.

  4. Hot compression deformation behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy at elevated temperature%AZ31镁合金高温热压缩变形特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭强; 严红革; 陈振华; 张辉

    2005-01-01

    在应变速率为0.005~5 s-1、变形温度为250~450℃条件下,在Gleeble-1500热模拟机上对AZ31镁合金的高温热压缩变形特性进行了研究.结果表明:材料流变应力行为和显微组织强烈受到变形温度的影响;变形温度低于350℃时,流变应力呈现幂指数关系;变形温度高于350℃时,流变应力呈现指数关系;变形过程中发生了动态再结晶且晶粒平均尺寸随变形参数的不同而改变,其自然对数与Zener-Hollomon(Z)参数的自然对数成线性关系;材料动态再结晶机制受变形机制的影响,随温度的不同而改变;低温下基面滑移和机械孪晶协调变形导致动态再结晶晶粒的产生;中温时Friedel-Escaig机理下位错的交滑移控制动态再结晶形核;高温时位错攀移控制整个动态再结晶过程.在本实验下,材料的最佳工艺条件是:变形温度350~400℃,应变速率为0.5~5 s-1.

  5. Effects of Carbon Nanotubes on the Corrosion Resistance of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy and Its Mechanism%碳纳米管对AZ31镁合金抗腐蚀性能影响与机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国华; 曾效舒; 张湛; 罗超

    2011-01-01

    研究碳纳米管对镁合金抗腐蚀性能的影响,在氩气保护下,采用搅拌铸造法制备碳纳米管增强AZ31镁基复合材料,观察并分析其显微组织,并进行盐水静态浸渍试验,研究碳纳米管的加入量对复合材料在3.5%NaCl(质量分数,下同)溶液中腐蚀行为的影响,测试浸泡过程中3.5%NaCl介质的pH值变化;利用扫描电子显微镜对复合材料腐蚀形貌进行观察和分析;并对复合材料的抗腐蚀机制进行分析.结果表明:碳纳米管的加入能有效地提高复合材料的抗腐蚀性能,当碳纳米管加入量为1.5%(质量分数)时,平均腐蚀速率由AZ31基体3.2068 mg/(m2·s)降为1.1069 mg/(m2·s).%Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-enforced AZ31 magnesium-based composites were fabricated by stirring-casting under the protection of Ar.Their microstructure was observed and the effect of CNTs addition on the corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied by immersing all the samples in 3.5wt% NaCl solution.The change of pH value was tested during the immersing progress.The fractographs were observed and analyzed via scanning electron microscope.Corrosion resistance mechanism of CNTs/magnesium composites was researched.The results show that CNTs addition can increase the corrosion resistance of the composites effectively.Corrosion rate changes from 3.2068 mg/(m2·s) to 1.1069 mg/(m2·s) with 1.5wt% CNTs addition.

  6. Study on Microstructure and Properties of the Broadloom AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Roll-casting Plate%宽幅AZ31B镁合金铸轧板显微组织和性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志权; 黄庆学; 马立峰; 林金保; 庞志宁

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure of broadloom AZ31B magnesium alloy roll-casting plate and its influence on the edge crack and mechanical properties of the plate were studied by using metallographic observation,SEM and mechanical property testing experiment.The results show that:the plate organization is mainly composed of α-Mg matrix,β-Mg17Al12 phase and α +β divorced eutectic,showing dendritic morphology; In surface and edge of the plate,β-Mg17Al12 phase is mainly distributed at the grain boundary and the density is bigger,formed net-shape; In center and central of the plate,spherical β-Mg17Al12 phase is dispersed in α-Mg matrix,formed lamellar-shape; The main reason for the edge crack in the cast-rolling process is in the slab edge interdendritic low-melting eutectic phase and β-Mg17Al12 phase of grain boundary which are easy to be crack source,and extend outward along the crystal; The tensile specimen showes brittle cleavage fracture characteristics,and its mechanical property is obvious anisotropy.%通过金相观测、断口扫描和力学性能测试等实验,研究了宽幅AZ31B镁合金铸轧板的组织分布,及其对板带边裂和力学性能的影响.结果表明:AZ31B镁合金铸轧板的组织主要由a-Mg基体、析出相β-Mg17Al12相及α+β离异共晶组成,呈树枝晶形貌;β-Mg17Al12相在AZ31B镁合金铸轧板坯的表层及边部主要分布于晶界处且密度较大、构成网状,而在板坯的心部和中部呈球状弥散于α-Mg基体中,构成层片状;在板坯边部枝晶间低熔点的共晶相及晶界上的β-Mg17Al12相易成为裂纹源,并沿晶向外扩展,是铸轧过程中产生裂纹的主要原因;试样拉伸断口呈脆性解理断裂的特征,其力学性能呈明显的各向异性.

  7. Corrosion mechanism of micro-arc oxidation treated biocompatible AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid degradation of magnesium (Mg based alloys has prevented their further use in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention, and therefore it is essential to investigate the corrosion mechanism for improving the corrosion resistance of these alloys. In this work, the effect of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidation (MAO with different voltages were carried out to obtain biocompatible ceramic coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy. The effects of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of MAO samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF were studied systematically. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffractometer (XRD were employed to characterize the morphologies and phase compositions of coating before and after corrosion. The results showed that corrosion resistance of the MAO coating obtained at 250 V was better than the others in SBF. The dense layer of MAO coating and the corrosion precipitation were the key factors for corrosion behavior. The corrosion of precipitation Mg(OH2 and the calcium phosphate (Ca–P minerals on the surface of MAO coatings could enhance their corrosion resistance effectively. In addition, the mechanism of MAO coated Mg alloys was proposed.

  8. Corrosion mechanism of micro-arc oxidation treated biocompatible AZ31 magnesium alloy in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Lia; Fang Lu; Honglong Li; Wenjun Zhu; Haobo Pan; Guoxin Tand; Yonghua Lao; Chengyun Ning; Guoxin Ni

    2014-01-01

    The rapid degradation of magnesium (Mg) based alloys has prevented their further use in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention, and therefore it is essential to investigate the corrosion mechanism for improving the corrosion resistance of these alloys. In this work, the effect of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with different voltages were carried out to obtain biocompatible ceramic coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy. The effects of applied voltage on the surface morphology and the corrosion behavior of MAO samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) were studied systematically. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were employed to characterize the morphologies and phase compositions of coating before and after corrosion. The results showed that corrosion resistance of the MAO coating obtained at 250 V was better than the others in SBF. The dense layer of MAO coating and the corrosion precipitation were the key factors for corrosion behavior. The corrosion of precipitation Mg(OH)2 and the calcium phosphate (Ca–P) minerals on the surface of MAO coatings could enhance their corrosion resistance effectively. In addition, the mechanism of MAO coated Mg alloys was proposed.

  9. In vivo response of AZ31 alloy as biliary stents: a 6 months evaluation in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zheng, Shengmin; Li, Nan; Guo, Huahu; Zheng, Yufeng; Peng, Jirun

    2017-01-01

    Mg-based metallic materials have been making continuing progress as vascular stents. However, the research of Mg-based materials as non-vascular stents is still at its primary stage. AZ31 stents hereby were implanted into the common bile duct of rabbits for 6 months. The results revealed an existence of 93.82 ± 1.36% and 30.89 ± 2.46% of the original volume after 1 and 3 month, respectively. Whole blood tests indicated an inflammation decreasing to normal level after 3 month implantation. A benign host response was observed via H&E staining. Nonuniform corrosion at the two ends of the stents was observed and considered the results of flow or local inflammation. Moreover, the application of Mg-based materials for different stenting treatment were reviewed and compared. Esophagus was hypothesized most destructive, whilst blood vessel and bile duct considered similar and less destructive. Trachea and nasal cavity were thought to be mildest.

  10. Microstructural evolution characterization of friction stirring welded AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; LIN Sanbao; WU Lin; FENG Jicai

    2004-01-01

    A friction stirring welding to joint 5 mm rolled AZ31 magnesium had been developed. The microstructures in various regions including the weld nugget, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were investigated and compared with unaffected parent metal using optical microscopy. The results showed that the heat and mechanical process had great effect on the microstructure evolution. In weld nugget, the heat was enough to produce sufficient superplastic material flow and the mechanical effect was greatest, and the dynamic recrystallization was completed thoroughly. In TMAZ, the mechanical effect was indirectly affected by the welding tool and only some grains had undergone dynamic recrystallization. The various regions were studied in detail to better understand the microstructural evolution during friction stirring welding (FSW). The cross section near the "key hole" showed clear onion rings because the material was stirred only by the rotation of the probe and materials rotated with the probe and did not move along welding direction and in vertical direction, there was no material flow and the flow movement can be regarded as two dimensional layer flow.

  11. In vivo response of AZ31 alloy as biliary stents: a 6 months evaluation in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zheng, Shengmin; Li, Nan; Guo, Huahu; Zheng, Yufeng; Peng, Jirun

    2017-01-01

    Mg-based metallic materials have been making continuing progress as vascular stents. However, the research of Mg-based materials as non-vascular stents is still at its primary stage. AZ31 stents hereby were implanted into the common bile duct of rabbits for 6 months. The results revealed an existence of 93.82 ± 1.36% and 30.89 ± 2.46% of the original volume after 1 and 3 month, respectively. Whole blood tests indicated an inflammation decreasing to normal level after 3 month implantation. A benign host response was observed via H&E staining. Nonuniform corrosion at the two ends of the stents was observed and considered the results of flow or local inflammation. Moreover, the application of Mg-based materials for different stenting treatment were reviewed and compared. Esophagus was hypothesized most destructive, whilst blood vessel and bile duct considered similar and less destructive. Trachea and nasal cavity were thought to be mildest. PMID:28084306

  12. Study on Preparation and Corrosion Property of AZ31 Mg Alloy with Hydrophilic Film%AZ31镁合金表面亲水薄膜的制备与腐蚀性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬

    2013-01-01

    The hydrophilic film (TTN) with anticorrosive property was fabricated on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy.TTN film was prepared by polymer plating at room temperature under controlled conditions of voltage and reaction time and its growth mechanism was analyzed based on cyclic voltammogram.Through analysis of electrochemical characteristic curves and salt spray corrosion test,the influences of polymer-plated time and potential on the corrosion resistance of TTN film were discussed.The optimal deposition time is 10 min at the potential of 1.0 V.%在AZ31镁合金表面制备了具有亲水性功能的薄膜.室温下以不同外加电位、时间为条件对镁合金表面进行恒电位法有机镀膜,采用循环伏安法研究了镁合金表面有机膜的生长机理,并结合电化学特性曲线和盐雾腐蚀试验,通过分析镀膜时间和镀膜电位对有机薄膜耐腐蚀性能的影响,确定最佳有机镀膜时间为10min,镀膜电位为1.0 V.

  13. Preparation and Properties of Molybdate Conversion Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy%AZ31镁合金钼酸盐转化膜制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周游; 姚颖悟; 吴锋; 刘伟星; 赵春梅

    2013-01-01

    A molybdate conversion treatment process applied to AZ31 magnesium alloy was introduced.Corrosion behavior of the conversion coating in 5% NaCl solution were evaluated by electrochemical methods,morphology and composition of the coating were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.Results showed that the molybdate conversion coating had a spherical mesh crack structure with MoO2,MoO3 and MoO (OH)2 as main component and had good coverage to basal body.Corrosion resistance evaluation proved that the coating could play a protective role for the basal body.%介绍了一种应用于AZ31镁合金的钼酸盐转化工艺.采用电化学方法评价了转化膜在5%NaC1溶液中的腐蚀行为,利用扫描电镜和X-射线衍射分析了转化膜的形貌和成分.结果表明,钼酸盐转化膜的主要成分是MoO2、MoO3和MoO(OH)2,转化膜呈球型网状结构,覆盖基体良好.耐蚀性能评价证明对基体合金有一定的防护作用.

  14. Effect of crystal orientation on the deformation behavior of the magnesium alloy AZ31 during plane strain compression%平面应变压缩过程中初始取向对AZ31镁合金变形行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴颖; GODFREY Andrew; 刘伟; 蒋佳; 刘庆

    2009-01-01

    Plane strain (channel-die) compression tests have been carried out at room temperature and 150℃ on the magnesium alloy AZ31 up to a strain of ε =0.1 at a strain rate of 0.01 s-1. The effect of initial crystal orientation was examined by cutting samples from a highly textured hot-rolled sheet with the compression axis oriented at differing angles to the normal direction of the hot-rolled sheet. The microstmcture and texture of the deformed samples were characterized using the electron backscattered diffraction technique, and the information obtained used to analyze the twinning and slip activity. It was found that plastic deformation is controlled by a mixture of [10(-12)] extension twinning and basal plane alip. A continuous dependence of the contributions of each of these deformation modes on the initial crystal orientation was found, with extension twinning dominating in samples compressed perpendicular to the unit cell c-axis direction.%在室温和150℃下对AZ31镁合金进行平面应变压缩试验,应变速率为0.01 s-1,形变量为0.1.试样(切割于强织构的热轧板)的压缩轴c与其基面法向成不同的角度,从而研究初始织构对AZ31镁合金塑性变形行为的影响.利用电子背散射衍射花样(EBSD)采集变形试样的微观结构和织构信息,分析孪生和滑移行为.实验发现AZ31镁合金塑性变形由{10(-12)}拉伸孪生和基面滑移共同控制,并确定了各种变形模式比例与晶体初始取向的关系,其中拉伸孪生在压缩轴垂直于c轴方向时占主导作用.

  15. Influence of chloride ion concentration on immersion corrosion behaviour of plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion attack of aluminium and magnesium based alloys is a major issue worldwide. The corrosion degradation of an uncoated and atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina (APS coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy was investigated using immersion corrosion test in NaCl solutions of different chloride ion concentrations viz., 0.01 M, 0.2 M, 0.6 M and 1 M. The corroded surface was characterized by an optical microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the corrosion deterioration of uncoated and coated samples were significantly influenced by chloride ion concentration. The uncoated magnesium and alumina coatings were found to offer a superior corrosion resistance in lower chloride ion concentration NaCl solutions (0.01 M and 0.2 M NaCl. On the other hand the coatings and Mg alloy substrate were found to be highly susceptible to localized damage, and could not provide an effective corrosion protection in solutions containing higher chloride concentrations (0.6 M and 1 M. It was found that the corrosion resistance of the ceramic coatings and base metal gets deteriorated with the increase in the chloride concentrations.

  16. Halogen-Free Phosphonate Ionic Liquids as Precursors of Abrasion Resistant Surface Layers on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulia Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface coatings formed by immersion in the ionic liquids (ILs 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylphosphonate (LMP101, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate (LMP102 and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylphosphonate (LEP102 on magnesium alloy AZ31B at 50 °C have been studied. The purpose of increasing the temperature was to reduce the immersion time, from 14 days at room temperature, to 48 hours at 50 °C. The abrasion resistance of the coated alloy was studied by microscratching under progressively increasing load, and compared with that of the uncoated material. The order of abrasion resistance as a function of the IL is LEP102 > LMP101 > LMP102, which is in agreement with the order obtained for the coatings grown at room temperature. The maximum reduction in penetration depth with respect to the uncovered alloy, of a 44.5%, is obtained for the sample treated with the ethylphosphonate LEP102. However, this reduction is lower than that obtained when the coating is grown at room temperature. This is attributed to the increased thickness and lower adhesion of the coatings obtained at 50 °C, particularly those obtained from methylphosphonate ionic liquids. The results are discussed from SEM-EDX and profilometry.

  17. Robust Slippery Coating with Superior Corrosion Resistance and Anti-Icing Performance for AZ31B Mg Alloy Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialei; Gu, Changdong; Tu, Jiangping

    2017-03-29

    Biomimetic slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPSs) are developed as a potential alternative to superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) to resolve the issues of poor durability in corrosion protection and susceptibility to frosting. Herein, we fabricated a double-layered SLIPS coating on the AZ31 Mg alloy for corrosion protection and anti-icing application. The porous top layer was infused by lubricant, and the compact underlayer was utilized as a corrosion barrier. The water-repellent SLIPS coating exhibits a small sliding angle and durable corrosion resistance compared with the SHS coating. Moreover, the SLIPS coating delivers durable anti-icing performance for the Mg alloy substrate, which is obviously superior to the SHS coating. Multiple barriers in the SLIPS coating, including the infused water-repellent lubricant, the self-assembled monolayers coated porous top layer, and the compact layered double hydroxide-carbonate composite underlayer, are suggested as being responsible for the enhanced corrosion resistance and anti-icing performance. The robust double-layered SLIPS coating should be of great importance to expanding the potential applications of light metals and their alloys.

  18. A novel simple strategy for in situ deposition of apatite layer on AZ31B magnesium alloy for bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, Hamouda M. [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineering, South Valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Lee, Do Hee [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Hee, E-mail: biochan@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol Sang, E-mail: chskim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Anodizing process was used for the surface modification of AZ31B magnesium alloy. • An appetite-like film was deposited on the surface of AZ31B magnesium alloy. • Ceramic film was investigated by XRD and XPS. • Nano-plates growth are observed though the implemented experimental design. • Significant increase in the substrate hardness and surface roughness was observed. - Abstract: In this study, for the first time, the degradation performance of AZ31B Mg alloy was tuned by an in situ deposition of apatite thin layer within a short time in one step. Using Taguchi method for experimental design, anodization process was designed under control conditions (time and voltage), and simulated body fluid (SBF) was used as the electrolyte to nucleate apatite-like compounds. The coated alloy was characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), EDS, X-ray diffraction and XPS analysis. The results show that the applied voltage has a significant effect on the formation of apatite-like layers. Compared to the uncoated samples, microhardness and surface roughness of the coated samples showed remarkably different values. The potentiodynamic polarization results demonstrate that the polarization resistance of the anodized samples is higher than the substrate polarization resistance, thus improving the alloy corrosion resistant. Based on the experimental results, the proposed nanostructure apatite-like coating can offer a promising way to improve the biocompatibility and degradability properties of the Mg alloy for bone tissue regeneration.

  19. Effects of Forging and Rolling Process on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Wrought Magnesium Alloy AZ31%变形镁合金AZ31锻-轧变形工艺对组织性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建祥; 刘长瑞; 王庆娟

    2012-01-01

    对变形镁合金AZ31进行了横向和高向锻造,然后进行轧制,检测了不同锻造比的板坯经轧制后的组织性能变化.结果表明:锻造时,随着锻造比的增大,晶粒组织逐渐细化;当锻造比为1.67时,材料的硬度达到最大值84.4HV,当锻造比为1.82时,材料的硬度为78.9HV;晶粒大小对动态再结晶晶粒尺寸有很大影响,晶粒尺寸较大时,再结晶晶粒尺寸也较大;锻造比为1.82的试样经轧制变形后,可以获得良好的力学性能.其晶粒平均尺寸、抗拉强度和伸长率为分别为3.7μm、281.75 MPa、12.7%.%Wrought magnesium alloy AZ31 were forged going along wide and high. Change of microstructure and mechanical properties with different forging ratio was studied.The results show that the magnesium alloy AZ31 has more fine homogeneous microstructure with forging ratio increasing; The forged specimen when forging ratio is 1.67 has the maximum hardness, 84.4HV. The hardness of the materials decreases when the forging ratio is 1.82, is 78.9 HV; The grain size has a great effect on the dynamic recrystallization grain, with the increasing of grain size, the recrystallization grain size also increasing; the sample with the forging ratio 1.82 by deformation of rolling can obtain good mechanical properties, with average grain size, tensile strength and elongation,3.7μm, 281.75MPa,12.7%.

  20. Corrosion behavior and cytocompatibility of fluoride-incorporated plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on biodegradable AZ31 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Peng; Peng, Feng; Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xuanyong

    2017-01-01

    Fluoride-incorporated plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating was fabricated on biodegradable AZ31 alloy. The surface morphologies and phases were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effect of fluoride incorporation in coatings on corrosion behaviour was investigated in simulated body fluid and in vitro cytocompatibility of the coatings was also studied by evaluating cytotoxicity, adhesion, proliferation and live–dead stain of osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1). Furthermore, the corrosion morphologies in vivo were examined. The results showed that the fluoride could be incorporated into the coating to form MgF2 phase. In vitro and in vivo degradation tests revealed that the corrosion resistance of the coating could be improved by the incorporation of fluoride, which may attribute to the chemical stability of MgF2 phase. Moreover, good cytocompatibility of fluoride-incorporated coating was confirmed with no obvious cytotoxicity, enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. However, when the fluoride content was high, a slight inhibition of cell growth was observed. The results indicate that although fluoride incorporation can enhance the corrosion resistance of the coatings, thus resulting a more suitable environment for cells, the high content of fluoride in the coating also kill cells ascribed to the high released of fluorine. If the content of fluoride is well controlled, the PEO coating with MgF2 phase is a promising surface modification of Mg alloys. PMID:28149524

  1. Corrosion behavior and cytocompatibility of fluoride-incorporated plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on biodegradable AZ31 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Peng; Peng, Feng; Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xuanyong

    2017-02-01

    Fluoride-incorporated plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating was fabricated on biodegradable AZ31 alloy. The surface morphologies and phases were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effect of fluoride incorporation in coatings on corrosion behaviour was investigated in simulated body fluid and in vitro cytocompatibility of the coatings was also studied by evaluating cytotoxicity, adhesion, proliferation and live-dead stain of osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1). Furthermore, the corrosion morphologies in vivo were examined. The results showed that the fluoride could be incorporated into the coating to form MgF2 phase. In vitro and in vivo degradation tests revealed that the corrosion resistance of the coating could be improved by the incorporation of fluoride, which may attribute to the chemical stability of MgF2 phase. Moreover, good cytocompatibility of fluoride-incorporated coating was confirmed with no obvious cytotoxicity, enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. However, when the fluoride content was high, a slight inhibition of cell growth was observed. The results indicate that although fluoride incorporation can enhance the corrosion resistance of the coatings, thus resulting a more suitable environment for cells, the high content of fluoride in the coating also kill cells ascribed to the high released of fluorine. If the content of fluoride is well controlled, the PEO coating with MgF2 phase is a promising surface modification of Mg alloys.

  2. Growing process and formation mechanism of manganese phosphate conversion film of magnesium alloy AZ31%镁合金AZ31锰系磷化膜的生长过程及形成机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔学军; 周吉学; 林修洲; 罗宏; 龚敏

    2012-01-01

    以磷酸二氢锰的盐溶液为研究体系,采用SEM和EDS和电化学分析手段,研究镁合金AZ31锰系磷化膜的生长过程和形成机理.结果表明:磷化膜的生长过程分为5个阶段:基体溶解-成核阶段(0~130 s)、基体和磷化膜溶解阶段(130~630 s)、磷化膜快速生长阶段(630~1300 s)、磷化膜稳态生长阶段(1300~2000 s)和磷化终止阶段(2000 s以后).磷酸盐晶核在镁合金AZ31浸入溶液的初始阶段一次形成,并优先在β相表面经过成核—长大—分裂—细化—增厚5个过程,沿表面方向生长和外延,最终形成致密的磷化膜.并且,磷化膜有两层,第一层是以Mg3(PO4)2和AlPO4以及MnHPO4为主的沉积薄膜;第二层则是在β相表面成核—长大的MnHPO4磷化膜.%The growing process and formation mechanism of phosphate film of magnesium alloy AZ31 in the manganese dihydrogen phosphate solution were studied by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and electrochemical method. The results show that the growing process of phosphate film is divided into five stages: substrate dissolving-nucleation (0-130 s), substrate and film dissolving (130-630 s), file rapid growth (630-1 300 s), film steady growth (1 300-2 000 s) and phosphating finishing (after 2 000 s). The phosphate crystal nucleuses are firstly formed on the surface of β phase for one time with the magnesium alloy AZ31 immersing. With the growth of the nucleus on the alloy surface, the coverage of the phosphate grains increases gradually and the dense films are obtained. The films are made up two layers: the bottom is a deposition film with compositions of Mg3(PO4)2, A1PO4 and MnHPO4. The second layer consists of MnHPO4 which is formed on the surface of β phase.

  3. AZ31镁合金表面纳米陶瓷涂层的组织与力学性能分析%Investigation on microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-ceramic coating on AZ31 magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高正源; 潘复生

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the wear-resisting property of magnesium alloy’s surface coating,Al2O3 nano-ceramic coating on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy is prepared using the magnetron sputtering process.Influences of temperature,power and time on hardness of surface layer are discussed by orthogonal method.Morphology,phases and composition of coatings are analyzed by SEM,XRD and EDS.The results show that the time and power are important factors to affect hardness and wear resistance.The process parameters of 80 ℃,200 W and 3 h are the optimal sputtering process.Through this process,the thickness of nano-Al2O3 coating on AZ31 is about 2 to 10 μm and the grain size is about 30 nm.The surface hardness of ceramic coating reaches up to 1 360 MPa,and increases more than 77.31% of the substrate hardness of nano-Al2O3 coating.%为改善镁合金表面的耐磨性能,采用磁控溅射工艺在AZ31镁合金表面制备了纳米Al203陶瓷涂层。用XRD、SEM-EDS等分析了涂层的结构和形貌,用正交试验讨论了温度、功率、时间对涂层表面硬度的影响规律。结果表明,影响纳米Al2O3膜硬度和耐磨性的因素是溅射功率和溅射时间,最佳的工艺为80℃,200W,3h。采用本工艺技术,材料表面主要为2~10um厚、30nm左右的粒状δ-Al2O3致密层,表层硬度从基体767MPa提高为1 360MPa,提高了77.31%。

  4. 激光冲击强化对AZ31和AZ91镁合金表面形貌和电化学腐蚀性能的影响%Effect of laser shock processing on surface morphology and electrochemical corrosion resistance of AZ31 and AZ91 alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青来; 鲍士喜; 王荣; 钱阳; 张永康; 李兴成

    2014-01-01

    为了研究激光冲击强化对镁合金表面形貌和电化学腐蚀性能的影响,采用电化学方法和钕玻璃脉冲激光(波长1064 nm,脉冲宽度20 ns)研究AZ31热轧板和AZ91-T6铸造镁合金在3.5%NaCl(质量分数)溶液中的动态极化曲线和电化学阻抗谱特征,并对镁合金三维表面形貌、腐蚀试样宏观形貌、自腐蚀电位和电化学阻抗谱进行测试与分析。结果表明:激光冲击改善AZ31热轧板和AZ91-T6镁合金的耐蚀性。当激光功率密度处于0.6~0.9 GW/cm2区间,镁合金腐蚀电位和电流密度分别出现峰值和谷值;当功率密度不小于1.0 GW/cm2时,镁合金腐蚀电位和电流密度分别正负移动,与冲击表面的形变、钝化膜和形貌密切相关。%In order to study the effect of laser shock processing (LSP) on the surface morphology and electrochemical corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys, the dynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of specimens of hot rolled sheet of AZ31 alloy and AZ91-T6 cast alloy in 3.5%NaCl (mass fraction) solution were investigated by electrochemical method and Nd:glass laser with the wavelength of 1064 nm and pulse width of 20 ns. The 3D surface morphology, macroscopic morphology of corrosion specimens, corrosion potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were also examined and analyzed. The results show that the corrosion resistance of hot rolled AZ31 alloy sheet and AZ91-T6 cast alloy are improved by LSP. When the laser power density is in the range from 0.6 GW/cm2 to 0.9GW/cm2, the peaks and valleys of the corrosion potential and the current density of magnesium alloy appear, respectively. When the power density is not less than 1.0 GW/cm2 , the corrosion potential and current density of magnesium alloy begin to move towards positive and negative directions, respectively, which are closely related to the deformation, passivating film and morphology of the impact

  5. Effect of current frequency on the mechanical properties, microstructure and texture evolution in AZ31 magnesium alloy strips during electroplastic rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaopei [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tang, Guoyi; Kuang, Jie; Li, Xiaohui [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhu, Jing, E-mail: jzhu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-08-26

    The effect of electroplastic rolling (ER) on the mechanical properties, microstructure and texture in the AZ31 magnesium alloy strips has been investigated by tensile testing and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) methods. It is shown that the mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture are highly current frequency-dependent. Best mechanical properties are obtained from the 500 Hz ER specimen by carrying out tensile tests for all the rolled strips. Besides, the frequencies of twin boundaries, which are reduced to the minimum at 500 Hz, vary with the current frequency. Moreover, it can be seen from the calculated (0001) and (101{sup ¯}0) pole figures that texture evolved into an obvious off-basal texture, and non-basal slip systems are activated under 500 Hz. The mechanisms of twinning growth and texture evolution in AZ31 magnesium alloy strips during ER are considered to be responsible for the experimental results.

  6. Microstructure Correlation with Formability for Biaxial Stretching of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B at Mildly Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelladurai, Isaac; Miles, Michael P.; Fullwood, David T.; Carsley, John E.; Mishra, Raj K.; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Knezevic, Marko

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium AZ31B sheets of 2 mm thickness were stretch formed with a 101.6-mm-diameter punch at temperatures from 25°C to 150°C, in 25°C increments. Surface strains were measured with a digital image correlation method. The punch height versus load curve was found to be the same for temperatures of 25°C and for 50°C, whereas at 75°C and above, the load for a given punch height started to decrease, indicating a potential change in deformation mechanism. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to quantify features of the microstructure in the tested specimens. In particular, the gradual decrease in twinning activity as a result of easier thermally activated slip with increasing temperatures is quantified across this range. Moreover, twin activity was found to predominantly involve the formation of {10\\bar{1}1} compression twins that rapidly transform to create secondary twins for easier strain accommodation.

  7. Dependence of deformation mechanisms on grain orientations and their changes calculated based on Sachs model in magnesium alloy AZ31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-ge XIE; Ping YANG; Li MENG

    2008-01-01

    During deformation, the orientation of a grain influences not only the deformation mechanisms (slip or twinning) and the specific selection of activated slip or twinning systems for that grain, but also the kinetics of different types of transformation. Schmid factor analysis was applied to determine the orientation dependency of deformation mechanisms in magnesium alloys AZ31 in this work. The orientation changes after the operation of the specific deformation mechanisms were also calcu-lated based on Sachs model. It was found that different deformation mechanisms proceeded differently according to theoretical predictions. Basal slip occurred when basal planes of grains were tilted toward ND around TD. Prismatic slip dominated when basal planes were approxi-mately perpendicular to TD. Calculation results also indi-cated that the operating of pyramidal slip can not be neglected. {10 12} twinning was favorable when basal planes were approximately normal to RD and { 10 11 } twinning was analyzed to be related to the grains with basal orientations. The operating of slip could greatly suppress the activating of twinning by our Schmid factor analysis. Basal orientations with TD and RD scattering can favor basal slip and tension twinning, respectively, after the operation of compression twinning based on the Schmid factor calculations.

  8. Corrosion performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy under immersion environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. The alumina powders were plasma sprayed on AZ31B magnesium alloy with three different plasma spraying parameters. In the present work, the influence of plasma spray parameters on the corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated. The corrosion behavior of the coated samples was evaluated by immersion corrosion test in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. Empirical relationship was established to predict the corrosion rate of plasma sprayed alumina coatings by incorporating process parameters. The experiments were conducted based on a three factor, five-level, central composite rotatable design matrix. The developed relationship can be effectively used to predict the corrosion rate of alumina coatings at 95% confidence level. The results indicate that the input power has the greatest influence on corrosion rate, followed by stand-off distance and powder feed rate.

  9. The Effect of Short Duration Electric Current on the Quasi-Static Tensile Behavior of Magnesium AZ31 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Thien Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a single pulse of electric current with short duration on the quasi-static tensile behavior of a magnesium AZ31 alloy is experimentally investigated. A single pulse of electric current with duration less than 1 second is applied to the specimen, while the specimen is being deformed in the plastic region under quasi-static tensile loads. After a nearly instant decrease of flow stress at the pulse of electric current, the flow stress shows strain hardening until the failure of the specimen. The experimental result shows that the strain-hardening parameters (the strength coefficient and the strain-hardening exponent of the hardening curve after the electric current strongly depend on the applied electric energy density (electric energy per unit volume. Empirical expressions are suggested to describe the hardening behavior after the pulse as a function of the electric energy density and are compared with the empirical expressions suggested for advanced high-strength steels.

  10. Corrosion resistance of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide/poly(lactic acid) composite coating on magnesium alloy AZ31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Xiao-Ting; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Fen; Li, Shuo-Qi; Cui, Hong-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    A Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH) coating consisted of uniform hexagonal nano-plates was firstly synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal treatment on the AZ31 alloy, and then a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) coating was sealed on the top layer of the ZnAl-LDH coating using vacuum freeze-drying. The characteristics of the ZnAl-LDH/PLA composite coatings were investigated by means of XRD, SEM, FTIR and EDS. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the ZnAl-LDH coating contained a compact inner layer and a porous outer layer, and the PLA coating with a strong adhesion to the porous outer layer can prolong the service life of the ZnAl-LDH coating. The excellent corrosion resistance of this composite coating can be attributable to its barrier function, ion-exchange and self-healing ability.

  11. Transient liquid phase bonding of magnesium alloys AZ31 using nickel coatings and high frequency induction heat sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. AlHazaa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient liquid phase (TLP bonding process was applied to join magnesium alloy AZ31 samples with minimum microstructural changes. The magnesium samples were coated by 5 μm nickel prior to the TLP bonding. Bonding conditions of 8 MPa uniaxial pressure and 520 °C bonding temperature were applied for all bonds at various bonding times. The microstructure across the joint regions was examined as a function of bonding time (5–60 min. Investigating the change in Ni contents was examined by EDS line scan. It was noticed that Ni coating could not be observed by SEM for bonds made at 30 and 60 min due to complete dissolution of the Ni coating. Second phase particles containing Mg2Ni intermetallics were observed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS near the joint region. The shear strength of the bonds initially increases with the increase in bonding time till 20 min. On the other hand, with bonding times over 20 min the shear strength decreases. Therefore the optimum bonding time at the conditions applied was concluded to be 20 min.

  12. The Influence of Various Additives on the Properties of Peo Coatings Formed on AZ31 mg Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zeeshan Ur; Ahn, Byung-Hyun; Jeong, Yeong Seung; Song, Jung-Il; Koo, Bon-Heun

    2016-03-01

    In this work, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) ceramic coatings were prepared on magnesium AZ31B alloy. Various electrolyte solutions including phosphate, aluminate and silicate as additives and NaOH + Na2SiF6 as constant agent were used to prepare the coatings. Influence of the additives on chemical composition and structure of the PEO coatings were examined by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD. From structural analysis it was found that coatings prepared in the aluminate-based electrolyte have the best structural features. Microhardness and tribological characteristics of the PEO coatings were investigated using Vickers hardness test and pin-on-disc test. Microhardness for aluminate-based coating was found to be 1169.63HV while those for silicate-and phosphate-based coatings were 1093.42HV and 285.91HV, respectively. Wear rate of the aluminate-based coating was found to be lowest than all other coatings having a value of 2.78×10-3mg/Nm.

  13. Hemocompatibility and selective cell fate of polydopamine-assisted heparinized PEO/PLLA composite coating on biodegradable AZ31 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongling; Tian, Peng; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhou, Bangxin

    2014-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium and its alloys have attracted much attention, as they have been used as cardiovascular stents recently because of their biodegradation after implantation. However, their corrosion resistance, hemocompatibility and surface biocompatibility are needed for practical applications. In this work, heparinization of the plasma electrolytic oxidation/poly(l-lactic acid) (PEO/PLLA) composite coating on biodegradable AZ31 alloy was achieved by the strong adhesion of mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDAM). The corrosion resistance of the coated substrates was evaluated in simulated body fluid. In particular, the hemolysis ratio and platelet adhesion tests were conducted to evaluate the hemocompatibility of the composite coatings. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the composite coatings was evaluated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The adhesion and proliferation of HUVECs and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) directly incubated on the composite coatings were also investigated. The results showed that although PDAM modification and further heparinization reduced the corrosion resistance of the PEO/PLLA composite coating, the protection of the coating for the substrate was mainly maintained. Moreover, PDAM modification and further heparinization significantly suppressed the adhesion of platelets and had little influence on sustaining a low hemolysis ratio thus resulting in good surface hemocompatibility of the composite coating. The in vitro cell test demonstrated that none of the composite coatings presented obvious cytotoxicity. Significantly, after surface heparinization, the composite coating became more suitable for HUVEC growth and simultaneously inhibited HUASMC growth. The results show that further modification of the PEO/PLLA composite coating on biodegradable magnesium alloy is a promising method to obtain good surface hemocompatibility for anticoagulation and to regulate the cell fate for fast re

  14. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Laser-Friction Stir Welding between AA6061-T6 Al Alloy and AZ31 Mg Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woong-Seong Chang; S.R.Rajesh; Chang-Keun Chun; Heung-Ju Kim

    2011-01-01

    For the purpose of improving the strength of this dissimilar joint, the present study was carried out to investigate the improvement in intermetallic layer by using a third material foil between the faying edges of the friction stir welded and hybrid welded Al6061-T6/AZ31 alloy plates. The difference in microstructural and mechanical characteristics of friction stir welded and hybrid welded Al6061-T6/AZ31 joint was compared. Hybrid buttwelding of aluminum alloy plate to a magnesium alloy plate was successfully achieved with Ni foil as filler material, while defect-free laser-friction stir welding (FSW) hybrid welding was achieved by using a laser power of 2 kW. Transverse tensile strength of the joint reached about 66% of the Mg base metal tensile strength in the case of hybrid welding with Ni foil and showed higher value than that of the friction stir welded joint with and without the third material foil. This may be due to the presence of less brittle Ni-based intermetallic phases instead of Al12Mg17.

  15. AZ31镁合金的热变形加工图及其应用%Hot deformation processing map of AZ31 magnesium alloy and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江海涛; 陆春洁; 段晓鸽; 唐荻; 李志超

    2012-01-01

    To determine the deformation parameters of AZ31 magnesium alloy, the hot deformation behavior of the alloy was inves- tigated by hot compression testing on a Gleeble-3500 stimulator. The principle of dynamic material modeling was used to develop the hot processing map. There is a dynamic recrystallization peak zone in the processing map at temperatures from 380 to 400℃ and strain rates from 3 to 12 s-1 , and the efficiency of power dissipation is more than 30%. A fine equiaxed grain size of 2.3 μm could be achieved when differential speed rolling is processed in this region. The tensile strength is 322.7 MPa and the elongation is 19.6% . At strain rates of 15 to 50 s^-1, there are two flow instability zones: at temperatures of 250 to 300 ℃ the ductility of the alloy decreases obviously, but at temperatures of 350 to 400 ℃ the alloy has a mischcrystal structure.%为了确定AZ31镁合金轧制工艺参数,利用Gleeble--3500热模拟试验机进行热压缩试验以测试其热变形行为,并根据动态材料模型理论得到其热加工图.当变形温度为380~400℃、应变速率为3~12 s-1时,功率耗散效率大于30%,属于动态再结晶峰区;在该区域进行异步轧制变形退火处理后得到平均晶粒直径为2.3μm的细晶组织,抗拉强度为322.7MPa,延伸率为19.6%.当应变速率大于15 s-1时,属于流变失稳区,250~300℃低温加工时合金的塑性显著降低,350~400℃高温加工时合金出现混晶组织.

  16. 自孕育法制备AZ31镁合金半固态流变成形组织%Microstructure control of AZ31 alloy by self-inoculation method for semisolid rheocasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢博; 郝远; 李元东; 马颖; 陈体军

    2013-01-01

    A novel rheocasting process,self-inoculation method (SIM),was developed for the microstructure control of semisolid wrought Mg alloy.This process involves mixing between liquid alloy and particles of solid alloy (self-inoculants),subsequently pouring the mixed melt into a special designed multi-stream fluid director.The primary phase with dendritic morphology in the conventionally cast AZ31 alloy has readily transformed into near spherical one in the slurry produced by SIM from melt treatment temperature between 690 ℃ and 710 ℃ and self-inoculants addition of 3%-7%.Achievement of the non-dendritic microstructure at the higher melt treatment temperature requires more self-inoculants addition or decreases in the slope angle of fluid director.Primary phase in the slurry thus produced has attained an ideally globular morphology after isothermal holding at 620 ℃ for 30 s.The increasing holding time leads to decrease of shape factor but the coarsening of particle size.The spheroidization and coarsening evolution process of solid particles during the isothermal holding were analyzed by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theory.%采用新型自孕育流变铸造技术对变形镁合金半固态组织进行控制.该工艺过程为将合金熔体与一定量的合金固体颗粒(自孕育剂)混合,然后将混合金属通过一个多流股导流器浇入铸型或收集器.结果表明:采用自孕育工艺,合金熔体处理温度690~710℃,孕育剂的加入量为3%~7%时能有效将AZ31镁合金传统铸造中的粗大枝晶组织转变为细小、近球状的非枝晶组织;当合金熔体处理温度较高时,增加孕育剂的加入量或减小导流器的倾斜角度有利于获得非枝晶组织.自孕育工艺制备的AZ31镁合金半固态浆料在620℃等温保温30s后能有效改善初生α-Mg颗粒的圆整度;延长保温时间有助于减小颗粒的圆整度,但同时颗粒发生粗化.利用Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW)理论对初生相

  17. Biofunctional composite coating architectures based on polycaprolactone and nanohydroxyapatite for controlled corrosion activity and enhanced biocompatibility of magnesium AZ31 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zomorodian, A., E-mail: amir.zomorodian@ist.utl.pt [ICEMS-DEQ, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Garcia, M.P. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Moura e Silva, T. [ICEMS-DEQ, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); ISEL, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, J.C.S. [ICEMS-DEQ, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, M.H. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Montemor, M.F. [ICEMS-DEQ, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-03-01

    In this work a biofunctional composite coating architecture for controlled corrosion activity and enhanced cellular adhesion of AZ31 Mg alloys is proposed. The composite coating consists of a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix modified with nanohydroxyapatite (HA) applied over a nanometric layer of polyetherimide (PEI). The protective properties of the coating were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), a non-disturbing technique, and the coating morphology was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results show that the composite coating protects the AZ31 substrate. The barrier properties of the coating can be optimized by changing the PCL concentration. The presence of nanohydroxyapatite particles influences the coating morphology and decreases the corrosion resistance. The biocompatibility was assessed by studying the response of osteoblastic cells on coated samples through resazurin assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the polycaprolactone to hydroxyapatite ratio affects the cell behavior and that the presence of hydroxyapatite induces high osteoblastic differentiation. - Highlights: • A biofunctional coating architecture for bioresorbable AZ31 Mg alloys is proposed. • The composite coating provides corrosion protection of the bare material. • The coating enhances alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblastic cells. • The presence of hydroxyapatite results in higher osteoblastic differentiation.

  18. AZ31B镁合金表面改性微弧氧化膜的结构及耐蚀性能%Structure and corrosion resistance of modified micro-arc oxidation coating on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔学军; 杨瑞嵩; 刘春海; 余祖孝; 林修洲

    2016-01-01

    A hydrophobic surface was fabricated on a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treated AZ31 Mg alloys via surface modification with myristic acid. The effects of modification time on the wettability of the coatings were investigated using the contact angle measuring device. The surface morphologies and structure of the coatings were evaluated using SEM, XRD and FT-IR. The corrosion resistance was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization curves and long-term immersion test. The results showed that the water contact angle (CA) increases gradually with modification time from 0 to 5 h, the highest CA reaches 138° after being modified for 5 h, and the number and size of the micro pores are decreased. The modification method hardly alters crystalline structure of the MAO coating, but improves the corrosion resistance based on the much positive potential and low current density. Moreover, the corrosion resistance and hydrophobicity can be enhanced with increasing the alkyl chain. The wetting and spreading for the alkylcarboxylate with low surface energy become easier on the micro-porous surface, and alkylcarboxylate monolayer will be formed through bidentate bonding, which changes the surface micropores to a sealing or semi-sealing structure and makes the MAO coating dense and hydrophobic. All the results demonstrate that the modification process improves the corrosion protection ability of the MAO coating on AZ31B Mg alloy.%利用十四烷酸溶液化学浸泡的方法改性微弧氧化 AZ31B 镁合金,获得了具有疏水特性的微弧氧化膜。采用接触角测量仪检测膜层的润湿性能;利用SEM、XRD和FT-IR等方法表征膜层的形貌和结构;通过极化曲线和浸泡实验考察样品在3.5% NaCl溶液中的耐蚀性能。结果表明:改性时间从0 h增至5 h时,膜层的静态接触角从0°增加到了138°,膜层的微孔尺寸减小,微孔数量减少;化学改性未改变微弧氧化膜的晶体结构,但改性样品的自腐

  19. 热挤压AZ31镁合金单向压缩变形的应变硬化行为%Strain hardening behavior during uniaxial compression of as-extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德智; 鲁月; 马茹; 王轶农

    2015-01-01

    Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on an as-extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy along extrusion direction at the strain of 3%, 6% and 10%, respectively, at room temperature. The evolution of microstructures, textures and strain hardening behavior were examined by OM, XRD and EBSD. The results show that the present as-extruded magnesium alloy with {0002} fiber texture exhibits distinct three plastic deformation stages. {101▁2} tension twinning takes place at the first stage of the plastic deformation, which results in the low strain hardening rate and rapid decrease in strain hardening rate. With increasing the compressive strain, {101▁2} twin boundaries gradually extend until some grains are entirely consumed by the twinning extension, which results in the strong basal texture. The increasing high strain hardening rate are mainly attributed to the formation of strong basal texture. The deformation transition from stageⅡ to stageⅢ roughly corresponds to the stop of {101▁2} twin extending.%对AZ31镁合金热挤压棒材在室温下沿挤压方向分别进行了应变为3%、6%、10%的单向压缩实验。利用OM、XRD和EBSD等技术研究了不同压缩应变量下的显微组织、织构及应变硬化的演变特征。结果表明:具有{0002}纤维织构的热挤压态AZ31镁合金沿着挤出方向压缩时,产生显著的应变硬化效应。其塑性变形可大致分为3个阶段:初始阶段主要发生{1012}拉伸孪生,表现为较低的应变硬化速率和应变硬化速率的急剧减小;随着压缩应变量的增加,孪晶界逐渐扩展,直至部分晶粒发生完全孪生,基面织构强度逐渐增强;拉伸孪晶生长所造成的强{0002}基面织构是产生高应变硬化速率的主要原因;应变硬化速率第Ⅱ~Ⅲ阶段的转折点大致与拉伸孪晶的生长停滞相对应。▁

  20. Effects of Additives on Corrosion Resistance of Anodic Film for AZ 31 Magnesium Alloy%添加剂对AZ31镁合金阳极氧化膜耐蚀性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂香; 穆俊宏; 李云虎

    2011-01-01

    The effects of several additives on the anodization of Mg alloy AZ 31 were investigated with an electrolyte based on 50.0 g/L NaOH + 10. 0 g/L H3BO3+ 20. 0 g/L Na2B,O7 ·10H2O and by constant potential mode. The morphology and corrosion resistance of the anodic oxide films were tested by scanning electron microscopy, spot test and polarization curves respectively. The results show that the optimal mass concentrations for sodium silicate, sodium citrate and sodium oxalate are 10 g/L, 7. 5 g/L, 0. 8 g/L respectively. Spark discharge is enhanced by sodium silicate and weakened by sodium citrate in electrolysis, and when sodium oxalate is added, spark discharge will disappear.%以50.0 g/L NaOH+10.0 g/L H3BO3+20.0 g/L Na2B4O7· 10 H2O为基础电解液,采用恒电位模式,研究了几种添加剂对AZ 31镁合金阳极氧化膜性能的影响.采用扫描电镜、点滴实验和极化曲线分别对阳极氧化膜的表面形貌和耐蚀性能进行测试.结果表明:硅酸钠的最佳质量浓度为10.0 g/L,柠檬酸钠的最佳质量浓度为7.5 g/L,草酸钠的最佳质量浓度为0.2 g/L.硅酸钠增强了火花放电的剧烈程度,柠檬酸钠减缓了火花放电,而添加草酸钠后为无火花放电.

  1. 热碾压对AZ31镁合金焊接接头组织和性能影响%Effect of hot rolling on microstructure and mechanical properties of welded joints of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初雅杰; 李晓泉; 吴申庆

    2011-01-01

    The conventional welded joint and hot rolled tests were carried out for AZ31 magnesium alloy on TIG welding and hot rolling equipment, and the microstructure, the element distribution, the appearance of fracture, hardness and strength of the welded joint were studied by OM, SEM, micro-hardness tester, tensile testing machine. The results show that the tensile strength of the hot rolled welded joint is 225 Mpa, which is over 90% of that of the base metal, and the tensile strength of the conventional welded joint is just about 60% of that of the base metal. The elongation of the hot rolled welded specimen (9%-ll%) is higher than that of the conventional welded specimen (6%-8%). The hot rolled joint fracture shows some characteristics of the quasi-cleavage fracture, and the plastic deformation flow lines can be observed. The conventional welded joint shows the cleavage fracture mechanism, accompanied by a very small amount of dimple fracture.%采用交流钨极氩弧焊和热碾压装置对AZ31变形镁合金进行焊接试验和热碾压试验;利用光学显微镜、扫描电镜(SEM)、显微硬度计、电子拉伸试验等手段对焊接接头的显微组织、元素分布、断口形貌、接头硬度和强度等进行分析.结果表明:热碾压熔焊接头的抗拉强度可达225 MPa,为母材金属的90%以上,而焊态下熔焊接头的抗拉强度仅为母材金属的60%左右;热碾压焊接试样的伸长率(9%~11%)均高于焊态试样的(6%~8%):热碾压接头断口呈现一定的准解理断裂特征,且可以观察到热碾压塑性变形流变线,而焊态断口呈现以解理断裂为主的断裂机制,同时伴随有极少量的韧窝断裂特征.

  2. AZ31B镁合金焊接接头的疲劳裂纹扩展行为%Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of as-Extruded AZ31B Mg Alloy Welded Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红霞; 裴飞飞; 闫志峰; 王文先; 梁培阳; 李娟; 卫英慧

    2012-01-01

    The fatigue crack propagation behavior of as-extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy welded joint and heat affected zone have been studied.Compact tensions [C(T)] of welded joint [L-T(W)] and heat affected zone(welded joint is parallel [T-L(H)]and vertical [L-T(H)] to the extruded direction) were researched.Results indicate that the crack propagation direction is parallel to the extrusion direction for L-T(W); fatigue crack propagation rate is a rapid-slow process.T-L(H) is parallel to the notch direction and L-T(H) can be divided into two states (i.e.,parallel to or angularly deflected towards the notch direction);crack propagation rate initially goes through a rapid course before it slows down.The fracture modes of crack tip remain a mixed-mode of transgranular and intergranular fractures.The fatigue fracture consists of quasi-cleavage and is a brittle fracture.%对AZ31B镁合金焊接接头和热影响区的疲劳裂纹扩展行为进行研究,分析了焊接接头[L-T(W)]和热影响区的紧凑拉伸试验[C(T)],其中热影响区的C(T)试验包括焊缝平行于挤压方向[T-L(H)]和垂直于挤压方向[L-T(H)]两种.结果表明:对于L-T(W)试样,裂纹沿挤压方向扩展,裂纹扩展经历先快后慢的扩展过程;T-L(H)试样裂纹平行于缺口方向扩展,L-T(H)试样裂纹为平行于缺口方向和与缺口成一定角度两种扩展方向,裂纹扩展经历先慢后快的扩展过程.裂纹尖端扩展为穿晶和沿晶的混合模式,疲劳断口为准解理特征的脆性断口.

  3. An Experimental Study of Fatigue Crack Growth in Different Orientation of Extruded AZ31B Mg Alloy Bar%挤压AZ31B镁合金圆棒不同取向的疲劳裂纹扩展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑三龙; 陈冰冰; 张玮; 高增梁

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) experiments were carried out using extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy bar.The pre-crack compact tension (CT) specimens were oriented in three different directions with respect to the extrusion direction.The experimental results reveal that the specimen orientation has a significant influence on the FCG rate and crack path.The FGC rate of the T-L specimen is the highest while the L-T specimen shows the lowest value.Typical macroscopic Mode I crack is developed in the T-L and T-R specimens whereas a deviation from the Mode I crack path and branching occur in the L-T specimens.For the L-T specimens,a plateau of constant crack growth rate occurs at low stress intensity factor range (△K) Transgranular cracking is the major cracking mode.Slip induced cleavage dominates the transgranular cracking in the T-L and L-T specimens whereas both twin boundary cracking and slip inducad cleavage exist in the T-R specimens.The FCG rate decreases with the increasing load frequency at △K > 3 MPa √m.%使用紧凑拉伸(CT)试样,研究了挤压AZ31B镁合金圆棒三个方向的组织及疲劳裂纹扩展性能.结果表明,疲劳裂纹以穿晶为主的混合方式沿滑移带扩展.T-L方向裂纹呈直线扩展,扩展速率最高,T-R方向孪生和滑移协同塑性变形,裂纹局部偏转,呈波浪形沿径向扩展,扩展速率较低,强织构和不均匀组织引起L-T方向裂纹分叉和偏离,降低了裂纹尖端有效驱动应力强度因子幅,裂纹扩展速率最低,在疲劳裂纹扩展速率(da/dN)与应力强度因子幅(△K)的关系曲线上出现水平段.在△K较小时加载频率对裂纹扩展速率的影响不大,AK>3 MPa√m时裂纹扩展速率随着加载频率的提高而减小.

  4. 预应变和热处理对AZ31镁合金形变行为的影响%Influence of pre-strain and heat treatment on subsequent deformation behavior of extruded AZ31 Mg alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红兵; 刘天模; 卢立伟; 何杰军; 翟彦博

    2015-01-01

    Pre-compression and heat treatment were performed on an extruded AZ31 Mg alloy, and their effects on subsequent deformation behavior were investigated. The results show that at low temperature annealing (170 °C for 4 h), the extruded samples with and without annealing exhibit a nearly equivalent yield stress (~148 MPa) because their microstructures are nearly unchanged. However, under the same annealing condition, the yield stress of sample with pre-twinning and subsequent annealing (~225 MPa) is higher than that of the pre-twinned one (~200 MPa). The former sample presents a hardening effect because the solute atoms segregated on twin boundaries lead to a strengthening effect. The pre-twinned sample annealed at 400 °C for 1 h shows a higher ultimate elongation (~28%) than the pre-twinned one (~15%), but its yield stress (~125 MPa) is much lower than that of the pre-twinned one (~200 MPa).%对挤压态AZ31镁合金进行预压缩和热处理,研究预压缩和热处理对其形变行为的影响。结果表明:在低温下退火(170°C退火4 h),试样经过退火处理或未经退火处理的几乎具有相等的屈服强度(~148 MPa),这是由于它们的显微组织几乎没有变化。然而在相同退火条件下,经预压缩并退火的试样的屈服强度(~225 MPa)高于只有预压缩试样的屈服强度(~200 MPa)。由于溶质原子在孪晶界偏析引起强化,前者显示出退火硬化效应。预压缩试样在400°C退火1 h后,其伸长率(~28%)高于预压缩试样的伸长率(~15%),但其屈服强度(~125 MPa)低于预压缩试样的屈服强度(~200 MPa)。

  5. AZ31B镁合金薄板的钨极氩弧焊组织与性能研究%Microstructure and Properties of Argon Tungsten Arc Welding Joints of AZ31 B Magnesium Alloy Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜双明; 杨亮

    2011-01-01

    The technical characteristics of argon tungsten arc welding for AZ31B magnesium alloy plates with 2 mm thickness were discussed. The microstructure, phase composition, mechanical properties and fracture morphology of welding joints were investigated using metalloscope, X-ray diffractometer, universal tensile testing machine and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that, at 50 A welding currents, the welded joint can get good weld formation and high welding quality, with no pore and crack inside. The tensile strength of the welded joint gets to 210 Mpa, which is about 87% of the base materials. Fractures occurring in weld zones are ductile-brittle fractures. The microstnicture is fine equiaxed grain in welded zone, which mainly consists of ct-Mg and Mg17Al12. The microstructure of heat affected zones is coarser. The results of hardness test show that the hardness of the weld zone is higher than the base materials.%探讨了2mm厚的AZ31B镁合金钨极交流氩弧焊焊接的工艺特点,利用金相显微镜、X射线衍射仪、万能拉伸试验机、扫描电子显微镜等手段对焊接接头显微组织、焊缝相组成、接头力学性能、断口形貌特征等进行了分析.结果表明:焊接电流为50A时,外观成型良好,焊缝质量高,内部几乎无气孔和裂纹等缺陷,焊接接头的抗拉强度达到210 MPa,约为母材强度的87%,断裂发生在焊缝区,表现为韧-脆混合断裂.焊缝区组织呈细小的等轴晶,主要存在α-Mg和Mg17A112两种相,热影响区组织较粗大.硬度测试结果显示,焊缝区域的硬度高于母材.

  6. Effect of twinning on Moderate-Temperature Deformation Behavior of hot-roiled Mg Alloy%孪生对热轧AZ31镁合金中低温变形行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊伟; 陈振华; 陈鼎; 李贵发

    2012-01-01

    研究了热轧AZ31镁合金板材中低温变形(室温~573K)时孪生所导致的硬化和软化效果,并结合金相显微技术(OM)和透射电子显微技术(TEM)对相关变形机理及孪生类型进行判断.结果发现,有较强基面织构特征的AZ31镁合金板材在室温~573K变形过程中{10(1)1}压缩孪晶起主要作用,同时也存在少量的基面滑移.变形温度越高,变形速率越小,孪晶数量也逐渐减少.中低温变形时AZ31镁合金轧制板材中的压缩孪晶和二次孪晶同时起软化作用与硬化作用,但硬化作用大于软化作用.%The softening and hardening effect induced by twinning for the AZ31 hot-rolled Mg alloy sheet in moderate-temperature deformation process (room temperature~573K) were researched carefully. Then, based on optical microscopy ( OM ) and transmission electron microscopy ( TEM ) , the deformation mechanism and the type of twinning were explored. The results show that due to the strong texture for the hot-rolled sheet, {1011} contract twins play the insignificant role in moderate-temperature deformation process ( RT ~ 573K) , while basal slip also partly affacts the deformation process. With the increase of temperature and decrease of strain rate, the mount of twins also gradually decreases. The dependence of strain hardening index n firstly decreases with the increase of temperature. This indicated that the hardening effect induced by contract twinning is more significant than twinning-induced softening.

  7. Investigation on the effect of titanium (Ti) addition to the Mg- AZ31 alloy in the as cast and after extrusion conditions on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Adnan I. O.; Raghad; Hememat, S.

    2016-08-01

    Magnesium-aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are used in manufacturing a number of engineering and industrial parts in the automobile and aircraft industries due to their strength - to -weight -ratios. Against these preferable characteristics, magnesium is difficult to deform at room temperature; therefore it is alloyed with other elements mainly aluminum and zinc to add some required properties particularly to achieve high strength -to- weight ratio. Grain refinement is an important technology to improve the mechanical propertiesand the microstructure uniformity of the alloys. Most of the published work on grain refinement was directed toward grain refining aluminum and zinc alloys; however, the effect of the addition of rare earth material on the grain size or the mechanical behavior of Mg alloys is rare. In this paper the effect of Ti addition on the grain size, mechanical behavior, ductility, extrusion force and energy, of Mg-AZ31 alloy both in the as cast condition and after direct extrusion is investigated.

  8. Influence of second-phase particles on grain growth in AZ31 magnesium alloy during equal channel angular pressing by phase field simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ri; Wang, Mingtao; Zhang, Xiangang; Yaping Zong, Bernie

    2016-06-01

    A phase-field model was established to simulate the refinement effect of different morphological factors of second-phase particles such as Al2O3 on the grain growth of AZ31 magnesium alloy during equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) in realistic spatiotemporal evolution. The simulation results agreed well with limited existing experimental data for the ECAP-processed AZ31 magnesium alloy and were consistent with the law of Zener. Simulations were performed to evaluate the influences of the fraction, size, distribution, and shape of incoherent second-phase particles. The simulation results showed that during high-temperature ECAP processes, the addition of 2 wt.% Al2O3 particles resulted in a strong refinement effect, reducing the grain size by 28.7% compared to that of the alloy without the particles. Nevertheless, when the fraction of particles was greater than 4 wt.%, adding more particles had little effect. In AZ31 Mg alloy, it was found that second-phase particles should have a critical size of 0.5-0.8 μm for the grain refinement effect to occur. If the size is smaller than the critical size, large particles will strongly hinder grain growth; in contrast, if the size is larger than the critical size, large particles will exhibit a weaker hindering effect than small particles. Moreover, the results showed that the refinement effect increased with increasing particle fraction located at grain boundaries with respect to the total particle content. However, the refinement effect was less pronounced when the fraction of particles located at boundaries was greater than 70%. Further simulations indicated that spherical second-phase particles hindered grain growth more than ellipsoid particles and much more than rod-shaped particles when the volume fraction of reinforcing particles was 2%. However, when the volume fraction was greater than 8%, rod-shaped particles best hindered grain growth, and spherical particles exhibited the weakest effect.

  9. Numerical simulation of plastic behavior and meso inhomogeneous deformation in AZ31 Mg alloy%AZ31镁合金晶体塑性行为与细观非均匀变形的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝永庭; 陆大敏; 刘贵龙; 苏莹; 张克实

    2014-01-01

    The constitutive relation of Mg alloy was established with the crystal plasticity theory based on the mechanisms of slip and twinning deformations. The hardening functions of slip and twinning deformations were proposed in consideration of the interaction between the slip and twinning deformation. The numerical simulation and meso analysis for AZ31 Mg alloy under the uniaxial loading were carried out using the above constitutive relation and the hardening functions associated with a representative volume element (RVE) consisting of Voronoi polycrystalline aggregation. By comparing the simulation results and the experimental data, the present method is verified feasible to predict reasonably the macroscopic yield behavior, the hardening evolution and the polycrystalline texture evolution. The reasonable estimations for inhomogeneous rotation of grain orientation and the twin volume fraction in the polycrystalline can be attained. The results show that, the macroscopic plastic behavior of Mg alloy depends on the competitive result of activation slip and twinning systems; the tension twin deformation is the primary reason to the formation of typical (0001) basal texture in the polycrystalline; and the twin deformation leads to extremely inhomogeneous distribution for the orientation deflection and the twin volume fraction in the polycrystalline.%同时考虑滑移与孪生变形机制,在晶体塑性理论基础上建立镁合金晶体本构关系,分别提出滑移与孪生变形的硬化函数,并考虑滑移与孪生变形间的交互作用;结合Voronoi多晶集合体代表性体积单元(RVE),对AZ31镁合金材料在单轴加载情形下进行数值模拟实验及细观分析。比较模拟结果与实验数据表明:采用晶体塑性本构关系及硬化函数能够合理预测镁合金宏观屈服行为、硬化演化与多晶织构演化,并可合理估计多晶体内的晶粒取向不均匀转动及晶粒内产生孪晶的体积分数分布

  10. Sr、Ca复合添加对AZ31镁合金氧化增重的影响%Effect of Sr and Ca compound alloying on oxidation weight gain of the AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯中学; 史庆南; 王效琪; 陈亮维; 徐志超; 董家亮; 杨应湘

    2016-01-01

    采用DSC对Sr、Ca复合添加后的AZ31镁合金在熔化和凝固过程中的吸氧增重情况进行了观察,发现当温度高于100℃时AZ31合金就开始增重,550℃镁合金的氧化速率明显增加,在熔融状态下氧化增重比率高达1.75%,而当添加Sr、Ca含量分别为0.3%和0.6%(质量分数)时,670℃氧化速率才明显增加,熔融状态下其氧化增重比率降至0.35%,说明Sr、Ca复合添加显著降低了AZ31镁合金在高温下的氧化速率.讨论认为Sr、Ca复合添加降低AZ31镁合金的吸氧增重比率:一方面是因为Sr、Ca与O2结合生成致密的氧化膜,阻碍了镁合金的进一步吸氧增重;另一方面,Sr、Ca的复合添加提高了Mg17 Al12相的稳定性,降低了合金相与氧的反应速率.%In this paper,the oxidation weight gains of the AZ31 with different contents of Sr and Ca have been analyzed by the differential scanning calorimeters (DSC)during the melting and solidification process.The re-sults show that the AZ31 weights are increasing when the temperature get to 100 ℃ and the oxidation rates are remarkably increasing at 550 ℃.The oxidation weight ratios are as high as 1.75% in the molten situation.How-ever,when the contents of Sr and Ca change to 0.3wt% and 0.6wt% the oxidation rate is remarkably increasing at 670 ℃,and the oxidation weight ratio is only 0.35%.It concludes that the added Sr and Ca are beneficial to reduce to the oxidation rate of the AZ31 .The reasons are that the density of the oxide film produced by the reac-tion among Sr,Ca and O2 prevent the oxidation weight gain continuously increasing.On the other side,the in-creasing stability of Mg17 Al12 phase is beneficial to reduce the oxidation rate when the Sr and Ca compound add-ed.

  11. Effect of hot-press annealing on bonding strength of hot rolled AZ31/L2 clad sheet%热压退火处理对 AZ31/L2热轧复合板结合强度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付雪松; 刘成放; 李壮; 陈国清; 孙中刚; 周文龙

    2014-01-01

    AZ31/L2 clad sheet was prepared by hot roll bonding process in one pass , and effect of annealing on strength of bonding interface was investigated .The results show that at the condition of 425 ℃deformation temperature and 50% rolling reduction , AZ31 and L2 sheet is complete composited by single pass hot rolling deformation , which appears integrity and no macrocrack , shear strength of the interface is 29 MPa.Hard and brittle intermediate phase should be occurred at interface of AZ 31/L2 clad sheet which result to bonding strength decrease when annealing temperature is above 300 ℃.After hot-pressed annealing treatment at 250 ℃ with 15 MPa, the shear strength can reach to 37 MPa, and a lot of tear ridges with stripped shape appear in the peeled surface .Hot-pressed annealing can improve the bonding strength of the clad sheet .%采用热轧工艺一道次制备出AZ31镁合金/L2纯铝复合板材,并研究了退火工艺对复合板结合强度的影响。结果表明,在50%压下率和425℃轧制条件下,AZ31镁合金和L2纯铝板材经单道次热轧变形后完全复合,复合板外观完整,无宏观裂纹,结合面剪切强度为29 MPa。退火温度≥300℃时, AZ31/L2复合板界面处生成硬脆的中间相,导致结合强度严重下降。经250℃×15 MPa的热压退火处理后,复合板结合强度达到37 MPa,剥离面内密布大量条带状撕裂棱,热压退火工艺可以提高复合板的结合强度。

  12. AZ31镁合金与DP980高强钢的纯电塑性效应实验研究%Study on Pure Electroplastic Effect of AZ31 Alloy and DP980 AHSS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霭振球; 闫磊; 董湘怀

    2015-01-01

    通过单向拉伸试验研究了AZ31镁合金和DP980高强钢两种轻型材料的电塑性效应,研究表明:AZ31镁合金存在纯电塑性效应,而DP980高强钢不存在明显的纯电塑性效应.通过分析峰值电流密度和频率对AZ31镁合金流动应力的影响规律,在Fields-Backofen模型基础上建立了考虑电塑性效应的流动应力方程,此方程能很好的拟合小变形阶段的流变行为.

  13. Influence of Deformation Parameter on Microstructure and Properties of AZ31 Alloy%变形参数对AZ31镁合金组织性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张星; 张宝红; 张治民; 王强

    2004-01-01

    AZ31镁合金铸棒在不同变形温度和变形程度下的再结晶行为进行了观察,并测量了各变形条件下的拉伸性能.结果表明,挤压变形及动态再结晶,可以显著的细化铸造AZ31合金的晶粒(由铸态的约100 μm减少到约5 μm).随变形温度的升高,AZ31合金的抗拉强度下降,到一定温度后,趋于稳定.

  14. Enhancement of the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy via nanostructured hydroxyapatite thin films fabricated via radio-frequency magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmeneva, M A; Tyurin, A I; Mukhametkaliyev, T M; Pirozhkova, T S; Shuvarin, I A; Syrtanov, M S; Surmenev, R A

    2015-06-01

    The structure, composition and morphology of a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputter-deposited dense nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) coating that was deposited on the surface of an AZ31 magnesium alloy were characterized using AFM, SEM, EDX and XRD. The results obtained from SEM and XRD experiments revealed that the bias applied during the deposition of the HA coating resulted in a decrease in the grain and crystallite size of the film having a crucial role in enhancing the mechanical properties of the fabricated biocomposites. A maximum hardness of 9.04 GPa was found for the HA coating, which was prepared using a bias of -50 V. The hardness of the HA film deposited on the grounded substrate (GS) was found to be 4.9 GPa. The elastic strain to failure (H/E) and the plastic deformation resistance (H(3)/E(2)) for an indentation depth of 50 nm for the HA coating fabricated at a bias of -50 V was found to increase by ~30% and ~74%, respectively, compared with the coating deposited at the GS holder. The nanoindentation tests demonstrated that all of the HA coatings increased the surface hardness on both the microscale and the nanoscale. Therefore, the results revealed that the films deposited on the surface of the AZ31 magnesium alloy at a negative substrate bias can significantly enhance the wear resistance of this resorbable alloy.

  15. Experimental Research on Hot Rolling to Improve TIG Welding Joint Mechanical Properties for AZ31B Magnesium Alloy%AZ31B镁合金TIG焊接头的热碾压力学改性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓泉; 初雅杰; 杨宗辉

    2012-01-01

    To explore method of improving mechanical properties for magnesium alloy welding joint, TIG welding was applied to butt AZ31B magnesium alloy plates with the same composition filled wire, specimens cut from test piece of butt welding were healed up to 350℃ by a special ceramic electric heater, then experiments have been carried out on high temperature tensile machine. Specimens with as-welded and hot rolled were machined as tensile specimens to test normal atmospheric temperature mechanical properties. Meanwhile welding joint was analyzed using optical metallographic microscope and fracture morphology as well as micro-area chemical composition were researched with the help of scanning electronic microscopy and energy spectrum analyzer appended. The results show that applying hot rolling procedure, the tensile strength of TIG welding joint can be increased up to 90% of that of the base metal and elongation rate also improved obviously. Hot rolling may effectively change network-like distribution of β-Mg17 A112 precipitate on α-Mg grain boundary of weld microstructure and make it solid solve to re-precipilate in way of dispersoidparticle in grain, resulting in dispersion-strengthening effect. In addition, hot rolling may also promote as-cast weld microstructure to produce dynamic re-crystallization and make microstructure reconstructed and refined.%为探索镁合金焊接接头的力学性能改性方法,以母材金属同材质丝材为填充材料,对AZ31B板材进行TIG对接焊,然后在高温拉伸试验机上将对接取样用专门制作的陶瓷电加热装置加热至350℃进行接头区域热碾压试验.将焊态及经热碾压的对接焊取样加工成拉伸试样测试其常温力学性能,同时对焊接接头进行金相分析,借助扫描电镜及其附带能谱仪对拉伸断口作微观形貌和微区成分分析.结果表明,经热碾压后,TIG焊接头的抗拉强度可达到母材金属的90%,伸长率也有明显的改善;

  16. Effect of the chemistry and structure of the native oxide surface film on the corrosion properties of commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, Sebastian, E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Maffiotte, C. [CIEMAT-DT edificio 30, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Samaniego, A.; Galvan, Juan Carlos [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Barranco, Violeta [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study has been to advance in knowledge of the chemical composition, structure and thickness of the thin native oxide film formed spontaneously in contact with the laboratory atmosphere on the surface of freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to furthering the understanding of protection mechanisms. For comparative purposes, and to more fully describe the behaviour of the native oxide film, the external oxide films formed as a result of the manufacturing process (as-received condition) have been characterised. The technique applied in this research to study the thin oxide films (thickness of just a few nanometres) present on the surface of the alloys has basically been XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in combination with ion sputtering. Corrosion properties of the alloys were studied in 0.6 M NaCl by measuring charge transfer resistance values, which are deduced from EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) measurements after 1 h of exposure. Alloy AZ61 generally showed better corrosion resistance than AZ31, and the freshly polished alloys showed better corrosion resistance than the alloys in as-received condition. This is attributed to a combination of (1) higher thickness of the native oxide film on the AZ61 alloy and (2) greater uniformity of the oxide film in the polished condition. The formation of an additional oxide layer composed by a mixture of spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and MgO seems to diminish the protective properties of the passive layer on the surface of the alloys in as-received condition.

  17. Friction stir welding joint of dissimilar materials between AZ31B magnesium and 6061 aluminum alloys: Microstructure studies and mechanical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 141554933 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behnamian, Y. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Mostafaei, A., E-mail: amir.mostafaei@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Izadi, H. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Saeid, T. [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 513351996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, A.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 113659466 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gerlich, A.P., E-mail: adrian.gerlich@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Friction stir welding is an efficient manufacturing method for joining dissimilar alloys, which can dramatically reduce grain sizes and offer high mechanical joint efficiency. Lap FSW joints between dissimilar AZ31B and Al 6061 alloy sheets were made at various tool rotation and travel speeds. Rotation and travel speeds varied between 560–1400 r/min and 16–40 mm/min respectively, where the ratio between these parameters was such that nearly constant pitch distances were applied during welding. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), optical microscopy images (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) were used to investigate the microstructures of the joints welded. Intermetallic phases including Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} (γ) and Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2} (β) were detected in the weld zone (WZ). For different tool rotation speeds, the morphology of the microstructure in the stir zone changed significantly with travel speed. Lap shear tensile test results indicated that by simultaneously increasing the tool rotation and travel speeds to 1400 r/min and 40 mm/min, the joint tensile strength and ductility reached a maximum. Microhardness measurements and tensile stress–strain curves indicated that mechanical properties were affected by FSW parameters and mainly depended on the formation of intermetallic compounds in the weld zone. In addition, a debonding failure mode in the Al/Mg dissimilar weld nugget was investigated by SEM and surface fracture studies indicated that the presence of intermetallic compounds in the weld zone controlled the failure mode. XRD analysis of the fracture surface indicated the presence of brittle intermetallic compounds including Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} (γ) and Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2} (β). - Highlights: • Dissimilar Al/Mg joint was obtained by lap friction stir welding technique. • Effect of rotation and travel speeds on the formation of intermetallic

  18. AZ31-1Sm镁合金高温压缩热变形行为和微观组织研究%Hot Deformation Behavior and Microstructure of AZ31-1Sm Alloy Compression at Elevated Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 李朝兴; 郑开宏; 黄正华

    2014-01-01

    在单向压缩热模拟试验机上对AZ31-1Sm合金在变形温度为300~450℃、应变速率为0.01~1 s-1条件下的热变形行为和微观组织进行研究.结果表明:AZ31-1Sm镁合金在热压缩变形时,流变应力随着应变速率的增大和变形温度的降低而增大;该合金的热压缩流变应力行为可用双曲正弦形式的本构方程来描述,在本实验条件下,AZ31-1Sm镁合金热热变形激活能Q为160.8 kJ/mol.AZ31-1Sm易发生动态再结晶,在高变形温度和低应变速率条件下动态再结晶趋势明显,动态再结晶晶粒尺寸随着变形温度的增加和应变速率的降低而增大.

  19. Effects of Ram Speed on AZ31 Mg Alloy Thin-walled Tube Porthole Extrusion Based on FEM%AZ31镁合金薄壁管分流挤压速度影响规律仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保军; 杨合; 郭良刚; 石磊; 谷瑞杰; 寇永乐

    2012-01-01

    基于DEFORM-3D平台,以军用战地发射塔天线用AZ31镁合金薄壁管分流挤压工艺过程为研究对象,研究建立了精确、高效的AZ31镁合金薄壁管分流挤压有限元模型.模拟研究揭示了挤压速度对挤压力、焊合压力及模口坯料金属峰值温度的影响规律.基于所得规律,综合考虑挤压力、焊合质量及挤出管材表面质量要求,获得了该规格AZ31镁合金薄壁管在2000t挤压机上的合理挤压速度范围为3.5~7 mm/s.%A precise and efficient 3D-FE model of the porthole extrusion process for AZ31 Mg alloy thin-walled tube, used to manufacture towers antenna in battlefield, was developed in the DEFORM-3D software environment. And the influencing laws of ram speed on the load, welding pressure and the peak temperature of billet at die export were investigated and revealed by comprehensive numerical simulations. With integrated consideration of the extrusion load, quality of welding area and surface quality of the extruded tube, it is proposed that the optimum ram speed range is about 3.5-7 mm/s for the extrusion of AZ31 Mg alloy thin-walled tube on a 2000 t extrusion machine.

  20. Effect of Casting Parameters on the Microstructural and Mechanical Behavior of Magnesium AZ31-B Alloy Strips Cast on a Single Belt Casting Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Changizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strips of magnesium alloy AZ31-B were cast on a simulator of a horizontal single belt caster incorporating a moving mold system. Mixtures of CO2 and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gases were used as protective atmosphere during melting and casting. The castability of the AZ31-B strips was investigated for a smooth, low carbon steel substrate, and six copper substrates with various textures and roughnesses. Graphite powder was used to coat the substrates. The correlation between strip thickness and heat flux was investigated. It was found that the heat flux from the forming strip to the copper substrate was higher than that to the steel substrate, while coated substrates registered lower heat fluxes than uncoated substrates. The highest heat flux from the strip was recorded for casting on macrotextured copper substrates with 0.15 mm grooves. As the thickness of the strip decreased, the net heat flux decreased. As the heat flux increased, the grain sizes of the strips were reduced, and the SDAS decreased. The mechanical properties were improved when the heat flux increased. The black layers which formed on the strips’ surfaces were analyzed and identified as nanoscale MgO particles. Nano-Scale particles act as light traps and appeared black.

  1. 锑和混合稀土对AZ31镁合金高温变形行为的影响%Effect of Antimony and Rare Earth on Hot Deformation Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马庆波; 刘胜新; 李庆奎; 刘俊; 李双喜; 关绍康; 陈永

    2007-01-01

    借助Gleeble-1500D型热模拟试验机,研究了锑和混合稀土对AZ31镁合金在不同温度下(260~420 ℃)的热压缩流变应力和动态再结晶的影响.结果表明:AZ31镁合金的变形抗力随变形温度的升高逐渐减小;分别加入质量分数为1%RE和1%Sb后,其变形抗力显著增大,同时有效促进了热变形过程中的动态再结晶.

  2. 大塑性变形下变形速率对AZ31合金成形性能的影响%Effect of Deformation Rate on Formability of AZ31 Alloy Under Large Plastic Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明朴; 彭晓东; 刘军威; 谢卫东

    2010-01-01

    采用等温挤压成形工艺研究了大塑性变形下变形镁合金AZ31的成形性能,分析了成形过程中变形速率对成形性、成形力和应变的影响.结果表明,AZ31合金在300~350℃等温挤压成形,随变形速率的升高,挤压变形力呈下降的趋势;变形速率为1 mm/s时,应变分布均匀,能够获得最佳的成形质量和力学性能.

  3. Flow Stress Behavior of AZ31magnesium Alloy During Hot Compression Deformation at Elevated Temperature%AZ31镁合金的高温热压缩流变应力行为的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭强; 张辉; 陈振华; 严红革; 夏伟军; 傅定发

    2004-01-01

    在Gleeble-1500热模拟机上对AZ31镁合金在应变速率为0.005~5 s-1、变形温度为250~450 ℃条件下的流变应力行为进行了研究.结果表明:流变应力行为强烈地受到变形温度的影响,当变形温度低于300 ℃时,流变应力呈现幂指数关系;当变形温度高于350 ℃时,流变应力呈现指数关系.在本实验条件下,AZ31镁合金热变形应力指数n为7,其热变形激活能Q为112 kJ/mol.

  4. Study on the Inhibiting Ability of Hexamethylenetetramine to AZ31 Magnesium Alloy%六次甲基四胺对AZ31镁合金的缓蚀作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封雪松; 司玉军; 熊中平; 张胜涛

    2009-01-01

    为了表征六次甲基四胺(HMTA)对AZ31镁合金在MgSO4溶液中的缓蚀性能,用线性电位扫描、电化学阻抗谱等方法研究了合金在溶液中的电化学行为.结果表明,少量HMTA的加入能使AZ31镁合金的开路电位正移,极化电阻增大,从而发挥缓蚀效果.HMTA的添加量在0.1~0.15mmol/L范围时具有较好的缓蚀性能,并使活化电位负移,确保合金具有较好的电化学活性.

  5. Effect of Different Content of MgBr2 on the Electrochemical Performance of AZ31 Mg Alloy as Negative Electrode%不同浓度的MgBr2对AZ31负极材料电化学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘渝萍; 陈昌国; 张丁非; 倪桃; 陈浩; 蔡崇飞

    2012-01-01

    镁合金材料作电池阳极的研究是目前镁合金应用的重要方向之一.采用开路电位、线性扫描、恒电流放电、交流阻抗等电化学方法,系统研究了不同浓度MgBr2对镁合金AZ31在1mol/L Mg(ClO4)2溶液中的电化学性能影响,希望为寻找合适的镁干电池电解液提供基础.镁合金AZ31的开路电位并不随溴化镁浓度的增大而一直负向变化,当MgBr2的浓度为0.05mol/L时,镁合金AZ31的开路电位达到最负值.加入低浓度的MgBr2时,镁合金AZ31阳极材料明显被活化,极化作用减弱,腐蚀阻抗较大,电压滞后时间缩短,有利于镁合金阳极材料在化学电源中的应用.%The influence of different content of MgBr2 on the electrochemical performance of AZ31 Mg alloy in 1mol/L Mg(ClO4)2 solution was studied by OCP,LSV,CP and EIS, providing the basis on seeking the appropriate electrolyte for magnesium dry cell. The OCP value did not always shift in negative direction with the increasing of the MgBr2 concentration. Adding 0. 05mol/L MgBr2 , the open circuit potential of magnesium alloy AZ31 reached the ne gative peak. The addition of the smaller concentration of MgBr2 could activate the anode material, decrease the polari zation, increase the corrosion impedance and shorten the transient minimum voltage, favourable to the application of magnesium alloy in battery.

  6. AZ31镁合金高温热压缩流变应力行为的研究%Flow stress behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy during hot compression deformation at elevated temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 戚文军; 黄正华; 周楠

    2013-01-01

    在Gleeble 1500D型热模拟试验机上,在应变速率为0.01~1 s-1、变形温度为573~723 K条件下,对AZ31合金的流变应力行为进行了研究.结果表明:AZ31镁合金在热压缩变形时,当应变速率-定时,流变应力随着变形温度的升高而减小;而当变形温度一定时,流变应力随着应变速率的增大而增大;该合金的热压缩流变应力行为可用双曲正弦形式的本构方程来描述,在本实验条件下AZ31镁合金热变形应力指数n=8.34,其热变形激活能Q=196 kJ/mol.

  7. Hot extrusion deformation of AZ31 magnesium alloy and mechanics performance analysis%AZ31镁合金的热挤压变形和力学性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 李继文; 李永兵; 魏世忠; 徐流杰; 张国赏

    2009-01-01

    为了掌握高精度镁合金管材的生产工艺,通过对铸锭的均匀化处理,借助500 t挤压机、拉伸试验机、金相显微镜和透射电镜(TEM)对AZ31镁合金管材的等温挤压过程进行了研究,试制了AZ31镁合金挤压薄壁管材,获得了尺寸精度高、粗糙度小和壁厚差小的管材;分析了不同挤压条件下的AZ31镁合金管材的尺寸精度、组织、力学性能.研究结果表明:在挤压温度为623士20K挤出管材经523K×3h退火时其性能较好,抗拉强度、屈服强度和延伸率分别为270 MPa,175 MPa和23.1%.

  8. Effect of welding current on strength and microstructure in resistance spot welding of AZ31 Mg alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yarong; Zhang Zhongdian; Feng Jicai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, resistance spot welding were performed on 1mm-thickness magnesium AZ31B plates. The effect of welding current on the microstructure and tensile shear force was investigated. It was found that the welding current governed the nugget growth, and the nugget could not form if current levels were insufficient. The nugget revealed a homogeneous, equiaxed, fine-grained structure, which consisted of non-equilibrium microstructure of α-phase dendrites surrounded by eutectic mixtures of α and β (Mg17Al12) in the grain boundaries. With increasing welding current, the size of grains in nugget would be more smaller and uniform, and the width of plastic rings would be larger. Tensile shear tests showed that tensile shear force of the joints increased with increasing welding current when the welding current was smaller than 17 000 A.The maximum tensile shear force was up to 1980 N.

  9. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-08-01

    The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  10. Effect of Fe{sup 3+} ions on the thermal and optical properties of the ceramic coating grown in-situ on AZ31 Mg Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Songtao [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Qin Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu Xiaohong, E-mail: wuxiaohong@hit.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang Xiaodong [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhao Guimei [China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2012-07-16

    This research investigates the effect of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} on the thermal and optical properties of the ceramic coatings formed on AZ31 Mg alloy. The different ceramic coatings were obtained by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in electrolytes that contain varied concentrations of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The microstructure, element distribution, composition as well as the thermal and optical properties of the coatings were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer and infrared reflectometer. The results show that all of the coatings prepared were mainly composed with MgO, with trace-amount of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} presents and Fe seems entered into the MgO crystal structure. With the increasing of the concentration of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, the solar absorptance and infrared emittance increased initially but then remain stable. We found that at the concentrations 8 g L{sup -1}, the coating has the highest solar absorptance (0.94) and infrared emittance (0.83). Our results show that coatings formed with this method could be useful as a thermal control coating in a variety of applications, such as in the spacecraft. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal control coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy were prepared by the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coatings were mainly composed with MgO, with trace-amount of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} presents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The using of Fe{sup 3+} in the electrolyte improves the thermal and optical properties of the obtained MgO coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal control coating obtained by PEO has high solar absorptance (0.94) and infrared emittance (0.83).

  11. Effect of biologically relevant ions on the corrosion products formed on alloy AZ31B: an improved understanding of magnesium corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yongseok; Collins, Boyce; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2013-11-01

    Simulated physiological solutions mimicking human plasma have been utilized to study the in vitro corrosion of biodegradable metals. However, corrosion and corrosion product formation are different for different solutions with varied responses and, hence, the prediction of in vivo degradation behavior is not feasible based on these studies alone. This paper reports the role of physiologically relevant salts and their concentrations on the corrosion behavior of a magnesium alloy (AZ31B) and subsequent corrosion production formation. Immersion tests were performed for three different concentrations of Ca(2+), HPO4(2-), HCO3(-) to identify the effect of each ion on the corrosion of AZ31B assessed at 1, 3 and 10 days. Time-lapse morphological characterization of the samples was performed using X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy. The chemical composition of the surface corrosion products was determined by electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results show that: (1) calcium is not present in the corrosion product layer when only Cl(-) and OH(-) anions are available; (2) the presence of phosphate induces formation of a densely packed amorphous magnesium phosphate corrosion product layer when HPO4(2-) and Cl(-) are present in solution; (3) octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are deposited on the surface of the magnesium alloy when HPO4(2-) and Ca(2+) are present together in NaCl solution (this coating limits localized corrosion and increases general corrosion resistance); (4) addition of HCO3(-) accelerates the overall corrosion rate, which increases with increasing bicarbonate concentration; (5) the corrosion rate decreases due to the formation of insoluble HAp on the surface when HCO3(-), Ca(2+), and HPO4(2-) are present together.

  12. The impact on properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy in different direction during high cycle fatigue process%不同取样方向对AZ31镁合金高周疲劳性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭力; 张喜燕; 尹瑞森; 余江平; 舒洋; 刘庆

    2016-01-01

    在轧制镁板材沿TD和RD方向分别切取疲劳试样,并对它们进行室温下的高温疲劳变形。 EBSD分析方法应用于样品的微观组织及织构变化的表征方面。发现经高周应力疲劳变形后,由于应变量非常小,RD与TD方向整体孪晶数量都不多,疲劳后相比疲劳前孪生体积分数有所增加,沿TD方向的孪生体积分数高于RD方向。经拉压循环变形后除{1012}拉伸孪生外还出现了少量的{1011}压缩孪生与{1011}-{1012}二次孪生,导致屈服强度增加,TD方向的抗拉强度与延伸率均高于RD方向。分析其断口形貌发现TD方向疲劳辉纹较小,解理断裂的区域更少,韧窝比较深,故TD试样的高周疲劳性能以及材料的塑性略优于RD试样。由于轧制织构在轧制面内基本对称,所以二者的差别并不太显著。%Samples for high cycle fatigue deformation at room temperature were cut from the hot-rolled AZ31 sheet along the rolling direction (RD) and transverse direction (TD). The electron backscatter diffraction technique(EBSD) was used to investigate the microstructure and texture evolution. Due to the strain is much lower, there are little twins generated during the high cycle deformation in both directions, but the volumes fraction of the twins increased after fatigue deformation, and the samples of transverse direction had larger numbers of twins than the rolling direction. After tension-compression cyclic deformation, both {1012} tension twin, a few compression twinning {1011}and secondary twinning {1011} -{1012} were generated, cause the yield stress reduced. Analyze the fracture of the samples, it was found that in RD samples, the larger area of fatigue striations, the more cleavage fracture and the shallower dimples than TD samples. The result shows that both the fatigue strength and elongation of the TD samples are higher than those of the RD samples. Because of the rolling texture is symmetric in the

  13. AZ31镁合金单轴拉伸过程中的{0002}双峰织构观察%{0002}Double Peak Texture of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy during Uniaxial Tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟强; 蔡庆伍; 江海涛; 胡水平

    2011-01-01

    The microtopography, microtexture, macrotexture and mechanical properties of A231 magnesium extruaion sheet after different amount of tendsile strain were investigated using optical microscope ( OM) , scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) coupled witb electron back-scatter diffraction ( EBSD) , X-ray diffractometer ( XRD) and tensile test machine.The results showed that, in the early stage of tensile deformation (e = 0.002) , a large quantity of twins generated in A231 magnesium extrusion sheel and showed a banded distribution, the band perpendicular to tensile direction, and the number of twins increased conuistently in the whole tension proces.EBSD analysi, indicated that twins generated in the early deformation stage were c-axis tension-type, twinning orientation exhibited a double peak in [ 0002] pole figure, the tilted direction perpendicular to the tensile direction and the rotate angle was about ±20°~ 30°.The [0002] macrotexture intenaity undulately rose with the increase of tenaile atrain, eventually formed a double peak type, the tilied direction and rotate angle were consistent well with tension twins double peak texture which observed by EBSD, thus twinning might be one of important reasons for [ 0002] macrotexture exhibited double peak.Owing to large quantity of tensile twins Senerated in [ 1l-20] oriented graina and twin boundaries counteracted dialocation, the tensile sample exhibited a low yield 8trength and high n value; there were 50 MPa and 0.56 re8pectively.%采用光学显微镜(OM)、扫描电镜(SEM)结合电子背散射衍射(EBSD)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)及拉伸试验机对不同拉伸应变量下A731镁合金挤压板的显微组织、微观织构、宏观织构及力学性能进行了观察.结果表明:在拉伸变形初期(ε=0.002),AZ31镁合金挤压板中就生成了大量呈条带状分布的孪晶,条带走向与拉伸方向垂直,在整个拉伸过程中孪晶数最持续增加.EBSD微观取向分析结

  14. Numerical simulation in hot extrusion processes for steam turbo-generator blades of AZ31 magnesium alloy%AZ31镁合金汽轮发电机叶片热挤压成形数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于翠华; 王少纯; 王笑香; 初海洋

    2012-01-01

    应用Deform-3D有限元分析软件对AZ31镁合金汽轮发电机叶片热挤压进行了数值模拟,得到了350℃时叶片热挤压时等效应力、挤压力及填充特性等关键工艺参数.为镁合金叶片热挤压成形工艺及模具设计提供了必要的理论依据.

  15. 热轧AZ31镁合金板材高温塑性变形行为%Hot plastic deformation of hot-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余琨; 蔡志勇; 王晓艳; 史褆; 黎文献

    2010-01-01

    采用Gleeble-1500热/力模拟系统,研究热轧的AZ31镁合金板材在应变速率0.01,0.1,1,5和10 s-1,变形温度473~723 K,预设最大变形量80%条件下的高温塑性变形行为.采用实验得到的真应力-真应变曲线,分析合金流变应力与应变速率、变形温度之间的关系,计算合金高温变形的材料参数和激活能;用Zener-Hollomon参数法建立合金高温变形的本构关系,并比较实测应力与计算得到的应力.研究结果表明:AZ31镁合金高温变形时受应变速率的影响较大,应变速率小于1 s-1时(573~723 K),合金的真应变接近100%,但当应变速率大于5 s-1时,实验温度范围内合金的真应变都小于60%.AZ31镁合金高温变形的流变应力-应变速率-变形温度的关系可用双曲正弦函数描述,激活能随应变速率和变形温度的提高,从110.4 kJ/mol升高到163.2 kJ/mol.实验获得的AZ31镁合金应力-应变本构方程的计算结果与实验结果较吻合.

  16. Effect of ultrasonic cold forging technology as the pretreatment on the corrosion resistance of MAO Ca/P coating on AZ31B Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingling, E-mail: daisy_chenlingling@163.com [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Gu, Yanhong, E-mail: gu_yanhong@163.com [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Liu, Lu, E-mail: liulu@bipt.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Liu, Shujing, E-mail: liushujing@bipt.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Hou, Binbin, E-mail: sohu19880815@126.com [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: 13521196884@sina.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Ding, Haiyang, E-mail: dinghaiyang@bipt.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic cold forging technology was used as the pretreatment for MAO coating. • Nano layer with the grain size of 30–80 nm was formed on the UCFT treated surface. • Calcium phosphate contained coating was obtained by MAO process. • The remained nano layer underlying MAO coating could impact the corrosion resistance greatly. - Abstract: A calcium phosphate contained (Ca/P) coating was obtained on AZ31B Mg alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process under the pretreatment of ultrasonic cold forging technology (UCFT). The surface nanograins were introduced after UCFT pretreatment on AZ31B Mg alloy. Optical microscope (OM) was employed to observe the microstructures of the untreated and UCFT treated samples. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were employed to observe the microstructures of nanograins and the surface roughness of the UCFT treated Mg alloys. The grain size of the UCFT treated Mg alloy is 48.67 nm and the surface roughness is 17.03 nm. The microstructures and the phase compositions of MAO samples were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The XRD results show that the coating include Ca/P phase, including hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}), HA), tertiary calcium phosphate (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, TCP) and calcium phosphate dehydrate (CaHPO{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O, DCPD). The hardness of the samples was measured by the micro-hardness tester under the loads of 10 g, 25 g and 50 g. 3D topographies of hardness indenter were characterized by 3D profiler. The immersion tests and potentiodynamic polarization tests were used to evaluate the weight loss rate and corrosion current density in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that the corrosion resistance of Ca/P MAO coating on Mg alloy was improved greatly by the pretreatment of UCFT.

  17. Microstructure Evolution in Warm Deformation of Hot-Rolled AZ31 Mg Alloy%热轧AZ31镁合金温变形中的微观组织演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯锋; 尹德良; 韩文波

    2005-01-01

    在50~250℃的温度范围和1.4×10-3~1.4×10-1s-1的应变速率范围内通过单向拉伸试验检验了热轧AZ31镁合金的温变形性能.通过光学显微镜和透射电镜观察了温变形中的微观组织演变.结果表明:在温变形的初始阶段,孪生为主要的变形机理和硬化机制.由孪生变形积聚的畸变能和非基滑移的启动导致了动态再结晶的形核与长大.应变速率的提高对动态再结晶的抑制是造成AZ31镁合金温变形中应变速率敏感性的原因.

  18. AZ31镁合金热变形流动应力的神经网络研究%Flow Stress of Thermal Deformation of AZ31 Alloy Based on BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟

    2013-01-01

    采用近等温压缩试验获得AZ31镁合金变形温度在550~750K,应变速率为0.01~10 s-1条件下的流动应力.采用BP神经网络原理,建立了ZA31镁合金流动应力与工艺条件的神经网络模型,对在不同变形温度、应变速率和真应力下获得的流动应力实验数据进行训练.结果表明,实验值与预测值的误差很小,误差均在5%以内,为进一步研究AZ31镁合金相关性能与工艺条件的制定提供切实可行方法.

  19. 变形程度对铸态AZ31镁合金动态再结晶的影响%Effect of Deformation Degree on Dynamic Recrystallization of As-cast AZ31 Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟妮; 冯再新

    2010-01-01

    研究了铸态AZ31镁合金在温度为250~425℃、变形量为10%~40%、应变速率为0.01 s-1的条件下的热压缩时动态再结晶的变化规律,分析了流变应力与变形程度的关系.结果表明:铸态AZ31镁合金在应变速率为0.01 s-1的条件下进行热压缩变形,变形程度达到40%时,材料会发生断裂;当应变速率和变形温度一定时,流变应力随变形程度的增大不断增加,在达到峰值后逐渐降低,表现出明显的动态再结晶的特征;且随变形程度的增大,动态再结晶晶粒越来越多.

  20. AZ31镁合金在热压缩过程中的变形行为%Deformation Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy during Hot Compression Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙述利; 张敏刚; 周俊琪; 何文武; 刘晓峰; 孙刚; 柴跃生

    2010-01-01

    用Gleeble-1500D型热模拟试验机对AZ31镁合金在变形温度200~400℃、应变速率0.01~1 s-1条件下进行热模拟压缩试验,研究了该合金的热变形行为,并获得了其变形的主要特征参数,建立了高温流变数学模型和功率耗散图.结果表明:热压缩时,AZ31镁合金流变应力受温度和应变速率影响显著,应力-应变曲线呈现出明显的动态再结晶特征,温度越高、应变速率越小,动态再结晶越容易发生;热变形过程受变形激活能控制,得到流变应力的关系式Ihε=35.74+9.96In[sinh(0.01σ)]-1.96×105/RT,耗散系数随温度升高和应变速率降低而逐渐增大.

  1. AZ31B镁合金挤压材料的力学性能与本构分析%Mechanical properties and constitutive analysis of extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴章斌; 桂良进; 范子杰

    2015-01-01

    通过单向拉伸与压缩试验,研究AZ31B镁合金挤压材料的力学性能,并建立相应的本构模型.结果表明:室温下AZ31B镁合金挤压材料的宏观力学性能存在显著的各向异性和拉压非对称屈服的现象,且在塑性流动过程中,屈服面的演化也呈现出各向异性的特点,即畸变硬化特性.基于系统的试验结果,结合考虑了各向异性和拉压非对称性的CPB06屈服面函数,采用解析函数形式的本构参数来描述畸变硬化特性,建立了一种唯象的镁合金材料塑性流动本构模型.通过用户材料子程序VUMAT,将本构模型应用于缺口试件拉伸的有限元模拟中,计算结果与试验结果吻合较好,证实了本构模型的适用性.

  2. A study on the relationships between corrosion properties and chemistry of thermally oxidised surface films formed on polished commercial magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, Sebastián, E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Samaniego, Alejandro [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Barranco, Violeta [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); El-Hadad, A.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo (Egypt); Llorente, Irene [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Serra, Carmen [Servicio de Nanotecnologia y Análisis de Superficies, CACTI, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Galván, J.C. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of heat treated magnesium alloys. • Relation between heat treatment and aluminium subsurface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and corrosion behaviour. - Abstract: This paper studies the changes in chemical composition of the thin oxide surface films induced by heating in air at 200 °C for time intervals from 5 min to 60 min on the freshly polished commercial AZ31 and AZ61 alloys with a view to better understanding their protective properties. This thermal treatment resulted in the formation of layers enriched in metallic aluminium at the interface between the outer MgO surface films and the bulk material. A strong link was found between the degree of metallic Al enrichment in the subsurface layer (from 10 to 15 at.%) observed by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) in the AZ61 treated samples and the increase in protective properties observed by EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) in the immersion test in 0.6 M NaCl. Heating for 5–60 min in air at 200 °C seems to be an effective, easy to perform and inexpensive method for increasing the corrosion resistance of the AZ61 alloy by approximately two or three times.

  3. Cold metal transfer welding–brazing of pure titanium TA2 to magnesium alloy AZ31B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, R., E-mail: caorui@lut.cn; Wang, T.; Wang, C.; Feng, Z.; Lin, Q.; Chen, J.H.

    2014-08-25

    Highlights: • Mg–Ti joints can be successfully performed at suitable welding variables by CMT. • Typical brazing–welding joints can be formed for Mg–Ti joint and Ti–Mg joint. • The brazing interface is mainly composed of Ti{sub 3}Al, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Mg{sub 0.97}Zn{sub 0.03}. • Elements Al and Zn are crucial to join successfully Mg and Ti base metals. - Abstract: Pure titanium TA2 was joined to Mg AZ31B by cold metal transfer (CMT) welding–brazing method in the form of two lap-shear joints (Mg–Ti joint and Ti–Mg joint) with Mg AZ61 wire. The microstructure of Ti/Mg CMT joints was identified and characterized by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties of various welding parameters were compared and analyzed. Desired Ti/Mg CMT joints with satisfied weld appearances and mechanical properties were achieved at suitable welding variables. The Ti/Mg CMT joints had dual characteristics of a welding joint at the Mg side and a brazing joint at the Ti side. Moreover, for two joints, the brazing interfaces were composed of an intermetallic compounds (IMCs) layer including Ti{sub 3}Al, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Mg{sub 0.97}Zn{sub 0.03} phases. Mg–Ti joint had the higher tensile load of 2.10 kN, and Ti–Mg joint had the tensile load of 1.83 kN.

  4. 添加混合稀土和锑的AZ31镁合金的热变形和加工图%Hot Deformation and Processing Maps of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy With Sb and RE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭敬洁; 刘新田

    2007-01-01

    在Gleeble-3500热模拟实验机上进行热压缩实验,研究了添加混合稀土和锑的AZ31镁合金(变形温度250~400 ℃,变形速率0.01~10 s-1)的热变形行为.用双曲正弦关系式描述了该材料在热变形过程中的稳态流变应力.根据材料的动力学模型,建立了热加工图,不同真应变下的热加工图相似,随着变形温度的升高及应变速率的降低,能量消耗效率η逐渐升高.

  5. Effects of Plastic Deformation on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Grain Refinement%塑性变形对AZ31镁合金晶粒细化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建民; 张治民; 张宝红

    2009-01-01

    利用6300kN液压机通过挤压的方法研究了塑性变形对AZ31镁合金晶粒细化的影响.实验表明:挤压变形可显著地细化镁合金晶粒并提高镁合金的力学性能;随挤压比的增大,晶粒细化程度增加,金属的协调变形能力增加,塑性增加;并且通过适当控制成形温度,平均品粒直径可控制在3~5μm之内.

  6. Examination of dynamic recrystallization during compression of AZ31 magnesium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN RenLong; WANG BingShu; CHEN XingPin; HUANG GuangJie; LIU Qing

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior during compression of mag-nesium alloy AZ31. Cylinder samples were cut from the extruded rod and hot rolled sheet AZ31 for compression test. The samples were compressed using a Gleeble 1500D at a temperature of 300Ⅱ and a strain rate of 0.01 s-1. Grain orientations and misorientation angles across grain boundaries for the tested samples were obtained by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The results showed that strong basal texture was observed after 50% compression (ε = 0.69) on both the extruded and hot rolled samples, which have different initial textures. It was observed that with increased strain, DRX grains gradually rotated to basal orientation, and grain boundaries with misorientation angle of near 30° was formed in the samples. At the strain of 0.69, a high fraction of high-angle (> 60°) bounda-ries was present in the extruded sample, whereas almost no high angle boundaries were observed in the hot rolled sheet sample.

  7. Examination of dynamic recrystallization during compression of AZ31 magnesium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior during compression of magnesium alloy AZ31. Cylinder samples were cut from the extruded rod and hot rolled sheet AZ31 for compression test. The samples were compressed using a Gleeble 1500D at a temperature of 300℃ and a strain rate of 0.01 s-1. Grain orientations and misorientation angles across grain boundaries for the tested samples were obtained by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The results showed that strong basal texture was observed after 50% compression (ε = 0.69) on both the extruded and hot rolled samples, which have different initial textures. It was observed that with increased strain, DRX grains gradually rotated to basal orientation, and grain boundaries with misorientation angle of near 30° was formed in the samples. At the strain of 0.69, a high fraction of high-angle (> 60°) bounda-ries was present in the extruded sample, whereas almost no high angle boundaries were observed in the hot rolled sheet sample.

  8. Microstructures and Textures in Hot Deformed and Annealed AZ31 Magnesium Alloy%AZ31镁合金热成形及退火过程的组织与织构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平; 任学平; 赵祖德

    2003-01-01

    研究了热轧板及不同挤压比的热挤压棒的组织和织构特征,确定了热挤压时<1100>织构随应变的加大取代<1120>织构的原因.分析了退火对热成形组织及织构的影响,确定了<1100>织构的消失与残余形变晶粒再结晶的联系.估算了退火时两类样品的平均晶粒长大速度并讨论了其与织构的关系.综合分析表明,AZ31镁合金热成形后总产生较强的织构,织构提高了热成形后的力学性能.高温退火虽使织构减弱,但伴随晶粒的明显长大.

  9. Deformation Behavior of Hot-rolled AZ31 Magnesium Alloy during Tension at Moderate Temperature%AZ31镁合金轧制板材的中温变形性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋中华; 陈刚; 陈振华; 刘俊伟

    2008-01-01

    研究了AZ31镁合金轧制板材在不同温度(423~523 K)以及不同应变速率(0.001~0.01/s)下的力学性能和变形机制.结果表明,材料的塑性随着温度的升高和应变速率的降低而增加,表现出一定的应变速率敏感性.当温度在动态再结晶温度以下时,材料的塑性变形主要是:孪生、位错滑移.随着温度的提高,在孪生区域和晶界处可以观察到许多动态再结晶晶粒,这表明在变形过程中同时发生了孪生诱发动态再结晶和连续动态再结晶.

  10. Effect of Initial Texture on Moderate Temperature Deformation of AZ31 Alloy%初始织构对AZ31镁合金中温塑性变形的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新明; 钱晨; 唐建国; 仲莹莹

    2014-01-01

    采用光学显微镜和XRD宏观织构分析,研究了具有不同初始织构的AZ31镁合金在中温热模拟压缩变形中组织和织构的演变行为.结果表明:以柱面织构为主的试样较基面织构试样有更好的变形能力,其塑性在210~230℃温度区间内显著改善,取决于柱面<a>滑移能协调样品应变;压缩过程中由于主要变形机制由{10-12}孪生转变为柱面滑移,基面组分先增强后减弱,柱面组分先减小后增强;以基面织构为主的试样脆韧转变发生在230~250℃,取决于<c+a>滑移启动和DRX;压缩过程中基面组分减弱,柱面组分增强.温度升高促进非基面滑移系和DRX的激活,使初始织构的影响减弱.

  11. Microstructure Evolution of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Powders Prepared by Mechanical Milling in Hydrogen Atmosphere%AZ31镁合金粉末氢气氛下机械球磨的组织演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珩; 胡连喜; 陈先觉

    2008-01-01

    在氢气氛下机械球磨AZ31镁合金粉末,利用机械力作用使镁合金粉末与氢气发生反应生成纳米晶MgH2,用X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)和透射电镜(TEM)等方法观察和分析了镁合金粉末与氢气在球磨过程中的微观组织演变.结果表明:球磨初始阶段粉末颗粒被碾压成扁平状,随着球磨的进行粉末颗粒逐渐细化,球磨至80h,形成粒度1~3μm、晶粒尺寸10nm左右的纳米晶MgH2粉末材料.

  12. Parameters optimization for friction spot welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy by Taguchi method Otimização dos parâmetros de soldagem por fricção por ponto da liga de magnésio AZ31 pelo método de Taguchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Contri Campanelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Friction spot welding (FSpW is a solid state welding process suitable for producing spot-like joints, especially in lightweight materials, which are particularly interesting due to the weight saving potential. The plunging of an especially designed non-consumable and rotating tool creates a connection between overlapped sheets through frictional heat and plastic deformation. Minimum material loss is observed, and therefore a fully consolidated joint with flat surface (no keyhole is obtained. In the current study, the effect of FSpW parameters, such as rotational speed, plunge depth and dwell time, on lap shear strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy joints was investigated. The optimization of input process parameters was carried out through Taguchi approach of DOE. Analysis of variance was applied to determine the individual importance of each parameter. Main effect plots were used to indicate the best levels for maximizing lap shear strength. The results show that tool plunge depth has the higher effect on the weld strength, followed by rotational speed and dwell time.A soldagem por fricção por ponto (FSpW é um processo de soldagem no estado sólido adequado para a produção de juntas pontuais, especialmente em materiais leves, que são particularmente interessantes devido ao potencial de redução de peso. A penetração de uma ferramenta não-consumível e rotacional especialmente desenvolvida cria uma junção entre as placas sobrepostas através de calor por fricção e deformação plástica. A perda de material é mínima, obtendo-se, portanto, uma junta totalmente consolidada com superfície plana (sem furo. Neste trabalho, investigou-se o efeito dos parâmetros do FSpW, tais como velocidade de rotação, profundidade de penetração e tempo de residência, na resistência ao cisalhamento das juntas de liga de magnésio AZ31. A otimização dos parâmetros de entrada do processo foi realizada através do método de Taguchi de DOE. A an

  13. Effect of Ar bubbling during plasma electrolytic oxidation of AZ31B magnesium alloy in silicate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Yonghwan; Chung, Wonsub

    2012-10-01

    Argon gas was bubbled during plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treatment of magnesium alloy in a silicate solution. The appearance of arcs and plasma discharging was locally concentrated on the magnesium alloy surface and phase fraction of Mg2SiO4 in the oxide layer was increased due to Argon gas bubbling. The higher energy density of the Ar plasma atmosphere is believed to contribute to the effective formation of the high temperature phase (Mg2SiO4), particularly in the inner layer. Furthermore, the PEO treated Mg alloy with Ar bubbling showed improved corrosion resistance by a change of open pores structure.

  14. A Phase-field Model to Simulate Recrystallization in an AZ31 Mg Alloy in Comparison of Experimental Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingtao WANG; B.Y.Zong; Gang WANG

    2008-01-01

    A model has been established to simulate the realistic spatio-temporal microstructure evolution in recrystal-lization of a magnesium alloy using the phase field approach.A set of rules have been proposed to decide the real physical value of all parameters in the model.The thermodynamic software THERMOCALC is applied to determine the local chemical free energy and strain energy,which is added to the free energy density of grains before recrystallization.The Arrhenius formula is used to describe boundary mobility and the activity energy is suggested with a value of zinc segregation energy at the boundary.However,the mobility constant in the formula was found out by fitting to a group of grain size measurements during recrystallization of the alloy.The boundary range is suggested to decide the gradient parameters in addition of fitting to the experimental boundary energy value.These parameter values can be regarded as a database for other similar simulations and the fitting rules can also be applied to build up databases for any other alloy systems.The simulated results show a good agreement with reported experimental measurement of the alloy at the temperatures from 300 to 400℃ for up to 100 min but not at 250℃.This implies a mechanism variation in activity energy of the boundary mobility in the alloy at low temperature.

  15. An Oim Analysis on the Deformation Mechanism in Hot Compressed AZ31 Magnesium Alloy%低应变速率下AZ31镁合金热形变过程的取向成像分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟利; 杨平; 解延雷; 冯惠平

    2004-01-01

    利用EBSD取向成像技术,分析了低应变速率下具有三种不同初始织构的AZ31镁合金在340℃伪平面应变压缩时的晶粒取向演变规律,目标在于揭示在超塑变形条件下塑性滑移进行的程度和不同类型滑移机制进行的程度.结果表明,不仅在1(10-2s-1应变速率下,即使在4(10-4 s-1应变速率(超塑变性条件)下,不同初始织构的试样中晶粒都以不同方式逐渐转到基面取向({0002}∥挤压面)附近,随应变量增大,基面织构变强.这说明塑性滑移在高温变形时起着重要作用.而基面初始织构的试样在变形过程中一直保持基面的取向,从织构演变规律上并没有观察到明显的非基面的〈a+c〉滑移发生,说明了常见的基面滑移仍是主要的塑性滑移机制.另外,在基面初始取向的试样中检测到晶粒发生粘滞性层流现象.

  16. Twinning and texture evolution in extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy during hot deformation%挤压态AZ31镁合金热变形过程中的孪生和织构演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘筱; 朱必武; 李落星; 唐昌平

    2016-01-01

    采用100 kN servo-hydraulic MTS型试验机对挤压态AZ31镁合金进行温度为350℃、应变速率为0.3s-1和不同应变量下的热压缩;利用X射线衍射(XRD)测量不同应变量下的织构,并利用取向分布函数计算其织构类型,分析织构转变;通过电子背散射衍射技术(EBSD)分析孪生的形成情况.同时,计算不同滑移系和孪生的斯密特因子,分析不同滑移系和孪生开启的先后次序.结果表明:变形初期,由于拉伸孪生的出现导致(0001) [10(1)0]和(0001) [2(1)(1)0]织构的形成,并随应变量的增加,发生动态再结晶,(01(1)0) [0001]和((1)2(1)0)[0001]纤维织构完全由(0001)[10(1)0]和(000l)[2(1)(1)0]织构代替;在变形初期,大部分晶粒先产生拉伸孪生,接着发生二阶锥面滑移.

  17. A study on microstructure and corrosion resistance of ZrO2-containing PEO coatings formed on AZ31 Mg alloy in phosphate-based electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, J. J.; Guo, Y. Q.; Xiang, N.; Xiong, Y.; Hu, Q.; Song, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    ZrO2-containing ceramic coatings formed on the AZ31 Mg alloy were fabricated in an alkaline electrolyte containing sodium phosphate and potassium fluorozirconate (K2ZrF6) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used to study the phase structure and composition of the coatings. It is indicated that the coatings formed in the K2ZrF6-containing electrolyte were composed of MgO, MgF2 and t-ZrO2. Morphological investigation carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereoscopic microscopy, revealed that the uniformity of coatings increased and roughness of coatings decreased after the addition of K2ZrF6. Electrochemical investigation was achieved by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The results showed that the PEO coating formed in K2ZrF6-containing electrolyte exhibited an improved corrosion resistance than that of the coating formed in K2ZrF6-free electrolyte. In addition, the polarization and EIS tests results both showed that the suitable concentration (2.5 g/l) of K2ZrF6 is of significant ability to improve the corrosion resistance of coatings. However, 5 g/l and 10 g/l K2ZrF6 has a negative effect on improving the corrosion resistance of PEO coatings compared with the coating formed in 2.5 g/l K2ZrF6-containing electrolyte.

  18. Effect of casting parameters and deformation on microstructure evolution of twin-roll casting magnesium alloy AZ31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Dong-ying; HU Xiao-dong

    2006-01-01

    Twin roll casting method is a promising route to directly produce magnesium alloy strip. It is a rapid solidification process with high temperature gradient combined with thermal flow and rolling deformation in the casting region. As-cast strip with proper microstructure is requested to serve as next rolling feedstock. However the microstructure of as-cast strip is sensitive for casting conditions during the casting process and the as-cast microstructure greatly affects the mechanical properties. In this work,the effect of casting speed,pouring temperature,deformation as well as anneal process on microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The results revels that twin-roll casting process can effectively refine the grain size,improve the morphology and distribution states of Mg17Al12. The homogenization treatment time can be shorted for the fine microstructure and lower the cost dramatically for the next forming process.

  19. Plasticity and microstructure of AZ31 magnesium alloy under coupling action of high pulsed magnetic field and external stress%强磁与应力场耦合作用下AZ31镁合金塑性变形行为∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏明; 朱弋; 李桂荣; 郑瑞

    2016-01-01

    As an h.c.p crystal structure with only a few limited slipping planes, the AZ31 magnesium alloy exhibits a bad plasticity in the presence of external stress. Due to its low density, advanced damping capacity and high ratio strength and rigidity, the magnesium alloy has gradually become the focused and potential structural and functional metallic material in the diverse fields of aerospace, aviation and vehicle transportation, electronic products, etc. Therefore, it is of great importance to improve the process ability of conventional magnetism alloy as AZ31. In the past decades many approaches have been proposed in order to improve the plastic deformation capability. Among these, the diverse physical fields are regarded as the effective methods to improve the comprehensive mechanical properties of metallic materials due to their peculiar heat, force and quantum effects together with the advantageous characteristics of low pollution and high efficiency. In the paper, on the basis of previous researches, a high pulsed magnetic field is introduced into the tensile test to study the influences of magnetic field on the plasticity and microstructure of AZ31 magnesium alloy in order to explore a novel way to enhance the plastic deformation capability of alloy. As for the current experiment, the tensile test of AZ31 magnesium alloy is carried out under the coupling action of high pulsed magnetic field and external stress. The test results are compared with those processed without magnetic field. Several advanced detection methods are utilized to investigate the microstructure including the electron back scattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, etc. Besides, the first principle is utilized to calculate the magnetic properties of main precipitatesβ(Mg17Al12). The experimental results show that the tensile strength and elongation of the 3 T sample are increased by 2.2%and 28.7%in comparison to those of the 0 T sample. It highlights that

  20. CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF Mg-BASED AZ31 ALLOY SACRIFICIAL ANODE%镁基牺牲阳极腐蚀行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巢国辉; 黎文献; 余琨; 丁荣辉

    2006-01-01

    采用静态失重法、动电位扫描法和交流阻抗法研究了高纯镁和AZ31合金在3.5%NaCl溶液中的腐蚀行为.结果表明:高纯镁在3.5%的NaCl溶液中的平均腐蚀速率要小于AZ31合金,腐蚀后在高纯镁表面形成了一层氧化膜,阻碍进一步腐蚀,而由于第二相与基体发生电化学反应的AZ31合金腐蚀过程继续维持.用SEM观察两者的腐蚀形貌发现,AZ31合金整个表面都被剧烈的腐蚀;而高纯镁表面腐蚀均匀,且腐蚀程度较浅.

  1. 低能量密度气体激光熔凝AZ31B镁合金的微观组织与磨损性能%Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Low Energy Density Gas Laser Surface Melting on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛亚琼; 郭谡; 王鑫; 王文先; 李想

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of AZ31B magnesium alloy, laser melted layer which had no crack and hole on AZ31B magnesium substrate was created by a 5 kW continuous wave CO2 laser with low density energy. The macrostructure, microstructure and phases were analyzed by means of optical microscope and X-ray Diffraction, the microhardness and abrasion performance were also tested with microhardness tester and abrasion testing instrument. The results showed that, the melted layers were mainly consisted of α-Mg and β-Mgl7A112, and the grains of melted layer were smaller than that of base metal. With the technique of lower energy density laser which was P=2 kW, v= 15 mm/s, £=26 J/mm2, the strengthening effect of fine-grain and β-Mgl7A112 was the best, the microhardness of laser melted layer was 50 HV0.05~79 HV0.05 which was improved by 13.64% ~ 64.58% and wear resistance was improved by 60% as compared to as-received AZ31B, the wear mass loss was 40% of as-received AZ31B. These showed that, the best laser melted layer with the best microhardness and wear resistance could be obtained by the technique of low density laser energy with high laser power and fast velocity.%为提高镁合金表面的耐磨性,利用5 kW横流连续C02激光器在AZ31B镁合金表面采用低能量密度激光能量制备了无裂纹、气孔等缺陷的熔凝层.通过光学显微镜、X射线衍射仪观察分析熔覆层的宏观形貌、微观组织和物相,并利用显微硬度仪、磨损试验机测试熔覆层的显微硬度和耐磨性.研究结果表明:熔覆层由α-Mg和β-Mgl7Al12组成,晶粒明显细化.采用低能量密度工艺即激光功率P=2 kW、扫描速度v=15 mm/s、激光能量密度E=26 J/mm2时,晶粒细化程度和β-Mg17Al12强化相综合强化效果最好,即显微硬度最高,为50 HV0.05~79 HV0.05比基体提高了13.64%~64.58%;耐磨性改善程度最好,磨损量是原始镁合金的40%,耐磨性提高60%.说明采用低能量

  2. AZ31B镁合金/不锈钢异种合金双光束激光熔钎焊接特性%Welding Characteristics of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy/Stainless Steel Dissimilar Alloys by Dual Beam Laser Welding-Brazing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俐群; 郭伟; 檀财旺

    2012-01-01

    以镁基焊丝为填充材料,采用双光束激光熔钎焊的方法对AZ31B镁合金/不锈钢的焊接特性进行了研究.分析了不同工艺参数对焊缝成形、接头力学性能和断裂行为的影响.结果表明,采用双光束进行填丝熔钎焊能够获得较满意的外观成形,无明显缺陷,焊接工艺范围较宽.接头拉伸均断裂于熔化焊的镁侧焊缝及热影响区(HAZ),最大剪切强度为193 MPa,达到镁合金母材强度的71%.组织分析发现焊缝和HAZ的晶粒粗大,成为接头的薄弱部位,是接头失效的主要原因.钎焊侧界面发生了冶金反应,界面处生成1~2 μm的反应层.%AZ31B magnesium alloys and 201 stainless steel are joined by laser welding-brazing process with Mg based filler. The welding characteristics including influence of processing parameters on weld appearance, mechanical properties and fracture behavior are studied- Results indicate that satisfactory appearance of welds without evident defects can be achieved by dual beam laser-brazing process with filler. A wide processing window is obtained. The tensile-shear test shows that fracture occurred at two places, weld seam and heat affect zone (HAZ) at the welding side of Mg alloys. The maximum shear strength can reach 193 Mpa, which is 71% of that of Mg base metal. The microstructure observed indicates that seam and HAZ are weak parts, which results in failure of joint due to presence of coarse grains. Metallurgical reaction occurs at the brazing side, where reaction layer with thickness of 1~2 μm forms.

  3. Effects of production parameters on characteristics of magnesium alloy sheets manufactured by twin-roll casting

    OpenAIRE

    H.Watari; Haga, T.; Davey, K.; Koga, N; Yamazaki, T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: : The purpose of the work is to establish a manufacturing process and technology to facilitate the economical manufacture of high-quality magnesium sheet alloys.Design/methodology/approach: Magnesium alloy AZ31B was used to investigate the appropriate manufacturing conditions for use in twin-roll strip casting. Temperatures of the molten materials and roll speeds were varied to find the appropriate manufacturing conditions. The effects of manufacturing conditions on possible forming ...

  4. Long-term corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in Xisha marine atmosphere%西沙严酷海洋大气环境下 AZ31镁合金的长周期腐蚀行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔中雨; 肖葵; 董超芳; 崔天宇; 李晓刚

    2014-01-01

    通过现场暴露实验,研究了AZ31镁合金在西沙海洋大气环境下暴露4 a的长周期腐蚀行为.利用扫描电镜观察表面、截面的腐蚀产物以及去除腐蚀产物后的腐蚀形貌,并用能谱分析及X射线衍射仪对腐蚀产物的元素含量及相组成进行分析.研究结果表明,AZ31镁合金在西沙海洋大气环境下发生了较为严重的腐蚀,4 a内的平均腐蚀速度为11.95μm·a-1. Cl-和CO2在镁合金的腐蚀过程中起着至关重要的作用.吸附液膜中的Cl-主要破坏镁合金的保护膜,使镁合金发生阳极溶解;而CO2则会中和阴极反应产生的碱性离子并与Mg(OH)2发生反应生成含不同结晶水的Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·xH2O表层腐蚀产物.由于表层腐蚀产物阻挡了CO2和Cl-向镁合金表面的传输,靠近基体处的腐蚀产物主要为Mg( OH)2.%By field exposure test, atmospheric corrosion tests of AZ31 magnesium alloy were conducted in Xisha Islands for 4 a. The surface and cross-section morphologies of corrosion products as well as the corrosion morphologies of the alloy after removing corro-sion products were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to obtain the element content and phase composition of corrosion products. The results indicate that the alloy undergoes severe corrosion. The average corrosion rate is 11.95μm·a-1 . Cl-and CO2 play important roles in the corrosion process. The Cl--containing absorbed electrolyte layers will destroy the oxidation film and induce anodic dissolution of the alloy. While CO2 dissolved in the absorbed electrolyte layers tends to neutralize the alkali formed in the cathodic area and reacts with Mg ( OH ) 2 to form Mg5 ( CO3 ) 4 ( OH) 2·xH2 O. The surface corrosion products restrict the transport of CO2 and Cl- to the surface of the alloy, so the inner layer of corrosion products is mainly composed of Mg( OH) 2 .

  5. 极端冷却条件下AZ31B镁合金激光熔凝层的组织与性能%Microstructure and Properties of Laser Melted Layer of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy at Extreme Cooling Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文先; 陈建华; 张红霞; 崔泽琴; 闫兴贵

    2011-01-01

    Surface of AZ31B magnesium alloy is melted using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser in liquid nitrogen. Then the laser melted layer cooled in liquid nitrogen is compared with that cooled in air and the substrate. The results show that the grain size of the laser melted layer cooled in liquid nitrogen is smaller than that cooled in air. The laser melted layer cooled in liquid nitrogen has higher micro-hardness (70~77 HV005) than that cooled in air(60~ 67 HV0.05) compared with the as-received magnesium alloy (about 55 Hvo.os) ■ The wear mass loss of the laser melted layer cooled in liquid nitrogen (1X 10~3 g) is less than that cooled in air (2 X 10'3 g). The results indicate that liquid nitrogen is better for the enhancement of wear resistance of the laser melted layer. The experimental results show that the corrosion potential of the laser melted layer cooled in liquid nitrogen and cooled in air decrease by 22 mV and 29 mV than those of the as-received magnesium alloy respectively. This indicates that corrosion resistance of AZ31B magnesium alloys becomes worse by laser surface melting.%采用固体脉冲Nd:YAG激光器,对AZ31 B镁合金进行了液氮极端冷却条件下的表面熔凝试验,并与在空气中冷却的熔凝层和原始镁合金进行了对比.结果表明,液氮冷却熔凝层的晶粒比空气冷却熔凝层晶粒更加细小.液氮冷却熔凝层的显微硬度达到70-77 HV0.05,明显高于原始镁合金的显微硬度(约55 H V0.05),且高于空气冷却熔凝层的60-67 HV0.05.磨损试验表明,液氮冷却熔凝层的磨损量为1×10-3 g,小于空气冷却熔凝层的2×10-3 g,说明液氮冷却条件更有利于镁合金表面耐磨性能的提高.在质量分数为3.5%的NaCl溶液中的电化学极化曲线测试结果表明,液氮冷却熔凝层和空气冷却熔凝层的腐蚀电位较原始镁合金分别降低了22 mV和29 mV,阳极腐蚀电流密度分别提高了1倍和2倍,说明激光熔凝使镁合金的耐腐蚀性能有所降低.

  6. Microstructural evolvement of wrought magnesium alloy sheet during heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Magnesium alloy is the lightest structural metal material. As its ductility is usually limited because of its hexagonal closest packing (hcp) structure, it is significant to improve its forming performance. The primary way to achieve this goal is by grain refinement. This study explores new ways of grain refinement for cold-rolled sheet of magnesium alloy AZ31B by probing into its structural evolvement in heat treatment. It is found that recrystallization mostly takes place in the cold-rolled sheet in heattreatment, and refined and equiaxial recrystallization grains with an average diameter of (14 to 15) μm can be obtained by heattreatment at 260 °C for (60 to 90) min, which is an effective method to obtain refined symmetrical grains of magnesium alloy by heat treatment at a lower recrystallization temperature after cold-rolling.

  7. Comportamiento de la corrosión de aleaciones de magnesio AZ31-B en ambiente marino, modificadas por el proceso de fricción-agitación Corrosion behavior in marine environment of magnesium alloy AZ31-B welded by friction-agitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Aperador Chaparro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se estudia el comportamiento de la corrosión de la aleación de magnesio AZ31-B en ambiente marino simulado, modificada mediante el proceso de fricción-agitación (PFA, con el fin de determinar el efecto de las variables del proceso, velocidad de rotación y velocidad de avance. Se llevaron a cabo análisis mediante espectroscopia de impedancia electroquímica y curvas de polarización potencio-dinámicas (Tafel. Adicionalmente, se determinó la microestructura en las zonas del cordón de soldadura a través de metalografía óptica. Finalmente, se analizaron los productos de corrosión formados en la superficie de las muestras por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM equipado con el analizador químico por EDS. Se observó que una relación de velocidad de avance/velocidad de rotación mayor produce menor velocidad de corrosión y con ello mayor resistencia a la corrosión en medios salinos, al parecer relacionados con el gran tamaño de grano en la zona agitada, que corresponde a más entrada de calor.The corrosion behavior of AZ31B magnesium alloy modified by friction stir processing (FSP was studied in simulated marine environment, in order to determine the effect of process variables rotation speed and travel speed. The corrosion analysis was carried upon by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization curves (Tafel, metallographic analysis of the welded zones was done by optical microscopy and the chemical analysis of the corrosion products were done by using scanning electron microscope (SEM, equipped with EDS analyzer. It was observed that the increase of the rate rotation speed/travel speed of the process produces a decrease in the corrosion rate and the corresponding increase of the corrosion resistance in marine environment, apparently related to the higher grain size found in the stir zone, corresponding to a higher heat input.

  8. 植酸浓度对AZ31B镁合金植酸转化膜防腐性能的影响%Influence of Phytic Acid Concentration on Corrosion Resistance of Phytic Acid Conversion Coating on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高焕方; 张胜涛; 赵波; 刘益风; 邹勇

    2011-01-01

    在不同浓度的植酸溶液中制备了AZ31B镁合金植酸转化试样,并应用析氢实验及Tafel极化曲线测试其防腐性能,使用SEM,EDS,FTIR观察转化膜形貌、元素组成及官能团构成.结果表明:植酸溶液的浓度对植酸转化试样的防腐性能具有较大的影响,C=4.0g·L-1时所制备的转化试样具有最佳的防腐性能,电流密度较未处理试样降低了2个数量级.此外,植酸转化膜主要由Mg,Al,Zn,O,P等元素组成,并含有PO34-,HPO24-,OH-基团,转化膜存在一定的裂纹,且裂纹处仍有很薄的一层植酸转化膜.%The phytic acid conversion coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy were formed in different phytic acid concentrations and the corrosion resistance of the conversion samples was studied by hydrogen evolution method and Tafel. The morphology, composition and functional groups were investigated by SEM, EDS and FTIR, respectively. The results indicate that the concentration of phytic acid has obvious influence on the corrosion resistance of the conversion samples, the conversion sample formed under C=4.0g · L-1 has the best corrosion resistance, the current density decreases about two orders than that of the untreated sample. The main elements of the coating are Mg, Al, Zn, O and P, the functional groups are PO43- , HPO42- and OH- . The conversion coating also has few cracks, and the thin coating is formed on the crack.

  9. Microstructure Evolution and Fracture Behavior in Superplastic Deformation of Hot-rolled AZ31 Mg Alloy%热轧AZ31镁合金超塑变形中的微观组织演变及断裂行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯锋; 尹德良; 王国峰; 韩文波

    2005-01-01

    通过热轧工艺制备了具有细晶微观组织的AZ31镁合金薄板.在250~450℃的温度范围和0.7×10-3~1.4×10-1s-1的初始应变速率范围内研究了热轧AZ31镁合金板的超塑性流变行为.分别通过光学显微镜和扫描电镜(SEM)观察了AZ31镁合金超塑性变形中的微观组织演变和断裂行为,并计算了不同温度下的变形激活能.结果表明,从300℃开始,热轧AZ31镁合金开始表现出超塑性的流变特征.在400℃,0.7×10-3s-1的变形条件下,最大延伸率可达362.5%,显示了良好的超塑性能.在300~400℃的超塑变形温度范围内,AZ31镁合金超塑变形的主要机制是由晶界扩散控制的晶界滑移,而变形温度和应变速率对AZ31镁合金断裂行为的影响主要体现在变形机制从晶内滑移到晶界滑移的转变.

  10. Crystal anisotropy of AZ31 magnesium alloy under uniaxial tension and compression%单轴拉伸与压缩加载下AZ31镁合金单晶的各向异性塑性行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝永庭; 钟献词; 权高峰; 蔺若成; 张克实

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the deformation twinning and the plastic anisotropy of the hexagonal-close-packed (HCP) single crystal, the crystal plastic constitutive model including slip and twinning deformation was established with finite element method based on crystal plasticity theory. The model was verified by test data. Newton−Raphson iteration method was developed with the stress components directly as the basic variables of iteration. The plastic deformation behavior of single crystal AZ31 alloy was analyzed numerically under monotonic tension and compression, respectively, in four different strain paths (i.e. along 〉〈2 1 1 0 , 〉〈01 1 0 ,〈0001〉and 〉〈01 1 1 ) with this model. The stress−strain curves were obtained in the above paths. The numerical calculation results show that this crystal model is feasible to predict the activity of slip/twinning system and to describe the number of active twin variants, the types of dominant twin variants and twin intersection. Due to the polar nature of mechanical twinning in inelastic deformation of the material, the plastic behavior of the single crystal material is demonstrated to be notably anisotropic and high asymmetry.%为研究 HCP 结构单晶在塑性变形中的变形孪晶和塑性各向异性,采用基于晶体塑性本构理论的有限单元法,建立包含滑移与孪生变形机制的晶体塑性本构关系,发展了以应力作为自变量的牛顿−拉普森迭代方法,通过已有文献的试验数据验证模型的有效性,并利用此模型模拟 AZ31单晶体在4种(即沿〉〈2110,〉〈0110,〈0001〉和〉〈0111方向)拉伸与压缩变形路径下的塑性变形行为,并获得了相应加载路径下的应力−应变关系曲线。数值计算结果表明,在不同加载路径下该模型可用于预测滑移系或孪生系的活动情况,以及描述孪生变体的活动数量、主要孪生变体和孪生交叉类型。由于机械孪晶具有的极性性质

  11. Effect of Twinning and Detwinning on Mechanical Proprieties of AZ3 1 Magnesium Alloy%孪晶和解孪晶对AZ31镁合金力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强强; 宋广胜; 徐勇; 张士宏

    2015-01-01

    以商用热轧AZ31镁合金板材为研究对象,室温下通过沿轧制方向(Rolling Direction)、轧板法向(Normal Direc-tion)以及RD-ND 3种压缩变形试验,研究了AZ3 1镁合金在压缩变形过程中的孪晶、解孪晶现象及其对力学性能的影响。结果表明,沿RD压缩后晶粒取向发生变化,变形后的组织中出现了明显的平行带状和透镜状孪晶带。沿 ND 压缩时,{1012}拉伸孪晶没有发生,且无论压缩变形量大小,金相组织中均无孪晶出现,塑性变形主要依靠滑移产生。解孪晶时屈服应力下降明显,且完全解孪晶所需应变比孪晶小。%Twinning,detwinning and their effects on mechanical properties of commercial hot-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy were investigated under three compression along rolling direction (RD ),normal direction (ND)and RD-ND at room temperature,respectively.The results show that the grain orientation is changed and there exists many distinctly parallel and lenticular twinning bands in microstructure after compression along RD.While compression along ND,no matter how much the specimens was com-pressed,the absence of {1012}extension twinning and any twinning microstructure can be observed, which reveals that plastic deformation is mainly dependent on slips under compression along ND.The yield stress is decreased significantly during detwinning process,and the strain needed by complete de-twinning is smaller than that of twinning.

  12. Failure Analysis of Warm Stamping of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Based on an Anisotropic Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.

    2014-11-01

    Based on the frame work of continuum damage mechanics, a research work of anisotropic damage evolution in warm stamping process of magnesium alloy sheets has been carried out by means of a combined experimental-numerical method. The aim was to predict formability of warm stamping of AZ31 Mg alloy sheets by taking the thermal and damage effects into account. In the presented work, a temperature-dependent anisotropic yield function suitable for cold rolling sheet metals together with an anisotropic damage model was implemented into the a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. The evolution of internal damage in the form of void growth and coalescence in AZ31 Mg alloy sheet was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a coupled thermo-mechanical simulation of the stamping process was performed using the implemented code at different temperatures. The parameters employed in the simulation were determined by the standard tensile tests and algebraic manipulation. The overall anisotropic damage process from crack initiation to final propagation in local area of blank was simulated. Numerical results show that the prediction of the site of crack initiation and the orientation of crack propagation are consistent with the data observed in warm stamping experiments.

  13. 冷却强度及变形程度对挤压AZ31镁合金组织性能的影响%Effect of Cooling Strength and Deformation on Microstructure and Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy as Extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳瑞清; 蔡薇; 饶克

    2007-01-01

    选择AZ31镁合金为原材料,在400℃下挤压散热片型材,就冷却强度及变形程度对制品的性能(抗拉强度和导电率)及组织结构的影响进行研究.结果显示:挤压温度为400℃,制品经水冷却,变形程度大的型材具有更高的抗拉强度和导电率.

  14. Comportamiento mecánico de la aleación AZ31 reforzada con nanofibras de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeva, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of reinforcing AZ31 with carbon nanofibres. The materials AZ31, AZ31-1 % C y AZ31-2 % C were produced by a conventional powder metallurgy route consisting of mechanical mixing of nanofibres and powders of AZ31, cool compactation and extrusion at 350 °C. After extrusion the three materials exhibited a recrystallized microstructure of similar grain size, fine and rather inhomogeneous. Furthermore, they presented a weak fibre texture with basal plane parallel to the extrusion direction. The tensile properties were affected by the nanofibres presence only at 100 °C. At this temperature, yield strength and tensile strength were 30% higher than in the unreinforced alloy.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado el efecto de la adición de nanofibras de carbono en las propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AZ31 procesada por una ruta pulvimetalúrgica convencional. Se prepararon tres materiales, AZ31, AZ31- 1 % C y AZ31-2 % C. Tras una mezcla mecánica de las nanofibras con los polvos de AZ31, se precompactaron en frío y se extruyeron a 350 °C. Los tres presentan una microestructura recristalizada con un tamaño de grano similar, fino aunque algo heterogéneo. Los tres materiales presentan una débil textura de fibra con el plano basal paralelo a la dirección de extrusión. Las propiedades mecánicas a tracción únicamente se ven afectadas por la presencia de nanofibras a 100 °C superando los materiales reforzados en un 30 % a los valores de límite elástico y resistencia de la aleación sin reforzar.

  15. Modeling texture evolution during rolling process of AZ31 magnesium alloy with elasto-plastic self consistent model%基于弹塑性自洽模型的AZ31镁合金轧制过程的织构模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄诗尧; 张少睿; 李大永; 彭颖红

    2011-01-01

    为了更好地研究镁合金轧制过程的织构演变,对商用有限元软件ABAQUS/Explicit的用户材料接口VUMAT做二次开发,实现晶体塑性力学和有限元方法的耦合.对于单个晶粒,通过相关模型计算每个增量步的塑性应变增量,Voce硬化模型计算应变硬化.由于变形机制的不同,分别计算滑移和孪晶引起的晶格旋转.采用弹塑性自洽模型计算单晶体和多晶体之间的联系.应用编制的程序,分别模拟AZ31板材和AZ31铸件的轧制过程.结果表明,该程序能够较好地预测轧制过程的织构演化.

  16. Effects of production parameters on characteristics of magnesium alloy sheets manufactured by twin-roll casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Watari

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: : The purpose of the work is to establish a manufacturing process and technology to facilitate the economical manufacture of high-quality magnesium sheet alloys.Design/methodology/approach: Magnesium alloy AZ31B was used to investigate the appropriate manufacturing conditions for use in twin-roll strip casting. Temperatures of the molten materials and roll speeds were varied to find the appropriate manufacturing conditions. The effects of manufacturing conditions on possible forming were clarified in terms of roll speeds and roll gaps between upper and lower rolls.Findings: In the hot-rolling process, a temperature exceeding 200°C was chosen to keep cast products from cracking. An appropriate annealing temperature was effective for homogenizing the microstructure of the rolled cast sheets after the strip casting process. The grain size of the manufactured wrought magnesium alloys sheet was less than 10 micrometers. The obtained magnesium alloy sheet exhibited an equivalent limiting drawing ratio in a warm-drawing test.Research limitations/implications: AZ31 were used to investigate the appropriate manufacturing conditions for use in twin-roll strip casting. Casting temperatures were varied from 630°C to 670°C to find the best casting conditions. Roll casting speeds were varied from 5m/min to 30 m/min in order to examine which roll speed was appropriate for solidifying the molten magnesium.Practical implications: It was found that the cast magnesium sheet manufactured by roll strip casting could be used for plastic forming if the appropriate magnesium sheets were produced after the roll casting process.Originality/value: This paper showed the effectiveness of twin roll casting for magnesium alloys by a horizontal roll caster.

  17. Effects of combined additions of SiO2 and MoS2 nanoparticles as lubricant additive on the tribological properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE HongMei; JIANG Bin; WANG QingHang; XIA XiangSheng; PAN FuSheng

    2016-01-01

    The tribological properties of combinative addition of nano-MoS2 and nano-SiO2 to the base oil have been investigated with a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribotester for magnesium alloy-steel contacts.The results demonstrate that the optimum mass ratio of nano-SiO2 to nano-MoS2 is 0.25∶0.75.The optimum combinative addition into the base oil reduces the friction coefficient by 43.8% and the surface roughness (Sa) by 31.7% when compared to that found with the base oil.Meanwhile,the combinative addition of nano-MoS2 and nano-SiO2,in comparison with single nanoparticles addition,is more pronounced in terms of the lubrication film stability.The excellent tribological properties of the SiO2/MoS2 combinations are attributed to the formation of physical adsorption films and tribochemical products during the rubbing process and the micro-cooperation of various nanoparticles with different shapes and lubrication mechanisms.

  18. Computer Simulation Study on Backward Extrusion Process of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Tube Based on DEFROM-3D Software%基于DEFORM-3D软件的AZ31镁合金管材反挤压过程计算机模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冬瑞; 董延

    2015-01-01

    通过DEFORM-3D软件对AZ31镁合金在300℃进行了不同壁厚(5、2.5、1ram)管的反挤压成形模拟.结果表明,在300℃能成功地反挤成形,但挤压过程中变形不均匀.随着离试样中心位置的距离增大,变形有效应变先增大后减小,这主要与反挤压过程中材料流动的不同有关.总之,在300℃能够反挤压成形管壁lmm的镁合金筒形件.

  19. Simulation Study on Effect of Temperature on Backward Extrusion of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Tube Based on Defroma-3D Software%基于Deform-3D软件模拟研究温度对AZ31镁合金管材反挤压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭

    2015-01-01

    为了研究温度对AZ31镁合金反挤压的影响,进行了200、300℃下的反挤压实验.结果表明,随着温度的升高,材料的塑性获得提高,反挤压更容易进行.同时,反挤压表现出变形的不均匀性.200℃下反挤压时,由于动态再结晶行为,晶粒尺寸得到极大的细化;而300℃下反挤压时,晶粒尺寸长大.

  20. Microstructure and tensile properties of magnesium alloy modified by Si/Ca based refiner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Zhi-chao; SUN Yang-shan; WEI Yu; DU Wen-wen; XUE Feng; ZHU Tian-bai

    2005-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of pure magnesium and AZ31 alloy with Ca/Si based refiner addition were investigated. The results indicate that addition of Ca/Si based refiners to pure magnesium and AZ31 alloy results in remarkable microstructure refinement. With proper amount of refiner addition, the grain size in as cast ingots can be one order of magnitude lower than that without refiner addition. Small amount of refiner addition to AZ31 alloy increases both ultimate strength and yield strength significantly, while the ductility of the alloy with refiner addition is similar to that without refiner addition. Addition of refiner improves the deformability of AZ31 alloy and extruded or hot rolled specimens (rods or sheets) with refiner addition exhibit higher surface quality and mechanical properties than those without refiner addition.

  1. Shear bands in magnesium alloy AZ31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平; 毛卫民; 任学平; 唐全波

    2004-01-01

    During deformation of magnesium at low temperatures, cracks always develop at shear bands. The origin of the shear bands is the {101-1} twinning in basal-oriented grains and the mobility of this type of twin boundary is rather low. The most frequent deformation mechanisms in magnesium at low temperature are basal slip and {1012} twinning, all leading to the basal texture and therefore the formation of shear bands with subsequent fracture. The investigation on the influences of initial textures and grain sizes reveals that a strong prismatic initial texture of parallels to TD and fine grains of less than 5 μm can restrict the formation and expansion of shear bands effectively and therefore improve the mechanical properties and formability of magnesium.

  2. Synthesis of dittmarite/Mg(OH){sub 2} composite coating on AZ31 using hydrothermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qing, E-mail: qzhaoyuping@bit.edu.cn; Mahmood, Waqas; Zhu, Yanying

    2016-03-30

    Highlights: • Synthesis of dittmarite Mg(OH){sub 2} coating on AZ31 alloy by hydrothermal method. • The mechanism of composite coating growth and its characterizations. • The coating is corrosion resistant significantly. • Lack of hydroxyl deposition on the coating surface. • Strong adhesion between the coating and the substrate. • The synthesized coating meets the cytotoxicity standards. - Abstract: In this work, we have used hydrothermal method for the synthesis of dittmarite/Mg(OH){sub 2} composite (DMC) layer on AZ31 alloy of magnesium. The synthesized coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). In a test immersion into the Hank's mixture for 31 days, the synthesized coating inhibited corrosion of AZ31 significantly and the amorphous calcium apatite precursor deposited on the coating surface. In another tape test, we noticed strong adhesion between the coating and substrate that eventually concludes that the synthesized coating is hydrophilic and a promising candidate to be used in the absorbable implant materials. Besides, the cytotoxicity of the AZ31 alloy with DMC coating, grown under different conditions on L-929 cells in vitro was examined indirectly through the growth inhibition method (MTT assay). The cytotoxicity of the deposited coating lie between 0 ∼ 1 that indicates it as a promising biomaterial.

  3. Process study and numerical simulation on the three-roller hot rolling of the AZ31 magnesium alloy bar%AZ31镁合金棒材三辊热轧数值模拟与工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李之恒; 郭拉凤; 李彩霞; 陈攀宇

    2015-01-01

    分析了三辊Y型轧机的结构及孔型系统,提出用平三角-圆-弧三角-圆孔型系统连轧机热轧镁合金棒材;利用Deform-3D软件完成AZ31镁合金棒材的轧制过程的数值模拟,确定轧制工艺和模具参数;通过与现场试验的对比分析,验证镁合金棒材热轧的有效性;并在XJP-6A型金相显微镜上对镁合金轧制前后的组织进行比较、分析.结果表明,轧制变形过程中发生了动态再结晶,细化了晶粒尺寸,提高了棒材的力学性能.

  4. On the deformation twinning of Mg AZ31B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdolvand, Hamidreza; Majkut, Marta; Oddershede, Jette

    2015-01-01

    variants was non-negligible. The CPFE simulation indicates that there is a small variation in the stress within each grain in the elastic regime, which increases drastically upon the onset of plasticity. One of the significant outcomes of this work is the new statistical information on the interaction......Crystals with a hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure are inherently anisotropic, and have a limited number of independent slip systems, which leads to strong deformation textures and reduced formability in polycrystalline products. Tension along the c-axis of the crystal ideally activates...... extension twinning as a deformation mode due to the lack of easy-slip systems. In this work, experiments were devised to study extension twinning in a polycrystalline Mg alloy AZ31B with a strong basal rolling texture by tensile deformation parallel to the plate normal. Three-dimensional synchrotron X...

  5. 预处理对AZ31镁合金表面Ni-B化学镀层形貌及性能的影响%Effect of Pretreatment on Microstrueture and Corrosion Resistance of Electroless Ni- B Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫佳; 黄明亮

    2009-01-01

    镁合金Ni-B化学镀层具有高耐蚀性、高硬度、高耐磨性等特点,具有广泛的应用价值,过去对其研究不够.采用化学镀在AZ31变形镁合金表面制备了Ni-B镀层,研究了酸洗、活化、浸锌等基材预处理工艺对Ni-B化学镀层形貌及性能的影响.结果表明:CrO_3+KF酸洗对基材的腐蚀较轻,而采用CrO_3+HNO_3酸洗时基材腐蚀严重;HF和NH_4NF_2+H_3PO_42种活化作用的机理在于形成MgF_2的中间转换层,保护基材不被镀液腐蚀,HF活化后在基材表面形成了较大面积的MgF_2,活化能力更强,对基材的保护能力更好;浸锌工艺对镀层的性能有较大影响,二次浸锌后锌颗粒和锌层厚度都小于一次浸锌,Ni-B镀层更平整致密,硬度和结合力优于一次浸锌,显微硬度为458 HK,明显高于镁合金基材的硬度(77 HK),同时镀层的耐蚀性也有较大的提高.

  6. 热压形变参数对AZ31镁合金接头微观组织和力学性能的影响%Influence of Hot Compression Deformation on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints for AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初雅杰; 李晓泉; 吴申庆; 徐振钦; 杜舜尧

    2014-01-01

    采用与母材同质的焊丝对AZ31镁合金板材进行手工钨极氩弧焊,利用真空热压炉及专门设计的夹装模具对焊接接头分别在250,300,350,400℃,应变速率为0.001s 1进行真空热压试验,通过电子拉伸试验仪、光学显微镜(OM)及扫描电镜(SEM)技术,研究镁合金焊接接头的力学性能和组织演化规律.结果表明:随着热压温度的升高,接头抗拉强度和伸长率不断增大,在350℃时,接头表现出最大的抗拉强度228MPa和伸长率10.2%,400℃时,强度和伸长率有所降低.在该工艺过程中,随着变形温度的升高,接头组织再结晶现象越来越明显,350℃时出现较多的动态再结晶核心和再结晶小晶粒,平均晶粒尺寸由46μm细化至16μm左右,随着温度的升高,动态再结晶晶粒数量逐渐增加,400℃时,晶粒尺寸有所长大,平均晶粒尺寸为26μm,分布较均匀.

  7. In-process tool force and rotation variation to control sheet thickness change in friction stir welding of magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, Gianluca; Fratini, Livan; Simoncini, Michela; Forcellese, Archimede

    2016-10-01

    Two different in-process control strategies, developed in order to produce sound joints in AZ31 magnesium alloy by Friction Stir Welding on sheet blanks with a non-uniform thickness, are presented and compared. To this purpose, sheets with dip or hump were machined and welded by either changing the rotational speed or the tool plunging in order to keep constant the vertical force occurring during welding. The mechanical strength of the joints was measured in the zones where the sheets before welding were characterised by different thicknesses. The sheets welded by the two different strategies are characterized by very similar ultimate tensile strength values. Finally, the results showed that the two approaches permit to successfully weld sheets with non-uniform thickness with a reduced loss in the mechanical strength.

  8. Microscopic Damage Analysis of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet in Thermal Stamping%AZ31镁合金板材温热冲压成形微观损伤分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞泽; 陈章华; 李雨洁; 臧勇

    2013-01-01

    在Gurson损伤模型的基础上,采用有限元数值模拟与温热冲压实验的方法,对镁合金板材的温热冲压成形材料损伤过程进行了预测.采用单轴拉伸试验数据与数值迭代计算,确定了Gurson模型中所需要的材料参数.使用商用有限元软件ABAQUS模拟得到了镁合金板材温热冲压过程中微孔洞的演变及分布规律.研究结果表明,板材中微孔洞的分布与实验数据相吻合.因此,说明所提的方法可以应用于金属板材温热冲压成形性的预测.

  9. 等温循环弯曲对镁合金板材组织及力学性能的影响%Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Processed by Isothermal Repeated Bending Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠堂; 马康; 梁海成

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet was processed by isothermal repeated bending technology (IRBT) at different temperatures. Microstructure and texture as well as properties of magnesium alloy sheet were analyzed. The results indicate that the twinning crystal is the dominant deformation mechanism at 443 K and 483 K, and initial recrystallization grain appears near the twinning boundaries. With deformation temperature of 523 K, initial recrystallization is observed at grain boundaries. For initial magnesium alloy sheet, the elongation is 12. 4% and the texture intensity reaches 9. 8 at room temperature. When magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet was bended 3 passes at 483 K, the elongation reaches 17. 1% and the texture intensity is 5. 75 at room temperature.%对AZ31B镁合金板材在不同温度下进行了不同道次的等温循环弯曲试验,分析了镁合金板材微观组织和宏观织构的变化情况.结果表明,在变形温度为443 K和483 K时,主要由孪晶来协调变形,并且在孪晶带附近产生了最初的再结晶晶粒;在变形温度为523 K时,最初再结晶晶粒产生在晶界处.在变形温度为483 K循环弯曲3个道次的条件下,其室温伸长率达到17.1%,而原始AZ31B镁合金板材的室温伸长率为12.4%.其基面织构最大相对强度由9.80降到了5.75.

  10. Properties of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Round Bars Obtained in Different Rolling Processes / Własności Prętów Okrągłych Ze Stopu Magnezu AZ31 Otrzymanych W Różnych Procesach Walcowania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanik A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently magnesium alloy bars are manufactured mainly in the extrusion process. This method has some drawbacks, which include: low process capacity, considerable energy demand, small length of finished products. Therefore it is purposeful to develop efficient methods for manufacturing of Mg alloy products in the form of bars, such methods include groove rolling and three-high skew rolling processes. Modified stretching passes provide change in material plastic flow, which contributes to the occurrence of the better distribution of stress and strain state than in the case of rolling in classical stretching passes. One of the modern method of Mg alloy bars production is rolling in a three-high skew rolling mill, which allows to set in a single pass a larger deformation compared to the rolling in the stretching passes.

  11. Laser cutting of lightweight alloys sheets with 1μm laser wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintilla, Leonardo Daniele; Tricarico, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    High power fiber laser sources, with a radiation wavelength equal to about 1 μm, offer a great potential in improving the productivity and quality of thin aluminum, magnesium and titanium alloys sheets cutting. This is due to their benefits that are of special interest for this application: power efficiency, beam guidance and beam quality. In this work, an overview regarding the phenomena that for different reasons affect the laser cutting of these materials was given. These phenomena include the formation of a heat affected zone, the chemical contamination, the change of corrosion resistance, the thermal reactivity, the effects of thermal conductivity, reflectivity and viscosity of molten material. The influence of processing parameters on 1 mm thick Al 1050, AZ31 and Ti6Al4V lightweight alloys were experimentally investigated and cutting performances in terms of cut quality, maximum processing speeds and severance energies were evaluated. The advantages of using 1 μm laser wavelength for thin sheets lightweight alloys cutting due to the good cut quality, high productivity and the easily delivery of the beam through the optical fiber, were demonstrated. Results showed that fiber lasers open up new solutions for cutting lightweight alloys for applications like coil sheet cutting, laser blanking, trimming and cutting-welding combination in tailor welded blanks applications.

  12. ECAP变形过程中MWCNTs/AZ31复合材料的织构演变%Texture evolution of MWCNTs/AZ31 composite during ECAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国华; 曾效舒; 余志核; 刘焱; 彭路南

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Walled Carbon Nonotubes (MWCNTs) /AZ31 composite was prepared for severe plastic deformation by means of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) deformation process after hot extrusion. The mechanical proper ties were tested at room temperature. The texture evolution of composites was investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) during ECAP. The results show that the MWCNTs/AZ31 composite has a strong {0001} fiber texture after hot extrusioa The distribution of texture gradually deviates from fiber texture with the increase of ECAP pass num ber, and the texture intensity gradually weakens. The grain size and texture together have an important role on the me chanical properties of MWCNTs/ AZ31 alloy composites at room temperature after ECAP.%采用等径角挤压变形工艺对经热挤压后的MWCNTs/AZ31复合材料进行不同道次的深度塑性变形.测试和分析了复合材料的室温力学性能,并利用X射线衍射仪对复合材料织构的演变进行了分析.研究结果表明:MWCNTs/AZ31复合材料经热挤压后具有较强的{0001}基面纤维织构,随着等径角挤压变形道次的增加,逐渐偏离挤压态的纤维织构分布,并且织构强度也逐渐减弱.MWCNTs/AZ31复合材料的室温力学性能受复合材料晶粒组织大小、织构分布等因素的综合影响.

  13. Analysis of the Deformability of Two-Layer Materials AZ31/Eutectic / Analiza Możliwości Odkształcania Plastycznego Materiału Dwuwarstwowego AZ31/Eutektyka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mola R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the results of physical simulation of the deformation of the two-layered AZ31/eutectic material using the Gleeble 3800 metallurgical processes simulator. The eutectic layer was produced on the AZ31 substrate using thermochemical treatment. The specimens of AZ31 alloy were heat treated in contact with aluminium powder at 445°C in a vacuum furnace. Depending on the heating time, Al-enriched surface layers with a thickness of 400, 700 and 1100 μm were fabricated on a substrate which was characterized by an eutectic structure composed of the Mg17Al12 phase and a solid solution of aluminium in magnesium. In the study, physical simulation of the fabricated two-layered specimens with a varying thickness of the eutectic layer were deformed using the plane strain compression test at various values of strain rates. The testing results have revealed that it is possible to deform the two-layered AZ31/eutectic material at low strain rates and small deformation values.

  14. Drawability Studies of Magnesium Alloy Sheets at Elevated Temperature / Badania Tłoczności Blach Ze Stopów Magnezu W Podwyższonej Temperaturze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyrcza-Michalska M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of drawability of thin AZ31 magnesium alloy metal sheets. These studies are a continuation of experiences in presenting the characteristics of technological plasticity of strips made of magnesium alloy which have been cast between rolls in vertical and horizontal systems called ‘twin-roll casting’. In the context of previous experiments conducted at the Institute of Material Technology of the Silesian University of Technology in cooperation with the Technical University - Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany, drawability of these strips at elevated temperatures has been comprehensively defined while using forming limit curves. Due to low formability of magnesium alloys at ambient temperature, formability tests - including cup forming tests presented in this paper - have been carried out in heated dies at temperature range of 200°C to 350°C. A modern AutoGrid digital local strain analyzer has been used in the examinations and the method of image analysis of deformed coordination nets has been applied. Quantitative and qualitative impact of deformation temperature upon the drawability effects of AZ31 magnesium alloys products have been evaluated.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-extruded AZ31 powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, K.; Hatsuakno, K.; Hanada, K.; Shimizu, T. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial and Science Technology(AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Sano, T. [Chiba Inst. of Tech., Narashino (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    AZ31 alloy powder was prepared by gas-atomization and consolidated into a round bar by hot extrusion at temperatures of 573 K and 623 K with extrusion ratios of 1:10 and 1:20. The extruded AZ31 alloy powders consist of fine grain with an average grain size of 10 {mu} m and show a high tensile strength of 340 MPa with an elongation of about 18% at room temperature. The compression test at elevated temperatures reveals that the sample extruded with extrusion ratio of 1:20 was easily deformed to a forming degree of 0.6 without fracture at temperatures above 423 K and have a good formability. On the contrast, the extruded sample with an extrusion ratio of 1:10 shows cracks after deformation. The extrusion ratio plays an important role on the formability. It is said that the powder metallurgical processing is useful to produce a high strength Mg alloys with a good formability at temperatures above 423 K. (orig.)

  16. 基于Gurson模型的镁合金板材温热冲压成形研究%Thermal stamping formability of magnesium alloy sheet based on the Gurson model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞泽; 陈章华; 臧勇

    2014-01-01

    在Gurson损伤模型的基础上,采用有限元数值模拟与温热冲压实验相结合的方法,对镁合金板材温热冲压成形过程中的材料损伤过程进行了预测。考虑了板材的塑性各向异性行为,通过用户自定义材料子程序VUMAT将损伤模型嵌入到有限元软件ABAQUS/Explicit中。采用单轴拉伸试验数据与有限元数值模拟结果进行迭代,确定了Gurson模型所需要的材料参数。使用ABAQUS模拟得到了镁合金板材温热冲压过程中微孔洞的演变及分布规律。通过扫描电子显微镜,对不同温度下的AZ31镁合金板材由孔洞增长和聚合引起的内部损伤演化进行了观察分析。研究结果表明,板材中微孔洞的分布与实验数据相吻合,说明本文所提出的方法可以应用于金属板材温热冲压成形性能预测。%Based on the Gurson damage model, the thermal stamping formability of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet was predicted by employing finite element simulation and thermal stamping test. Taking the plastic anisotropic behavior of the AZ31 sheet into account, the Gurson damage model was implemented in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS/Explicit by using the user material sub-routine VUMAT. Parameters employed in the Gurson damage model were determined through uniaxial tensile test and numerical itera-tive computation. The evolvement and distribution of micro voids in the AZ31 sheet during thermal stamping were simulated by using ABAQUS. The internal damage evolution due to micro void growth and coalescence developed at different temperatures in the AZ31 sheet was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The predicted micro void distribution agrees well with experimental data. There-fore, this result indicates that the presented approach can be employed to predict the thermal stamping formability of metal sheet.

  17. Sirolimus-eluting dextran and polyglutamic acid hybrid coatings on AZ31 for stent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based cardiovascular stents are promising candidate as the next generation of novel stents. Clinical studies have revealed encouraging outcomes, but late restenosis and thrombogenesis still largely exist. Blood and vascular biocompatible coatings with drug-eluting features could be the solution to such problems. Objective This study was to investigate the feasibility of a three-layer hybrid coating on Mg alloy AZ31 with sirolimus-eluting feature for cardiovascular stent application. Materials and methods The first and third layers were low molecular weight dextran loaded with sirolimus, and the second layer was polyglutamic acid (PGA) to control sirolimus release. The hybrid coating was verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). DC polarization and immersion tests were used to evaluate corrosion rate of the materials. Indirect cell viability and cell proliferation tests were performed by culturing cells with extract solutions of AZ31 samples. Blood compatibility was assessed using hemolysis assay. Results Coated samples had an enhanced corrosion resistance than that of uncoated controls, more PGA slower corrosion. Sirolimus had a burst release for the initial ~3 days and then a slower release until reached a plateau. The PGA thickness was able to control the sirolimus release, the thicker of PGA the slower release. The overall cell viability was extract concentration-dependent, and improved by the hybrid coatings. Cell proliferation was correlated to coating thickness and was inhibited by sirolimus. In addition, all coated AZ31 samples were non-hemolytic. Conclusion Results demonstrated that such a three-layer hybrid coating may be useful to improve the vascular biocompatibility of Mg stent materials. PMID:26202889

  18. Synthesize of AZ31/TiC magnesium matrix composites using friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balakrishnan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir processing (FSP is a novel solid state technique to synthesize metal matrix composites. In the present work, an attempt has been made to synthesize AZ31/TiC magnesium matrix composites using FSP and to analyze the microstructure using scanning electron microscopy. A groove was prepared on 6 mm thick AZ31 magnesium alloy plates and compacted with TiC particles. The width of the groove was varied to result in four different volume fraction of TiC particles (0, 6, 12 and 18 vol.%. A single pass FSP was carried out using a tool rotational speed of 1200 rpm, traverse speed of 40 mm/min and an axial force of 10 kN. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to study the microstructure of the synthesized composites. The results indicated that TiC particles were distributed uniformly in the magnesium matrix without the formation of clusters. There was no interfacial reaction between the magnesium matrix and the TiC particle. TiC particles were properly bonded to the magnesium matrix.

  19. Investigation of the chemical vicinity of defects in Mg and AZ31 with positron coincident Doppler boarding spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Martin

    2008-03-10

    Within the scope of the present work, two main goals have been achieved: Firstly, the coincident Doppler broadening spectrometer (CDBS) at the high intense positron source NEPOMUC has been elaborately improved in order to increase the spatial resolution for defect mapping measurements and to investigate samples with shallow positron trapping sites which are present e. g. in magnesium. Secondly, as an application, the chemical vicinity of defects in the industrially used magnesium based alloy AZ31 has been examined by means of the detailed investigation of ion-irradiated specimen with positron annihilation spectroscopy. Detailed simulations with the finite-element simulation tool COMSOL were used to optimize the focal diameter of the positron beam at the sample position in order to increase the spatial resolution. With a value of 0.3 mm, sub-mm resolution has now been reached. The CDBS has been furthermore equipped with a sample cooling unit in order to reach liquid nitrogen temperature, maintaining the feature of scanning the sample for defect mapping. Defects and their chemical surrounding in ion irradiated magnesium and the magnesium based alloy AZ31 were then investigated on an atomic scale with the CDBS. In the respective spectra the chemical information and the defect contribution have been thoroughly separated. For this purpose, samples of annealed Mg were irradiated with Mg-ions in order to create exclusively defects. In addition Al- and Zn-ion irradiations on Mg-samples were performed in order to create samples with both defects and impurity atoms. The ion irradiated area on the samples was investigated with laterally and depth resolved positron Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) and compared with SRIM-simulations of the vacancy distribution. The investigation of the chemical vicinity of crystal defects in AZ31 was performed with CDBS on Mg-ion irradiated AZ31 with Mg-ion irradiated Mg. The outer tail of the energy distribution in the annihilation

  20. Comportamiento frente a la corrosión y biocompatibilidad in vitro/in vivo de la aleación AZ31 modificada superficialmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, M. L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluates the corrosion behaviour and the in vitro/in vivo biocompatibility of the AZ31 magnesium alloy, which fulfills the mechanical requirements of bone. The corrosion kinetic of as-received AZ31 alloy was not compatible with the cell growth. To improve its performance, the AZ31 alloy was surface modified by a chemical conversion treatment in hydrofluoric acid. The magnesium fluoride layer generated by the surface treatment of AZ31 alloy enhances its corrosion behaviour, allowing the in vitro growth of osteoblastic cells over the surface and the in vivo formation of a highly compact layer of new bone tissue. These results lead to consider the magnesium fluoride coating as necessary for potential use of the AZ31 alloy as biodegradable and absorbable implant for bone repair.En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado el comportamiento frente a la corrosión y la biocompatibilidad in vitro/in vivo de la aleación de magnesio AZ31, cuyas propiedades mecánicas son superiores a los requisitos mecánicos del hueso. La aleación en estado de recepción ha mostrado una cinética de corrosión no compatible con el crecimiento celular. Para mejorar su comportamiento, el material ha sido modificado superficialmente mediante tratamiento de conversión química en ácido fluorhídrico. La capa de fluoruro de magnesio generada tras este tratamiento mejora el comportamiento del material frente a la corrosión, permitiendo el crecimiento in vitro de células osteoblásticas sobre su superficie y la formación in vivo de una capa de nuevo tejido óseo muy compacta. Estos resultados permiten concluir que el recubrimiento de fluoruro de magnesio es necesario para que el material AZ31 pueda ser potencialmente aplicado como implante biodegradable y reabsorbible en reparaciones óseas.

  1. Ratcheting and Low-Cycle Fatigue Characteristics of AZ31B Under Corrosive Environment%AZ31B在腐蚀环境下的棘轮与低周疲劳性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 鲁灵涛; 崔云; 邢睿思; 高红; 陈旭

    2016-01-01

    开发了适用于镁合金圆棒试样的在线腐蚀疲劳系统,通过在空气和磷酸盐缓冲液(PBS)中分别进行循环疲劳试验,研究了腐蚀环境对 AZ31B 棘轮和低周疲劳性能的影响。结果表明:在棘轮应变演化的3个阶段中,腐蚀环境下试样在瞬态阶段和稳态阶段的棘轮应变率与空气中的相似;镁合金的腐蚀速率和棘轮应变随应力幅值和平均应力的增大而增大,孪晶、退孪晶的出现使得试样对腐蚀环境的敏感性进一步增加;在腐蚀环境中,镁合金的疲劳寿命大幅缩减,与空气中的试验相比,寿命缩减率达到50%,~90%,;为了能够反映平均应力、应力幅值、腐蚀环境以及最大压应力对 AZ31B 的低周疲劳寿命的复杂影响,采用 FP 参数模型对 AZ31B 进行了寿命预测。基于修正的FP参数模型,较好地预测了AZ31B在腐蚀环境下的低周疲劳寿命。%An on-line corrosion fatigue testing system for Mg alloy round bar specimens was developed. Through performing cyclic fatigue tests under the environments with and without phosphate buffer solution(PBS), the ratchet-ing and low-cycle fatigue properties of an as-extruded AZ31B alloy were investigated. Results show that in the three stages of ratcheting strain evolution, the ratcheting strain rates of specimens testedin air and corrosive environment were similar at the transient and steady stages. Corrosion rate and ratcheting strain of Mg alloy increased with the stress amplitude and mean stress. The occurrence of twining and de-twining further increased the sensitivity to the corrosive environment. The fatigue life of the Mg alloy in corrosive environment was significantly shorter than that in air and its reduction ratio of fatigue life to that in air could vary from 50% to 90%. Toreflect the effects of mean stress, stress amplitude, corrosion environment and maximum compressive stress on the fatigue behavior, a FP parameter model

  2. Evaluation of the AZ31 cyclic elastic-plastic behaviour under multiaxial loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Components and structures are designed based in their material’s mechanical properties such as Young's modulus or yield stress among others. Often those properties are obtained under monotonic mechanical tests but rarely under cyclic ones. It is assumed that those properties are maintained during the material fatigue life. However, under cyclic loadings, materials tend to change their mechanical properties, which can improve their strength (material hardening or degrade their mechanical capabilities (material softening or even a mix of both. This type of material behaviour is the so-called cyclic plasticity that is dependent of several factors such as the load type, load level, and microstructure. This subject is of most importance in design of structures and components against fatigue failures in particular in the case of magnesium alloys. Magnesium alloys due to their hexagonal compact microstructure have only 3 slip planes plus 1 twining plane which results in a peculiar mechanical behaviour under cyclic loading conditions especially under multiaxial loadings. Therefore, it is necessary to have a cyclic elastic-plastic model that allows estimating the material mechanical properties for a certain stress level and loading type. In this paper it is discussed several aspects of the magnesium alloys cyclic properties under uniaxial and multiaxial loading conditions at several stress levels taking into account experimental data. A series of fatigue tests under strain control were performed in hour glass specimens test made of a magnesium alloy, AZ31BF. The strain/stress relation for uniaxial loadings, axial and shear was experimentally obtained and compared with the estimations obtained from the theoretical elastic-plastic models found in the state-of-the-art. Results show that the AZ31BF magnesium alloy has a peculiar mechanical behaviour, which is quite different from the steel one. Moreover, the state of the art cyclic models do not capture in

  3. Microstructural stability after severe plastic deformation of AZ31 Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. P.; Askari, H.; Hovanski, Y.; Heiden, M. J.; Field, D. P.

    2014-08-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) were used to modify the microstructure of twin roll cast (TRC) AZ31 magnesium. The influence of these processes on the microstructural properties of the material was investigated. It was found that both processes produced microstructures with an average grain size of less than 10 pm, suggesting that they have the potential for superplastic deformation. Heat treatments were performed on the TRC, ECAP and FSP materials to assess their microstructural stability. Both the ECAP and TRC material were found to be fairly stable, showing normal grain growth while the FSP material grew substantially at temperatures above 200°C. The activation energy of grain boundary motion of the TRC material was calculated to be 167 kJ/mol.

  4. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure of hot extruded AZ31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzwonczyk, J.; Bohlen, J.; Hort, N.; Kainer, K.U. [Inst. for Materials Research, Center for Magnesium Technology, GKSS Research Center (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In the last years magnesium alloys have been increasingly considered as attractive materials for the transportation industry. Extruded magnesium alloys have been found in the centre of interest combining their lightweight, surface quality with the wide range of possible achievable geometries. In the present study the alloy AZ31 has been chosen for investigation as one of the most common commercial magnesium wrought alloys. Round bars have been obtained through hot direct extrusion. After primary microstructural characterisation and mechanical testing in the as-extruded condition the specimens have been subjected to heat treatment consisting of different times (1, 2 and 4 hours) at different temperatures (200 C, 300 C, 400 C and 500 C) followed by cooling in air. Subsequently the specimens have been subjected to microstructural characterisation using light optical microscopy. Average grain size and grain size distribution have been determined using dedicated software. The microstructural analysis has been supported by microhardness testing on selected specimens. Additionally, the specimens have been subjected to tensile tests at room temperature applying a deformation rate of 1.3 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} as used for the material in as-extruded conditions. The obtained results have shown that heat treatment has no substantial influence on the microstructure characteristics of AZ31 up to 400 C. However, specimens treated at 500 C for one hour revealed a course grain, homogeneous structure with a substantial increase in grain size from 8 {mu}m in as-extruded condition to 18 {mu}m. This change in microstructure slightly reduced the strain-hardening exponent from 0.2 to 0.16. The remaining mechanical properties did not vary extensively when compared to the untreated, as-extruded material. It is assumed that the average grain size and grain size distribution have been influenced by complex thermomechanical treatments, which occurred during extrusion process as well as

  5. FORMABILITY OF THIN SHEETS FROM ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Spišák

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution there have been evaluated properties of four types of sheets made from aluminium alloys. In the case of each of the examined sheets there has been checked its shearing ability via the influence of punch-die clearance change on the quality of blanking edge. Quality of blanking edge is characterized by a ratio of plastic zone height to the total thickness of the sheared material. Formability during the drawing process was measured with earring test. Results are presented by the earring coefficient (unequal height of the cups.

  6. Improvement of wear resistance of AZ31 and AZ91HP by high current pulsed electron beam treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Bo; HAO Sheng-zhi; DONG Chuang; TU Gan-feng

    2005-01-01

    The surface modification of magnesium alloys (AZ31 and AZ91HP) was studied by a high current pulsed electron beam(HCPEB). The results show that the cross-sectional microhardness of treated samples increases not only in the heat affected zone(HAZ), but also beyond HAZ, reaching over 250 μm. This is due to the action of quasi-static thermal stress and the shock thermal stress wave with materials, which result in its fast deformation on the surface layer and so increases microhardness. For the AZ91HP alloy, a nearly complete dissolution of the intermetallic phase Mg17Al12 is observed, and a super-saturated solid solution forms on the re-melted surface, which is due to the solute trapping effect during the fast solidification process. Measurements on sliding wear show that wear resistance is improved by approximately 5.6 and 2.4 times for the AZ31 and AZ91HP respectively, as compared with as-received samples.

  7. Research progress of aluminum alloy automotive sheet and application technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; You Jianghai; Lu Hongzhou; Wang Zhiwen

    2012-01-01

    Pretrcatment technology is deeply discussed to explain its importance in guaranteeing properties and form- ability of aluminum alloy automotive sheet. Some typical applications of aluminum alloy automotive sheet to automotive industry are listed. Based on the author's knowledge and recognition and research progress presently, the important re- search contents about aluminum alloy automotive sheet are emphasized. Reducing cost and price of sheet and going deeply into application research are the main work for expending the application of aluminum alloy automotive sheet in the automobile.

  8. Controlling microstructure and texture in magnesium alloy sheet by shear-based deformation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagapuram, Dinakar

    Application of lightweight Mg sheet is limited by its low workability, both in production of sheet (typically by multistep hot and cold-rolling) and forming of sheet into components. Large strain extrusion machining (LSEM), a constrained chip formation process, is used to create Mg alloy AZ31B sheet in a single deformation step. The deformation in LSEM is shown to be intense simple shear that is confined to a narrow zone, which results in significant deformation-induced heating up to ~ 200°C and reduces the need for pre-heating to realize continuous sheet forms. This study focuses on the texture and microstructure development in the sheet processed by LSEM. Interestingly, deep, highly twinned steady-state layer develops in the workpiece subsurface due to the compressive field ahead of the shear zone. The shear deformation, in conjunction with this pre-deformed twinned layer, results in tilted-basal textures in the sheet with basal planes tilted well away from the surface. These textures are significantly different from those in rolled sheet, where basal planes are nearly parallel to the surface. By controlling the strain path, the basal plane inclination from the surface could be varied in the range of 32-53°. B-fiber (basal plane parallel to LSEM shear plane), associated with basal slip, is the major texture component in the sheet. An additional minor C2-fiber component appears above 250°C due to the thermal activation of pyramidal slip. Together with these textures, microstructure ranges from severely cold-worked to (dynamically) recrystallized type, with the corresponding grain sizes varying from ultrafine- (~ 200 nm) to fine- (2 mum) grained. Small-scale limiting dome height (LDH) confirmed enhanced formability (~ 50% increase in LDH) of LSEM sheet over the conventional rolled sheet. Premature, twinning-driven shear fractures are observed in the rolled sheet with the basal texture. In contrast, LSEM sheet with a tilted-basal texture favorably oriented for

  9. The cold-rolling behaviour of AZ31 tubes for fabrication of biodegradable stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaowu; Kent, Damon; Wang, Gui; StJohn, David; Dargusch, Matthew S

    2014-11-01

    Mg alloys are receiving considerable attention for biomedical stents due to their combination of good mechanical properties and high biodegradability. Cold rolling is necessary to process Mg alloy tubes before final drawing and fabrication of the magnesium stents. In this paper, cold-rolled tubes were subjected to a cross-sectional reduction rate (ε) of up to 19.7%, and were further processed at various ratios of wall-thickness to diameter reduction (Q) from 0 to 2.24 with a constant ε of 19.7%. The results show that the cold-rolled tubes exhibited a rise in ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and a reduction in elongation as ε increased from 5.5% to 19.7%. UTS, YS and elongation decreased when Q was increased from 0 to 2.24. Mechanical twinning was observed and analysed. Extension twins increased with increasing ε and were almost saturated at a ε of 16.5%. Extension twins play an important role in determining the evolution of mechanical behaviour in the case of increasing ε, whilst contraction/double twins and secondary extension twins have a large effect on mechanical behaviour in the case of varying Q. The results indicate that the proportions and types of twins play a major role in determining the mechanical behaviour of the AZ31 tubes.

  10. Fibre Laser Cutting and Chemical Etching of AZ31 for Manufacturing Biodegradable Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gökhan Demir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium-alloy stents shows promise as a less intrusive solution for the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies as a result of the high biocompatibility of the material and its intrinsic dissolution in body fluids. However, in addition to requiring innovative solutions in material choice and design, these stents also require a greater understanding of the manufacturing process to achieve the desired quality with improved productivity. The present study demonstrates the manufacturing steps for the realisation of biodegradable stents in AZ31 magnesium alloy. These steps include laser microcutting with a Q-switched fibre laser for the generation of the stent mesh and subsequent chemical etching for the cleaning of kerf and surface finish. Specifically, for the laser microcutting step, inert and reactive gas cutting conditions were compared. The effect of chemical etching on the reduction in material thickness, as well as on spatter removal, was also evaluated. Prototype stents were produced, and the material composition and surface quality were characterised. The potentialities of combining nanosecond laser microcutting and chemical etching are shown and discussed.

  11. AZ31和AZ91镁合金等温挤压及挤压后的微观组织变化%The isothermal extrusion and the microstructure evolution after extrusion of AZ31 and AZ91 magnesium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪波; 吕玫; 马文昌

    2011-01-01

    The extrusion property and microstructure evolution of AZ31 and AZ91 magnesium alloy under different deformation conditions were studied in isothermal extrusion process and through metallographic examination. The results show that the form-ing quality of AZ31 magnesium alloy is better than AZ91 magnesium alloy. For AZ91, the cracks would appear on the specimen surface at extrusion ratio 4:1, extrusion temperature 400℃, and at extrusion ratio 9 :1, extrusion temperature 350℃ and 400℃. The best forming temperature for AZ31 is 300℃~400℃, for AZ91 is 300℃~350℃. Dynamic recrystallization occurred in the hot extrusion process of the magnesium alloy, the grain of extruded samples were significantly refined.%通过等温挤压和金相观察,研究了AZ31和AZ91镁合金不同变形条件下的挤压性能和变形后的微观组织变化.结果表明,AZ31镁合金的挤压变形性能较好,而AZ91镁合金在挤压比为4∶1、挤压温度为400℃,以及在挤压比为9∶1、挤压温度为350℃和400℃时,挤压后的试件表面均出现了裂纹;AZ31镁合金的最佳成形温度为300℃~400℃,AZ91镁合金的最佳成形温度为300℃~350℃;镁合金在热挤压过程中发生了动态再结晶,挤压之后合金的晶粒显著细化.

  12. Study on the Structure and Corrosion Resistance of Phosphoric Conversion Coatings on AZ31 Magnesium by Applying Magnetic Field%外加磁场下AZ31镁合金磷化膜结构及耐蚀性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亮; 赵明; 高福勇

    2011-01-01

    为了获得优良的AZ31镁合金磷化膜,采用外加磁场作用于镁合金的磷化过程.利用SEM,AFM,XRD和电化学工作站等仪器,研究转化膜的表面形貌、结构及耐蚀性.研究结果表明:磁场方向垂直于镁合金样品情况下显著促进AZ31镁合金转化膜的形成,转化膜主要由晶态Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O与A1PO4和非晶态Mn化合物组成,外加磁场作用于磷化过程能获得高耐蚀性的致密转化膜.%In order to obtain excellent phosphate conversion coatings on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy, a novel phosphate process for magnesium alloy by applying magnetic field was developed. The surface morphology, structure and corrosion resistance of conversion coating were studied by SEM, AFM, XRD and Electrochemistry workstation. The results show conversion coatings of AZ31 magnesium alloy can be further formed when the direction of magnetic field is vertical to the surface of magnesium alloy. Conversion coatings are mainly made up of crystal Zn3(PO4)2 ? 4H2O and AlPO4 and non-crystal Mn compounds. We can obtain the dense conversion coatings by applying magnetic fields in the phosphate process.

  13. Formation and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Coating on the Surface of AZ31%AZ31镁合金表面羟基磷灰石涂层的制备和表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    以氢氧化钙和磷酸二氢钙为前驱物,在AZ31镁合金表面通过溶胶凝胶法制备了羟基磷灰石涂层。利用X射线粉末衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM )对涂层的物相组成、表面形貌、截面进行了分析表征,利用电化学工作站测试了该涂层在生理盐水中的动电位极化曲线和电化学阻抗谱,并对涂层在 Hank’s模拟体液中的析氢量和浸泡腐蚀形貌进行了表征。结果表明,溶胶凝胶法制备的羟基磷灰石涂层纯度较高,结晶性良好,涂层厚度在8μm左右;动电位极化曲线结果显示,该涂层的腐蚀电流密度为1.4864×10-2 mA/cm2,与空白镁合金的腐蚀电流密度相比降低了5倍左右。析氢试验及其浸泡腐蚀形貌进一步说明羟基磷灰石涂层能有效地保护镁合金基体。%In this paper ,Ca(OH)2 and Ca(H2 PO4 )2 ・H2 O were used as raw materials to pre‐pare a hydroxyapatite coating on the surface of AZ 31 magnesium alloy using a sol‐gel technique . Phase analysis ,surface morphology study ,and cross‐section and microstructure characterization of the hydroxyapatite coating were conducted .Potentiodynamic polarization curves and electro‐chemical impedance spectra were obtainod using electrochemical workstation .Hydrogen evolution rates and corrosion morphologies of the coating immersed in Hank ’s solution were also presen‐ted .T he results indicate that the thickness of hydroxyapatite coating is approximately 8 μm and the corrosion current density of hydroxyapatite coating is 1.486 4 × 10 -2 mA/cm2 ,which is 5 times lower than that of bare AZ31 magnesium alloy .Hydrogen evolution tests and immersion corrosion morphologies further illustrate that hydroxyapatite coating can slow dow n the rate of biodegradation of AZ31 magnesium alloy effectively .

  14. Grain Refinement and Deformation Mechanisms in Room Temperature Severe Plastic Deformed Mg-AZ31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Schultz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Ti-AZ31 composite was severely plastically deformed by rotary swaging at room temperature up to a logarithmic deformation strain of 2.98. A value far beyond the forming limit of pure AZ31 when being equivalently deformed. It is observed, that the microstructure evolution in Mg-AZ31 is strongly influenced by twinning. At low strains the {̅1011} (10̅12 and the {̅1012} (10̅11 twin systems lead to fragmentation of the initial grains. Inside the primary twins, grain refinement takes place by dynamic recrystallization, dynamic recovery and twinning. These mechanisms lead to a final grain size of ≈1 μm, while a strong centered ring fibre texture is evolved.

  15. Propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AZ31 procesada por una ruta eco-sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Errico, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has been proved that molding of defect-free components of various commercial alloys of magnesium can be carried out succesfully when small amounts of CaO are added to the melt, making unnecessary the use of SF6 coverage. In the case of AZ alloys, this process also remarkably improves their mechanical properties not only by the greater cleaning of alloys but also by the formation of CaAl2 phase. This work, part of the Green project Metallurgy (http://www.green-metallurgy.eu funded by the European Union (LIFE+2009, studies the influence of different CaO additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 Eco-Mg alloy. The alloy was processed by a conventional route involving extrusion of as-cast rods as well as by a powder metallurgy route (PM using chips as starting material. The objective was to analyze the viability of recycling machining chips to manufacture components for the automobile industry and transportation in general, because of its low cost and environmental impact. It has been demostrated that alloys processed from chips exhibit the highest tensile stress values, close to 320 MPa.Recientemente se ha demostrado la posibilidad de fabricar por moldeo, componentes libres de defectos de diferentes aleaciones comerciales de magnesio, añadiendo CaO al caldo, sin emplear SF6. En el caso de las aleaciones AZ este proceso, además, mejora notablemente las propiedades mecánicas, no sólo por la mayor limpieza de las aleaciones sino también por la presencia de la fase CaAl2 que se forma por la incorporación de calcio al caldo. Este trabajo, enmarcado dentro del proyecto Green Metallurgy (http://www.green-metallurgy.eu financiado por la Unión Europea (Programa LIFE+2009, estudia la influencia de diferentes adiciones de CaO en la microestructura y propiedades mecánicas de la aleación Eco-Mg AZ31. El estudio se lleva a cabo en aleaciones AZ31 con 0,5, 1 y 1,5% CaO procesadas por dos rutas diferentes, aleaciones

  16. Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

  17. Multifunctional Ultra-Light Mg-Li Alloy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    from cyclic voltametry studies. Scans were done starting at open circuit potential and going to 0.01 V vs Li at scan rates of 0.5 mV/s, 0.1 mV/s, and...The two deintercalation peaks observed for the cyclic voltametry (Fig. 16) could be due to the presence of Al in the AZ31 alloy sheets (3 wt...surface oxide film with a razor inside an argon glovebox. 11 Fig. 15. Cyclic voltammetry of magnesium sheet at 60 ºC at scan rates of 0.5 mV

  18. The Brittleness Of Zn-Cu-Ti Sheet Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boczkal G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available At temperatures below 5°C, the ductility of ZnCuTi alloy sheets is observed to suffer a drastic drop in direction transverse to the rolling direction. Studies have shown that the critical temperature at which this phenomenon occurs is strongly dependent on the alloy structure and parameters of the sheet metal production process. Quite important is also the role of micro-inhomogeneity arising in the chemical composition of the alloy matrix, directly related with the structure of intermetallic precipitates containing Cu and Ti.

  19. Optimization of Heated Tensile Process for Magnesium Alloy Sheet Based on Orthogonal Experiment-artificial Neural Network Model%基于正交试验-人工神经网络模型的镁合金薄板加热拉伸工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 陈丰; 夏显明

    2011-01-01

    设计了正交试验表,在万能试验机上对AZ31镁合金试样进行了在线加热拉伸试验,对正交试验结果进行了极差分析和方差分析,并且通过人工神经网络模型优化,得到了AZ31镁合金薄板的最佳拉伸工艺参数,即拉伸温度300℃,拉伸速度10 mm/min,变形量20%.该结论为指导AZ31镁合金薄壁拉伸件的生产提供了理论依据.%Orthogonal experiment table for AZ31 alloy was designed. Online heating tensile tests were carried out using universal testing machine. Range analysis and variance analysis of orthogonal experimental results were carried out. The process was optimized by artificial neural network model. The best tensile process parameters for AZ31 alloy are achieved, that is, tensile temperature is 300℃, tensile speed is 10 mm/min, deformation is 20%. The theoretical basis is provided for thin-walled tensile parts production of AZ31 alloy.

  20. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Muhammad, E-mail: rashadphy87@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing, Chongqing 401123 (China); Zhang, Jianyue [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Asif, Muhammad [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  1. Springback analysis on AA 6061 aluminum alloy sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramulu, Perumalla Janaki; Rao, P. Srinivasa; Yimer, Wassihun

    2016-10-01

    In automotive industry, sheet metal forming process play a key role with respect to economy and weight reduction ratio. In sheet metal forming, one of the operations is bending operation in which sheet will not go under sever deformation. The end components are made by applying the continuous load on the sheet in the bending process. In bending process, elastic limits of materials are exceeded, but flow limit thereof cannot be exceeded. Therefore, the material still keeps a portion of its original flexibility character. When the load is released, the material on forcing compress side tries to enlarge, whereas the material on tensile side tries to shrink. As a result, the material tries to spring back and the bended material by flexing slightly tries to open. Springback varies according to thickness of the material, material and process parameters, type of material, period when punch load stays on the material, dimensions of die, force applied, and bending radius. In order to make bending at a desired angle, springback amounts should be avoided. In the present work, experimentation on AA 6061 alloy sheet springback analysis has done with seven different rolling directions. Results are noted with respect to load, displacement, and die angle on the springback effect. It observed that springback affect is existed notably in the AA 6061 alloys with respect to die angle.

  2. Subsequent yield loci of 5754O aluminum alloy sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-bo; WAN Min; WU Xiang-dong; YAN Yu

    2009-01-01

    Complex loading paths were realized with cruciform specimens and biaxial loading testing machine. Experimental method for determining the subsequent yield locus of sheet metal was established. With this method, the subsequent yield loci of 5754O aluminum alloy sheet were obtained under complex loading paths. Theoretical subsequent yield loci based on Yld2000-2d yield criterion and three kinds of hardening modes were calculated and compared with the experimental results. The results show that the theoretical subsequent yield loci based on mixed hardening mode describe the experimental subsequent yield loci well, whereas isotropic hardening mode, which is widely used in sheet metal forming fields, predicts values larger than the experimental results. Kinematic hardening mode predicts values smaller than the experimental results and its errors are the largest.

  3. In-plane anisotropy of 1545 aluminum alloy sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yong-yi; YIN Zhi-min; YANG Jin; DU Yu-xuan

    2005-01-01

    The microstructures and the tensile mechanical properties in the rolling plane of 1545 aluminum alloy sheet at different orientations with respect to the rolling direction were studied by means of tensile test,X-ray diffractometer(XRD),optical microscope and transmission electron microscope.The in-plane anisotropy of tensile mechanical properties was calculated and the inverse pole figures of the rolling plane,transversal section and longitudinal section were obtained by Harris method.The results show that the 1545 Al alloy sheet has remarkable in-plane anisotropy of mechanical properties and the main texture component is{110}texture.On the basis of the model that regards the sheet containing only{110}texture as a monocrystal,the relationship of in-plane anisotropy and the anisotropy of crystallography was analyzed.The study shows that it is the combined effects of the anisotropy of crystallography and microstructures that cause the in-plane anisotropy of mechanical properties,but the main cause is the crystallographic texture.

  4. Air cushion furnace technology for heat treatment of high quality aluminum alloy auto body sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Zhaodong; Ma Mingtu; Wang Guodong; Fu Tianliang; Li Jiadong; Liang Xiong

    2014-01-01

    The process characteristics of heat treatment of aluminum alloy auto body sheet and the working prin-ciple of air cushion furnace were introduced. The process position and irreplaceable role of air cushion furnace in the aluminum alloy auto body sheet production was pointed out after the difficulty and key points in the whole production process of auto body sheet were studied. Then the development process of air cushion furnace line of aluminum alloy sheet was reviewed,summarized and divided to two stages. Based on the research of air cushion furnace,the key technology of it was analyzed,then the key points on process,equipment and control models of air cushion furnace for aluminum alloy auto body sheet in future were put forward. With the rapid de-velopment of automotive industry,there will be certainly a new upsurge of research and application of air cush-ion furnace for heat treatment of aluminum alloy auto body sheet.

  5. Parameter prediction in laser bending of aluminum alloy sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuyue WANG; Weixing XU; Hua CHEN; Jinsong WANG

    2008-01-01

    Based on the basic platform of BP neural net-works, a BP network model is established to predict the bending angle in the laser bending process of an aluminum alloy sheet (1-2 mm in thickness) and to optimize laser bending parameters for bending control. The sample experimental data is used to train the BP network. The nonlinear regularities of sample data are fitted through the trained BP network; the predicted results include laser bending angles and parameters. Experimental results indi-cate that the prediction allowance is controlled less than 5%-8% and can provide a theoretical and experimental basis for industry purpose.

  6. Effect of Pre-treatment on the Microstructural Homogeneity and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Sheets Produced by High Strain Rate Rolling%预处理对高应变速率轧制镁合金板材组织均匀性和力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严红革; 田津; 朱素琴; 陈吉华; 苏斌; 吴远志

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium sheets prepared by traditional plastic processing technologies always exhibit undesirable mechanical properties, which is inefficient and costly for commercial application. High strain rate rolling (HSRR) was operated on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the HSRRed sheets pre-treated in two different ways were investigated. The results indicated that HSRR was an effective method to produce magnesium alloy sheets characteristic of fine grains and high comprehensive mechanical properties. The pre-strain plus homogenization pre-treatment could significantly improve the microstructural homogeneity of the high strain rate rolled sheet, in which the fine grains were distributed very homogeneously and the average grain size was 2. 3 μm. The ductility of the sheet was enhanced due to the improved microstructural homogeneity, and the elongation at room temperature was up to 28%.%传统的镁合金板材加工技术存在生产效率低、成本偏高和成形性能不够理想等局限.本论文采用高应变速率轧制对AZ31镁合金进行轧制,对比研究了两种预处理方法对板材组织性能的影响.结果表明,高应变速率轧制是获得具有细小晶粒组织和良好综合力学性能的镁合金板材的有效手段.经过预变形+均匀化的预处理,高应变速率轧制板材的组织均匀性得到很大的提高,终轧板材内分布着极均匀的细小晶粒组织,其平均晶粒尺寸为2.3μm.由于组织均匀性的提高,板材塑性得到进一步提高,其室温伸长率可达28%.

  7. Stamping Formability of ZE10 Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ying; Li Yuanyuan; Li Wei

    2007-01-01

    ZE10 magnesium alloy sheets were prepared through ingot casting and the hot-rolling process. The mechanical properties, conical cup value (CCV), bore expanding performance, and limit drawing ratio (LDR) were investigated to examine the stamping formability of ZE10 alloy sheets, at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 ℃. The results showed that the tensile strength decreased, whereas, plasticity, drawing-bulging performance, bore expanding properties, and deep drawing performance increased markedly at elevated temperatures. The CCV specimens could be drawn into the conical die's underside cylindrical hole from the conical cliff, without cracking, and could have the minimum CCV at 200 and 250 ℃. In the bore-expanding test, the bore (Φ10 mm) could be expanded to the dimension of the punch (Φ25 mm) and the maximum bore-expanding ratio could be achieved at above 150 ℃. The limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of 2.85 is acquired during the deep drawing test at 230 ℃ with the punch temperature of 20~ 50 ℃, the punch velocity of 50 mm·min-1, and the mixture of graphite and cylinder grease as lubricant.

  8. Development of a Ballistic Specification for Magnesium Alloy AZ31B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Richard D. DeLorme Magnesium Elektron North America, Inc. Approved for public release; distribution is...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Magnesium Elektron North America, Inc., 1001 College St., Madison...IL 62060 14. ABSTRACT The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Magnesium Elektron North America (MENA) have conducted a joint effort to

  9. An Analysis of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B-H24 for Ballistic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    1 Figure 2. Normalized FSPs (3...50-cal FSP Steel = 13.4 g, Rc = 29-31 d = 20-mm FSP Steel = 53.8 g, Rc = 29-31 35o .46d d 1.17d Figure 2. Normalized FSPs (3). 3...UNITED KINGDOM 1 CARLOS III UNIV OF MADRID C NAVARRO ESCUELA POLTEENICA SUPERIOR C/BUTARQUE 15 28911 LEGANES MADRID SPAIN 1

  10. Formation of a Spinel Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Maximilian; Simchen, Frank; Scharf, Ingolf; Lampke, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a common means for the surface modification of light metals. However, PEO of magnesium substrates in dilute electrolytes generally leads to the formation of coatings consisting of unfavorable MgO magnesium oxide. By incorporation of electrolyte components, the phase constitution of the oxide coatings can be modified. Coatings consisting exclusively of MgAl2O4 magnesium-aluminum spinel are produced by PEO in an electrolyte containing hydroxide, aluminate, and phosphate anions. The hardness of the coatings is 3.5 GPa on Martens scale on average. Compared to the bare substrate, the coatings reduce the corrosion current density in dilute sodium chloride solution by approx. one order of magnitude and slightly shift the corrosion potential toward more noble values.

  11. Cold Metal Transfer joining of magnesium AZ31B-to-aluminum A6061-T6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, R., E-mail: caorui@lut.cn [State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Wen, B.F. [State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Chen, J.H., E-mail: zchen@lut.cn [State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Wang, Pei-Chung [Manufacturing Systems Research Lab General Motors (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Automotive manufacturers are faced with increasing pressure to reduce vehicle weight, improve fuel economy, reduce emissions, and enhance vehicle safety and performance. Therefore, an increasing number of vehicle structures are built using a combination of dissimilar materials such as steel, aluminum and magnesium. Though the advantages are potentially huge, this hybrid fabrication approach raises substantial technical challenges to the design of vehicle structures and the associated joining processes. Once two elements (e.g., magnesium-aluminum, aluminum-steel) are mixed in a high temperature welding pool, brittle intermetallic phases (IMP) can be easily formed. Experimental observations showed that a series of intermetallic phases will greatly reduce the mechanical performance of the welded dissimilar materials. In this study, welding of 1 mm thick magnesium AZ31B-to-1 mm thick aluminum A6061-T6 using a 1.6 mm diameter aluminum filler wire 4047 was investigated. Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) arc welding technique was adopted. The key feature of this process is that the motion of the wire has been integrated into the overall control of the process. The wire retraction motion assists droplet detachment during the short circuit, thus the metal can transfer into the welding pool without the aid of the electromagnetic force. In this way the heat input and spatter can be controlled and the IMP formation minimized thereby improving the joint strength. Extensive experiments were performed and analyzed. It was found that although extensive efforts have been exercised to control the heat input, Mg-rich intermetallic {gamma}-Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} and Al-rich intermetallic {beta}-Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2} were still produced in the weld. Fracture surfaces of CMT welded AZ31B-Al6061-T6 joints exhibited the Mg-rich intermetallic ({gamma}-Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17}) which contributes to the weld strength degradation. To improve the joint, minimizing the content of the intermetallics especially

  12. Process optimization diagram based on FEM simulation for extrusion of AZ31 profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The ram speed and the billet temperature are the primary process variables that determine the quality of the extruded magnesium profile and the productivity of the extrusion operation.The optimization of the extrusion process concerns the interplay between these two variables in relation to the extrudate temperature and the peak extrusion pressure The 3D computer simulations were performed to determine the eriects of the ram speed and the billet temperature on the extrudate temperature and the peak extrusion pressure,thereby providing guidelines for the process optimization and minimizing the number of trial extrusion runs needed for the process optimization.A case study on the extrusion of an AZ31 X-shaped profile was conducted.The correlations between the process variables and the response from the deformed material,extrudate temperature and peak extrusion pressure,were established from the 3D FEM simulations and verified by the experiment.The research opens up a way to rational selection of the process variables for ensured quality and maximum productivity of the magnesium extrusion.

  13. Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al/Mg Butt Joints Made by MIG Welding Process with Zn-Cd Alloy as Interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongtao; DAI Xiangyu; FENG Jicai

    2014-01-01

    Butt joints between Mg alloy AZ31B and pure Al 1 060 sheets were produced via metal inert gas welding process with Zn-Cd alloy foil. Crack-free Al/Mg butt joints between AZ31B Mg alloy and pure Al 1060 sheets were obtained. Intermetallic compound layer 1 and layer 2 had formed in fusion zone/Mg alloy and the average thickness of the layer 1 was about 50μm. The intermetallic compound layer 1 consisted of Al12Mg17 and Mg2Si phases while layer 2 consisted of Al12Mg17, Mg2Si and MgZn2 phases. The crack started from the IMC layer at the bottom of the joint and propagated along the brittle IMC layer, then expanded into weld metal during the SEM in situ tensile test. The highest tensile strength of the dissimilar metal butt joints could reach 46.8 MPa and the effect of interfacial IMC layer on mechanical property of the joint was discussed in detail in the present study.

  14. Modeling of severe deformation and mechanical properties in Mg-3A1-1Zn alloy through asymmetric hot-extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    One-pass asymmetric hot extrusion performed at 673 K was applied to fabricate an AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet.Finite element method(FEM)was used to model the process of asymmetric hot-extrusion.Simulation results indicate that strain rate gradient througa the thickness introduced a grain size gradient along the thickness direction and shear deformation during the asymmetric hot-extrusion results in weakened and tilted(0002)basal texture.The asymmetric hot extrusion effectively weakens the basal texture and improves the ductility,at room temperature.

  15. 氟转化涂层镁合金材料与诱导后人骨髓间充质干细胞的相容性%Cellular biocompatibility of induced human bone marrow stromal cells to fluoride conversion coating magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海英; 闫征斌; 张照; 艾红军

    2012-01-01

    背景:氟转化涂层的AZ31B 镁合金和β-磷酸三钙涂层的AZ31B 镁合金是中科院金属研究所新研制的镁合金,是否具有良好的生物相容性尚不确切.目的:以诱导的人骨髓间充质细胞作为检测细胞,评价氟转化涂层的AZ31B 镁合金和β-磷酸三钙涂层的AZ31B 镁合金材料的细胞相容性.方法:实验分为镁合金AZ31B 组,氟转化涂层的AZ31B 镁合金组和β-磷酸三钙涂层的AZ31B 镁合金组.以诱导的人骨髓间充质细胞作为检测细胞,分别取3 种材料浸提液进行体外细胞相容性实验.结果与结论:氟转化涂层的AZ31B 镁合金和β-磷酸三钙涂层的AZ31B 镁合金材料细胞毒性分级均为1 级,镁合金AZ31B材料细胞毒性分级为2 级.提示氟转化涂层的AZ31B 镁合金和β-磷酸三钙涂层的AZ31B 镁合金材料生物相容性优于未经处理镁合金AZ31B 材料.%BACKGROUND: As newly developed magnesium alloy, whether fluoride conversion coating and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) coating Biodegradable AZ31B magnesium alloy has better cell compatibility is not confirmed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cell compatibility of fluoride conversion coating and β-TCP coating Biodegradable AZ31B magnesium alloy tested with the induced human bone marrow stromal cells. METHODS: The experiment was divided into three groups: AZ31B magnesium alloy group, fluoride conversion coating AZ31B magnesium alloy group and β-TCP coating Biodegradable AZ31B magnesium alloy group. The induced human bone marrow stromal cells were regarded as the tested cells, and the extracts of the three materials were used in the compatibility experiments in vi tro. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The toxicity of cells in the leaching liquor of fluoride conversion coating and β-TCP coating Biodegradable AZ31B magnesium alloys were Grade 1. The toxicity of cells in the leaching liquor of AZ31B magnesium alloys was Grade 2. This experiment had proved that the fluoride conversion coating

  16. The Effect of Variable Blank-Holder Forces on the Formability of Aluminum Alloy Sheets during Sheet Metal Forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Chengzhi; Chen Guanlong; Lin Zhongqin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of variable Blank-holder forces (VBHF) on the strain path during sheet metal forming has been investigated by numerical simulation and experiments. The formability of select aluminum alloy sheet was evaluated by theory prediction of forming limit curve based on the M-K method. The effect of different VBHF on the formability was presented. In order to verify the predictions of strain path, experiments are being carried out using a recently-built multi-points variable blank-holder forces hydraulic press. The results show that large side BHF with small comer BHF during rectangular box deep drawing can improve the formability of the selected aluminum alloy sheet

  17. Wrinkle Behavior of Hydroforming of Aluminum Alloy Double-Layer Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin-Jun; Xu, Yong-Chao

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the wrinkling behavior and thickness distribution of 5A06 aluminum alloy sheets in an annealed state with thickness of 1.0 mm and 2.5 mm was numerically and experimentally investigated under different hydraulic pressures in the hydroforming of single-layer and double-layer sheets. Note that, in double-layer sheets hydroforming, an upper-aided sheet is needed. The upper, thicker sheet synchronously deforms with the lower, thinner sheet during hydroforming. When the double-layer sheets are separated, a thinner curved sheet part will be manufactured. As can be seen from the simulation and experimental results, the upper, thicker sheet could effectively suppress the wrinkles of the lower, thinner sheet and improve the thickness distribution due to the increasing anti-wrinkle ability of the formed sheet and the interfacial friction between the double-layer sheets. In addition, the maximum hydraulic pressure can be decreased via hydroforming of double-layer sheets; this approach reduces the drawing force for large sheet parts and meets the requirement of energy conservation.

  18. The Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of the Rolled Al/Mg/Al Clad Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Huihui; Liang, Wei; Zheng, Liuwei; Ren, Xiaoxia; Chi, Chengzhong; Fan, Haiwei

    2016-11-01

    Two types of three-layered Al/Mg/Al clad sheets were fabricated by hot rolling. The first (sheet A) underwent a single pass with a small rolling reduction of 33% and the second (sheet B) underwent four passes with a large rolling reduction of 71%, and both were subsequently annealed at 200 °C for 1 h. Microstructural examination and tensile tests on the fabricated sheets revealed that 17.8-μm-thick intermetallic compound layers (IMCLs) appeared at AZ31/5052 interfaces in sheet B while none were observed in sheet A. The AZ31 layers in sheets A and B exhibited basal textures with intensities of 15.1 and 9.8, respectively, and only sheet A exhibited tensile twins (TTs) in the AZ31 layer. Recrystallization resulting in grains was preferred near the AZ31/5052 interface and the intersections between TTs. Owing to its larger rolling reduction, more extensive recrystallization was observed in the sheet B component layers than in sheet A. Sheet B exhibited better mechanical properties with a much higher ultimate tensile strength (UTS) than sheet A (230 versus 102 MPa) and a slightly larger elongation (19 versus 17%).This indicates that texture intensities and the extent of recrystallization of component layers have a significant effect upon the mechanical properties of clad sheets.

  19. Improvement of warm formability of Al-Mg sheet alloys containing coarse second-phase particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arne; K; DAHLE; Amit; K; GHOSH

    2009-01-01

    Several alloying elements involving Zr, Cu, Zn and Sc were added to Al-Mg sheet alloys in order to obtain an excellent combination of high strength and good high-temperature formability. Microstruc-tural examination showed that coarse intermetallic particles were formed in the microstructure and their amounts changed with variations of the alloying elements. During warm rolling of thermome-chanical treatments prior to warm deformation, the coarse particles initiated cracks, decreasing the warm formability. For healing the crack damage and further improving the warm formability, a process of hot isothermal press was developed and optimized to the sheet alloys. With this process, the biaxial stretch formability at 350℃ was improved by 22% for an aluminum alloy containing a large amount of coarse particles.

  20. Improvement of warm formability of Al-Mg sheet alloys containing coarse second-phase particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HanLiang ZHU; Arne K DAHLE; Amit K GHOSH

    2009-01-01

    Several alloying elements involving Zr, Cu, Zn and Sc were added to AI-Mg sheet alloys in order to obtain an excellent combination of high strength and good high-temperature formability. Microstruc-tural examination showed that coarse intermetallic particles were formed in the microstructure and their amounts changed with variations of the alloying elements. During warm rolling of thermome-chanical treatments prior to warm deformation, the coarse particles initiated cracks, decreasing the warm formability. For healing the crack damage and further improving the warm formability, a process of hot isothermal press was developed and optimized to the sheet alloys. With this process, the biaxial stretch formability at 350"(2 was improved by 22% for an aluminum alloy containing a large amount of coarse particles.

  1. Effect of high density electropulsing treatment on formability of TC4 titanium alloy sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hui; WANG Zhong-jin; GAO Tie-jun

    2007-01-01

    An annealed TC4 titanium alloy sheet was treated by high density electropulsing (Jmax=(5.09-5.26)×103A/mm2, tp=110 μs) under ambient conditions. The effect of electropulsing treatment(EPT) on the plastic deformation behavior of TC4 titanium alloy sheet was studied using uniaxial tension tests. The experimental results indicate that electropulsing treatment significantly changes the mechanical properties of sheet metal: the uniform elongation is increased by 35%, the yield stress is decreased by 19.8% and the yield to tensile ratio is decreased by 17.6%. It is of significant meaning to improve the formability of TC4 titanium alloy sheet. The optical microscope and scanning electron microscope(SEM) were used to examine the changes of the microstructure and the fracture morphology before and after the electropulsing treatment. It is found that recrystallization occurs in the sheet metal and dimples in fracture surface are large and deep after the electropulsing treatment. The research results show that the electropulsing treatment is an effective method to improve the formability of titanium alloy sheets.

  2. The effect of heat treatment and orientation on the mechanical behavior of extruded Mg-Al-Zn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, K.Y.; Kim, K.H. [Materials Technology Dept., Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, KyungNam (Korea); Kang, M.C. [Central R and D Center, Seungwoo Metal Co., KyungNam (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    The effect of elevated temperature deformation, artificial aging, prestrain prior to aging, and crystal orientation on the strength and ductility of extruded AZ31 alloy has been investigated. The room temperature strength of AZ31 increased in proportion to the amount of elevated temperature deformation while the ductility drastically decreased even though the deformation is carried out at 400 C. The ductility initially decreased with the amount of the hot deformation, and then saturated after 40%RA. The reason for the saturation in elongation is due to the formation of fine grains by dynamic recrystallization occurred during hot swaging process. Prestrain did not increase the hardness of AZ31 during aging at 150 C. AZ31 alloy aged without prestrain after solution treatment showed peak hardness after 6 hours. However, the hardness of AZ31 with prestrain prior to aging by 18.4%RA did not show remarkable increase and gradually decreased with aging time. The elevated temperature strength of AZ31 was significantly influenced by the orientation of the specimen. UTS and YS were highest at longitudinal direction (0 ) and lowest at 45 to extrusion axis at all temperatures. The ductility of AZ31 was highest at 45 - orientation at all temperatures, which is considered due to the redistribution of basal planes occurring during extrusion process. (orig.)

  3. Friction and Adhesion in Dry Warm Forging of Magnesium Alloy with Coated Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Kawashima, Hiroaki; Osakada, Kozo

    In order to develop forging process of magnesium alloys without lubrication, frictional behavior of magnesium alloy AZ31B (Mg-3%Al-1%Zn) is evaluated by a tapered plug penetration test under dry condition. The cemented tungsten carbide (WC) plugs polished to be a mirror-like surface are coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) and TiAlN by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The cylindrical hollow billets of AZ31B are penetrated by the tapered plugs at a temperature of 200°C. The surface roughness of the hole of the billet, the adhesion length of AZ31B on the plug surface and the penetration load are measured. Compared with WC and TiAlN coating, it is found that DLC coating is effective in preventing AZ31B from adhering to the tool surface and reducing the penetration load.

  4. Texture and microstructure development during hot deformation of ME20 magnesium alloy: Experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X. [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH-Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Al-Samman, T., E-mail: alsamman@imm.rwth-aachen.de [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH-Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Mu, S.; Gottstein, G. [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH-Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Second phase precipitates in ME20 hindered activation of tensile twinning at 300 deg. C. {yields} New off-basal sheet texture during c-axis compression at low Z conditions. {yields} Ce amplifies the role of pyramidal -slip over prismatic slip at 0.3T{sub m}. {yields} Prismatic slip becomes equally important to deformation at 0.6T{sub m}. {yields} Accurate texture predictions using a cluster-type Taylor model with grain interaction. - Abstract: The influence of deformation conditions and starting texture on the microstructure and texture evolution during hot deformation of a commercial rare earth (RE)-containing magnesium alloy sheet ME20 was investigated and compared with a conventional Mg sheet alloy AZ31. For all the investigated conditions, the two alloys revealed obvious distinctions in the flow behavior and the development of texture and microstructure, which was primarily attributed to the different chemistry of the two alloys. The presence of precipitates in the fine microstructure of the ME20 sheet considerably increased the recrystallization temperature and suppressed tensile twinning. This gave rise to an uncommon Mg texture development during deformation. Texture simulation using an advanced cluster-type Taylor approach with consideration of grain interaction was employed to correlate the unique texture development in the ME20 alloy with the activation scenarios of different deformation modes.

  5. Effect of Intermediate Annealing on Microstructure and Property of 5182 Aluminum Alloy Sheet for Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of intermediate annealing on the microstructure and properties of 5182 aluminum alloy sheet with full annealed state (5182-O was investigated by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine. The results indicate that compared with 5182-O sheet without intermediate annealing, 5182-O sheet with intermediate annealing possesses too fine grain size, intermetallic compounds not broken enough, larger size intermetallic particles, less dispersed phase. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, work hardening exponent and normal anisotropy of plastic strain ratio decrease but planner anisotropy of plastic strain ratio increases. The mechanical properties and forming ability of 5182-O aluminum alloy sheet and its microstructure are not improved significantly after intermediate annealing.

  6. Fretting Behavior of SPR Joining Dissimilar Sheets of Titanium and Copper Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocong He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fretting performance of self-piercing riveting joining dissimilar sheets in TA1 titanium alloy and H62 copper alloy was studied in this paper. Load-controlled cyclic fatigue tests were carried out using a sine waveform and in tension-tension mode. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray techniques were employed to analyze the fretting failure mechanisms of the joints. The experimental results showed that there was extremely severe fretting at the contact interfaces of rivet and sheet materials for the joints at relatively high loads levels. Moreover, the severe fretting in the region on the locked sheet in contact with the rivet was the major cause of the broken locked sheet for the joints at low load level.

  7. Effect of Sc and Zr on the in-plane anisotropy of Al-Mg-Mn alloy sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yongyi; YIN Zhimin; YANG Jin; DU Yuxuan

    2005-01-01

    The Al-Mg-Mn alloy sheets with and without trace Sc and Zr were investigated by means of tensile test, X-ray diffraction, optical microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The indexes of in-plane anisotropy (IIPA) of their tensile mechanical properties were calculated and their inverse pole figures were obtained by Harris method. The two alloy sheets have the same law of in-plane anisotropy and remarkable in-plane anisotropy of mechanical properties, and the IIPA of the alloy sheet with Sc and Zr is bigger than that of the alloy sheet without Sc and Zr. The relationships of the in-plane anisotropy and the anisotropy of the crystallographic texture were analyzed based on the model of monocrystal. It is the common action of the anisotropy of crystallography and microstructures that causes the in-plane anisotropy of their mechanical sotropy of the alloy sheet containing trace Sc and Zr.

  8. Novel algorithm for determining optimal blankholder forces in deep drawing of aluminum alloy sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙成智; 陈关龙; 林忠钦; 赵亦希

    2004-01-01

    Wrinkling and fracture are main defects in sheet metal forming of aluminum alloy sheet, which can be reduced or even eliminated by manipulating a suitable blank-holder forces (BHF). But, it is difficult to attain the optimum BHF during sheet metal forming. A new optimization algorithm integrating the finite element method (FEM)and adaptive response surface method is presented to determinate the optimal BHFs in deep drawing of aluminum rectangular box. To assure convergence, the trust region modes management strategies are used to adjust the move limit of design spaces. Finally, the optimum results of rectangular box deep drawing are given. Verification experiments are performed to verify the optimal result.

  9. Effect of Alternating Bending on Texture, Structure, and Elastic Properties of Sheets of Magnesium Lithium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Shkatulyak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of low-cycle alternating bending at room temperature on the crystallographic texture, metallographic structure, and elastic properties of sheets of MgLi5 (mass magnesium alloy after warm cross-rolling has been studied. Texture of alloy is differed from the texture of pure magnesium. The initial texture of alloy is characterized by a wide scatter of basal poles in the transverse direction. In the process of alternating bending, the changes in the initial texture and structure (which is represented by equiaxed grains containing twins lead to regular changes in the anisotropy of elastic properties.

  10. Cytocompatibility of magnesium alloys after surface fluoridation tested by human bone marrow mesenchymal cells%人骨髓间充质干细胞检测表面氟化处理镁合金材料的细胞相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海英; 闫征斌; 张照; 艾红军

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AZ31B magnesium alloy with surface flouridization is a new type of magnesium alloy developed by Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Its biocompatibility is unclear.OBJECTIVE: To observe the cytocompatibility of magnesium alloys with surface fluoridation tested by human bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMSCs).METHODS: Human BMSCs were identified and cultured. The AZ31B magnesium alloy was taken as control and the AZ31B magnesium alloy with surface fluoridation was experimental group. Human BMSCs were the test cells. Leaching liquor of the alloy in both groups was used for cell compatibility experiments in vitro in order to evaluate the biocompatibility of AZ31B magnesium alloy.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The cell survival rate of AZ31B magnesium alloys with surface fluoridation was significantly higher than AZ31B magnesium alloys without surface fluoridation. The toxicity of cells in the leaching liquor of AZ31B magnesium alloys with surface fluoridation was Grade 1 and was non-toxic to the basic cell growth. The biocompatibility of the AZ31B magnesium alloys with surface fluoridation is superior to the AZ31B magnesium alloys without surface fluoridation.%背景:表面氟化处理的AZ31B镁合金是中科院金属研究所新研制的镁合金,是否具有良好的生物相容性尚不确切.目的:以人骨髓间充质干细胞作为检测细胞,评价表面氟处理的镁合金材料的细胞相容性.方法:人骨髓间充质干细胞培养并予以鉴定,将镁合金AZ31B作为对照组,氟处理的镁合金AZ31B材料为实验组.以人骨髓间充质干细胞作为检测细胞,取两组材料浸提液进行体外细胞相容性实验,评价氟处理的镁合金AZ31B材料的生物相容性.结果与结论:与未经氟处理镁合金AZ31B材料相比,经氟处理镁合金AZ31B材料能显著提高细胞存活率,细胞毒性分级1级,对细胞生长基本无毒性作用.结果表明,经氟处理镁合金AZ31B材料生物相容性

  11. Effect of implantation of biodegradable magnesium alloy on BMP-2 expression in bone of ovariectomized osteoporosis rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yue, E-mail: 373073766@qq.com [Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Jinzhou, 121000 (China); Ren, Ling, E-mail: lren@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Liu, Chang, E-mail: meixifan1971@163.com [Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Jinzhou, 121000 (China); Yuan, Yajiang, E-mail: yuan925@163.com [Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Jinzhou, 121000 (China); Lin, Xiao, E-mail: linx@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Tan, Lili, E-mail: lltan@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Chen, Shurui, E-mail: 272146792@qq.com [Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Jinzhou, 121000 (China); Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Mei, Xifan, E-mail: meixifan1971@163.com [Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Jinzhou, 121000 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The study was focused on the implantation of a biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy into the femoral periosteal of the osteoporosis modeled rats. The experimental results showed that after 4 weeks implantation of AZ31 alloy in the osteoporosis modeled rats, the expression of BMP-2 in bone tissues of the rats was much enhanced, even higher than the control group, which should promote the bone formation and be beneficial for reducing the harmful effect of osteoporosis. Results of HE stains showed that the implantation of AZ31 alloy did not have obvious pathological changes on both the liver and kidney of the animal. - Highlights: • Mg alloy greatly increased expression of BMP-2 in osteoporosis modeled rat bone. • Mg alloy showed good biological safety. • Mg alloy is beneficial for reducing the symptom of osteoporosis.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Temperature Field in Semi-solid AZ31 Rheocasting-rolling%半固态AZ31流变铸轧温度场数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 徐金华; 谢水生; 马强

    2010-01-01

    利用有限元方法对AZ31镁合金在半固态双辊铸轧成形工艺中的温度场进行了数值模拟.分析了铸轧工艺参数(轧辊表面对流换热系数、浇铸温度、浇铸速度)对镁合金板带质量的影响.结果表明,在浇铸温度降低到897K时,在10000W·m-2K-1换热系数下镁合金熔体完全凝固点的位置前移,影响镁合金板带的质量;而将铸轧时间延长到0.465 S可以加强熔体和铸辊换热,使得出口区域中心温度达到凝固点.

  13. Stress-strain curves for different loading paths and yield loci of aluminum alloy sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiang-dong; WAN Min; HAN Fei; WANG Hai-bo

    2006-01-01

    To carry out biaxial tensile test in sheet metal, the biaxial tensile testing system was established. True stress-true strain curves of three kinds of aluminum alloy sheets for loading ratios of 4:1, 4:2, 4:3, 4:4, 3:4, 2:4 and 1:4 were obtained by conducting biaxial tensile test in the established testing systems. It shows that the loading path has a significant influence on the stress-strain curves and as the loading ratio increases from 4:1 to 4:4, the stress-strain curve becomes higher and n-value becomes larger.Experimental yield points for three aluminum alloy sheets from 0.2% to 2% plastic strain were determined based on the equivalent plastic work. And the geometry of the experimental yield loci were compared with the yield loci calculated from several existing yield criteria. The analytical result shows that the Barlat89 and Hosford yield criterion describe the general trends of the experimental yield loci of aluminum alloy sheets well, whereas the Mises yield criterion overestimates the yield stress in all the contours.

  14. Damage percolation during stretch flange forming of aluminum alloy sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengtao; Worswick, Michael J.; Keith Pilkey, A.; Lloyd, David J.

    2005-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE)-damage percolation model was employed to simulate stretch flange forming of aluminum alloys AA5182 and AA5754. Material softening and strain gradients were captured using a Gurson-based FE model. FE results were then fed into the so-called damage percolation code, from which the damage development was modelled within measured microstructures. The formability of the stretch flange samples was predicted based upon the onset of catastrophic failure triggered by profuse void coalescence within the measured second-phase particle field. Damage development is quantified in terms of crack and void areal fractions, and compared to metallographic results obtained from interrupted stretch flange specimens. Parametric study is conducted on the effect of void nucleation strain in the prediction of formability of stretch flanges to "calibrate" proper nucleation strains for both alloys.

  15. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF CONTROLLING IN TITANIUM ALLOY SHEETS WELDING RESIDUAL STRESS BY TRAILING PEENING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.S. Liu; H. Y. Fang; W.L. Xu; Z.B. Dong; D.Y. Yu

    2004-01-01

    It is a promising and new technology to apply welding with trailing peening to control welding stress and distortion of titanium alloy. Numerical simulation of conventional welding and welding with trailing peening of the titanium alloy sheet is carried out,using nonlinear finite element theory and the engineering analysis software MARC.The result shows that welding with trailing peening technology reduces longitudinal residual stress in welding joint effectively, and it is more effective to reduce residual stress to peen the weld than to peen the weld toe. It is a effective result that other technology and method used in welding can never achieved.

  16. Improvement and Experiment of the Reamer in Vibra Cutter Against Wave Edge of Titanium Sheet Alloy Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Duan-yang; ZUO Hong-fu; ZHENG Bai-zhan; XU Tong

    2006-01-01

    By analyzing the influencing factors of part quality making of sheet alloy of titanium by vibra cutter, the shape of upper reamer is set as cylinder and wedge-shaped form, and the lower reamer as plain and hemicycle form, and its main structural parameters are defined as well. Then it is validated further that such improved vibra cutter reamer can be used to process curve-edged parts of titanium alloy sheet. The experimental result shows that the titanium alloy sheet parts processed by above equipment have no sharpen angles for convex parts and evident crevasse of concave-edged part. In summary, such improvement can eliminate the free-waved edge and improve the manufacture quality of titanium alloy sheet parts greatly.

  17. Effect of melt conditioning on heat treatment and mechanical properties of AZ31 alloy strips produced by twin roll casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeevdas80@gmail.com [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Barekar, N.S. [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); El Fakir, Omer; Wang, Liliang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Prasada Rao, A.K.; Patel, J.B.; Kotadia, H.R.; Bhagurkar, A. [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Dear, John P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Fan, Z. [The EPSRC Centre ‐ LiME, BCAST, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-03

    In the present investigation, magnesium strips were produced by twin roll casting (TRC) and melt conditioned twin roll casting (MC-TRC) processes. Detailed optical microscopy studies were carried out on as-cast and homogenized TRC and MC-TRC strips. The results showed uniform, fine and equiaxed grain structure was observed for MC-TRC samples in as-cast condition. Whereas, coarse columnar grains with centreline segregation were observed in the case of as-cast TRC samples. The solidification mechanisms for TRC and MC-TRC have been found completely divergent. The homogenized TRC and MC-TRC samples were subjected to tensile test at elevated temperature (250–400 °C). At 250 °C, MC-TRC sample showed significant improvement in strength and ductility. However, at higher temperatures the tensile properties were almost comparable, despite of TRC samples having larger grains compared to MC-TRC samples. The mechanism of deformation has been explained by detailed fractures surface and sub-surface analysis carried out by scanning electron and optical microscopy. Homogenized MC-TRC samples were formed (hot stamping) into engineering component without any trace of crack on its surface. Whereas, TRC samples cracked in several places during hot stamping process.

  18. Design of Helical Self-Piercing Rivet for Joining Aluminum Alloy and High-Strength Steel Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W. Y.; Kim, D. B.; Park, J. G; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, I. H.; Cho, H. Y. [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    A self-piercing rivet (SPR) is a mechanical component for joining dissimilar material sheets such as those of aluminum alloy and steel. Unlike conventional rivets, the SPR directly pierces sheets without the need for drilling them beforehand. However, the regular SPR can undergo buckling when it pierces a high-strength steel sheet, warranting the design of a helical SPR. In this study, the joining and forging processes using the helical SPR were simulated using the commercial FEM code, DEFORM-3D. High-tensile-strength steel sheets of different strengths were joined with aluminum alloy sheets using the designed helical SPR. The simulation results were found to agree with the experimental results, validating the optimal design of a helical SPR that can pierce high-strength steel sheets.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded thin sheets of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lian; TONG Jian-hua; WAN Fa-rong; LONG Yi

    2006-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a new and promising welding processing that can produce low-cost and high-quality joints of aluminum alloys. 1 mm thick sheets of 2024-T4 aluminum alloys which are always used as building and decorating materials were welded by FSW. The microstrueture and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 1 mm thick sheets of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy were studied. It was found that the thinner the 2024 aluminum alloy, the larger the FSW technological parameters field. The grains size of weld nugget zone (WNZ) is approximately 10 times smaller than that of the parent material, but the second phase in the material is not refined apparently in the welding. The FS welded joints have about 40% higher yield strength than the parent material,but the elongation of FS welded joints is under about 50% of the parent material. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD)results show that there are much more low angle boundaries (LAB) in WNZ than that in parent material, which indicates that FSW causes a number of sub-grain structures in WNZ, and this is also the reason of the increase of yield strength and Vickers hardness of the welded joint.

  20. Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Anisotropy and Microstructure of Al-Li Alloy 2195 Sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of decreasing the applied limitation resulting from the anisotropic mechanical property of Al-Li alloy 2195, this study employed a complex heat treatment process, involving the pre-tension, thermo-infiltration of the rare earth element Ce, solution treatment, and artificial aging technology. The results indicate that the infiltration of rare earth element Ce benefits the abatement of anisotropy of Al-Li alloy 2195 sheet, in contrast with that of the normal heat treatment process. The gradient of the Vickers-hardness decreases at least 50% through the thickness, and the tensile strength in the rolling direction also increases significantly. If Ce was infiltrated into the alloy under the optimum pre-deformation, the yield strength (σ0.2) increased by 30 MPa while the tensile strength (σb) enhanced by 25 MPa compared to the rare earth free samples. Meanwhile, the fractography illustrated that the fracture surface of the sample became more desirable.

  1. Electroless plating of Ni-Zn(Fe)-P alloy on carbon steel sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sen-lin; WU Hui-huang

    2004-01-01

    The autocatalytic deposition of Ni-Zn(Fe)-P alloys were carried out on carbon steel sheets from bath containing nickel sulfate, zinc sulfate, sodium hypophosphite, sodium citrate and boric acid. The effects of pH and mole ratio of NiSO4/ZnSO4 on the deposition rate and the composition of deposit were studied. It is found that the presence of zinc sulfate in the bath has an inhibitory effect on the alloy deposition. As a consequence, the mole fraction of zinc in the deposits never reaches high value, which is less than 18.0%. The structure and surface morphology of Ni-Zn(Fe)-P coatings were charactered by XRD and SEM. The alloys plated at all conditions consist of amorphous phase coexisting with a crystalline cubic Ni phase. The surface morphology of coating is dependent on the deposition parameters.

  2. Orientation Dependence of Cracking in Hot-Dip Zn-Al-Mg Alloy Coatings on a Sheet Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. B.; Kim, I. G.; Kim, S. G.; Kim, W. T.; Kim, T. C.; Oh, M. S.; Kim, J. S.

    2017-03-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating a basic cause of cracking in hot-dip Zn-Al-Mg alloy coatings on an extra deep drawing quality sheet steel. The electron backscattering diffraction technique was employed to examine the crystallographic planes of the cracks generated before and after bending deformation of the coated steel sheets. It was clarified that the occurrence of cracking in the Zn-Al-Mg alloy coatings absolutely depends on the orientation of the primary Zn and eutectic Zn alloy phases. Finally, a cracking mechanism was proposed on the basis of the anisotropy of thermal expansion and the Young's modulus in the phases constituting the coatings.

  3. Application of sintered titanium alloys to metal denture bases: a study of titanium powder sheets for complete denture base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, H; Harrori, M; Hasegawa, K; Yoshinari, M; Kawada, E; Oda, Y

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was the fabrication of titanium powder sheets to enable the application of sintered titanium alloys as metal denture bases. The effects of titanium particle shape and size, binder content, and plasticizer content on the surface smoothness, tensile strength and elongation of titanium powder sheets was investigated. To select a suitable ratio of powdered metal contents for application as a metal denture base, the effects of aluminum content in Ti sheets and various other powder metal contents in Ti-Al sheets on the density, sintering shrinkage, and bending strength were evaluated. Based on the results of the above experiments, we developed a mixed powder sheet composed of 83Ti-7Al-10Cr with TA45 titanium powder (atomized, -45 microm), and 8 mass% binder content. This titanium alloy sheet had good formability and ductility. Its sintered titanium alloy had a density of 3.2 g/cm3, sintering shrinkage of 3.8%, and bending strength of 403 MPa. The titanium alloy sheet is clinically acceptable for fabricating denture bases.

  4. Gas-pressure forming of an AlMg-alloy sheet at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, B.; Goesling, M.; Homberg, W.; Kleiner, M. [Dortmund Univ. (DE). Inst. of Forming Technology and Lightweight Construction (IUL)

    2005-12-01

    Forming of automotive leightweight parts using aluminium offers numerous advantages. Compared to other wrought aluminium alloys, in particular AlMg-alloys generally show a good formability which is favourable for the production of complex parts. However, forming of Mg-containing alloys at room temperature leads to yielding patterns preventing their implementation for class-A-surface applications. Furthermore, the formability of steel still exceeds that of AlMg-alloys at room temperature. Thus, in the present study, sheet metal forming is applied at a temperature range that is typical for warm forming. It is supposed to profit from the advantages of warm forming like high achievable strains and improved surface quality of the formed part, while not having the disadvantages of long production times and high energy consumption, which is correlated with superplastic forming. Applying fluid-based sheet metal forming in this paper, nitrogen is used as fluid working medium to satisfy the demand on high temperature resistance. Concerning the blank material used, formability of Mg-containing aluminium alloys shows strong strain rate sensitivity at elevated temperatures. To figure out the optimal strain rates for this particular process, a control system for forming processes is developed within the scope of this paper. Additionally, FE-simulations are carried out and adapted to the experiment, based on the generated process data. FE-investigations include forming of domes (bulging) as well as shape-defined forming, having the objective to increase formability in critical form elements by applying optimal strain rates. Here, a closed-loop process control for gas-pressure forming at elevated temperatures is to be developed in the next stages of the project. (orig.)

  5. Deformation behavior of TC1 titanium alloy sheet under double-sided pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-jin; SONG Hui; WANG Zhe

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of normal stress through thickness on the formability of sheet metal, the viscous pressure bulge(VPB) tests of an annealed TC1 titanium alloy sheet were carried out under two different conditions: double-sided pressure bulging and conventional single-sided pressure bulging. The automated strain analysis, measurement environment (ASAME) and scanning electron microscope(SEM) were used to study the strain distributions and the fracture morphology of bulged specimens. It is found that thickness strain is increased for double-sided pressure bulging specimens, and the limiting dome height(LDH) of double-sided pressure bulging specimens is increased by 31.8% compared with conventional single-sided pressure bulging specimens. The dimples in fracture surface for double-sided pressure bulging specimens are larger and deeper than those for conventional single-sided pressure bulging specimens. The results indicate that normal stress through thickness is helpful in improving the formability of titanium alloy sheet metal.

  6. Effect of Rare Earth Cerium on Yield Strength Anisotropy of Al-Li Alloy Sheet and Its Theoretical Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志龙; 刘林; 陈铮

    2004-01-01

    The variation of yield strength along rolling direction, transverse direction and 45° to transverse direction of 2090 Al-Li alloy and 2090+Ce alloy sheet containing rare earth cerium was comparatively investigated. The difference of deformation texture in these two alloy sheets was analyzed by means of X-ray orientation distribution function (ODF). The results show that cerium has the effects of enhancing the Brass and S rolling texture components and reducing the recrystallized texture components of Cube and Goss. This is the reason that the anisotropic degree of yield strength in 2090+Ce sheet is higher than that of 2090 alloy sheet. The prediction of yield strength along various orientations in two alloy sheets was done based on Taylor/Bishop-Hill model, and the strengthening effect of grain boundary was evaluated using Hall-Petch relationship. A modified plastic inclusion model was proposed using the concept of grain-orientation factor and T1 phase orientation factor by fitting with tensile test results.

  7. Measuring the stress field around an evolving crack in tensile deformed Mg AZ31 using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Camin, Bettina; Schmidt, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    The stress field around a notch in a coarse grained Mg AZ31 sample has been measured under tensile load using the individual grains as probes in an in situ high energy synchrotron diffraction experiment. The experimental set-up, a variant of three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy, allows...... element simulation. It was found that a full three-dimensional simulation was required to account for the measured transition from the overall plane stress case away from the notch to the essentially plane strain case observed near the notch tip. The measured and simulated stress contours were shown...

  8. Experimental and FE simulation validation of sheet thickness optimization in superplastic forming of Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaresan, G.; Jothilingam, A. [Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-07-15

    Superplasticity is the ability of a polycrystalline materials to exhibit very large elongations without necking prior to failure. In this paper, the superplastic forming potential of fine grained 7075 aluminium alloy was studied. The process parameters like pressure, forming time and initial sheet thickness were selected, using the design of experiments technique. The same condition of formation process was attempted in the finite element simulation using ABAQUS software. The deviation of the thickness distribution between the simulation and experiment was made and the variation lies within 8%.

  9. Numerical models for the prediction of failure for multilayer fusion Al-alloy sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorji, Maysam; Berisha, Bekim; Hora, Pavel [ETH Zurich, Institute of Virtual Manufacturing, Zurich (Switzerland); Timm, Jürgen [Novelis Switzerland SA, 3960 Sierre (Switzerland)

    2013-12-16

    Initiation and propagation of cracks in monolithic and multi-layer aluminum alloys, called “Fusion”, is investigated. 2D plane strain finite element simulations are performed to model deformation due to bending and to predict failure. For this purpose, fracture strains are measured based on microscopic pictures of Nakajima specimens. In addition to, micro-structure of materials is taken into account by introducing a random grain distribution over the sheet thickness as well as a random distribution of the measured yield curve. It is shown that the performed experiments and the introduced FE-Model are appropriate methods to highlight the advantages of the Fusion material, especially for bending processes.

  10. Corrosion Resistance of the Superhydrophobic Mg(OH2/Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Coatings on Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of the Mg(OH2/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH composite were formed by a combined co-precipitation method and hydrothermal process on the AZ31 alloy substrate in alkaline condition. Subsequently, a superhydrophobic surface was successfully constructed to modify the composite coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate using stearic acid. The characteristics of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electronic microscope (SEM and contact angle (CA. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization, the electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS, the test of hydrogen evolution and the immersion test. The results showed that the superhydrophobic coatings considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of the LDH coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate.

  11. AZ31B镁合金薄板交流CMT焊能量分配与接头力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆森; 刘丽敏; 张瑞英; 葛宇晨

    2014-01-01

    采用φ1.2 mm的细焊丝,采用交流CMT方法焊接了厚1.5 mm的AZ31B镁合金板材,获得了平直均匀的焊缝.利用高速摄像机与焊接信号采集系统观察了焊接过程,交流CMT焊接为短路过渡,熔化等量焊丝的负半波能量只有正半波能量的36%.还观察了接头微观组织、并测试了接头硬度和抗拉强度,结果表明,交流CMT方法焊接的AZ31B镁合金接头,焊缝组织细小,热影响区组织有所长大,焊缝及热影响区的平均硬度分别为HV66和HV45;最大平均抗拉强度为235 MPa,约为母材的96.7%,其伸长率为8%,约为母材的76.2%.

  12. 基于弹塑性自洽模型的AZ31镁合金轧制过程的织构模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄诗尧; 张少睿; 李大永; 彭颖红

    2011-01-01

    为了更好地研究镁合金轧制过程的织构演变,对商用有限元软件ABAQUS/Explicit的用户材料接口VUMAT做二次开发,实现晶体塑性力学和有限元方法的耦合。对于单个晶粒,通过相关模型计算每个增量步的塑性应变增量,Voce硬化模型计算应变硬化。由于变形机制的不同,分别计算滑移和孪晶引起的晶格旋转。采用弹塑性自洽模型计算单晶体和多晶体之间的联系。应用编制的程序,分别模拟AZ31板材和AZ31铸件的轧制过程。结果表明,该程序能够较好地预测轧制过程的织构演化。

  13. Enhancement of Formability of AA5052 Alloy Sheets by Electrohydraulic Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Meraj; Kumar, D. Ravi; Nabi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Formability of lightweight materials like Al and Mg alloys is a major concern for their application in automobiles. Forming limit diagram (FLD) and strain distribution are extremely useful in the assessment of overall formability of sheet metals. At very high strain rates, the deformation behavior of Al alloys and the safe forming window could be different from quasi-static conventional forming. In this paper, formability of Al 5052 alloy sheets of 0.5 mm thickness has been assessed in electrohydraulic forming (EHF) in terms of FLD and strain distribution and compared with formability in conventional forming by punch-stretching experiments. EHF is a high strain rate forming process which utilizes energy released from a capacitor bank to generate shockwaves in a fluid medium. Experiments have been conducted at different energy levels to identify the highest safe strains in different modes of deformation. From the experimental results, it has been observed that the limit strains increased by nearly 45-50% in all the three regions of the FLD (tension-tension, plane strain and tension compression). Unlike in the case of conventional forming, no clear necking due to strain localization has been observed prior to failure due to very high strain rates of the order of 103/s. The strain distribution has been found to be more uniform in the case of EHF with a single strain peak at the pole. Absence of friction in EHF also leads to higher degree of biaxiality leading to higher limit strains in biaxial tension. In the case of EHF, the effective strain and hardness are maximum at the pole and their variation correlated well with the findings from the strain distribution analysis. In all modes of deformation, the features of fractured surface in EHF appeared different from a normal ductile failure.

  14. Creep Strength and Microstructure of Al20-25+Nb Alloy Sheets and Foils for Advanced Microturbine Recurperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P [ORNL; Evans, Neal D [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ATI Allegheny Ludlum worked together on a collaborative program for about two years to produce a wide range of commercial sheets and foils of the new AL20-25+Nb{trademark} (AL20-25+Nb) stainless alloy for advanced microturbine recuperator applications. There is a need for cost-effective sheets/foils with more performance and reliability at 650-750 C than 347 stainless steel, particularly for larger 200-250 kW microturbines. Phase 1 of this collaborative program produced the sheets and foils needed for manufacturing brazed plated-fin air cells, while Phase 2 provided foils for primary surface air cells, and did experiments on modified processing designed to change the microstructure of sheets and foils for improved creep-resistance. Phase 1 sheets and foils of AL20-25+Nb have much more creep-resistance than 347 steel at 700-750 C, and those foils are slightly stronger than HR120 and HR230. Results for Phase 2 showed nearly double the creep-rupture life of sheets at 750 C/100 MPa, and similar improvements in foils. Creep data show that Phase 2 foils of AL20-25+Nb alloy have creep resistance approaching that of alloy 625 foils. Testing at about 750 C in flowing turbine exhaust gas for 500 h in the ORNL Recuperator Test Facility shows that foils of AL20-25+Nb alloy have oxidation-resistance similar to HR120 alloy, and much better than 347 steel.

  15. Propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AZ31 procesada por una ruta eco-sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    F. D’ERRICO; Garcés, G.; Hofer, M.; Kim, S. K.; Pérez, P; Cabeza, S.; Adeva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Recently it has been proved that molding of defect-free components of various commercial alloys of magnesium can be carried out succesfully when small amounts of CaO are added to the melt, making unnecessary the use of SF6 coverage. In the case of AZ alloys, this process also remarkably improves their mechanical properties not only by the greater cleaning of alloys but also by the formation of CaAl2 phase. This work, part of the Green project Metallurgy (http://www.green-metallurgy.eu) funded...

  16. Material characterization and finite element simulations of aluminum alloy sheets during non-isothermal forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan

    The utilization of more non-ferrous materials is one of the key factors to succeed out of the constantly increasing demand for lightweight vehicles in automotive sector. Aluminum-magnesium alloys have been identified as the most promising substitutions to the conventional steel without significant compromise in structural stiffness and strength. However, the conventional forming methods to deform the aluminum alloy sheets are either costly or insufficient in formability which limit the wide applications of aluminum alloy sheets. A recently proposed non-isothermal hot stamping approach, which is also referred as Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) stamping, aims at fitting the commercial grade aluminum alloy sheets, such as AA5XXX and AA7XXX, into high-volume and cost-effective production for automotive sector. In essence, HB-CD is a mutation of the conventional hot stamping approach for boron steel (22MnB5) which deforms the hot blank within the cold tool set. By elevating the operation temperature, the formability of aluminum alloy sheets can be significantly improved. Meanwhile, heating the blank only and deforming within the cold tool sets allow to reduce the energy and time consumed. This research work aims at conducting a comprehensive investigation of HB-CD with particular focuses on material characterization, constitutive modeling and coupled thermo-mechanical finite element simulations with validation. The material properties of AA5182-O, a popular commercial grade of aluminum alloy sheet in automotive sector, are obtained through isothermal tensile testing at temperatures from 25° to 300°, covering a quasi-static strain-rate range (0.001--0.1s-1). As the state-of-the-art non-contact strain measurement technique, digital image correlation (DIC) system is utilized to evaluate the stress-strain curves as well as to reveal the details of material deformation with full-field and multi-axis strain measurement. Material anisotropy is characterized by extracting the

  17. Influence of material modeling on earing prediction in cup drawing of AA3104 aluminum alloy sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumasu, H.; Kuwabara, T.; Takizawa, H.

    2016-08-01

    In-plane biaxial tension and combined tension-compression tests are carried out for AA3104 aluminum alloy sheets. Linear stress paths are applied to cruciform specimens to measure the contours of plastic work in the stress space and the directions of plastic strain rates at each stress path. Coefficients α 1- α 8 and exponent M of the Yld2000-2d yield function are determined to minimize the mean square error of the analytical yield locus from a measured work contour. The values of the weighting coefficients in the evaluation of the error are varied to check the effect of a specific stress state on the earing behavior. The effects of the combinations of the weighting coefficients on the accuracy of earing prediction in the cup drawing process are discussed.

  18. High Rotation Speed Friction Stir Welding for 2014 Aluminum Alloy Thin Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shujin; Zhou, Yang; Xue, Junrong; Ni, Ruiyang; Guo, Yue; Dong, Jianghui

    2017-02-01

    In this study, 2014 aluminum alloy sheets with 1 mm thickness are welded successfully by friction stir welding (FSW) robot under the condition of high rotation speed. When the high rotation speed of 10,000-16,500 rpm is applied, the lower axial pressure (less than 200 N) is obtained, which reduces stiffness requirements for equipment. Welding deformation is inevitable because high rotation speed can easily result in rapid heating rate and uneven heat input. The welding distortion caused by two cooling methods is measured, respectively, by laser range finder. The experimental results show that the welding distortion is smaller under the condition of water cooling. When the rotation speed is up to 15,000 rpm and welding speed 50-170 mm/min, the whole welding process is controllable. Under the higher rotation speed condition, the welding defects disappear gradually and more stable mechanical properties can be obtained up to 75% of base metal (ω = 16,000 rpm, ν = 110 mm/min). The results of different welding parameters demonstrate that the high rotation speed can increase material mixing and reduce the axial force (z force), and it can benefit lightweight sheet welding by using FSW robot.

  19. FRICTION MODELING OF Al-Mg ALLOY SHEETS BASED ON MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirpa G. Lemu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a proposed approach to a frictional resistance description in sheet metal forming processes that enables determination of the friction coefficient value under a wide range of friction conditions without performing time-consuming experiments. The motivation for this proposal is the fact that there exists a considerable amount of factors affect the friction coefficient value and as a result building analytical friction model for specified process conditions is practically impossible. In this proposed approach, a mathematical model of friction behaviour is created using multiple regression analysis and artificial neural networks. The regression analysis was performed using a subroutine in MATLAB programming code and STATISTICA Neural Networks was utilized to build an artificial neural networks model. The effect of different training strategies on the quality of neural networks was studied. As input variables for regression model and training of radial basis function networks, generalized regression neural networks and multilayer networks the results of strip drawing friction test were utilized. Four kinds of Al-Mg alloy sheets were used as a test material.

  20. High Rotation Speed Friction Stir Welding for 2014 Aluminum Alloy Thin Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shujin; Zhou, Yang; Xue, Junrong; Ni, Ruiyang; Guo, Yue; Dong, Jianghui

    2017-03-01

    In this study, 2014 aluminum alloy sheets with 1 mm thickness are welded successfully by friction stir welding (FSW) robot under the condition of high rotation speed. When the high rotation speed of 10,000-16,500 rpm is applied, the lower axial pressure (less than 200 N) is obtained, which reduces stiffness requirements for equipment. Welding deformation is inevitable because high rotation speed can easily result in rapid heating rate and uneven heat input. The welding distortion caused by two cooling methods is measured, respectively, by laser range finder. The experimental results show that the welding distortion is smaller under the condition of water cooling. When the rotation speed is up to 15,000 rpm and welding speed 50-170 mm/min, the whole welding process is controllable. Under the higher rotation speed condition, the welding defects disappear gradually and more stable mechanical properties can be obtained up to 75% of base metal (ω = 16,000 rpm, ν = 110 mm/min). The results of different welding parameters demonstrate that the high rotation speed can increase material mixing and reduce the axial force (z force), and it can benefit lightweight sheet welding by using FSW robot.

  1. Deformation Behaviors of HIPped Foil Compared with Those of Sheet Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Micromechanics-based modeling of composite material behaviors requires an accurate assessment of the constituent properties and behaviors. For the specific case of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC's) manufactured from a foil/fiber/foil process, much emphasis has been placed on characterizing foil-based matrix materials that have been fabricated in the same way as the composite. Such materials are believed to yield mechanical properties and behaviors that are representative of the matrix constituent within the composite (in situ matrix). Therefore, these materials are desired for micromechanics modeling input. Unfortunately, such foils are extremely expensive to fabricate and procure because of the labor-intensive rolling process needed to produce them. As a potential solution to this problem that would maintain appropriately representative in situ properties, the matrix constituent could be characterized with sheet-based materials, which are considerably less expensive to manufacture than foils, are more readily procured, and result in fewer plies to obtain a desired panel thickness. The critical question is, however, does the consolidated sheet material exhibit the same properties and behaviors as do the consolidated foils? Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center's Life Prediction Branch completed a detailed experimental investigation to answer this question for three titanium alloys commonly used in metal matrix composite form.

  2. Strain-hardening and warm deformation behaviors of extruded Mg–Sn–Yb alloy sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strain-hardening and warm deformation behaviors of extruded Mg–2Sn–0.5Yb alloy (at.% sheet were investigated in uniaxial tensile test at temperatures of 25–250 °C and strain rates of 1 × 10−3 s−1–0.1 s−1. The data fit with the Kocks–Mecking type plots were used to show different stages of strain hardening. Besides III-stage and IV-stage, the absence of the II-stage strain hardening at room temperature should be related to the sufficient dynamic recrystallization during extrusion. The decrease of strain hardening ability of the alloy after yielding was attributed to the reduction of dislocation density with increasing testing temperature. Strain rate sensitivity (SRS was significantly enhanced with increasing temperature, and the corresponding m-value was calculated as 0.07–0.12, which indicated that the deformation mechanism was dominated by the climb-controlled dislocation creep at 200 °C. Furthermore, the grain boundary sliding (GBS was activated at 250 °C, which contributed to the higher SRS. The activation energy was calculated as 213.67 kJ mol−1, which was higher than that of lattice diffusion or grain boundary self-diffusion. In addition, the alloy exhibited a quasi superplasticity at 250 °C with a strain rate of 1 × 10−3 s−1, which was mainly related to the fine microstructure and the presence of the Mg2Sn and Mg2(Sn,Yb particles.

  3. Effect of Al content and pressing temperature on ECAP of cast Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.Y. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Hankuk Aviation Univ., Koyang, Kyunggi-do (Korea); Lee, K.S.; Shin, D.H. [Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Hanyang Univ., Ansan, Kyunggi-do (Korea); Lee, S.H. [Div. of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Mokpo National Univ. (Korea); Hong, S.K. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea); Park, K.T. [Div. of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Hanbat National Univ., Taejon (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    The difficult-to-work Mg alloys was subjected to equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) under a condition of various pressing temperatures. Pure Mg was susceptible to shear localization during ECAP; surface cracking occurred along to the direction of shear localization at lower temperatures than 573 K. Uniform flow occurred at 573 K, resulting in the successful 4 repetitive ECAP. The ECAP of Mg alloys containing Al (AZ series alloys) was unsuccessful at even higher temperature than 573 K. However, the ECAP temperature of AZ series alloys hot-rolled before ECAP became lowered, and the temperature for successful ECAP decreased with decreasing Al content. In particular, the hot-rolled AZ31 alloy could be ECAPed at 493 K. The ECAPed AZ31 alloy revealed the microstructure of dynamically recrystallized grains with a grain size in range of 1 to 10 {mu}m. The deformation during ECAP was analyzed by dislocation characteristics. (orig.)

  4. Surface and cut-edge corrosion behavior of Zn-Mg-Al alloy-coated steel sheets as a function of the alloy coating microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Suk; Kim, Sang-Heon; Kim, Jong-Sang; Lee, Jae-Won; Shon, Je-Ha; Jin, Young-Sool

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Mg and Al content on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of hot-dip Zn-Mg-Al alloycoated steel sheets were investigated. Pure Zn and Zn-based alloy coatings containing Mg (0-5 wt%) and Al (0.2-55 wt%) were produced by a hot-dip galvanizing method. Mg and Al addition induced formation of intermetallic microstructures, like primary Zn, Zn/MgZn2 binary eutectic, dendric Zn/Al eutectoid, and Zn/Al/MgZn2/ternary eutectic structures in the coating layer. MgZn2-related structures (Zn/MgZn2, Zn/Al/MgZn2, MgZn2) played an important role in increasing the corrosion resistance of Zn-Mg-Al alloy-coated steel sheets. Zn-3%Mg-2.5%Al coating layer containing a large volume of lamellar-shaped Zn/MgZn2 binary eutectic structures showed the best cut-edge corrosion resistance. The analysis indicated that Mg dissolved from MgZn2 in the early stage of corrosion and migrated to the cathodic region of steel-exposed cut-edge area to form dense and ordered protective corrosion products, leading to prolonged cathodic protection of Zn-Mg-Al alloy-coated steel sheets.

  5. The Ballistic and Corrosion Evaluation of Magnesium Elektron E675 vs. Baseline Magnesium Alloy AZ31B and Aluminum Alloy 5083 for Armor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Titanium — — 0.15 max Others each 0.05 max — 0.05 max Others total — 0.30 max 0.15 max Magnesium 99.80 min REM 4.0–4.9 max Specification cited ASTM...W COOK EGLIN AFB FL 32542 4 UNIV OF TEXAS INST FOR ADVNCD TECH S BLESS H FAIR J HODGE R SUBRAMANIAN 3925 W BRAKER LN...RSRCH INST T HOLMQUIST G JOHNSON 5353 WAYZATA BLVD STE 607 MINNEAPOLIS MN 55416 1 US ARMY RAPID EQUIPPING FORCE R TURNER 10236

  6. A new method for welding aluminum alloy LY12CZ sheet with high strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the viewpoint of welding mechanics, a new welding technology-trailing peening was applied firstly to weld aluminum alloy LY12CZ sheet with high susceptibility to hot cracking. Trailing peening can exert a transverse extrusion strain on the metal in brittle temperature region (BTR) which can compensate for the tensioning strain during the cooling procedure post welding. So, welding hot cracking of LY12CZ sheet can be controlled effectively on the special jig for hot cracking experiment, and the phenomenon of hot cracking can't be found in specimens with large dimensions finally. At the same time, welding with trailing peening can decrease welding distortion caused by longitudinal and transverse shrinkage of weld obviously. Due to strengthening the poor position-weld toe during the process of welding, the residual stress distribution of welded joint is more reasonable. Contrast with conventional welding, mechanical properties such as tensile strength, prolongation ratio and cold-bending angle of welded joint with trailing peening can be improved obviously, and rupture position of welded joint transits from weld toe at conventional welding to weld metal at trailing peening. So, welding with trailing peening can be regarded as a dynamic welding method with low stress, little distortion and hot cracking-free really. As far as theoretical analysis is concerned, the technology of trailing peening can be used to weld the materials with high susceptibility to hot cracking such as LY12CZ and LD10, and solve the welding distortion of thin plate-shell welded structures which contain closed welds such as flange. In addition, the technology of trailing peening has many advantages: simple device, high efficiency, low cost and flexible application which make the welding method have widely applied foreground in the field of aeronautics and aerospace.

  7. Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al Alloy/Mg Alloy Laminated Composite Plates Fabricated by Equal Channel Angular Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guorui; ZHAO Dong; ZHAO Yaojiang; ZHOU Bin; WANG Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    KAl (7075) alloy /Mg (AZ31) alloy laminated composite plates were successfully fabricated by the equal channel angular processing (ECAP) by using route A for 1, 2, and 3 passes at 573 K, respectively. After fabrication, the 1-pass ECAPed laminated composite plates were annealed at different temperatures. The microstructure evolution, phase constituent, and bonding strength near the joining interface of Al (7075) alloy /Mg (AZ31) alloy laminated composites plates were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and shear tests. The experimental results indicated that a 20 μm diffusion layer was observed at the joining interface of Al (7075) alloy /Mg (AZ31) alloy laminated composites plates fabricated by the 1-pass ECAP, which mainly included Al3Mg2 and Mg17Al12 phases. With the increase of passes, the increase of diffusion layer thickness was not obvious and the form of crack in these processes led to the decrease of bonding strength. For 1-pass ECAPed composites, the thickness of diffusion layer remained unchanged after annealed at 473 K, while the bonding strength reached its maximum value 29.12 MPa. However, after elevating heat treatment temperature to 573 K, the thickness of diffusion layer increased rapidly, and thus the bonding strength decreased.

  8. Study of the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy weddings in NaCl solutions by gravimetric tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segarra, J. A.; Calderon, B.; Portoles, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the corrosion behavior of commercial AZ31 welded plates in aqueous chloride media was investigated by means of gravimetric techniques and Neutral Salt Spray tests (NSS). The AZ31 samples tested were welded using Gas Tugsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and different filler materials. Material microstructures were investigated by optical microscopy to stablish the influence of those microstructures in the corrosion behavior. Gravimetric and NSS tests indicate that the use of more noble filler alloys for the sample welding, preventing the reduction of aluminum content in weld beads, does not imply a better corrosion behavior. (Author)

  9. Analysis on flow stress of magnesium alloys during high temperature deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The flow stress of magnesium alloys during hot compression at different temperatures and strain rates was studied by experiments. Materials used were AZ91D alloys in as-cast, homogeneous treatment states, AZ31 and ZK60 alloys in as-cast state.The results show that the thermal simulation curves of different alloys differ from one another at the same deforming condition. The general curves of AZ31 and AZ91D alloys have the character of dynamic recrystallization. There are increase of true stress, drastic falling of true stress and increase of true stress in most curves of ZK60 alloy, while the other curves have the characteristics of dynamic recrystallization. From the analysis the reasonable deforming temperature should be selected from 523 to 673 K for AZ31 and the unhomogenized AZ91D alloy, from 473 to 673 K for the homogenized AZ91D alloy, and it was concluded to be 473 K or 673 K for ZK60 alloy.

  10. Strengthening mechanisms of indirect-extruded Mg–Sn based alloys at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The strength of a material is dependent on how dislocations in its crystal lattice can be easily propagated. These dislocations create stress fields within the material depending on their intrinsic character. Generally, the following strengthening mechanisms are relevant in wrought magnesium materials tested at room temperature: fine-grain strengthening, precipitate strengthening and solid solution strengthening as well as texture strengthening. The indirect-extruded Mg–8Sn (T8 and Mg–8Sn–1Al–1Zn (TAZ811 alloys present superior tensile properties compared to the commercial AZ31 alloy extruded in the same condition. The contributions to the strengthen of Mg–Sn based alloys made by four strengthening mechanisms were calculated quantitatively based on the microstructure characteristics, physical characteristics, thermomechanical analysis and interactions of alloying elements using AZ31 alloy as benchmark.

  11. A microscopic study of crack initiation mechanisms in 7075 aluminum alloy sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. L.; Liebowitz, H.

    1973-01-01

    A study of the opening mode of crack initiation in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy sheets has been conducted with the aid of a scanning electron microscope. Observations were made from several orientations, including the top view of the specimen which showed the notch profile and the edge view of the specimen which showed the entire notch front along the specimen thickness. It was found that the edge view exhibited the first signs of permanent deformation at about 55% of the breaking strength. These changes took the form of deformation bands which were aligned in the direction of the tensile axis and apparently defined limiting regions of homogeneous slip. It is felt that the appearance of microcracks at loads approaching the breaking strength was of fundamental importance in the formation of the final fracture surface. Many of these microcraks were initiated at intermetallic particles and other metallurgically weak regions on the notch surface. It was also possible to correlate the strain in the notch with the stress intensity factor for the various loads. Very large plastic strains were observed on the notch tip as compared to published values of elongation at fracture for unnotched specimens.

  12. Textures variation of 3104 aluminum alloy sheets under different rolling conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卓超; 刘沿东; 张德芬; 左良; 王福

    2003-01-01

    The textures variation of 3104 aluminum alloy sheets during hot rolling, cold rolling, transverse cold rolling and cross shear rolling were investigated by means of X-ray ODF analysis. The results show that the main texture component {100}〈011〉 becomes stronger with the increase of hot rolling reduction. The cold rolling textures are composed of typical "copper-type" texture components C{112}〈111〉, S{123}〈634〉, R/S{124}〈211〉, B{110}〈112〉 and G{110}〈001〉, the orientation intensities increase with increasing cold rolling reduction. Compared to the conventional cold rolling with the same amount reduction, the transverse rolling reduces the orientation intensities of each cold rolling textures components, and strengthens the {001}〈110〉 and {110}〈uvw〉 texture components. During cross shear rolling process, notable difference of intensity of cold rolling textures components were observed from the slow roller side to the fast roller.

  13. Effect of Mg on microstructures and properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu aluminium alloys for automotive body sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; SONG Wen-ju; ZHAO Gang; LIU Chun-ming; ZUO Liang

    2005-01-01

    The effects of variation of Mg content on microstructures,the tensile properties and the formability of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys for automotive body sheets were investigated by means of scan electron microscopy,optical metallographic analysis,tensile and Ericsson tests.The results show that for Al-Mg-Si-Cu aluminium alloys with excessive Si,with an increment of Mg content,the strength enhances,the specific elongation and Erisson values of alloys decrease,and the number of Mg2 Si constituent increases and that of Al(MnFe)Si type constituents reduces.Al-MgSi-Cu aluminium alloys with excessive Si for automotive body sheets can present obviously the paint bake hardenability during the paint bake cycle (I.e.artificial aging at 170 ℃ for 30 min immediately after the solution treatment and quenching).Suitable Mg content should be controlled in the range of 0.8% and 1.2 % (mass fraction).

  14. Micromorphological effect of calcium phosphate coating on compatibility of magnesium alloy with osteoblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromoto, Sachiko; Yamazaki, Tomohiko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were developed to control the degradation speed and to improve the biocompatibility of biodegradable magnesium alloys. Osteoblast MG-63 was cultured directly on OCP- and HAp-coated Mg-3Al-1Zn (wt%, AZ31) alloy (OCP- and HAp-AZ31) to evaluate cell compatibility. Cell proliferation was remarkably improved with OCP and HAp coatings which reduced the corrosion and prevented the H2O2 generation on Mg alloy substrate. OCP-AZ31 showed sparse distribution of living cell colonies and dead cells. HAp-AZ31 showed dense and homogeneous distribution of living cells, with dead cells localized over and around corrosion pits, some of which were formed underneath the coating. These results demonstrated that cells were dead due to changes in the local environment, and it is necessary to evaluate the local biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. Cell density on HAp-AZ31 was higher than that on OCP-AZ31 although there was not a significant difference in the amount of Mg ions released in medium between OCP- and HAp-AZ31. The outer layer of OCP and HAp coatings consisted of plate-like crystal with a thickness of around 0.1 μm and rod-like crystals with a diameter of around 0.1 μm, respectively, which grew from a continuous inner layer. Osteoblasts formed focal contacts on the tips of plate-like OCP and rod-like HAp crystals, with heights of 2–5 μm. The spacing between OCP tips of 0.8–1.1 μm was wider than that between HAp tips of 0.2–0.3 μm. These results demonstrated that cell proliferation depended on the micromorphology of the coatings which governed spacing of focal contacts. Consequently, HAp coating is suitable for improving cell compatibility and bone-forming ability of the Mg alloy. PMID:28179963

  15. Analysis of laser welded joint of microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar magnesium AZ31B and AZ91D%AZ31B/AZ91D 异种镁合金激光焊接头组织性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 黄飞; 稼海星; 侯继军; 杜赵新

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the microstructure and properties of dissimilar magnesium AZ31B and AZ91D joints welded by CO2 laser using optical microscope,tensile test,microhardness test and etc are presented.The results show that a sound weld can be ob-tained with a laser power of 1 800 W,a welding speed of 600 mm/min and a flow rate of shielding gas of 15 L/min.Analysis of microstructure of welded joint shows that the heat affected zone is not apparent,the growth of the grains in base metal close to the fusion line are not obvious,and the grain size in weld is refined.X-ray diffraction shows that there areα-Mg andβ-Al12 Mg17 phases in the welded zone.EDS analysis shows that the element’s content of Mg,Al in the welded zone are between that of the base metal AZ91D and AZ31B.Tension results show that the fracture is mainly happened on AZ91D,which indicates that the tensile strength of joint is higher than the base metal AZ91D,and the dominant fracture mechanism is brittle fracture.The hard-ness of welded zone is higher than two base metals.%针对 AZ31B 和 AZ91D 异种镁合金材料的激光焊接问题,通过光学显微镜、拉伸试验、显微硬度测试等手段分析研究AZ31B 和 AZ91D 异种镁合金 CO2激光焊接头组织性能。结果表明:在功率为1800 W,焊接速度为600 mm/min,保护气流量为15 L/min 时,可以获得成形良好的焊缝。对焊接接头微观组织进行分析发现,接头热影响区不明显,熔合线附近母材侧晶粒未发生明显长大,焊缝晶粒明显细化;通过 XRD 检测可知焊缝区主要由α-Mg 和β-Al12 Mg17这2相组成;通过 EDS 能谱分析得到焊缝区 Mg、Al 元素的质量分数介于2种母材之间;通过拉伸试验发现,断裂位置位于 AZ91D 母材上,焊接接头抗拉强度高于AZ91D 母材,扫描断口显示断裂方式为脆性断裂;焊缝硬度高于2种母材硬度。

  16. 等通道转角挤压制备7075Al/AZ31复合板界面组织及结合强度%Interfacial microstructure and bonding strength of 7075Al/AZ31 composite plates fabricated by equal channel angular pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任广笑; 王红霞; 周斌; 刘一鸣; 王斌兵

    2016-01-01

    在573 K,通过等通道转角挤压成功制备了7075 Al/AZ31复合板,并采用SEM、EDS、XRD和剪切实验研究了挤压道次及退火温度对复合板界面层组织和性能的影响及剪切断裂面的组成.结果表明:1道次等通道转角挤压制备的复合板界面处形成厚度为20μm均匀致密的扩散层,由Al3Mg2相和Mg17Al12相组成,Al3 Mg2相层厚(17 μm)是Mg17Al12相层厚(3μm)的5.6倍.2道次等通道挤压后,扩散层厚度无变化,但是出现了裂纹,剪切强度大幅下降,剪切断裂面发生在Al3Mg3相层.复合板界面层在473 K退火,扩散层厚度无变化,裂纹无改善,剪切强度略有提高;573 K退火,复合板扩散层中的Al3 Mg2相层和β-Mg17Al12相层均急剧增厚,微裂纹被焊合,剪切强度均大幅下降.在相同处理状态下,1道次ECAP复合板剪切强度均高于2道次ECAP复合板,473 K退火处理后,强度高出30.11%.573 K退火处理后,强度高出12.4%.故利用等通道转角挤压法制备7075Al/AZ31复合板,1道次比较合适,扩散层退火温度不宜超过473 K.%7075Al/AZ31 laminated composites were successfully fabricated by equal channel angular processing (ECAP) at 573 K.The effect of ECAP passes arid annealing temperature on microstructure evolution,phase constituent and bonding strength near the joining interface of the laminated composites was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy,X-ray diffraction and shear tests.The results indicate that diffusion layer with thickness of 20 μm is observed at the joining interface of the laminated composites prepared by one ECAP pass.The diffusion layer is mainly composed of Al3Mg2 and β-Mg17Al12 phases.After two ECAP passes,the change of the diffusion layer thickness is not obvious,while the formation of crack in the diffusion layer leads to the bonding strength decreasing.After annealing at 473 K,the thickness of the diffusion layer and the crack remains unchange,while the bonding strength increass

  17. Metal release from stainless steel powders and massive sheets--comparison and implication for risk assessment of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Mazinanian, Neda; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2013-02-01

    Industries that place metal and alloy products on the market are required to demonstrate that they are safe for all intended uses, and that any risks to humans, animals or the environment are adequately controlled. This requires reliable and robust in vitro test procedures. The aim of this study is to compare the release of alloy constituents from stainless steel powders of different grades (focus on AISI 316L) and production routes into synthetic body fluids with the release of the same metals from massive sheets in relation to material and surface characteristics. The comparison is justified by the fact that the difference between massive surfaces and powders from a metal release/dissolution and surface perspective is not clearly elucidated within current legislations. Powders and abraded and aged (24 h) massive sheets were exposed to synthetic solutions of relevance for biological settings and human exposure routes, for periods of up to one week. Concentrations of released iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese in solution were measured, and the effect of solution pH, acidity, complexation capacity, and proteins elucidated in relation to surface oxide composition and its properties. Implications for risk assessments based on in vitro metal release data from alloys are elucidated.

  18. Effect of strain rate on microstructure and mechanical properties of a Mg-9Li-2Zn alloy sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A two-phase Mg-9Li-2Zn alloy sheet is made by cold-rolling at room temperature, and the formability of it at room temperature is investigated in this study. Uniaxial tension tests are carried out for various strain rates between 0. 5 mm/min and 250 mm/min, and the microstructural changes during the tests are observed. The sheet has high formability at comparatively low strain rates. Maximum elongation amounts to 40%. However, ductility decreases with the increase of strain rate. Even at room temperature, the stress is also sensitive to the strain rate. There are many large dimples at comparatively low strain rates, and small dimples occur at high strain rates, it shows fine sub-grains come into being.

  19. Evaluation of forming limit in viscous pressure forming of automotive aluminum alloy 6k21-T4 sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A ductile fracture criterion is introduced into numerical simulation to predict viscous pressure forming limit of the automotive body aluminum alloy 6k21-T4. The material constant in the ductile fracture criterion is determined by the combination of the viscous pressure bulging (VPB) test with numerical simulation. VPB tests of the aluminum alloy sheet are carried out by using various elliptical dies with different ratios of major axis to minor axis(β), and the bugling processes are simulated by the aid of the finite element method software LS-DYNA3D. On the basis of the stress and strain calculated from numerical simulations, the forming limits of bulging specimens obtained are predicted by the ductile fracture criterion, and compared with experimental results.The fracture initiation site and the minimal thickness predicted by the ductile fracture criterion are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Numerical simulation for determination of limit strains of a cold rolled and solution treated Nimonic C-263 alloy sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Ankamma; P V R Ravindra Reddy; S Nagarjuna; G Chandra Mohan Reddy; M Komaraiah; N Eswara Prasad

    2011-06-01

    Nimonic alloys are Ni-base superalloys used for several high temperature applications, notable among them are the components in space vehicles, rocket engines, submarines, nuclear reactors, chemical processing vessels and heat exchange tubing as they exhibit excellent mechanical strength and creep resistance at high temperatures. Hence, evaluation of their formability characteristics is of utmost importance to make them into several useful components. Limit strains or forming limit curve is one of the parameters that indicates the formability, especially the drawability of sheet metal for deep drawing applications. In this paper, the limit strains of Nimonic C-263 alloy is investigated and presented using an explicit finite element code LSDYNA 3D. The material properties and the material model are evaluated by conducting tensile tests. The limit strains obtained from the simulation are verified by the analytical equations developed using vertex theory. The results tally within ±10% error.

  1. Analysis of surface orange peel of aluminum-alloy automobile sheet by using of EBSD and X-ray diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Sun Zhifu; Wang Zhiwe; Lu Hongzhou; Zhou Mingbo

    2012-01-01

    The formation cause of orange peel of aluminum-alloy automotive sheet after tensile deformation was analysed by using X-ray diffraction and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The test results showed that formation cause of surface orange peel after tensile deformation related to product texture and nonuniform deformation during the tensile process. The grain size has significant effect on deformation uniform and texture formation. Coarse grains were easy to produce nonuniform deformation and texture, which would produce surface orange peel after tensile deformation.

  2. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045 and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) plate, sheet and strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045 and N06696), Nickel-Chromium