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Sample records for alloxan

  1. The use of Alloxan and Streptozotocin in Experimental Diabetes Models

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    Zehra Kurçer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which leads to several acute and chronic complications, morbidity and mortality, and decreased lifespan and quality of life. Therefore, in research studies that aim to enlighten the pathogenesis of diabetes and investigate possible treatment strategies, experimental animal models of diabetes provide many advantages to the investigator. Models of diabetes obtained by chemical induction, diet, surgical manipulations or combination thereof and also new genetically modified animal models are some of the experimental models. Alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ, which are toxic glucose analogues that preferentially accumulate in pancreatic beta cells, are widely used toxic agents to induce experimental diabetes in animals. This review gives an overview on the use of alloxan and STZ to induce chemical diabetes models with reference to their mechanisms, utilizable doses, advantages and disadvantages in diabetes research. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 34-40

  2. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

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    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  3. SIFAT HIPOGLISEMIK PAKAN TINGGI PROTEIN KEDELAI PADA MODEL DIABEIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [Hypoglicemic Property of a High-Protein Soybean Based Feed in Model alloxan Induced Diabetic

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    C. Retnaningsih 1

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglicemic properties of soybean protein were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Twenty eight mature male Sprague Dawley (SD rats (250-300g were used and divided into four groups of seven rats. They were: 1 Placebo Standars (PS; 2 Alloxan Injection Standard (AS; 3 Alloxan injection soybean protein 250% (APK 250 dan 4 Alloxen injection soybean protein 100% (APK 100. One group was injected with aquabidest (Placebo and three group were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intramuscular injection.Placebo-Standard (PS and Alloxan injection Standar (AS groups were fed standard diet whereas APK 250 100 were fed soybean protein deit for 42 days. Concentration of serum glucose was determined before incention (0day and 1, 2, 143, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after injection.The result showed that alloxan injection increased the level of serum glucose. Bioassay experiment demonstrated that diet on high conceration of soybean protein (250% decreased the level of serum glucose from 351,44 mg/dl to 230,62 mg/dl (34,37% while soy protein 100% descreased the level of serum glucose.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of endomorphins in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Liu, Jing; Yu, Ye; Fan, Ying-zhe; Chang, Hui; Liu, Hong-mei; Cui, Yun; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Rui

    2005-04-01

    Endomorphins, the endogenous, potent and selective mu-opioid receptor agonists, have been shown to decrease systemic arterial pressure (SAP) in rats. In the present study, responses to endomorphins were investigated in systemic vascular bed of alloxan-induced diabetic rats and in non-diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (220 mg/kg, i.p.) in male Wistar rats. At 4-5 weeks after the onset of diabetes, intravenous injections of endomorphins (1-30 nmol/kg) led to an increase of SAP and heart rate (HR) consistently and dosed-dependently. SAP increased 7.68+/-3.73, 11.19+/-4.55, 21.19+/-2.94 and 27.48+/-6.21% from the baseline at the 1, 3, 10 and 30 nmol/kg dose, respectively, of endomorphin 1 (n=4; pendomorphin 2. The hypertension could be antagonized markedly by i.p. 2 mg/kg of naloxone. On the other hand, bilateral vagotomy would attenuate the effects of hypertension and diminished the changes of HR in response to endomorphins. With diabetic rats, 6-10 weeks after the induction of diabetes, intravenous injections of endomorphins produced non-dose-related various changes in SAP, such as a single decrease, or a single increase, or biphasic changes characterized by an initial decrease followed by a secondary increase, or no change at all. These results suggest that diabetes may lead to the dysfunction of the cardiovascular system in response to endomorphins. Furthermore, the diabetic rats of 4-5 weeks after alloxan-treatment, the increase in SAP and HR caused by i.v. endomorphins might be explained by a changed effect of vagus and by a naloxone-sensitive mechanism.

  5. Antidiabetic activity of Rheum emodi in Alloxan induced diabetic rats.

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    Radhika.R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of Rheum emodi rhizome extract and to study the activities of hexokinase, aldolase and phosphoglucoisomerase, and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6- phosphatase and fructose 1,6-diphosphatase in liver and kidney of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of 75 % ethanolic extract of R. emodi (250 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, resulted in decrease inthe activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-disphosphatase, aldolase and an increase in the activity of phosphoglucoisomerase and hexokinase in tissues. The study clearly shows that the R.emodi possesses antidiabetic activity.

  6. Muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats: effects of continuous and intermittent swimming training

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    Ribeiro Carla

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the effects of intermittent and continuous swimming training on muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats. Methods Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups: sedentary alloxan (SA, sedentary control (SC, continuous trained alloxan (CA, intermittent trained alloxan (IA, continuous trained control (CC and intermittent trained control (IC. Alloxan (250 mg/kg body weight was injected into newborn rats at 6 days of age. The continuous training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 5% of body weight; uninterrupted swimming for 1 h/day, five days a week. The intermittent training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 15% of body weight; 30 s of activity interrupted by 30 s of rest for a total of 20 min/day, five days a week. Results At 28 days, the alloxan animals displayed higher glycemia after glucose overload than the control animals. No differences in insulinemia among the groups were detected. At 120 days, no differences in serum albumin and total protein among the groups were observed. Compared to the other groups, DNA concentrations were higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to continuous training, whereas the DNA/protein ratio was higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to intermittent training. Conclusion It was concluded that continuous and intermittent training sessions were effective in altering muscle growth by hyperplasia and hypertrophy, respectively, in alloxan-administered animals.

  7. Antidiabetic effect of Sida cordata in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

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    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are efficient ameliorator of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE) of Sida cordata was investigated for scientific validation of its folk use in diabetes. Antidiabetic effect of SCEE was confirmed by antihyperglycemic activity in normal glucose loaded and diabetic glucose loaded animals as well as normal off feed animals. Confirmation of antidiabetic activity and toxicity ameliorative role of S. cordata was investigated in a chronic multiple dose treatment study of fifteen days. A single dose of alloxan (120 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and decreased the high-density lipoproteins. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), H2O2, and nitrite in pancreas, liver, and testis. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Administration of SCEE for 15 days after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, restored lipid profile, blunted the increase in TBARS, H2O2, and nitrite content, and stimulated the GSH production in the organs of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that SCEE could be used as antidiabetic component in case of diabetes mellitus. This may be related to its antioxidative properties.

  8. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Anoja P Attanayake

    2013-01-01

    C onclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  9. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Moringa Oleifera Linn on Alloxan Induced Hyperglycemia

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    Ruchi Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study determines the effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds with respect to its route of administration. The rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I-Rats received only rat chow and water. Group II- Rats received alloxan and were treated with 500mg/kg body weight after 2hours. Group III- Rats receiving alloxan after 2 hours were treated with aqueous extract of M. oleifera (500mg/kg body weight intraperitonially. Group IV- Rats receiving alloxan after 24 hours began receiving aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds (500mg/kg body weight intraperitonially for 1 week. The result of the study showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level after 12 hours and also after 7 days of both orally and intraperitonially with M. oleifera seed extract. This proves that M. oleifera seed extract have a hypoglycemic effect on both the mild and severe alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats.

  10. Protective and curative effects of Cocos nucifera inflorescence on alloxan-induced pancreatic cytotoxicity in rats

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    Raveendran S Renjith

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The results obtained in the study indicate the protective and curative effects of CnI on alloxan-induced pancreatic cytotoxicity, which is mediated through the regulation of carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities and islets cell repair.

  11. Anti-diabetic activity of crude Pistacia lentiscus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats

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    Muhammad Saad Ur Rehman; Sairah Hafeez Kamran; Mobasher Ahmad; Usman Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of crude Pistacia lentiscus gum (mastic gum) in alloxan-treated diabetic rat model. The crude P. lentiscus (100 mg/kg) showed significant (p

  12. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Plectranthus Amboinicus on Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Viswanathaswamy, A.H.M.; Koti, B. C.; Aparna Gore; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Kulkarni, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg). Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6) receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied...

  13. The electronic structure of alloxan monohydrate. Spectroscopic and density functional synergic approach

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    Elroby, Shaaban A.; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Hilal, Rifaat H.

    2017-02-01

    In the present communication, quantitative interpretation and assignments of the electronic absorption spectra, vibrational and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra of alloxan, are detailed. A synergic analysis based on DFT and TD-DFT calculations and the experimental findings are performed. Attempt is made to relate these spectral findings to the electronic structure of alloxan. The computed electronic spectrum predicted three well defined bands. Natural transition orbital analysis indicate an intramolecular charge transfer from npπ orbital of the water oxygen atom resulting in the short wavelength nπ* at ∼200 nm. Furthermore, UV-photoabsorption cross section for alloxan and its monohydrate are simulated. The spectrum, composed of 10 excited states, was simulated with the nuclear ensemble approximation, sampling a Wigner distribution with 300 points. The FT-IR spectrum of alloxan, measured in the solid state as KBr pellets is reported and is computed at the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. All observed vibrations are assigned. The 600 MHz one- and two-dimensional COSY, 1H NMR spectra of alloxan, measured in DMSO, are reported and analyzed and computed theoretically using the GIAO method. Hydrogen-bond interactions are responsible for remarkable downfield shift of 1H NMR peaks for alloxan.

  14. Thymus involution in alloxan diabetes: analysis of mast cells

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    EO Barreto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that alloxan-induced diabetes results in reduction in the number and reactivity of mast cells at different body sites. In this study, the influence of diabetes on thymic mast cells was investigated. Thymuses from diabetic rats showed marked alterations including shrinkage, thymocyte depletion, and increase in the extracellular matrix network, as compared to those profiles seen in normal animals. Nevertheless, we noted that the number and reactivity of mast cells remained unchanged. These findings indicate that although diabetes leads to critical alterations in the thymus, the local mast cell population is refractory to its effect. This suggests that thymic mast cells are under a different regulation as compared to those located in other tissues.

  15. [The effect of alloxan on the multiplication of different types of normal or cancerous cells, and on the transformation of chick embryo fibroblasts by Rous virus in vitro].

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    Grobon, P; Latarjet, R

    1975-05-26

    The action of alloxan was studied in vitro, on different categories of normal or cancerous cells. At concentrations of 250 and 350 gamma/ml, alloxan does not significantly inhibit the growth of normal cells, whereas it does inhibit the growth of cancerous cells. Furthermore, alloxan inhibits infection and transformation of chicken-embryo fibroblasts infected by the Rous virus.

  16. PENGARUH DIET KACANG MERAH TERHADAP KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [Effect of Red Bean Diet on Blood Glucose Concentration of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Y. Marsono 1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic response of red bean were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of red bean (Vigna umbellata diet compare with soy bean diet on blood glucose concentration in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (250-300 g were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intra muscular injection. They were divided into three groups of ten rats. They were fed (1 Standard diet (STD, (2 Red bean diet (KM, and (3 Soy bean diet (KD for 28 days. Concentration of serum glucose were determined before injection (0 day,after injection (day 17th and every sweek during diet intervention (day 24,31,38 and 45thIt was found that alloxan injection increased serum glucose concentration of STD, KM, and KD rats. After 28 days intervention, red bean decreased the serum glucose concentration from 217, 87 mg/dL to 57,70 mg/dL (69 % in KM groups and from 218,94 mg/dL to 76,82 mg/dL (65 % in KD groups, but standard diet (STD were decreased less than both of KM and KD diet.

  17. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Croton lobatus L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Fasola, Taiye Remi; Ukwenya, Blessing; Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Croton lobatus contains a high amount of antioxidant phytochemicals that probably account for its wide use as food and medicine in the traditional communities of West Africa. Methods: The study evaluated the modulatory role of methanol extract of Croton lobatus leaf on alloxan-induced diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications. Male rats were randomly selected and assigned to one of six groups (A to F) of eight animals each: A (distilled water); B (corn oil); C (Alloxan); D (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 Croton lobatus); E: (Alloxan + 200 mg kg-1 C. lobatus); and F (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 glibenclamide). Results: Acute toxicity studies revealed no mortality of rats at the administration of different doses of extract up to the 5,000 mg kg-1 dose. Histology of the pancreas showed focal area of necrosis, and fatty infiltration in diabetic untreated rats, but these lesions were absent in pancreas of rats treated with C. lobatus extract. Conclusion: Methanol leaf extract of C. lobatus reduced arteriogenic risk factors, improved antioxidant status, restored the observable pathological lesions associated with experimental diabetes in rats, and thus offers a new therapeutic window as herbal therapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular complications. PMID:27757266

  18. [Correlations of bile acids in the bile of rats in conditions of alloxan induced diabetes melitus].

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    Danchenko, N M; Vesel'skyĭ, S P; Tsudzevych, B O

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of bile acids in the bile of rats with alloxan diabetes was investigated using the method of thin-layer chromatography. Changes of coefficients of conjugation and hydroxylation of bile acids were calculated and analyzed in half-hour samples of bile obtained during the 3-hour experiment. It has been found that the processes of conjugation of cholic acid with glycine and taurine are inhibited in alloxan diabetes. At the same time a significant increase of free threehydroxycholic and dixydroxycholic bile acids and conjugates of the latter ones with taurine has been registered. Coefficients of hydroxylation in alloxan diabetes show the domination of "acidic" pathway in bile acid biosynthesis that is tightly connected with the activity of mitochondrial enzymes.

  19. An increased number of mast cells in the sclerae of alloxan-diabetic mice.

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    Jansson, L; Naeser, P

    1987-04-01

    The number of mast cells in the sclerae and retinae has been investigated in alloxan-diabetic mice, in obese-hyperglycaemic mice and in non-diabetic, lean control animals. In contrast to the alloxan-diabetic mice the obese-hyperglycaemic animals have increased circulating inulin levels. In the sclerae of alloxan-diabetic mice the number of mast cells was significantly (P less than 0.05) increased. No increase in mast cell content could be observed in the sclerae of the obese-hyperglycaemic mice. No mast cells could be observed in the retina in any of the experimental groups. It is concluded that lack of insulin may be of importance for the accumulation of mast cells in the sclerae of mice with hyperglycaemia.

  20. Comparison on hypoglycemic effect of Oyster (Pleurotusosteratus and Reishi (Ganodermalucidum mushroom in alloxan induced diabetic mice

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    Debendra Nath Roy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotusosteratus (family: Pleurotaceae and Ganodermalucidum (family: ganodermataceae are common edible mushrooms in Bangladesh. Ethyl acetate extract of Pleurotusosteratus and Ganodermalucidum were used to find out their hypoglycaemicactivity in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Ethyl acetate extract of Pleurotusosteratus and Ganodermalucidum reduced blood glucose level of 39.56% and 43.27% respectively at 24 hours after intrapertitoneal administration (P<0.005 inalloxan induced diabeticmice.The possible mechanism of hypoglycemic action is due to the increased glucose uptake in liver cells because it markedly lowers the blood glucose levels in alloxan induced diabeticmice.

  1. Influence of glycorazmulin on the parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in alloxane diabetes

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    Ziyoda Fayzieva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There was studied effect of glycorazmulin on the morphological structure of the liver and pancreatic gland under the conditions of alloxane diabetes. The study found that that glycorazmulin eliminates pathomorphological changes that occur in alloxane diabetes in the liver and pancreatic gland, and stimulates reparative processes in these organs. The effect of this preparation is mainly directed to stimulation of the regeneration of β-cells. The elimination of histostructural changes resulted in compensation of the damaged metabolic processes in diabetes mellitus. Besides, marked increase in C-peptide in the blood is the confirmation of the insulin secretion stimulation under the effect of this preparation.

  2. Anti-diabetic activity of crude Pistacia lentiscus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats

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    Muhammad Saad Ur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of crude Pistacia lentiscus gum (mastic gum in alloxan-treated diabetic rat model. The crude P. lentiscus (100 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in blood glucose as compared to control. Liver function test also showed significant changes (p<0.001 as compared to alloxan-treated group. The results of this study showed that crude P. lentiscus gum have considerable efficacy in curing diabetes and have hepatoprotective effect.

  3. Antidiabetic activity of Plumeria rubra L. in normal and alloxan induced diabetic mice

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    Amruta V. Yadav

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: PR exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study provide support to the traditional usage of the plant in diabetes. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 884-889

  4. Protective effect of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Ma Song-Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. are a traditional Chinese medicine for blood serum glucose reduction. This study evaluated the protective effects of mulberry flavonoids on sciatic nerve in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 80 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: A (control, B (diabetic treated with saline, C-D (diabetic treated with 0.3, 0.1 g/kg mulberry flavonoids once a day for 8 weeks and E (diabetic treated with 0.3 mg/kg methycobal. The diabetic condition was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. At the end of the experimental period, blood, and tissue samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Treatment with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids significantly inhibited the elevated serum glucose (P< 0.01. The increased myelin sheath area (P< 0.01, myelinated fiber cross-sectional area and extramedullary fiber number (P< 0.05 were also reduced in alloxan-induced rats treated with 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids. 0.3 g/kg mulberry flavonoids also markedly decreased onion-bulb type myelin destruction and degenerative changes of mitochondria and Schwann cells. These findings demonstrate that mulberry flavonoids may improve the recovery of a severe peripheral nerve injury in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and is likely to be useful as a potential treatment on peripheral neuropathy (PN in diabetic rats.

  5. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of plectranthus amboinicus on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Viswanathaswamy, A H M; Koti, B C; Gore, Aparna; Thippeswamy, A H M; Kulkarni, R V

    2011-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg). Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6) receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. Glibenclamide (600 μg/kg) was used as a reference drug. Oral administration with graded doses of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and significantly reduced the peak glucose levels after 120 min of glucose loading. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the daily oral treatment with ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed a significant reduction in blood glucose. Besides, administration of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus for 15 days significantly decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides whereas HDL-cholesterol, total proteins and calcium were effectively increased. Furthermore, effect of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed profound elevation of serum amylase and reduction of serum lipase. Histology examination showed ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited almost normalization of damaged pancreatic architecture in rats with diabetes mellitus. Studies clearly demonstrated that ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves possesses hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects mediated through the restoration of the functions of pancreatic tissues and insulinotropic effect.

  6. [Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes].

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    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between the antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipine, reamberin and mexidol) and their effect on conditional learning, glycemia, and lipidemia was studied in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. In parallel, the analogous relationship was investigated for alpha-lipoic acid that is regarded as a "gold standard" in treatment of diabetic neuropathy. It was established that single administration of emoxipine and mexidol in mice in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans produces antihypoxic effect manifested by increased resistance to acute hypoxic hypoxia in test animals. Alpha-lipoic acid is inferior to emoxipin and mexidol in the degree of antihypoxic action. Reamberin does not exhibit this effect. The introduction of emoxipin, reamberin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes during 7 or 14 days in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans corrects conditional learning disorders in direct relationship with the antihypoxic activity of these drugs. The development of the nootropic effect of emoxipin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid is related to a decrease in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats with alloxan diabetes. The nootropic action of reamberin is accompanied by a transient hypoglycemizing effect and aggravation of dyslipidemic disorders. The antihypoxic activity of investigated drugs determines the direction and expression of their lipidemic effect, but is not correlated with the hypoglycemizing action these drugs on test animals with alloxan diabetes.

  7. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta–cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Onakpa Michael Monday

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.

  8. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Grewia asiatica Linn. bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Inspite of introduction of oral hypoglycemic agents, diabetes and its related complications remains to be a major clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of Grewia asiatica (Linn) stem bark in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by a single dose of intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (110 mg/kg) in Norwegian Long Evans rats. Ethanol extract of barks from Grewia asiatica (GAE ...

  9. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA PULP AND SEED EXTRACT IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Somshuvra Bhattacharya et al

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic potential of Lagenaria siceraria pulp extract (LSPE) and Lagenaria siceraria seed extract (LSSE) against the pancreatic damage from alloxan-induced diabetes in rats related to diabetes mellitus. Lagenaria siceraria induced significant reduction in blood glucose and increasing of serum insulin, our data indicate that the level of glucose in the animals that were subjected with alloxan was 210 mg/dl comparing with normal 70...

  10. ANTIDIABETIC AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FENUGREEK EXTRACT ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Parixit Bhandurge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecumL. Leguminosae is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Antihyperglycaemic effect of the two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg of the fenugreek extract was evaluated in this study. Blood glucose, liver profile, renal profile and total lipid levels were determined in alloxan induced diabetic rats after oral administration of a fenugreek extract. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract. The extract lowered the total cholesterol and serum triglycerides. Histopathological analysis of pancreas showed normal acini, and normal cellular in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas of normal control and Extensive damage to islets of langerhans and reduced dimensions of islets in alloxan induced diabetes. Restoration of islets of langerhans seen in diabetic rats treated with fenugreek extract. The results of this study clearly shows the hypoglycaemic activity of the extract

  11. Antidiabetic activity of Adina cordifolia (Roxb) leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Prashant Chaudhary; Bharat Goel; Ashoke Kumar Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) leaves (HAEACL) in alloxan induced diabetic rats at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. Methods:Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, s.c.) was used as the standard which produced a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. The blood glucose levels of experimental animals were determined at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after treatment with the plant extract by using glu-oxidase peroxidise reactive strips and glucometer. Results: Treatment with HAEACL at 500 mg/kg dose decreased the blood glucose level significantly. However, the lower doses (250 mg/kg) of HAEACL produced a little decrease in blood glucose level. It showed that there was a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose level in the alloxan induced diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Conclusions: The present study shows that HAEACL possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  12. Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Carthamus tinctorius oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

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    Rahimi Parivash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Carthamus tinctorius Linn.(Safflower seed oil was investigated in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. The seed oil of safflower at dose of 200 mg/kg was administered as single dose per day to diabetic rats for a period of 28 days. The effect of oil on blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, low density (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL and enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were also determined. Results: Levels of blood glucose, TC, TGs, LDL, ALT, AST and ALP decreased and HDL increased in alloxan induced diabetic rats after treatment with 200 mg/kg safflower seed oil for 28 days. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that seed oil of safflower seems to be useful for the prevention of diabetes complications.

  13. Inhibition of stress induced hyperglucagonemia by administration of glucose in normal and alloxan-diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes, I; Jurcovicová, J; Németh, S; Jezová, D; Vigas, M

    1981-01-01

    The increase in plasma pancreatic glucagon which is known to occur under several stress conditions was confirmed in fed and 18 h prefasted rats subjected to a low, "stress producing" dose of the Noble-collip drum procedure (400 revolutions per 400 s). A single dose of exogenous glucose ( 1 g kg-1) injected 3 min and 20 s before stress into the jugular vein of intact fasted or fed animals anesthetized with pentobarbital 930 mg kg-1) completely abolished their hyperglucagonemic response in stress. In alloxan-diabetic hyperglycemic rats the stress-hyperglucagonemia was exaggerated, but was also suppressible by exogenous glucose. It was concluded that: 1. the stress induced hyperglucagonemic response of both intact and alloxan-diabetic rats was completely suppressible by administration of i.v. bolus of exogenous glucose; 2. the site inhibiting effect of glucose might be located either at the level of A cell or at the level of "'glucoreceptors" in hypothalamus.

  14. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic potential of Caesalpinia decapetala in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits

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    Liaqat Hussain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, kidney and hepatoprotective potential of Caesalpinia decapetala were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The plant extract showed concentration dependant significant (p<0.001 therapeutic potential in diabetic rabbits revealing improvement in lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg oral extract were able to reduce average blood glucose levels from 250.6 mg/dL to 204.2 mg/dL and 188.2 mg/dL respectively during 14 days period, in comparison to 183.8 mg/dL of glibenclamide. There was no significant synergistic effect found, upon co-administration of both drug and extract representing the competitive binding to sulphonyl urea (SUR1, revealing possible mechanism of action for compounds in extract. Extract was found to be nephroprotective, hepatoprotective and improved lipid profile of alloxan-treated rabbits.

  15. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    César Tadeu Spadella

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  16. Hypoglycemic effect of Geranium ruizii Hieron. (pasuchaca) ethanolic extract on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Calderón, Oscar; Laboratorio de Fisiología y Fisiopatología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Perú; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Chinchay Salazar, Rosa; Laboratorio de Fisiología y Fisiopatología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Perú;; Palomino Ormeño, Estela; Laboratorio de Fisiología y Fisiopatología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Perú;; Arango Valencia, Evelyn; Laboratorio de Fisiología y Fisiopatología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Perú;; Arroyo, Jorge; Laboratorio de Farmacología Experimental, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Geranium ruizii Hieron. (pasuchaca) is a medicinal plant used by traditional medicine to lower glycemia, in Ancash, Peru. Objective: To determine the hypoglycemic effect of Geranium ruizii ethanolic extract on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats. Design: Experimental. Setting: Laboratorio de Farmacología Experimental, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Biological material: Geranium ruizii, eight weeks female Holtzman rats 200 ± 20 g of body weight...

  17. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Plectranthus amboinicus on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    A. H. M. Viswanathaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg. Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=6 receiving different treatments. Graded doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus were studied in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. Glibenclamide (600 μg/kg was used as a reference drug. Oral administration with graded doses of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and significantly reduced the peak glucose levels after 120 min of glucose loading. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the daily oral treatment with ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed a significant reduction in blood glucose. Besides, administration of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus for 15 days significantly decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides whereas HDL-cholesterol, total proteins and calcium were effectively increased. Furthermore, effect of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus showed profound elevation of serum amylase and reduction of serum lipase. Histology examination showed ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus exhibited almost normalization of damaged pancreatic architecture in rats with diabetes mellitus. Studies clearly demonstrated that ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves possesses hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects mediated through the restoration of the functions of pancreatic tissues and insulinotropic effect.

  18. THE EXCHANGE OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE BIOPOLYMERS IN THE LIVER OF ALLOXAN DIABETIC RATS

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    S. V. Lomaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Study of the exchange of liver and blood plasma biopolymers of alloxan diabetic rats.Materials and Methods. Diabetes mellitus was modeled in rats by single subcutaneous injection of alloxan tetrahydrate (170 mg per100 gbody weight. Blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin were controlled and morphometric study of the pancreas was carried out for the verification of the model. A month later, concentration of glycosaminoglycans, free hydroxyproline and the level of hyaluronidase and collagenolytic activity in plasma were determined. The total concentration of collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and their fractions, the level of hyaluronidase and collagenolytic activity in rat liver homogenate were measured.Results. The level of all the parameters of interest in the liver and blood plasma increased on 30 day after alloxan injection, the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in the liver occurred mainly due to unsulfonated fraction.Conclusion. The development of experimental diabetes in rats is accompanied by activation of both decay processes and synthesis of biopolymers studied. Accumulation of total collagen and glycosaminoglycans was observed in rats’ liver, which probably lead to the fibrosis changes in it.

  19. Evaluation of Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity of Kariveppilai Churnam in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

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    C. Mary Sharmila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The present investigation is undertaken to study the effect of Kariveppilai churnam on changes in Body weight, Plasma glucose, Plasma Insulin, Hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile in alloxan induced Diabetic Rats. Methodology - The raw materials of the compound herbal drug were purchased, identified and pulverized into powder form. The trial drug was administered to alloxan induced diabetic male albino rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups with 6 rats in each group. Group 1, 2 and 3 were normal control, toxic control and diabetic control respectively. Group 4 and 5 received the trial drug at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg orally respectively once a day. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the trial drug was evaluated using the parameters of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides , HDL and phospholipids. Results – The administration of the trial drug at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the body weight of the diabetes induced rats showed significant decrease in the above mentioned elevated parameters. Glipizide (10mg/kg was used as the reference standard. Conclusion- From the results it can be observed that trial drug at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg has protective effect against alloxan induced diabetes and its complications. The findings suggest that kariveppilai churnam possess anti-atherogenic property along with anti hyperglycemic activity.

  20. Profile of blood glucose and ultrastucture of beta cells pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats

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    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is marked by elevated levels of blood glucose, and progressive changes of the structure of pancreatic islet histopathology. The objective of this research was to analyse the glucose level and histophatological feature in pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats. A total of ten male Spraque Dawley rats of 2 months old were used in this study. The rats were divided into two groups: (1 negative control group (K-, and (2 positif induced alloxan group (diabetic group =DM. The rats were induced by a single dose intraperitonial injection of alloxan compound 120 mg/kg of body weight. The treatment was conducted for 28 days. Blood glucose levels of rats were analysed at 0, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days following treatment. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Pancreas was collected for analysis of histopathological study by Immunohistochemical technique, and ultrastructural study using transmission electron microscope (TEM. The result showed that Langerhans islet of diabetic rat (rat of DM group showed a marked reduction of size, number of Langerhans islet of diabetic rat decrease, and characterized by hyperglycemic condition. By using TEM, beta cells of DM group showed the rupture of mitochondrial membrane, the lost of cisternal structure of inner membrane of mitocondria, reduction of insulin secretory granules, linkage between cells acinar with free Langerhans islet, and the caryopicnotic of nucleus.

  1. Bone regeneration in cranioplasty and clinical complications in rabbits with alloxan-induced diabetes

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    Evanice Menezes Marçal Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the bone repair process in surgical defects created on the parietal bones of diabetic rabbits using the guided bone regeneration technique to observe the effects of alloxan in the induction of diabetes mellitus. Twenty-four adult rabbits were divided into three study groups: control (C, diabetic (D and diabetic associated to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membrane (D-PTFE. For diabetes induction the animals received one dose of monohydrated alloxan (90 mg/kg by intravenous administration in the auricular or femoral vein. In group D-PTFE the membrane covered both the floor and the surface of the bone defect. In groups D and C, the bone defect was filled up with blood clot. The specimens were fixed in 10% formol and prepared for histomorphometric analysis. The results showed that the 90 mg/kg dose of monohydrate alloxan was sufficient to promote diabetes mellitus when administered in the auricular vein. Bone regeneration was slower in the diabetic group when compared with the control and diabetic-PTFE groups, but there was no significant statistical difference between the two experimental groups (D and D-PTFE. The oral and general clinical complications among the diabetics were weight loss, polyuria, polyphagia and severe chronic gingivitis.

  2. Amelioration of Glomerulosclerosis by Satureja khozestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Satureja khuzestanica, an endemic plant of Iran, has been reported to be used traditionally to treat diabetes. We examined possible protective effect of Satureja khozestanica essential oil (SKE on glomerulosclerosis in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 Sprage-dawley male rats were divided into 3 groups randomly; group 1 as control, group 2 diabetic untreated, and group 3 treatments with SKE by 500 ppm in drinking water, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, animals were anaesthetized; livers and kidneys were then removed immediately. Kidney paraffin sections were prepared and stained by periodic acid Schiff method. Glomerular volume and leukocyte infiltration were estimated by stereological rules and glomerular sclerosis was studied semi-quantitatively. Results: Flow treatment of diabetic animals with SKE could significantly inhibit glomerular hypertrophy (22% leukocyte infiltration (31% and glomerulosclerosis (20% in comparison with the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: The findings showed that SKE alleviates loss of glomerular volume, leukocyte infiltration, and glomerulosclerosis and exerts beneficial effects on the lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

  3. Effects of physical training with different intensities of effort on lipid metabolism in rats submitted to the neonatal application of alloxan

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    Ribeiro Carla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic disease that is characterized by insulin resistance. Its development is directly connected with the inability of insulin to exert its action, not just on carbohydrate metabolism but also on primarily on lipid metabolism. The present study aimed to compare the effects of continuous, intermittent, and strength training on serum and tissue variables on the lipid metabolism of alloxan rats. Methods Wistar rats were divided into eight groups: sedentary alloxan (SA, sedentary control (SC, continuous training alloxan (CA, intermittent training alloxan (IA, strength training alloxan (StA, continuous training control (CC, intermittent training control (IC and strength training control (StC. Alloxan (250 mg/kg bw was injected into neonatal rats at 6 days of age. The continuous training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training for 1 uninterrupted hour / day, five days/ week, supporting a load that was 5% bw. The intermittent training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training with 30 s of activity interrupted by 30 s of rest, for a total of 20 min/day, five days/ week, supporting a load that was 15% bw. The strength-training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of training, five days/week with 4 sets of 10 jumps in water with 1 min rest between sets, supporting a load that was a 50% bw. Results At 28 days, the alloxan animals exhibited higher insulin resistance as measured by the disappearance of glucose serum (% Kitt/min during the ITT. At 120 days, the sedentary alloxan animals showed higher FFA values than continuous and intermittent training alloxan. In addition, the alloxan animals that underwent intermittent and strength training showed lower FFA values compared to the corresponding controls. The continuous training protocol was less effective than the strength training protocol for reducing the levels of total cholesterol in the alloxan animals. Serum total lipid values

  4. Hypoglycemic effect of Gymnema sylvestre (retz.,) R.Br leaf in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, S; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K

    2008-10-01

    The water extract of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br leaf was tested for hypoglycemic activity in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Grated amount (2ml/kg) of the water extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf was given to both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. A significant reduction of glucose concentration was noticed in normal rats, blood glucose level was significantly reduced in diabetic rats. Protein level is also decreased in diabetic rats. Urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were increased in diabetic condition. After the herbal treatment the levels were altered near to normal level.

  5. Effect of lupine (Lupinus termis seeds or their water extract on alloxan diabetic rats

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    H. A. Hassan and M. M. El-Komy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus represents a major public health problem. Much of the increased mortality and morbidity seen in diabetic patients is the result of various complications. Free radicals play an important role in the cause of complications of diabetes mellitus such as retinopathy, nephropathy, hypertension, arteriosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. Many secondary plant metabolites have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, improving the effects of oxidative stress in diabetic patient. Thus the present study tries to evaluate the role of different preparations from Lupinus termis as a hypoglycemic agent. Alloxan diabetic rats were orally treated with either 5 ml/Kg b.wt/day aqueous lupine seeds extract or 20% w/w in diet edible boiled lupine seeds powder or 20% w/w dry lupine seeds powder for 30 days. The results recorded high levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol as well as low levels of total protein, HDL-cholesterol, liver glycogen and serum insulin in diabetic rats. Phospholipids content was increased in the serum but decreased in the liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. In addition, the results confirmed that the alloxan diabetic rats were subjected to oxidative stress as indicated by the extent of lipid peroxidation (high malondialdehide levels present in the liver and pancreas and significantly alter activities of some scavenging enzymes (low glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. On the other hand, after administration of any one of the used preparations of lupine seeds, the diabetic rats revealed an improvement on various metabolic abnormalities as well as oxidative stress recorded with diabetes but the best improvement occurred in the animal group treated with dry seeds powder. These results give a good evidence for the amelioration effect of lupine against the alloxan diabetic effects.

  6. Effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule on Angioneurotic Lesions in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王军; 高丽君; 郭永成

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule (糖脉康胶囊) on blood sugar level, gangrene of the tail-tip, pain threshold and learning and memory abilities were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that Tang Mai Kang Capsule could significantly decrease blood sugar level and incidence rate of gangrene of the tail-tip, increase pain threshold, and strengthen learning and memory abilities, suggesting that Tang Mai Kang Capsule functions to decrease blood sugar level and improve the complicated angioneurotic lesions of diabetes.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF POLYGALA CHINENSIS L. WHOLE PLANT ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    K. Rajalakshmi and V.R. Mohan*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of ethanol extract of Polygala chinensis whole plant (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days reduced the elevated level of lipid peroxidation (LPO. The treatment also resulted in significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in serum, liver and kidney. The results confirm the antioxidant activity of P. chinensis whole plant and suggest that because of its antioxidant effects its administration may be useful in controlling the diabetic complications in experimental diabetic rats.

  8. Antihyperglycemic activity of various fractions of Cassia auriculata linn. in alloxan diabetic rats

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    Surana S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p< 0.001 in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids.

  9. Effect of Pre-treatment with Moringa oleifera (Drumstick Leaves on Diabetogenesis Produced by Alloxan in Rats

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    Shamsun Nahar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. Objective: In the study, we aimed to investigate the pre-treatment effect or preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (MO leaves on blood sugar of rats. Materials and method: This experimental study was carried out in the department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Sir Salimullah Medical College in collaboration with Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR, Dhaka. A total 24 long Evans rats were included in this study and divided in to four groups. Hyperglycemia was induced on rats using alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, intraperitioneally. Blood sample was collected from tail vein by tail tipping method. Pre-treatment effect or preventive role of Moringa oleifera (drumstick leaf powder on diabetogenesis produced by Alloxan in rats was tested by giving 50 mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder for 14 days orally as pre-treatment along with standard rat feed. Then alloxan was administered intraperitoneally on 15th day of the experiment and 50mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder was given for 7 days as post-treatment. Results: No significant effect of MO on blood glucose level was observed on normal rats and non significant hypoglycaemic effect was found in rats that were pretreated with MO. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Moringa oleifera leaf powder did not produce any significant protective effect in diabetogenesis produced by alloxan though it has hypoglycaemic effect.

  10. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta-cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onakpa Michael Monday; Asuzu Isaac Uzoma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidaemic activities and histopathological changes of Icacina trichantha (I. trichantha) tuber extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods:In the present study, 80% methanol extract of I. trichantha tuber was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. They were randomly grouped into control (distilled water and glibenclamide) and experimental (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 160 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Blood glucose levels were measured using blood glucose test strips with AccuCheck Advantage II glucometer at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h on the first day and 1 h after treatment on Day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected and centrifuged to separate serum for estimation of lipid profile and other biochemical parameters. Histopathological changes in diabetic rats pancreas were also studied after extract treatment. Results: Daily oral administration of I. trichantha tuber extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) showed beneficial effects on blood glucose level (P Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.

  11. Amelioration of alloxan induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by oil of Eruca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Missiry, M A; El Gindy, A M

    2000-01-01

    Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several plant extracts in the modulation of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Oil of Eruca sativa seeds (ESS) is tried for prevention and treatment of DM induced experimentally by alloxan injection. A single dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol, decreased high-density lipoprotein and hepatic glycogen contents and elevated hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in the liver. This oxidative stress was related to a decreased glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in the liver of alloxan-diabetic rats. ESS oil (0.06 ml/kg) on its own increased significantly hepatic GSH. Daily oral administration of ESS oil 2 weeks before or after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, improved lipid profile, blunted the increase in malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal and stimulated the GSH production in the liver of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that ESS oil could be used as antidiabetic complement in case of DM. This may be related to its antioxidative properties and to the increase in hepatic GSH.

  12. Hypoglycemic activity of Bougainvillea spectabilis stem bark in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Jawla; Y Kumar; MSY Khan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Bougainvillea spectabilis (B. spectabilis) is one of the main constituent of various herbal formulations available for diabetes. The aim of present study was to screen hypoglycemic potential of B. spectabilis stem bark extracts in albno rats (Wistar strain). Methods: The EtOH extracts (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the B. spectabilis were administered to both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats at defined time intervals. Blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 h, and on 0, 1, 3, 5, 7th day after oral administration of extracts. Of the doses test, highest anti-hyperglycemic effect was observed by the extract of stem bark at 250 mg/kg after a week treatment. Results: B. spectabilis stem bark extract exhibited significant hypoglycemic activity at different doses and intervals. Stem bark extract was found to be 22.2% more potent than standard oral hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide 0.2 mg/kg. Conclusion: Treatment of alloxan induced diabetic rats up to a week with stem bark extract reversed the permanent hyperglycemia. Hence, B. spectabilis stem bark alcoholic extract exhibited potent hypoglycemic activity.

  13. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Root Bark Extract Zanthoxylum chalybeum in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Moses Solomon Agwaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medicinal plants offer cheaper and safer treatment options to current diabetic drugs. The present study evaluated the effect of aqueous root bark extract of Zanthoxylum chalybeum on oral glucose tolerance and pancreas histopathology in alloxanized rats. Method. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Root extract of Z. chalybeum was administered to rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW daily for 28 days. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and pancreatic histopathology evaluated microscopically. Results. Initial increase was observed in blood glucose of the rats after oral administration of glucose from time zero. Two hours after treatment with Z. chalybeum, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed within treatment groups (p<0.05 compared to 0.5 hr and 1 hr. There was no significant difference between treatment group receiving 400mg/Kg BW extract and the normal groups (p=0.27, implying that the former group recovered and were able to regulate their blood sugar, possibly via uptake of glucose into cells. The reversal in pancreatic histopathology further supports the protective effect of Z. chalybeum extract towards diabetic damage. Conclusion. Extract of Z. chalybeum is effective in controlling blood glucose in diabetes and protecting pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage.

  14. Anti-diabetic activity of Ferula assafoetida extract in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaiton, Ahmed Saber

    2010-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic potential of Asafetida extract against the pancreatic beta-cells damage from alloxan-induced diabetes in rats and some hormones related to diabetes mellitus. Asafetida induced significant reduction in blood glucose and increasing of serum insulin, our data indicate that the level of glucose in the animals that subjected with alloxan was 10.28 +/- 0.85 mmol L(-1) p < 0.05 comparing with control group 3.27 +/- 0.25 p < 0.05, the level of blood glucose in diabetic group when subjected with Asafetida extract decreasing to 6.75 +/- 0.31 p < 0.05. There was significant amount of insulin secretion in diabetic animals when subjected with Asafetida extract 0.48 +/- 0.05 p < 0.05 in comparison with diabetic animal's 0.33 +/- 0.06 p < 0.05. These findings suggested that Asafetida extract treatment exerts therapeutic protective effect in diabetes by preserving pancreatic beta-cells integrity and significant activity extract, which supports traditional usage to prevent diabetic complications.

  15. Experimental diabetes induced by alloxan and streptozotocin: The current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenković, Miroslav; Stojanović, Marko; Prostran, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder with a high prevalence worldwide. Animal models of diabetes represent an important tool in diabetes investigation that helps us to avoid unnecessary and ethically challenging studies in human subjects, as well as to obtain a comprehensive scientific viewpoint of this disease. Although there are several methods through which diabetes can be induced, chemical methods of alloxan- and streptozotocin-induced diabetes represent the most important and highly preferable experimental models for this pathological condition. Therefore, the aim of this article was to review the current knowledge related to quoted models of diabetes, including to this point available information about mechanism of action, particular time- and dose-dependent protocols, frequent problems, as well as major limitations linked to laboratory application of alloxan and sterptozotocin in inducing diabetes. Given that diabetes is known to be closely associated with serious health consequences it is of fundamental importance that current animal models for induction of diabetes should be continuously upgraded in order to improve overall prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this pathological condition.

  16. Antihyperlipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of Diasulin, a polyherbal formulation in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats

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    Pari Leelavinothan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to investigation the effect of Diasulin, a poly herbal drug composed of ethanolic extract of ten medicinal plants on blood glucose, plasma insulin, tissue lipid profile, and lipidperoxidation in alloxan induced diabetes. Methods Ethanolic extract of Diasulin a, poly herbal drug was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. The different doses of Diasulin on blood glucose and plasma insulin in diabetic rats were studied and the levels of lipid peroxides [TBARS, and Hydroperoxide] and tissue lipids [cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipides and free fatty acids] were also estimated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The effects were compared with glibenclamide. Result Treatment with Diasulin and glibenclamide resulted in a significant reduction of blood glucose and increase in plasma insulin. Diasulin also resulted in a significant decrease in tissue lipids and lipid peroxide formation. The effect produced by Diasulin was comparable with that of glibenclamide. Conclusion The decreased lipid peroxides and tissue lipids clearly showed the antihyperlipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of Diasulin apart from its antidiabetic effect.

  17. Protective effect of crude Curcuma longa and its methanolic extract in alloxanized rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mobasher; Kamran, Sairah Hafeez; Mobasher, Afroze

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) is commonly found in different areas of Pakistan. It has been locally utilized as a traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and total antioxidant effect of the crude drug and its methanolic extract in rabbits. Diabetes was induced with alloxan (180mg/kg). Two major groups were designed, curative and protective groups. In curative group the crude drug and its methanolic extract was orally administered to the diabetic animals and acute study was performed. On the other hand in protective group the crude drug and its methanolic extract were administered for eight days prior to the diabetes induction. Results indicated that in Curative group the crude and methanolic extract of C. longa significantly improved the levels of serum glucose, serum transaminases and antioxidant activity (AOA). In protective group, serum glucose, serum transaminases were not significantly increased by alloxan, in both crude as well as methanolic extract group. This study shows that C. longa acts as antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant in diabetes especially type 1 diabetes.

  18. Antidiabetic effect of a black mangrove species Aegiceras corniculatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    S Gurudeeban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier ethnopharmacological records divulged the traditional usages of mangrove Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn. Blanco distributed in coastal and estuarine areas of Southeast India. Excluding scientific knowledge of A. corniculatum against diabetes an upgrowing endocrinal disorder, our present study evaluated the effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult rats of the Wistar strain by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate. The experimental rats were administered with leaf suspension of A. corniculatum post orally using an intragastric tube. On completion of the 60-day treatment, a range of biochemical parameters were tested including liver hexokinase, glucose-6phosphatase and fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase in the liver of control and allaxon-diabetic rats. As a result, A. corniculatum leaf suspension showed moderate reduction in blood glucose (from 382 ± 34 to 105 ± 35, glycosylated hemoglobin, a decrease in the activities of glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase, and an increase activity of liver hexokinase achieved through the oral administration of extract on 100 mg/kg. The present findings support promising results in terms of antidiabetic activities establishing its candidacy for further purification of individual compound in order to understand their mechanism of action.

  19. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDAEMIC EFFECT OF POLYGALA JAVANA DC ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Alagammal M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant (Family: Polygalaceae was investigated for it antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect in Wistar Albino rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg, i.p. The ethanol extracts of Polygala javana at a dose of 100 and 200mg/kg of body weight were administered at single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 days. The effect of ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant extract on blood glucose, serum insulin, urea, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TR, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (VLDL-C, high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C and phospholipid (PL] serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes [serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT, and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP], were measured in the diabetic rats. The ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant elicited significant reductions of blood glucose (P<0.05, lipid parameters except HDL-C, serum enzymes and significantly increased HDL-C. The extracts also caused significant increase in serum insulin (P<0.05 in the diabetic rats. From the above results, it is concluded that ethanol extract of Polygala javana possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  20. Theoretical study of the mechanism of proton transfer in tautomeric systems: Alloxan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rita Kakkar; Bhupendra K Sarma; Vandana katoch

    2001-08-01

    Semiempirical SCF-MO studies of tautomerism in alloxan preclude the possibility of direct proton transfer in the gas phase due to the strain in the four-centred transition state, in which the proton being transferred is forced to come close to the positively charged carbon atom at the opposite corner of the four-membered ring. However, in aqueous solution, the activation barrier reduces appreciably, not only due to reduction in strain, but also due to charge separation in the transition state, which is stabilized due to ionic resonance. The N-H bond is almost broken, while the O-H bond is only partially formed in the transition state. The other stabilizing effect in aqueous solution is due to bulk solvent dielectric effects, which stabilize the transition state to a greater extent due to its higher dipole moment. Although the transition states for proton transfer to the neighbouring oxygen atoms on either side have comparable energies, as the mechanisms of proton transfer leading to the formation of the 2-hydroxy and 4-hydroxy tautomers are similar, bulk solvent effects are larger in the latter due to the higher dipole moment of the transition state. The reason is the almost complete separation of the two entities, i.e. the alloxan anion and the hydronium ion in the latter case, indicating that in this case a dissociative mechanism of the kind encountered in acid-base equilibria is operating.

  1. Role of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compound probucol in antiradical protection of pancreatic beta-cells during alloxan-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankin, V Z; Korchin, V I; Konovalova, G G; Lisina, M O; Tikhaze, A K; Akmaev, I G

    2004-01-01

    The severity of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes depended on activity of antioxidant enzymes in the target organ (pancreas). Damage to the pancreas is related to intensive generation of reactive oxygen species, free radicals, and lipid peroxides. Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats is a free radical disease, which in vivo serves as a useful model for the search for pharmacological preparations with antiradical and antioxidant properties. The antioxidant compound probucol indirectly increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in the pancreas and prevented the development of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Our results indicate that different sensitivity of laboratory animals of various species (rats and guinea pigs) to the influence of alloxan is associated with abnormal variations in activity of enzymes utilizing reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides in mammalian pancreatic cells.

  2. [Antidepressant action of emoxipin and mexidol in mice with alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2009-01-01

    The development of alloxan diabetes in mice is accompanied by prolonged desperate behavior (analogous to human depression) and decreased activity of animals in the open field test. Course administration of emoxypin and mexidol in doses corresponding to the human therapeutic range renders the antidepressant action manifested by reduced desperate behavior and increased activity in the open field. The antidepressant effect of emoxypin and mexidol is accompanied by a decrease in the blood glucose level after 14 days of administration. Emoxypin, in contrast to mexidol, provokes transient deterioration of diabetic hyperglycemia after 7 days of administration. Mexidol is characterized by an optimal combination of antidepressant action and favorable impact on carbohydrate metabolism that makes this 3-oxypyridine derivative a promising substance for the treatment of depression in diabetic patients.

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum TN627 significantly reduces complications of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejar, Wacim; Hamden, Khaled; Ben Salah, Riadh; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN627 for preventing alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The oral administration of this probiotic was noted to significantly improve the immunological parameters, protect the pancreatic tissues, and reduce the pancreatic and plasmatic α-amylase activities and level of plasma glucose in the treated as compared to the control group of rats. Furthermore, this probiotic treatment was observed to markedly reduce pancreatic and plasmatic lipase activities and serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol rates and to increase the level of HDL-Cholesterol. It also exerted efficient protective effects on the liver and kidney functions evidenced by significant decreases in serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities, as well as creatinine and urea contents. Taken together, the findings indicate that L. plantarum TN627 exhibits attractive in vivo antidiabetic effects that may be helpful in preventing diabetic complications in adult rats.

  4. STUDY OF EFFECT OF NICORANDIL ON INSULIN PRODUCTION IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Syed Mohsin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ATP – sensitive potassium channel opener, nicorandil on insulin production in alloxan – induced diabetic rats. METHODS: In an attempt to ascertain the involvement of ATP sensitive potassium channels in the regulation of insulin release, the effect of nicorandil on ATP sensitive potassium channel was studied. Albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing between 200 – 250 grams of e ither sex were used for the study. Diabetes was induced by injecting alloxan monohydrate 2% solution intra - peritoneally in a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. Animals with fasting blood glucose (FBS between 200 – 300 mg/dl were selected for the study. They were divided into 3 groups of six animals each. Group I serving as control received 2% gum acacia orally for 30 days, Group II as standard was given orally glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg body weight for 30 days & Group III was treated orally for 30 days with n icorandil (0.3 mg/kg body weight respectively. Fasting blood sugar (FBS was recorded in all the rats on 1 st , 3 rd , 7 th , 14 th , 21 st & 28 th days. RESULT: Results show that glibenclamide has significantly reduced the blood sugar levels (P<0.05, whereas nico randil has shown a significant rise in blood sugar level (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The study shows that nicorandil worsens existing diabetes. This may attribute to the hypothesis that the opening of ATP sensitive potassium channels on beta cells of pancreas le ads to inhibition of insulin release. These findings suggest that potassium channel openers should be avoided in presence of diabetes.

  5. Ghrelin improves delayed gastrointestinal transit in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Cai Qiu; Zhi-Gang Wang; Ran Lv; Wei-Gang Wang; Xiao-Dong Han; Jun Yan; Yu Wang; Qi Zheng; Kai-Xing Ai

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of ghrelin on delayed gastrointestinal transit in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.METHODS: A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal injection with alloxan.Mice were randomized into two main groups: normal mice group and diabetic mice group treated with ghrelin at doses of 0, 20, 50, 100 and 200 μg/kg ip.Gastric emptying (GE), intestinal transit (IT), and colonic transit (CT)were studied in mice after they had a phenol red meal following injection of ghrelin.Based on the most effective ghrelin dosage, atropine was given at 1 mg/kg 15 min before the ghrelin injection for each measurement.The mice in each group were sacrificed 20 min later and their stomachs, intestines, and colons were harvested immediately.The amount of phenol red was measured.Percentages of GE, IT, and CT were calculated.RESULTS: Percentages of GE, IT, and CT were significantly decreased in diabetic mice as compared to control mice (22.9±1.4 vs 28.1±1.3, 33.5±1.2 vs 43.2±1.9, 29.5±1.9 vs 36.3±1.6, P < 0.05).In the diabetic mice, ghrelin improved both GE and IT, but not CT.The most effective dose of ghrelin was 100 μg/kg and atropine blocked the prokinetic effects of ghrelin on GE and IT.CONCLUSION: Ghrelin accelerates delayed GE and IT but has no effect on CT in diabetic mice.Ghrelin may exert its prokinetic effects via the cholinergic pathway in the enteric nervous system, and therefore has therapeutic potential for diabetic patients with delayed upper gastrointestinal transit.

  6. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. suspension cell extract show antidiabetic potential in Alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Karthic; S Nagaraj; P Arulmurugan; S Seshadri; R Rengasamy; K Kathiravan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic effects of suspension cell extract of Gymnema sylvestre (G.sylvestre in vitro grown suspension cells of G. sylvestre along with field grown and wild plant leaves of G.sylvestre was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results: While oral administration of the extracts reduced the glucose content in blood and urine, sugar and lipids in serum significantly (P≤0.05), it also increased the body weight, total haemoglobin and plasma protein content.Conclusions:It can be concluded that G. sylvestre suspension cell extract show excellent) along with field grown and wild plants. Methods: The effect of ethanolic extracts of the antidiabetic potential against alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats therefore be considered as potent antidiabetic drug.

  7. Influence of Punica granatum L. on region specific responses in rat brain during Alloxan-Induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushil Kumar Middha; Talambedu Usha; Tekupalli RaviKiran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Punica granatum peel methanolic extract (PGPE) on cerebral cortex (CC) and Hippocampus (HC) brain antioxidant defense system and markers of lipid and protein oxidation in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:Oral administration of PGPE (75 and 150 mg of kg body weight) for 45 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose levels. Results: Supplementation of diabetic rats with PGPE showed increased activities of SOD and GPx with concomitant decrease in MDA and PC content. Region-specific changes were more evident in the HC when compared to CC. Conclusions: The present study indicated that PGPE can ameliorate brain oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetic rats by up regulating antioxidant defense mechanism by attenuating lipid and protein oxidation. PGPE thus may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in preventing diabetic complications in the brain.

  8. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA PULP AND SEED EXTRACT IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Somshuvra Bhattacharya et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic potential of Lagenaria siceraria pulp extract (LSPE and Lagenaria siceraria seed extract (LSSE against the pancreatic damage from alloxan-induced diabetes in rats related to diabetes mellitus. Lagenaria siceraria induced significant reduction in blood glucose and increasing of serum insulin, our data indicate that the level of glucose in the animals that were subjected with alloxan was 210 mg/dl comparing with normal 70 mg/dl, the level of blood glucose in diabetic group when subjected with Lagenaria siceraria extract decreased to 89-106.5 mg/dl. These findings suggest that LSPE and LSSE treatment exerts therapeutic protective effect in diabetes by preserving pancreatic cell integrity and significant activity extract, which supports traditional usage of the plant to prevent diabetic complications.

  9. Hypoglycemic Activity of Methanolic Fruit Pulp Extract of Adansonia digitata on Blood Glucose Levels of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohammad Yalwa Gwarzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the hypoglycemic properties of the methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp on blood glucose. Forty eight of the rats were randomly distributed into six. Group one served as the normal control and Group two rats were administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg intraperitoneally and served as the diabetic control. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were intraperitoneally administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg and orally administered with methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg once daily for 4weeks. Group six rats were intraperitoneally administered with alloxan (150 mg/kg and orally administered with chlorpropamide (84 mg/kg once daily for 4 weeks. The serum concentration of glucose of all the rats in each group was determined after the 14th and 28th dose of treatment. There was significant (p<0.001 reduction of serum glucose in the three groups of rats administered with methanolic extract of fruit pulp at second and fourth week of the treatment. The group of animal treated with chlorpropamide (84 mg/kg also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction of serum glucose compared to most effective dose of the methanolic extract (300 mg/kg during the second and fourth week of the treatment. The result of qualitative phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp indicated the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids. This result suggests that the methanolic fruit pulp extract of Adansonia digitata possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  10. Assessment of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats as a Periodontal Disease Model Using a Selective Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2014-07-01

    Several recent studies have reported that alloxan-treated rats with long-term hyperglycemia can develop naturally occurring periodontal disease (PD). Our previous studies detected dental caries in the same model. Therefore, these two lesions of different etiologies are expected to occur concurrently. In this study, we evaluated the use of diabetic rats as a PD model by employing a selective COX-2 inhibitor reported to be effective against PD. Six-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 3 groups: intact rats (control), alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed a standard diet (AL) and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed a diet containing 0.01% etodolac (AL+Et). The animals were euthanized at 26 weeks of age, and their oral tissues were examined histopathologically. Gingivitis, marginal periodontitis and alveolar bone resorption were markedly enhanced along with dental caries in the AL group compared with the control group. However, the COX-2 inhibitor had no effect on periodontal inflammation in the AL+Et group. In addition, in the AL group, periodontitis was notably nonexistent around the normal molars, and gingivitis was scarcely worse than that in the control group. In the diabetic rats, the progression of periodontal inflammation was closely correlated with the severity of adjacent dental caries, and marginal periodontitis was frequently continuous with apical periodontitis. In conclusion, an alloxan-induced diabetic rat is not a model of PD but of dental caries. It is probable that in this model, hyperglycemia may enable crown caries to progress to apical periodontitis, while the associated inflammation may rostrally expand to surrounding periodontal tissue.

  11. Ameliorative Effects of Vitamin C and Zinc in Alloxan-induced Diabetes and Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

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    F.A. Dawud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative effects of vitamin C and zinc on blood glucose levels and lipid peroxidation in Alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in animals by intraperitoneal injection of Alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg b w. Diabetic rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 5: Rats in group I were given 1ml of distilled water and served as the control. Rats in group II and group III were administered 100 50 mg/kg b w of vitamin C and zinc respectively. The regimens were given once daily for seven days. Blood samples collected from the animals at the end of the treatment period and assayed for malonaldehyde (MDA as index of lipid peroxidation. The study showed that there was a significant (p0.05 was observed in the group that were administered 100 mg/kg b w of vitamin C when compared to the diabetic control group. The present study has shown that vitamin C and zinc had a beneficial effect on Alloxan induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress as evidenced by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA concentration.

  12. Therapeutic effect of phytoecdysteroids rich extract from Ajuga iva on alloxan induced diabetic rats liver, kidney and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamden, Khaled; Ayadi, Fatma; Jamoussi, Kamel; Masmoudi, Hatem; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, the effect of Ajuga iva extract on blood glucose, lipid profile, hepatic and renal toxicity and antioxidant enzyme activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was confirmed by measuring the glucoserua concentration 15 days after alloxan administration. Ajuga iva extract was administrated orally 3 weeks after alloxan injection. Our results investigate that Ajuga iva extract supplementation increased the levels of both enzymatic antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and metals antioxidants (iron, copper, magnesium, calcium) and decreased lipid peroxidation level (TBARs). Besides Ajuga iva ameliorated diabetes provoked hepatic and renal toxicity appeared by a lower level in total and direct bilirubin, urea, creatinine, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol and a higher level in HDL-cholesterol. Besides, the activities of phosphatase alkalines (PAL), aspartate and lactate transaminase (AST & ALT) were decreased. The benefices effects of phytoecdysteroids of Ajuga iva confirmed by histological observation in pancreatic tissues. In conclusion, Ajuga iva phytoecdysteroids supplements seem to be beneficial for correcting the hyperglycemia and preventing diabetic complications in liver, pancreas and kidneys.

  13. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

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    Zhang Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity, glutathione reductase (GR activity, catalase (CAT activity, Na+K+ATPase activity, and glutathione S transferase (GST activity along with significant decreased levels of glutathione (GSH content in diabetic rats. The total antioxidant status (TAOS in the HEE-treated groups was significantly lower than that in the alloxan-treated group. HEE can offer pain relief in diabetic neuropathic pain. The improvement in diabetic state after HEE treatment along with the antioxidant activity could be the probable way by which it had alleviated diabetic neuropathy.

  14. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) leaves extract in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saini NK; Singhal M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) methanolic leaves extract (TCLE) using blood glucose level in normal fasted rats, glucose tolerance test and alloxan induced hyperglycemia models. Methods: TCLE (100, 300, 1 000 and 2 000 mg/kg body wt.) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 d. TCLE 200 and 400 mg/kg, and glibenclamide 0.6 mg/kg were given orally in all models. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 d. This indicates that the methanol extract is safe up to a single dose of 2 000 mg/kg body weight. TCLE (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited remarkable blood glucose lowering effect in blood glucose level in normal fasted rats, glucose tolerance and alloxan induced hyperglycemia model. Cholesterol and triglyceride also decreased in alloxan induced hyperglycemia model. Conclusions: The results of this study exhibites that methanol extract of T. capensis possesses antihypergycemic activity and it may prove to be effective for the treatment of hyperglycemia.

  15. Effect of lung resection and sham surgery on the frequency of infection in alloxan-diabetic rats

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    A.C. Seidel

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in order to determine the effect of lung resection on the frequency of infections in alloxan-diabetic rats. Adult female Wistar rats were injected with alloxan (40 mg/kg, iv to induce diabetes mellitus (group D; N = 45 or with vehicle (1.0 ml/kg, iv to be used as controls (group C; N = 45. Thirty-six days after receiving alloxan both groups were randomly divided into three subgroups: no operation (NO; N = 15, sham operation (SO; N = 15, and left pneumonectomy (PE; N = 15. The rats were sacrificed 36 days after surgery and their lungs were examined microscopically and macroscopically. The occurrence of thoracic wall infection, thoracic wall abscess, lung abscess and pleural empyema was similar in groups D and C. In contrast, the overall infection rate was higher (P<0.05 in the diabetic rats (SO-D and PE-D subgroups, but not in the NO-D subgroup. Considering that the overall infection rate was similar in the SO-D and PE-D subgroups, we suggest that surgery but not pneumonectomy was related to the higher prevalence of infection in diabetic rats.

  16. Antidiabetic activity of methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. in alloxan induced diabetic albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Sunil Kumar; Sonia Kohli; Renu Arya; Jyoti Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. bark in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Methods: Group-Ⅰ (normal control) mice received only basal diet without any treatment. In Group-Ⅱ (Diabetic control) mice, diabetes was induced by alloxan (150 mg/kgi.p.) and received only Tween80, 5% v/v in normal saline. Group-Ⅲ and Group-Ⅳ mice received metformin (10 mg/kg) and gliclazide (10 mg/kg) as standard drugs. Group-Ⅴ and Ⅵ mice received methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima at doses of250 and500 mg/kg body weightp.o., respectively.Results: The results of the study indicates thatAlbizia odoratissima bark extract significantly (P<0.01) reduced the blood sugar level. The bark extract also significantly reduced the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and decreases level of total proteins in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Conclusions:Methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima has protective effects on the protection of vital tissues (pancreas, kidney, liver, heart and spleen), thereby reducing the causation of diabetes in experimental animals.

  17. Effects of Adhatoda vasica leaf extract in depression co-morbid with alloxan-induced diabetes in mice

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    Deepali Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Increased neuronal oxidative stress as a consequence of diabetes may result in neuropsychological complications such as depression. Depression co-morbid with diabetes further hampers the quality life years in diabetic patients. Aim: Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the effects of Adhatoda vasica leaf extract (EAV, as a natural remedy, in alloxan-induced diabetes and co-morbid depression in mice. Materials and Methods: Experimentally, mice were rendered diabetic with a single dose of alloxan of 200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.. After 3 weeks of having chronic diabetic state, mice were given EAV (100-400 mg/kg, orally/vehicle/standard control (escitalopram, ESC; 10 mg/kg, orally for 7 days. After dosing, anti-diabetic effect was detected by the fasted blood glucose levels and anti-depressant effect was evaluated by behavioural despair tests, followed by monoamine oxidase (MAO activity and oxidative stress analysis. Results and Discussion: EAV treatment effectively reduced the elevated blood glucose levels and reversed co-morbid depressive behaviour. Furthermore, EAV inhibited diabetes induced increased oxidative stress and MAO activity in the brain. Thus, EAV demonstrated the potential protective action against oxidative stress and revealed monoamine modulatory activity in the brain, which may contribute to its anti-depressant effect. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the efficacious effect of EAV in reversing the depression co-morbid with alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.

  18. Analysis of morphometric and ultrastructural characteristics of blood microcirculation in hippocampus of rats with alloxan diabetes under administration of citicoline

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    Владимир Иванович Жилюк

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: determine morphometric and ultrastructural features of blood microcirculation in hippocampus of rats with alloxan diabetes under experimental therapy with citicoline.Materials and methods. The research was carried out on 48 white male Wistar rats (250-300 g randomized in 3 groups by 16 animals: I – intact (distilled water, intragastrically; II – animals with diabetes (distilled water, intragastrically; III – animals with diabetes + citicoline (500 mg/kg, intragastrically. Diabetes was reproduced by single subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was determined on the 11th day after administration of alloxan using a glucometer. Citicoline and distilled water were introduced once a day during 20 days starting from the 11th day after administration of alloxan. In morpho-functional study of hippocampal CA1-zone neurons the histological sections were deparaffinized and dyed with gallocyanin-chrome alum by Einarson for specific detection of RNA. Pictures were received with a microscope Axioskop (Zeiss, Germany. Using a computer-based picture analysis system VIDAS-386 (Kontron Elektronik, Germany the density of endothelial nuclei, the nucleus area and the concentration of RNA in the nucleus were determined. The study of ultrastructural changes of blood microcirculation in hippocampus was carried out using transmission electron microscope PEM-100-01 («SELMI», Ukraine by standard procedure and in accordance with common standards. Statistical difference between the groups were assessed by non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test.Results. It has been established that citicoline contributed to recovery of proliferative activity of endothelium in vascular bed of hippocampus manifested with increase of endothelial nuclei density, their area and levels of nuclear RNA by 19,4% (p < 0,001, 17,2% (p < 0,05 and 25,8% (p < 0,01. Simultaneously it has been determined that hematoencephalic barrier damage in hippocampus of

  19. Attenuation of Biochemical, Haematological and Histological Indices of Alloxan Toxicity in Male Rats by Aqueous Extract of Fadogia agrestis(Schweinf. Ex Hiern Stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem at the doses of 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight on alloxan-induced toxicity was investigated in Wistar rats. Methods: In total, 35 rats of both sexes (132.80±7.22g were randomized into five groups (A-E: animals in group A received 0.5 ml of distilled water orally on daily basis for 15 days while the alloxanized rats in groups B, C, D and E also received orally 0.5 ml of distilled water and same volume of the extract corresponding to 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight, respectively after which levels of some biomolecules were determined and histological changes evaluated. Results: Administration of alloxan significantly (P0.05 with their respective non-alloxanized distilled water treated control animals in 78% of the parameters investigated. Conclusion: Overall, the aqueous extract of F. agrestis stem attenuated the alloxan treatment related biochemical, haematological and histological changes in the rats with the 72 mg/kg body weight achieving total reversal in 18 out of the 23 parameters investigated.

  20. Attenuation of Biochemical, Haematological and Histological Indices of Alloxan Toxicity in Male Rats by Aqueous Extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern Stem

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    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem at the doses of 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight on alloxan-induced toxicity was investigated in Wistar rats. Methods: In total, 35 rats of both sexes (132.80±7.22g were randomized into five groups (A-E: animals in group A received 0.5 ml of distilled water orally on daily basis for 15 days while the alloxanized rats in groups B, C, D and E also received orally 0.5 ml of distilled water and same volume of the extract corresponding to 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight, respectively after which levels of some biomolecules were determined. Results: Administration of alloxan significantly (P0.05 with their respective non-alloxanized distilled water treated control animals in 78% of the parameters investigated. Conclusion: Overall, the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem attenuated the alloxan treatment related biochemical, haematological and histological changes in the rats with the 72 mg/kg body weight achieving total reversal in 18 out of the 23 parameters investigated.

  1. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

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    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  2. Effect of Consumption of Coleus tuberosus on the Lipid Profile of Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mutiara Nugraheni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Coleus tuberosus is a minor vegetable belonging to the Lamiaceae family. C. tuberosus and processed products have been evaluated on resistant starch content and effect of consumption of C. tuberosus and processed products on the lipid profile has been studied in rats with diabetes mellitus. Resistant starch was analyzed using the megazyme method. Analysis of lipid profile was performed in experimental alloxan-induced animals. Such lipid profile as Total Cholesterol (TC, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL are determined enzymatically by the Cholesterol Oxidase-oxidase-Phenol Aminophenazone (CHOD-PAP method. Triglyceride levels are determined by the enzymatic Glycerol-3-Phosphate Oxidase-Phenol+Aminophenazone (GPO-PAP method. The results showed that the treatment process can increase the levels of resistant starch. C. tuberosus consumption and processed products can lower the lipid profile of TC, TG and LDL and increase HDL in experimental animals. Resistant starch contained in C. tuberosus and processed products is one of the factors that affect the lipid profile of experimental animals with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Hypolipidemic effect of Cuminum cyminum L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, Surya; Subramanian, Vijayakumar Ramasamy; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Namasivayam, Nalini

    2002-09-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. Many spices and herbs are known to be hypoglycaemic. Cuminum cyminum belonging to the family Apiaceae is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of dyspepsia, diarrhoea and jaundice. The present work was done to study the role of C. cyminum supplementation on the plasma and tissue lipids in alloxan diabetic rats. Oral administration of 0.25 g kg(-1) body weight of C. cyminum for 6 weeks to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose and an increase in total haemoglobin and glycosylated haemoglobin. It also prevented a decrease in body weight. C. cyminum treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in plasma and tissue cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids and triglycerides. Histological observations demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in diabetic rat pancreas. But supplementation with C. cyminum to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates. Moreover, C. cyminum supplementation was found to be more effective than glibenclamide in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of SPHAG - a Poly Herbal Formulation in Alloxan Induced Wistar Albino Rats

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.

  5. Hypoglycemic Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats (Rattus norvagicus

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    Saghir Ahmad Jafri*, Sohail Abass and Muhammad Qasim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Zingiber officinale (Ginger aqueous extract at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight (BW once a day for six weeks. The rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (65mg/kg BW once which induced diabetes in albino rats after 8 days. Albino rats (n=24 each weighing 150-180g were divided in 3 equal groups. Group A served as control, group B was diabetic and was not given ginger whereas group C rats were diabetic and given ginger extract (500mg/kg BW. Serum of each rat was analyzed by enzymatic kits to estimate serum glucose on 1st day (after making them diabetic, 21st and 42nd day. Blood glucose level remained unaltered in group A and B over time. However, group C, given ginger extract, showed significant (P<0.05 reduction in serum glucose level after day 21 and 42 post treatment. It may be concluded that ginger extract has hypoglycemic effect on diabetic rats.

  6. Fermentation effects of oligosaccharides of Radix Ophiopogonis on alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.

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    Lin, Wan-Ling; Su, Wei-Wei; Cai, Xue-Ying; Luo, Lv-Keng; Li, Pei-Bo; Wang, Yong-Gang

    2011-08-01

    In this study, oligosaccharides extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus vinegar (OOV) by alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation with water extracts from Radix Ophiopogon and oligosaccharides extracted from Radix Ophiopogonis (OOJ) were investigated. Characterization of the extracts indicated that OOV are proteoglycans, whereas OOJ are not. Moreover, compared with OOJ, monosaccharide compositions of OOV only include fructose and galactose and not glucose. MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometric results showed that the molecular weight of OOV was smaller after fermentation. Changes in the characteristics of OOV would inevitably lead to changes in its hypoglycemic properties. The OOV inhibition activity against α-glucosidase was stronger than that of OOJ. The inhibition activity became stronger with higher dosages of OOV. The hypoglycemic effect of OOV on alloxan-induced diabetic mice was stronger than that of OOJ. More important, the ability of OOV to reduce damage on islets in diabetic mice was stronger than that of OOJ. Overall, alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation improved the hypoglycemic activity of OOJ.

  7. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggers the development of periodontal disease in rats.

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    Marcela Claudino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease in diabetic patients presents higher severity and prevalence; and increased severity of ligature-induced periodontal disease has been verified in diabetic rats. However, in absence of aggressive stimuli such as ligatures, the influence of diabetes on rat periodontal tissues is incompletely explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases in rats only with diabetes induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats (n = 25 by intravenous administration of alloxan (42 mg/kg and were analyzed at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after diabetes induction. The hemimandibles were removed and submitted to radiographical and histopathological procedures. A significant reduction was observed in height of bone crest in diabetic animals at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, which was associated with increased numbers of osteoclasts and inflammatory cells. The histopathological analyses of diabetic rats also showed a reduction in density of collagen fibers, fibroblasts and blood vessels. Severe caries were also detected in the diabetic group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that diabetes induction triggers, or even co-induces the onset of alterations which are typical of periodontal diseases even in the absence of aggressive factors such as ligatures. Therefore, diabetes induction renders a previously resistant host into a susceptible phenotype, and hence diabetes can be considered a very important risk factor to the development of periodontal disease.

  8. Comparative hypoglycemic activity of different fractions of Thymus serpyllum L. in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgeer, -; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Bashir, Sajid; Ullah, Ikram; Karim, Sabeha; Rashid, Muhammad; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Rashid, Haroonur

    2016-09-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate and compare the hypoglycemic activity of different solvents extracts of Thymus serpyllum in rabbits. Diabetes was induced with single intravenous injection of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg). Glibenclamide and acarbose were used as standard drugs. The crude powder of Thymus serpyllum (500 mg/kg b.w) significantly reduced blood glucose level in both normal and diabetic rabbits. Various extracts of Thymus serpyllum were compared for their hypoglycemic activity in diabetic rabbits. Ether and aqueous extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose level with maximum effect (p<0.001) produced by aqueous extract, which was selected for further study. Aqueous extract significantly inhibited the rise in glucose level in oral glucose tolerance test. The extract showed synergistic effect with different doses of insulin; however serum insulin level of the diabetic rabbits was not significantly increased by the extract. HbA1c level was significantly (p<0.05) reduced whereas hemoglobin level was significantly increased in three months study. Phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpinoids, reducing sugar and cardiac glycosides. It is concluded that the aqueous extract might be used alone or in combination with insulin to manage diabetes and its associated complications.

  9. Effects of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract in alloxan induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuorkey, Muobarak J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms of the antidiabetic activity of Moringa oleifera. This study investigates the antidiabetic effect of M. oleifera and its impact on the immune tolerance. Methods Alloxan-induced diabetes model for mice was used. A dose of 100 mg/kg of Moringa extract was orally administered to diabetic treated mice. Glucose and insulin levels were evaluated to calculate insulin resistance. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were measured. The relative percentage of CD44, CD69, and IFN-γ was investigated by flow cytometry. Results In diabetic mice, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was increased 4.5-fold than in the control group, and HOMA-IR was decreased 1.3-fold in the Moringa treatment group. The level of TAC was declined 1.94-fold in diabetic mice, and increased 1.67-fold in diabetic treated group. In diabetic mice, creatinine and BUN levels were significantly reduced 1.42- and 1.2-fold, respectively, in Moringa treatment mice. The relative percentage of CD44 was not changed in diabetic mice, but the relative percentage of CD69 was found to be increased. INF-γ was decreased 2.4-fold in diabetic mice and elevated in treated groups. Conclusion Moringa may ameliorate insulin resistance, increase TAC, and improve immune tolerance. PMID:28203392

  10. Antihyperglycemic activity of extracts from Boldoa purpurascens leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Mosquera, D M; Hernandez Ortega, Y; By, B; Vicet Muro, L; Saucedo Hernandez, Y; Grau Ábalos, R; Dehaen, W; Pieters, L; Apers, S

    2013-05-01

    In order to investigate the potential use of Boldoa purpurascens against diabetes, the antihyperglycemic effect of an ethanol extract obtained from its leaves was evaluated at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg in rats after induction of hyperglycemia by alloxan. Insulin 5 IU/kg was used as positive control and NaCl 0.9% as negative control. A similar experiment was performed with the aqueous extract used at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg using metformin at a dose of 50mg/kg as positive control. Statistical analysis was carried using the Kruskal-Wallis test with an interval of trust of 99%. The ethanolic and aqueous extract of B. purpurascens showed a significant decrease of blood glucose levels 72 h after administration. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of D-pinitol, a compound known for its hypoglycemic properties. In conclusion, ethanolic as well as aqueous extracts of B. purpurascens leaves show antihyperglycemic activity, possibly due to the presence of D-pinitol and flavonoids.

  11. Alteration of plasma biochemical, haematological and ocular oxidative indices of alloxan induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens Linn (Asteraceae)

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    Ikewuchi, Jude Chigozie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Tridax procumbens on the haematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress was investigated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg body weight), via the tail vein. The extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (both to normal and diabetic rats), and metformin at 50 mg/kg. On gas chromatographic analysis of the alkaloid fraction of t...

  12. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

  13. In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakirel, Tülay; Bakirel, Utku; Keleş, Oya Ustüner; Ulgen, Sinem Güneş; Yardibi, Hasret

    2008-02-28

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), used in traditional Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely accepted as one of the medicinal herb with the highest antioxidant activity. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the possible actions of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis on glucose homeostasis and antioxidant defense in rabbits. In the first set of experiments, hypoglycaemic effects of oral administration of various doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of the extract were examined in normoglycaemic and glucose-hyperglycaemic rabbits. Optimal effect was observed in both of the animal groups with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract and this activity was independent from the effects of insulin. In another part of experiments, acute effect of various doses of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on blood glucose and serum insulin levels was studied in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Of the three doses of extract, the highest dose (200 mg/kg) significantly lowered blood glucose level and increased serum insulin concentration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. The last set of experiments designed to investigate the subacute effect of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on repeated administration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, antihyperglycaemic effect of extract was accompanied by a significant increase in serum insulin levels in diabetic rabbits. Furthermore, during 1 week of treatment of diabetic rabbits with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract showed that the extract possessed a capability to inhibit the lipid peroxidation and activate the antioxidant enzymes. It was concluded that probably, due to its potent antioxidant properties, the Rosmarinus officinalis extract exerts remarkable antidiabetogenic effect.

  14. Insights into the complex formed by matrix metalloproteinase-2 and alloxan inhibitors: molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations.

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    Ilenia Giangreco

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP are well-known biological targets implicated in tumour progression, homeostatic regulation, innate immunity, impaired delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands, and the release and cleavage of cell-surface receptors. Hence, the development of potent and selective inhibitors targeting these enzymes continues to be eagerly sought. In this paper, a number of alloxan-based compounds, initially conceived to bias other therapeutically relevant enzymes, were rationally modified and successfully repurposed to inhibit MMP-2 (also named gelatinase A in the nanomolar range. Importantly, the alloxan core makes its debut as zinc binding group since it ensures a stable tetrahedral coordination of the catalytic zinc ion in concert with the three histidines of the HExxHxxGxxH metzincin signature motif, further stabilized by a hydrogen bond with the glutamate residue belonging to the same motif. The molecular decoration of the alloxan core with a biphenyl privileged structure allowed to sample the deep S(1' specificity pocket of MMP-2 and to relate the high affinity towards this enzyme with the chance of forming a hydrogen bond network with the backbone of Leu116 and Asn147 and the side chains of Tyr144, Thr145 and Arg149 at the bottom of the pocket. The effect of even slight structural changes in determining the interaction at the S(1' subsite of MMP-2 as well as the nature and strength of the binding is elucidated via molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. Among the herein presented compounds, the highest affinity (pIC(50 = 7.06 is found for BAM, a compound exhibiting also selectivity (>20 towards MMP-2, as compared to MMP-9, the other member of the gelatinases.

  15. [Study of acetylsalicylic acid role in the potentiation of antiamnesic and neuroprotective properties of piracetam in rats with alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A E; Mamchur, V I

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that prolonged alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats potentiates amnesic properties of scopolamine hydrobromide. It was characterized by shortening of the latent period by 44% (ppiracetam with acetylsalicylic acid was accompanied by an expressed antiamnetic potential - the reduction of early markers of proteins degradation (aldehydephenylhydrazones, APH) by 21,7% (ppiracetam according to the effect upon KPH. NO2-/NO3- level was also decreased by 30,3% (ppiracetam may be assumed to be directly related to the ability of acetylsalicylic acid to improve microcirculation in the ischemic areas of the brain in diabetes and probably to its neuroprotective potential.

  16. Effect of pomegranate peel polyphenol gel on cutaneous wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Huan; PENG Ke-jun; WANG Qiu-lin; GU Zheng-yi; LU Yao-qin; ZHAO Jun; XU Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Pomegranate (punica granatum) belongs to the family Punicaceae,and its peel has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine because of its efficacy in restraining intestine,promoting hemostasis,and killing parasites.Pomegranate peel has been reported to possess wound-healing properties which are mainly attributed to its polyphenol extracts.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pomegranate peel polyphenols (PPP) gel on cutaneous wound healing in diabetic rats.Methods Alloxan-induced diabetic rats were given incisional wounds on each side of the mid-back and then treated daily with PPP gel (polyphenol mass fraction =30%) post-wounding.Rats were sacrificed on days 4,7,14,and 21post-wounding to assess the rates of wound closure,histological characteristics; and to detect the contents of hydroxyproline,production of nitric oxide (NO),and activities of NO synthase (NOS),as well as the expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1),vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),and epidermal growth factor (EGF)in wound tissue.Results Wound closure was significantly shortened when PPP gel was applied to the wounds of diabetic rats.Histological examination showed the ability of PPP gel to increase fibroblast infiltration,collagen regeneration,vascularization,and epithelialization in the wound area of diabetic rats.In addition,PPP gel-treated diabetic rats showed increased contents of hydroxyproline,production of NO,and activities of NOS and increased expressions of TGF-β1,VEGF,and EGF in wound tissues.Conclusion PPP gel may be a beneficial method for treating wound disorders associated with diabetes.

  17. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on alloxan-induced and insulin-resistant diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranloye, B O; Arikawe, A P; Rotimi, G; Sogbade, A O

    2011-11-23

    This study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus using alloxan and insulin resistance. Aqueous extracts of raw ginger was administered orally at a chosen dose of 500mg/ml for a period of 4 weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic and insulin resistant diabetic rats. The experimental rats exhibited hyperglycaemia accompanied with weight loss to confirm their diabetic state. Ginger effectively reduced fasting blood glucose and malonydealdehyde levels in alloxan-induced diabetic and insulin resistant diabetic rats compared to control and ginger only treated rats. Furthermore, ginger increased serum insulin level and also enhanced insulin sensitivity in alloxan-induced diabetic and insulin resistant diabetic rats compared to control and ginger only treated rats. The results of the study clearly show that dietary ginger has hypoglycaemic effect, enhances insulin synthesis in male rats and has high antioxidant activity. One of the likely mechanisms is the action of malonydealdehyde, which acts as a scavenger of oxygen radicals.

  18. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain of alloxan diabetic albino rats: Presence of an inhibitor of this enzyme activity in the cerebral extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nayeemunnisa; Tarannum, Suraiya

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ischemic manifestations and cerebral dysfunction have been demonstrated in diabetes. However, the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cerebral dysfunction still remains to be elucidated. Hence, the present study was initiated. Materials and Methods: Type-2 diabetes was induced in albino rats (280–300g) with alloxan monohydrate (40 mg/Kg i.v.,) and the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata of the brain were used 48 h after alloxan injection for modulations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity. Results: AChE activity in the discrete regions of the brain of rats decreased significantly (P<0.01, 0.05 and 0.05 respectively) in diabetes. In vitro studies using cerebral extract from alloxan diabetic rats demonstrated significant (P<0.05) inhibition of AChE activity in the brain of normal animals. Feeding with Cichorium intybus (chicory) leaf extract (500 mg/Kg) for 10 days resulted in an increase in AChE activity. Conclusion: The impairment in the glycemic control is the basic mechanism causing inhibition of neuronal activity. Cerebral extract from alloxan diabetic rats significantly inhibited the brain AChE activity of normal animals, indicating the presence of an inhibiting factor in the cerebrum of diabetic rats. Cichorium intybus when fed for 10 days offered neuroprotection by stimulating AChE activity. PMID:20336201

  19. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karuppasamy Balamurugan; Antony Nishanthini; Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract ofMelastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats.Results:In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2 000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats.Conclusions:Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats.

  20. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  1. Delayed Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia, Slow Gastrointestinal Transit and Possible Links Between Them in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢伟东; 刑东明; 苏慧; 程杰; 金文; 丁怡; 杜力军

    2004-01-01

    Both postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and diabetic gastroparesis are common dysfunctions affecting diabetes mellitus; however,whether diabetic gastroparesis has an influence on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia still remains undetermined.Delayed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia,diabetic gastroparesis,and the possible links between them were investigated using alloxan-induced diabetic mice.After the oral administration of olive oil,delayed and exaggerated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and diabetic gastroparesis were markedly presented in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.Domperidone shortened the time of triglycerides (TG) peak levels in diabetic mice.After intraperitoneal and intraduodenal administration of olive oil,no delay of TG peak levels occurred in diabetic mice.Simultaneously,serum post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activities significantly decreased just at the time of prolonged and elevated TG peak levels resulting from diabetic gastroparesis,and further deteriorated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetic mice.The results indicate that diabetic gastroparesis can be one of the important reasons for delayed and exaggerated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetes mellitus.

  2. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, liver damage and dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rat are prevented by Spirulina supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Manel; Magné, Christian; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2016-11-01

    Medicinal plants have long been used against life-threatening diseases including diabetes, with more or less success. Some of these plants have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, which could help improving diabetes inconveniences. In that context, we investigated the effects of spirulina supplementation on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, hypothesizing that co-administration of spirulina with rat diet could ameliorate diabetes complications and provide as benefits as the common antidiabetic insulin. Following alloxan treatment, male Wistar rats were fed daily with 5% spirulina-enriched diet or treated with insulin (0.5 IU/rat) for 21 days. Both spirulina and insulin treatments of diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and an increase of glycogen level. Spirulina supplementation also impeded loss of body weight and ameliorated hepatic toxicity indices, i.e. alkaline phosphatases and transaminases activities, bilirubin levels and lipid peroxidation. Besides, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in the serum. Moreover, diabetic rats fed with spirulina exhibited sig changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver (ie, decrease in superoxide dismutase and increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). The beneficial effects of spirulina or insulin were confirmed by histological study of the liver of diabetic rats. Overall, this study indicates that treatment with spirulina decreased hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats, this amelioration being even more pronounced than that provided by insulin injection. Therefore, administration of this alga would be very helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications.

  3. Effect of clonidine on blood glucose levels in euglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its interaction with glibenclamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Clonidine, a known antihypertensive, is currently used for many purposes including diabetic gastroparesis, postmenopausal hot flushes, opioid/nicotine/alcohol withdrawal. Its effects on carbohydrate metabolism appear to be variable. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of clonidine on euglycemic and alloxan -induced diabetic rats and its interaction with glibenclamide. Materials and Methods : Alloxan - induced (150 mg/kg, i.p diabetic rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group I - Normal Control; Group II - Nondiabetic + Clonidine (25 μg/kg; Group III - Diabetic Control; Group IV - Diabetic + Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg; Group V - Diabetic + Glibenclamide + Clonidine. All drugs were given orally once daily. Blood glucose was estimated from rat tail vein using glucometer before start of the experiment and at the end of 30 days. Results : After 30 days of treatment, clonidine (25 mg/kg produced significant hyperglycemia in both euglycemic and diabetic rats. It also reduced the hypoglycemic effect of glibenclamide in diabetic rats. Conclusion : The results of present study indicate that clonidine has hyperglycemic effect and it also interacts with glibenclamide to reduce its hypoglycemic activity. If these findings are true to human beings then clonidine should not be used in diabetic patients on sulfonylureas.

  4. Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebai, Hichem; Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Gharbi, Najoua; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-02-01

    The authors aimed in the present study to assess the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (ROEO) and Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Essential oil samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Rats were divided into four groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy+ROEO (H+ROEO), healthy+LSEO (H+LSEO), diabetic+ROEO (D+ROEO), and diabetic+LSEO (D+LSEO). The use of GC-MS allowed to the identification of 15 and 22 compounds in ROEO and LSEO, respectively. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test showed that ROEO and LSEO had an important antioxidant capacity. In vivo, we initially found that ROEO and LSEO treatment protected against the decrease in alloxan-induced body weight gain, relative reproductive organ weights, testosterone level, as well as sperm quality decline. On the other hand, we showed that alloxan administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testis, epididymis, and sperm. More importantly, ROEO and LSEO treatment significantly protected against oxidative damage of the male reproductive organ systems in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggested that ROEO and LSEO exerted a potential protective effect against alloxan-induced reproductive function damage and oxidative stress in male rat. The beneficial effect of ROEO and LSEO might be related, in part, to their antioxidant properties.

  5. EKSTRAK DAUN KAPULAGA MENURUNKAN INDEKS ATHEROGENIK DAN KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETES INDUKSI ALLOXAN (Cardamom Extract Leaves Decreased Atherogenic Indexs and Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Rats Alloxans-Induced

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    Hery Winarsi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cardamom (Amomum Cardomomum leaves has antioxidant in vitro, which was supported by a high flavonoids and vitamin C contents. It has been reported that antioxidants improved atherogenic index and insulin secretion. The aims of this study were to explore the potential of cardamom leaves extracts as atherogenicity and blood glucose levels controlling in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The animal experiments were 45 rats (Rattus norvegicus L. Sprague Dawley strain, male, aged 2-3 months, weighing 210-310 g. After acclimatization for 1 week, rats were fasted overnight and then induced alloxan monohydrate at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight. One week later, the rats in the test blood glucose levels using the Nesco Multi Check Glucose, Kemel Int’l Corp.  via the lateral tail vein of rats, blood glucose check attached to the equipment, and after 5 seconds glucose levels was read. Atherogenic index was determined by the formula: {( Chol-tot –HDL}/HDL. Blood samples for analysis of total-cholesterol and chol-HDL taken from the eye vein, after the rat anesthetized using ketamine. Rats with blood glucose levels > 200 mg / dL, were selected as experimental animals, and then divided into 3 groups of 15 each. Group I, fed standard and cardamom leaves extract; Group II, fed standard and glibenclamide, whereas group III, only fed standard for 2 weeks. At the beginning diabetic, their weight dropped from 247.63+28.5 to 220.9+26.6 g (P0.05, the blood glucose levels decreased from 199.25+100.5 to 102.88+17 mg/dL (P 200 mg/dL, dipilih sebagai hewan percobaan, kemudian dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok masing-masing 15 ekor. Kelompok I, diberi pakan standar dan ekstrak daun kapulaga; kelompok II, diberi pakan standar dan glibenklamid; sedangkan kelompok III, hanya diberi pakan standar selama 2 minggu. Saat awal diabetes, berat badannya turun dari 247,63+28,5 menjadi 220,9+26,6 g (P0.05, kadar glukosa darahnya menurun dari 199,25+100,5 menjadi 102,88+17 mg/dL (P<0.05, dan

  6. Antihyperglycemic Activity of the Leaves from Annona cherimola Miller and Rutin on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Solares-Pascasio, Jesús Iván; Ordoñez-Razo, R. M.; Velazquez, Claudia; Barbosa, Elizabeth; García-Hernández, Normand; Mendez-Luna, David; Correa-Basurto, José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Annona cherimola, known as “chirimoya” has been reported in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Objective: The aims of the present study were to validate and assess the traditional use of A. cherimola as an antidiabetic agent. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract from A. cherimola (300 mg/kg, EEAc), subsequent fractions (100 mg/kg), and rutin (30 mg/kg) were studied on alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic (AITD) and normoglycemic rats. In addition, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and oral sucrose tolerance test (OSTT) were performed in normoglycemic rats. Molecular docking technique was used to conduct the computational study. Results: Bioassay-guided fractionation of EEAc afforded as major antihyperglycemic compound, rutin. EEAc attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in acute test using AITD rats (331.5 mg/dL) carrying the glycemic levels to 149.2 mg/dL. Rutin after 2 h, attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia in an acute assay using AITD rats such as EEAc, with maximum effect (150.0 mg/dL) being seen at 4 h. The antihyperglycemic activities of EEAc and rutin were comparable with acarbose (151.3 mg/dL). In the subchronic assay on AITD rats, the EEAc and rutin showed a reduction of the blood glucose levels since the 1st week of treatment, reaching levels similar to normoglycemic state (116.9 mg/kg) that stayed constant for the rest of the assay. OGTT and OSTT showed that EEAc and rutin significantly lowered blood glucose levels in normoglycemic rats at 2 h after a glucose or sucrose load such as acarbose. Computational molecular docking showed that rutin interacted with four amino acids residues in the enzyme α-glucosidase. Conclusion: The results suggest that rutin an α-glucosidase inhibitor was responsible in part of the antihyperglycemic activity of A. cherimola. Its in vivo antihyperglycemic activity is in good agreement with the traditional use of A. cherimola for the treatment of diabetes. SUMMARY The ethanol extract

  7. Antihyperglycemic effect ofJuniperus phoenicea L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and diterpenoids isolated from the fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Ahmed El-Sawi; Hemaia Mohamed Motawae; Abdel-Rahman Omar El-Shabrawy; Mohamed Aboul-Fotouh Sleem; Amani Ameen Sleem; Maii Abdel Naby Ismail Maamoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the traditional use ofJuniperus phoenicea L. (J. phoenicea) growing in Egypt as antidiabetic herb. Methods: The antihyperglycemic activities of the crude 80% ethanol and successive extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats after collecting blood samples through retro-orbital puncture technique. As a consequence of the biological results, phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction of fruits was carried out by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Results: Results revealed the reduction in blood glucose levels in rats, which were significantly different from control at 4 and 8 weeks (P Conclusions: It has become clear that leaves and fruits of the EgyptianJ. phoenicea provide effective antihyperglycemic action in diabetic rats as was reported in folk medicine. The high contents of terpenoids in the non-polar fractions may attribute to the antidiabetic effect of the plant.

  8. Vitamin C improves basal metabolic rate and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D U Owu; A B Antai; K H Udofia; A O Obembe; K O Obasi; M U Eteng

    2006-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, lipoprotein abnormalities and oxidative stress. This study evaluated effect of oral vitamin C administration on basal metabolic rate and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Vitamin C was administered at 200 mg/kg body wt. by gavage for four weeks to diabetic rats after which the resting metabolic rate and plasma lipid profile was determined. The results showed that vitamin C administration significantly ( < 0.01) reduced the resting metabolic rate in diabetic rats; and also lowered plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These results suggest that the administration of vitamin C in this model of established diabetes mellitus might be beneficial for the restoration of basal metabolic rate and improvement of lipid profile. This may at least in part reduce the risk of cardiovascular events seen in diabetes mellitus.

  9. Effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose con-centration of alloxan induced diabetic Albino Wistar Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose of alloxan induced albino wist-ar rats.Methods:Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Abrus precatorius for 14 days.The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period.Results:There was a significant reduction in blood glucose concentration (P <0.05)with the mean blood glucose of the different groups as 5.0 ±0.3 for normal control,7.0 ±0.4 for diabetic control group and 4.0 ±0.2 for diabetic treated group. Conclusion:The findings of this study suggest that extract of Abrus precatorius has hypoglycemic effect.

  10. Palm oil and ground nut oil supplementation effects on blood glucose and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Olabiyi Folorunso; Isaac, OlatunjiOlusola; Tunmise, Makinwa Temitope; Omoniyi, OguntibejuOluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two common cooking oils (palm oil, PO) and (groundnut oil, GO) supplementation on the antioxidant status and diabetic indices in Alloxan (100mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of forty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. They were divided into four groups of 12 animals each as: control, diabetic non-supplemented, diabetic supplemented with PO (200mg/kg/day) and diabetic supplemented with GO (200mg/kg/day) rats. Blood glucose, plasma vitamin E, SOD, Total Protein and Albumin levels were measured using standard laboratory procedures. After three weeks of supplementation there was a significant (ppalm oil and ground nut oil as a source of antioxidant was beneficial in diabetic state as it reduced blood glucose and enhance antioxidant status.

  11. Estimation of lipid profile and glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass

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    Chinwe O. Ewenighi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cymbopogon citratus extract has been reported to have hypoglycemic properties but not much is known about its hypolipidemic effects. In this study it was aimed to demonstrate the hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic potentials of Cymbopogon citratus extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats of weights between 106-118 g were used for the study and divided into three groups of six rats each. The rats of the non-diabetic control group were given 1 ml of distilled water daily. Two other groups induced with diabetes using alloxan by a single dose administration of 120 mg/kg body weight (BW; one of these diabetic rat groups were treated with Cymbopogon citratus extract daily at 1.5 ml/100 g BW for 4 weeks while the other group was left untreated. Blood samples were collected and total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and glucose levels were assayed. Results: After four weeks of treatment, data indicated significant reductions in BW, blood glucose, TG, TC and LDL levels of diabetic rats treated with Cymbopogon citratus extract compared to the non-treated group. The treated diabetic rats also indicated significantly higher HDL levels compared to the non-treated group. Conclusion: Treatment of diabetic rats with the Cymbopogon citratus extract lowered blood glucose, TG, TC and LDL levels and increased the HDL level. This shows that the extract has both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 249-253

  12. The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the fruits of Balanites aegypticea in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Abdella Emam Abdella Baragob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balanites aegypticea is used medically for many purposes e.g. anti-spasmodic, stomach pain, malaria, and yellow fever. The extract of the fruit is also used to reduce the blood glucose levels. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of the aqueous extract of the fruits of the Balanites aegypticea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five adult male Vistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly collected and divided into 5 groups (5 rats in each group. The untreated rats (negative control group received basal diet and tap water only for 15 days. The experimental rats became diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight. The fruit of Balanites aegypticea was powdered, extracted, and dried using organic solvents. The diabetic rats received aqueous extract 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg, respectively, for 2 weeks. Plasma glucose levels were measured by using Glucose GOD-PAP method through spectrophotometer. Results: The results showed that 800 mg/kg aqueous extract decrease significantly the plasma glucose level (P ≤ 0.05 in diabetic rats, and there is a considerable gain in body weight (P ≤ 0.05 compared to the diabetic control group. Four-hundred mg/kg aqueous extract has a mild effect on body weights and plasma glucose levels, while 200 mg/kg aqueous extract has no significant effect on plasma glucose level and a little effect on body weight. Conclusions: The results of the presented study revealed that the aqueous extract of Balanites aegypticea has hypoglycemic properties. It can decrease the plasma glucose level and can improve weight in diabetic experimental animals.

  13. Bio-enhancing effect of Piperine with Metformin on lowering blood glucose level in Alloxan induced diabetic mice

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    Shubham Atal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most rampant metabolic pandemic of the 21 st century. Piperine, the chief alkaloid of Piper nigrum (black pepper is widely used in alternative and complementary therapies has been extensively studied for its bio-enhancing property. Objective: To evaluate the bio-enhancing effect of piperine with metformin in lowering blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Piperine was isolated from an extract of fruits of P. nigrum. Alloxan-induced (150 mg/kg intraperitoneal diabetic mice were divided into four groups. Group I (control 2% gum acacia 2 g/100 mL, Group II (metformin 250 mg/kg, Group III (metformin and piperine 250 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg, and Group IV (metformin and piperine 125 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg. All the drugs were administered orally once daily for 28 days. Blood glucose levels were estimated at day 0, day 14, and end of the study (day 28. Results: The combination of piperine with therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 250 mg/kg showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose level as compared to metformin alone on both 14 th and 28 th day (P < 0.05. Piperine in combination with sub-therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 125 mg/kg showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose as compared to control group and also showed greater lowering of blood glucose as compared to metformin (250 mg/kg alone. Conclusion: Piperine has the potential to be used as a bio-enhancing agent in combination with metformin which can help reduce the dose of metformin and its adverse effects.

  14. Protective effects of vitamins (C and E) and melatonin co-administration on hematological and hepatic functions and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Feriani, Anouer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Alimi, Hichem; Murat, Jean Claud; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of vitamins (C and E)/melatonin co-administration on the hematologic and hepatic functions and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg b.w. for 2 days) induced a significant increase of blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) associated with serious hematologic disorders (P diabetic rats were, however, noted to undergo significant increases by 42% (P diabetic rats when compared to the controls. Interestingly, the treatment with vitamins (C, E) in combination with melatonin was noted to reduce the plasma levels of glucose, lower the MDA levels, and restore the hematologic parameters and biochemical and antioxidant levels of diabetic rats back to normal values, alleviating diabetes metabolic disorders in rats.

  15. Antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of a methanol/methylene-chloride extract of Laportea ovalifolia (Urticaceae), measured in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, C E N; Oben, J E; Tazoo, D; Dongo, E

    2006-01-01

    A decoction of the leaves of Laportea ovalifolia is widely used in Cameroon for the treatment of several illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of a methanol/methylene-chloride extract of the aerial parts of L. ovalifolia have now been investigated, in normal rats and rats with diabetes induced by the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (at 150 mg/kg bodyweight). In the diabetic rats, 2 weeks of daily, intragastric treatment with the L. ovalifolia extract not only produced a significant reduction in the fasting serum glucose concentrations but also lowered the serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, lowered the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and increased the serum concentration of HDL cholesterol. At least in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes, the methanol/methylene-chloride extract of L. ovalifolia therefore appears to possess antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic properties.

  16. 2-Morpholino-5-Phenyl-6H-1,3,4-Thiadiazine Corrects Metabolic Disorders during the Development of Alloxan Diabetes Mellitus in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelianov, V V; Savateeva, E A; Sidorova, L P; Tseitler, T A; Gette, I F; Bulavintseva, T S; Smirnykh, S E; Maksimova, N E; Mochulskaya, N N; Chupakhin, O N; Chereshnev, V A

    2016-11-01

    Metabolic disorders were evaluated in rats with alloxan diabetes mellitus after administration of 2-morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine (compound L-17). Administration of L-17 reduced the severity of metabolic disorders associated with diabetes mellitus. At the end of the experiment, the concentration of glucose, glycated hemoglobin, malonic dialdehyde, and catalase activity were significantly higher and peroxidase activity was significantly lower in the group of animals receiving L-17. The decrease of glycemia, glucose concentration, and glycated hemoglobin content was reached by the 3rd-4th week of the experiment. These data suggest that correction of biochemical parameters in rats with alloxan diabetes was reached after administration of L-17 for at least 3 weeks.

  17. EFFECT OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM ON LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LDH ACTIVITY OF BLOOD, LIVER AND PANCREAS IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN- INDUCED DIABETIC MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekaran Sridhar et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous seeds extract of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn was studied on Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity of blood, liver and pancreas in normal and alloxan- induced diabetic mice. Our study showed that aqueous seeds extract, Oral administration of 50 mg/animal (0.5 ml of extract in alternative days up to 7 days (1st, 3rd, 5th & 7th day. In alloxan induced diabetic mice, there was a significant increase in LDH activity of all the three tissues. The enzyme Lactate dehydrogenase showed significant decrease in the diabetic group treated with aqueous extract of tested plant when compared with the diabetic group. It is clear from the current data in this study that ginseng aqueous extract was the most efficient of the tested plant.

  18. Antidiabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Himanshu Misra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the medicative effects of medium-polar (benzene:acetone, 1:1, v/v extract of leaves from Stevia rebaudiana (family Asteraceae on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in adult albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of alloxan (180 mg/kg. Medium-polar extract was administered orally at daily dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. basis for 10 days. The control group received normal saline (0.9% for the same duration. Glibenclamide was used as positive control reference drug against Stevia extract. Results: Medium-polar leaf extract of S. rebaudiana (200 and 400 mg/kg produced a delayed but significant (P < 0.01 decrease in the blood glucose level, without producing condition of hypoglycemia after treatment, together with lesser loss in the body weight as compared with standard positive control drug glibenclamide. Conclusions: Treatment of diabetes with sulfonylurea drugs (glibenclamide causes hypoglycemia followed by greater reduction in body weight, which are the most worrisome effects of these drugs. Stevia extract was found to antagonize the necrotic action of alloxan and thus had a re-vitalizing effect on β-cells of pancreas.

  19. Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycaemic Action of Different Fractions and Sub-fractions from Aqueous Extract of Aloe vera Linn. Leaf on Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alok Maithani; Versha Parcha; Geeta Pant; Deepak Kumar; Ishan Dhulia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the fasting serum glucose (FSG) lowering potential of different fractions (C & D) and subfraction (D1 & D2) from aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf on normal and alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Two fractions (C & D) obtained by common chemical treatment of the aqueous extract of Aleo vera leaf and subfraction (D1 & D2) from fraction D were administered to the alloxan induced (150mg/kg i.p.) diabetic rats. The FSG lowering capacity, of different fractions and subfractions, was then evaluated in terms of percentage reduction in blood glucose level. Results: Oral administration of fractions C & D and subfraction D1 & D2 for 15 days led significant (P<0.05) reduction to the elevated FSG level of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Percentage reduction in blood glucose level and comparison with standard drug glibenclamide suggest the superiority of fraction D and subfraction D1 in hypoglycaemic potential. Conclusions:The results suggest that fraction D and subfraction D1 from aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf possesses the maximum FSG lowering capacity and further investigation is required for determination of anti-diabetic principal(s) and exact mechanism of their hypoglycaemic action.

  20. Possible antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of fermented Parkia biglobosa (JACQ) extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetola, A A; Akinloye, O; Egunjobi, C; Adekunle, W A; Ayoola, A O

    2006-09-01

    1. The hypoglycaemic effect of fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa (PB; African locust bean), a natural nutritional condiment that features frequently in some African diets as a spice, was investigated in the present study in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Its effect was compared with that of glibenclamide (Daonil; Sanofi-Aventis, Paris, France), a reference antidiabetic drug. The effects of PB on lipid profiles were also examined. 2. In order to assess the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of PB on experimental animals, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were determined. In addition, the weight of each animal was determined to assess any possible weight gain or loss in the experimental animals (diabetic rats treated with Daonil (group C), the aqueous extract of PB (group D) or the methanolic extract of PB (group E)) compared with control groups (non-diabetic (group A) and non-treated diabetic (group B)). 3. A single dose of 120 mg/kg, i.v., alloxan administered to rats resulted in significant increases in the FPG (P < 0.001) of test animals compared with controls. However, dietary supplementation with PB (6 g/kg extract for 4 weeks administered orally using an intragastric tube) ameliorated the alloxan-induced diabetes in a manner comparable with that of the reference antidiabetic drug glibenclamide. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of PB (6% w/w) elicited 69.2% and 64.4% reductions, respectively, in FPG compared with 70.4% in 0.01 mg/150 g glibenclamide-treated rats. 4. Although animals treated with the aqueous extract of PB gained weight in manner similar to normal controls, animals given the methanolic extract and glibenclamide lost weight in manner similar to non-treated diabetic rats. In addition, high levels of HDL and low LDL were observed in animals treated with the aqueous extract of PB, a pattern similar to that seen in

  1. Improvement in beta-islets of Langerhans in alloxan-induced diabetic rats by erythropoietin and spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. El-Desouki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of erythropoietin (EPO and/or spirulina to treat alloxanized-diabetic rats. Eighty male albino rats were equally divided into eight groups; Group I: Normal control rats, Group II: Non-diabetic rats treated with EPO (40 U/kg injected subcutaneously three times weekly for 3 weeks, Group III: Non-diabetic rats administered orally with spirulina (2 g/kg/d for 21 days, Group IV: Non-diabetic rats treated by EPO (40 U/kg together with spirulina (2 g/kg/d as mentioned in groups II & III, Group V: Alloxanized-diabetic rats. Group VI: Diabetic rats treated with EPO (40 U/kg as in group II, Group VII: Diabetic rats administered with spirulina (2 g/kg/d as in group III, Group VIII: Diabetic rats were given with EPO (40 U/kg and spirulina (2 g/kg/d as in group IV. Diabetic rat group showed a significant increase in glucose and NO; and a significant decrease in insulin, SOD and CAT levels. Diabetic rats treated with EPO or/and spirulina recorded a significant decrease in the glucose and NO levels; and a significant increase in insulin, SOD and CAT levels when compared with the diabetic group. Histopathologically, diabetic rats treated with EPO or spirulina showed a slight improvement of pancreatic islets and acinar cells, diabetic rats treated with EPO & spirulina together showed an obvious recovery to approximately normal status. IHC, the expression of insulin producing cells (β-cells of diabetic rats was improved in the three treatment groups with a lesser affinity for EPO than spirulina while with both together showed marked recovery into normal status. In conclusion, all the changes were minimized in spirulina administered group more than EPO group, however, the co-treatment of EPO and spirulina exerted stronger anti-hyperglycemic effects than treatment with each agent alone.

  2. Antihyperglycemic Effect on Chronic Administration of Butanol Fraction of Ethanol Extract of Moringa Stenopetala Leaves in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alemayehu Toma; Eyasu Makonnen; Asfaw Debella; Birhanu Tesfaye

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity on chronic administration of the butanol fraction of the ethanol extract of Moringa Stenopetala leaves in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Methods: The mice were grouped in four groups; Normal control, Diabetic control, Butanol fraction treated and standard drug treated groups. The Diabetic mice received the butanol fraction of Moringa stenopetala daily for 28 days. Results: The butanol fraction of Moringastenopetala treatment resulted in significant reduction of fasting blood glucose level, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides level. This fraction also showed a tendency to improve body weight gain in diabetic mice. Its oral LD50 was found to be greater than 5000mg/Kg indicating its safety in mice. Conclusions: Though the mechanism of action of Moringa stenopetala seems to be similar to that of sulfonylureas, further studies should be done to confirm its mechanism of antidiabetic action. Furthermore the active principle(s) responsible for the antidabetic effects should also be identified.

  3. A Protein Isolate from Moringa oleifera Leaves Has Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Paulo C. Paula

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. However, few studies have been conducted to relate its antidiabetic properties to proteins. In this study, a leaf protein isolate was obtained from M. oleifera leaves, named Mo-LPI, and the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects on alloxan-induced diabetic mice were assessed. Mo-LPI was obtained by aqueous extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The electrophoresis profile and proteolytic hydrolysis confirmed its protein nature. Mo-LPI showed hemagglutinating activity, cross-reaction with anti-insulin antibodies and precipitation after zinc addition. Single-dose intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of Mo-LPI (500 mg/kg·bw reduced the blood glucose level (reductions of 34.3%, 60.9% and 66.4% after 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively. The effect of Mo-LPI was also evidenced in the repeated dose test with a 56.2% reduction in the blood glucose level on the 7th day after i.p. administration. Mo-LPI did not stimulate insulin secretion in diabetic mice. Mo-LPI was also effective in reducing the oxidative stress in diabetic mice by a decrease in malondialdehyde level and increase in catalase activity. Mo-LPI (2500 mg/kg·bw did not cause acute toxicity to mice. Mo-LPI is a promising alternative or complementary agent to treat diabetes.

  4. A Protein Isolate from Moringa oleifera Leaves Has Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Paulo C; Sousa, Daniele O B; Oliveira, Jose T A; Carvalho, Ana F U; Alves, Bella G T; Pereira, Mirella L; Farias, Davi F; Viana, Martonio P; Santos, Flavia A; Morais, Talita C; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2017-02-11

    Moringa oleifera has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. However, few studies have been conducted to relate its antidiabetic properties to proteins. In this study, a leaf protein isolate was obtained from M. oleifera leaves, named Mo-LPI, and the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects on alloxan-induced diabetic mice were assessed. Mo-LPI was obtained by aqueous extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The electrophoresis profile and proteolytic hydrolysis confirmed its protein nature. Mo-LPI showed hemagglutinating activity, cross-reaction with anti-insulin antibodies and precipitation after zinc addition. Single-dose intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Mo-LPI (500 mg/kg·bw) reduced the blood glucose level (reductions of 34.3%, 60.9% and 66.4% after 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively). The effect of Mo-LPI was also evidenced in the repeated dose test with a 56.2% reduction in the blood glucose level on the 7th day after i.p. administration. Mo-LPI did not stimulate insulin secretion in diabetic mice. Mo-LPI was also effective in reducing the oxidative stress in diabetic mice by a decrease in malondialdehyde level and increase in catalase activity. Mo-LPI (2500 mg/kg·bw) did not cause acute toxicity to mice. Mo-LPI is a promising alternative or complementary agent to treat diabetes.

  5. Hypolipidemic and Antiatherogenic Effects of Satureja Khozestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

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    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing around the world. Oxidative stress is one of the risk factors in diabetes. The purpose of this study is to examine the protective effects of the essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica on the level of serum lipids and atherogenic indices in the male rats with diabetes.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on thirty male rats randomly divided into three groups including: 1- control group, 2- rats with untreated diabetes 3- rats with treated diabetes (through orally intake of water containing 500 ppm of the essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica. The second and third groups also developed diabetes through injection of alloxan tetrahydrate (120 mg/kg. After eight weeks of treatment, their blood sample was taken, and then the levels of glucose, lipids and atherogenic indices of the serum were measured.Results: The levels of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and atherogenic indices of plasma in treated diabetic group were significantly decreased. The amount of high density lipoprotein (HDL was significantly increased in the treated group. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study showed that the essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica has beneficial effects on the level of serum lipids and atherogenic indices of rats with type 1 diabetes.

  6. Antihyperlipidemic and renoprotective activities of methanolic extract of Canscora decussata extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits

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    Nadeem Irshad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic and renopro-tective effects of methanolic extract of powdered Canscora decussata whole plant in the diabetic rabbits. Thirty rabbits were divided into five groups having 6 animals each including normal and diabetic controls groups, the remaining groups received methanolic extract in 400 and 600 mg/kg doses and another group got pioglitazone (3 mg/kg for 30 days. Serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, albumin, globulin and total proteins were estimated by using commercially available kits. The results showed that extract significantly (p<0.01 decreased the raised parameters including triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, Coronary risk index up to normal values compared to diabetic rabbits. However, it significantly increased HDL-cholesterol, albumin, globulin and total protein levels. Therefore, it is suggested that methanolic extract of C. decussata exerts hypolipidemic and renoprotective effects in the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  7. Lectin from Crataeva tapia Bark Improves Tissue Damages and Plasma Hyperglycemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Amanda Alves; Araújo, Tiago Ferreira da Silva; da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira Martins; da Mota, Diógenes Luís; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Crataeva tapia is a plant popularly used for diabetes treatment, in Brazil. Progressive decline in renal and hepatic functions has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus, and mortality rate is increased in patients with chronic liver and renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether Crataeva tapia bark lectin (CrataBL) improves hyperglycemia and renal and hepatic damage in diabetic mice. CrataBL was purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and intraperitoneal administration of CrataBL to alloxan-induced diabetic mice at dose of 10 mg/Kg/day and 20 mg/Kg/day for 10 days significantly reduced serum glucose levels by 14.9% and 55.9%, respectively. Serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were also significantly reduced after treatment with both doses of CrataBL. Furthermore, histological analysis of liver, kidney, and pancreas revealed an improvement in the tissue morphology upon treatment with CrataBL. The results suggest that CrataBL has a beneficial hypoglycemic activity and improves the renal and hepatic complications of diabetes. Therefore, this lectin may be a promising agent for the treatment of diabetes, and this might be the basis for its use in the folk medicine as an alternative treatment to manage diabetes-related complications such as hyperglycemia and tissue damage. PMID:24324521

  8. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    R S Kujur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stevia rebaudiana regulates blood sugar, prevents hypertension and tooth decay. Other studies have shown that it has antibacterial as well as antiviral property. Methods : Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, ether and methanolic extracts of S. rebaudiana was done. Acute and sub-acute toxicity were conducted on twenty four Albino rats, divided into one control (Group I and three treatment groups viz. aqueous extract (Group II, ether extract (Group III and methanolic extract (Group IV. For the study of antidiabetic effect of S. rebaudiana rats were divided into seven groups (n=6. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 5% alloxan monohydrate (125 mg/kg, i.p. after 24 hour fasting.Blood samples were analysed on day 0, 1, 5, 7, 14 and 28. Results : Phytochemical tests showed presence of different kinds of phyto-constituents in aqueous, ether and methanol extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Daily single dose (2.0 g/kg administration of aqueous extract (A.E. , ether extract (E.E. and methanol extract (M.E. for 28 days of S. rebaudiana could not show any significant change in ALT and AST levels in rats. Blood sugar level was found to be decreased on day 28 in groups of rats treated with A.E., E.E. and M.E. of S. rebaudiana. Conclusion : The extracts of Stevioside rebaudiana could decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats in time dependent manner.

  9. Blockade of the formation of insoluble ubiquitinated protein aggregates by EGCG3"Me in the alloxan-induced diabetic kidney.

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    Shuxian Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal accumulation of reactive carbonyl compounds (RCCs has been linked to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. We previously demonstrated that carbonyl stress induces the formation of amino-carbonyl cross-links and sharply increases the content of β-sheet-rich structures, which is the seed of insoluble aggregates formation, and tea catechin (--epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG can reverse this process in vitro and in vivo. In this study, methylated derivative (--epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl-gallate (EGCG3"Me was hypothesized to neutralize carbonyl stress mediating the formation of insoluble ubiquitinated protein (IUP aggregates, and reduce the early development of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneally injecting alloxan monohydrate (200 mg/kg/d twice and administering EGCG3"Me by gavage for 15 d. Reagent case and western blot results showed that, in diabetic kidneys, the carbonyl proteins in the serum increased; and in insoluble protein fraction, 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins, IUP aggregates and p62 accumulated; FT-IR study demonstrated that the lipid content, anti-parallel β-sheet structure and aggregates increased. EGCG3"Me treatment could effectively reverse this process, even better than the negative control treatment. CONCLUSIONS: EGCG3"Me exhibiting anti-β-sheet-rich IUP aggregate properties, maybe represents a new strategy to impede the progression of diabetic nephropathy and other diabetic complications.

  10. Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Rizwan Siddiqui; Asia Taha; K Moorthy; Mohd Ejaz Hussain; S F Basir; Najma Zaheer Baquer

    2005-09-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) and sodium orthovanadate (SOV) have been reported to have antidiabetic effects. However, SOV exerts hypoglycemic effects at relatively high doses with several toxic effects. We used low doses of vanadate in combination with TSP and evaluated their antidiabetic effects on antioxidant enzymes and membrane-linked functions in diabetic rat brains. In rats, diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body wt.) and they were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV with 5% TSP for 21 days. Blood glucose levels, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Na+/K+ ATPase, membrane lipid peroxidation and fluidity were determined in different fractions of whole brain after 21 days of treatment. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose ( < 0.001), decreased activities of SOD, catalase and Na+/K+ ATPase ( < 0.01, < 0.001 and < 0.01), increased levels of GPx and MDA ( < 0.01 and < 0.001) and decreased membrane fluidity ( < 0.01). Treatment with different antidiabetic compounds restored the above-altered parameters. Combined dose of Trigonella and vanadate was found to be the most effective treatment in normalizing these alterations. Lower doses of vanadate could be used in combination with TSP to effectively counter diabetic alterations without any toxic effects.

  11. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark water extract on memory performance in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Moghimi, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaie, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) has a wide range of beneficial effects including mild glucose lowering activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark extract has the potential to improve memory performance and glucose profiles in diabetic mice. Memory was assessed by the novel object recognition task in male Balb/c mice. In this method, the difference between exploration time of a familiar object and a novel object was considered as an index of memory performance (recognition index, RI). The water extract was prepared by boiling cinnamon bark for 15 min. Alloxan induced diabetes in animals (serum glucose levels were 322 ± 7.5 mg/dL), and also impaired memory performance (RI= -3.3% ± 3.3) which differed significantly from control animals (RI = 32% ± 6.5). Although treatment with cinnamon only reduced fasting blood glucose level moderately but it improved memory performance remarkably (RI = 25.5% ± 5.6). Oxidative stress following administration of cinnamon extract was lower in diabetic mice. It was concluded that cinnamon water extract could be a useful alternative medicine in diabetic patients' daily regimen which not only reduces blood glucose levels but also improves memory performance and lipid peroxidation level.

  12. Comparison of the effects of aminoguanidine and L-carnitine treatments on somatosensorial evoked potentials in alloxan-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, O; Ozata, M; Ozkardeş, A; Deniz, G; Yildirimkaya, M; Corakçi, A; Yardim, M; Gündoğan, M A

    1996-10-01

    The effects of aminoguanidine (AG) and L-carnitine (LC) on somatosensorial evoked potential (SEP) latency and neural levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), products of lipid peroxidation, were compared in alloxan-diabetic rats. AG and LC were given to diabetic rats starting from the 3rd week after the induction of diabetes and lasting for 4 weeks. SEP latency was measured by stimulating via caudal nerve and recording via cortex, once weekly during the treatments. Diabetes caused deficits in SEP (P < 0.05 vs non-diabetic control rats, respectively). AG and LC restored SEP latencies slightly but not significantly, with the exception of the prominent effect of AG at the first week and both treatments at the 4th week of the treatments (P < 0.05 vs untreated diabetic rats, respectively). Diabetes caused elevation in neural TBARS levels (P < 0.05 vs non-diabetic group), which was prevented by both AG and LC (P < 0.05 vs untreated diabetic rats, respectively). Weight and the glucose levels were not influenced by the treatments. Our results suggest that AG improves SEP latencies better than LC. Our results also suggest that the beneficial effects of both AG and LC on diabetic neuropathy are not associated with the regulation of glycemia, but these effects may be related in part with prevention of lipid peroxidation.

  13. Lectin from Crataeva tapia Bark Improves Tissue Damages and Plasma Hyperglycemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Alves da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crataeva tapia is a plant popularly used for diabetes treatment, in Brazil. Progressive decline in renal and hepatic functions has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus, and mortality rate is increased in patients with chronic liver and renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether Crataeva tapia bark lectin (CrataBL improves hyperglycemia and renal and hepatic damage in diabetic mice. CrataBL was purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and intraperitoneal administration of CrataBL to alloxan-induced diabetic mice at dose of 10 mg/Kg/day and 20 mg/Kg/day for 10 days significantly reduced serum glucose levels by 14.9% and 55.9%, respectively. Serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were also significantly reduced after treatment with both doses of CrataBL. Furthermore, histological analysis of liver, kidney, and pancreas revealed an improvement in the tissue morphology upon treatment with CrataBL. The results suggest that CrataBL has a beneficial hypoglycemic activity and improves the renal and hepatic complications of diabetes. Therefore, this lectin may be a promising agent for the treatment of diabetes, and this might be the basis for its use in the folk medicine as an alternative treatment to manage diabetes-related complications such as hyperglycemia and tissue damage.

  14. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Pisonia alba Span. Leaves on Blood Glucose levels and Histological Changes in Tissues of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic rats

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    C Sunil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The ethanolic extract of Pisonia alba Span (Nyctaginaceae (PAEt was found to have antidiabetic activity that reduces blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats.  In this study, a 15 days antihyperglycemic effect of the two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.p.o of PAEt was investigated. Glibenclamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg b.w. Treatment of alloxan diabetic wistar rats with the extract caused a significant (P<0.01 reduction in the blood glucose levels when compared with control.   PAEt also showed significant lipid peroxide  scavenging in vitro, besides exhibiting significant activity in quenching 1,1-diphenyl-2 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radicals, thereby indicating its potent antioxidant effects.  Treatment with PAEt of the diabetic animals helped to maintain the body weight at near normal values and maintain the glucose levels of urine below 2% like glibenclamide.  Treatment with the ethanol extract of Pisonia alba Span  (Nyctaginaceae (PAEt was found to almost restore the normal histological architecture of the liver, kidney and pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.   Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus and other ailments because of the hazardous adverse effects of the current therapy used to treat these ailments using synthetic drugs.  Diabetes can be controlled by allopathic medicine as well as herbal medicine.  In case of allopathic medicine, complete cure and tolerance are major problems.  Herbal medicine is free from side effects and less costly when compared to synthetic hypoglycemic agents.  Nowadays a lot of herbal formulations are available as tablets and other dosage forms.  The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drugs with fewer side effects, which are affordable and more effective in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus.

  15. Effects of Hydromethanolic leaves extract of Indigofera pulchra on blood glucose levels of normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats

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    Y Tanko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The effects of the hydromethanolic  extract of Indigofera pulchra on blood glucose levels of alloxan induced and normoglycemic Wistar rats has been investigated. Three doses of the extract (250mg/Kg, 500mg/Kg and 1000mg/Kg were administered intraperitoneally. The dose of 1000mg/Kg of the extract did not significantly alter the blood glucose levels of Alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats after 4, 8 and 24 hours of treatment. However, the doses of 500 mg/Kg of the extract did significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels of Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats at 4 and 24 hours while  the dose of 250 mg/Kg of the extract did significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels of Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats at 4, 8 and 24 hours. In normoglycemic rats, the dose of 1000mg/Kg of the extract significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels at 8 and 24 hours only. Also the dose of 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 decrease the blood glucose levels at 24 hours while the dose of 250 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 in the blood glucose levels at 8 and 24 hours. The phytochemical screening revealed the presences of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and steroids. The median lethal dose (LD50 in rats was calculated to be 2,154.1 mg/kg bodyweight. In conclusion, the doses of the extract has shown both significant (p<0.05 hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects in Wistar rats.   Industrial relevance: The search for more effective and hypoglycemic agents has continue to be an area of research interest, because of the less side effects and easily affordable  medicinal plants has, when compared to the synthetic drugs. Indigofera pulchra is a very virgin plant and promising base on these current findings. The phytochemical screening revealed the present of phenolic compounds, tannins steroids, saponins and alkaloids. Elucidation of those secondary metabolites would be more effective in the treatment of this illness.

  16. Absence of antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of Gymnema sylvestre in non-diabetic and alloxan-diabetic rats

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    Ricardo Galletto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic potential of dried powdered leaves of Gymnema sylvestre (GS. The acute effect of GS administered by oral gavage on glucose blood level of and lipids in non-diabetic and alloxan-diabetic rats were investigated in the following conditions: a after a balanced meal; b after the ingestion of 1000 mg/kg amylose or 1000 mg/kg glucose; c after the ingestion of a mixture of 12 mL/kg soybean oil + 1% cholesterol (SOC. In addition, the effect of the treatment with GS during two (sub-acute or four weeks (chronic on body weight, food and water ingestion, glucose blood level and lipids in non-diabetic and alloxan-diabetic rats were measured. The dose of GS utilized in the majority of the experiments, i.e., 30 mg/kg, corresponds to that given to treat diabetes in Brazil. GS acutely did not influence the elevation of glycemia promoted by a balanced meal or by the administration of amylose or glucose; but promoted more intense (PNeste estudo foi investigado o potencial antidiabético e hipolipemiante da Gymnema sylvestre (GS. O efeito agudo da GS administrada via oral sobre a glicemia e lipidemia foi avaliado em ratos Wistar sob as seguintes condições: a após refeição balanceada; b após ingestão de 1000 mg de amylose ou 1000 mg/kg de glicose; c após ingestão de uma mistura de 12 mL/kg de óleo de soja + 1% de colesterol (OSC. Foi avaliado também o efeito do tratamento com GS durante duas (sub-agudo ou quatro semanas (crônico sobre o peso corporal, ingestão de água e alimento, glicemia e lipidemia em ratos não diabéticos e diabéticos induzidos com aloxana. A dose de GS utilizada na maioria dos experimentos (30 mg/kg corresponde a dose empregada para tratar diabetes no Brasil. A administração aguda de GS não influenciou a elevação da glicemia durante a refeição balanceada, administração de amilose ou glicose; mas intensificou a elevação da concentração sérica de lip

  17. Evidence for a role of free fatty acids in the regulation of somatostatin secretion in normal and alloxan diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasada, T; Howard, B; Dobbs, R E; Unger, R H

    1980-09-01

    To investigate the effect of acute elevation of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) on the secretion of splanchnic somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI), the peripheral venous, pancreatic, and gastric venous effluent levels of SLI were measured in normal and chronic alloxan diabetic dogs before and after the infusion of a fat emulsion supplemented with heparin. In normal conscious dogs heparin injected during the infusion of a fat emulsion elevated FFA levels from a mean (+/-SE) base-line level of 0.7+/-0.1 meq/liter to a peak value of 1.5+/-0.1 meq/liter (P fat emulsion without heparin, of heparin alone nor of saline itself had an effect on either the plasma level of FFA or SLI. In another group of anesthetized dogs with surgically implanted catheters the administration of fat emulsion plus heparin was accompanied by more than a two-fold rise in the concentration of SLI in the venous effluent of the pancreas and of the gastric fundus and antrum in association with an elevation of FFA levels. In a group of conscious diabetic dogs fat emulsion plus heparin raised FFA from a mean base-line level of 1.2+/-0.2 to 1.6+/-0.3 meq/liter (P < 0.05) and SLI rose from a mean base-line level of 185+/-9 pg/ml to a peak value of 310+/-44 pg/ml (P < 0.01). Although SLI levels were significantly greater than in normal dogs at several time points after the rise in FFA, the magnitude of the increment in diabetic dogs did not differ from normal. These results demonstrate that a rise in FFA levels is a potent stimulus for SLI secretion from the pancreas and stomach and raise the possibility that FFA is an important physiological regulator of SLI secretion.

  18. Biochemical evaluation of the hypoglycemic effects of extract and fraction of Cassia fistula linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    E E Jarald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae such as petroleum ether (60-80°, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05 to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg.

  19. The control of hyperglycemia by a novel trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation in alloxan induced type I diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Sarbashri; Ghosh, Arjun; Bhattacharya, Suman; Maiti, Smarajit; Khan, Gausal A; Sinha, Asru K

    2016-01-01

    A trypsin resistant oral insulin preparation was made by incubating insulin for 2 h at 23 °C with previously boiled cow milk at 100 °C that was coagulated with 0.6 M acetic acid. The precipitate was resuspended in the same volume of milk. The immunoblot analysis of the suspended proteins treated with 200 ng of trypsin/ml for 3 h demonstrated that the 80.1% of the insulin in the suspension survived the proteolytic degradation compared to 0% of the hormone survived in the control. The feeding of 0.4 ml (0.08 unit of insulin) of the resuspended proteins followed by 0.2 ml of the same protein to alloxan induced diabetic mice maximally decreased the blood glucose level from 508 ± 10 mg/dl to 130 ± 10 mg/dl in 7 h with simultaneous increase of the basal plasma concentration of insulin from 3 ± 1.1 μunits/ml to 18 ± 1.5 μunits/ml. In control experiment the absence of insulin in the identical milk suspension produced no hypoglycemic effect suggesting milk was not responsible for the hypoglycemic effect of milk-insulin complex. Coming out of insulin-casein complex from the intestinal gut to the circulation was spontaneous and facilitated diffusion transportation which was found from Gibbs free energy reaction.

  20. Prunella vulgaris L. active components and their hypoglycemic and antinociceptive effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raafat, K; Wurglics, M; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M

    2016-12-01

    Prunella vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) (PV) is a herbaceous plant traditionally utilized in management of diabetes and it has immunomodulatory activity. In this study, acute and subchronic antidiabetic, in-vivo antioxidant and antinociceptive effects of PV were evaluated in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a mouse model. Bio-guided fractionation, isolation, RP-HPLC, and (1)H and (13)C NMR identification of the active components responsible for PV effects were determined. RP-HPLC analysis showed that PV contained rosmarinic acid (RA) 4.5%, caffeic acid (CA) 9.8% and p-coumaric acid (pCA) 11.6%. Bio-guided fractionation showed that PV most active fraction was rich in caffeic acid, hence named, caffeic acid-rich fraction (CARF). RP-HPLC, and (1)H and (13)C NMR experiments showed that CARF contained CA (93.4%) and RA (6.6%). CARF reduced blood glucose levels and improved in-vivo oxidative-stress. It also inhibited the carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes (alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase) and reduced HbA1c levels more significantly (p≤0.05) than that of PV and equivalent amounts of CA or RA. For longer times, CARF had significantly (p≤0.05) increased serum-insulin, ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia more significantly (p≤0.05) than the effects of PV and equivalent amounts of CA or RA. Moreover, the tested compounds showed potential restoration of the lipid peroxide levels. Consequently, CARF and PV observed increase in serum-insulin, attenuation of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase, and their antioxidant potentials might be responsible for their antidiabetogenic and antinociceptive properties. In conclusion, CARF isolated from PV could be a potential therapeutic agent to ameliorate T1D and related complications.

  1. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS ROOT EXTRACT STUDIED IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES IN RATS

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    S. Subramanian et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. Hemidesmus indicus is employed as an indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments from earlier days. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Hemidesmus indicus in alloxan-induced experimental diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract (400 mg/kg b.w. on glucose tolerance, the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, protein, lipid peroxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid profile, muscle glycogen content were determined in control and experimental groups of rats. The altered levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, and protein in the diabetic rats were significantly reverted back to near basal values by the administration of ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root to diabetic rats for 30 days. The levels of lipid peroxides in the plasma and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats were elevated significantly and were normalized by the administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The activities of pancreatic enzymic antioxidants and the levels of plasma non-enzymic antioxidants were markedly declined in the diabetic rats. Upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract to diabetic rats, these decreased levels were elevated to near normal values. The reduced level of glycogen content in muscle tissues of diabetic rats was significantly improved upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The altered levels of lipid profile were reverted back to near normalcy upon the extract treatment. The results of the study indicate that Hemidesmus indicus root extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activity. The results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard hypoglycemic drug. The phytochemicals present in the Hemidesmus indicus root extract may

  2. Antihyperglycemic activity of petroleum ether leaf extract of Ficus krishnae L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    M C Sidhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether leaf extract of Ficus krishnae has been evaluated for the management of diabetes in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract for various chemical compounds has also been carried out. Leaf extract was administered continuously for 21 days orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Along with this, the blood glucose level was monitored at regular intervals to understand the activity of the extract. The leaf extract has decreased the blood glucose level of diabetic rats which was comparable to an antidiabetic standard drug, glibenclamide, given at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg. It has been observed that the leaves of Ficus krishnae possess antidiabetic activity and it reduces the blood glucose level significantly. The phytochemical screening of leaf has revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, gums and mucilage, phlobatannins, reducing sugars and phenolic compounds. The Fourier Transform Infrared analysis of glibenclamide and leaf powder has displayed some common absorption spectra. This shows that leaf powder has a molecule which is close to glibenclamide. Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy have shown the presence of cellulose, Ca, Si, K, Cl, Mg, P, S, Al, Fe, Na, Sr, Pd, Zn, Mn, Cr, Mo, Br, Ni, Rb and Zr. It is assumed that these elements alongwith other chemical compounds of the plant species may play a role in the management of diabetes. The Raman Specta of both glibenclamide and leaf powder has also shown some similarities. The results obtained during the present investigation have revealed the antidiabetic activity of Ficus krishnae leaves. The phytochemical screening has indicated the various chemical constituents likely to be responsible for this activity. The Fourier Transform Infrared, Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence and Raman Specta of the leaf powder suggested that there is some glibenclamide like molecule or its

  3. TYPE 1 DIABETES AND ITS LONG DURATION EFFECT ON COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS: AN ASSESSMENT IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Mahaboob Basha P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the enormous research in the field of Diabetology, its prevalence and complications are raising. Studies made on diabetic subjects showed deficits in cognition and memory in children suffering from long term diabetes. The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and type-1 diabetes of early onset has not been addressed properly. Hence, this study was made to investigate the effect of different duration diabetes onset on cognitive dysfunction. Using alloxan (200 mg/kg bw induced diabetic rats learning and memory assessments were made, in addition oxidative stress indices studied. The results indicate that the duration of diabetes has significant contribution in learning and memory deficits, which were irreversible and the activity levels of CAT (P < 0.05, SOD, GST (P < 0.05, and GPx (P < 0.05 showed greater impact of free radical damage on hippocampal circuitry. The atrophic changes observed in hippocampal region corroborates the difficulties in learning and memory, and the degenerative changes were most striking in the cells of CA-1 and CA-3 hippocampal regions which could be linked to deficits in certain cognitive domains, such as memory, information processing speed, executive function, attention and motor speed. It is evident from data that brain tissue is not spared by diabetes and diabetic encephalopathy occurs due to metabolic perturbations by hyperglycaemia, insulin deficiency. The findings of this study strongly advocate that learning ability and memory have a direct relation to the duration of the diabetes. The clinical implication of the study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of juvenile diabetes induced cognitive deficits among children.

  4. Alteration of plasma biochemical, haematological and ocular oxidative indices of alloxan induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens Linn (Asteraceae).

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    Ikewuchi, Jude Chigozie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Tridax procumbens on the haematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress was investigated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg body weight), via the tail vein. The extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (both to normal and diabetic rats), and metformin at 50 mg/kg. On gas chromatographic analysis of the alkaloid fraction of the aqueous extract, thirty nine known alkaloids were detected, consisting mainly of 73.91 % akuamidine, 22.33 % voacangine, 1.27 % echitamine, 0.55 % echitamidine, 0.36 % lupanine, 0.27 % crinamidine, 0.23 % augustamine and 0.10 % 6-hydroxypowelline. Tannic acid and β-sitosterol were detected in high quantities. Compared to Test control, the treatment dose-dependently, significantly lowered (Pextract was hypoglycemic, positively affected the haemopoietic system and integrity and function (dose dependently) of the liver and kidney of the diabetic rats; improved the lipid profile and had no deleterious effect on red cell morphology and protected against oxidative stress in ocular tissues. This study also revealed the presence of pharmacologically active compounds in the leaf extract. All of these, highlight the cardioprotective potential of the leaves of Tridax procumbens, and support its use in traditional health care practices for the management of diabetes mellitus.

  5. Effect of aqueous extracts of alligator pear seed (Persea americana mill) on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Edem, Do; Ekanem, Is; Ebong, Pe

    2009-07-01

    Effects of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated in 6 groups of rats (5 rats per group). Test groups were made diabetic with intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan and treated with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight of alligator pear seed extract. Two non-diabetic groups were also administered with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight extract. The levels of blood glucose were examined in all 6 experimental groups. In diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by 73.26-78.24% on consumption of the extracts, with greater effect exhibited by the 600 mg/kg extract. In normal rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by 34.68-38.9% on consumption of the seed extract. Histological studies showed a degenerative effect on the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats. The result suggested restorative (protective) effect of the extract on pancreatic islet cells. Administration of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed may contribute significantly to the reduction of blood glucose levels and can be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

  6. Antihyperglycemic, insulin-sensitivity and anti-hyperlipidemic potential of Ganoderma lucidum, a dietary mushroom, on alloxan- and glucocorticoid-induced diabetic Long-Evans rats

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    Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known and popular edible mushroom eaten as vegetables all over the world. It has been used as alternative medicine for long years in China, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, and in eastern Russia. It is reported to exhibit a number of medicinal properties including antitumor, antioxidant, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and hypoglycemic activities due to the presence of bioactive polysaccharide. Glucocorticoids, prescribed for the treatment of arthritis to protect inflammation and reduce pain, can induce hyperglycemia or aggravate the hyperglycemic condition reaching to very high glucose levels in diabetic patients. However, no report has been published for its activity on glucocorticoid-induced diabetes. Objective: To investigate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on alloxan- and glucocorticoid- induced diabetes in Long-Evans rats. Methods: Alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg was intraperitoneally administered to Long-Evans rats as a single dose. The same volume of normal saline was injected to control rats. Three days after alloxan injection, rats with plasma glucose levels higher than 12 mmoL /L were considered as diabetic and they were included in the study. Reishi mushroom was collected from the Mushroom Development Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, where it was identified by a Taxonomist. Petroleum ether extract (PEE Methanol extract (ME were prepared by maceration and distillation techniques. The extracts were orally administered once in a day at doses of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg, respectively for 7 days. Metformin (150 mg/kg was orally administered as a standard antidiabetic drug. Glucose levels were measured at 0 and 7th days of treatment. The rats were allowed to rest for 1 week without treatment. The animals were again injected with dexamethasone (2 mg/kg through intra-muscular route for 3 days and glucose levels were monitored regularly. Rats were

  7. Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Causes Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Liver that Resemble the Natural History of Chronic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans

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    Amanda Natália Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the long-term effects of alloxan-induced diabetes in rat liver. Methods. Thirty nondiabetic control rats (NC and 30 untreated diabetic (UD rats were divided into three subgroups sacrificed after 6, 14, or 26 weeks. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. Fresh liver weight and its relationship with body weight were obtained, and liver tissue was analyzed. Results. UD rats showed sustained hyperglycemia, high glycosylated hemoglobin, and low plasma insulin. High serum levels of AST and ALT were observed in UD rats after 2 weeks, but only ALT remained elevated throughout the experiment. Fresh liver weight was equal between NC and UD rats, but the fresh liver weight/body weight ratio was significantly higher in UD rats after 14 and 26 weeks. UD rats showed liver morphological changes characterized by hepatic sinusoidal enlargement and micro- and macrovesicular hepatocyte fatty degeneration with progressive liver structure loss, steatohepatitis, and periportal fibrosis. Ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes, such as a decrease in the number of intracytoplasmic organelles and degeneration of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclei, were also observed. Conclusion. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggered liver morphological and ultrastructural changes that closely resembled human disease, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis.

  8. Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes in rats by regeneration of β cells and reduction of pyruvate carboxylase expression.

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    Abd El Latif, Amira; El Bialy, Badr El Said; Mahboub, Hamada Dahi; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk Attia

    2014-10-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. contains many active ingredients with nutritional and medicinal values. It is commonly used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The present study was designed to investigate how an aqueous extract from the leaves of M. oleifera reveals hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. M. oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats as it normalized the elevated serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde, and normalized mRNA expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase in hepatic tissues. It also increased live body weight gain and normalized the reduced mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the liver and pancreas damaged by alloxan in diabetic rats. This study revealed that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves possesses potent hypoglycemic effects through the normalization of elevated hepatic pyruvate carboxylase enzyme and regeneration of damaged hepatocytes and pancreatic β cells via its antioxidant properties.

  9. Antihyperlipidemic effects of ginger extracts in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in (rats

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    Ahmad Sameer Al-Noory

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic mellitus and hypothyroidism lead to serum lipoproteins disorders. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of fresh ginger extracts Zingiber officinale roscoe (Family: Zingebiraceae on serum lipid profile and on blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Rats were divided into 11 groups: The normal G1, diabetic control rats G2, ginger 500 mg/kg treated diabetic rats G3, 10 mg/day atorvastatine-treated diabetic rats G4, [5 mg/day atorvastatine combined with 500 mg/kg ginger] treated diabetic rats G5, glibenclamid-treated diabetic rats G6, hypothyoidism control rats G7, 300 mg/kg ginger-treated hypothyroidism rats G8, 500 mg/kg ginger-treated hypothyroidism rats G9, 10 mg/day atorvastatine-treated hypothyroidism rats G10, [atorvastatine combined with 500 mg/kg ginger]treated hypothyroidism rats G11. Thirty days after treatment, samples were collected, to compare treated groups with normal and control groups, using Mann-Whitney U test P < 0.01. Results : It revealed a decrease in the levels of total cholesterol (TC, and low density lipoprotein (LDL in the serum of rats that were treated by ginger extracts, compared with the control groups. Previous extracts were also able to cause reduction in LDL to similar levels compared to normal group and that was the same effect of atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Combined effect was clear between the act of ginger at a dose of 500 mg/kg and atorvastatin; that levels of both TC and LDL in animals which received [atorvastatin 5 mg/day combined with ginger extract] was almost equal to levels in animals that received atorvastatin 10mg/day. Clear reduce in triglyceride, and clear increase in high density liopprotein were also recorded in the ginger-treated groups. Ginger was more active in hypothyroidism rats than in diabetic rats in reducing LDL and TC. Glucose levels were substantially reduced in ginger- treated diabetic groups.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats injected with alloxan monohydrate

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    Chilaka K.C; Ifediba E.C; Ogamba J.O

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and some liver enzymes activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:About 120 mg/kg body weight alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneally into 18 adult male albino rats weighing 180-200 g, which has been acclimatized in our laboratory for two weeks. Approximately 72 h after the alloxan injection, the rat became hyperglycaemic with blood glucose above 200 mg/dL. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into three diabetic and one control groups of six rats each: normal control, diabetic treated with 1000 mg/kg body weight of emulsified seed oil; diabetic control, diabetic treated with 150 mg/kg body weight of metformin hydrochloride. Both controls received weight-checked solution of 4.8% v/v Tween-80 in distilled water. All injections in all groups were done intraperitoneally once daily for 28 d. The blood glucose estimation was done every week, with one touch glucometer as well as the weight checked with animal weighing balance. Lipid profiles and some liver enzymes activities (AST, ALT and ALP) were analysed using test kits and spectrophotometer. Data obtained were analyzed using One way ANOVA and post hoc test done using graph pad prism-version 6. Results: The results of this study indicated that Citrus sinensis seed oil was able to reduce blood glucose significantly (P<0.001) in the early weeks of the study when compared with both the diabetic control group and the metformin-treated group. The seed oil significantly lowered serum triglyceride, the serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol; the activities of all the liver enzymes assayed (P<0.05) but significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol in the diabetic oil-treated rats as compared to diabetic control (P<0.05). Conclusions: However, further studies need to be carried out to show its mechanism of action and to isolate the active ingredient in the Citrus sinensis seed oil that is

  11. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF THE POWDER OF CURCUMA LONGA RHIZOME PLANT ON A CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM AT ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    R. I. Aizman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The effects of the powder of Curcuma longa plant rhizome as food additive on different processes of carbohydrate metabolism: glucose concentration in whole blood, concentration of hormones – insulin and C-peptide in plasma, content of glycogen in the liver, structural and functional organization of the islet apparatus of the pancreas in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus were studied.Material and methods. The study was conducted on Wistar adult male rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups: 1 and 2 – the controls, 3 and 4 – the rats with alloxan-induced model of diabetes mellitus. Animals of groups 1 and 3 were kept on standard chow, whereas the rats of groups 2 and 4 were feeded with additive of powder from Curcuma longa plant rhizome (2% by weight of feed.The concentration of glucose in blood and perfused solution was determined with picric acid method by intensity of colour reaction on spectrofotometer. Concentration of hormones (insulin, C-peptide was defined by immunoenzyme method with standard sets on tablet spectrofotometer. The morphological structure of a pancreas was studied by a method of light microscopy. Content of glycogen in a liver was measured by means of Shick-reaction on the Mac-Manus method with measurement of colour intensity on spectrofotometer.Results. Intake of the turmeric rhizomes powder by rats with diabetes, as compared with the diabetic animals on a standard diet, resulted in the lower increase of the glucose concentration in blood, the decrease of glucose absorption in the gut, higher concentration of the insulin and C-peptide in plasma and significant increase of glycogen content in the liver. The microstructure of pancreatic tissue samples of experimental animals using turmeric intake, was characterized by the better preservation of the islet apparatus in comparison with a group of animals on a standard diet.Conclusion. The results indicate the positive effect of the Curcuma longa

  12. Effect of methanolic extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub leaves on hyperglycemia and indices of diabetic complications in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunday Ene-Ojo Atawodi; Ojochenemi Ejeh Yakubu; Mubarak Labaran Liman; Dorothy Uju Iliemene

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ameliorative role of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub (T. tetraptera) leaf in hyperglycemia with associated conditions like oxidative stress, kidney damage and disorders in lipid metabolism. Methods:Five groups of five rats each intraperitoneally received the following treatment schedules for 7 d: untreated normal control, untreated alloxan-diabetic control, diabetic treated with glibenclamide, normal rats treated with extract (50 mg/kg) and diabetic rats treated with the extract. Evaluations were made for fasting blood sugar, body weight changes, malondialdehyde, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid profile, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, urea and creatinine in all the rats. Results:Whereas the untreated diabetic rats showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions:Methanolic extract of T. tetraptera leaves possesses a potent capacity for treatment of diabetes and the accompanying complications, including oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia.

  13. Strategies for preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DMIS) and alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus (DMIA) rat models: case studies and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2015-03-01

    Preclinical rodent models that manifest type 2 diatetes mellitus using either streptozotocin (DMIS) or alloxan (DMIA) have been well established. Both DMIS and DMIA models have served as key experimental tools to evaluate and understand the pharmacokinetic disposition of scores of drugs and therefore some key questions with respect to absorption, metabolism or elimination of drugs can be answered during the development of full-blown diabetes in the animal models. The choice of the right preclinical rodent model and adaptation of the appropriate experimental design could help to generate data to enable go or no-go decision on the clinical candidate. Also, such models may help to understand the risk potential from a drug-drug interaction perspective. The review provides an overview of the strategies and perspectives of institutionalizing DMIS and/or DMIA rat models using relevant case studies.

  14. Anti-diabetic Effects of Polysaccharides from Ethanol-insoluble Residue of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) Baill on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ting; WU Xiang-yang; MAO Guang-hua; ZHANG Min; LI Fang; ZOU Ye; ZHOU Ye; ZHENG Wei; ZHENG Da-heng; YANG Liu-qing

    2013-01-01

    The ethanol-insoluble residue of Schisandra generated during lignans industrial production is usually treated as solid waste.However,there is active polysaccharide which could be used in it.In this work,the water-soluble polysaccharides from the ethanol-insoluble residue of Schisandra(ESCP) were obtained and their anti-diabetic effect was evaluated.The results indicate that ESCP could significantly reduce the blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.Moreover,the ESCP could significantly improve the lipid metabolism and increase the content of liver glycogen in ailoxan-induced diabetic mice.The results indicate that ESCP could be developed into a potential natural hypoglycemic agent.

  15. Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity

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    Laizuman Nahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2 but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI. Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg. In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001, reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001 in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress.

  16. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

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    O A Oseni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, malondialdehyde (MDA concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats.

  17. The effects of Ananas comosus L. leaves on diabetic-dyslipidemic rats induced by alloxan and a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weidong; Xing, Dongming; Sun, Hong; Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Du, Lijun

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effects of Ananas comosus L. leaves on diabetic-dyslipidemic rats. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of the ethanolic extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves (EEACL) were evaluated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats by oral glucose tolerance test and an olive oil load test. Anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-oxidative activities of EEACL were also investigated in diabetic-dyslipidemic rats induced by alloxan and a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. EEACL at the dose of 0.40 g/kg significantly inhibited the increase in blood glucose in diabetic rats in oral glucose tolerance test, but did not cause any hypoglycerimic activity in normal rats. It also significantly inhibited the increase in postprandial triglycerides (TG) levels in both normal and diabetic rats in olive oil load test. After 15 days of treatment of diabetic dyslipidemic rats, EEACL significantly decreased blood glucose (-51.0%, P < 0.01), TG (-50.1%, P < 0.01), TC (-23.3%, P < 0.01), LDL-c (-47.9%, P < 0.01) and glycated albumin (-25.4%, P < 0.01) levels, significantly increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (66.2%, P < 0.01) and prevented lower body weight of diabetes (11.8%, P < 0.05), significantly lowered lipid peroxidation productions of blood (-27.8%, P < 0.01), brain (-31.6%, P < 0.05), liver (-44.5%, P < 0.01) and kidneys (-72.2%, P < 0.05) compared with those in untreated diabetic dyslipidemic rats. These data suggest that EEACL has anti-diabetic, anti-dyslipidemic and anti-oxidative activities, which may be developed into a new plant medicine for treatment of diabetes and its complications.

  18. Study of Antiglycation, Hypoglycemic, and Nephroprotective Activities of the Green Dwarf Variety Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L.) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Isabella F D; Silva, Railmara P; Chaves Filho, Adriano de B; Dantas, Lucas S; Bispo, Vanderson S; Matos, Isaac A; Otsuka, Felipe A M; Santos, Aline C; Matos, Humberto Reis

    2015-07-01

    Coconut water (CW) is a natural nutritious beverage, which contains several biologically active compounds that are traditionally used in the treatment of diarrhea and rehydration. Several works with CW have been related with antioxidant activity, which is very important in the diabetic state. To evaluate the hypoglycemic and nephroprotective activities of CW, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were pre- and post-treated by gavage with CW (3 mL/kg), caffeic acid (CA) (10 and 15 mg/kg), and acarbose (Acb) (714 μg/kg) during a period of 16 days. Body weight, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and Amadori products in plasma and kidney homogenates were evaluated in all groups and used as parameters for the monitoring of the diabetic state. The results showed that rats of the CW+diabetic group had maintenance in blood glucose compared with the control group (P<.05) in addition to a decrease of HbA1c levels and increase of body weight when compared with the diabetic group rats (P<.05). The animals of the CA and CA+diabetic groups did not have significant variation of body weight (P<.05) during the experiment; however, they showed decrease in their HbA1c and urea levels in plasma as well as Amadori products in kidney homogenates when compared with the diabetic group (P<.05). Our results indicate that CW has multiple beneficial effects in diabetic rats for preventing hyperglycemia and oxidative stress caused by alloxan.

  19. ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF SIMVASTATIN ALONE (THERAPEUTIC DOSE AND COMBINATION OF SIMVASTATIN AND GLIPIZIDE (SUB THERAPEUTIC DOSES ON ALLOXAN INDUCED HYPERGLYCEMIA IN ALBINO RATS

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    V.S. Harish Kumar*, N.R. Sindhu, Rajashri S. Patil and Umakant Patil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate anti-hyperglycemic activity of simvastatin alone and the combination of sub therapeutic doses of simvastatin and glipizide. Hyperglycemia was induced experimentally in albino rats by subcutaneous injection of alloxan in a dose of 175 mg/kg body weight. After 72 hours of alloxan treatment, rats showing hyperglycemia (blood glucose level of 400 mg/dl and above were included in the study. They were divided into four groups of 6 animals each (n=24. Oral administration of normal saline 0.5 ml, glipizide 2.5 mg/kg body weight, simvastatin 10 mg/kg body weight and sub therapeutic doses of both test (simvastatin 5 mg/kg body weight and standard (glipizide 1.25 mg/kg body weight drugs, was done respectively into each of the four groups for 30 consecutive days in order to assess the effect in terms of reduction in blood glucose level. Blood glucose was estimated on 0th, 10th, 20th, and 30th days of study in fixed time intervals. In the test group, there was a gradual fall in the blood glucose level which reached up to 308.3 mg/dl by 30th day of study (P < 0.001. In case of combination of sub therapeutic doses of simvastatin and glipizide, the fall in blood glucose level was gradual and sustained and it reached up to 201.5 mg/dl by the 30th day (P < 0.001. These observations are comparable with the results obtained in case of glipizide treated rats, the standard group. Simvastatin appreciably lowered the blood glucose level, but the combination of sub therapeutic doses of simvastatin and glipizide, by virtue of their possible synergistic effect produced further reduction in the blood glucose level. This study provides evidence in support of a potential anti-hyperglycemic effect of simvastatin and its combination with glipizide. Thus the combined treatment of simvastatin and glipzide may have added benefit for the diabetic patients associated with hyperlipidemia.

  20. The study of melatonin protective activity on pancreatic β-cells under the condition of alloxan-induced diabetes during aging.

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    Kasradze, D; Tavartkiladze, A; Kasradze, M; Nozadze, P

    2010-12-01

    The aim of our research was to study the influence of melatonin on pancreatic β-cells under the condition of alloxan-induced Diabetes Mellitus - especially in old age, when the mentioned disease frequently takes place. 56 male white rats were used in the study. Two age groups were selected: adult period of life and late senescent period of life. This number of rats was divided into three groups: I - experimental group (10 adult and 10 old animals), II - experimental group (10 adult and 10 old animals), and III - control group (8 adult and 8 old animals). On the 1st day of experiment the animals of I and II experimental groups were injected with alloxan at a single dose of 60 mg/kg (into the tail vein) for Diabetes Mellitus induction. The animals of II experimental group were also given melatonin (0,15mg/kg) daily during the 14 days. During the experiment 2 old rats from I experimental group died. In III - control group the intact animals have been used. After stopping of the experiment (15th day), under the ether narcosis the animals were sacrificed. The tissue taken from pancreas has been processed for electron microscopy. Ultrastructural study was performed using electronograms. In each experimental case 100 β-cells have been studied.. Results of research were studied statistically using computer program SPSS v.12.The results of ultrastructural study of pancreatic β-cells have shown that in mentioned cells of animals from I experimental group ultrastructural peculiarities are markedly changed as compared with the norm, and β-cells' injury (in some cases - irreversible changes) are prominent. The mentioned changes are more prominent in old organisms, than in adult ones. In most of pancreatic β-cells of animals from II experimental group ulstrastructural peculiarities are not changed as compared with the norm: ultrastructures of β-cells of animals from II experimental group in both age groups are markedly defended against the damage, which suggests that

  1. Diosmin Modulates the NF-kB Signal Transduction Pathways and Downregulation of Various Oxidative Stress Markers in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy.

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    Ahmed, Sahabuddin; Mundhe, Nitin; Borgohain, Manash; Chowdhury, Liakat; Kwatra, Mohit; Bolshette, Nityanand; Ahmed, Anwaruddin; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-10-01

    Hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress plays an imperative role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. NF-kB is an important transcription factor in eukaryotes which regulates a diverse array of cellular process, including inflammation, immunological response, apoptosis, growth and development. Increased expression of NF-kB plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases including diabetic nephropathy. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the nephroprotective nature of diosmin by assessing the various biochemical parameters, markers of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg body weight). Seventy-two hours after the conformation of diabetes (blood glucose level ≥ 250 mg/dl), the rats were segregated into four groups, each group having six animals. Diabetic rats were treated with diosmin at a dose of 50 mg and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively. After the 28th day of treatment, rats were sacrificed, blood serum, plasma and kidney tissue were collected for various biochemical analysis. Inflammatory cytokine levels were measured through ELISA kit. Diosmin treatment produces significant reduction in the blood glucose and plasma insulin level and increases the body weight when compared with diabetic rats. Elevated level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) were significantly restored after 28 days of diosmin treatment. Diosmin treatment group also restores the normal architecture of the kidney tissue which was confirmed by histopathological examination. Moreover, oral administration of diosmin shows a significant normalization in the level of NF-kB, proving its pivotal role in maintaining renal function. The above ameliorative effects were more pronounced with

  2. Anion Gap Toxicity in Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Antidiabetic Noncytotoxic Bioactive Compounds of Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera

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    Maxwell Omabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (MO is used for a number of therapeutic purposes. This raises the question of safety and possible toxicity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the safety and possible metabolic toxicity in comparison with metformin, a known drug associated with acidosis. Animals confirmed with diabetes were grouped into 2 groups. The control group only received oral dose of PBS while the test group was treated with ethanolic extract of MO orally twice daily for 5-6 days. Data showed that the extract significantly lowered glucose level to normal values and did not cause any significant cytotoxicity compared to the control group (P=0.0698; there was no gain in weight between the MO treated and the control groups (P>0.8115. However, data showed that treatment with an ethanolic extract of MO caused a decrease in bicarbonate (P<0.0001, and more than twofold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001; metformin treatment also decreased bicarbonate (P<0.0001 and resulted in a threefold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001. Conclusively, these data show that while MO appears to have antidiabetic and noncytotoxic properties, it is associated with statistically significant anion gap acidosis in alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats.

  3. Effects of ethanol extracts in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on activity of liver enzymes in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Akram Eidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Fabaceae is a well-known herb that it used in traditional medicine due to pharmacological activities. Licorice in herbal medicine is used as a tonic, expectorant and demulcent factor. This plant has antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-allergenic and anti-ulcer activities. The aim of present study was to, comparisons of effect of ethanol extracts licorice root with glibenclamide on activity of liver enzymes in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, oral administration of licorice extract (50, 200 and 400 mg/kg per body wt. and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg were performed as the standard antidiabetic medicine, during 30 days. Then, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in normal and diabetic rats were evaluated. Data were analyzed by using SPSS-10 software and the ANOVA test was used. Results: Oral administrations of licorice extract significantly decreased activity of AST and ALT in serum of diabetic rats but not in normal rats. The licorice extract as same as glibenclamide significantly decreased activity of liver enzymes. Conclusion: It is concluded that the licorice can be considered as a suitable candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.

  4. Description of morphological changes in neurons and endothelial cells of CA1-area of hippocampus in rats with alloxan-induced hyp erglycemia under application of nootropic drugs

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    Zhylyuk V.I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using neuromorphometry analysis differences in the effects of nootropic drugs on morphology and function of neurons and endothelial cells of hippocampus, content of RNA, content of apoptotic and destructive neurons were examined in white rats with chronic alloxan-induced hyperglycemia. It ha s been found that diabetes in rats is accompanied by specific morphological and functional changes and activation of apoptosis in neurons of the CA1-area in hi ppocampus, which may be related to disturbance of local blood flow due to endothelial damage. N-carbamoyl-methyl-4-phenyl-2-pyrrolidone (entrop, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine (noopept, pramiracetam, cerebrocurin and citicoline show protective effects on neurons and endothelial cells, which are much larger in force than effect s of ginkgo biloba extract, piracetam and pentoxifylline. This protective activity is characterized by reducing the number of apoptotic and dest ructive neurons in hippocampal CA1-area, increasing the density of functioning nerve and endothelial cells, activation of RNA biosynthesis in the neurocytes and endo-thelial cells

  5. The effect of the glycolipoprotein extract (G-90) from earthworm Eisenia foetida on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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    Goodarzi, Golnaz; Qujeq, Durdi; Elmi, Maryam M; Feizi, Farideh; Fathai, Sadegh

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes is now regarded as a major public health problem. The number of patients is estimated to increase to over 439 million cases by 2030. One of the major health clinical problems in patients with diabetes patients is impaired wound healing. Diabetic foot ulcer is a major complication of diabetes mellitus in 12 to 25% of patients, which increases the risk of damage in the limbs or amputation. The earthworm Eisenia foetida glycolipoprotein (as known G-90) is a blend of macromolecules with some biological properties including mitogenicity, anticoagulation, fibrinolysis, bacteriostatic and antioxidatiaon. Given the biological properties of G-90, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of extract obtained from the homogenate of Eisenia foetida (G-90) on the wound healing process in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment by using G-90 can speed up the wound healing process, which is exactly similar to the effect of D-panthenol treatment in rats. These findings also demonstrated that G-90 treatment decreases the risk of infection in the wound site compared with D-panthenol treatment. In addition, histological analysis indicated that a better extracellular matrix formation with increased fibroblast proliferation, neovascularization, collagen synthesis and early epithelial layer formation was observed in G-90 treated group. Therefore, the G-90 could be considered as a new wound healing agent introducing promising therapeutic approaches in both human and veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Cytoprotection of pancreatic β-cells and hypoglycemic effect of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin: sertraline complex in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buko, Vyacheslav; Zavodnik, Ilya; Lukivskaya, Oxana; Naruta, Elena; Palecz, Bartlomiej; Belica-Pacha, Silwia; Belonovskaya, Elena; Kranc, Robert; Abakumov, Vladimir

    2016-01-25

    Sertraline, a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake, is widely used as antidepressant in diabetic patients for improvement of depression and glycemic control. Sertraline is poorly soluble in water, which limits its oral applicability. In this work we tried to improve the pharmaceutical properties of sertraline by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and evaluated the efficacy of the HPβCD:sertraline complex in prevention of alloxan-induced lesions in rats. The solubility of sertraline increased in the presence of HPβCD and the association constant for sertraline and HPβCD was equal to 4000 ± 1000 M(-1). Two-week treatment of diabetic animals with the HPβCD:sertraline complex improved pancreatic islet morphology and β-cell survival, which, in turn, reduced the severity of diabetes, as evidenced by lowering of blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin contents as well as normalization of serum insulin level and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR). The effect of the HPβCD:sertraline complex was strongly expressed in comparison with the antidiabetic effect of both the monopreparations, HPβCD and sertraline. It is suggested that the cyclodextrin derivative increased the pharmacological effect of sertraline, probably due to enhanced drug bioavailability.

  7. XML Effect of Regular Aerobic Training and Arbutin on Cardiac Total Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rat

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    Shojaee, M. (MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus is associated with cardiomyopathic changes, can be mediated by an oxidative stress. We aimed to study the effects of regular aerobic training and arbutin supplementation on total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant (TAS status in the cardiac tissue of diabetic rats. Material and Methods: fourty-two male Wistar rats with an average weight of 195 to 220 gr were randomly divided into 6 groups (7 rats per group of control, diabetes, Arbutin, diabetes + Arbutin, diabetes + aerobic training and diabetes + aerobic training + Arbutin. Swimming training protocol consisted of 5 days/week for 6 weeks and each session was 5-36 min/day. Diabetes was induced with alloxan intraperitoneally and Arbutin (50 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously. Results: Induced- diabetes significantly increased TOS and decreased TAS in rat heart tissue (P = 0.000. Six weeks of supplementation with Arbutin, aerobic training and combination of aerobic training and Arbutin supplementation were associated with a significant decrease in TOS (88%, 91% ,103% Respectively and increase in TAS (33% ,62% ,67% Respectively . Conclusion: Compared to arbutin, aerobic training can be more effective in creating adaptation in the antioxidant defense system.

  8. Quercetin Isolated from Toona sinensis Leaves Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Protects Hepatocytes in High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet and Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetic Mice

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    Yali Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of diabetes mellitus is related to oxidant stress induced by a high carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD. Quercetin, as a major bioactive component in Toona sinensis leaves (QTL, is a natural antioxidant. However, the exact mechanism by which QTL ameliorate diabetes mellitus is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypoglycemic effects and hepatocytes protection of QTL on HFD and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Intragastric administration of QTL significantly reduced body weight gain, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels compared to those of diabetic mice. Furthermore, it significantly attenuated oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and as a result attenuated liver injury. QTL also significantly suppressed the diabetes-induced activation of the p65/NF-κB and ERK1/2/MAPK pathways, as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels in liver tissues of diabetic mice. Finally, micrograph analysis of liver samples showed decreased cellular organelle injury in hepatocytes of QTL treated mice. Taken together, QTL can be viewed as a promising dietary agent that can be used to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and its secondary complications by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver.

  9. The Protective Effect of Cordymin, a Peptide Purified from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps sinensis, on Diabetic Osteopenia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Ya-bo; Lei, Wei; Wu, Zi-xiang; Liu, Ning; Liu, Shuai; Shi, Lei; Fan, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of cordymin on diabetic osteopenia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and the possible mechanisms involved. The diabetic rats received daily intraperitoneal injection with cordymin (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Cordymin could restore the circulating blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and insulin levels in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the treatment of diabetic rats with cordymin could partially reverse the β cells death and decrease the total antioxidant status (TAOS) in the diabetic rats. The results may directly and indirectly account for the possible mechanism of the beneficial effect of cordymin on diabetic osteopenia, which was confirmed with the increased bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in diabetic rats (P < 0.05). All those findings indicate that cordymin may play a protective role in diabetic osteoporosis. PMID:24174985

  10. The Protective Effect of Cordymin, a Peptide Purified from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps sinensis, on Diabetic Osteopenia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Wei Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of cordymin on diabetic osteopenia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and the possible mechanisms involved. The diabetic rats received daily intraperitoneal injection with cordymin (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day for 5 weeks. Cordymin could restore the circulating blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, and insulin levels in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the treatment of diabetic rats with cordymin could partially reverse the β cells death and decrease the total antioxidant status (TAOS in the diabetic rats. The results may directly and indirectly account for the possible mechanism of the beneficial effect of cordymin on diabetic osteopenia, which was confirmed with the increased bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD in diabetic rats (P<0.05. All those findings indicate that cordymin may play a protective role in diabetic osteoporosis.

  11. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF THE DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (L. MERR. IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE

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    M. Saiful Islam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic effects of Ethyl acetate (Et Ac, Petroleum-ether (Pet ether, and Chloroform fractions from methanolic extract of the seeds of Entada phaseoloides were investigated in alloxan induced diabetic mice (AIDM. The effect of these fractions (200 mg/kg body weight i.p was observed on fasting blood glucose (FBG level and active fraction was further investigated for its dose dependent activity (250 and 350 mg/kg b. w. on fasting blood glucose level and also on total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT level in AIDM and found significant effects. The most significant reduction of FBG level of around 72.02% was observed for Et-Ac fraction in AIDM. A significant reduction (*p< 0.05 in serum TC and TG level of 53.00% and 57.25% respectively was also found for Et-Ac fraction of E. phaseoloides. The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities were comparable to metformin HCl (150 mg/kg. In diabetic mice, SGOT and SGPT levels were significantly elevated that were further reduced after intraperitoneal administration of this fraction. These results indicate that Et-Ac fraction of E. phaseoloides have favorable effects in bringing down the severity of diabetes together with hepatoprotectivity.

  12. Effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic WBN/Kob rats.

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    Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Hamano, Hiroko; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Narama, Isao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between hypertension and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) has recently been reported in clinical research, but it remains unclear whether hypertension is a risk factor for DPN. To investigate the effects of hypertension on DPN, we analyzed morphological features of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats with hypertension. Male WBN/Kob rats were divided into 2 groups: alloxan-induced diabetic rats with deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-salt) treatment (ADN group) and nondiabetic rats with DOCA-salt treatment (DN group). Sciatic, tibial (motor) and sural (sensory) nerves were subjected to qualitative and quantitative histomorphological analysis. Systolic blood pressure in the two groups exhibited a higher value (>140 mmHg), but there was no significant difference between the two groups. Endoneurial blood vessels in both groups presented endothelial hypertrophy and narrowing of the vascular lumen. Electron microscopically, duplication of basal lamina surrounding the endothelium and pericyte of the endoneurial vessels was observed, and this lesion appeared to be more frequent and severe in the ADN group than the DN group. Many nerve fibers of the ADN and DN groups showed an almost normal appearance, whereas morphometrical analysis of the tibial nerve showed a significant shift to smaller fiber and myelin sizes in the ADN group compared with DN group. In sural nerve, the fiber and axon-size significantly shifted to a smaller size in ADN group compared with the DN group. These results suggest that combined diabetes and hypertension could induce mild peripheral nerve lesions with vascular changes.

  13. Dracaena arborea leafextract:A phytotherapeutic option for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated endocrine and testicular disorders in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oluwaseyi Samson Ogunmodede; Saheed Oluwasina Oseni; Olumide Olaseni Adenmosun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore and exploit these anti-diabetic properties of the leaf extracts of Dracaena arborea by investigating its therapeutic effects on blood glucose regulation, testicular and endocrine disorders in alloxan (ALX)-induced type-1 diabetic rats. Methods:Rats were divided into four groups of five animals each in a completely randomized trial and treated.ALX and thenDracaena arborea extracts (DAE) at 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/day were administered to both normal (Group A) and diabetic rats (Groups C and D) and none to the diabetic control group (Group B) for a period of 8 weeks. The serum level of glucose, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and free testosterone were estimated for all treated and control groups. Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and malondialdehyde were also estimated from testicular cells of control, untreated diabetic andDAE-treated diabetic rats. Results:We observed a significant (P Conclusions:These findings suggest thatDAE is a potential beneficial phytotherapeutic agent that may be used in ameliorating hyperglycemic, endocrine and reproductive disorders in type-1 diabetic men.

  14. Isolation, purification, and structural features of a polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus and its hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

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    Zhao, Chao; Liao, Zunsheng; Wu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Yanling; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lin, Zhanxi; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Phellinus linteus is a medicinal mushroom that has been used in Oriental countries for centuries for its antitumor, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and biological activity on hyperglycemia. A water-soluble crude polysaccharide was extracted using hot water from P. linteus mycelia grown under submerged culture. An orthogonal experiment was used to optimize the extraction conditions of P. linteus mycelia polysaccharides (PLP). The crude polysaccharide was purified using DEAE Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure of the purified P. linteus polysaccharide (PLP-I), revealing that it was mainly a branched-type glycan with both α- and β-linkages and a pyranoid sugar ring conformation. PLP orally administered at 100 mg/kg body weight/d could significantly reduce the blood glucose level by 35.60% in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) revealed that PLP had an effect on glucose disposal after 28 d of treatment. The result revealed that PLP from a submerged culture of P. linteus mycelia possessed potent hypoglycemic properties. The polysaccharide may be useful as a functional food additive and a hypoglycemic agent.

  15. [Role of functional state of neuronal mitochondria of cerebral cortex in mechanisms of nootropic activity of neuroprotectors in rats with alloxan hyperglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliuk, V I; Mamchur, V I; Pavlov, S V

    2015-01-01

    The influence of citicoline, phenylpiracetam, pentoxifylline and N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine on cognitive processes and functional state of mitochondria in the neocortex of alloxan-diabetic rats has been studied. The drug effects on cognitive processes were assessed using passive avoidance tests in the dark-light camera. Latent period and the number of animals with amnesia skill on 6th and 20th days of drug administration were recorded. Functional status of mitochondria was assessed by mitochondrial pore opening and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Y) on 20th day. It has been established that course administration of phenylpiracetam, citicoline and to a lesser extent N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine, but not pentoxifylline, improves the processes of learning and storing conditional skill. At the same time, the nootropic activity of studied drugs was comparable to their effect on the functional state of mitochondria in neocortical neurons in rats with chronic hyperglycemia. According to mitoprotective activity (prevention of opening of mitochondrial cyclosporin-A-sensitive pores and restoration of mitochondrial transmembrane potential), the maximum potential was observed for citicoline and phenylpiracetam, and the minimum--for pentoxifylline. The results point out the importance of mitoprotective properties in nootropic effects of studied drugs.

  16. Ameliorative effect of dietary genistein on diabetes induced hyper-inflammation and oxidative stress during early stage of wound healing in alloxan induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Hyeyoon; Lee, Hea-Ji; Lim, Yunsook

    2016-09-23

    Among the diabetic complications, diabetic foot ulcer due to delayed wound healing is one of the most significant clinical problems. Early inflammatory stage is important for better prognosis during wound healing. Thus, regulation of inflammatory response during early stage of wound healing is main target for complete cutaneous recovery. This study investigated the role of genistein supplementation in inflammation and oxidative stress, which are related to NLRP3 inflammasome, NFκB and Nrf2 activation, during cutaneous wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Mice with diabetes with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels > 250 mg/dl were fed diets with AIN-93G rodent diet containing 0%, 0.025% (LG) or 0.1% (HG) genistein. After 2 weeks of genistein supplementation, excisional wounds were made by biopsy punches (4 mm). Genistein supplementation improved fasting glucose levels and wound closure rate. Moreover, genistein supplementation restored NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1) at the basal level and ameliorated both inflammation (TNFα, iNOS, COX2 and NFκB) and antioxidant defense system (Nrf2, HO-1, GPx, and catalase) during early stage of wound healing in diabetic mice. Taken together, genistein supplementation would be a potential therapeutic nutrient in prevention and treatment of delayed wound healing by modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress during inflammatory stage.

  17. The Comparative Effects of Aqueous Extract of Walnut (Juglans regia Leaf and Glibenclamide on Serum Glucose Levels of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mahdi Noureddini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of medicinal plants for lowering glucose level in diabetic patients is of clinical importance. The present study investigated the effect of a 30-day oral administration of aqueous extract of walnut leaf and glibenclamide on blood glucose level in normal and diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 120 male rats (Sprague-Dawley, 150-250 g were divided into 12 equal groups as following: normal control group, normal group receiving glibenclamide (4 mg/kg, three normal groups receiving the extract doses of 50, 10, and 150 mg/kg, alloxan-diabetic control group (170 mg/kg, diabetic group receiving glibenclamide (4 mg/kg, and five diabetic groups receiving the extract in doses of 10, 50, 150, 300, and 500 mg/day by oral administration for 30 days. Glucose levels of the fasting rats were measured at 0, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 30th days using glucometer.Results: Administration of all doses and over 10 mg/kg significantly lowered the blood glucose level in normal rat and diabetic rats, compared with dose and duration-dependent control groups. This effect was higher for doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg in normal rats and for doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg in diabetic rats, similar to glibenclamide (4 mg/kg.Conclusion: Walnut leaf aqueous extract, depending on dose and duration, has dose and duration dependent declining effect on glucose level in normal rats and antihyperglycemic effect on diabetic rats, with a few side effects. This effect at some doses is greater or equal to that of glibenclamide.

  18. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

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    Victor Eshu Okpashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg. Catalase activity showed significant increase P0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics.

  19. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics.

  20. Effects of sodium-orthovanadate and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds on hepatic and renal lipogenic enzymes and lipid profile during alloxan diabetes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Umesh C S Yadav; K Moorthy; Najma Z Baquer

    2004-03-01

    Sodium-orthovanadate (SOV) and seed powder of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn. (common name: fenugreek, family: Fabaceae) (TSP) besides being potential hypoglycemic agents have also been shown to ameliorate altered lipid metabolism during diabetes. This study evaluates the short-term effect of oral administration of SOV and TSP separately and in concert (for 21 days) on total lipid profile and lipogenic enzymes in tissues of alloxan diabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed 4-fold increase in blood glucose. The level of total lipids, triglycerides and total cholesterol in blood serum increased significantly during diabetes. During diabetes the level of total lipids increased significantly ( < 0.001) in liver and in kidney by 48% and 55%, respectively, compared to control. Triglycerides level increased by 32% ( < 0.01) in liver and by 51% ( < 0.005) in kidney, respectively, compared to control. Total cholesterol level also increased significantly in both liver and kidney ( < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). The activities of NADP-linked enzymes; namely glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and the activities of lipogenic enzymes namely ATP-citrate lyase (ATP-CL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were decreased significantly in liver and increased in kidney during diabetes as compared to control. SOV and TSP administration to diabetic animals prevented the development of hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile in plasma and tissues and maintained it near normal. Maximum prevention was observed in the combined treatment with lower dose of SOV (0.2%) after 21 days. We are presenting for the first time effectiveness of combined treatment of SOV and TSP in amelioration of altered lipid metabolism during experimental type-I diabetes.

  1. Dracaena arborea leaf extract: A phytotherapeutic option for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated endocrine and testicular disorders in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Oluwaseyi Samson Ogunmodede

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore and exploit these anti-diabetic properties of the leaf extracts of Dracaena arborea by investigating its therapeutic effects on blood glucose regulation, testicular and endocrine disorders in alloxan (ALX-induced type-1 diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups of five animals each in a completely randomized trial and treated. ALX and then Dracaena arborea extracts (DAE at 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg/ day were administered to both normal (Group A and diabetic rats (Groups C and D and none to the diabetic control group (Group B for a period of 8 weeks. The serum level of glucose, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and free testosterone were estimated for all treated and control groups. Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and malondialdehyde were also estimated from testicular cells of control, untreated diabetic and DAE-treated diabetic rats. Results: We observed a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in the serum glucose level as well as a drug-induced dose-dependent reduction in testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in the rats following type-1 diabetic conditions induction by ALX. There was a significant dose dependent response (P < 0.05 to treatment between the DAE-treated diabetic groups. Furthermore, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in oxidative stress parameters was observed in testicular cells of diabetic rats post-treatment. Conclusions: These findings suggest that DAE is a potential beneficial phytotherapeutic agent that may be used in ameliorating hyperglycemic, endocrine and reproductive disorders in type-1 diabetic men.

  2. Positive moderation of the hematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, by an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria liberica Gerome and Labroy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ikewuchi Jude Chigozie; Ikewuchi Catherine Chidinma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria liberica (S. liberica) to alter the hematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Method: Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg body weight), via the tail vein. The extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (both to normal and diabetic rats), and metformin at 50 mg/kg body weight.Results:Compared to test control, the treatment dose dependently, significantly lowered (P<0.05) ocular malondialdehyde content, atherogenic indices, red cell, total white cell and lymphocyte counts, mean cell hemoglobin concentration; and plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, total-, very low density lipoprotein-, low density lipoprotein- and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterols, total, conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin, sodium, urea, blood urea nitrogen, as well as plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases. However, the treatment significantly increased (P<0.05) hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell volume, neutrophil and monocyte counts, and plasma levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, potassium, chloride, calcium, bicarbonate and total protein, ocular ascorbic acid content and ocular activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. This study showed the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, immune-modulating, ocular-, hepato-renal and cardio-protective potentials of the extract. Conclusions: All these, support the use of the leaves of S. liberica in African traditional health care practices for the management of diabetes mellitus.

  3. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  4. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  5. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20-120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries

  6. Effect of Pteris multifida Poir. on blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes%凤尾草对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚雯; 杨坤; 张梦如; 王尨珂; 徐海龙; 张咏梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Pteris multifida Poir. on blood glucose in mice with alloxan -induced diabetes mellitus. Methods The diabetic mice models were induced by alloxan and were randomized into normal saline group ( n = 10 ), Pteris multifida Poir. in high dose group ( n = 10 ) and low dose group ( n= 10 ), with normal mice as normal control group (n = 10 ). Normal control group and normal saline group were allowed free access to normal saline, while Pteris multifida Poir. at a high dose of 0.02 g/ml and a low dose of 0. 01 g/ml was adminisiered for 8 consecutive days and fasting blood glucose levels were determined in each mouse before and after the treatment. Results The blood glucose levels of the diabetic model mice in normal saline group decreased (P <0. 01 ) , while the decrease in blood glucose levels in the diabetic model mice in the group of Pteris multifida Poir. al high dose and low dose was more significant ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Pteris multifida Poir. has significant effect in reducing blood glucose level in mice with alloxan -induced diabetes mellitus.%目的 探讨凤尾草对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠的降血糖作用.方法 以正常小鼠作为正常对照组(n=10),将四氧嘧啶诱导成功的糖尿病模型小鼠随机分为生理盐水组(n=10)、凤尾草大剂量组(n=10)、凤尾草小剂量组(n=10).正常对照组及生理盐水组均给予生理盐水自饮,凤尾草大、小剂量组分别给予凤尾草汤剂自饮,大剂量组凤尾草汤剂浓度为20 g/L,小剂量组凤尾草汤剂浓度为10 g/L,连续给药8天,测定给药前后小鼠空腹血糖值.结果 3组糖尿病模型小鼠血糖值均下降(P<0.01),但凤尾草大、小剂量组用药后糖尿病模型小鼠血糖值下降更明显(P<0.01).结论 凤尾草对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠有显著的降糖作用.

  7. Estudio histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico de páncreas en perros diabéticos inducidos con aloxano Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cubillos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en perros diabéticos tipo I inducidos con Aloxano®, con el propósito de evaluar las lesiones microscópicas presentes en páncreas y relacionarlas con la presencia o ausencia de insulina en los islotes de Langerhans a distintos tiempos posinducción. Se utilizaron 20 caninos mestizos, machos enteros de 4 a 7 años de edad, los cuales fueron divididos en 2 grupos: Control (n = 5 y Experimental (n = 15. Este último fue subdividido en grupos de 3 animales cada uno y sometido a la inducción de Diabetes mellitus mediante la administración e. v. de Aloxano® en dosis única de 75 mg/kg. Los animales fueron sacrificados a distintos tiempos posinducción (p.i.: 2h, 24hy 7d, 14d, 21d, tomándose muestras de páncreas para examen histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico para determinar insulina y Ki-67. Para cada subgrupo experimental se consideró un perro Control. El estado diabético del Grupo Experimental se comprobó mediante la evaluación de glucosa y fructosamina en plasma. La diabetes fue confirmada por la instauración de hiperglicemia sostenida e hiperfructosaminemia a partir de los 7 días p.i. Los resultados histopatológicos mostraron una disminución significativa (P The aim of this study was to evaluate pancreatic microscopic lesions with the presence or absence of insulin in Langerhans islets at different times post-induction (p.i. in alloxan-induced diabetic type I dogs. A group of 20 mixed breed, male adult dogs were used, subdivided in 2 groups: Control (n = 5 and Experimental (n = 15. The Experimental Group was subdivided into groups of 3 animals each which were alloxan-induced intravenously (75 mg/kg. Dogs were sacrificed at different times p.i. (2 hours, 24 hours, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days. Pancreatic samples were taken for histopathologic and immunohistochemical study against insulin and Ki-67. The Control Group considered 5 healthy dogs, one for each Experimental Group. Plasmatic evaluation

  8. Long term evaluation of functional and morphological bladder alterations on alloxan-induced diabetes and aging: experimental study in rats Avaliação funcional e morfológica tardia de alterações na bexiga secundárias ao diabetes induzido por aloxano e no envelhecimento: estudo experimental em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Antunes Rodrigues Jr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to evaluate structural and functional effects of Alloxan- induced diabetes and aging on bladder of rats. METHODS: evaluations were performed in three groups: A - 8 weeks of age, B - 44 weeks of age, C - 44 weeks of age with alloxan-induced diabetes. Muscle layer thickness, extracellular matrix fibrosis and collagen were quantified on digital images of bladder samples. Cystometric evaluations before surgical vesical denervation (SVD, included maximum cystometric capacity (MCC, maximum bladder pressure (MBP, bladder contraction frequency (VCF, duration of bladder contraction (DC, threshold pressure (TP and bladder compliance (BC. After SVD, maximum cystometric capacity (MCC, BC and maximum urethral closing pressure (MUCP were also measured. RESULTS: Reduced extracellular matrix fibrosis concentration and contraction strength were found in the bladders of group C. Before SVD, bladder compliance was not different between groups. Alterations were observed in MCC after SVD. CONCLUSIONS: We did not notice smooth muscle hypertrophy in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats after 44 weeks. There was alteration in the total and relative amount of fibrosis and collagen. The cystometric studies support the idea that this morphological alterations are important to determine the different bladder functional patterns found in the aging and the Alloxan-induced diabetic animals.OBJETIVOS: avaliar alterações estruturais e funcionais da bexiga de ratos machos, associadas ao diabetes induzido por aloxano e ao envelhecimento. MÉTODOS: três grupos de animais: A - 8 semanas de idade; B- 44 semanas de idade; C - 44 semanas de idade com diabetes induzido por aloxano, foram avaliados. Realizadas medidas de espessura da camada muscular, fibrose de matriz extracelular e quantidade de colágeno, através de análise de imagem digital dos tecidos. Realizados também testes cistométricos, antes da desnervação vesical cirúrgica (DVC, para avaliar capacidade vesical (CV

  9. Effect of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and ethanol on pregnancy outcome in mice Efeito do diabetes mellitus induzido por aloxana e etanol na gestação de camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cesar Peres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of ethanol, diabetes mellitus and the combination of both on mouse fetuses. METHODS: We used 24 female Swiss mice, dividing them into four groups of 6 each: control (C, ethanol (E, diabetes (D (blood glucose > 200 mg/dL and diabetes + ethanol (DE. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (40 mg/kg on day 7 of pregnancy. Groups E and DE received 4 g/kg of 25% v/v ethanol intraperitoneally, whereas groups C and D received saline. On day 18, all fetuses were harvested. RESULTS: In group DE the following anomalies were found: exencephaly, situs inversus totalis, situs inversus partialis, eyelid skin tag and one animal from group E had pulmonary artery hypoplasia. Ethanol administration partially reverted diabetes-fetal resorption caused by diabetes, yet it induced late fetal death. Both diabetes and ethanol reduced placental diameter and increased its weight. Ethanol had more effect on fetal length in males than in females, however, such bias was not found for diabetes. Ethanol prevented diabetes-induced tail shortening in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that, although ethanol might improve energy metabolism in early gestation, it causes cell damage that leads to cardiovascular, limb and neural tube defects, late fetal death and reduced placental size.INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Investigar o efeito do etanol, do diabetes mellitus (DM e da associação de ambos sobre os fetos de camundongo. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 24 fêmeas de camundongos Swiss divididas em quatro grupos de seis animais cada: controle (C; etanol (E; diabetes (D (glicemia > 200 mg/dl, e diabetes + etanol (DE. O diabetes foi induzido pela aloxana (40 mg/kg no dia 7 da gestação. Os animais dos grupos E e DE receberam 4 g/kg de solução a 25% v/v de etanol intraperitoneal (IP, enquanto os animais dos grupos C e D receberam salina. No dia 18, todos os fetos foram coletados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas as seguintes

  10. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of polysaccharide from wild plant Lycopus lucidus Turcz.on alloxan-induced diabetic mice%野生地参多糖对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠血糖和血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 陈贵元; 谭德勇; 左绍远

    2011-01-01

    The effect of polysaccharides from wild plant Lycopus lucidus Turcz. On hypoglycemia and hypo-lipidemia in alloxan-induced mice was investigated. The diabetic model mice were established by intra-ab-dominal injection of alloxan. Then, the living diabetic mice were divided into six groups. Three groups were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/(kg·d) polysaccharide from L. Lucidus Turcz., respectively by ig administration, and one group given phenfomide 100 mg/ ( kg · d) by ig adminstration as the positive control ,and another group was given normal saline as the diabetic model control. The normal control group was tested on the normal mice by ig saline. After 14 days of treatment, the blood glucose and the serum lipid content of each group were detected. The results indicated that polysaccharide from L. Lucidus Turcz. Has no hyperglycemia effect on normal mice. Compared with the diabetic model control group, 100,200 and 400 mg/(kg·d) polysaccharide from L. Lucidus Turcz could decrease the blood glucose in diabetic mice(P 0. 05). Polysaccharide from L. Lucidus Turcz. Had significant effects on hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action in diabetic mice induced by alloxan.%为了研究野生地参多糖对四氧嘧啶(ALX)致糖尿病小鼠血糖和血脂的影响,利用四氧嘧啶(ALX)建立糖尿病小鼠模型,分别灌胃低( 100 mg/( kg·d))、中(200 mg/( kg·d))、高(400mg/(kg·d))剂量地参多糖溶液及阳性对照药盐酸笨乙双胍,正常对照组及糖尿病模型对照组则给等体积生理盐水.结果表明:连续给药14 d后,地参多糖对正常小鼠血糖无明显影响,100、200和400 mg/(kg·d)地参多糖均能明显降低ALX所致糖尿病小鼠高血糖,与糖尿病模型对照组相比,P<0.01;同时,相同剂量的地参多糖还能极显著降低ALX致糖尿病小鼠血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C) (P <0.01).中、高剂量地参多糖使糖尿病小鼠血清高密度脂蛋白

  11. Study on Hypoglycemic Effect of Synsepalum dulcificum and Its Mixtures in Alloxan-induced Diabet- ic Mice%神秘果及其复合物对四氧嘧啶糖尿病小鼠降血糖作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭刚军; 袁志章; 张雪辉; 杨焱; 殷建忠

    2012-01-01

    通过给小鼠腹腔注射四氧嘧啶建立糖尿病小鼠模型,分别灌胃给予0.2mL/(10g·d)神秘果与神秘果、明月草复合物,连续给药26d,观察其对小鼠体重、空腹血糖等的影响,试验结果:对照组与各剂量组小鼠体重均显著增加,组间小鼠体重无显著差异;与模型对照组相比较,神秘果与神秘果、明月草复合物的低、中、高剂量组均显著降低四氧嘧啶糖尿病小鼠的血糖值,神秘果低、高剂量组降血糖效果接近于降糖药二甲双胍;神秘果与神秘果、明月草复合物降血糖效果与剂量间无剂量效应关系。%Animal model of diabetes was established by injecting alloxan into mice abdominalcavity, Synsepalum dulcifieum and Synsepalum dulcih'cum-Angelica keiskei mixture were lavaged into stomachs by 0.2 mL/(10g.d) with 26 days standing.The ef- fect on body weight and blood glucose was then observed in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results indicated that body weight of mice of control groups and dose groups significantly increased and there were no significant differences in body weight of all groups mice after lavaging stomachs. Comparing the model group, the groups in low, medium and high doses of Synsepalum dulci- fieum and its mixtures could significanly decrease blood glucose level. Hypoglycemic effects of Synsepalum dulcificum low and high dose groups showed the better and closed to metformin, but Synsepalum dulcificum and Synsepalum dulcificum-Angeli- ca keiskei mixture had no dose-response relationship on hypoglycemic effects.

  12. Glutamine or whey-protein supplementation on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Effects on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes Efeitos da oferta de glutamina ou de proteína do soro de leite sobre os linfócitos CD4+ e CD8+ em ratos diabéticos aloxano induzidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Motta Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of glutamine (L-Gln or whey-protein supplementation on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats were used in the experiment. Eight rats served as baseline controls (G-1. The remaining 24 animals received alloxan 150mg/Kg intraperitonially dissolved in buffer solution and were equally distributed in 3 subgroups, upon induction of diabetes mellitus, and treated as follows: (G2: saline, 2.0ml; (G3: glutamine solution (0.7g/kg, 2.0 ml; and (G4: whey-protein (WPS solution (0.7g/kg, 2.0 ml. All solutions were administered by daily 7:00 AM gavages during 30 days. Next, arterial blood samples (3.0 ml were collected from anesthetized rats for CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte count through flow cytometry technology. RESULTS: CD4+ and CD8+ counts decreased significantly in all groups compared with baseline values (G1. G2 rats CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly compared with G1. CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased significantly (>260% in L-Gln treated group (G3 compared with saline-treated rats (G2. There were no statistical differences in lymphocyte counts (CD4+ and CD8+ between L-Gln (G3 and saline-treated (G2 groups. There was a significant reduction in CD8+ cell count compared with CD4+ cell count in L-Gln treated rats (G3. CONCLUSION: The offer of L-Gln to experimental diabetic rats enhances the immunologic response to infection.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de glutamina ou proteína do soro de leite ( PSL sobre os linfócitos CD4+ e CD8+ em ratos diabéticos aloxano induzidos. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois ratos Wistar machos, saudáveis, foram utilizados no estudo. Oito ratos foram usados como controles basais (G1. Os 24 animais remanescentes foram equitativamente distribuídos em 3 subgrupos, após indução do diabetes mellitus por injeção intraperitonial de aloxano (150mg/Kg e tratados como se segue: (G2: salina; (G3: 2,0 ml de solução de glutamina

  13. Hypoglycemic effect of oral PA extracted from momordica Charantia Seeds on alloxan-induced diabetic mice%苦瓜降糖多肽PA对四氧嘧啶糖尿病小鼠的口服降血糖作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红雨; 付中平; 周吉燕; 王富军一; 胡之璧

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of oral PA and its possible mechanisms. Methods: PA, co-administration with protein-ase inhibitors (PI) also from Momordica charantia seeds, was orally administrated into alloxan-induced diabetic mice( 100mg/kg, PI 50mg/ kg). Blood glucose level, insulin level, hexokinase activity in skeletal muscle and α-glucosidase activity of intestinal mucosa were measured. The pancreas was fixed with 10% formaldehyde for histopathological examination. Results: Daily treatment with PA (co-administration with PI) for 3 weeks led to fall in blood glucose level at 14 days and at 21 days, respectively. In addition, PA also raised serum insulin concentrations. The increased a-glucosidase activity of intestinal mucosa and decreased hexokinase activity in skeletal muscle were also restored partly. Oral PA may facilitate the recovery of partially damaged islet cells in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Conclusion: The late hypoglycemic effect of oral PA, is probably due to its insulin secretagogue effect, reparative action on damaged islet cells and restoration of glucose metabolism balance.%目的:研究添加蛋白水解酶抑制剂PI的苦瓜降糖多肽PA口服降血糖作用及其可能的作用机制.方法:小鼠尾静脉注射四氧嘧啶溶液80mg/kg造糖尿病小鼠模型,分别进行PA皮下注射降血糖实验和PA口服降血糖实验;21日实验结束时取材测定血糖、血清胰岛素水平、小肠粘膜α-葡萄糖苷酶活性、骨骼肌己糖激酶(HK)活性,固定胰腺进行病理观察.结果:皮下注射PA显著降低小鼠血糖值.口服PA组小鼠血糖值明显减低;血清胰岛素水平明显升高;小肠粘膜催化麦芽糖生成的葡萄糖量大幅降低;骨骼肌己糖激酶活性明显增强;四氧嘧啶对小鼠胰岛的选择性损伤得到缓解.结论:初步证明了添加酶抑制剂PI的苦瓜降糖多肽PA口服降血糖作用;其作用机制可能是抑制小肠粘膜α-葡萄糖苷酶活

  14. Níveis glicêmicos e de colesterol em ratos com Diabetes Mellitus aloxano induzido, tratados com infusão de Bauhinia candicans ou Syzygium Jambolanum Glucose and cholesterol plasma levels in rats with alloxan-induced Diabetes Mellitus treated with infusion of Bauhinia candicans or Syzygium Jambolanum

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    Julio Cesar Mendes Soares

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a eficiência de infusão de duas plantas usadas na medicina popular, Syzygium jambolanum (Sj e Bauhinia candicans (Bc. Sessenta (60 ratos adultos, machos, da linhagem Wistar, pesando entre 220 e 240g, foram submetidos à indução de Diabetes mellitus insulino dependente (DMID com Aloxano. O estudo foi dividido em dois experimentos. No primeiro, 15 ratos receberam a administração de Aloxano na dosagem de 40mg/kg em dose única e no segundo, 60mg/kg uma vez ao dia, durante três dias, ambos por via intraperitonial. A hiperglicemia foi confirmada no terceiro dia de cada experimento. Após esta confirmação, os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de cinco e quinze animais para o primeiro e segundo experimento, respectivamente. O grupo 1 (C serviu como controle, o grupo 2 (TI recebeu infusão de Sj "ad libitum" como fonte líquida e o grupo 3 (TII recebeu infusão de Bc, por um período de 21 e 40 dias, para o primeiro e segundo experimento, respectivamente. A colheita de sangue foi realizada por punção do plexo venoso retro-orbitário com os animais anestesiados, nos dias 3, 9, 16 e 23 do primeiro experimento e nos dias 3, 16, 24 e 40 do segundo. Após vinte e um dias da fase de tratamento, o grupo TI do primeiro experimento apresentou marcante redução de hiperglicemia (P The present study verified the efficiency of two plants used in folk medicine for the reduction of hyperglycemia in diabetic people. Sixty adult male wistar rats, with body weights ranging from 220 to 240g were treated with Alloxan to induce insulin-dependent Diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Two experiments were performed. In the first, 15 rats were treated with a single dose of alloxan (40mg/kg, i.p.; while in the second experiment animals received 60mg/kg, daily for three days. Three days after the last injection, hyperglycemia was confirmed. Positive animals were allocated into 3 groups of 5 and 15 rats for experiments I and II

  15. Effects of flavonoids from Prinsepia utilis Royle on the histomorphology of kidney in alloxan-induced diabetic mice%青刺果总黄酮对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠肾组织形态学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕程; 吴小兰; 殷中琼; 景波; 李正文; 戴书俊

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察青刺果总黄酮对四氧嘧啶导致的糖尿病小鼠肾组织形态学的影响,探讨其对肾脏的保护作用。方法腹腔注射四氧嘧啶建立糖尿病小鼠模型,连续4周给予青刺果总黄酮灌胃治疗。2周及4周后分别处死小鼠,测血糖,称肾重和计算肾脏脏器指数。取部分肾做切片,分别在光镜和电镜下观察肾脏病理变化。结果糖尿病模型小鼠经青刺果总黄酮治疗后,在光镜和电镜下均可观察到由四氧嘧啶导致的肾脏病变的减轻。经青刺果总黄酮治疗的糖尿病小鼠其肾小球体积减小,基底膜无明显增厚;肾小管内糖原沉积减少,间质纤维减少;细胞器损伤较模型组轻微。结论青刺果总黄酮能有效的改善糖尿病小鼠肾脏的病变,控制肾脏肥大,对糖尿病肾病有一定的保护作用。%Aim To investigate the effect of flavonoids from Prinsepia utilis Royle( FPR) on the histomorphol-ogy of kidney in diabetic mice, and to investigate its protective mechanism. Methods Diabetic mice in-duced by alloxan were given FPR orally each day for four weeks. After the administration for two and four weeks, ten mice in each group were randomly sacri-ficed. The kidneys were removed and weighed. The extracted renal tissue was embedded with paraffin and sectioned, the sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin(HE)、Periodic acid Schiff(PAS) and Go-mori, and then observed under the microscopy. 1mm3 of renal cortex fixed with glutaral in four centi-degree , and then the ultrastructure of each group was observed under the electron microscope respectively after four weeks′ treatment. Results Compared with the model control group, in the treatment group, observation un-der the microscopy showed that glomerular volume and mesangial cells reduced, FPR could relieve thickening of the glomerular basement membrane ( GBM ) , little inflammatory cells infiltrated in the interstitium

  16. EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Eman G. E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab**, and Anwaar Alkamel Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. Such disease is associated with many complications which may leads finally to patient's mortality. Camel milk supplementation reduces the insulin requirement in Type I diabetic patients. So this study was planned to evaluate the effect of camel milk as hypoglycemic agent.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of camel milk (CM treating diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic CM treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both Heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The obtained results showed that the induced diabetes was diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, CM treatment led to a significant improvement in all these parameter except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in diabetic group while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of CM treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: it was recommended that the use of the CM as a hypoglycemic agent may be of good results besides repeating such study with the use of variable doses may be helpful in better evaluation for the required doses

  17. Effects of oral L-carnitine and DL-carnitine supplementation on alloxan-diabetic rats

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    Roberto Barbosa Bazotte

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oral L-carnitine (LC or DL-carnitine (DLC supplementation during one or four weeks (200 or 400 mg.kg-1.day-1 in diabetic rats was investigated. After the supplementation period, the blood was collected for the evaluation of total (TC and free L-carnitine (FC, glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triacylglycerol. Tissues were collected for the determination of TC and FC concentrations. The carnitine supplementation did not change levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C in the blood. Diabetic rats showed hypertriacylglycerolemia and decreased blood and tissue levels of FC and TC. Normalization of the blood triacylglycerol and increased blood and tissue levels of FC and TC were observed with the LC or DLC supplementation. However, the hyperglycemia remained unchanged. Thus, the reduction of blood triacylglycerol obtained with carnitine supplementation in the diabetic rats did not depend on an amelioration in the glycemia and was mediated partly at least by an increment of serum and tissue concentrations of FC and TC.

  18. Melatonin Modulates the Immune System Response and Inflammation in Diabetic Rats Experimentally-Induced by Alloxan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkanlar, S; Kara, A; Sengul, E; Simsek, N; Karadeniz, A; Kurt, N

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease, which causes an increase in the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and also proliferation of monocyte chemotactic protein. In the present study, the potential effects of melatonin on proinflammatory cytokines, hematological values, and lymphoid tissues were investigated in diabetic rats. In the study, 36 male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: Control, Mel (melatonin), DM, and DM-Mel. For 15 days, an isotonic saline solution was given to the Control and DM groups; melatonin was administered to the Mel and DM-Mel groups intraperitoneally. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed by drawing the blood from their hearts under deep anesthesia. Samples of the spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for histologic analysis. Increases in proinflammatory serum cytokine concentrations, mast cells, and total white blood cell counts as well as tissue destruction in the lymphoid organs were determined in the DM group via biochemical, hematological, and histologic analyses. However, the findings for the DM-Mel group revealed decreases in serum IL-1β concentration and mast cell densities, and destructions in lymphoid tissues by the melatonin administration. The present study suggests that melatonin treatment may control immune system regulation and inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines and tissue mast cell accumulation by preventing the destruction of lymphoid organs in the diabetic process.

  19. [Wound-healing effect of carbopol hydrogels in rats with alloxan diabetes model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinov'ev, E V; Ivakhniuk, G K; Dadaian, K A; Lagvilava, T O

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 0.5% hydrogels of acrylic polymers (carbopol), antibiotic ointment based on polyethylene oxides (levomekol), silver-containing creams (dermazin and argosulfan), silver sulfadiazine ointment with epidermal growth factor (ebermin), and wound-covering fabric of antibacterial cellulose with poviargol and zero-valent silver (aquacell-Ag) on skin repair processes have been evaluated in comparative experiments on rats. The wound-healing effects were characterized by the time of cleansing and epithelization, rate of suppuration, index of healing, and skin impedance under conditions of necrotic skin lesions on the background of diabetes. It is established that local application of carbopol hydrogels modified by electric (frequency-modulated) signal with antiseptics (poviargol) and nanostructural components (natural fullerene complex) shortens the period of wound cleansing from detritus on the background of decompensated diabetes by 3.6 days (p > 0.05), accelerates healing by 8.4 days (p wound infections by pathogens, and restores tissue impedance. Thus, hydrogels based on low-crosslinked acrylic polymers are a promising basis of wound-healing formulations for the treatment of necrotic lesions on the background of diabetic foot syndrome.

  20. [Nucleoside-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis in the liver and kidney of rats with chronic alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusina, I M; Makarchikov, A F; Makar, E A; Kubyshin, V L

    2006-01-01

    Activity and some properties of a soluble enzyme hydrolyzing nucleoside-5'-triphosphates were studied in the liver and kidney of normal and diabetic rats. The enzyme activity was shown to be reduced by 34% (p < 0.01) in the liver extracts of diabetic animals, while no difference was observed in the kidney. When ITP was used as substrate, the apparent Michaelis constant of the enzyme was significantly lower in the liver of controls as compared to experimental rats (32.3 +/- 1.3 microM and 54.3 +/- 1.0 microM, respectively, p < 0.01). The KM values of the enzyme in the kidney were not distinguishable in both groups. NTPase exhibits maximal activity at pH 7.0 and has a broad substrate specificity with respect to different nucleoside-5'-tri- and diphosphates. Molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated by gel filtration to be 63.7 +/- 0.9 kD.

  1. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N; Akpan, Joseph L; Okorie, Ugochi A; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T; Ezeokpo, Basil C; Nwadike, Kenneth I; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2016-02-24

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia.

  2. Effects of oral L-carnitine and DL-carnitine supplementation on alloxan-diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Barbosa Bazotte; Gisele Lopes-Bertolini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of oral L-carnitine (LC) or DL-carnitine (DLC) supplementation during one or four weeks (200 or 400 mg.kg-1.day-1) in diabetic rats was investigated. After the supplementation period, the blood was collected for the evaluation of total (TC) and free L-carnitine (FC), glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triacylglycerol. Tissues were collected for the determination of TC and FC concentrations. The c...

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Shailesh Kumar Choudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt. showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects.

  4. Inhibition of key enzymes related to diabetes and hypertension by Eugenol in vitro and in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnafgui, Kais; Kaanich, Fatima; Derbali, Amal; Hamden, Khaled; Derbali, Fatma; Slama, Sadok; Allouche, Noureddine; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the effect of treating diabetic rats with eugenol (EG). In vitro enzyme activity was measured in the presence of eugenol, and it was found to inhibit pancreatic α-amylase (IC(50) = 62.53 µg/mL) and lipase (IC(50) = 72.34 µg/mL) as well as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity (IC50 = 130.67 µg/mL). In vivo, EG reduced the activity of amylase in serum, pancreas and intestine also the peak level of glucose by 60% compared to diabetic rats. Furthermore, eugenol similar to acarbose reduced serum glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipase and ACE levels. In addition, treatments with EG showed notable decrease in serum total-cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels with an increase of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Overall, EG significantly reverted back to near normal the values of the biochemical biomarkers such as transaminases (AST&ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities, total-bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid rates.

  5. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Boukhris Maher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér., which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight (b.w. for 30 days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b.w.. Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600 μg/kg b.w., for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. was significantly (p Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients.

  6. Anti-diabetic properties of flavonoid compounds isolated from Hyphaene thebaica epicarp on alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Josline Y Salib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus, becoming the third killer of mankind after cancer and cardiovascular diseases, is one of the most challenging diseases facing health care professionals today. That is why; there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for diabetes, especially those derived from plants. Aim: To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity together with the accompanying biological effects of the fractions and the new natural compounds of Hyphaene thebaica (HT epicarp. Materials and Methods: 500 g of coarsely powdered of (HT fruits epicarp were extracted by acetone. The acetone crude extract was fractionated with methanol and ethyl acetate leaving a residual water-soluble fraction WF . The anti-diabetic effects of the WF and one of its compounds of the acetone extract of the (HT epicarp were investigated in this study using 40 adult male rats. Results: Phytochemical investigation of active WF revealed the presence of ten different flavonoids, among which two new natural compounds luteolin 7-O-[6″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside 3 and chrysoeriol 7-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1®2-α-L-arabinofuranoside 5 were isolated. Supplementation of the WF improved glucose and insulin tolerance and significantly lowered blood glycosylated hemoglobin levels. On the other hand, compound 5 significantly reduced AST and ALT levels of liver, respectively. Likewise, the kidney functions were improved for both WF and compound 5 , whereby both urea and creatinine levels in serum were highly significant. Conclusion: The results justify the use of WF and compound 5 of the (HT epicarp as anti-diabetic agent, taking into consideration that the contents of WF were mainly flavonoids.

  7. [Platelet hyperreactivity and antiaggregatory properties of nootropic drugs under conditions of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A É; Mamchur, V I

    2012-01-01

    The effects of nootropic drugs (noopept, pentoxifylline, piracetam, pramiracetam, Ginkgo biloba extract, entrop, cerebrocurin and citicoline) on platelet aggregation in rats with experimental diabetes have been studied. It is established that all these drugs exhibit an inhibitory action of various degrees against platelet hyperreactivity under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia. The maximum universality of the antiaggregatory action is characteristic of pramiracetam, entrop and Ginkgo biloba extract.

  8. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8%, 47.27%, 53.69%, 74.03% respectively), antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period.

  9. Continuous Electrical Current and Zinc Sulphate Administered by Transdermal Iontophoresis Improves Skin Healing in Diabetic Rats Induced by Alloxan: Morphological and Ultrastructural Analysis

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    Lucas Langoni Cassettari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluated the effects of continuous electrical current (CEC or zinc administrated by transdermal iontophoresis (Zn+TDI. Methods. 120 male Wistar rats were submitted to an incision surgery at the anterior region of abdomen and distributed into 6 experimental groups with 40 animals: 3 diabetic groups and 3 normal groups, untreated and treated with CEC alone or with Zn + TDI. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups with 10 rats each to be evaluated on the 4th, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after surgery. In each period, clinical and laboratory parameters from the animals were analyzed. Results. The analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy showed a delay in the phases of wound healing in diabetic rats without treatment in all periods of the experiment; breaking strength (BS was significantly reduced in skin scars of untreated diabetic rats when compared to other groups. In contrast, BS in skin scars of nondiabetic groups and diabetic rats treated with Zn + TDI showed significant increase in those, besides not presenting delayed healing. Conclusion. Electrical stimulation of surgical wounds used alone or in association with zinc by TDI is able to consistently improve the morphological and ultrastructural changes observed in the healing of diabetic animals.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats injected with alloxan monohydrate

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    K.C Chilaka

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: However, further studies need to be carried out to show its mechanism of action and to isolate the active ingredient in the Citrus sinensis seed oil that is responsible for these actions.

  11. Anti-diabetic Properties of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Bougainvillea glabra (Glory of the Garden on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Grace I. Adebayo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antilipidemic effects of Bougainvillea glabra was investigated in this study using 25 male wistar rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups comprising of five animals each. These groups include a normal control (administered saline, an extract control (administered 100 mg/kg of extract and a diabetic control (untreated group. The remaining two groups were administered 100mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the extract respectively. The study lasted for three weeks although blood samples were obtained from the rat tails after every week. The results show that the extract significantly (p< 0.05 reduced the hyperglycaemia from 12±0.40 mmol/L (Diabetic Control to 4.04±0.03 mmol/L (400 mg/kg group. Likewise, the extract significantly reduced the Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-Cholesterol, while increasing the High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C. In conclusion, the observations from this study show that Bougainvillea glabra has antidiabetic effect and beneficial effects on blood lipid profile, thus justifying the use of the plant by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  12. 舒糖宝对四氧嘧啶糖尿病小鼠血糖的影响%The effects of Shutangbao syrups on blood glucose in diabetic mice induced by alloxan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤玲; 龙奇军; 韦爱伯; 马真真; 黄金妹; 蒋芸芸; 张树球

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究舒糖宝复方口服液及其原料对四氧嘧啶糖尿病小鼠血糖的影响.方法 将小白鼠分为正常组、治疗1组、治疗2组、阳性对照组、模型组,共五组.后四组用四氧嘧啶腹腔注射造模.造模成功后,治疗1组用舒糖宝复方口服液灌胃治疗,治疗2组用番石榴果提取液灌胃治疗,阳性对照组用盐酸二甲双胍治疗,模型组灌等量蒸馏水.测定造模前、造模后和治疗后血糖含量.结果 阳性对照组、治疗1组、治疗2组、模型组和正常组,造模前血糖分别为(7.47±1.31)、(6.48±0.52)、(6.38±0.99)、(6.81±0.54)、(6.72±0.89)mmol/L(F=0.47,P=0.75);造模后72h血糖分别为(11.17±3.13)、(10.16±3.24)、(10.88±4.25)、(12.24±4.43)、(5.18±0.58)mmol/L(P<0.01);治疗后血糖分别为(9.02±0.98)、(7.90±1.49)、(6.54±0.61)、(10.69±4.83)、(6.09±0.57)mmol/L(P<0.01).造模后血糖明显高于造模前(P<0.01),治疗后明显低于治疗前(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 造模后血糖明显升高,治疗后明显下降.舒糖宝对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠具有显著降糖作用.

  13. Effects of Chromium Nicotinate on the content of liver starch of diabetic mice induced by alloxan%烟酸铬对四氧嘧啶性糖尿病小鼠肝糖原含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李善花; 金政; 朴丽花; 李相伍

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察用烟酸铬处理四氧嘧啶性糖尿病小鼠4周后肝糖原含量的变化.方法:将糖尿病小鼠随机分为三个组:糖尿病对照组、实验Ⅰ组(烟酸铬Cr3+250μg/kg·d)、实验Ⅱ组(烟酸铬Cr3+125μg/kg·d),另设正常对照组,做过碘酸雪夫氏(PAS)反应显示肝糖原.结果:实验组与糖尿病对照组相比,肝细胞糖原含量增多.结论:烟酸铬能够增加肝糖原的含量,促进肝组织对葡萄糖的利用.

  14. 富铬豆芽粉对糖尿病小鼠血糖调节作用的研究%Study on Regulation of Bean Sprout Powder Rich in Chromium to Alloxan Diabetes Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桂菊; 王少康; 蒋兆坤; 詹永红; 浦跃朴; 黄杰; 王盛良; 周自新

    2002-01-01

    目的观察富铬豆芽粉对糖尿病小鼠的血糖调节作用.方法用40mg/kg的CrCl3溶液一次性浸泡绿豆24小时,在25℃发芽5天获得富铬豆芽,60℃干燥至水分含量低于11%,粉碎得富铬豆芽粉样品,总铬含量为7 2.6mg/kg,铬有机化程度达95%左右.对其毒性和对四氧嘧啶高血糖模型小鼠的血糖调节作用进行研究.结果所研制的富铬豆芽粉小鼠经口LD50>10 000mg/kg.bw ,属无毒级,骨髓微核、精子畸形试验表明无突变效应.给四氧嘧啶高血糖模型小鼠3个剂量的富铬豆芽粉(按其总铬含量计):低剂量组8.3μg/kg.bw/d、中剂量组16.67μg/kg.bw /d、高剂量组33.33μg/kg.bw/d,灌胃30天后,中剂量组和高剂量组动物空腹血糖值、血糖降低的绝对值与对照组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05),而低剂量组与对照组无显著性差异(P>0.05). 结论富铬豆芽粉具有降低糖尿病小鼠血糖的作用,值得进一步研究开发利用.

  15. Preparation of Preproinsulin Gene Construct Containing the Metallothionein2A (pBINDMTChIns and Its Expression in NIH3T3 Cell Line and Muscle Tissue of Alloxan Diabetic Rabbits

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    Piri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus type 1, formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes, is one of the autoimmune diseases where insulin-producing cells are destroyed by autoimmune response via T cells. The new approaches in treatment of diabetes are using the stem cells, cell transplantation of islet β cell, gene transfer by virus based plasmids, and non-viral gene constructs. Objectives The purpose of this study was to construct glucose inducible insulin gene plasmid and use it in the muscle tissue of the rabbit. Materials and Methods To achieve this goal, the preproinsulin, metallothionein2A promoter and the response element to carbohydrate genes were cloned into pBIND plasmid by standard cloning methods, to construct pBINDMTChIns. The gene cloning products were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion template. The recombinant plasmid, containing the preproinsulin gene, was transferred into NIH3T3 cells and insulin gene expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase PCR and western blotting techniques. Plasmid naked DNA containing the preproinsulin gene was injected into the rabbits’ thigh muscles, and its expression was confirmed by western blotting method. Results This study shows the prepared gene construct is inducible by glucose. Gene expression of preproinsulin was observed in muscle tissue of rabbits. Conclusions These finding indicated that research in diabetes mellitus gene therapy could be performed on larger animals.

  16. The Effect of Zofenopril on Pancreas, Kidney and Liver of Diabetic Rats

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    Ayşe ÇARLIOĞLU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is responsible for some important complications of diabetes mellitus. Zofenopril, which has an antioxidant effect, may decrease the oxidative stress of the diabetic microenvironment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of zofenopril in the liver, pancreas and kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. MATERIAL and METHODS: Rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=6, rats treated with zonenopril (50 mg/kg/day, orally four weeks; n=6, rats exposed to alloxane (120 mg/kg single dose intraperitoneal injection, n=6, rats administered alloxan+zofenopril (n=6 and rats administered insulin plus alloxan. RESULTS: After one month, we observed histological improvement in the kidneys but not in the pancreas and liver. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, zofenopril may be effective on the renal complications of diabetes mellitus.

  17. Effect of chromium-rich Chinese drug and chromium-rich well water on the biochemical indices of rats with alloxan diabetes%富铬中药制剂和富铬井水对四氧嘧啶糖尿病大鼠模型各种生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树球; 李朝敢; 王三艳; 周志宇; 胡丹; 姚杨玲; 陈海燕; 周国荃

    2006-01-01

    目的:观察富铬中药制剂和富铬井水对四氧嘧啶糖尿病大鼠模型血糖及脑、肝抗氧化能力变化、血清各种生化指标的影响,分析铬与糖尿病的关系.方法:实验于2006-07-04/29在右江民族医学院重金属与氟砷毒物研究实验室进行.选用清洁级Wistar大白鼠40只,雄雌不拘,鼠龄60 d,以随机数字表法分成4组,即含铬井水组、富铬中药组、模型组、正常组,每组10只.含铬井水组给予含铬井水,每笼5只大鼠上午150 mL,下午150 mL,自由饮用;富铬中药组用富铬中药制剂(商品名舒糖宝,由荔枝、沙田柚、番石榴等果类提取制成,富含铬元素),按每鼠2mL,加到自来水瓶中,自由饮用每天饮完;模型组和正常组自来水自由饮用.1周后,分别收集尿液,测定各鼠每天尿量、蛋白和尿糖.测定造模前、成模后和治疗结束时血糖含量.连续治疗2周后,麻醉下处死大鼠,取大脑、肝脏在冷冻条件下匀浆,用生理盐水制成100g/L匀浆,检测血清尿素、丙氨酸氨基转移酶、三酰甘油、总胆固醇、肌酐,脑、肝匀浆超氧阴离子自由基、丙二醛、谷胱甘肽、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶含量,比较组间差异.结果:全部大鼠进入结果分析.①含铬井水组、富铬中药组血糖较治疗前明显下降(P<0.001),模型组下降不明显(P>0.05).②含铬井水组血清尿素、肌酐含量高于其他各组(P<0.05~0.01);含铬井水组、富铬中药组脑超氧阴离子自由基清除率高于正常组和模型组,含铬井水组、富铬中药组、正常组肝超氧阴离子自由基清除率、肝谷胱甘肽含量均高于模型组,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05~0.01).③含铬井水组、富铬中药组、模型组肝丙二醛含量均高于正常组,以模型组最高(P<0.01);含铬井水组、富铬中药组、正常组肝谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶低于模型组(P<0.01),含铬井水组、富铬中药组、正常组3组差异无显著性意义(P>0.05);④富铬中药组大鼠尿量明显低于模型组(P<0.05),与正常组差异无显著性意义(P>0.05);各组血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶活力差异无显著性意义(P>0.05);正常组尿糖含量明显低于其他3组(P<0.01).⑤正常组三酰甘油、总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、脑丙二醛含量明显低于其他3组(P<0.05~0.01),正常组脑谷胱甘肽明显高于其他3组(P<0.01).⑥治疗药物富铬中药制剂、富铬井水中铬元素含量明显高于当地自来水和其他井水(P<0.001).结论:富铬中药制剂和矿区某井水含丰富铬元素,两者均可明显降低四氧嘧啶糖尿病大鼠模型血糖、三酰甘油水平,提高脑、肝超氧阴离子自由基清除力和抗氧化能力.铬的作用可能是富铬中药制剂的降糖机制之一.

  18. Protective Effects of Collagen Peptide-Chromium(Ⅲ) Complex on Alloxan-induced Diabetes in Mice%胶原蛋白多肽-铬(Ⅲ)螯合物对四氧嘧啶诱发小鼠糖尿病的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安军; 王秀丽; 陈影; 张国蓉

    2006-01-01

    研究胶原蛋白多肽-铬(Ⅲ)螯合物对四氧嘧啶诱发小鼠糖尿病的保护作用.通过腹腔注射四氧嘧啶造小鼠糖尿病模型,观察胶原蛋白多肽-铬(Ⅲ)螯合物对糖尿病小鼠糖代谢(空腹血糖)及脂代谢(甘油三酯,胆固醇,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇,低密度脂蛋白胆固醇)的影响.实验结果表明,胶原蛋白多肽-铬(Ⅲ)螯合物显著降低糖尿病小鼠空腹血糖、甘油三酯、胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平,提高高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平,说明胶原蛋白多肽-铬(Ⅲ)螯合物对四氧嘧啶诱发的小鼠糖尿病具有显著的保护作用.

  19. The effects of chromium glutamate on pancreas islet and B cell in diabetic mice induced by alloxan%谷氨酸铬对四氧嘧啶性糖尿病小鼠胰岛及B细胞形态结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡英茂

    2008-01-01

    [目的]探讨谷氨酸铬对糖尿病小鼠胰岛及B细胞的影响.[方法]用四氧嘧啶制作糖尿病小鼠模型,随机分为糖尿病对照组、实验Ⅰ组(每日灌胃给予谷氨酸铬250μg/kg)及实验Ⅱ组(每日灌胃给予谷氨酸铬125μg/kg),另设正常对照组.实验周期为3周,利用免疫组织化学方法观察胰岛及B细胞的组织学变化.[结果]实验Ⅰ组小鼠胰岛内空虚部分明显缩小,B细胞及其颗粒增多,界限较清楚.[结论]谷氨酸铬对四氧嘧啶所致小鼠胰岛及B细胞的损伤具有明显的改善作用.

  20. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Erhuang Tang on the Blood Sugar, Serum Insulin on An Empty Stomach of Mice Modeled with Alloxan Tetraoxypyrimidine%二黄汤对四氧嘧啶小鼠空腹血糖、血清胰岛素等指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马高峰; 张宾

    2001-01-01

    随着我国人民生活水平的提高,糖尿病发病率有越来越高的趋势,研制出治疗糖尿病有效的药物是十分必要和迫切的.我们将二黄汤用于临床,取得较好效果,为了进一步探讨其降糖机制,现将实验结果报告如下.……

  1. 热休克蛋白47重组质粒对糖尿病大鼠皮肤创口愈合影响的实验研究%Effects of HSP47 Recombinant Plasmid on the Skin Wound Healing Process in the Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程杰; 李琳; 王佐林

    2008-01-01

    目的:初步研究热休克蛋白47(HSP47)重组质粒pTracer-CMV-HSP47局部注射对糖尿病大鼠皮肤创口愈合的影响.探讨以HSP47质粒为基础的基因治疗促进糖尿病皮肤创口愈合的可行性和有效性.方法:制备四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病大鼠皮肤创口愈合模型,创缘皮下局部注射HSP47重组质粒,观察其对皮肤创口愈合的影响,并用免疫组织化学、荧光定量RT-PCR、Western blotting检测创口愈合过程中HSP47和collagen Ⅰ的表达变化.结果:在糖尿病大鼠皮肤创缘连续两次注射质粒后第3、6、9天.免疫组织化学、荧光定量RT-PCR和Western blotting检测证实,HSP47重组质粒组比对照组能显著增加创口中的HSP47和collagen Ⅰ的表达.结论:在糖尿病大鼠皮肤创口周围注射质粒pTracer-CMV-HSP47,能明显增强HSP47和collagen Ⅰ的表达,有助于改善创口愈合,HSP47可能是促进糖尿病皮肤创口愈合的潜在治疗靶点.

  2. Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Jasem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight. The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live sperms, with significant increase in epididymal head,tail and prostate gland weight, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, but there is no significant changes in the weight of the testes in the rats treated with alloxan.Treatment of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight with green tea (10 g/750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days in drinking water caused a significant increase in body weights, epididymal body & seminal vesicles, percentage of live sperms, with decrease in epididymal head, tail and prostate gland weights, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities as compared with alloxan treated group. With decrease in the total number of epididymal sperm count as compared with control. Histopathological changes observed in the testes of rats treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg included presence of abnormal spermatids with decrease in the number of sperms in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in addition to irregular division of germ cells.Treatment with green tea caused improvement in the histology of the testes. It was concluded that aqueous extract of green tea exerted an antioxidant effect on the histopathological aspects of the male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan.

  3. Evaluation of Aloevera Gel for its Anti Inflammatory activity in Diabetes Mellitus using Animal Model System

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    M.Vanitha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti inflammatory potential of Aloe vera in alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Experimental Diabetes was induced in rats with alloxan. The animals were divided into four groups of six each (n=6. Group I: Normal, Group II: Alloxan induced diabetic rats, Group III: Diabetic rats supplemented with AV gel extract for 21 days, Group IV: diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide. All the drugs were administered orally (using an intra gastric tube in a single dose in the morning for 21 days. Blood samples were collected from the overnight fasted rats. Oral administration of Aloe barbadensis gel significantly decreased the level of homocysteine and the level of folic acid was significantly elevated when compared to diabetic control. The results suggest potent anti-inflammatory potential of Aloe barbadensis gel in experimental diabetes, and thus Aloe vera can be used as an alternative remedy for treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

  4. Assessment of the antidiabetic potential of Cassia grandis using an in vivo model

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    Sandesh R Lodha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. grandis (Family: Leguminosae were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by a glucose tolerance test, in normal rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed that they significantly lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in the glucose tolerance test. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after three hours, at a dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight. The percentage of protection given by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 32.72 and 46.42%, respectively. In the long-term treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the degree of protection was determined by measuring the blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides on the tenth day. Both the extracts showed a significant antidiabetic activity comparable to that of glibenclamide. These results showed that the Cassia grandis possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  5. A comparison of hypoglycemic activity of three species of basidiomycetes rich in vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunchao; Liu, Tongjun

    2009-02-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of three fungi of basidiomycetes rich in vanadium was studied in this paper. Alloxan- and adrenalin-induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The blood glucose and the sugar tolerance were determined. After the mice were administered (ig) with Coprinus comatus rich in vanadium, the blood glucose of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice decreased (p hypoglycemic effects of Coprinus comatus rich in vanadium on hyperglycemic animals are significant; it may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people.

  6. Mallotus roxburghianus modulates antioxidant responses in pancreas of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, V K; Chenkual, L; Gurusubramanian, G

    2016-03-01

    Mallotus roxburghianus has long been used by Mizo tribal people for the treatment of diabetes. Scientific validation at known doses may provide information about its safety and efficacy. Methanolic leaf extract of M. roxburghianus (MRME 100 and 400mg/kg) was tested in comparison with normal and alloxan diabetic rats for 28 days p.o. in terms of body and pancreatic weight, blood glucose level, antioxidant enzymes, expression of visfatin and PCNA, histopathology and histomorphometric measurements of pancreas. The results were evaluated statistically using ANOVA, correlation and regression and Principal component analysis (PCO). MRME (100 and 400mg/kg) treatment significantly (proxburghianus from the alloxan induced diabetic rats. MRME has significant role in protecting animals from alloxan-induced diabetic oxidative stress in pancreas and exhibited promising antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities along with significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status and lipid peroxidative damage. Pancreatic architecture and physiology under diabetic oxidative stress have been significantly modulated by MRME and validated as a drug candidate for antidiabetic treatment. M. roxburghianus treatment restores the antioxidant enzyme system and rejuvenates the islets mass in alloxanized rat by accelerating visfatin and PCNA expression in pancreatic tissue.

  7. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enomfon J Akpan; Jude E Okokon; Emem Offong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fraction of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods:M. scandens leaf extract/fractions (37-111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of 7 hours for acute study and 14 days for prolonged study. Lipid profiles of the treated diabetic rats were determined after the period of treatment. Results: Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting bloodglucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. The extract/fractions exerted a significant reduction in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL of extract with increases in HDL levels of the diabetic rats. Conclusions:These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  8. Antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extract and fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okokon Jude E; Antia Bassey S; Udobang John A

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic activities of ethanolic root extract/fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis (A. djalonensis) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods:A. djalonensis root extract/fractions (37-111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGLs) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of hours and days throughout the duration of the treatment. Results: Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting BGLs of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. Conclusions:These results suggest that the root extract/fractions of A. djalonensis possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  9. Hepatoprotective and antiproliferative activity of moringinine, chlorogenic acid and quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy T. Ali

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Quercetin and moringinine are responsible to a great extent for the antitumor activity of the whole extract. Chlorogenic acid is a potent hepatoprotective in alloxan induced liver toxicity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1147-1153

  10. Preganglionic innervation of the pancreas islet cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUITEN, PGM; TERHORST, GJ; KOOPMANS, SJ; RIETBERG, M; STEFFENS, AB

    1984-01-01

    The position and number of preganglionic somata innervating the insulin-secreting β-cells of the endocrine pancreas were investigated in Wistar rats. This question was approached by comparing the innervation of the pancreas of normal rats with the innervation of the pancreas in alloxan-induced diabe

  11. Toksisitas Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah pada Tikus Putih Penderita Diabetes Melitus (TOXICITY OF RED BETEL EXTRACT IN DIABETIC WHITE RAT

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    Anak Agung Sagung Kendran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the toxicity of red betel  (Piper crocatum extract in diabeticwhite rat based on ALT and AST activities. This research used 20 male white rats, which randomlydivided into five groups, P1: given only aqua; P2: given alloxan 120mg/kg bw; P3: given alloxan 120 mg/kgbw and red betel leaf extract 50 mg/kg bw; P4: given alloxan 120 mg/kg bw and red betel leaf extract 100mg/kg bw; P5: given alloxan 120 mg/kg bw and glibenclamide suspension 1 mg/kg bw. ALT and ASTactivities were measured by using reflovet plus Machine. The collected data were analyzed by usinganalysis of covariance. The result showed no significant  effect (P>0.05 was observed on giving red betelleaf extract in diabetic white rat for ALT and AST activities.  It can be concluded that red betel leaf extractis potential for diabetic treatment in white rat  and it is not toxic for the rat’s ALT and AST activities.

  12. Serotonin-promoted elevation of ROS levels may lead to cardiac pathologies in diabetic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Tahir; Shaheen Farhat; Mahmud Madiha; Waheed Hina; Ishtiaq Muhammad; Javed Qamar; Murtaza Iram

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) develop tendencies toward heart disease. Hyperglycemia induces the release of serotonin from enterochromaffin cells (EC). Serotonin was observed to elevate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and downregulate antioxidant enzymes. As a result, elevated levels of serotonin could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by alloxan administrati...

  13. Autonomic innervation of the pancreas in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. A new view on intramural sympathetic structural organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.; Horst, G.J. ter; Steffens, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Using histochemical and immunocytochemical methods the intramural neural tissue of the pancreas was investigated in non-diabetic and in alloxan-diabetic rats. It was demonstrated that the non-diabetic pancreas contains an average of 2.71 cells/mm3 tissue that react positive for activity of acetylcho

  14. Can garlic oil ameliorate diabetes-induced oxidative stress in a rat liver model? A correlated histological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdultawab, Hanem Saad; Ayuob, Nasra N

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the structural changes in liver of an alloxan-induced diabetic rat and to explain such changes in terms of the biochemical changes in free radicals and antioxidants. In addition, it aimed to determine the potential ability of garlic oil to alter these changes. The study groups were: control (n=12), alloxan-induced diabetic rats (n=10) and alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with garlic oil (10 mg/kg body weight (n=10)). Markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Small pieces of the liver were processed for transmission electron microscopic study. Garlic oil caused a significant decrease in levels of LPO in plasma (0.26 vs 0.53), erythrocyte lysate (14.4 vs 24.8) and liver tissue homogenate (1.04 vs 2.08), whereas those of thiols were significantly elevated (1.2 vs 0.46), (24 vs 15) in plasma and erythrocyte lysate respectively. SOD activity and G-S-T activity were significantly elevated in erythrocyte lysate (5.7 vs 3.3) (377 vs 179) and liver homogenate (1.4 vs 0.5) (752 vs 623) respectively after garlic oil administration. Ultrastructural study of the liver confirmed the ability of garlic to retard lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes induced by oxidative stress associated with diabetes. Therefore, garlic could normalise oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  15. Insulin regulates ionic metabolism in a fresh water teleost, anabas testudineus (bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasree, A S; Divya, L; Sreejith, P; Cyril, J; Smita, M; Oommen, O V

    2005-08-01

    Short term effects of insulin on total brain and branchial Na+K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase and Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ions were investigated in A. testudineus. The increase in brain Ca2+ ATPase after alloxan treatment may account for an increased amount of intracellular calcium required for biochemical events taking place inside the cells. Branchial Na+K+ATPase was significantly stimulated while Ca2+ ATPase significantly inhibited after alloxan treatment. This suggests that alloxan exerts its inhibitory effect on the ATP-driven Ca2+ transport via; its action on the Ca2+ pump protein rather than the membrane permeability to Ca2+. The increased activity of brain Na+K+ ATPase at 3 and 24 hr by insulin to alloxan pretreated fish may account for the stimulated co-transport of glucose and its utilization for energy requirements and the excitatory action on neurons in the brain. The elevated brain Ca2+ ATPase may be due to the role of calcium as a second messenger in hormone action. At 24 hr, the activity of branchial Na+K+ ATPase and Ca2+ ATPase in alloxan pretreated specimens was significantly stimulated by insulin. This may be due to increased synthesis of these enzyme units. Administration of insulin (lU/fish) in normal fish significantly inhibited the activity of brain and branchial Na+K+ ATPase while brain Ca2+ ATPase showed a stimulatory effect at 3 and 24 hr compared to control. Inhibition of total branchial Ca2+ ATPase activity by insulin may be due to increased Ca2+ concentration. Higher plasma glucose level in alloxan treated groups confirms the diabetic effect of alloxan. Insulin reverses this effect. The possible mechanism by which insulin controls Na+K+ ATPase activity appears to be tissue specific. The results seem to be the first report on the effect of insulin on ATPase activity in a teleost. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that insulin performs a role in hydro mineral regulation in freshwater teleosts.

  16. Role of metabolic control on diabetic nephropathy

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    Macedo Célia Sperandéo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was studying the influence of glucose metabolic control on diabetic nephropathy. The authors observed the effect of acarbose, insulin, and both drugs on the metabolic control and development of mesangial enlargement of kidney glomeruli in alloxan-diabetic rats. METHODS: Five groups of Wistar rats were used: normal rats (N, non-treated alloxan-diabetic rats (D, alloxan-diabetic rats treated with acarbose (AD, alloxan-diabetic rats treated with insulin (ID, and alloxan-diabetic rats treated with insulin plus acarbose (IAD. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight; water and food intake; diuresis; blood and urine glucose levels; and the kidney lesions: mesangial enlargement and tubule cell vacuolization. Renal lesions were analysed using a semi-quantitative score 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after diabetes induction. RESULTS: Diabetic rats showed a marked increase of glycemia, urinary glucose levels, diuresis, water and food intake, and weight loss, while the treated diabetic rats showed significant decreased levels of these parameters. The most satisfactory metabolic control was that of diabetic rats treated with acarbose + insulin. There was a significant mesangial enlargement in diabetic rats compared to normal rats from the third up to the 12th month after diabetes induction, with a significant difference between the animals treated with acarbose + insulin and non-treated diabetic rats. A difference between the animals treated with acarbose or insulin alone and non-treated diabetics rats was not seen. CONCLUSIONS: The authors discuss the results stressing the role of diabetic metabolic control in the prevention of diabetic nephropathy.

  17. EFEK HIPOGLIKEMIK EKSTRAK ETANOL UMBI KETELA RAMBAT (Ipomoea batatas P (EEUKR PADA MENCIT SWISS YANG DIINDUKSI ALOKSAN

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    Akrom Akrom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potatos rood contain lots of beta-carotene, polyphenols and flavonoids. Alloxan proven pancreatic cell damage through oxidative stress mechanisms. The compound beta-carotene, polyphenols and flavonoids are thought to antioxidative and cytoprotective, inhibit cell damage caused by alloxan exposure. This study aimed to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of sweet potatos (Ipomoea batatas P (EEUKR on blood glucose levels and pancreatic histopathology on alloxaninduced Swiss mice. Used 15 test animals, Swiss mice, with an average weight of 20-30 grams. Test animals were divided into 5 groups, with each group consisting of 3 mice. Group I was the negative control group who were given distilled water (akua group, and group II, III, IV and V are the treatment group were given ethanolic extract of sweet potatos rood (EEUKR at a dose of 2.5, 7.5, 22.5 and 67.5 mg/KgBW/day orally for 10 days, 7 days before and 3 days after the alloxan induced. Alloxan induction performed on the 7th day intraperitoneally at a dose of 120 mg/kgBW. Examination of blood glucose levels conducted on 4th and day 10th day of treatment. On the 10th day of the test animals were sacrificed for isolated pancreas and histopathologic examination. Analysis of variance conducted to determine the significance difference in average blood glucose levels between groups during the test and ANOVA followed by LSD test at 95% confidence level. Pancreatic histopathology data were analyzed qualitatively. The results showed that the EEUKR dose of 22.5 and 67.5 mg/kgBW/day had the effect of hypoglycemia in Swiss mice. Blood glucose levels of Swiss mice before alloxan induced in treatment group with EEUKR dose of 67,5 mg/Kg BW were lower than blood glucose levels of akua groups, statistically significant (p <0,05. Blood glucose levels of alloxan induced swiss mice of treatment groups with EEUKR dose of 22.5 and 67.5 mg/KgBW were lower than blood glucose level of akua group and

  18. Effect of Croatian propolis on diabetic nephropathy and liver toxicity in mice

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    Oršolić Nada

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, we examined the antioxidant effect of water soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP and ethanolic (EEP extract of propolis on renal and liver function in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In addition, we examined whether different extract of propolis could prevent diabetic nephropathy and liver toxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation in vivo. Methods Diabetes was induced in Swiss albino mice with a single intravenous injection of alloxan (75 mg kg-1. Two days after alloxan injection, propolis preparations (50 mg kg-1 per day were given intraperitoneally for 7 days in diabetic mice. Survival analysis and body weights as well as hematological and biochemical parameters were measured. The renal and liver oxidative stress marker malonaldehyde levels and histopathological changes were monitored in the liver and kidney of treated and control mice. Results Administration of propolis to diabetic mice resulted in a significant increase of body weight, haematological and immunological parameters of blood as well as 100% survival of diabetic mice. Alloxan-injected mice showed a marked increase in oxidative stress in liver and kidney homogenate, as determined by lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observation of the liver sections of alloxan-induced diabetic mice showed several lesions including cellular vacuolization, cytoplasmic eosinophilia and lymphocyte infiltrations, but with individual variability.Treatment of diabetic mice with propolis extracts results in decreased number of vacuolized cells and degree of vacuolization; propolis treatment improve the impairment of fatty acid metabolism in diabetes. Renal histology showed corpuscular, tubular and interstitial changes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Test components did not improve renal histopathology in diabetic mice. Conclusions Propolis preparations are able to attenuate diabetic hepatorenal damage, probably through its anti-oxidative action and

  19. Investigations on the role of insulin and scorpion antivenom in scorpion envenoming syndrome

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    K. Radha Krishna Murthy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute myocardiopathy in alloxan treated experimental dogs and rabbits was induced by subcutaneous (SQ injection of scorpion venom from Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis, Pocock. Envenoming resulted in an initial transient hypertension (180-320 mm Hg. followed by hypotension. Simultaneous administration of venom and species-specific scorpion antivenom (SAV prevented hypertension and hypotension. Hypotension did not occur when SAV was given 60 min after envenoming. Blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, amylase, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, platelet count, red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin (Hb, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG, and glutathione levels were increased 60 and 90 min after envenoming. Total white blood cell (WBC count was reduced 60 min and increased 90 min after envenoming. Simultaneous administration of venom and SAV did not alter Hb, MCHC, and packed cell volume (PCV levels, or ECG, and cardiovascular, biochemical, metabolic, and hormonal changes. Hematological parameters were reversed when SAV was given 30 and 60 min after envenoming. PCV, Hb, and MCHC values returned to normal 120 min after SAV. Alloxan-treated dogs showed increased blood glucose, cholesterol, glucagon, cortisol levels; reduced glycogen content of liver, cardiac and skeletal muscles; and reduced insulin levels and insulin/ glucagon ratio (I/G ratio. Envenoming in the alloxan pre-treated dogs further increased these levels and reduced tissue glycogen content, insulin levels, and I/G ratio. Administration of 4 U of insulin to alloxan pre-treated envenomed rabbits caused a biochemical and clinical improvement and increased glycogen content of all tissues in comparison with the values from those administered with SAV to alloxan pre-treated envenomed animals. SAV administration to envenomed alloxan pre-treated rabbits did not cause clinical or

  20. Evaluation of antidiabetic and related actions of some Indian medicinal plants in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju N Patil; Ravindra Y Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antidiabetic activity of chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark,Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinispora cordifolia stem, Ocimum sanctum areal parts and Jatropha curcus leaves. Methods: The chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark, Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinospora cordifolia stem, aerial part of Ocimum sanctum and Jatropha curcus leaves were evaluated at different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight.) for antidiabetic potentials in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The extracts were administered for two weeks in different groups whereas tolbutamide (80 mg/kg body weight) was used as reference standard throughout study. Results: The result of present study showed test compounds significantly decreases elevated level of serum glucose and also caused to reverse the cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL values when compared to untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions: Our finding indicates that different test extracts were able to ameliorate the derangements in lipid metabolism caused by diabetes mellitus in alloxan induced diabetic rats towards normal level.

  1. Antihyperglycemic, antistress and nootropic activity of roots of Rubia cordifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rupali A; Jagdale, Swati C; Kasture, Sanjay B

    2006-12-01

    Effect of alcoholic extract of roots of Rubia cordifolia was studied on elevated blood glucose level in alloxan treated animals. The extract reduced the blood sugar level raised by alloxan. Effect of alcoholic extract was also investigated on cold restraint induced stress and on scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Alcoholic extract enhanced brain gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) levels and decreased brain dopamine and plasma corticosterone levels. Acidity and ulcers caused due to cold restraint stress were inhibited by alcoholic extract. Animals treated with alcoholic extract spent more time in open arm in elevated plus maze model. It also antagonized scopolamine induced learning and memory impairment. Baclofen induced catatonia was potentiated by alcoholic extract.

  2. Effect of Xiaoke Granule(消渴冲剂)on Blood Sugar and Blood Rheological Property in Experimental Diabetic Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季晓梅; 刘根尚; 齐昉; 郑虎占; 佘靖; 龚慕辛; 孙军; 章红英

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the pharmacological effect of Xiaoke Granule (XKG, 消渴冲剂) on blood sugar and blood rheological property in the diabetic animals.Methods: Alloxan induced diabetic mice or rats were grouped randomly. The effects of XKG on blood sugar, appetite, capacity of drinking, glucose tolerance, blood lipid and blood rheological property were observed and compared among groups.Results:XKG showed a trend in reducing the appetite and capacity of drinking, increasing the body weight, and significantly inhibiting the increase of blood sugar coused by ectogenic glucose in mice, and could improve the blood lipid and blood rheological property in rats.Conclusion:XKG is effective in reducing serum total cholesterol, lowering the blood viscosity, improving the blood rheological property of alloxan induced diabetic animals. Therefore, it might effective in treating and preventing the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and the complications of blood stasis.

  3. Study to assess the role of bromocriptine in treatment of diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Anuj Kumar Pathak; Subodh Kumar; Manish Kumar; Harihar Dikshit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromocriptine is a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and a sympatholytic agent used very frequently in treatment of hyperprolactinemia, Parkinsonism and acromegaly. Its quick release formulation has been approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to diet and exercise. This study evaluated the antihyperglycemic effect of quick release bromocriptine in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: 24 albino rats were taken and divided into four groups of six rats in ea...

  4. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

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    Han Linna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Methods Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic β-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. Results After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p 0.05. Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05. Conclusion Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured β-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  5. Evaluation of the Antiradical Activity of Schisandra Chinensis Lignans Using Different Experimental Models

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    Karel Šmejkal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antiradical activity of Schisandra chinensis lignans was investigated using DPPH, ABTS+, Fenton reaction inhibition and tyrosine-nitration inhibition assays, as were the in vivo antidiabetic activities of selected lignans in an animal model of alloxan-induced diabetes. Different degrees of antiradical activity were found, depending upon the structural parameters of the tested compounds. Unfortunately, the compounds showed no antidiabetic activity in concentration range tested.

  6. Regulation of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration in white adipose tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Rider, Mark; Hue, Louis

    1985-01-01

    Injection of insulin to fed rats diminished the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in white adipose tissue. Incubation of epididymal fat-pads or adipocytes with insulin stimulated lactate release and sugar detritiation and also decreased fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration. Such a decrease was, however, not observed in fat-pads from starved or alloxan-diabetic rats. Incubation of adipocytes from fed rats with various concentrations of glucose or fructose led to a dose-dependent ri...

  7. Metforminium Decavanadate as a Potential Metallopharmaceutical Drug for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Treviño; Denisse Velázquez-Vázquez; Eduardo Sánchez-Lara; Alfonso Diaz-Fonseca; José Ángel Flores-Hernandez; Aarón Pérez-Benítez; Eduardo Brambila-Colombres; Enrique González-Vergara

    2016-01-01

    New potential drugs based on vanadium are being developed as possible treatments for diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. In this regard, our working group developed metforminium decavanadate (MetfDeca), a compound with hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. MetfDeca was evaluated in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, on male Wistar rats. Alloxan-induction was employed to produce DM1 model, while a hypercaloric-diet was employed to generate DM2 model. Two-month treatm...

  8. Microangiography - a sensitive method for studying experimental diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merikanto, J. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland)); Hietala, S.O. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Internal Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland)); Lithner, F. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Internal Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland)); Haegg, E. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Internal Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland)); Paeivaensalo, M. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Internal Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland))

    1993-07-01

    Microangiographic and conventional histopathologic investigations of the kidney were compared in 15 alloxan diabetic and 7 nondiabetic control rats. Contrary to the relatively sparse histologic lesions, microangiography disclosed advanced vascular abnormalities, including arteriolar aneurysms, which increased with the duration of diabetes. It is concluded that microangiography is a sensitive and suitable method for studying the development of microvascular lesions of the kidney in experiment diabetes. (orig.).

  9. Peripheral 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Restrepo; María Luisa Martín; Luis San Román; Asunción Morán

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT), a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at l...

  10. Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB) on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. The body weight of each ...

  11. β-Cell protective efficacy, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of extracts of Achillea millifolium in diabetic rats%β-Cell protective efficacy,hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of extracts of Achillea millifolium in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid G.Mustafa; Bashir A.Ganai; Seema Akbar; Mohamad Y.Dar; Akbar Masood

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the therapeutic uses of Achillea millifolium in diabetic rats.METHODS:Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared solution of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg·kg-1 body weight) in Wistar rats of 150-200 g body weight,In this study,the aqueous and methanolic extract ofAchillea millifolium was studied for its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties.The rats were divided into several groups,serving as Normal group,Diabetic Control group,Diabetic heated with glibenclamide,and extract treated groups.The blood serum collected from the various groups of rats was analysed for its various biochemical parameters like glucose,cholesterol,triglycerides,VLDL,SGOT,SGPT and ALP.On the 14th day of the experiment the rats were scarified and pancreas was collected for histopathological studies.RESULTS:The extracts at dose levels of 250and 500 mg·kg- 1 body weight showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in blood glucose level,TGL,VLDL,cholesterol,SGOT,SGPT,and ALP in diabetic rats.The extracts prevented the β-cells of pancreas from the cytotoxic effects of Alloxan monohydrate.CONCLUSION:The results indicate that the cxtracts as mentioned above are effective in hyperglycemia and caa effectively protect against other metabolic aberrations caused by alloxan monohydrate.

  12. Antidiabetic and antidiarrheal effects of the methanolic extract of Phyllanthus reticulatus leaves in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mst Hajera Khatun; Mst Luthfun Nesa; Rafikul Islam; Farhana Alam Ripa; Al mamum; Shahin Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the anti-diabetic and antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of Phyllanthus reticulates (P. reticulates) leaves in an animal model. Methods: Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of P. reticulatus leaves has been performed. Antidiabetic activity have been done by OGTT, normoglycemic hyperglycemia and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Plant extracts (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, b.w.) were administered orally in fasting glucose loaded mice with regard to normal control and in alloxan induced (110 mg/kg body weight i.p.) diabetic mice in comparison with reference drug Metformin hydrochloride (100 mg/kg) during 7 day test period. Antidiarrheal test was conducted by castor oil and magnesium sulfate. Results:Findings confirmed that the continuous post-treatment for 7 days with both extracts showed significant (P<0.05) hypoglycemic activity in OGTT, normoglycemic and alloxan induced mouse models. Castor oil and Magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal test of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) has given significant effect in compairing to control diarrheal group. Conclusion:Methanolic extract of P. reticulatus leaves have shown significant antidiabetic and antidiarrheal properties.

  13. Syringic acid, a novel natural phenolic acid, normalizes hyperglycemia with special reference to glycoprotein components in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayachandran Muthukumaran; Subramani Srinivasan; Vinayagam Ramachandran; Udaiyar Muruganathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic effect of syringic acid, a natural phenolic compound on the levels of glycoprotein components in plasma and tissues of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods:Diabetes was induced in maleWistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan(150 mg/kg b.w).Syringic acid(50 mg/kg b.w) was administered orally for30 d.The effects of syringic acid on plasma glucose, insulin,C-peptide, plasma and tissue glycoproteins were studied.Results:Oral administration of syringic acid(50 mg/kg b.w) for30 d positively modulates the glycemic status in alloxan induced diabetic rats.The levels of plasma glucose were decreased with significant increase of plasma insulin andC-peptide level.The altered levels of plasma and tissue glycoprotein components were restored to near normal.No significant changes were noticed in normal rats treated with syringic acid.Conclusions:The present findings suggest that syringic acid can potentially ameliorate glycoprotein components abnormalities in addition to its antidiabetic effect in experimental diabetes, further clinical studies are required to evaluate the use of syringic acid as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  14. ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF ALOE VERA IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Jyoti Sethi et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Aloe vera (AV in alloxan induced diabetes in albino rabbits. Experimental Diabetes was induced in rabbits with alloxan(80mg/Kg body weightand animals showing fasting blood glucose levels more than 250mg/dl were considered as diabetics and divided into four groups of six each (n=6. Group I: Normal control rabbits, Group II: Alloxan induced diabetic rabbits, Group III: Diabetic rabbits received AV gel extract (300 mg/Kg in aqueous solution for 21 days, Group IV: diabetic rabbits given glibenclamide (600ug/kg in aqueous solution. All the drugs were administered orally (using an intra gastric tube in a single dose in the morning for 21 days. Blood samples were collected from the marginal vein of pinna of overnight fasted rabbits (Blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, Malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total thiols (PSH and Superoxide dismutase (SOD. Oral administration of AV showed potent antihyperglycemic and anti-lipidperoxidative effect in diabetic animals. Simultaneously, the levels of protective antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH and PSH were significantly increased with AV supplementation. The results suggest potent antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of AV in experimental diabetes, and thus Aloe vera can be used as an alternative remedy for treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

  15. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract

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    Naik Suresh R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MCE, Momordica charantia fruit extract Linn. (Cucurbitaceae have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity on various occasions. However, due to lack of standardization of these extracts, their efficacy remains questionable. The present study was undertaken by selecting a well standardised MCE. This study reports hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities of MCE employing relevant animal models and in vitro methods. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a s.c., subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg in acetate buffer (pH 4.5. MCE and glibenclamide were administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg & 600 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg respectively for 30 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 30th days. On the 31st day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for various biochemical estimations including glycosylated haemoglobin, mean blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglcerides, protein and glycogen content of liver. The hemidiaphragms and livers were also isolated, carefully excised and placed immediately in ice cooled perfusion solution and processed to study the glucose uptake/transfer processes. Hypolipidemic activity in old obese rats was evaluated by treating two groups with MCE (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg orally for 30 days and determining total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-CH, LDL-CH and VLDL-CH levels from serum samples. Results Subchronic study of MCE in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by lowering blood glucose and GHb%, percent glycosylated haemoglobin. Pattern of glucose tolerance curve was also altered significantly. MCE treatment enhanced uptake of glucose by hemidiaphragm and inhibited glycogenolysis in liver slices in vitro. A significant reduction in the serum cholesterol and glyceride levels of obese rats following MCE treatment was also

  16. Pengaruh Hiperglikemia terhadap Gambaran Histopatologis Glomerulus Mencit (Mus musculus Linn yang Diinduksi Aloksan

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    Melati Setia Ningsih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHiperglikemia menjadi ancaman serius karena berdampak buruk terhadap keluaran klinis karena dapat menyebabkan gangguan fungsi imun serta lebih rentan terkena infeksi, perburukan sistem kardiovaskuler, trombosis, peningkatan inflamasi, disfungsi endotel dan kerusakan otak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh hiperglikemia terhadap gambaran histopatologis glomerulus ginjal pada mencit yang diinduksi aloksan. Ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental dengan rancangan posttest only with control group. Subjek penelitian adalah 12 mencit yang dibagi dalam dua kelompok: kontrol (K dan perlakuan (P. Kelompok perlakuan diinduksi menjadi hiperglikemia melalui pemberian aloksan intraperitoneal dengan dosis 150 mg/Kg BB. Pada hari ke-14 dilakukan terminasi. Diameter, keliling dan luas glomerulus pada kelompok perlakuan (P1 meningkat dibanding kelompok kontrol K (p< 0,05. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini adalah induksi hiperglikemia yang dilakukan lewat pemberian aloksan secara intraperitoneal dengan dosis 150 mg/kg BB selama 14 hari menyebabkan perubahan yang signifikan pada gambaran histopatologis glomerulus mencit.Kata kunci: hiperglikemia, glomerulus, gambaran histopatologisAbstractHyperglycemia become a serious health threat because have the bad impact to clinical output because immune functin disruption and more susceptible get infection, decay of cardiovascular systim, thrombosis, increase of inflamation, endotel disfunction dan decay of brain. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hyperglycemia on histopathological features of glomerulus of mice induced by alloxan. Twelve (12 male mice divided into two groups: control group (K and treated group (P. The treated groups received 150 mg/ kg BB doses of alloxan. After 14 days of induction, mice kidney were excised and fixed in Formalin solution. The tissues were processed by paraffin embedding to obtain histopathological sections and stained with haematoxylin

  17. INFLAMMATORY REACTIONS IN EXPERIMENTAL MYOCARDIAL DAMAGE

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    L. D. Khidirova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the role of hormonal and metabolic changes specific to myocardial infarction in the development of inflammatory reactions in the experimental non-coronarogenic myocardial damage. Material and methods. Wistar male rats weighing 180–220 g (n=80 were used in the study. Metabolic myocardial infarction in intact rats and rats with alloxan diabetes was induced by epinephrine injected subcutaneously as single dose or daily (7 days. Myocardial infarction was verified by ECG analysis, and by histological control. Nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT-test both spontaneous and zymosan induced NBT-test was used to determine the oxygen-dependent functional activity of neutrophils and their biocidal reserve. Determination of cationic proteins in neutrophils of peripheral blood was performed using lysosomal-cationic test. Results. Increase in oxygen-dependent neutrophil biocidal activity was found as well as reduction in biocidal reserves. Indicators of zymosan induced NBT-test raised according to aggravation of hormonal changes much slower: alloxan increased them by 10% only , epinephrine single dose — by 35%, long-term epinephrine administration simultaneously with alloxan — by 54%. At the same time oxygen-independent neutrophil activity determined by intra-neutrophil cationic proteins level was significantly reduced. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines raised according to progression of the changes in myocardium: tumor necrosis factor-α (from 5.5±0.03 to 12.6±1.23 pg/ml and interleukin-1β (from 6.0±0.18 to 11.1±0.78 pg/ml. Conclusion. Experimental model of hormonal changes specific to myocardial infarction detected a relationship between inflammatory reactions accompanying myocardial damage and increased catecholamine production.

  18. Sinusoidal Constriction and Vascular Hypertrophy in the Diabetes-Induced Rabbit Penis

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    Vivian Alves Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the morphological changes of penile vascular structures and the corpus cavernosum area in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Materials and Methods Twenty male rabbits (2 months old were divided into two groups with 10 rabbits each, the control group (CG and the diabetic group (DG. The animals from DG received an intravenous injection of alloxan (100mg/kg to induce the diabetes. Ten weeks after the induction of diabetes, all animals were euthanized. Two fragments of the penile shaft were harvested and samples were processed and paraffin embedded. Sections (5µm were cut and stained for histological and immunohistochemical markers. Results Nuclear protrusion toward the lumen, and cytoplasmic vacuolization were observed in the tunica intima of the dorsal artery of the penis in DG. The thicknesses of the tunica media increased significantly in DG (p = 0.0350. It was also observed a significant increase in the area of the tunica media (p = 0.0179. There was no significant change in smooth muscle cell density in the tunica media of the dorsal artery of the penis (p = 0.0855. The collagen fiber pattern of the tunica adventitia of the dorsal artery of the penis was different between the control and diabetic groups. There was a significant decrease in the area occupied by the cavernous sinuses in DG (p = 0.0013. Conclusion Alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits promotes important changes in penile vascular structures, thereby decreasing blood supply and affecting penile hemodynamics, leading to erectile dysfunction.

  19. PENGARUH FRAKSI NONPROTEIN KACANG KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH DAN MALONALDEHIDA TIKUS DIABETES [Effect of Nonprotein Fraction of Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet Diet on Glucose and Malonaldehyde Serum of Diabetic Rats

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    Erma Rohmawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic response to Lablab nonprotein fraction (NPK was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of Lablab nonprotein fraction diet on the blood glucose concentration and the lipid peroxide level of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Two months old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups, each group contained of 5 rats. Three groups were diabetic rats induced by alloxan injection (110 mg/kg of body weight by intra-pheritonial injection while one group was a control,normal rat. The experiment groups were (1 normal (group I, (2 diabetic (group II, (3 diabetic+cholesteol 0.5% (control group, group III, and (4 diabetic+cholesterol 0.5% + lablab NPK (group IV. The concentration of rat’s blood glucose were periodically measured during diet intervenion (day 0,14,27, and 42. The Lipid peroxide was evaluated as the concentration of malonaldehyde (MDA both in serum and liver of the rats by Thiobarbituric Acid Reactivity Test methode. The result demonstrated that after 42 days of intervention, the Lablab nonprotein diet decreased the blood glucose concentrations from 444.00 + 143.00 mg/dl to 310.50 +111.40 mg/dl (30%, while control group has decreased the blood glucose concentration from 458.00 +164.99 mg/dl to 455.33 + 81.95 mg/dl (0.6%. Lablab nonprotein diet significantly (P<0.05 reduced the concentration of blood glucose as compared to the control group. However, Lablab nonprotein fraction diet did not give a significant diferrence on the level of serum MDA and liver MDA as compared to the control group.

  20. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum

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    Vishal Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, α-amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. In bioactivity studies, MEPG and VAD have showed potent antidiabetic activity in α-amylase, aldose reductase, and PTP1B inhibition assays with IC50 values of 1.02, 2.050, 26.25 μg/mL and 0.284, 0.788, 12.41 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in alloxan-induced diabetes model MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o. have showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. Inline with the biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o., and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o. treated animals showed significant protection against alloxan-induced pancreatic tissue damage. These findings suggest that MEPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models.

  1. Oxidant-NO dependent gene regulation in dogs with type I diabetes: impact on cardiac function and metabolism

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    Ojaimi Caroline

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms responsible for the cardiovascular mortality in type I diabetes (DM have not been defined completely. We have shown in conscious dogs with DM that: 1 baseline coronary blood flow (CBF was significantly decreased, 2 endothelium-dependent (ACh coronary vasodilation was impaired, and 3 reflex cholinergic NO-dependent coronary vasodilation was selectively depressed. The most likely mechanism responsible for the depressed reflex cholinergic NO-dependent coronary vasodilation was the decreased bioactivity of NO from the vascular endothelium. The goal of this study was to investigate changes in cardiac gene expression in a canine model of alloxan-induced type 1 diabetes. Methods Mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented and the dogs were divided into two groups: one normal and the other diabetic. In the diabetic group, the dogs were injected with alloxan monohydrate (40-60 mg/kg iv over 1 min. The global changes in cardiac gene expression in dogs with alloxan-induced diabetes were studied using Affymetrix Canine Array. Cardiac RNA was extracted from the control and DM (n = 4. Results The array data revealed that 797 genes were differentially expressed (P 2+ cycling genes (ryanodine receptor; SERCA2 Calcium ATPase, structural proteins (actin alpha. Of particular interests are genes involved in glutathione metabolism (glutathione peroxidase 1, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase, which were markedly down regulated. Conclusion our findings suggest that type I diabetes might have a direct effect on the heart by impairing NO bioavailability through oxidative stress and perhaps lipid peroxidases.

  2. Effect of chromium enriched fermentation product of barley and brewer’s yeast and its combination with rosiglitazone on experimentally induced hyperglycaemia in mice

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    Cekić Vlada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the recent years, herbal preparations have been more used to treat diabetes. Dietetic supplement based on barley and beer yeast enriched with chromium (BBCr is registered in Serbia as a supplement in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Objective. To investigate the effect of the preparation based on barley and brewer’s yeast with chromium (BBCr, rosiglitazone (R and their combination (BBCr+R on fasting glycaemia and glycaemia in mice after glucose, adrenalin and alloxan application. Methods. The animals were divided into three groups: glucose 500 mg/kg (I; adrenalin 0.2 mg/kg (II; and alloxan 100 mg/kg (III and into subgroups according to the substance they received (BBCr: 750 mg/kg, R: 0.75 mg/kg and BBCr+R. Each animal was its own control in respect of glycaemia before and after the treatment with test substances, except for group III which contained a placebo subgroup. Results. BBCr caused a significant decrease of fasting glycaemia and significant reduction of glycaemia after glucose load compared to the values before treatment (7.4±0.6 mmol/l vs 9.2±0.6 mmol/l; p=0.01. R and BBCr+R significantly decreased glycaemia after adrenalin load (R: 8.6±1.8 mmol/l vs 15.4±3.2 mmol/l; p=0.004; BBCr+R: 9.6±2.4 mmol/l vs 15.0±4.4 mmol/l; p=0.04. After alloxan application the glycaemia was significantly lower in the subgroups treated with BBCr, R and BBCr+R compared to placebo subgroup (10.1±8.0 mmol/l vs 6.8±2.7 mmol/l vs 13.5±9.7 mmol/l vs 24.5±4.7 mmol/l; p=0.001. Conclusion. Pretreatment with BBCr caused a significant reduction of fasting glycaemia and glycaemia after glucose load. Rosiglitazone and BBCr+R caused a significant reduction of glycaemia after adrenalin load. Pretreatment with BBCr, R and BBCr+R prevented the onset of experimental diabetes caused by alloxan, which was confirmed by histological analysis of pancreas tissue.

  3. Effect of Low Dietary Zinc Intake and Experimental Diabetes on the Zinc and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kechrid, Zine

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of low dietary zinc intake and experimental diabetes (IDDM) on the zinc and carbohydrate metabolism, 8-week-old male wealing normal albino (Wistar) rats were fed diets containing either adequate (54mg/kg) or low zinc (1mg/kg) quantities for one week. Ten rats from each group (n=20) were then intraperitoneally injected with alloxan to induce diabetes. The rats were sacrificed after a further three weeks. Body weight gain and food intake were recorded regularly. On day...

  4. Ocimum basilicum extract exhibits antidiabetic effects via inhibition of hepatic glucose mobilization and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeani, Chinelo; Ezenyi, Ifeoma; Okoye, Theophine; Okoli, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Ocimum basilicum L (Lamiaceae) is used as a traditional remedy for different ailments, including diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of an extract of aerial parts of O. basilicum. Methods: Antihyperglycemic effect of the extract was determined by its effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, while antidiabetic properties were studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats treated for 28 days with extract and compared to those treated with oral metformin (150 mg/kg). The study and analysis was conducted between 2014 and 2015. Results: The treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg extract significantly (P glycogenolysis and/or stimulate glycogenesis. PMID:28163956

  5. Hypoglycemic activity of several seaweed extracts.

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    Lamela, M; Anca, J; Villar, R; Otero, J; Calleja, J M

    1989-11-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of several seaweed extracts on rabbits was studied. Ethanol extracts of Laminaria ochroleuca, Saccorhiza polyschides and Fucus vesiculosus were administered orally to normal animals and their effects on glycemia and triglyceridemia evaluated. Crude polysaccharides and protein solutions from Himanthalia elongata and Codium tomentosum were also assayed. Polysaccharides and proteins from H. elongata caused a significant reduction in blood glucose 8 h after intravenous administration. A case of 5 mg/kg of crude polysaccharide lowered glycemia about 18% in normal rabbits and by about 50% in alloxan-diabetic animals, while the protein solution lowered glycemia in diabetic rabbits by about 30%.

  6. Design and Synthesis of Pyrazole-3-one Derivatives as Hypoglycaemic Agents

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    Prasanna A. Datar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrazole-3-one compounds were designed on the basis of docking studies of previously reported antidiabetic pyrazole compounds. The amino acid residues found during docking studies were used as guidelines for the modification of aromatic substitutions on pyrazole-3-one structure. Depending on the docking score, the designed compounds were selectively prioritized for synthesis. The synthesized compounds were subjected to in vivo hypoglycemic activity using alloxan induced diabetic rats and metformin as a standard. Compound 4 having sulphonamide derivative was found to be the most potent compound among the series.

  7. Islet cytotoxicity of interleukin 1. Influence of culture conditions and islet donor characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup-Poulsen, T; Spinas, G A; Prowse, S J

    1987-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the macrophage product interleukin 1 (IL-1) is cytotoxic to isolated pancreatic islets and hypothesized that IL-1 is responsible for beta-cell destruction in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We studied whether the variation in IDDM preponderance with age......-1 acts directly on beta-cells. Increasing the glucose concentration (22 mM) in the culture medium, which is known to protect beta-cells against alloxan toxicity, reduced IL-1 toxicity. Five or 25% normal human serum as well as 5% normal rat serum, but not equivalent concentrations of human serum...

  8. Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats

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    Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. ), the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control ...

  9. Effect of the fractions of Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic wistar rats

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    Yerima Musa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: World Health Organization defines diabetes mellitus as “a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies, characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.Objective: The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycaemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats.Methodology: A single dose of alloxan (150 mg/kg IP and fructose (10% w/v ad libitum for 20 days. LD50 and phytochemical screening were conducted using Lorke’s method 1983 and Trease and Evans 1989 respectively.Results: The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be 3,800 mg/kg. The fractions of the extract lowered the elevated blood glucose significantly with the 1000 mg/kg dose at the 8th, 16th, and 24th hours. The 500 mg/kg dose also lowered the glucose level throughout the study but only significantly at the 1st, 16th, and 24th hours. The ethyl acetate fraction also lowered the elevated blood glucose with all the doses used. The 250 mg/kg dose did not show significant decrease in the blood sugar concentration.Conclusion: The fractions of the stem-bark extract of T. indica L. significantly lowered elevated blood glucose concentration (BGL in alloxan and fructose-induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats.

  10. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

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    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  11. Diabetes mellitus:An overview on its pharmacological aspects and reported medicinal plants having antidiabetic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Kumar R; Laloo D; Hemalatha S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease but is a group of metabolic disorders affecting a huge number of population in the world. It is mainly characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, resulting from defects in insulin secretion or insulin action. It is predicated that the number of diabetes person in the world could reach upto 366 million by the year 2030. Even though the cases of diabetes are increasing day by day, except insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs no other way of treatment has been successfully developed so far. Thus, the objective of the present review is to provide an insight over the pathophysiological and etiological aspects of diabetes mellitus along with the remedies available for this metabolic disorder. The review also contains brief idea about diabetes mellitus and the experimental screening model with their relevant mechanism and significance mainly used nowadays. Alloxan and streptozotocin are mainly used for evaluating the antidiabetic activity of a particular drug. This review contain list of medicinal plants which have been tested for their antidiabetic activity in the alloxan induced diabetic rat model. From the available data in the literature, it was found that plant having antidiabetic activity is mainly due to the presence of the secondary metabolite. Thus, the information provided in this review will help the researchers for the development of an alternative methods rather than insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, which will minimize the complication associated with the diabetes and related disorder.

  12. The hypoglycemic effect of a polysaccharide (GLP) from Gracilaria lemaneiformis and its degradation products in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xubiao; Yang, Lawei; Chen, Meizhen; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Shumeng; Ju, Yaoyao

    2015-08-01

    Gracilaria lemaneiformis is cultivated on a large scale in China for industrial production of agarose, a natural polysaccharide, which has been shown to have many beneficial bioactivities such as antitumor, antiviral antioxidant activities, etc. In the present study, the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of a polysaccharide extracted from Gracilaria lemaneiformis (GLP; Mw, 121.89 kDa) and its chemically degraded products (GLP1 and GLP2: Mw, 57.02 and 14.29 kDa, respectively) were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The intragastric administration of GLP, GLP1 and GLP2 for 21 days induced an obvious decrease (P < 0.05) in blood glucose levels in comparison with untreated diabetic mice. Furthermore, GLP, GLP1 and GLP2 caused evident increases (P < 0.05) in both ant i-oxidase (SOD and GSH-Px) activities and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver, pancreas and kidney of diabetic mice. Even though GLP, GLP1 and GLP2 did not show any significant difference in the structure and sulfation levels, GLP1 demonstrated more potent effects than GLP and GLP2 at the same dose. Histopathological examination of the pancreas and kidney revealed that the damaged tissues induced by alloxan were repaired to a certain degree after the treatments of GLP, GLP1 and GLP2.

  13. Anti-hepatotoxic and anti-oxidant defense potential of Tridax procumbens

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    Hemalatha Reddipalli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tridax procumbens is a widely occurring medicinal herb used by ethnomedical practitioners. With increased use of chemicals and alcohol besides growing incidence of viruses and autoimmune diseases, the incidence of liver injury is growing for which conventional drugs used for treatment are often inadequate. Various models are adopted in pharmological studies for inducing hepatitis/ liver injury similar to those observed in human viral hepatitis, diabetes and oxidative stress. D-galactosamine with lipopolysacchride (LPS, carbontetrachloride (CCl 4 and paracetamol intoxication, diabetes induced with alloxan are widely used on rodents for this purpose. In vitro studies on Tridax procumbens (TP revealed the anti-oxidant potential of the herb with chloroform fraction of the ethanolic extract showing maximum activity. It is also reported to possess anti-oxidant minerals such as iron, magnesium, copper and zinc. In vivo studies on rodents on the anti-oxidant potential of TP induced through LPS, CCl 4, alloxan and paracetamol intoxication induced hepatitis confirmed the results from in vitro studies as a potential anti-hepatotoxic herb.

  14. Toxicological evaluation of subchronic use of pioglitazone in mice

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    Said Said Elshama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pioglitazone (Actos is one of the most controversial recent oral antidiabetic drugs. It was originally authorized in the European Union in 2000, and approved as an oral monotherapy for overweight second type of diabetic patients in 2002. It belongs to the thiazolidinedione group which some of its members have been withdrawn from the market due to the hepatotoxicity or cardiotoxicity effects.This studyinvestigates sub-chronic use of pioglitazone induced toxicity in mice by the assessment of renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes, and some hematological indices with histological changes of liver, kidney, heart, and bladder. Materials and Methods: 120 albino mice were divided into four groups; 30 in each. The first group (control received water, second (diabetic group received alloxan only, while the third and the fourth groups received alloxan with 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of pioglitazone, respectively for 90 days. Results: Prolonged use of pioglitazone induced significant abnormalities of hepatic, renal, and cardiac biomarkers and some hematological indices associated with histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, heart, and bladder that increased based on administered dose. Conclusion: Subchronic use of pioglitazone leads to hepatic, renal, cardiac, hematological, and bladder affection depending on the applied dose.

  15. Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal effects on ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava(L.) Bat.leaves in Wister rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh; Mazumdar; Rashcda; Akter; Debashish; Talukder

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave(EEPGL) in Wisier rais to support its traditional uses.Methods:Oral glucose tolerance test model and alloxan induced diabetic test model were performed to evaluate antidiabetic activity of EEPGL at doses of 1.00.0.50 and 0.75 g/kg respectively.For antidiarrhoeal effects of EEPGL.castor oil-induced diarrhoea model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk model were also assessed at doses of750.500 and 250 mg/kg.respectively.Results:Administration of EEPGL at doses 1.00 and 0.50 g/kg significantly(P<0.05)decreased blood glucose levels in oral glucose tolerance test model as well as 0.75 g/kg dose in alloxan induced diabetic test model in Wister rats(P<0.001).Application of EEPGL at doses of 750 and 500 mg/kg showed antidiarrhoeal effect in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model(P<0.00 l and P<0.01,respectively),and 750 mg/kg(P<0.01),500 and 250 mg/kg(P<0.05)doses in barium sulphate milk model in aforesaid animals.Conclusions:These results exhibited the significant antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal activities of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave in Wister rats.

  16. Blocking 5-HT2 receptor restores cardiovascular disorders in type 1 experimental diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pedraza, José-Ángel; Ferreira-Santos, Pedro; Aparicio, Rubén; Montero, María-José; Morán, Asunción

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the serotonergic modulation, through selective 5-HT2 receptor blockade, restores cardiovascular disturbances in type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (150 mg/kg, s.c.) and maintained for 4 weeks. 5-HT2 receptor was blocked by sarpogrelate (30 mg/kg.day; 14 days; p.o.). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), glycaemia and body weight (BW) were monitored periodically. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and the heart, right kidney and thoracic aorta were removed; plasma samples were also obtained. Left ventricular hypertrophy index (LVH) and renal hypertrophy index (RH) were determined. Vascular function was studied in aorta rings; additionally, superoxide anion (O2•−) production (by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence) and lipid peroxidation (by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay) were measured. Neither alloxan nor sarpogrelate treatments altered HR, LVH or endothelium-independent relaxation. SBP, glycaemia, BW, RH, O2•− production and lipid peroxidation were significantly altered in diabetic animals compared with controls. Sarpogrelate treatment considerably decreased SBP, RH, O2•− production and lipid peroxidation. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was severely reduced in diabetic animal aortas compared to controls; sarpogrelate treatment markedly improved it. Our outcomes show that selectively blocking 5-HT2 receptors has beneficial effects on impaired cardiovascular parameters in diabetes. PMID:27659784

  17. Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by virgin argan oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahcen, Said; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hakkou, Abdelkader; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    The argan tree plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role in South Morocco. Moreover, there is much evidence for the beneficial effects of virgin argan oil (VAO) on human health. Thus, this study investigated whether administering VAO to rats can prevent the development of diabetes. VAO extracted by a traditional method from the almonds of Argania spinosa (2 mL/kg) was administered orally (for 7 consecutive days) to rats before and during intraperitoneal alloxan administration (75 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days). An alloxan diabetic-induced untreated group and treated by table oil were used as control groups. Body mass, blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were evaluated. In the present study, subchronic treatment with VAO at a dose of 2 mL/kg, before the experimental induction of diabetes, prevented the body mass loss, induced a significant reduction of blood glucose and a significant increase of hepatic glycogen level (p argan oil should be further investigated in a human study to clarify its possible role in reducing weight loss in diabetics, and even in inhibiting the development or progression of diabetes. This antidiabetic effect could be due to the richness of VAO in tocopherols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Nigerian propolis improves blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein levels in rat models of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladayo, Mustafa Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to our previous studies, propolis of Nigerian origin showed some evidence of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in addition to its ability to ameliorate oxidative-stress-induced organ dysfunction. This study was carried out to determine whether an ethanolic extract of Nigerian propolis (EENP) improves glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations in rats that have alloxan diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced with alloxan (110 mg/kg). Animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 5); Group 1 was non-diabetic receiving normal saline and Group 2 was diabetic but also received only normal saline. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were diabetic receiving 200 mg/kg propolis, 300 mg/kg propolis, and 150 mg/kg metformin, respectively, for 42 days. Results: Hyperglycemia, elevated serum level of VLDL, elevated plasma level of HbA1c, and decreased levels of HDL were observed in the diabetic untreated animals. Nigerian propolis decreased blood glucose level and serum level of VLDL but elevated HDL level. These changes were significant (P < 0.05). The levels of plasma HbA1c were also reduced in the propolis-treated groups, and the reduction was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Nigerian propolis contains compounds exhibiting hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and HbA1c reducing activities. PMID:27366348

  19. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis Mellifera Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

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    Seyyedeh Mahbubeh Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats.Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohy­drate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined.Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01. On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in com­parison with diabetic group (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in dia­betic rats.

  20. HEMATOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOBIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF GREEN TEA AND GINGER EXTRACTS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DIABETIC RABBITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkirdasy, Ahmed; Shousha, Saad; Alrohaimi, Abdulmohsen H; Arshad, M Faiz

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the extract of green tea and/or ginger on some hematological and immunobiochemical profiles in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The results revealed that treatment of diabetic animals with extract of green tea and/or ginger elevated the decreased HDL-c and LDL-c but significantly decreased triglycerides, the elevated glucose and GOT concentrations. The result also displayed a non-significant increase in the levels of CRP and fibrinogen. The experiment also revealed that the elevated MDA and GSH level fell down to the normal control group. The result also showed that after green tea and/or ginger extract treatment, the lowered RBC, WBC counts, PCV, percentage of neutrophils were increased and the elevated MCV, MCH, and MCHC of diabetic rabbits were decreased to normal levels. Thus, the overall results may indicate that green tea and/or ginger extracts have a significant hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rabbits. In addition, the extracts may be capable of improving hyperlipidemia, the impaired kidney function and hemogram in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  1. In vivo potential hypoglycemic and in vitro vasorelaxant effects of Cecropia glazioviistandardized extracts

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    Daniela Paula Arend

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Cecropia glaziovii Snethl, Urticaceae, extracts on the oral glucose tolerance curve, on glycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and vasorelaxant effect after the extraction process, and to standardize the extractive solutions. The effects of the process variables and their interactions were calculated in relation to dry residue, pH, total phenolic results and chemical marker content. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts (400 mg/kg, chlorogenic (2 or 15 mg/kg and caffeic acids (2 mg/kg were investigated on the oral glucose tolerance curve and on glycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of ethanol extracts 4d20 and 8d20 significantly improved glucose tolerance in the hyperglycemic rats. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids, as well as the association of the compounds were able to significantly reduce glycemia after oral gavage treatments. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts did not alter the glycemia. The aqueous extracts (8020 and 9030 and only the higher dose of chlorogenic acid presented a significant effect on serum glucose lowering in diabetic rats. Additionally, the IC50 reveals that the ethanol extracts presented more potent vasodilator effects than the aqueous extracts in aortic rings. This study shows that C. glazioviistandardized extracts exhibits antihyperglycemic action, is able to improve glucose tolerance and has a potent vascular relaxing effect. These results are probably linked to concentrations of the main phenolic compounds of the extracts.

  2. Antimicrobial and antihyperglycemic activities of Musa paradisiaca flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Jawla; Y Kumar; MSY Khan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the antimicrobial and antihyperglycemic activities of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) flowers. Methods: The EtOH and EtOH: water (1:1) extracts of M. paradisiaca flowers were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity against standard strains of Bacillussubtilis (K. pneumoniae), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa),Streptococcus pneumoniae (B. subtilis), Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae typhimurium (S. typhimurium) and Candida albicans (C. albicans), Cryptococcus albidus (C.albidus (S. pneumoniae), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Salmonella ) against amikacin and clotrimazole respectively. Both the extracts were also administered to normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured daily after oral administration of extracts at doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/(kg.d). Result: The EtOH and EtOH:water (1:1) extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 5.62-25.81 and 7.60-31.50 μg/mL respectively. Both the extracts reversed the permanent hyperglycemia within a week in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The EtOH extract (250 mg/kg) was found to be 7.69% more potent hypoglycemic effect than standard oral hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide 0.2 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Conclusion: The alcoholic extracts of M. paradisiaca flowers showed potent antihyperglycemic and moderate antimicrobial activities.

  3. Effect of Pueraria Flavonoid on Diabetes in Mice Complicated by Hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立红; 邢东明; 孙虹; 李敏; 金文; 杜力军

    2002-01-01

    A new model is presented for hyperglycemia in animals complicated by hyperlipidemia (HD) to study the action of pueraria flavonoids (PF). Kunming mice were treated with alloxan (150 -mg/kg) intraperitoneally and fed a high-fat diet. Glucose (Glu), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in the plasma were measured at week 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8. PF (600, 400, 200 -mg/kg) was given to the mice for 14 days beginning from week 1. The effects of PF on the lipase activity and the ability to produce cholesterol and glycogen in the cultured hepatic cells were also tested in vitro. In week 1, 2, 4, and 8 following the final alloxan injection, Glu increased by 763%, 504%, 526%, and 641%;TC increased by 269%, 409%, 449%, and 428%; and TG increased by 415%, 485%, 461%, and 418%. These increases in the model were significant compared with those in normal Kunming mice. PF acted effectively as hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic agents on the mice. The results suggest that the model may be suitable for studies of drugs on diabetes complicated by hyperlipidemia and that PF may be a useful drug for patients with diabetes complicated by hyperlipidemia.

  4. Hypoglycemic Activity of Jatrorrhizine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The hypoglycemic activity and its mechanism of Jatrorrhizine (Jat) were studied. The normal mice and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice were given with different doses of Jat. Blood glucose and liver glycogen levels were determined by spectrophotometry with glucose-oxidase and iodine reagents respectively. The levels of blood lactic acid (LC) and liver lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were measured to explore the effect of Jat on anaerobic glycolysis. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in liver was measured to evaluate the effect of Jat on aerobic glycolysis in liver. It was found that Jat (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) could significantly decrease blood glucose level in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both normal and alloxan-diabetic mice, increase the activity of SDH, but had no significant effects on the LC level and LDH activity. Jat could significantly reduce the content of liver glycogen in normal mice. Moreover, Jat could inhibit the platelet aggregation in rabbits in vitro in a dose-effect relationship. It was concluded that Jat induced the pronounced decrease in blood glucose in normal and hyperglycemic mice. The hypoglycemic activity of Jat may be attributed to the enhancement of aerobic glycolysis.

  5. Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Awanish; Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh Ishar, Mohan Paul

    2010-03-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil upon early stage diabetic nephropathy owing to its antioxidant and antidiabetic effect. Cinnamon oil was extracted by hydro-distillation of the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Further characterization of the extracted oil was carried out using IR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR techniques. Early stage of diabetic nephropathy was induced by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, I. P.). Cinnamon oil was administered at varying doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg; I. P.) while the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, urea, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and catalase were determined. These parameters in cinnamon oil treated groups were compared with those of standard (glipizide; 10 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups in order to investigate if cinnamon oil confers a significant protection against diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies of the kidney proved the protective effect of cinnamon oil by reducing the glomerular expansion, eradicating hyaline casts, and decreasing the tubular dilatations. Our results indicate that the volatile oil from cinnamon contains more than 98 % cinnamaldehyde and that it confers dose-dependent, significant protection against alloxan-induced renal damage, the maximum decrease in fasting blood glucose having been achieved at the dose of 20 mg/kg.

  6. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

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    Elisa Vega-Ávila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L. is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight. Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg significantly ( reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, . Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds.

  7. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Cano-Velasco, José Luis; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Fajardo Ortíz, María del Carmen; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg) and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds. PMID:23056144

  8. EFFECT OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE ON ATRIUM CONTRACTILITY IN CONTROL AND DIABETHIC MICE

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    A. S. Lifanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is endogenously synthesized gasotransmitter that has a regulatory effect in cardiovascular system. Diabetes mellitus leads to an increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, so the purpose of the study was to analyze the contractility of the atria mice after application of L-cysteine and H2S. Contractile activity of the myocardium was investigated in the experiment on isolated mouse atria. Alloxan was used for modeling diabetes. Intraperitoneal injection of alloxan resulted in a significant increase of glucose concentration in blood, whereas the concentration of glucose didn’t change at the injection of physiological solution. In control, the addition of NaHS resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease of the amplitude of contraction of the myocardium, whereas the negative inotropic effect of NaHS was significantly lower in terms of modeling diabetes compare to control conditions. In the control, L-cysteine reduced the amplitude contractions significantly, whereas L-cysteine did not lead to significant changes in the amplitude of contractions in terms of modeling diabetes. These data indicate that the sensitivity of mice’s atria reduced for H2S and L-cysteine in diabetes mellitus.

  9. Antigen-induced pleural eosinophilia is suppressed in diabetic rats: role of corticosteroid hormones

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    Bruno L Diaz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have evidenced for the existence of interactive regulatory mechanisms between insulin and steroid hormones in different systems. In this study, we have investigated whether endogenous corticosteroids could be implicated in the hyporeactivity to antigen challenge observed in sensitized diabetic rats. Alloxinated rats showed a long-lasting increase in the blood glucose levels and a reduction in the number of pleural mast cells at 48 and 72 hr, but not at 24 hr after alloxan administration. In parallel, they also showed a significant elevation in the plasma levels of corticosterone together with an increase in the adrenal/body weight ratio. Antigen-evoked eosinophil accumulation appeared significantly reduced in rats pretreated with dexamethasone as well as in those rendered diabetic 72 hr after alloxan. In the same way, naive animals treated with dexamethasone also responded with a significant decrease in the number of pleural mast cells. Interestingly, when sensitized diabetic rats were pretreated with the steroid antagonist RU 38486 a reversion of the reduction in the allergen-induced eosinophil accumulation was noted. We conclude that the down-regulation of the allergic inflammatory response in diabetic rats is close-related to reduction in mast cell numbers and over expression of endogenous corticosteroids.

  10. Anti-diabetic potential of chloroform extract of flowers of Calotropis gigantea: An in vitro and in vivo study

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    N K Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in vivo and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. It was also intended to establish correlation between the serum marker antioxidant enzymes and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate freshly prepared in a dose of 150 mg/kg. Chloroform extract showing presence of flavonoids was administered orally at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days. Fasting blood glucose level, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood glutathione, serum creatinine kinase, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels as well as final change in body weight were evaluated. In vitro inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase was also determined. Experimental findings showed moderately significant anti-diabetic potential of extract in terms of reduction of fasting glucose level in diabetic rats. The extract was found statistically significant in maintaining the level of serum marker antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the effect of chloroform extract particularly 200 mg/kg was moderate as compared to that of standard drug glibenclamide.

  11. Characterization and Antihyperglycemic Activity of a Polysaccharide from Dioscorea opposita Thunb Roots

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    Yijun Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A polysaccharide DOTP-80 from Dioscorea opposita Thunb was obtained by using the method of acid water-extraction and ethanol-precipitation. After being purified by chromatography, the structure characteristics of DOTP-80 were established. Based on the calibration curve obtained with standard dextrans, the molecular weight of the polysaccharide fraction DOTP-80 was calculated to be 123 kDa. The results of Infrared spectrum (FT-IR indicated that the polysaccharide contained the α-configuration of sugar units. GC-MS analysis revealed that DOTP-80 was mainly composed of mannose and glucose. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats and mice models were developed to evaluate the in vivo hypoglycemic activity of the polysaccharide. The results indicated that a high dose DOTP-80 (400 mg/kg had strong hypoglycemic activity. Moreover, DOTP-80 could increase the level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD activity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice and stimulate an increase in glucose disposal in diabetic rats. Therefore, the polysaccharide DOTP-80 should be evaluated as a candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.

  12. Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats

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    Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. , the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control group, the second group as alloxan induced diabetic rats, the third group was diabetic rats treated with mixture of folk medicinal plant ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. ,the fourth group: diabetic rats treated with Nigella sativa ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. , the fifth group: diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera ( 0.005g /100 g b. wt. , the sixth group: diabetic rats treated with Ferule assa-foetida ( 0.01 g /100 g b. wt., the seventh: diabetic rats treated with Boswellia carterii Birdw ( 1ml/100 g b. wt. and the eighth group: diabetic rats treated with Commiphora myrrha ( 0.01 g ml/100 g b. wt. Results :- Serum total lipid, serum total cholesterol, LDL­cholesterol, and triglyceride recorded significant increases in diabetic, Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii birdw and Aloe vera treated group. While the mixture and Ferule assa-foetida treated group, showed insignificant changes in serum total lipid, triglyceride, serum total cholesterol and LDL­cholesterol. On other hand, the mixture treated group and Ferule assa-foetida treated group showed significant decreased in the previous parameters. The serum HDL­cholesterol was significantly reduced in diabetic group throughout the experimental periods, otherwise, all treated group revealed insignificant changes till the end of experiment when compare with undiabetic rats. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of a mixture consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa

  13. In vivo hypoglycemic study of Manilkara zapota leave and seed extracts

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    Saikat Ranjan Paul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic activity of pet-ether extracts of leaves and methanol extracts of seeds of Manilkara zapota was evaluated in the study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in mice treated with 2 mg/kg glucose solution and the blood glucose level was determined after 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of administration. Alloxan (70 mg/kg was injected intravenously to induce diabetes in mice. The hypoglycemic study was carried out 7 days. In glucose tolerance test all extracts achieved significant p values (p<0.0001 at 60, 90 and 120 minutes compared to the glucose control. In hypoglycemic study all extracts started to reduce the blood glucose level rapidly even starting from the 2nd day of treatment and significant p values (p<0.0001 were achieved. So, the study evinced the hypoglycemic potency of the leave and seed extracts of M. zapota.

  14. [Studies on triterpenoids and their glycosides from Aralia dasyphylla Miq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Y H; Gu, J Q; Xiao, K; Wang, Z Z; Lin, H W

    1997-10-01

    The structures of two triterpenoids and their glycosides were isolated from Aralia dasyphylla Miq. Their structures have been identified to be oleanoic acid(I), 16 beta-hydroxy-18 beta-H-oleanoic acid(II), oleanoic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(III) and 16 beta-hydroxy-18 beta-H-oleanoic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(IV), respectively, mainly through interpretation of UV, IR, MS, 1H and 13CNMR, DEPT, HMQC and HMBC spectra data. The stereochemistry of II has been confirmed by NOESY. Pharmacological experiments showed that the total saponins exerted preventative effect on CCl4-induced liver injury of male mice and hypoglycemic effect on a model of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

  15. IDDM: an islet or an immune disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitard, C; Larger, E; Timsit, J; Sempe, P; Bach, J F

    1994-09-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes develops as a consequence of the selective destruction of insulin-producing cells by an autoimmune reaction. However, the precise series of events which trigger anti-islet autoreactive T cells is still being investigated. Major issues will need to be raised before a comprehensive view of the anti-islet autoimmune reaction can be delineated. These include defining the primary site of activation of autoreactive lymphocytes and exploring hypotheses to explain the chronicity of the diabetes process. These issues all relate with the more general dilemma of the actual role of the islets of Langerhans in breaking self tolerance to beta-cell antigens. By studying non-obese diabetic mice deprived of beta cells following a single injection of a high dose of alloxan at 3 weeks of age, we recently obtained evidence that the activation of autoreactive T cells requires the presence of target islet cells in order to develop.

  16. 无花果多糖提取工艺及其功能研究%Optimization of polysaccharide extraction process from Ficus carica and its function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文斌

    2016-01-01

    Obj ective]To optimize the technology of polysaccharides extration from Ficus carica,and study its health to alloxan-induced diabetic rats function.[Method]Extracting process of polysaccharides from Ficus carica were optimized by response surface methodology and enzymolysis,and investigating the effects of polysaccharides on glucose and lipidemia and acute toxicity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.[Re-sult]The optimal extraction conditions were hydrolysis temperature of 50.36 ℃,hydrolysis concentration of 0.06 g ,extraction pH of 4.73 and extracting three times.Under the conditions,the predicted and proved value of polysaccharides extracted were 34.47%and 34.13%,respectively.If polysaccharides were contin-uously intragastric administration for 28 days ,the polysaccharides could significantly reduce blood glucose adrenaline induced hyperglycemia in normal rats and could decrease the levels of FBG ,HbAlc,TC and TG in serum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats,and increase the concentrations of HDL significantly.[Conclu-sion]The optimal process parameters for extracting polysaccharides from Ficus carica was obtained ,and the polysaccharides could significantly decrease the blood glucose and improve the disorder of lipid metabo-lism in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.%【目的】优化无花果多糖提取工艺,研究其生物功能.【方法】采用响应面与酶法联用优化无花果(Ficus carica)多糖的提取工艺,测定无花果多糖对糖尿病诱导大鼠血脂代谢指标的影响.【结果】无花果多糖提取最佳优化条件为酶解温度50.36℃,酶用量0.06 g和pH 4.73.该条件下无花果多糖提取预测值为34.47%,验证值为34.13%.用无花果多糖连续给大鼠灌胃给药28 d,发现无花果多糖能显著降低正常大鼠血糖(P<0.05),极显著降低肾上腺素引起的高血糖(P<0.01),有效降低糖尿病大鼠的 FBG、HbAlc、TC、TG,升高 HDL含量.【结论】

  17. Enhancement of insulin release from the beta-cell line INS-1 by an ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata and its major constituent roseoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankish, Neil; de Sousa Menezes, Fábio; Mills, Clive; Sheridan, Helen

    2010-07-01

    Plants of the genus Bauhinia are used in several countries worldwide for the treatment of diabetes, and several related species have been shown to have hypoglycaemic effects in vivo in both normoglycaemic and alloxan- and streptozotocin-treated animal models. In this study, the insulin-secreting cell line INS-1 was used to examine the effects of the crude ethanolic extract of leaves of B. variegata L. var. Candida Voidt and its major metabolite (6 S,7 E,9 R)-9-hydroxymegastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9- beta-glycopyraroside (roseoside) on insulinotropic activity. The crude extracts and the major metabolite were shown to increase insulin secretion in a dose-dependant manner.

  18. In vitro callus and in vivo leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre stimulate β-cells regeneration and anti-diabetic activity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A Bakrudeen Ali; Rao, A S; Rao, M V

    2010-11-01

    A methanol extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf and callus showed anti-diabetic activities through regenerating β-cells. Optimum callus was developed under stress conditions of blue light with 2,4-D (1.5 mg/l) and KN (0.5 mg/l), which induced maximum biomass of green compact callus at 45 days, as determined by growth curve analysis. Leaf and optimum callus extracts contains gymnemic acid, which was analyzed using TLC, HPTLC and HPLC methods. The research reported here deals with leaf and callus extracts of G. sylvestre, which significantly increase the weight of the whole body, liver, pancreas and liver glycogen content in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Wistar rats). The gymnemic acid of leaf and callus extracts significantly increases the regeneration of β-cells in treated rats, when compared with the standard diabetic rats. It could have potential as a pharmaceutical drug for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).

  19. Spray-dried extracts from Syzygium cumini seeds: physicochemical and biological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula G. Peixoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract from seeds of Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae, obtained by dynamic maceration was spray-dried and characterized by its physico-chemical and antihyperglycaemic action. The extract showed to possess high amount of polyphenols, significant in vitro free radical scavenger activity using the DPPH method and an antihyperglycaemic effect in alloxan-induced experimental diabetes. S. cumini spray-dried extracts were obtained using silicon dioxide and cassava starch as adjuvants. The powders showed acceptable flowability, compactability, and low hygroscopicity at 43% relative humidity. Besides, the spray-dried extracts showed in vivo antihyperglycaemic and in vitro scavenger activity comparable to the lyophilized extract. Thus, experimental data indicates that the extract from S. cumini has a relevant activity and that spray-drying could be adequately used to perform the technological processing of S. cumini fluid extracts.

  20. Spray-dried extracts from Syzygium cumini seeds: physicochemical and biological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula G. Peixoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract from seeds of Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae, obtained by dynamic maceration was spray-dried and characterized by its physico-chemical and antihyperglycaemic action. The extract showed to possess high amount of polyphenols, significant in vitro free radical scavenger activity using the DPPH method and an antihyperglycaemic effect in alloxan-induced experimental diabetes. S. cumini spray-dried extracts were obtained using silicon dioxide and cassava starch as adjuvants. The powders showed acceptable flowability, compactability, and low hygroscopicity at 43% relative humidity. Besides, the spray-dried extracts showed in vivo antihyperglycaemic and in vitro scavenger activity comparable to the lyophilized extract. Thus, experimental data indicates that the extract from S. cumini has a relevant activity and that spray-drying could be adequately used to perform the technological processing of S. cumini fluid extracts.

  1. Antidiabetic potential of Conocarpus lancifolius

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    Malik Saadullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of Conocarpus lancifolius extract was investigated in vitro, as alpha glucosidase inhibition and in vivo as alloxan induced diabetic rabbits with other biochemical parameters (LDL, HDL, SGPT, SGOT, cretinine, urea and triglyceride. Alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity was performed by using acorbose as standred. Methanolic extract show alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity. The dose of 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (p<0.05 decreases the blood glucose level, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL in treated rabbits as compared to diabetic rabbits. This dose significantly increased the level of HDL in treated group. The activity of SGOT and SGPT also significantly (p<0.05 decreased in treated diabetic rabbits. Phytochemical studies show the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins and terpenoids. The antidiabetic potential is may be due to its saponin contents.

  2. Altered magnesium transport in slices of kidney cortex from chemically-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, B.

    1981-10-01

    The uptake of magnesium-28 was measured in slices of kidney cortex from rats with alloxan-diabetes and from rats with streptozotocin-diabetes of increasing durations. In both forms of chemically-induced diabetes, magnesium-28 uptake by kidney cortex slices was significantly increased over uptake measured in kidney cortex slices from control rats. Immediate institution of daily insulin therapy to the diabetic rats prevented the diabetes-induced elevated uptake of magnesium without controlling blood glucose levels. Late institution of daily insulin therapy was ineffective in restoring the magnesium uptake to control values. These alterations in magnesium uptake occurred prior to any evidence of nephropathy (via the classic indices of proteinuria and increased BUN levels). The implications of these findings, together with our earlier demonstrations of altered calcium transport by kidney cortex slices from chemically-induced diabetic rats, are discussed in terms of disordered divalent cation transport being at least part of the basic pathogenesis underlying diabetic nephropathy.

  3. Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-methacrylic acid) hydrogel microparticles for oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C; Rangaswamy, Vidhya; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M

    2011-01-01

    pH-sensitive copolymeric hydrogels prepared from N-vinylcaprolactam and methacrylic acid monomers by free radical polymerization offered 52% encapsulation efficiency and evaluated for oral delivery of human insulin. The in vitro experiments performed on insulin-loaded microparticles in pH 1.2 media (stomach condition) demonstrated no release of insulin in the first 2 h, but almost 100% insulin was released in pH 7.4 media (intestinal condition) in 6 h. The carrier was characterized by Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to confirm the formation of copolymer, while scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the morphology of hydrogel microparticles. The in vivo experiments on alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed the biological inhibition up to 50% and glucose tolerance tests exhibited 44% inhibition. The formulations of this study are the promising carriers for oral delivery of insulin.

  4. Synergistic Potentials of Coffee on Injured Pancreatic Islets and Insulin Action via KATP Channel Blocking in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Youn Hee; Hong, Bin Na; Rodriguez, Isabel; Ji, Min Gun; Kim, Keonwoo; Kim, Ung-Jin; Kang, Tong Ho

    2015-06-17

    Pancreatic islets (PIs) are damaged under diabetic conditions, resulting in decreased PI size. This study examined the regenerative effects of coffee and its components (caffeine, CFI; trigonelline, TRG; chlorogenic acid, CGA) on zebrafish larval PIs and β-cells damaged by administration of alloxan (AX). In addition, the influence of coffee and its active components on KATP channels was investigated using diazoxide (DZ) as a KATP channel activator. PI size and fluorescence intensity were significantly increased in the coffee-treated group relative to the no-treatment group (P coffee exerted significant regenerative effects on pancreatic β-cells (p = 0.006). Treatment with TRG and CGA rescued PI damage, and the combination of TRG/CGA had a synergistic effect. In conclusion, the results indicate that coffee has beneficial effects on AX-damaged PIs and may also be useful as a blocker of pancreatic β-cell K(+) channels.

  5. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

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    Ega Purnamasari R.D

    2014-09-01

    glucose levels of alloxan induced diabetic rats. This study is an experimental study with a post-test only control group design. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: negative control (KN, positive control (KP, treatment 1 (P1, treatment 2 (P2. Alloxan 150 mg/kg body weight induced in KP and P2 groups, aspartame 315 mg/kg body weight administered on P1 and P2 groups for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured after 4 weeks using a spectrophotometer. The results of this study, the mean fasting blood glucose levels KN group (88.39 mg/dL, KP (134.11 mg/dL, P1 (93.95 mg/dL, and P2 (66.66 mg/dL. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test, p-value=0.000 ( p<0.05 , there are differences in fasting blood glucose levels were significant in all groups. The conclusions of this study is the provision of aspartame in alloxan induced diabetic rats can cause a decrease in blood glucose levels significantly.Keywords: aspartame, blood glucose levels, diabetes mellitus, alloxan

  6. Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several C-geranyl-substituted flavanones from Paulownia tomentosa fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, Ales; Hosek, Jan; Treml, Jakub; Muselík, Jan; Suchý, Pavel; Prazanová, Gabriela; Lopes, Ana; Zemlicka, Milan

    2010-08-31

    Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several flavanones isolated from Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. (Scrophulariaceae) have been evaluated using different in vitro and in vivo methods. The capacity of flavanones to scavenge radicals was measured in vitro by means of DPPH and ABTS assays, the inhibition of hydroxyl radicals produced in Fenton reactions, FRAP, scavenging superoxide radicals using enzymatic and nonenzymatic assays and the inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced nitration of tyrosine. The in vivo testing involved measuring the cytoprotective effect of chosen flavanones against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice. The activity of tested compounds was expressed either as a Trolox® equivalent or was compared with rutin or morine as known antioxidant compounds. The highest activity in most tests was observed for diplacone and 3´-O-methyl-5´-hydroxydiplacone, and the structure vs. the antioxidant activity relationship of geranyl or prenyl-substituted flavonoids with different substitutions at the B and C ring was discussed.

  7. Biofunctional properties of Eruca sativa Miller (rocket salad) hydroalcoholic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdur; Akber, Noor Ul; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Eruca sativa Miller is a worldwide common alimentary plant (rocket leaves). The aim of this study was to correlate the potential in vitro scavenging activity of the E. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) with its in vivo hypoglycaemic effect. In DDPH free radical (DFR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, HAE in a concentration dependent manner (25-100 μg/mL) displayed a strong scavenging activity with maximum effect of 88% and 75% at 100 μg/mL, respectively. Daily administration of HAE (50 mg/kg; p.o.) in the in vivo model of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits for 28 days showed significant reduction in glycaemia, also supported by recovery of body weight. In conclusion, our results give preliminary information on the potential use of this plant as a nutraceutical, useful to control and/or prevent a hyperglycaemic status.

  8. Different organization of base excision repair of uracil in DNA in nuclei and mitochondria and selective upregulation of mitochondrial uracil-DNA glycosylase after oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, M; Otterlei, M; Pena Diaz, Javier;

    2007-01-01

    , these proteins also remove the oxidized cytosine derivatives isodialuric acid, alloxan and 5-hydroxyuracil. UNG1 and UNG2 have identical catalytic domain, but different N-terminal regions required for subcellular sorting. We demonstrate that mRNA for UNG1, but not UNG2, is increased after hydrogen peroxide......, indicating regulatory effects of oxidative stress on mitochondrial BER. To examine the overall organization of uracil-BER in nuclei and mitochondria, we constructed cell lines expressing EYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein) fused to UNG1 or UNG2. These were used to investigate the possible presence...... BER processes are differently organized. Furthermore, the upregulation of mRNA for mitochondrial UNG1 after oxidative stress indicates that it may have an important role in repair of oxidized pyrimidines....

  9. Ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis Sims leaves inhibits protein glycation and restores the oxidative burst in diabetic rat macrophages after Candida albicans exposure

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    Carolina Fernandes Ribas Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis leaves on blood glucose, protein glycation, NADPH oxidase activity and macrophage phagocytic capacity after Candida albicans exposure in diabetic rats. The Passiflora edulis Sims leaves were dried to 40°C, powdered, extracted by maceration in 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and lyophilised. The biochemical tests performed were total phenolic content (TP as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, trapping potential DPPH assay and total iron-reducing potential. Diabetes was induced by alloxan injection. Protein glycation was determined by AGE and fructosamine serum concentrations. Extract-treated diabetic animals demonstrated lower fructosamine concentrations compared with the diabetic group. Our results suggest that ethanolic Passiflora edulis Sims leaf extraction may have beneficial effects on diabetes and may improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats.

  10. Ketogenesis evaluation in perfused liver of diabetic rats submitted to short-term insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Helenton Cristhian; Gazola, Vilma Aparecida Ferreira Godoi; Furlan, Maria Montserrat Diaz Pedrosa; Garcia, Rosângela Fernandes; de Souza, Helenir Medri; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2009-08-01

    Ketogenesis, inferred by the production of acetoacetate plus ss-hydroxybutyrate, in isolated perfused livers from 24-h fasted diabetic rats submitted to short-term insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) was investigated. For this purpose, alloxan-diabetic rats that received intraperitoneal regular insulin (IIH group) or saline (COG group) injection were compared. An additional group of diabetic rats which received oral glucose (gavage) (100 mg kg(-1)) 15 min after insulin administration (IIH + glucose group) was included. The studies were performed 30 min after insulin (1.0 U kg(-1)) or saline injection. The ketogenesis before octanoate infusion was diminished (p ketogenesis, livers from diabetic rats submitted to short-term IIH which received insulin or insulin plus glucose showed maintained capacity to produce acetoacetate and ss-hydroxybutyrate from octanoate.

  11. Antihyperglycemic activity of the ethanolic seed extract of Vernonia anthelminticum willd

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    Karthikeyan A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out to study the effects of Vernonia anthelminticum Willd seed extract on blood glucose level. The antihyperglycemic efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the seed was evaluated in normal, glucose and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The extract exhibited significant hypoglycemic activity in all three animal models when compared with the control group. The activity was also comparable to that of the effect produced by a standard antidiabetic agent gliclazide, 25 mg/kg (p.o.. The results also indicated dose dependent effect. The hypoglycemia and antihyperglycaemia produced by the extract may be due to increased uptake of glucose at tissue level or increase in pancreatic beta-cell function or due to inhibition of intestinal absorption of glucose. The study indicated that the ethanolic extract is a potential antidiabetic agent and lends scientific support for its else′s in folk medicine.

  12. Genetic and Pharmacologic Models for Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Edward H; Schile, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by a partial or total insufficiency of insulin. The premiere animal model of autoimmune T cell-mediated T1D is the NOD mouse. A dominant negative mutation in the mouse insulin 2 gene (Ins2(Akita) ) produces a severe insulin deficiency syndrome without autoimmune involvement, as do a variety of transgenes overexpressed in beta cells. Pharmacologically-induced T1D (without autoimmunity) elicted by alloxan or streptozotocin at high doses can generate hyperglycemia in almost any strain of mouse by direct toxicity. Multiple low doses of streptozotocin combine direct beta cell toxicity with local inflammation to elicit T1D in a male sex-specific fashion. A summary of protocols relevant to the management of these different mouse models will be covered in this overview.

  13. Relative hypoglycemia of rectal insulin suppositories containing deoxycholic acid, sodium taurocholate, polycarbophil, and their combinations in diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, E A

    1999-06-01

    In this study, insulin suppositories containing 50 U insulin incorporated with 50 mg of deoxycholic acid, sodium taurocholate, or both were placed in the rectum of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rabbits. A large decrease in plasma glucose concentrations was observed, and the relative hypoglycemias were calculated to be 38.0%, 34.9%, and 44.4%, respectively, compared with insulin subcutaneous (s.c.) injection (40 U). Insulin suppositories containing 50 mg polycarbophil alone or mixed with 50 mg deoxycholic acid produced relative hypoglycemia of 43.1% and 42.2%, respectively. The most pronounced effect was observed with the addition of polycarbophil to the suppository formulation containing a combination of deoxycholic acid and sodium taurocholate, which produced a 56% relative hypoglycemia compared with subcutaneous injection. These suppository formulations could be very promising alternatives to the current insulin injections, being roughly half as efficacious as subcutaneous injection.

  14. Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Ficus Glumosa on Fasting blood Glucose and Serum Lipid Profile in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Z U; Moh'd, A; Tanko, Y

    2013-06-30

    Ficus glumosa, commonly known as the fig tree or "African rock fig" is a plant with immense medicinal value used for the management of diabetes for over 2000 years. The aim of the present study is to determine the hypoglycemic and anti-lipidemic properties of the ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty (30) adult male Wister rats weighing (120 - 220) grams of about 18 to 22 weeks of age were used in the study. The animals were assigned into six groups (1-6) of five rats (n=5) each. Group VI served as the positive control group receiving 0.9% normal saline (5ml/kg) alone via intra-peritoneal route (i.p.), Groups I (negative control), II, III, IV and V were treated with alloxan and after the induction of hyperglycaemia, received in addition via i.p. for 7 days: 0.9% normal saline (5ml/kg) alone, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa respectively while Group V received 6lU/kg of short-acting insulin. The determinations of blood glucose levels were carried out at intervals of one day for 7 days. Serum lipid profile, were done on the 7th day.Premininary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids,saponin,tannins,cardiac glycosides,triterpenes,ceramides and reducing sugars.The LD50 of the extract of Ficus glumosa was found to be 2,154mg/kg.The results of the study showed that,100mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa significantly lowered blood glucose levels and 200mg/kg significantly lowered serum lipid profile compared with negative control group.In conclusion, the results of the study showed that Ficus glumosa possesses anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-lipidemic effect.

  15. Hypoglycemic Effects of Three Medicinal Plants in Experimental Diabetes: Inhibition of Rat Intestinal α-glucosidase and Enhanced Pancreatic Insulin and Cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Leila; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Fehresti Sani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae), Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) are believed to have hypoglycemic properties and have been used traditionally as antidiabetic herbal medicines in Iran. In this study, diabetes was induced by subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg kg(-1)) to male Wistar rats. Antidiabetic effects of methanolic extracts of the above mentioned three plants on alloxan-diabetic rats was investigated in comparison with the effects of antidiabetic drugs such as acarbose, glibenclamide and metformin by measuring postprandial blood glucose (PBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), inhibition of rat intestinal α-glucosidase enzymes activities and pancreatic Insulin and cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs expression. In short term period, hypoglycemic effects of A. sativum and A. ascalonicum showed significant reduction of PBG similar to glibenclamide (5 mg kg(-1) bw) while S. officinalis significantly reduced PBG similar to acarbose (20 mg kg(-1) bw). After 3 weeks of treatment by methanolic plant extracts, significant chronic decrease in the PBG was observed similar to metformin (100 mg kg(-1) bw). For OGTT, S. officinalis reduced PBG in a similar way as acarbose (20 mg kg(-1) bw). Intestinal sucrase and maltase activities were inhibited significantly by A. sativum, A. ascalonicum and S. officinalis. In addition, we observed increased expression of Insulin and Glut-4 genes in diabetic rats treated with these plants extracts. Up regulation of Insulin and Glut-4 genes expression and inhibition of α-glucosidaseactivities are the two mechanisms that play a considerable role in hypoglycemic action of garlic, shallot and sage.

  16. Scanning electron microscopic observation on experimental osteoporosis in diabetes mellitus rats%实验性糖尿病骨质疏松的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢华; 康健; 羊惠君

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the bone architectural changes on osteoporosis in diabete mellitus rats induced by alloxan.Methods:Wister rats were injected with alloxan(mesoxalyl urea) into coccygeal veins to set up animal models with diabetes mellitus.After four and eight months respectively,tibiae of the rat were observed with scanning electron microscope.Results:Cortical bones of tibia in rats with diabetes became thin,there was bone resorption area like honeycomb on the surface.Trabecular bone of the tibia were manifested with fewness,fragility and disconnection.The cavities of bone marrow enlarged.Conclusion:Diabetes mellitus can cause destruction of bone three-dimensional structure and osteoporosis,followed with a decline in the mechanical strength and fracture.%目的:研究糖尿病性骨质疏松的骨结构改变。方法:用四氧嘧啶注入Wister大鼠尾静脉的方法,制成糖尿病动物模型。分别取成模后4和6个月的大鼠胫骨,在扫描电镜下观察骨结构的改变。结果:糖尿病大鼠的胫骨的骨密质变薄,表面有峰窝状的骨质吸收。骨小梁数量明显减少,骨质松脆、断裂,骨髓腔扩大。结论:糖尿病可引起骨的三维结构破坏和骨质疏松,随之造成骨的强度下降及骨折。

  17. INVESTIGATION ON THE HYPOGLYCEMIANT EFFECT OF SOME VEGETAL EXTRACTS IN EXPERIMENTAL INTOXICATIONS AT CD-1 MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bucă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using plants in treating some diseases has become a tradition, ‘the nature’s pharmacy’ being an important source of therapy. At present, the medicinal plants properties are being re-assessed due to progress made in chemical, pharmaceutical and clinical research of plants and due to forms obtained from vegetal products, but especially due to the advantages they offer. In the context of more frequent use of natural products with pharmaceutical and therapeutical aims, both at a national and at an international level, our research hints at highlighting and giving details about a series of effects produced by vegetal extracts of Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum on certain physiological, biochemical and histopathological processes at CD1 mice. In this study, 2 hydro-alcoholic extracts obtained from 2 species of medicinal plants (Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum, were tested in order to analyse the hypoglycemiant activity. The data accumulated in the specialty literature reveal that the phytotherapeutic use of extracts of Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum is based only on the major pharmacologic effect while the intimate action mechanism of the two vegetal products, al cellular and subcellular level, is not known. Starting from these premises, we considered useful the initiation of a comparative study regarding the antidiabetic influence of fluid extracts of Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum upon mice experimentally intoxicated with alloxan monohydrate solution. CDI mice were used as an experimental model in order to induce diabetes: alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneal with concentration of 130 mg/kg body (Ahmed Saber Abu – zaiton, 2013, dissolved in physiological serum, during two weeks, at an interval of 3 days. Both extracts acted positively by lowering blood sugar and by returning to normal body weight in diabetic mice. Aronia extract has a pronounced effect compared to milk thistle extract for both

  18. Peperomia pellucida in diets modulates hyperglyceamia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabiat U Hamzah; Adebimpe A Odetola; Ochuko L Erukainure; Ademola A Oyagbemi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Peperomia pellucida (P. pellucida) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Beside mouse chow, two diets were designed to contain 10%w/w and 20%w/w P. pellucida as supplements respectively. Diabetes was induced in groups of five male albino rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Two groups of diabetic rats and normo rats were each fed one of these diets respectively, while two other groups served as positive and negative controls respectively. A seventh group was fed pelletized mouse chow. Results: Diabetic rats on diets supplemented with 10%w/w and 20%w/w of P. pellucida for 28 d resulted in reduction of blood glucose level. The level of total serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the supplementation diets compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Also treatment with glibenclamide and P. pellucida (10% and 20%w/w) led to increased activities of SOD, CAT and GSH respectively. There was significant (P<0.05) reduction in the level of HDL-cholesterol, Catalase, SOD activities and GSH concentration in diabetic untreated rats. The supplemented diets significantly (P<0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation, which was elevated in untreated diabetic rats. Significant decrease (P<0.05) in the activities of AST, ALT and ALP was also observed in rats fed P. pellucida supplemented diets. Conclusions: The results from this study indicate that P. pellucida has an antidiabetic and antioxidant properties in experimental diabetes mellitus and thus justifies the acclaimed traditional antidiabetic use.

  19. Prokinetic effects of a ghrelin receptor agonist GHRP-6 in diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zheng; Wen-Cai Qiu; Jun Yan; Wei-Gang Wang; Song Yu; Zhi-Gang Wang; Kai-Xing Ai

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of a ghrelin receptor agonist GHRP-6 on delayed gastrointestinal transit in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.METHODS: A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal injection with alloxan.Mice were randomized into two main groups: normal mice and diabetic mice treated with GHRP-6 at doses of 0,20,50,100 and 200 μg/kg ip.Gastric emptying (GE),intestinal tTansit (IT),and colonic transit (CT) were studied in mice after they had a phenol red meal following injection of GHRP-6.Based on the most effective GHRP-6 dosage,atropine was given at 1 mg/kg for 15 min before the GHRP-6 injection for each measurement.The mice in each group were sacrificed 20 min later and the percentages of GE,IT,and CT were calculated.RESULTS: Percentages of GE,IT,and CT were significantly decreased in diabetic mice as compared to control mice.In the diabetic mice,GHRP-6 improved both GE and IT,but not CT.The most effective dose of GHRP-6 was 200 μg/kg and atropine blocked the prokinetic effects of GHRP-6 on GE and IT.CONCLUSION: GHRP-6 accelerates delayed GE and IT,but has no effect on CT in diabetic mice.GHRP-6 may exert its prokinetic effects via the cholinergic pathway in the enteric nervous system,and therefore,has therapeutic potential for diabetic patients with delayed upper gastrointestinal transit.

  20. Virgin Coconut Oil: Remedial Effects on Renal Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akinnuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal dysfunction is now a prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the remedial effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO on renal dysfunction in diabetic rats. Fifteen albino Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups that comprise normal control group (Group I and diabetic control group (Group II fed with normal rat chows and a diabetic test group (Group III fed with 10% VCO diet. Group II and Group III were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of freshly prepared alloxan monohydrate. After 72 hours of alloxan injection, fasting blood glucose was tested to confirm diabetes mellitus. After 3 weeks, the animals were anaesthetized and sacrificed to collect blood samples for renal function analysis. The creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen values of Group II were significantly different from those of Group I and Group III at P<0.001. Also, there was significant difference (P<0.05 in total protein value between Group II (4.42  ±  0.47 mg/dL and Group I (5.78  ±  0.12 mg/dL as well as Group III (5.86  ±  0.19 mg/dL, but there was no significant difference between that of Group I and Group III (5.78  ±  0.12 mg/dL and 5.86  ±  0.19 mg/dL, resp.. Thus, VCO is effective in preventing renal damage in diabetic patients.

  1. Effect of VCO to leucocyte differential count, glucose levels and blood creatinine of hyperglycemic and ovalbumin sensitized Mus musculus Balb/c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBEN DHARMAWAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Handajani NS, Dharmawan R. 2009. Effect of VCO to leucocyte differential count, glucose levels and blood creatinine of hyperglycemic and ovalbumin sensitized Mus musculus Balb/c. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 1-8. Chemical medicines and insulin can decrease glucose blood level on hyperglycemic patients with macro vascular side effect. Diabetes and allergy incidences are influenced by quality and quantity of leucocytes. Lauric acid within VCO reports decreased glucose blood level of diabetes and some allergy incidents. The purpose of the study is to know the effect of VCO on glucose blood level, differential leucocytes count and creatinine blood level on hyperglycemic and normoglicemic ovalbumin sensitized mice. Forty five (45 male (mice of Mus musculus Balb/c with average weight of 35 g are divided into 9 groups with 5 repetitions, those are 4 non alloxan groups and 5 alloxan induced hyperglycemic groups. On 22nd day to 36th day they are sensitize to ovalbumin as allergen. Blood sample was obtained by orbital vena using heparin as anti coagulant in order measuring glucose blood level by GOD method to 6 times, on 1st, 4th, 18th, 22nd, 32nd and 37th days, then are tested by ANOVA followed by DMRT 0.05. On 37th day, differential leucocytes are determined, blood level are counted, and then compared to normal value. The result of this study were that within differential leucocytes count of hyperglycemic mice, neutrophile percentage were much lower than the normal value (3.22%, and lymphocyte percentage were much higher than the normal value (94.54%. Consumed 0.003 mL/35 g VCO more 18 days decreased glucose blood level on hyperglycemic mice, decreased basophile percentage of ovalbumin sensitized mice, normalized neutrophile percentage no increased creatinine blood level.

  2. Pengaruh Transplantasi Allograf Pancreatic Stem Cell terhadap Kadar Insulin dan C-Peptide Tikus Putih Penderita Diabetes Melitus Tipe I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boedi Setiawan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the degenerative diseases in which the therapy still remains unresolved and is still a serious threat to the global health, including to the health of Indonesian people. The aim of this study was to describe the level of insulin and C-peptide in diabetes mellitus type I white rats treated with pancreatic stem cell allograft through intrapancreatic laparotomy. This study was conducted at the Institute of Tropical Diseases, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya in a 6 month period (July–December 2014. Twelve male white rats Rattus novergicus Wistar strain, were randomly divided into two groups. The first group (P0 was injected by alloxan, 150 mg/kg body weight, without stem cell therapy. Another group was injected by alloxan, 150 mg/kg body weight, and was treated with 1x106/kg body weight pancreatic stem cell throughintrapancreatic laparotomy (P1. The experiment was finalized on the 31th day of the experiment. The results showed that the blood glucose levels at the end of experiment were highly significantly different p<0.01 between the treatment group that received stem cell therapy (P1 and P0 positive control, although the average value of blood glucose levels was not as normal as on the first day. C-peptide and insulin levels of P0 and P1 group differed significantly (p<0.01. It can be concluded that stem cell therapy through intrapancreatic laparotomy can reduce blood glucose levels and increase the levels of C-peptide and insulin.

  3. Protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats

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    Bahram Amouoghli-Tabrizi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and one of its most important consequences is renal insufficiency. A multitude of herbs has been described for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of present study was to assess the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE on early nephropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Method: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 equal groups including: healthy rats, normal healthy rats receiving TREE, diabetic rats and diabetic rats receiving TREE. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg; i.p. The extract (200 mg/kg was gavaged to TREE treatment groups daily for 8 weeks. At the end of experiment; serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were assessed. The lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS, and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in the renal tissue. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verification. Statistically, the quantitative data obtained, compared among the groups by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05.Results: In the diabetic rats, TREE significantly decreased the levels of serum biomarkers of renal injury. Furthermore, TREE significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Histopathological findings were in agreement with the biochemical findings.Conclusion: TREE has protective effect on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats with experimentally induced diabetes

  4. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CASSIA FISTULA (L. STEM BARK

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    M. Ashraf Ali et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate antihyperglycemic and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula (CF stem barks in rats and mice, respectively. The analgesic effect of extract was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing test method while antihyperglycemic effect was investigated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i. p. and metformin (150 mg/kg, p. o. were used as reference drugs for comparison. The extract significantly (P<0.05 reduced blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic (hyperglycaemic and glucose induced hyperglycemic (normo-hyperglycaemic rats orally at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively. The glucose tolerance results showed significant (p<0.05 improved at the dose 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight (b. wt. of ethanolic extract respectively. On the Other hand, the analgesic activity of extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg dose level were produced 45% and 62% writhing inhibitory response but diclofenac was observed 82% of that when compared to control group. The plant's extract produced dose-dependent, significant (P<0.05 analgesic effects against chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract showed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins etc. were present in the plant which has antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties. However a glucose tolerance hypoglycemic test is comparable to diabetic control group and effect is a dose dependent. The findings of this experimental animal study indicate that Cassia fistula stem-bark ethanolic extract possesses analgesic and antihyperglycemic properties; and thus lend pharmacological credence to the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment and/or management of painful, inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Evaluation of the anti-diabetic properties ofMucuna pruriensseed extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen O Majekodunmi; Ademola A Oyagbemi; Solomon Umukoro; Oluwatoyin A Odeku

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the antidiabetic properties ofMucuna pruriens(M. pruriens).Methods:Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intravenous injection of120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and different doses of the extract were administered to diabetic rats. The blood glucose level was determined using a glucometer and results were compared with normal and untreated diabetic rats. The acute toxicity was also determined in albino mice.Results:Results showed that the administration of5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and100 mg/kg of the crude ethanolic extract ofM. pruriens seeds to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (plasma glucose> 450mg/dL) resulted in18.6%, 24.9%, 30.8%, 41.4%, 49.7%, 53.1% and 55.4% reduction, respectively in blood glucose level of the diabetic rats after 8h of treatment while the administration of glibenclamide (5mg/kg/day) resulted in59.7% reduction. Chronic administration of the extract resulted in a significant dose dependent reduction in the blood glucose level (P<0.001). It also showed that the antidiabetic activity ofM. pruriens seeds resides in the methanolic and ethanolic fractions of the extract. Acute toxicity studies indicated that the extract was relatively safe at low doses, although some adverse reactions were observed at higher doses (8-32 mg/kg body weight), no death was recorded. Furthermore, oral administration ofM. pruriens seed extract also significantly reduced the weight loss associated with diabetes.Conclusions: The study clearly supports the traditional use ofM. pruriens for the treatment of diabetes and indicates that the plant could be a good source of potent antidiabetic drug.

  6. Paradoxical increase in liver ketogenesis during long-term insulin-induced hypoglycemia in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Fabiana P M; Gazola, Vilma A F G; Furlan, Maria M D P; Barrena, Helenton C; Bazotte, Roberto B

    2011-02-01

    It is well established that insulin inhibits liver ketogenesis. However, during insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) the release of counterregulatory hormones could overcome the insulin effect on ketogenesis. To clarify this question the ketogenic activity in livers from alloxan-diabetic rats submitted to long-term IIH was investigated. Moreover, liver glycogenolysis, gluconeogensis, ureagenesis and the production of L-lactate were measured, and its correlation with blood levels of ketone bodies (KB), L-lactate, glucose, urea and ammonia was investigated. For this purpose, overnight fasted alloxan-diabetic rats (DBT group) were compared with control non-diabetic rats (NDBT group). Long-term IIH was obtained with an intraperitoneal injection of Detemir insulin (1 U/kg), and KB, glucose, L-lactate, ammonia and urea were evaluated at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 h after insulin injection. Because IIH was well established two hours after insulin injection this time was used for liver perfusion experiments. The administration of Detemir insulin decreased (P < 0.05) blood KB and glucose levels, but there was an increase in the blood L-lactate levels and a rebound increase in blood KB during the glucose recovery phase of IIH. In agreement with these results, the capacity to produce KB from octanoate was increased in the livers of DBT rats. Moreover, the elevated blood L-lactate levels in DBT rats could be attributed to the higher (P < 0.05) glycogenolysis when part of glucose from glycogenolysis enters glycolysis, producing L-lactate. In contrast, except glycerol, gluconeogenesis was negligible in the livers of DBT rats. Therefore, during long-term IIH the higher liver ketogenic capacity of DBT rats increased the risk of hyperketonemia. In addition, in spite of the fact that the insulin injection decreased blood KB, there was a risk of worsening lactic acidosis.

  7. Study on Lowering Blood Glucose and Anti-Oxidation of Dietary Fiber from Gracilaria%江蓠藻膳食纤维的降血糖及抗氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖美添; 叶静; 汤须崇; 刘青; 黄雅燕

    2009-01-01

    The effects of dietary fiber from Gracilaria (GDF) on blood glucose in diabetic mice and some anti-oxidative indexes in the serum were observed,and the mechanism of GDF lowering blood glucose was also discussd.The results indicated that GDF could obviously decrease the blood glucose levels of alloxan-induced diabetic mice,and the hypoglycemic effect of GDF at the middle dose of 0.4 g·kg~(-1) was the best Moreover,GDF could significantly decrease the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum of alloxan-induced diabetic mice,increase the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and improve the oxidative stress levels of diabetic mice.%观察江蓠藻膳食纤维对糖尿病小鼠的血糖,以及血清中某些抗氧化指标的效应,探讨其降血糖的可能作用机理.结果表明,江蓠藻膳食纤维能显著降低四氧嘧啶糖尿病小鼠的血糖值,且以中剂量(0.4 g·kg~(-1))江蓠藻膳食纤维的降血糖作用最佳.此外,江蓠藻膳食纤维可降低四氧嘧啶糖尿病小鼠血清中的丙二醛(MDA)浓度,提高超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性,改善糖尿病小鼠的氧化应激水平.

  8. The number of podocyte and slit diaphragm is decreased in experimental diabetic nephropathy O número de podócitos e fendas diafragmáticas estão alterados na nefropatia diabética

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    Mauro Masson Lerco

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the number of podocyte, slit diaphragms, slit diaphragm extensions and GBM thickness in diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Sixty "Rattus Wistar"of both sexes weighing 200-300g were divided in two experimental groups: normal group 10 animals, and alloxan diabetic rats - 50 animals. Alloxan was administered in a single IV dose of 42mg/kg body weight. Body weight, water and food intake, diuresis, and blood and urine glucose were determined in both groups before alloxan injection and two weeks, six and twelve months after alloxan injection. Proteinuria was measured at 12 months in both groups. After 12 months animals were sacrificed, and the right kidney processed for electron microscopy. RESULTS: Clear clinical and laboratory signs of severe diabetes were seen, in all alloxan-diabetic rats at all follow-up times. Glomerular basement membrane (GBM thickening, podocyte number, and slit diaphragm number and extension were determined. GBM of all diabetic rats was significantly thicker (median=0.29µm; semi-interquartile range=0.065µm than in the normal rats (0.23µm; 0.035µm. Diabetic rat podocyte number (8; 1, slit diaphragm number (4; 1, and slit diaphragm extension (0.021µm; 0.00435µm were significantly lower than in normal rats (11; 1 and (7; 1.5, and (0.031µm; 0.0058µm. Diabetic rat proteinuria (0.060mg/24h; 0.037mg/24h was higher than in normal rats (0.00185mg/24h; 0.00055mg/24h. CONCLUSION: Experimental diabetes is associated with significant (pOBJETIVO: Determinar o número de podocitos e fendas diafragmáticas, a extensão das fendas diafragmáticas e a espessura da Membrana Basal Glomerular (MBG na nefropatia diabética. MÉTODOS: Sessenta "Rattus Wistar" de ambos os sexos, pesando entre 200-300g, foi dividido em dois grupos experimentais: grupo normal 10 animais, e grupo diabético induzido por aloxana - 50 animais. A Aloxana foi administrada em dose única endovenosa de 42mg/kg de peso. Medimos o peso, ingestão de

  9. Effect of Polypeptide Chromium Chelate on Hepatic Protein Expression in Diabetic Mice%多肽铬螯合物对糖尿病小鼠肝脏蛋白质表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎婧; 刘安军; 张国蓉

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究多肽铬螯合的对糖尿病小鼠肝脏蛋白质表达的影响,探讨其治疗糖尿病的机理.方法:通过腹腔注射四氧嘧啶建立糖尿病小鼠模型.将小鼠分为正常组、模型组和胶铬组,胶铬组以灌胃方式加入多肽铬螯合物;以光镜及HE染色观察三组小鼠肝脏形态及组织学的变化,采用SDS-PAGE实验和非SDS-PAGE检测三组小鼠肝脏蛋白质表达.结果:光镜及组织学观察结果显示多肽铬螫合物可以有效地减轻四氧嘧啶对肝细胞造成的损伤.模型组肝脏25kDa-35kDa之间的某种蛋白表达升高而多肽铬螯舍物可以降低此种蛋白的表达,初步推断这种蛋白质为SOD.结论:多肽铬螯合物能够通过降低四氧嘧啶造成的肝脏中抗氧化有关的蛋白质代偿性升高而祈祷保护肝脏的作用,是一种新型的治疗糖尿病所致的肝损伤的活性物质.%Objective:To study the effect of polypeptide chromium chelate on hepatic protein expression in diabetic mice.Moeh ods:Diabetic mouse model was set up by i.p.injection of alloxan.The mice were divided into normal group(NG),model group(MG) and polypeptide chromium group(PEG).Polypeptide chromium chelate wag added into PCG by i.g.method.The changes of hepatic morphology and histology in the three groups were observed by HE staining under microscope,and hepatic protein expression was examined by SDS-PAGE and non-SDS-PAGE experiments in the three egroups.Results:The results showed that polypeptide chromium chelate could effectively alleviate the hepatocytes lesion induced by alloxan.Expression of a kind of protein between 25kDa and 35kDa in model group increased but polypeptide chromium chelate could decrease its expression.This protein was deduced to bc SOD initially.Conclusions:Polypeptide chromium chelate could decrease the compesatory elevation of antioxidant related protein in the liver induced by alloxan and perform the hepatoprotective function,which is a novel active

  10. Pengaruh Pemberian Aspartam terhadap Kadar Low-Density Lipoprotein dan High-Density Lipoprotein pada Tikus Wistar Diabetes Melitus Diinduksi Aloksan

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    Revivo Rinda Pratama

    2014-09-01

    and HDL at rats with diabetes mellitus induced by alloxan. The research is experimental research with randomized post test only control group design. The subjects were 15 male Wistar rats those were divided into three groups: a negative control group, a positive control group, and the treated group. Each group consists of five (5 male rats. Administration of aspartame (dose of 315 mg/kg rat was administered to the treatment group for four (4 weeks. The results showed that administration of aspartame in rats with diabetes mellitus induced by alloxan was influenced the decreased in LDL levels and increased in HDL levels. The LDL levels in positive control group was 30 ± 2 mg/dl, in the treatment group was 24 ± 2 mg/dl. While the levels of HDL in positive control group was 19 ± 1 mg/dl, in the treatment group was 22 ± 1 mg/dl. There is a significant difference in the levels of LDL and HDL between the positive control group with the treatment group. The conclusion of this research are the administration of aspartame in rats with diabetes mellitus induced by alloxan influenced the decreased in LDL levels and increased in HDL levels.Keywords: aspartame, diabetes mellitus, LDL, HDL

  11. Development of cataract caused by diabetes mellitus: Raman study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furić, Krešimir; Mohaček-Grošev, Vlasta; Hadžija, Mirko

    2005-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus succeeded by diabetic cataract was induced to experimental animals (Wistar rats) by applying an Alloxan injection. Eye properties deterioration were monitored from clinical standpoint and using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. All cases of developed cataract were followed by important changes in vibrational spectra, but Raman spectroscopy proved to be more useful because of larger number of resolved bands. Each kth Raman spectrum of diseased lens (in our notation k denotes disease age and cataract degree as described in chapter Alloxan diabetes) can be expressed as a sum of the Raman spectrum of healthy lens, I R, multiplied by a suitable constant ck, and the fluorescent background spectrum, I FB. We introduce the ratio of integrated intensities IFB and ck* IR as a physical parameter called fluorescent background index F FB. It turns out that FFB grows as cataract progresses and has its maximum at approx. 4, whence it decreases. FFB values are larger for 200-1800 cm -1 spectral interval than for 2500-4000 cm -1 interval. In the same manner another quantity called water band index FW is defined for each Raman spectrum of diseased lens in the 2800-3730 cm -1 interval. It is the ratio of the integrated intensity from 3100 to 3730 cm -1 (water band interval) divided by the integrated intensity of the 2800-3100 cm -1 interval (C-H stretching region). FW increases monotonously with cataract progression with maximum at the end of monitored period (5 months). These two indices helped us to formulate a model describing disease development from the earliest molecular changes to its macroscopic manifestation. As glucose and other small saccharide molecules enter the lens tissue, they bind to crystallin and other proteins via O- and S-glycosidic linkages which occur probably at tyrosine and cystein sites. In Raman spectrum this corresponds to broad bands at 540 and 1100 cm -1 which grow together with the fluorescent background, because both contributions

  12. Immunohistochmical Study of Glomerular Mesengial Collagen IV Expression in Diabetic Balb/c Mice

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    M. Jalali

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Extra-cellular matrix and basement membrane play important roles in many developmental phenamenon during development and after birth. Among the components of the basement membrane, collagen fibers specially type IV, are the most important part of this area. As kidney is one of the target organs in diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end stage-renal disease and result an increase in morbidity and mortality of effected individuals, therefore early diagnosis leads to better treatment. The aim of this investigation was to study the primary diagnostic parameters by special regards to collagen IV fibers.Materials & Methods: In this study, 24 male balb/c mice were divided into experimental and control groups. In experimental group, the beta cells of Langerhance were chemically destroyed by an injection of 160 mg/kg alloxan and subdivided in experimental groups 1 and 2. Controls were kept untreated. Experimental group 1and 2 were sacrified 8 and 16 weeks after treatment with alloxan respectively. The same procedure was performed for control group. Immunohistochmical studies were carried out using monocolonal antibody against collagen type IV in Glomeruli. In addition, using morphometrical and stereological methods the volume of the glumerles was compared in all groups.Results: Our finding showed that in experimental groups with special regards in 16 weeks diabetic mice, the rate of collagen type IV in basement membrane around the parietal layer of Bowman capsule, mesangial cells and endothelium of capillary in glomerules increased significantly compared to controls and experimental group 1 (p<0.05, while there was not a significant difference among experimental group 2 and controls. Our data also revealed that the number of mesangial cells as well as glomerular volume increased significantly in experimental 2 (4.635±0.289×106µm3 compared to experimental 1 (3.504±0.189×106µm3 and controls (3.422

  13. Efek N-Asetil-L- Sistein (NAC terhadap Kadar Adma Plasma dan Ekspresi Protein Vcam-l pada Disfungsi Endotel Tikus Diabetes

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    Irma Santi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endothelial dysfunction is an early state of symptoms in a cardiovascular disease. An elevated oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of macrovascular diabetic complication. The present study was design to evaluate the effect of NAC on plasma ADMA level and the expression of VCAM-1 protein on endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats. Thirty male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups i.e. normal rats, diabetic rats, treatment with NAC 30 mg/kgBW, NAC 56 mg/ kgBW and NAC 100 mg/kgBW. Diabetic rats model was induced by intraperitonial administration of alloxan monohydrate at dose of 150 mg/kgBW, diabetes occurred on 3nd day after alloxan injection and then started treatment of N-acetyl-L-cystein for 28 days. ADMA plasma level was analyzed with Elisa Reader and the expression of VCAM-1 protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Conclusion of this research is that treatment with NAC 30 mg/kgBW, NAC 56 mg/kgBW and NAC 100 mg/kgBW for 28 days may prevent oxidative stress indicated by the decreasing of plasma ADMA level by 45.8%: 55.75% and 65.92%, respectively and the decreasing of the expression of VCAM-1 protein on endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rat by 24%: 31.75% and 58.92%, respectively. Key words : (NAC, Endothelial dysfunction, ADMA, VCAM-1AbstrakDisfungsi endotel merupakan tahap awal pada penyakit kardiovaskular. Peningkatan stres oksidatif berperan penting dalam patogenesis komplikasi makrovaskular pada penyakit diabetes. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi efek N-asetil sistein (NAC dalam menurunkan kadar ADMA plasma dan ekspresi protein VCAM-1 pada disfungsi endotel tikus diabetes. 30 tikus jantan strain sprague- Dawley dibagi menjadi 5 kelompok yaitu kelompok normal, kelompok diabetes, kelompok perlakuan NAC pada dosis 30, 56 dan 100 mg/kgBB. Model tikus diabetes diperoleh dengan diinduksi aloksan monohidrat 150 mg/kgBB secara intraperitonial, kondisi diabetes terjadi pada hari ke-3 setelah

  14. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and PKC signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. - Highlights: ► Sustained hyperglycemia and oxidative stress lead to diabetic renal injury. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone prevents renal damage in alloxan-induced diabetes. ► It restores intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and kidney apoptosis. ► DSL reduces hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress

  15. Protective effects of sodium orthovanadate in diabetic reticulocytes and ageing red blood cells of Wistar rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bihari L Gupta; Anju Preet; Najma Z Baquer

    2004-03-01

    The reticulocytes and the ageing red blood cells (RBCs) namely young (Y), middle-aged (M) and old RBCs (O) of female Wistar rats from different groups such as control animals (C), controls treated with vanadate (C + V), alloxan-induced diabetic (D), diabetic-treated with insulin (D + I) and vanadate (D + V), were fractionated on a percoll/BSA gradient. The following enzymes were measured – hexokinase (HK), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), aspartate aminotransferase (AsAT) and arginase in the hemolysates of all the RBCs fractions. Decreases in the activity of HK and AsAT by about 70%, arginase and GSH-Px by 30% in old RBCs were observed in comparison to reticulocytes of control animals. Increases in the activity of GSSG-R by 86%, AlaAT by more than 400% and GST by 70% were observed in old RBCs in comparison to reticulocytes of control animals. Alloxan diabetic animals showed a further decrease in the activities of HK in Y RBCs by 37%, M RBCs by 39% and O RBCs by 32%, GSH-Px activity in Y RBCs by 13%, M RBCs by 20% and O RBCs by 33% and GST activity in Y RBCs by 14%, M RBCs by 42% and O RBCs by 60% in comparison to their corresponding cells of control animals. An increase in the activity of all the enzymes studied was also observed in reticulocytes of diabetic animals in comparison to reticulocytes of controls. The GSSG-R activity was found to be increased in Y RBCs by 49%, M RBCs by 67% and O RBCs by 64% as compared to the corresponding age-matched cells of control animals. The activity of arginase also decreased in Y RBCs by about10%, M RBCs by 20% and O RBCs by 30% in comparison to the age-matched cells of control animals. A decrease in the activity of AsAT in Y and M RBCs by 30%, and O RBCs by 25% was observed in diabetic animals in comparison to the age-matched cells of control animals. The activity of AlaAT was found to be decreased by more than 10% in Y and M

  16. Diabetes-induced changes in the 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibitory receptors involved in the pressor effect elicited by sympathetic stimulation in the pithed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mónica; Morán, Asunción; Calama, Elena; Martín, Maria Luisa; Barthelmebs, Mariette; Román, Luis San

    2005-07-01

    1. We investigated the effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on the inhibitory mechanisms of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the pressor responses induced by stimulation of sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats, and analysed the type and/or subtype of 5-HT receptors involved. 2. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single s.c. injection of alloxan, then 4 weeks later, they were anaesthetized, pretreated with atropine and pithed. Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 Hz) resulted in frequency-dependent increases in blood pressure. 3. Intravenous infusions of 5-HT (1-80 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) reduced the pressor effects obtained by electrical stimulation. The 5-HT(1) receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-CT (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), caused an inhibition of the pressor response, whereas the selective 5-HT(2) receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-HT (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) and the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, 1-phenylbiguanide (40 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), did not modify the sympathetic pressor responses. 5-HT had no effect on exogenous noradrenaline (NA)-induced pressor responses. 4. The inhibition of electrically induced pressor responses by 5-HT (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) was unable to be elicited after i.v. treatment with methiothepin (100 microg kg(-1)) because of the marked inhibition produced by methiothepin alone. The 5-HT-induced inhibition was blocked after i.v. administration of WAY-100,635 (100 microg kg(-1)) and not affected by ritanserin (1 mg kg(-1)), MDL 72222 (2 mg kg(-1)). 5. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotretalin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) (5-20 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) but neither the rodent 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, CGS-12066B (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), nor the selective nonrodent 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptor agonist, L-694,247 (5 and 40 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), inhibited the electrically induced pressor response. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor

  17. Compositional analysis and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of wild Algerian Marrubium vulgare L. infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Henchiri, Cherifa; Siracusa, Laura; Sari, Madani; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a plant traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in Algeria. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusion revealed the presence of fifteen metabolites, all belonging to the class of polyphenols. Particularly, seven flavonoids have been detected, together with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid in small amounts; the extract is dominated by the presence of a series of complex molecules, characterized as verbascoside (acteoside) derivatives. Concerning the anti-diabetic effectiveness a series of in vivo experiments were carried out on albinos Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxane; they were treated twice a day with aqueous extract from aerial part infusion (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (5mg/kg body weight) for 15 days. Oral administration of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract the Marrubium vulgare induced an significant effect antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic (dose-dependent effect). A decrease in blood glucose by 50% for the dose 100 mg/kg and more than 60% for doses 200 and 300 mg/kg, as well as a significant lowering of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels in treated animals, compared with diabetic controls group (p<0.001), have been observed. Glibenclamide was used as reference and showed similar effects.

  18. Antihyperglycemic and subchronic toxicity study of Moringa stenopetala leaves in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tesemma Sileshi; Eyasu Makonnen; Asfaw Debella; Birhanu Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity and subchronic toxicity of an extract ofMoringa stenopetala(M. stenopetala) leaves in mice. Methods: Antihyperglycemic activities of various solvent subfractions and chromatographic fractions were investigated in alloxan induced diabetic mice. All fractions were administered intragastrically using oral gavage at a dose of 500 mg/kg. For the subchronic toxicity investigation of the 70% ethanol extract of M. stenopetala leaves, a daily dose of 300 or 600 mg/kg body weight was administered to mice over 96 d. Some hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were measured as indices of organ specific toxicity. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity investigation was done using thin layer chromatography method. Results:Among the solvent subfractions of the 70% ethanol extract tested only butanol subfraction exhibited significant reduction of blood glucose level (P Conclusions:The present study revealed that the crude ethanol extract and solvent-solvent fractions as well as chromatographic fractions have antihyperglycemic effect. Furthermore, the crude ethanol extract have some effect on liver of the mice on subchronic administration. Therefore, further study should be done to identify the active principal compound responsible for antihyperglycemic effect and to rule out the safety in other animal model.

  19. Pulmonary tissue volume in dogs during pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B T; Petrini, M F; Hyde, R W; Schreiner, B F

    1978-05-01

    Pulmonary tissue volume (Vt) and pulmonary capillary blood flow (Qc) were measured in anesthetized dogs by analyzing end-expiratory concentrations of dimethyl ether (DME), acetylene (C2H2), and sulfur hexafluoride during a 30-s rebreathing maneuver. Vt was compared to the postmortem lung weight of control dogs and dogs with hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic (alloxan) pulmonary edema. Qc was compared to the cardiac output measured by dye dilution. A 100-ml increase in alveolar volume (VA) in the range of 1-2 liters resulted in a 9 +/- 3 ml increase in Vt. Vt measured at a VA of 1.9 liters measures 114 +/- 18% of the postmortem lung weight in 20 control dogs and in 6 dogs with moderate edema (lung weight smae mean values of Vt, but the reproducibility of a series of 3-7 measurements was greater with DME (coefficient of variation was 5% with DME and 8% C2H2). Qc measured 96 +/ 15% of the cardiac output during the rebreathing maneuver, but the maneuver caused a 4-40% fall in the cardiac output. These data show that Vt determined by rebreathing DME is between 86% and 135% of the lung weight in dogs with pulmonary edema until the lung weight is greater than 250% of the predicted value.

  20. Recent Research Trends in Korean Medicine Treatment of Diabetes mellitus

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    Jung Han-sung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyze the directions of Korean Medicine treatment of diabetes mellitus. Methods : We reviewed the 52 studies about diabetes mellitus which had been published from 2000 to 2007. We selected those studies from the search engine of the web site of five journals. Those were the Journal of Korean Oriental Medical Society, Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology, the Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society, Korean Journal of Oriental Internal Medicine and the Journal of Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Results : 1. The types of diabetes mellitus model in studies were the model used Alloxan(2cases, the model used Streptozotocin(41cases, NOD mice(1case, ob/ob mice(1case, db/db mice(5cases and rats fed highfat diet(2cases. 2. The types of method in studies were pharmacopuncture(8cases, herbal medcine(47case and both pharmacopuncture and herbal medcine(3cases. the types of materials in studies were single herb(24cases, multiple herbs(32cases and both single and multiple herbs(4cases. 3. The types of evaluation criteria in studies were glucose, pancreas, liver, kidney, serum lipid, oxidative stress, nervous system, vascular system and immunity. Conclusions : There have been reported many studies of diabetes mellitus in Korean Medicine. It requires to study further types of diabetes mellitus, kinds of herbs and complications of diabetes mellitus for Korean Medicine treatment of diabetes mellitus was covered the ground.

  1. Oral insulin delivery by self-assembled chitosan nanoparticles: In vitro and in vivo studies in diabetic animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Piyasi; Sarkar, Kishor [Department of Polymer Science and Technology, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata-700009, University of Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, Mousumi; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Mishra, Roshnara [Department of Physiology, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata-700009, University of Calcutta (India); Kundu, P.P., E-mail: ppk923@yahoo.com [Department of Polymer Science and Technology, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata-700009, University of Calcutta (India)

    2013-01-01

    We have developed self-assembled chitosan/insulin nanoparticles for successful oral insulin delivery. The main purpose of our study is to prepare chitosan/insulin nanoparticles by self-assembly method, to characterize them and to evaluate their efficiency in vivo diabetic model. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average particle size ranged from 200 to 550 nm, with almost spherical or sub spherical shape. An average insulin encapsulation within the nanoparticles was {approx} 85%. In vitro release study showed that the nanoparticles were also efficient in retaining good amount of insulin in simulated gastric condition, while significant amount of insulin release was noticed in simulated intestinal condition. The oral administrations of chitosan/insulin nanoparticles were effective in lowering the blood glucose level of alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Thus, self-assembled chitosan/insulin nanoparticles show promising effects as potential insulin carrier system in animal models. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Self-assembled chitosan/insulin nanoparticle preparation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost spherical or sub-spherical nanoparticles observed under microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good insulin encapsulation of the nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles reduced blood glucose level significantly in diabetic mice.

  2. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

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    Silva Gláucio A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats.

  3. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats. PMID:21569626

  4. A redox-flow battery with an alloxazine-based organic electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaixiang; Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; Beh, Eugene S.; Tong, Liuchuan; Chen, Qing; Valle, Alvaro; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Aziz, Michael J.; Gordon, Roy G.

    2016-09-01

    Redox-flow batteries (RFBs) can store large amounts of electrical energy from variable sources, such as solar and wind. Recently, redox-active organic molecules in aqueous RFBs have drawn substantial attention due to their rapid kinetics and low membrane crossover rates. Drawing inspiration from nature, here we report a high-performance aqueous RFB utilizing an organic redox compound, alloxazine, which is a tautomer of the isoalloxazine backbone of vitamin B2. It can be synthesized in high yield at room temperature by single-step coupling of inexpensive o-phenylenediamine derivatives and alloxan. The highly alkaline-soluble alloxazine 7/8-carboxylic acid produces a RFB exhibiting open-circuit voltage approaching 1.2 V and current efficiency and capacity retention exceeding 99.7% and 99.98% per cycle, respectively. Theoretical studies indicate that structural modification of alloxazine with electron-donating groups should allow further increases in battery voltage. As an aza-aromatic molecule that undergoes reversible redox cycling in aqueous electrolyte, alloxazine represents a class of radical-free redox-active organics for use in large-scale energy storage.

  5. Relative IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues from diabetic swine

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    Wolverton, C.K.; Leaman, D.W.; White, M.E.; Ramsay, T.G. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Fourteen pregnant, crossbred gilts were utilized in this study. Seven gilts were injected with alloxan (50 mg/kg) at day 75 of gestation to induce diabetes. Gilts underwent caesarean section on day 105 of gestation. Samples were collected from maternal skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, uterus and endometrium; and from fetal skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, placenta, liver, lung, kidney, heart, brain and spleen. Tissues were frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis of IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression. Samples were pooled and total RNA was isolated using the guanidine isothiocynate method. Total mRNA was analyzed by dot blot hybridization. Blots were probed with {sup 32}P-cDNA for porcine IGF-1 and rat IGF-2. IGF-1 gene expression in maternal tissues was unaffected by diabetes. Maternal diabetes increased IGF-2 mRNA in maternal adipose tissue but exhibited no effect in muscle or uterus. Expression of IGF-2 by maternal endometrium was decreased by diabetes. Maternal diabetes induced an increase in IGF-1 gene expression in muscle and placenta while causing an increase in IGF-2 expression in fetal liver and placenta. IGF-2 mRNA was lower in lung from fetuses of diabetic mothers than in controls. These results suggest that maternal diabetes alters IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression in specific tissues and differential regulation of these genes appears to exist in the mother and developing fetus.

  6. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Properties of Anacardium humile Aqueous Extract

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    Márcio A. Urzêda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antihyperglycemic effects of several plant extracts and herbal formulations which are used as antidiabetic formulations have been described and confirmed to date. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Anacardium humile. Although the treatment of diabetic animals with A. humile did not alter body weight significantly, a reduction of the other evaluated parameters was observed. Animals treated with A. humile did not show variation of insulin levels, possibly triggered by a mechanism of blood glucose reduction. Levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase decreased in treated animals, suggesting a protective effect on liver. Levels of cholesterol were also reduced, indicating the efficacy of the extract in reestablishing the balance of nutrients. Moreover, a kidney protection may have been achieved due to the partial reestablishment of blood glucose homeostasis, while no nephrotoxicity could be detected for A. humile. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of A. humile extracts in the treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, A. humile aqueous extract, popularly known and used by diabetic patients, induced an improvement in the biochemical parameters evaluated during and following treatment of diabetic rats. Thus, a better characterization of the medicinal potential of this plant will be able to provide a better understanding of its mechanisms of action in these pathological processes.

  7. Evaluation of Stability of Surface-Treated Mini-Implants in Diabetic Rabbits

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    Nam-Hee Oh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of surface treatment of mini-implants in diabetes-induced rabbits by comparing osseointegration around mini-implants. Methods. Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups (alloxan-induced diabetic group and control group. A total of 48 mini-implants were placed after four weeks of diabetic induction. 24 mini-implants were surface-treated with SLA (sandblasted with large grit, and acid etched and the remaining 24 mini-implants had smooth surfaces. Four weeks after placement, 32 mini-implants were removed from 4 control and 4 diabetic rabbits. Insertion and removal torques were measured. The remaining 16 mini-implants from the two groups were histomorphometrically analyzed. Results. Maximum insertion torque showed no difference between diabetic and control groups, but total insertion energy was higher in control group. In surface-treated mini-implants, maximum removal torque was higher in both diabetic and control groups. Bone-implant contact (BIC was increased in the control group when compared to the diabetic group. Surface-treated group had higher BIC than smooth surface group in both control and diabetic groups. However, there was no significantly statistical difference. Conclusions. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and surface treatment method of mini-implant affected primary stability of mini-implants. In addition, the use of orthodontic mini-implants in a diabetic patient is likely to show results similar to the healthy patient.

  8. Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L. on blood glucose and β-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Somaye Javidanpour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas β-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ. Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for β-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS and HbA1c, and decrease of β-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The β-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract.

  9. Type 2 diabetic rats on diet supplemented with chromium malate show improved glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism.

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    Weiwei Feng

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes.

  10. Probiotic (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 is effective for preventing Candida albicans-induced mucosal inflammation and proliferation in the forestomach of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Uchida, Masayuki; Narama, Isao; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-06-01

    Oral and esophageal candidiasis sometimes leads to mucosal hyperplasia, and progresses to carcinoma. We have produced an animal model for hyperplastic mucosal candidiasis in the forestomach that has a proliferative lesion of the squamous epithelium with chronic inflammation and C. albicans infection, some of which advanced to squamous cell carcinoma. There are many reports of the antibacterial effects of probiotics, but consensus about their antifungal effect has not been reached. In the present study, we investigate whether probiotic (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 (LG21 yogurt) can prevent proliferative and inflammatory changes caused by C. albicans in this mucosal candidiasis animal model. Diabetes was induced in 8-week-old WBN/Kob rats by intravenous administration of alloxan. One group of diabetic rats received a saline containing C. albicans and LG21 yogurt orally (DC+LG21 group) for 30 weeks, and another group received only C. albicans (DC group) for 30 weeks. They were sacrificed at 40 weeks of age, and analyzed histopathologically. In the DC+LG21 group, squamous hyperplasia at the greater curvature was significantly milder, and the Ki-67 positive index was significantly lower compared with the DC group. Suppurative inflammation with C. albicans also tended to be suppressed at the greater curvature. These findings suggest that probiotic (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 can suppress squamous hyperplastic change and inflammation associated with C. albicans infection in the forestomach.

  11. Imbalanced Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Activations in Response to Candida albicans in a Murine Model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, James; Fraga-Silva, Thais Fernanda Campos; Marchetti, Camila Martins; Mimura, Luiza Ayumi Nishiyama; Conti, Bruno José; Golim, Márjorie de Assis; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio; de Arruda, Maria Sueli Parreira

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, and diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important underlying disease in candidemia episodes. Although DM patients show an enhanced proinflammatory profile, they are highly susceptible to mycobacterial and mycotic infections. Attempting to understand this paradox, we investigated if imbalanced macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) activations could be associated to high incidence and/or severity of Candida albicans infection in the hypoinsulinemia-hyperglycemia (HH) milieu. HH alloxan-induced mice were infected with C. albicans and peritoneal aderent phagocytes were co-cultured with or without lipopolyssaccharide or heat-killed C. albicans, and the production of cytotoxic metabolites, cytokines, and chemokines was evaluated. We also evaluated the surface expression of MHC-II and CD86 in splenic DCs. Our findings showed that both uninfected and C. albicans-infected HH mice showed less production of CCL2 and reduced expression of CD86 by peritoneal phagocytes and splenic DCs, respectively.

  12. Experimental model of induction of diabetes mellitus in rats Modelo experimental de indução do diabetes mellitus em ratos

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    Eliziane Nitz de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a potentially morbid condition with high prevalence worldwide, thus being a major medical concern. Experimental models play an important role in understanding such a disease, which is treatable only. This study describes a rat diabetes mellitus model induced by administering a reduced dose of alloxan, thus greatly reducing the animals’ death rate.O diabetes mellitus é uma condição mórbida da maior importância no contexto da medicina. Este artigo decreve um dos modelos de indução do diabetes mellitus com aloxano, uma das substâncias que provocam a hiperglicemia permanente em várias espécies. Com base na literatura, tem o intuito de estabelecer esse modelo como uma opção para investigar as complicações do diabetes mellitus e seus tratamentos. Tese, ainda, considerações sobre perspectivas de aplicações deste modelo, ainda pouco utilizado.

  13. Nourishing Yin and Promoting Blood Circulation of TCM to Treat Hemorheologic Disorder Induced by Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

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    Rong Xia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus, DM, is commonly accompanied with various stages of hemorheologic disturbances that are the main causes of the development of chronic DM. In this study, simple Chinese material medica [yang-yin jiang-tang preparation (YYJT] was given to alloxan-induced DM rats and analyzed to compare the changes of fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting insulin (FINS, hemorheologic parameters and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II before and after administration. The results suggested that YYJT can significantly downregulate FBG (P < 0.005, improve insulin resistance and beta-cell secretion (P < 0.05, decrease whole blood viscosity at low and high shear rates, gathering of blood index test (GIT and fibrinogen (FIB (P < 0.05, and enlarge the function of IGF-II (P < 0.05. We concluded that YYJT could prevent and treat hemorheologic disorder in DM rats by means of reducing glucose, improving insulin resistance and elevating IGF-II.

  14. Stevioside as A low caloric sweetener to milky drink and its protective role against oxidative stress in diabetic rats

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    Ayman M. Badawi* , Nadia A. El-tablawy*, Nahed S. Bassily

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevioside is a natural sweetener extract from the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Stevioside was used in traditional medicine among Indian community in Brazil for the treatment of diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate the safety of stevioside as natural sweetener substitute sugar in a dairy product needed by those suffering from diabetes and its protctive role against oxidative stress exerted by hyperglycemia. The antibacterial activity of stevioside showed no effect on the pathogenic bacteria namely S. aureus, S. typhomuium and E. coli as well as lactic acid bacteria. In the present study hyperglycemia was induced by i.p. injection of alloxan in two successive doses (70 mg/kg b.w. eash / day to rats preadministered stevioside in two different doses (640 mg/kg b.w. and 1.280 g/kg b.w. for eight weeks. The following investigations were carried out, glucose tolerance test, blood glucose, blood glutathione, MDA, erythrocyte SOD and transminases. The histopathological examinations were performed at the end of the experimental period. The results obtained in this study assessed the safety and protective role of stevioside as a natural sweetener substitute sugar in a dairy product.

  15. Evaluation of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic potential of Tridax procumbens (Linn.

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    Jain Kusum

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Family-Asteraceae; common name-Dhaman grass is common herb found in India. Traditionally, the tribal inhabitants of Udaipur district in Rajasthan (India uses the leaf powder (along with other herb orally to treat diabetes. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of whole plant of T. procumbens using 50%methanol. The extract was tested for acute and sub-chronic anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats and for acute toxicity test among normal rats. Observations on body weight as well as on the oral glucose tolerance levels were also recorded. Results Oral administration of acute and sub chronic doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt. of T. procumbens extract showed a significant (p T. procumbens were compared with the reference standard drug Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.wt.. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, T. procumbens for the treatment of diabetes mellitus with corrections in body weight and oral glucose tolerance and no visible signs or symptoms of toxicity in normal rats indicating a high margin of safety. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  16. Artocarpus heterophyllus L. seed starch-blended gellan gum mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-04-01

    Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., family: Moraceae) seed starch (JFSS)-gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic gelation technique. The effect of GG to JFSS ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h, %) was optimized and analyzed using response surface methodology based on 3(2) factorial design. The optimized JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 92.67±4.46%, R10h of 61.30±2.37%, and mean diameter of 1.67±0.27 mm. The optimized beads showed pH-dependent swelling and mucoadhesivity with the goat intestinal mucosa. The in vitro drug release from all these JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl was followed zero-order pattern (R(2)=0.9907-0.9975) with super case-II transport mechanism over a period of 10 h. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl exhibited significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  17. Formulation optimization and evaluation of jackfruit seed starch-alginate mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2013-08-01

    The present study deals with the formulation optimization of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., family: Moraceae) seed starch (JFSS)-alginate mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through ionotropic gelation using 3(2) factorial design. The effect of sodium alginate to JFSS ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h, %) was optimized. The optimized beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 97.48±3.92%, R10h of 65.70±2.22%, and mean diameter of 1.16±0.11mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads were influenced by pH of the test medium. The optimized beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  18. Blends of jackfruit seed starch-pectin in the development of mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2013-11-01

    In this work, calcium pectinate-jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seed starch (JFSS) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic-gelation. Effects of pectin and JFSS amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release after 10 h (R10 h) were optimized using 3(2) factorial design. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 94.11 ± 3.92%, R10 h of 48.88 ± 2.02%, and mean diameter of 2.06 ± 0.20 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The pH of test mediums was found critical for swelling and mucoadhesion of these beads. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  19. Development, optimization and in vitro-in vivo evaluation of pioglitazone- loaded jackfruit seed starch-alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Hasnain, Saquib Md

    2013-10-01

    The present investigation describes development and optimization of pioglitazone-loaded jackfruit seed starch (JFSS)-alginate beads by ionotropic-gelation using 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10 hours (R10h, %) was optimized. The DEE (%) of these beads were 64.80 ± 1.92 to 94.07 ± 3.82 % with sustained in vitro drug release of 64.± 1.83 to 92.66 ± 4.54 % over 10 hours. The in vitro drug release from these beads followed controlled-release pattern with super case-II transport. Particle size range of these beads was 0.77 ± 0.04 to 1.24 ± 0.09 mm. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling of these beads was influenced by pH of the test medium. The optimized pioglitazone-loaded JFSS-alginate beads showed significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  20. Effect of Kombucha Tea on Blood Sugar and Blood Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malekaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kombucha tea is made through fermentation of sweet tea by Kombucha fungus. It has beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. The present study aimed at examining the effect of Kombucha tea extract on blood sugar and blood lipid profiles in diabetes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats weighing about 250g were divided into 4 equal groups and then injected intraperitoneally (IP with alloxan to induce diabetes. The administered concentrations were 20 and 80 mg/kg of Kombucha tea and 20 mg/kg of black ordinary tea for one month. The rats’ blood sugar and weight were tested before and after the intervention period but blood lipid parameters per either administration were also assessed at the end of the period. Results: Mean blood sugar in the diabetic rats receiving Kombucha tea was reduced. Maximum reduction in blood sugar was observed in the group receiving Kombucha tea with concentration of 80 mg/kg. However, black tea significantly reduced blood sugar. Conclusion: Kombucha tea consumption for a month only reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. But increased the weight and not have favorable effects on lipid profile.

  1. Functionalization of gold nanoparticles as antidiabetic nanomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, M; Govindaraju, K; Mohamed Sadiq, A; Tamilselvan, S; Ganesh Kumar, V; Singaravelu, G

    2013-12-01

    In the present investigation, functionalization of gold nanoparticles synthesized using propanoic acid 2-(3-acetoxy-4,4,14-trimethylandrost-8-en-17-yl) (PAT) an active biocomponent isolated from Cassia auriculata is studied in detail. On reaction of PAT with aqueous HAuCl4, rapid formation of stable gold nanoparticles was achieved. Formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, GC-MS,FTIR, TEM and SEM with EDAX. Gold nanoparticles mostly were monodisperse, spherical in shape and ranged in size 12-41 nm. Gold nanoparticles synthesised using PAT was administered to alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic male albino rats at different doses (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. Plasma glucose level, cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly (pgold nanoparticles at dosage of 0.5mg/kg body weight and plasma insulin increased significantly. The newly genre green gold nanoparticles exhibit remarkable protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity.

  2. Effect ofSalvia miltiorrhiza on retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Shu-Zhen Dai; Xiao-Dong Nie; Lei Zhu; Feng Xing; Li-Ya Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on diabetic retinopathy(DR).Methods:Diabetic mice of natural incidence type with monogenic inheritance were selected.Alloxan was injected into the caudal vein of mice once to induceDR.The structural changes of retina tissue in normal mice,DR mice and mice with high, medium and low dose ofSalvia miltiorrhiza injection were observed under microscope.Then the blood glucose concentration and malonaldehyde(MDA) content were detected.Results:There were some microaneurysms in retina ofDR group, number of gangliocyte was decreased significantly, and cells were sparse and in disorder.After modeling, the blood glucose level of high-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza group(SMⅢ group) was significantly different fromDR group(P<0.01).Till the tenth week, the blood glucose level of allSM groups was decreased significantly compared withDR group(P<0.01).The effective rates of threeSM groups were93.8%,76.4% and50.3%, respectively.After ten weeks,MDA content ofDR group was significantly higher than those of the normal control group andSM group(P<0.01), and medium and low doseSM groups had significantly higherMDA than that of normal control group(P<0.01). Conclusions:Salvia miltiorrhiza had certain protective effect onDRmice through the blood-ocular barrier.

  3. Metforminium Decavanadate as a Potential Metallopharmaceutical Drug for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Samuel; Velázquez-Vázquez, Denisse; Sánchez-Lara, Eduardo; Diaz-Fonseca, Alfonso; Flores-Hernandez, José Ángel; Pérez-Benítez, Aarón; Brambila-Colombres, Eduardo; González-Vergara, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    New potential drugs based on vanadium are being developed as possible treatments for diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. In this regard, our working group developed metforminium decavanadate (MetfDeca), a compound with hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. MetfDeca was evaluated in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, on male Wistar rats. Alloxan-induction was employed to produce DM1 model, while a hypercaloric-diet was employed to generate DM2 model. Two-month treatments with 3.7 μg (2.5 μM)/300 g/twice a week for DM2 and 7.18 μg (4.8 μM)/300 g/twice a week for DM1 of MetfDeca, respectively, were administered. The resulting pharmacological data showed nontoxicological effects on liver and kidney. At the same time, MetfDeca showed an improvement of carbohydrates and lipids in tissues and serum. MetfDeca treatment was better than the monotherapies with metformin for DM2 and insulin for DM1. Additionally, MetfDeca showed a protective effect on pancreatic beta cells of DM1 rats, suggesting a possible regeneration of these cells, since they recovered their insulin levels. Therefore, MetfDeca could be considered not only as an insulin-mimetic agent, but also as an insulin-enhancing agent. Efforts to elucidate the mechanism of action of this compound are now in progress. PMID:27119007

  4. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

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    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  5. Light Microscopic Evaluation of Cardio-vasculare System in Alloksan-induced Diabetic Rats in Acute Period

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    Selen Bahçeci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the chronic complication of diabetes and acute effects of diabetes on heart and aorta is not clear. We aimed to determine acute effects of diabetes on cardio-vasculare system with light microscopy. We used 20 Spraque-Dawley rats and applied 150 mg/kg alloxan, intraperitoneally for inducing diabetes and 1 ml SF in control group. After 24 hours, venous blood samples were measured. Blood glucose levels higher than 250 mg/dl were accepted as DM and treated with 4 IU/d human insülin. After 7 days rats were sacrified under ketamin anaesthesia. Heart and aorta were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin. The sectiones were embedded in paraffin and were serially sectioned at 5 m thickness, then stained with Hematoxyline-Eosine (H&E and Heidenhein’s Azan modification.There was no histopathological changes in cardiac muscle cells in control group. But there was a heterogen appearance in cardiac muscle cells and we determined some hydropic degenerations in some of the cardiac muscle cells and a minimal fibrosis in perivasculare and interstitial area in diabetic group. All histological stratums of aorta were seen normally in control group. In diabetic group, there was a clear anisostosis in smooth muscle cells and decreased in nucleus of smooth muscle cells in tunica media. We concluted that DM is caused degeneration and fibrosis in cardiac muscle cells and effective on smooth muscle cells in aorta in acute period.

  6. Isolation and characterization of anti-diabetic component (bioactivity-guided fractionation) fromOcimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) aerial part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Patil; Ravindra Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and characterize antidiabetic component (bioactivity-guided fractionation) from hydro alcoholic extract ofOcimum sanctum (O. sanctum) aerial part.Methods: Ten fractions(F1 - F10) were isolated from hydro alcoholic extract ofO. sanctum aerial part by column chromatography. All the fractions F1 toF10 were screened for antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats by estimating serum glucose level and lipid parameters. The isolated bioactive component was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (UV, IR, MS,1H and 13C NMR) data analysis.Results:The bioactive fraction(F5) was found to be potent antidiabetic by ameliorating glucose and lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol). The extensive spectroscopic data analysis reveals that, the isolated bioactive compound elucidated as tetracyclic triterpenoid [16-Hydroxy-4,4,10,13-tetramethyl-17-(4-methyl-pentyl)-hexadecahydro-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one]. Conclusions:Our present study concluded that, tetracyclic triterpenoid isolated from aerial part ofO. sanctum has a great anti-diabetic potential.

  7. The study of indicators of bone marrow and peripheral blood of rats with diabetes and transplanted liver tumor after intravenous injection of gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikht, Nataliya I.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2015-03-01

    In study the evaluation of the influence of gold nanorods on morphological indicators of red bone marrow and peripheral blood of rats with diabetes and transplanted liver tumor after intravenous administration of gold nanorods was conducted. We used gold nanorods with length 41 ± 8 nm and diameter of 10.2±2 nm, synthesized in the laboratory of nanobiotechnology IBPPM RAS (Saratov). After intravenous administration of gold nanorods the decrease of leukocytes, platelets and lymphocytes was observed in animals of control group in blood. It was marked the decrease of the number of mature cellular elements of the leukocyte germ in bone marrow - stab neutrophils and segmented leukocytes, and the increase of immature elements- metamyelocytes, indicating the activation of leukocyte germ after nanoparticle administration. The decrease of leukocyte amount was noted in blood and the increase of cellular elements of the leukocyte germ was revealed in bone marrow, indicating the activation of leukocyte germ in rats with alloxan diabetes and transplanted tumors. The changes of morphological indicators of blood and bone marrow testify about stimulation of myelocytic sprouts of hemopoiesis in bone marrow as a result of reduction of mature cells in peripheral blood after gold nanoparticle administration.

  8. Tamarind seed polysaccharide-gellan mucoadhesive beads for controlled release of metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-03-15

    The paper describes the development, optimization and evaluation of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-blended gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through Ca(2+)-ion cross-linked ionic gelation for oral drug delivery. Effects of GG to TSP ratio and cross-linker (CaCl2) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10h (R10h, %) of TSP-GG mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were optimized by 32 factorial design. The optimized mucoadhesive beads (F-O) showed DEE of 95.73 ± 4.02%, R10h of 61.22 ± 3.44% and mean diameter of 1.70 ± 0.24 mm.These beads were characterized by SEM and FTIR analyses. The in vitro drug release from these beads showed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern over a period of 10h.The optimized TSP-GG mucoadhesive beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with biological mucosal membrane and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  9. Development of calcium pectinate-tamarind seed polysaccharide mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-01-30

    Novel mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl made of low methoxy (LM) pectin-tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) polymer-blend was developed through ionotropic-gelation technique and optimized using 3(2) factorial design. Effects of LM pectin and TSP amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h) were analyzed using response surface methodology. The optimized calcium pectinate-TSP beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 95.12 ± 4.26%, R10h of 46.53 ± 3.28%, and mean diameter of 1.93 ± 0.26 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  10. Photothermal ablation is the primary mechanism in holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy of urinary calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Corbin, Nicole S.; Vassar, George J.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Chan, Kin Foong; Welch, Ashley J.

    1999-09-01

    Because of the >= 250 microsecond(s) pulsewidth emitted by the Ho:YAG laser used in clinical lithotripsy, it is unlikely that stress confinement occurs within the irradiated stones. Experimental data supports a thermal mechanism for Ho:YAG laser stone ablation. Previous work has shown that stone fragmentation occurs soon after the onset of the laser pulse, is uncorrelated to cavitation bubble formation or collapse, and is associated with low pressures. Moreover, lithotripsy proceeds fastest with desiccated stones in air (data based on laser ablation of calcium oxalate monohydrate stones), indicating that direct absorption of the laser radiation by the stone material is required for the most efficient ablation. Lowering the initial temperature of calculi reduces the stone mass-loss following 20 J of delivered laser energy: 2.2 +/- 1.1 mg vs 5.2 +/- 1.6 mg for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones (-80 vs 23 degree(s)C), and 0.8 +/- 0.4 mg vs 2.2 +/- 1.1 mg for cystine stones (-80 vs 23 degree(s)C), p cystine; Ca2O7P2 from calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, and cyanide and alloxan from uric acid. All of these observations are most consistent with a photothermal breakdown process induced by Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy.

  11. Studies on the Effect of Processing Methods on the Antihyperglycemic activity of Herbal Teas from Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del

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    G I Okafor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del (Asteraceae was processed into herbal tea using the black and green tea processing techniques. The green tea obtained was used as such while a portion of the black tea was flavored with O. basilicum or O. gratissimum. Methanol extracts of the flavored and unflavored herbal teas, obtained by cold maceration, were subjected to pharmacological studies for antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan diabetic rats and pytochemical analysis. Results showed that single oral administration of the tea extracts reduced blood glucose level of diabetic rats to varying the extents. Extract of green tea (GTE caused a moderate reduction in blood glucose levels while black tea (BTE evoked a mild dose-related effect. Extracts of the flavored tea caused significant (PBTOGE>GTE

  12. The Effect of Citrullus colocynthis Pulp Extract on the Liver of Diabetic Rats a Light and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

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    Mohammad Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The goal of the current investigation was to clarify the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract on the structure of the liver of diabetic rats at both light and scanning electron microscopic levels. Approach: Forty-eight adult male albino rats were equally allocated into four groups: Group1: control, Group 2: Citrullus colocynthis-treated, Group 3: diabetic rats and Group4: diabetic rats treated with Citrullus colocynthis. All treatments were administered via an intragastric tube. Diabetes was induced in the rats of groups 3 and 4 by an intraperitoneal injection with alloxan. Results: The liver of Citrullus colocynthis-treated rats revealed minor histological changes versus the control animals. In group 3 animals, diabetes caused degenerative alterations in the form of disorganization of the hepatic cords, cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknosis of the nuclei of hepatocytes and inflammatory cell infiltration. Scanning electron microscope examination of these livers revealed numerous lipid droplets within hepatocytes, damaged blood sinusoids and hemorrhage of erythrocytes between hepatocytes and inside Disse’s spaces. On the other hand, the normal histological and scanning ultrastructural features were nearly resumed in the liver of diabetic rats treated with Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract. Conclusion: The present study proved a lessening effect of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract on the liver of diabetic rats. In light of these advantageous influences, it is advisable to widen the scale of its use in a trial to alleviate the diabetic hepatic adverse effects.

  13. Influence of antioxidant (L- ascorbic acid on tolbutamide induced hypoglycaemia/antihyperglycaemia in normal and diabetic rats

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    Vardhan Vishnu A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant levels are the leading cause of diabetes and diabetic complications. So it is felt that supplementation of antioxidants may be useful in controlling the glucose levels and to postpone the occurrence of diabetic complications. The objective of our study is to find the influence of antioxidant supplementation (L-ascorbic acid on tolbutamide activity in normal and diabetic rats. Methods L- ascorbic acid/tolbutamide/L-ascorbic acid + tolbutamide were administered orally to 3 different groups of albino rats of either sex in normal and diabetic condition. Blood samples were collected from retro-orbital puncture at different time intervals and were analyzed for blood glucose by GOD-POD method. Diabetes was induced by alloxan 100 mg/kg body weight administered by I.P route. Results L-ascorbic acid/ tolbutamide produced hypoglycaemic activity in a dose dependant manner in normal and diabetic condition. In the presence of L-ascorbic acid, tolbuatmide produced early onset of action and maintained for longer period compared to tolbutamide matching control. Conclusion Supplementation of antioxidants like L-ascorbic acid was found to improve tolbutamide response in normal and diabetic rats.

  14. Effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP low-level laser irradiation on experimental wound healing in healthy and diabetic Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, L. M. G.; Matheus, R. L.; Santos, G. M. T.; Esquisatto, M. A. M.; Amaral, M. E. C.; Mendonça, F. A. S.

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP laser irradiation on wound healing in healthy and alloxan diabetic rats. The animals were divided into eight groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy treated with microcurrent (HMC); diabetic treated with microcurrent (DMC); healthy irradiated with laser (HL); diabetic irradiated with laser (DL); healthy receiving laser and microcurrent application (HLMC) and diabetic receiving laser and microcurrent application (DLMC). Wound samples were collected on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 of treatment for structural analysis, morphometry, and Western blotting to quantify the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF. Comparison of animals receiving laser and microcurrent therapy showed a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells in diabetic animals, as well as an increase of fibroblasts in healthy animals and of newly formed vessels in healthy and diabetic animals. Expression of TGF-β1 was increased on day 6 in all groups, especially diabetic animals. A reduction in the expression of this protein was observed on day 10 in all groups. VEGF expression was higher on day 6 in treated and control diabetic animals when compared to healthy animals. Analysis of VEGF expression in the laser- and microcurrent-treated groups on day 10 showed a decrease in diabetic animals and an increase in healthy animals. In conclusion, laser therapy and microcurrent stimulation exert beneficial effects on wound healing in both healthy and diabetic animals.

  15. Antihyperglycaemic activity of the stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerima, M; Anuka, J A; Salawu, O A; Abdu-Aguye, I

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportion worldwide. In 2002, WHO Expert Committee on diabetes mellitus recommended an urgent and further evaluation of the folkloric methods of managing the disease. In response to this recommendation, several medicinal plants are currently being investigated for their hypoglycaemic activity and one of such plants is Tamarindus indica. Tamarindus indica is a slow growing tree that is resistant to strong winds and perennial. The stem-bark extract of the plant is used locally for the management of diabetes. The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats using a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg(-1) IP). The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5,000 mg kg(-1). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids and triterpenes. The 1000 mg kg(-1) dose of the extract lowered the blood glucose level significantly (p Tamarindus indica Linn significantly lowered elevated Blood Glucose concentration (BGL) in the experimental animal models, while the crude extract was able to prevent an elevation in BGL when used in the oral glucose load model.

  16. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Devender O; Gosavi, Devesh D; Salwe, Kartik J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark.

  17. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  18. Efficacy of combination herbal product (Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolana) used for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination herbal product that is traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. Herbal drug contains Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolanain the ratio of 1:1. It was orally administered at the dose of 1082 mg/70 kg twice a day for a period of 6 weeks to alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with glibenclamide (standard). The effects of drug were observed at intervals, with respect to random and fasting glucose levels. HbA1C was also monitored after the drug treatment to monitor the overall diabetic effect. Results revealed that the combination of two herbs significantly reduced fasting and random glucose levels with HbA1C of less than 6% (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control. The control of fasting blood glucose levels by herbal combination is similar to the standard drug, glibenclamide (p<0.05). Random glucose levels by herbal combination is better than standard drug after one week and six weeks of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) and similar after third week of treatment (p<0.05). Also, herbal drug combination showed HbA1C closer to the standard drug. It shows that this herbal combination can be of potential benefit in managing diabetes mellitus in future.

  19. Characterization of the Antidiabetic Role of Parkinsonia aculeata (Caesalpineaceae

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    Ana Catarina Rezende Leite

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the characterization of the antidiabetic role of a hydroethanolic extract from Parkinsonia aerial parts (HEPA, in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, treated with HEPA (125 and 250 mg/kg; p.o.. Oral glucose tolerance test, acute oral toxicity test and preliminary phytochemical analyses were performed. The diabetic rats treated with HEPA showed a significant reduction in serum and urinary glucose, urinary urea and triglyceride levels, as compared to the diabetic untreated group. However, in the normal treated groups, a significant reduction was found only in serum triglyceride levels. In all treated diabetic groups, an improvement in hepatic glycogen was observed, as well as a decrease in liquid intake and urinary volume, and an enhancement in the weight of skeletal muscles (soleus and extensor digitorum longus, kidneys and epididymal adipose tissue. Nevertheless, body and liver weights were ameliorated only in the diabetic group treated with HEPA (250 mg/kg. Moreover, oral glucose tolerance was higher in animals treated with HEPA, while results also showed that HEPA could be considered toxicologically safe. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tanins, flavonoids and steroids in HEPA. In conclusion, P. aculeata presents an antidiabetic activity and other beneficial effects that ameliorate diabetes and associated complications.

  20. Dietary Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Ameliorates Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats

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    A. M. Akinnuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin coconut oil (VCO is a saturated fat with promising antidiabetic properties but its ameliorative effect on lipid profiles in diabetics is rarely reported. Therefore, in this study, a total of fifteen (15 male rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into 3 experimental groups (n=5. Group I (control and Group II (diabetic control group were fed a normal rat chow while Group III (diabetic test group was fed a 10% VCO diet for 3 weeks. Group II and Group III were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of alloxan. After 72 hours of injection, blood glucose was tested to confirm diabetes mellitus. After 3 weeks, the animals were sacrificed to collect blood samples for lipid profile analysis. The results showed a significant increase in concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein and decrease in concentration of high density lipoprotein in Group II when compared to Group I. Also, the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein except high density lipoprotein significantly reduced in Group III when compared to Group II (P<0.01, 0.001. VCO consumption can be claimed to ameliorate lipid levels in diabetes mellitus.

  1. Amelioration of Diabetes and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy by Punica granatum L. Extract and Its Spray Dried Biopolymeric Dispersions

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    K. Raafat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1 or chitosan (F2 against Diabetes mellitus (DM and diabetic neuropathy (DN. Methods. We measured the acute (6 h and subacute (8 days effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks. In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed utilizing serum catalase level. Results. The results proved that the highest dose levels of Pg extract, F1, F2 exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 48, 52, and 40% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 hours, respectively. The tested compounds also improved peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency tests. Bioguided fractionation suggested that gallic acid (GA was Pg main active ingredient responsible for its actions. Conclusion. Pg extract, F1, F2, and GA could be considered as a new therapeutic potential for the amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain and the observed in vivo antioxidant potential may be involved in its antinociceptive effect. It is highly significant to pay attention to Pg and GA for amelioration and control of DM and its complications.

  2. Plantago ovata F. Mucilage-Alginate Mucoadhesive Beads for Controlled Release of Glibenclamide: Development, Optimization, and In Vitro-In Vivo Evaluation

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    Amit Kumar Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study deals with the development and optimization of ispaghula (Plantago ovata F. husk mucilage- (IHM- alginate mucoadhesive beads containing glibenclamide by ionotropic gelation technique. The effects of sodium alginate (SA to IHM and cross-linker (CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %, as well as cumulative drug release after 10 hours (R10 h, %, were optimized using 32 factorial design based on response surface methodology. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The optimized mucoadhesive beads exhibited 94.43±4.80% w/w of DEE and good mucoadhesivity with the biological membrane in wash-off test and sustained drug release profile over 10 hours. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR analyses. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed by controlled release (zero-order pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The optimized glibenclamide-loaded IHM-alginate mucoadhesive beads showed significant antidiabetic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  3. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  4. Evaluation of the Reproductive Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhang, Weijie; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Huang, Jing; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats and then inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, and lipid metabolism. The results showed that no pathological, toxic feces and urine changes were observed in clinical signs of parental and fetal rats in chromium malate groups. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of chromium malate groups have no significant change compared with control group and chromium picolinate group. The serum and organ contents of Cr in chromium malate groups have no significant change when compared with control group. No measurable damage on liver, brain, kidney, and testis/uterus of chromium malate groups was found. No significant change in body mass, absolute and relative organ weights, and hematological and biochemical changes of rats were observed compared with the control and chromium picolinate groups. The results indicated that supplements with chromium malate does not cause obvious damage and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme, and lipid metabolism on female and male rats. The results of this study suggested that chromium malate is safe for human consumption and has the potential for application as a functional food ingredient and dietary supplement.

  5. Antiradical and Cytoprotective Activities of Several C-Geranyl-substituted Flavanones from Paulownia tomentosa Fruit

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    Ana Lopes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiradical and cytoprotective activities of several flavanones isolated from Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb. Steud. (Scrophulariaceae have been evaluated using different in vitro and in vivo methods. The capacity of flavanones to scavenge radicals was measured in vitro by means of DPPH and ABTS assays, the inhibition of hydroxyl radicals produced in Fenton reactions, FRAP, scavenging superoxide radicals using enzymatic and nonenzymatic assays and the inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced nitration of tyrosine. The in vivo testing involved measuring the cytoprotective effect of chosen flavanones against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice. The activity of tested compounds was expressed either as a Trolox® equivalent or was compared with rutin or morine as known antioxidant compounds. The highest activity in most tests was observed for diplacone and 3´-O-methyl-5´-hydroxydiplacone, and the structure vs. the antioxidant activity relationship of geranyl or prenyl-substituted flavonoids with different substitutions at the B and C ring was discussed.

  6. Arachidonic acid metabolism in the platelets and neutrophils of diabetic rabbit and human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greco, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    An alteration of arachidonic acid metabolism to prostaglandins and leukotrienes from platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes respectively is evident in subjects with diabetes mellitus. There is evidence of altered platelet/vascular wall interactions in diabetes mellitus and evidence that polymorphonuclear leukocytes influence the vascular walls. Theories on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis include both blood cells. Platelet hypersensitivity is evident in those platelets from the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit either suspended in plasma or buffer. Arachidonic acid- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, release of /sup 14/serotonin, and T x B/sub 2/ and 12-HETE production is enhanced when responses of diabetic platelets are compared to control platelets. Control rabbit neutrophils produce more LTB/sub 4/, LTB/sub 4/ isomers and 5-HETE than diabetic rabbits neutrophils. Decreased synthesis from diabetic rabbit neutrophils is not explained by increased catabolism of LTB/sub 4/, reesterification of 5-HETE, or increased eicosanoid formation. These experiments demonstrate both platelet and neutrophil dysfunction in diabetic subjects. Because of the involvement of these cells in regulating circulatory homeostatis, abnormal behavior could aggravate the atherosclerotic process. Platelet and neutrophil dysfunctions are noted before macroscopic vascular lesions are apparent suggesting an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  7. The Bioenergetics of Isolated Mitochondria from Different Animal Models for Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Dairo A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic alteration characterized by a higher than normal blood glucose level. For the experimental study of the metabolic changes that occur during this illness, various animal models have been introduced: alloxan- and streptozotocin-injected animals, as well as depancreatized animals, as models for type 1 diabetes, and high-fat fed diabetic animals and laboratory animals with genetic diabetes as models for type 2 diabetes. All these models have been used to investigate specific events on the cellular and organ levels that occur as a consequence of diabetes. In particular, mitochondrial energy metabolism has been extensively studied using these experimental models for diabetes. The experimental results for the bioenergetics of isolated mitochondria harvested from different animal models for diabetes, with the exception of those obtained with high-fat fed diabetic animals, are conflicting; nevertheless, many researchers now consider mitochondrial energy dysfunction as one of the direct causes of the serious complications, in various organs and tissues, that are exhibited as a result of this illness. For this reason, it is important that future research clarify the true energy functional state of these organelles isolated from diabetic animals. In the present paper, the published data on this controversial but important issue of the energetic functioning of the mitochondria isolated from diabetic animals is reviewed. This paper also includes commentary on the status of current research and makes useful suggestions for the future direction of research on this topic.

  8. Extraction optimization and bioactivity of exopolysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yong; Mao, Jian; Meng, Xiangyong

    2013-02-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of EPS produced by Agaricus bisporus MJ-0811 in submerged culture. The optimal levels for ethanol concentration (85%, v/v), pH (8) and precipitation time (22 h) were determined, and EPS production was estimated at 2.71 g/L. The actual yield of EPS under these conditions was 2.69 g/L. In addition, the antioxidant activity of EPS was investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the hypoglycemic activity of EPS was investigated by measuring its effects on body weights and blood glucose of diabetic mice. The study suggests that EPS has beneficial antioxidant activities (hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities, superoxide radical-scavenging activities) in vitro, anti-diabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic mice. The EPS from A. bisporus may be a novel resource of natural antioxidants and anti-diabetic agents for use in the functional food or medicine.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity studies on partially purified hypoglycemic preparation from water extract of bark ofFicus bengalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Shukla, R; Prabhu, K M; Aggrawal, S; Rusia, U; Murthy, P S

    2002-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity studies were conducted to assess toxicity of a partially purified preparation from the water extract of the bark ofFicus bengalensis, which was demonstrated in our earlier studies to have significant hypoglycemic and hypocholesteroiemic effect on alloxan induced, mild and severe diabetes in rabbits. LD(50) of this preparation was found to be ∼1 gm/kg in rats when given orally. For chronic toxicity studies 3 doses of aqueous preparation were given to 3 groups of rats. First group received 5 times ED(50) (50 mg/kg), second group 10 times ED(50) (100 mg/kg) and the third group 15 times ED(50) (150 mg/kg) for 3 months. Fourth group which served as control was given water. After three months, blood was collected for studying biochemical and hematological parameters. Blood glucose, serum cholesterol, liver and kidney function tests, haemoglobin, total and differential leukocyte count were determined. Animals were sacrificed and histopathological examination of liver, heart and kidneys was carried out. Results of the study showed that partially purified preparation fromFicus bengalensis is not toxic by all the above mentioned parameters.

  10. 苦苣菜对糖尿病小鼠血糖血脂及抗氧化酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光; 李记争; 马琳; 余建强; 姚遥; 高进贤; 蒋袁絮

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察苦苣菜(Sonchus oleraceus L.,SO)醇提物对四氧嘧啶(Alloxan)致糖尿病小鼠血糖、血脂、胰岛素及抗氧化酶的影响并分析其作用机制.方法:采用Alloxan致小鼠糖尿病模型,SO(2.0、1.0 g/kg)连续灌胃4 w,葡萄糖氧化酶法测定空腹血糖,放射免疫分析法测定血清胰岛素并计算胰岛素敏感指数(ISI),分光光度法测定血脂和肝脏抗氧化酶水平.结果:SO(2.0、1.0 g/kg)能显著降低糖尿病小鼠血糖(P<0.01)、胰岛素和TG水平(P<0.05),提高ISI和肝脏组织中SOD含量(P<0.01).结论:SO能降低糖尿病小鼠血糖、胰岛素和甘油三酯(TG),其作用与增加抗氧化酶功能有关.

  11. The Chemical Composition of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch and Its Desirable Effects on Hyperglycemia, Inflammatory Mediators and Hypercholesterolemia as Risk Factors for Cardiometabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Khazneh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to identify the content compounds of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii and to evaluate its hypoglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic activity and effect on inflammatory mediators. The extracts and fractions of A. wilhelmsii were thoroughly analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the total content of phenols and flavonoids was determined. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated in vivo using alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The effect upon inflammatory mediators was evaluated in vitro using the human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1. The anti-hypercholesterolemic activity was evaluated in vitro using the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase assay kit. The water extract (WE-treated group showed the highest reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL. The chloroform fraction (CF and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF both showed a significant ability to reduce the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. The EAF, however, also attenuated the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. The CF showed the most significant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR inhibition activity. The five main compounds in the CF were isolated and identified. Out of the five compounds in the CF, 1β,10β-epoxydesacetoxymatricarin (CP1 and leucodin (CP2 showed the highest anti-hypercholesterolemic potential. A molecular docking study provided corresponding results.

  12. Effect of ethanolic extracts of Ananas comosus L. leaves on insulin sensitivity in rats and HepG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weidong; Wang, Wei; Su, Hui; Xing, Dongming; Pan, Yang; Du, Lijun

    2006-08-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Ananas comosus L. leaves (AC) enriched with phenols have hypoglycemic activity in diabetic rats. Here, we investigated the effect of AC on insulin sensitivity in rats and HepG2. In high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotozin-treated diabetic Wistar rats subjected to challenge with exogenous human insulin, AC treatment at an oral dose of 0.40 g/kg could significantly improve sensitivity to exogenous insulin. After a sub-acute treatment, AC also could inhibit the development of insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotozin-treated diabetic rats following the test of loss of tolbutamide-induced blood glucose lowering action. For intravenous insulin/glucose infusion test, high-fat diet-fed and low-dose alloxan-treated Wistar rats were associated with insulin resistance, which was improved after AC or fenofibrate treatment. AC application inhibited the development of insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. The above animal models were well developed to simulate type 2 diabetes. Taken together, our results suggest that AC may improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes and could be developed into a new potential natural product for handling of insulin resistance in diabetic patients.

  13. Peripheral 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Restrepo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT, a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at low doses of 5-CT was reproduced by 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT and abolished by WAY-100,635, 5-HT1A antagonist. Pretreatment with 5-HT1 antagonist methiothepin blocked the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of 5-CT, whereas pimozide, 5-HT7 antagonist, only abolished 5-CT inhibitory action. In conclusion, long-term diabetes elicits changes in the subtype of the 5-HT receptor involved in modulation of vagally induced bradycardia. Activation of the 5-HT1A receptors induces enhancement, whereas attenuation is due to 5-HT7 receptor activation. This 5-HT dual effect occurs at pre- and postjunctional levels.

  14. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Potential of a High Fiber Diet in Healthy versus Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Díez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate potential hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects of Plantago ovata husk included in the diet, in healthy and diabetic rabbits. We also examined the effects of this fiber in other biochemical parameters. Two groups of 18 rabbits were used. The first group was fed with standard chow and the second with chow supplemented with Plantago ovata husk (3.5 mg/kg/day. On day 14 diabetes mellitus was induced by the intravenous administration of alloxan (80 mg/kg. After an oral glucose load (3 g, glucose, insulin, and other biochemical parameters were determined on day 14 (healthy rabbits and on day 28 (diabetic rabbits. In healthy rabbits, fiber did not modify glucose or insulin levels but decreased significantly total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, and glycosylated hemoglobin. In diabetic rabbits, fiber was more beneficial in mild diabetics than in severe diabetics with significant decreases in glucose levels and increases in insulin concentrations. In these animals fiber caused an important reduction in cholesterol, indicating a beneficial effect of Plantago ovata husk in diabetic rabbits. Although further studies in patients are necessary, we think that Plantago ovata husk offers interesting perspectives to be administered to patients with diabetes mellitus.

  15. HYPOGLYCEMIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PEPEROMEA PELLUCIDA (L. HBK (PIPERACEAE

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    H. Sheikh*, S. Sikder, S. Kumar Paul , A.M. Rashedul Hasan , Md. M. Rahaman and S. Paul Kundu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspire of the present research was to explore the hypoglycemic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate extract of Peporemia pellucida in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, and hypercholesterolemia and against pain. In the present study hypoglycemic effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Peperomea pellucida was significant from (25.35 to 8.1 mM ±SEM i.e., 68.44% in 300mg/kg ethyl acetate extract as a 7 days hypoglycemic treatment. On 120 minutes OGTT test, reduction of blood glucose level was also significant. In 300mg/kg extract blood glucose level reduced from (20.53mM to 7.69 ±SEM 62.64% was observed. Analgesic treatment was observed carefully and mentionable activities were evaluated. Percentage of inhibition was 58.16 with the number of writhing 11.8±SEM in 300mg/kg inhibition was observed with 6.8 ±SEM writhing. P. pellucida has significant anti-inflammatory effect after 4 hr with 3.47± SEM. The present study indicates significant hypoglycemic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of P. pellucida. The present investigation established the pharmacological evidence to support the folklore claim and that of the plant has antidiabetic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  16. Histological changes of kidney in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Shafi, Hamid; Babazadeh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic renal disorders and end-stage kidney disease in developed countries. It is the major cause of dialysis and transplantation. Failure in renal function causes wide disorders in the body. Diabetes results in wide range of alterations in the renal tissue. It is believed that early histological changes in diabetic nephropathy are detectable 2 years after diabetes is diagnosed. The glomerular alterations are the most important lesions in the diabetic nephropathy (DN). The Renal Pathology Society provides a new pathological classification for the detection of histopathology of DN. It divides diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions. Alloxan or streptozotocin induced diabetic rat is the one most widely used specie to study DN. Histological changes in the rat DN closely resemble the human disease and the most information of this review was obtained through the study of rat DN. All cell types of the kidney such as mesangial cells, podocytes and tubulointerstitial cells are liable to be affected in the event of DN. Severity of renal lesions is associated to the clinical aspect of renal outcome, but the aim of this article was only to review the histological changes of kidney in diabetes mellitus.

  17. SCIENTIFIC BASED OF ACUPUNCTURE AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Koosnadi Saputra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture its traditional form is based upon the stimulation of well defined points on the body by insertion of metal needles, such needling is considered necessary influenced biological mechanism by intrinsic and extrinsic activation after acupuncture points stimulation. Many clinical report therapeutic effect acupuncture treatment of Diabetes Mellitus especially Non Insulin dependent, the effectiveness of mild or middle type of disease is better that severe one and accompanying With controlling diet and doing more exercise will contribute recovery. Methods: Modem research indicates that acupuncture treatment can control blood sugar level, mainly by adjusting insulin molecular level, enhance insulin secretion and recontrol insulin by regulating central nervous system. Of the all, the improved function of the receptor of insulin target cells is probably the most important one. Results: The basic research approach to animal laboratory (rabbit,rat and mice by electro stimulation, streptozotocin and alloxan monohydrate injection visualizing correlation 13 cell pancreas inorphofunction, insulin receptor and electrical profile of specific pancreas point in body surface. Conclusion: Relationship between biophysical, morphology and physiological study of acupuncture points in diabetic animal and diabetic patient tobase acupuncture model as alternative treatment to diabetes mellitus. Key words: acupuncture, alternative treatment, diabetes mellitus

  18. PENGARUH EKSTRAK ETANOL BIJI KLABET (Trigonella foenum- graecum L. TERHADAP KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS NIDDM

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    Lucie Widowati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (klabet is one of the Indonesian medicinal plants and can be used to decrease glucose blood level on sufferer of diabetic. The effect of hypoglycemic of klabet seed extract on albino male rats has been investigated. Hyper­glycemic was induced by alloxan tetrahydrate 125 mg/kg body weight. The doses of the klabet extract were administered orally during 3 days and 7 days. Plasma glucose level was measured by Tinder method. Decrease percentage of plasma glucose level in gliclazide 1.4 mg/200g body weight, klabet seed extract 140 (DI, 280 (DII and 560 (DIII mg/200g body weight after 3 days of administration were 26.2, 17.97, 17.21, 14.17 respectively and decrease percentage after 7 days of administration were 42.74, 41.22, 42.86, 34.77 res­pectively. The effect of hypoglycemic was observed on 140 mg/200g body weight and 280 mg/200g body weight (p>0.05.

  19. Regulation of glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of diabetic and fat fed animals: Effects of insulin and manganese

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Najma Z Baquer; M Sinclair; S Kunjara; Umesh C S Yadav; P McLean

    2003-03-01

    In order to evaluate the modulatory effects of manganese, high fat diet fed and alloxan diabetic rats were taken and the changes in the glucose oxidation, glycerol release and effects of manganese on these parameters were measured from adipose tissue. An insulin-mimetic effect of manganese was observed in the adipose tissue in the controls and an additive effect of insulin and manganese on glucose oxidation was seen when Mn2+ was added in vitro. The flux of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis was significantly decreased in high fat fed animals. Although the in vitro addition of Mn2+ was additive with insulin when 14CO2 was measured from control animals, it was found neither in young diabetic animals (6–8 weeks old) nor in the old (16 weeks old). Both insulin and manganese caused an increased oxidation of carbon-1 of glucose and an increase of its incorporation into 14C-lipids in the young control animals; the additive effect of insulin and manganese suggests separate site of action. This effect was decreased in fat fed animals, diabetic animals and old animals. Manganese alone was found to decrease glycerol in both the control and diabetic adipose tissue in in vitro incubations. The results of the effects of glucose oxidation, lipogenesis, and glycerol release in adipose tissue of control and diabetic animals of different ages are presented together with the effect of manganese on adipose tissue from high fat milk diet fed animals.

  20. Diabetic Osteoporosis: A Review of Its Traditional Chinese Medicinal Use and Clinical and Preclinical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufeng Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The incidence of diabetic osteoporosis (DOP is increasing due to lack of effective management over the past few decades. This review aims to summarize traditional Chinese medicine (TCM suitability in the pathogenesis and clinical and preclinical management of DOP. Methods. Literature sources used were from Medline (Pubmed, CNKI (China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, and CSTJ (China Science and Technology Journal Database online databases. For the consultation, keywords such as diabetic osteoporosis (DOP, TCM, clinical study, animal experiment, toxicity, and research progress were used in various combinations. Around 100 research papers and reviews were visited. Results. Liver-spleen-kidney insufficiency may result in development of DOP. 18 clinical trials are identified to use TCM compound prescriptions for management of patients with DOP. TCM herbs and their active ingredients are effective in preventing the development of DOP in streptozotocin (STZ and alloxan as well as STZ combined with ovariectomy insulted rats. Among them, most frequently used TCM herbs in clinical trials are Radix Astragali, Radix et Rhizoma Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata, and Herba Epimedii. Some of TCM herbs also exhibit toxicities in clinical and preclinical research. Conclusions. TCM herbs may act as the novel sources of anti-DOP drugs by improving bone and glucolipid metabolisms. However, the pathogenesis of DOP and the material base of TCM herbs still merit further study.

  1. Evaluating the Effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae Larvae-Derived Haemolymph and Fat Body Extracts on Chronic Wounds in Diabetic Rabbits

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    Jennifher Góngora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies’ larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species’ fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds.

  2. Exogenous Streptococcus pneumoniae Endophthalmitis in Diabetic Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Angela H.; Fulton, Linda K.; Marquart, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetics are at increased risk for eye infections including bacterial endophthalmitis. It is unclear whether the severity of endophthalmitis is greater in these patients due to confounding factors such as pre-existing ocular diseases in some but not others. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that disease severity and/or bacterial loads would be significantly higher in a Type I diabetic rabbit model of Streptococcus pneumoniae endophthalmitis. Rabbits were treated with alloxan to destroy pancreatic islet cells, or mock-treated with vehicle, and maintained for 10 days before intravitreal infection with S. pneumoniae E353. Clinical scoring of the eyes was performed 24 and 48 hours after infection, followed by euthanasia and vitreous harvest to quantitate bacterial loads. There were no significant differences in clinical scores (P ≥ 0.440) or bacterial loads (P = 0.736), however, 4/12 (33%) of the diabetic rabbits became bacteremic. This finding not only indicates a breakdown in the blood-ocular barrier, but also prompts further investigation into the exploitation of the diabetic eye by the streptococci. PMID:28387365

  3. Peripheral 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Beatriz; Martín, María Luisa; San Román, Luis; Morán, Asunción

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT), a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at low doses of 5-CT was reproduced by 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) and abolished by WAY-100,635, 5-HT1A antagonist. Pretreatment with 5-HT1 antagonist methiothepin blocked the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of 5-CT, whereas pimozide, 5-HT7 antagonist, only abolished 5-CT inhibitory action. In conclusion, long-term diabetes elicits changes in the subtype of the 5-HT receptor involved in modulation of vagally induced bradycardia. Activation of the 5-HT1A receptors induces enhancement, whereas attenuation is due to 5-HT7 receptor activation. This 5-HT dual effect occurs at pre- and postjunctional levels. PMID:21403818

  4. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Syzygium operculatum (Roxb.) Niedz. bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman; Ahmmed Rusti Foysol; Anaytulla; Md. Masudur Rahman; Mohammed Aktar Sayeed; Md. Abdullah-Al-Mamun; Mohammad Mustakim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the methanol extract of Syzygium operculatum bark (MSOB) using in vivo and in vitro models. Methods: Antidiabetic activity was assessed by using alloxan induced (120 mg/kg body weight) diabetic mice. The plant extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administrated i.p. to diabetic mice in comparison with standard metformin hydrochloride (150 mg/kg body weight). The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by using a range of in vitro assays and results were compared to standards. Results: The extract MSOB 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg reduced the blood glucose level 44.05%and 55.53% respectively where the standard drug metformin reduced 69.42% in dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. The extract MSOB showed significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content and reducing power capacity compared to standards. The IC50 values were found 300.34 μg/mL in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay where 40.31 μg/mL for ascorbic acid. The total phenol and flavonoid contents were 197.5 and 267.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram, respectively. Conclusions: The present study indicates that the extract of Syzygium operculatum bark is the potential sources of natural antioxidant and possesses significant antidiabetic activities.

  5. Effect of Tamarindus indica Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Anoop; Singh, Vijender

    2013-01-01

    Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula are traditionally important medicinal plants. Stem barks of these plants have not been much explored for their potential hypoglycemic and oxidative stress conditions. The main aim of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity along with renal complications and antioxidant potential of alcoholic extracts of stem barks of these plants. Alcoholic extracts of stem barks of Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum albumin, total protein and creatinine were studied. Antioxidant potential in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to establish the safety of the drugs according to OECD guidelines. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with the alcoholic extracts of both plants. Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, serum albumin, total proteins and body weight were recovered to normal levels at the end of the studies. Alcoholic extract of stem bark of both plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods. Acute toxicity studies with the extracts of both plants showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p.o. It can be concluded from the study that Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula stem barks possess blood glucose lowering effect along with antioxidant effect and protective effect on renal complications associated with hyperglycemia.

  6. Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal potentials of ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Saidur; Rahman; Rasheda; Akter; Santosh; Mazumdar; Faridul; Islam; Nusrat; Jahan; Mouri; Nemai; Chandra; Nandi; Abu; Syeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. aerial parts(EECA) in Wistar rats.Methods: To assess the antidiabetic activity of EECA, oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) model and alloxan induced diabetic test(AIDT) model were performed. The EECA was used at the doses of 2 g/kg, 1 g/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight in OGTT model and 1.5 g/kg was used for AIDT model. Castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk model were performed for evaluating the antidiarrhoeal effects at doses of 1 g/kg, 750 mg/kg respectively.Results: The dose 2 g/kg in OGTT and 1.5 g/kg in AIDT model blood glucose levels decreased significantly(P < 0.01) in Wistar rats that showed antidiabetic effect of EECA. After administration of EECA at the dose of 1 g/kg, the extract showed significant(P < 0.05) antidiarrhoeal activity in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model. The results were also significant(P < 0.01) in barium sulphate milk model for the same dose by using above mentioned animals.Conclusions: It is concluded that EECA contains both antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal properties.

  7. Effects of maternal diabetes on male offspring: high cell proliferation and increased activity of MMP-2 in the ventral prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, A A; Carvalho, C P; Santos, E M B; Botelho, F V; Araújo, F A; Deconte, S R; Tomiosso, T C; Balbi, A P C; Zanon, R G; Taboga, S R; Góes, R M; Ribeiro, D L

    2014-10-01

    This study presents a comprehensive view of the histological and functional status of the prostate of adult rat offspring of mothers subjected to gestational diabetes induced by alloxan. The ventral prostate of male adult offspring of diabetic (DP) or normal (CP) mothers was evaluated for collagen fibres, cell death, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), androgen receptors (AR), transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ-1), catalase and total antioxidant activity. The prostates of DP animals were lower in weight than those of the CP group. The DP group also exhibited hyperglycaemia and hypotestosteronemia, higher cell proliferation and AR expression, a reduction in α-actin (possibly interfering with the reproductive function of the prostate), and enhanced activity of MMP-2, although the absolute content of MMP-2 was lower in this group. These findings were associated with increased TGFβ-1 and decreased collagen distribution. The prostates of DP rats additionally exhibited reductions in catalase and total antioxidant activity. Thus, rats developing in a diabetic intrauterine environment have glycaemic and hormonal changes that impact on the structure and physiology of the prostate in adulthood. The increased AR expression possibly leads to elevated cell proliferation. Stromal remodelling was characterized by enhanced activity of MMP-2 and collagen degradation, even with increased TGFβ-1 activation. These changes associated with increased oxidative stress might interfere with tissue architecture and glandular homeostasis.

  8. Influence of the semisynthetic bile acid MKC on the ileal permeation of gliclazide in vitro in healthy and diabetic rats treated with probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salami, H; Butt, G; Tucker, I; Mikov, M

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sodium 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-12-keto-5beta-cholanate (MKC) on the ileal permeation of gliclazide in healthy and diabetic rats treated with probiotics. Male Wistar rats (2-3 months, 350 +/- 50 g) were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 32); Groups 1 and 2 were healthy controls and Groups 3 and 4 were diabetic rats (alloxan 30 mg/kg was administered i.v.), which were administered probiotics for three days after the rats became diabetics. The rats were sacrificed and tissues were mounted on Ussing chambers. Then, gliclazide (200 microg/ml) was added to all the groups, while MKC (50 microg/ml) was given to Groups 2 and 4, for the measurement of the mucosal to serosal absorption Jss(MtoS) and serosal to mucosal secretion Jss(StoM) of gliclazide. In the tissues of healthy rats treated with probiotics, MKC stimulated the net absorption of gliclazide by stimulating the absorptive and reducing the secretory unidirectional fluxes, while in tissues from diabetic rats treated with probiotics, MKC had no effect. In healthy rats treated with probiotics, the degradation of MKC by bacterial polypeptides produced divalent bile salts that inhibited Mrp2, which resulted in reducing secretion and stimulating the absorption of gliclazide. In contrast, in diabetic rats treated with probiotics, MKC had no effect possibly due to a difference in the metabolic profile and resulting in no net flux.

  9. Role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the regulation of brain neuropeptides in normal and diabetic rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolta, Malak G.; Williams, Byron B.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) alteration on brain dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), beta-endorphin (beta-E), and immunoreactive insulin was studied in Sprague-Dawley diabetic and control rats. Diabetes was induced using alloxan (45 mg/kg), 15 days prior to sacrificing. Both control and diabetic animals were treated with either p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg) three days prior to sacrificing or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) twice daily for three days. PCPA treatment significantly decreased brain content of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolel acetic acid, while it caused significant increase and decrease in brain beta-E and insulin levels, respectively, in both normal and diabetic rat. Meanwhile, the administration of fluoxetine resulted in significant increase in brain content of 5-HT, DA, NE and insulin but significant decline of beta-E in diabetic and saline control rats. The results of this experiment indicate that 5-HT may be regulating both beta-E and insulin regardless of the availability of pancreatic insulin.

  10. Avaliação das atividades hipoglicemiante e anti-hiperglicemiante do extrato hidroalcóolico das folhas da Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae em modelos experimentais de hiperglicemia Evaluation of hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities in hydroethanolic extract of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae in experimental models of hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As atividades hipoglicemiante e anti-hiperglicemiante do extrato hidroalcóolico obtido das folhas da Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae foram avaliadas em ratos, utilizando-se diferentes modelos experimentais de hiperglicemia: diabetes tipo 1 induzido por aloxana, intolerância à glicose e resistência aguda à insulina induzidas pela dexametasona e resistência crônica à insulina em modelo de obesidade induzida pelo monoglutamato de sódio. O extrato hidroalcóolico da Averrhoa carambola, na dose de 800 mg/Kg de peso corporal, não apresentou atividades hipoglicemiantes e anti-hiperglicemiantes nos modelos de hiperglicemia testadosThe hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities of a hydroethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae was evaluated in rats, through the experimental models of hyperglycemia: type 1 alloxan-induced diabetes, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone and the chronic insulin resistance in obesity model induced by sodium monoglutamate. The hydroethanolic Averrhoa carambola extract at a dosage of 800 mg/Kg body weight did not exhibit hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities in the hyperglycemic experimental models tested

  11. Developed beverage from roselle calyx and selected fruits modulates β-cell function, improves insulin sensitivity, and attenuates hyperlipidaemia in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko L. Erukainure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the antidiabetic properties of a beverage developed from roselle calyx and selected fruits in male albino rats. The beverage was designed to contain 30% pawpaw (Carica papaya L., 10% grapefruit (Citrus paradisi, 20% guava leaves (Psidium guajava L. and 40% roselle calyx aqueous extracts. Four groups of five rats each were acclimatized on pelletized mouse chow for seven days, after which diabetes was induced by a single ip injection of alloxan in all groups except group 1, which served as control. Group 2 served as negative control while groups 3 and 4 were treated with the beverage at 2.5 and 5 ml/kg bw respectively. Food intake, body weight, and blood glucose levels were monitored. They were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after a 2 week treatment. Blood serum was analysed to evaluate insulin levels, β cell function, insulin resistance and lipid profile. Histological studies were carried out on pancreatic tissues. Treatment with both doses of the beverage led to a significant reduction (p < 0.05 in blood glucose, total cholesterol triglyceride, LDL and increased HDL levels. It also improved serum insulin levels, β cell function, reduced insulin resistance and restored pancreatic beta cells compared to the diabetic group. These antidiabetic properties may be as a consequence of modulation of the β-cell function, reduction of insulin resistance and preservation/restoration of β-cell integrity. However, treatment with the single dose showed signs of hyperinsulinaemia.

  12. Modulation of lipid peroxidation, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in brain tissues of diabetic rats by fibre - Enriched biscuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ochuko L Erukainure; Folasade O Adeboyejo; Gloria N Elemo; Osaretin AT Ebuehi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of feeding fibre - enriched biscuit on the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities in brain tissues of diabetic rats. Method: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Treatment lasted for 14 d, after which the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Brain tissues were used for the assessment of GSH, catalase, SOD and lipid peroxidation as well as lipid profiles. Result: Induction of diabetes led to a significant decrease in GSH level, elevated SOD and catalase activities. These were significantly modified by the biscuits. There was an elevated level of malondialdehyde in the brain tissues of the untreated diabetic rats; this was significantly reduced by the biscuits. There was a significant decrease in HDL and a significant increase in LDL levels, total cholesterol and triglycerides in the untreated (diabetic) rats. Feeding with fibre - enriched biscuits led to decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL - cholesterol and caused a significant increase in the levels of HDL. Conclusions: These results suggest a therapeutic and protective effect of the fibre -enriched biscuits against diabetic - induced brain toxicity in rats.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE EXTRACTS OF LEUCAS ASPERA ON BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF DIABETES MELLITUS (TYPE- I IN RATS

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    T.Tukaram

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Leucas aspera leaves on experimental diabetes mellitus (type I in rats in terms of alterations in biochemical profiles. Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups of 5 rats in each. Group-I were fed on basal diet without any treatment, group-II induced diabetic models (type-I (Alloxan monohydrate dissolved in sterile normal saline (150 mg/kgBW, ip, group-III, IV, V and VI were induced diabetics and treated with extract of Leucas aspera (30,100,150 and 300mg/kg BW respectively, PO twice daily in the morning and evening post prandially for thirty days respectively. The blood samples were collected on day 0, 10, 20 and 30 and were used for the analysis of biochemical profiles.The blood glucose (mg% were consistently increased significantly (P<0.01 in groups II,III, IV V and VI till day 20 while in groups V and VI there was a significant (P<0.01 decline in the values on day 30. There was found to have profound effect in lowering the blood glucose levels in dose dependent manner. The study revealed that experimental diabetes mellitus (type-I induced patho-biochemical changes were ameliorated more effectively by ethanolic extract of Leucas aspera in dose dependent manner.

  14. Antidiabetic And Antioxidant Effects Of A Multigrain Diet

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    Sanjay S. Karn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a formulated multigrain diet on metabolic alterations in carbohydrate profiles and antioxidant status in diabetic animals Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate and diabetic status was confirmed by blood glucose levels over a period of two weeks. Diet was formulated using Sorghum vulgare, Avena sativa, Pennisetum typhoideum, Oryza sativa, Eleusine coracana and Zea mays and casein, corn starch and vegetable oil. Carbohydrate (plasma glucose, hepatic glycogen, G-6-Pase and hexokinase, hepatic and renal functions (Total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT and antioxidant profiles (SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx, TAA were determined. Results and Conclusions: The diabetic animals when fed formulated diet, exhibited significant decreases in serum glucose, SGPT, SGOT, urea, creatinine and hepatic G-6-pase levels along with increased serum protein and glycogen content and hepatic hexokinase activity as compared to those of commercial diet fed diabetic animals. Hepatic and renal enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant profiles were also found to be restored to their normal values in those diabetic group of animals fed formulated diet. This study thus indicated that a multigrain formulated diet has a positive effect on diabetic animals with respect to serum glucose levels, hepatic and renal functions and antioxidant activity.

  15. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of leaves from Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae. in diabetic rats Efeito hipoglicêmico e hipolipidêmico das folhas de Syzygium cumini (L. em ratos diabeticos

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    Tatiana Schoenfelder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic crude extract (ECE of leaves from Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae was screened for its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg v.o.. Rats were divided into three groups for the evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect: normal rats, rats with alloxan-induced diabetes and hyperglycemic normal rats. Hypolipidemia was evaluated in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. The antihyperglycemic activity was compared to treatment with glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent. The acute treatment with S. cumini ECE caused a significant decrease in the blood glucose in hyperglycemic normal rats (250 mg/kg, and in glucose (125 and 250 mg/kg, triglyceride (125 and 500 mg/kg and cholesterol (125 mg/kg levels of diabetic rats, but no effect was observed in the normal treated rats. Syzygium cumini leaves are a good candidate for alternative and/or complementary medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus, since they showed hypoglycemic activity in addition to a hypolipidemic action in diabetic animals.Na região de Criciúma-SC, as folhas de Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae, conhecida popularmente como jambolão, são utilizadas para diminuir níveis de glicose plasmática em pessoas diabéticas. Dentro deste contexto o presente trabalho teve o interesse de avaliar o efeito hipoglicêmico e hipolipidêmico do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico (EBH das folhas de S. cumini (125, 250 e 500 mg/kg. Para tal os animais foram divididos em três grupos para o efeito hipoglicêmico: ratos normais, ratos normais submetidos a curva de glicose (hiperglicêmicos e ratos diabéticos induzidos com aloxana. O efeito hipolipidêmico foi avaliado em animais diabéticos induzidos por aloxana. O efeito hipoglicêmico foi comparado com glibenclamida. O tratamento agudo com EBH de S. cumini causou uma diminuição estatisticamente significativa na glicose sanguínea em animais normais que foram submetidos à cura de glicose (250 mg/kg, e sobre

  16. Pemberian ekstrak air buah sawo (Manilkara zapota L. menurunkan kadar glukosa darah tikus (rattus norvegicus diabetes mellitus

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    Effatul Afifah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic problem disorder characterized by hyperglicemia which is caused by insulin deficiency produced by β-pancreas cells, thus causing abnormalities of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, and tend to cause complications. Objectives: To know the effect of sapodilla extract water on blood glucose level of diabetic induce mice. Methods: This was an experimental study with pre-post control group design. Sapodilla extract water (EABS was fed to group of mice with alloxan diabetes induction. Twenty four DM induced mice were separated into 4 groups, e.g. control without and with medication of glibenclamide, EABS 1 (treated with 3.6 mL/200 g body weight, and EABS 2 (treated with 7.2 mL/200 g body weight. Mice were then measured for their blood glucose level at the day of 3, 14, and 30. Results: EABS 1 and EABS 2 decreased blood glucose levels at week of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd after induction. The greatest reduction was shown by EABS 2 at the 3rd week. EABS decreased blood glucose level of mice induced DM and signifi cantly shown at glibenclamide group, followed by EABS 2 and EABS 1.Conclusions: EABS reduced blood glucose levels of diabetic mice and signifi cantly shown for glibenclamide group, followed by EABS 2 and EABS 1.KEYWORDS: diabetes mellitus, sapodilla extract water, blood glucoseABSTRAKLatar belakang: Diabetes mellitus (DM merupakan penyakit gangguan metabolik kronis yang ditandai dengan hiperglikemia yang disebabkan oleh kekurangan insulin yang dihasilkan oleh sel β-pankreas sehingga menimbulkan kelainan metabolisme karbohidrat, protein dan lemak, dan cenderung menimbulkan komplikasi.Tujuan: Mengetahui efek pemberian ekstrak buah air sawo terhadap kadar glukosa darah tikus yang diinduksi DM.Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental murni dengan rancangan pre-post test control group design dengan memberikan intervensi ekstrak buah air sawo (EABS pada kelompok tikus

  17. Study on the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of part eluated by water from Picris japonica Thunb%日本毛连菜水洗部位降血糖、调节血脂作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席啸虎; 葛睿; 高建平

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of part eluated by water from Picris japonica Thunb. (WEW) on diabetic mice. Methods: The diabetic mice were established by injection of Alloxan or Epinephrine. Diabetic mice were given different dose of WEW. Mice's glucose value and blood serum TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C content were detected after 14 days. The chemical constituent of WEW was analyzed by colorimetric technique. Results: Compared with the diabete model group, the low WEW dose lowered alloxan-induced diabetic mice's glucose level while the high WEW dose lowered epinephrine -induced diabetic mice's glucose level obviously; WEW reduced TG, LDL-C content and enhanced. HDL-C content. WEW contained 4097 mg polysaccharides and 913 mg flavonoids every 100 g Picris japonica Thunb. Conclusion: WEW possessed significant hypoglycemic activitie and accommodated TG, HDL-C, LDL-C content on diabetic mice.%目的:探讨日本毛连菜水洗部位降血糖及调节血脂药理作用.方法:采用肾上腺素致小鼠生理性高血糖,以及四氧嘧啶致小鼠糖尿病等模型.观察日本毛连菜水洗部位对模型动物血糖、血清总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)的影响;采用比色法分析水洗部位的化学成分.结果:与模型组比较,日本毛连菜水洗部位低剂量显著降低四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠血糖值(P<0.05),高剂量显著降低肾上腺素致糖尿病小鼠血糖值(P<0.05),给药组小鼠三酰甘油、低密度脂蛋白含量显著下降(P<0.05),高密度脂蛋白含量显著升高(P<0.05);水洗脱部位含多糖4 097 mg/100 g生药材,含黄酮913 mg,100 g生药材.结论:日本毛连菜水洗部位对糖尿病小鼠具有显著降血糖作用,同时可以调节糖尿病小鼠血脂水平.

  18. The Hypoglycemic Activity of Homogeneous Polysaccharides from Dendrobium Officinale%铁皮石斛多糖降血糖作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤志远; 周晓宇; 冯健; 刘华; 李军; 吴怡; 野栩梅; 倪松石

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究铁皮石斛中多糖种类及其降血糖功能。方法采用 DEAE-纤维素阴离子交换色谱分离铁皮石斛粗多糖,三甲基硅醚衍生化法测定分离多糖的单糖组成,红外光谱表征分离多糖的结构。采用四氧嘧啶诱发小鼠糖尿病模型研究分离多糖对模型小鼠空腹血糖值、血清胰岛素水平及糖化血清蛋白含量的影响。结果铁皮石斛中分离得到4种分离多糖,含量最高分离多糖 DOP1的单糖组成为阿拉伯糖、半乳糖、葡萄糖及甘露糖(摩尔比为3.5∶1.2∶1.5∶1.0)。红外光谱分析结果与单糖组成研究相符,同时显示4种分离多糖均为硫酸多糖。4种分离多糖在给药21 d 后能够显著降低糖尿病模型小鼠的空腹血糖值(P <0.01)、提高血清胰岛素水平(P <0.05~0.01)以及降低糖化血清蛋白含量(P <0.01),其中以 DOP1作用最强。结论铁皮石斛分离多糖具有显著的降血糖作用。%OBJECTIVE To characterize the homogeneous polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo and study the hypoglycemic activity of the isolated polysaccharides.METHODS DEAE-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography was used to isolate homogeneous polysaccharides from crude polysaccharides (DOP);Monosaccharide composition was ana-lysed after trimethylsilation;and the chemical structure of isolated polysaccharide was characterized with infrared spectroscopy;The effects of isolated polysaccharides on the levels of fasting blood glucose,plasma insulin,and glycosylated serum protein were estimated using diabetic mice models induced by alloxan.RESULTS Four isolated polysaccharides were isolated from DOP,in which DOP1 had the highest content.DOP1 was composed of arabinose,galactose,glucose and mannose in a molar ratio of 3.5∶1.2∶1.5∶1.0.The infrared spectroscopy of various isolated polysaccharides showed that they all had the obvi-ous characteristic absorption peaks of corresponding monosaccharides

  19. Characterization of pioglitazone cyclodextrin complexes: Molecular modeling to in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhane, Dinesh M.; Kulkarni, Preethi A.; Martis, Elvis A. F.; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R. S.; Coutinho, Evans C.; Nagarsenker, Mangal S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The objective of present study was to study the influence of different β-cyclodextrin derivatives and different methods of complexation on aqueous solubility and consequent translation in in vivo performance of Pioglitazone (PE). Material and Methods: Three cyclodextrins: β-cyclodextrin (BCD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and Sulfobutylether-7-β-cyclodextrin (SBEBCD) were employed in preparation of 1:1 Pioglitazone complexes by three methods viz. co-grinding, kneading and co-evaporation. Complexation was confirmed by phase solubility, proton NMR, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Mode of complexation was investigated by molecular dynamic studies. Pharmacodynamic study of blood glucose lowering activity of PE complexes was performed in Alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Results: Aqueous solubility of PE was significantly improved in presence of cyclodextrin. Apparent solubility constants were observed to be 254.33 M–1 for BCD-PE, 737.48 M–1 for HPBCD-PE and 5959.06 M–1 for SBEBCD-PE. The in silico predictions of mode of inclusion were in close agreement with the experimental proton NMR observation. DSC and XRD demonstrated complete amorphization of crystalline PE upon inclusion. All complexes exhibited >95% dissolution within 10 min compared to drug powder that showed <40% at the same time. Marked lowering of blood glucose was recorded for all complexes. Conclusion: Complexation of PE with different BCD significantly influenced its aqueous solubility, improved in vitro dissolution and consequently translated into enhanced pharmacodynamic activity in rats PMID:27134470

  20. Influence of magnesium stearate on the physicochemical and pharmacodynamic characteristics of insulin-loaded Eudragit entrapped mucoadhesive microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, Mumuni A; Kenechukwu, Franklin C; Nnamani, Petra O; Umetiti, Jennifer C

    2015-01-01

    Effective oral insulin delivery has remained a challenge to the pharmaceutical industry. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of magnesium stearate on the properties of insulin-loaded Eudragit® RL 100 entrapped mucoadhesive microspheres. Microspheres containing Eudragit® RL 100, insulin, and varying concentrations of magnesium stearate (agglomeration-preventing agent) were prepared by emulsification-coacervation method and characterized with respect to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), morphology, particle size, loading efficiency, mucoadhesive and micromeritics properties. The in vitro release of insulin from the microspheres was performed in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 7.2) while the in vivo hypoglycemic effect was investigated by monitoring the plasma glucose level of the alloxan-induced diabetic rats after oral administration. Stable, spherical, brownish, mucoadhesive, discrete and free flowing insulin-loaded microspheres were formed. While the average particle size and mucoadhesiveness of the microspheres increased with an increase in the proportion of magnesium stearate, loading efficiency generally decreased. After 12 h, microspheres prepared with Eudragit® RL 100: magnesium stearate ratios of 15:1, 15:2, 15:3 and 15:4 released 68.20 ± 1.57, 79.40 ± 1.52, 76.60 ± 1.93 and 70.00 ± 1.00 (%) of insulin, respectively. Reduction in the blood glucose level for the subcutaneously (sc) administered insulin was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than for most of the formulations. However, the blood glucose reduction effect produced by the orally administered insulin-loaded microspheres prepared with four parts of magnesium stearate and fifteen parts of Eudragit® RL 100 after 12 h was equal to that produced by subcutaneously administered insulin solution. The results of this study can suggest that this carrier system could be an alternative for the delivery of insulin.

  1. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis in improvement of the reproductive performance and easing teratogenicity in hyperglycemic albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankaj, Pranay Punj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of cell suspension of Spirulina platensis (SP) on estrous cycle, fetal development and embryopathy in alloxan (AXN) induced hyperglycemic mice. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of AXN. Mice with blood glucose level above 200 mg/dl were divided into Group I (control), Group II (diabetic control), Group III (diabetic control mice fed with SP), and Group IV (control mice fed with SP). Litter counts, estrous cycles, percent survival of litter, and gestation length were recorded. Results: In hyperglycemic mice, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in duration of diestrus (14.48%), estrus (84.21%), and metestrus (164.15%) with concomitant decrease in proestrus phase by 26.13% was recorded when compared with control. Reduction in litter count and survival of litter was 68.67% and 88.38%, respectively, whereas gestation length increased to 14.51% day in diabetic mice, but recovery in these parameters was observed (P < 0.05) when subjected to SP treatment. SP resulted in increased fertility rate from 77.5% to 82.5% and dropped off resorption of the fetus to 33.73% while the survival rate of offspring of diabetic mice went up to 88.89% from 83.61%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SP is effective in improving the reproductive performance and easing teratogenic effects in diabetic mice and hence warrants further detailed dose-dependent studies to understand its mechanism of action. PMID:26285837

  2. 槲皮苷和山奈酚对糖尿病小鼠血糖及血脂水平的影响%Effect of Kaempferol and Quercetin on Blood Sugar and Fat Contents of Diabetic Model Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家瑞

    2013-01-01

    本研究对黄酮单体山奈酚、槲皮苷对糖尿病小鼠降血糖、血脂效果进行试验,建立了小鼠实验模型,经喂养后测定结果表明,黄酮单体山奈酚、槲皮苷能够有效的降低小鼠的血糖BG、TG、TC和MDA水平,对增加血清SOD、GSH-Px活性也有明显促进作用,其中以10 mg/kg·bw·d为最佳剂量.这表明黄酮单体山奈酚、槲皮苷对糖尿病防治有明显作用.%The Anti-hypoglycemic effect of kaempferol and quercetin on diabetic model mice were studied. Two groups of diabetic model mice induced by alloxan were fed respectively with 2 doses of kaempferol and quercetin for 18 d. A group of non-model mice and a group of model mice fed with the same volume water were taken as the controls, and a group of model mice fed with Xiao ke wan (a Chinese medicine for diabete) was taken as the positive control. Then levels of serum glucose, TG, TC, MDA, and SOD and GSH-Px activities were investigated. The results showed that by kaempferol and quercetin, levels of serum glucose, TG, TC and MDA were significantly reduced, and SOD and GSH-Px activities were apparently enhanced. Among 2 doses of kaempferol and quercetin, 10 mg/kg bw·d was the modest one.

  3. Activation of PPAR-γ reduces HPA axis activity in diabetic rats by up-regulating PI3K expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rafael Carvalho; Magalhães, Nathalia Santos; E Silva, Patrícia M R; Martins, Marco A; Carvalho, Vinicius F

    2016-10-01

    Increased hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity in diabetes is strongly associated with several morbidities noted in patients with the disease. We previously demonstrated that hyperactivity of HPA axis under diabetic conditions is associated with up-regulation of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) receptors (MC2R) in adrenal and down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR and MR) in pituitary. This study investigates the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in HPA axis hyperactivity in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of alloxan into fasted rats. The PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone and/or PI3K inhibitor wortmannin were administered daily for 18 consecutive days, starting 3days after diabetes induction. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone were evaluated by radioimmunoassay, while intensities of MC2R, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), GR, MR, PI3K p110α and PPAR-γ were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Rosiglitazone treatment inhibited adrenal hypertrophy and hypercorticoidism observed in diabetic rats. Rosiglitazone also significantly reversed the diabetes-induced increase in the MC2R expression in adrenal cortex. We noted that rosiglitazone reduced the number of corticotroph cells and inhibited both anterior pituitary POMC expression and plasma ACTH levels. Furthermore, rosiglitazone treatment was unable to restore the reduced expression of GR and MR in the anterior pituitary of diabetic rats. Rosiglitazone increased the number of PPAR-γ(+) cells and expression of PI3K p110α in both anterior pituitary and adrenal cortex of diabetic rats. In addition, wortmannin blocked the ability of rosiglitazone to restore corticotroph cell numbers, adrenal hypertrophy and plasma corticosterone levels in diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings revealed that rosiglitazone down-regulates HPA axis hyperactivity in diabetic rats via a mechanism dependent on PI3K activation in pituitary and adrenal glands.

  4. TNF-alpha expression, evaluation of collagen, and TUNEL of Matricaria recutita L. extract and triamcinolone on oral ulcer in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    OLIVEIRA, Bruna Vasconcelos; BARROS SILVA, Paulo Goberlânio; NOJOSA, Jacqueline de Santiago; BRIZENO, Luiz André Cavalcante; FERREIRA, Jamile Magalhães; SOUSA, Fabrício Bitú; MOTA, Mário Rogério Lima; ALVES, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease associated with delayed wound healing of oral ulcers by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and cellular apoptosis. Objective to evaluate the influence of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and apoptosis in rats with DM treated with chamomile extract or triamcinolone. Material and Methods Wistar male rats (210.0±4.2 g) were divided into five groups: negative control group (NCG) without diabetes; positive control group (PCG) with DM (alloxan, 45 mg/kg); and groups treated with chamomile extract (normoglycemic= NCG group and diabetic= DCG group) and with triamcinolone (TG). Traumatic ulcers were performed on all animals that received topical triamcinolone, chamomile extract or saline 12/12 hours for ten days. Results On days five and ten the animals were euthanized and the ulcers were analyzed by light microscopy, TUNEL assay, and immunohistochemically (TNF-α). The NCG (p=0.0062), PCG (p=0.0285), NCG (p=0.0041), and DCG (p<0.0001) groups were completely healed on the 10th day, however, there was no healing on the TG (p=0.5127) group. The TNF-α expression showed a significant reduction from the 5th to the 10th day in NCG (p=0.0266) and DCG (p=0.0062). In connective tissue, the TUNEL assay showed a significant reduction in the number of positive cells in NCG (p=0.0273) and CNG (p=0.0469) and in the epithelium only in CDG (p=0.0320). Conclusions Chamomile extract can optimize the healing of traumatic oral ulcers in diabetic rats through the reduction of apoptosis in the epithelium and TNF-α expression. PMID:27383710

  5. 壳寡糖螯合铬对糖尿病小鼠降血糖作用的研究%Hypoglycemic Effects of Chitooligosaccharide-chromium (Ⅲ)Complex on Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲婉秋; 唐晓琳; 王秀武

    2012-01-01

    探讨壳寡糖螯合铬(Cos-Cr)的降血糖作用.选择发育相近的健康雄性小鼠10只为正常对照组,糖尿病小鼠30只随机分为糖尿病对照组、壳寡糖组(Cos)和螯合铬组(Cos-Cr),每组各10只,实验期4w,测定小鼠血糖值.壳寡糖螯合铬可以降低糖尿病小鼠血糖,增加体重,增加脾脏指数,明显缓解糖尿病小鼠饥饿和烦渴的症状.肝脏损伤明显减轻.同时观察肝组织病理变化.壳寡糖螯合铬对糖尿病小鼠有降糖,改善糖尿病症状的作用.%To study the effects of chitooligosaccharide-chromium( III ) complex(Cos-Cr)on diabetic mice. Selecting ten male mice as the normal control group. Thirty diabetes mice were randomly divided into 3 groups, diabetes control group (n = 10),Cos group (n = 10), Cos-Cr group (n = 10). The mice were dissected after 4 weeks, determinations of serum glucose concentration. Cos-Cr can significantly decrease fasting blood glucose level, increase body weight as well as index spleen. Symptoms of hunger and thirsty were improved obviously in diabetic mice. Cos-Cr has protective effects on alloxan-induced hepatic injury in mice. Hepatocytes lesion was alleviated markedly. Cos-Cr can decrease blood glucose concentration and improve diabetic symptoms in mice.

  6. Gastric motor effects of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 in diabetic mice with gastroparesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Cai Qiu; Zhi-Gang Wang; Wei-Gang Wang; Jun Yan; Qi Zheng

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the potential therapeutic significance of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6(GHRP-6) in diabetic mice with gastric motility disorders.METHODS:A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan.Diabetic mice were injected ip with ghrelin or GHRP-6 (20-200 μg/kg),and the effects on gastric emptying were measured after intragastric application of phenol red.The effect of atropine,NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) or D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) antagonist) on the gastroprokinetic effect of ghrelin or GHRP-6 (100 μg/kg)was also investigated.The effects of ghrelin or GHRP-6(0.01-10 μmol/L) on spontaneous or carbachol-induced contractile amplitude were also investigated in vitro,in gastric fundic circular strips taken from diabetic mice.The presence of growth hormone secretagogue receptor la transcripts in the fundic strips of diabetic mice was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS:We established a diabetic mouse model with delayed gastric emptying.Ghrelin and GHRP-6accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis.In the presence of atropine or L-NAME,which delayed gastric emptying,ghrelin and GHRP-6(100 μg/kg) failed to accelerate gastric emptying.D-Lys3-GHRP-6 also delayed gastric emptying induced by the GHS-R agonist.Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increased the carbachol-induced contractile amplitude in gastric fundic strips taken from diabetic mice.RT-PCR confirmed the presence of GHS-R mRNA in the strip preparations.CONCLUSION:Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increase gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis,perhaps by activating peripheral cholinergic pathways in the enteric nervous system.

  7. Teripang Pasir Meningkatkan Kandungan Antioksidan Superoksida Dismutase pada Pankreas Tikus Diabetes (SEA CUCUMBER INCREASED ANTIOXIDANT SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN THE PANCREATIC TISSUE OF DIABETIC RATS

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    Tutik Wresdiyati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High level of blood glucose is an indicator for diabetes mellitus (DM condition. The condition iscaused by low level of insulin secretion or impairement of insulin receptor. The number of DM patientincreases every year. The World Health Organization reported that the number of DM patient in Indonesiawas the 4th highest in the world, after following China, India, and the United States of America, respectively.This study was conducted to analyze the effect of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra J on the profile ofantioxidant copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD in the pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats. Atotal of 25 male white rats (Sprague Dawley were used in this study. They were divided into five groups;(1 negative control (KN, (2 positive control, diabetic rats (KP, (3 diabetic rats treated with hydrolyzatedprotein of sea cucumber (HDL, (4 diabetic rats treated with concentrated protein of sea cucumber (KST,and (5 diabetic rats treated with isolated protein of sea cucumber (ISL, respectively. Diabetic conditionwas obtained by alloxan injection 110 mg/kg bw. The treatments were done for 28 days. At the end oftreatment period, the rats were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were collected and fixed in Bouin solution and then processed to paraffin embedding standard method. The tissues were then stained withimmunohistochemical staining techniques using monoclonal antibody of Cu, Zn-SOD. The results showedthat treatment of HDL, KST, and ISL of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra J increased the content ofantioxidant Cu, Zn-SOD either in Langerhans islets and acinar cells of pancreatic tissues-diabetic rats.The HDL of sea cucumber treatment gave the best effect in increasing the antioxidant content of Cu, Zn-SOD in pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats.

  8. Antioxidant treatment ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced depressive-like behaviour and reduces oxidative stress in brain and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Titus, Stephanie E; Carlessi, Anelise S; Matias, Beatriz I; Bruchchen, Livia; Florentino, Drielly; Vieira, Andriele; Petronilho, Fabricia; Ceretta, Luciane B; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the development of major depressive disorder. Alterations in oxidative stress are associated with the pathophysiology of both diabetes mellitus and major depressive disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine on behaviour and oxidative stress parameters in diabetic rats. To this aim, after induction of diabetes by a single dose of alloxan, Wistar rats were treated with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine for 14 days, and then depressive-like behaviour was evaluated. Oxidative stress parameters were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas. Diabetic rats displayed depressive-like behaviour, and treatment with N-acetylcysteine reversed this alteration. Carbonyl protein levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and pancreas of diabetic rats, and both N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine reversed these alterations. Lipid damage was increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and pancreas; however, treatment with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine reversed lipid damage only in the hippocampus and pancreas. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas of diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, there was a decrease in catalase enzyme activity in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas, but an increase in the hippocampus. Treatment with antioxidants did not have an effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, animal model of diabetes produced depressive-like behaviour and oxidative stress in the brain and periphery. Treatment with antioxidants could be a viable alternative to treat behavioural and biochemical alterations induced by diabetes.

  9. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, M.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, J.R.A. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, A.C.V. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Fioretto, E.T. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Maria, D.A. [Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biofísica, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers.

  10. Effect of Camel Milk on Oxidative Stresses in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rabbits

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    Esraa Tantawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk has an importance in the treatment of diabetes. It has been shown that the patients who drink camel milk daily, their need to insulin decrease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of camel milk in comparison with insulin treatment in experimentally-induced diabetes. This study was carried out on forty male New Zealand rabbits, divided into four groups with ten rabbits in each. The first group G1 was considered as control non-diabetic group and received only normal saline solution. The other animals were injected intravenously with alloxan for induction of diabetes mellitus and then divided into three groups' ten rabbits each as the follows: G2 considered as control diabetic and left untreated, G3 was considered as diabetic and treated with insulin, and G4 was considered as diabetic and received camel milk. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks, blood (whole blood & serum and tissue samples (liver, kidney and pancreas were collected from all the animals for analysis of: enzymatic SOD and catalase, non-enzymatic GSH antioxidant enzyme activities. Serum malondialdeyde, glucose, insulin and lipid profile also were analyzed. The results showed that the camel milk was effective in the treatment of diabetes in comparison to insulin treatment alone. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, camel milk improved the diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The histopathological evaluations demonstrated that there was a regeneration in β cells and the islets of Langerhans among the pancreatic acini in rabbits receiving camel milk. Our findings suggested that the camel milk administration in case of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus might be recommended as an oral anti-diabetic remedy.

  11. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK ETANOL DAN KLOROFORM DAUN SIRSAK TERHADAP KOLESTEROL TOTAL DAN TRIGLISERIDA PADA TIKUS YANG DIINDUKSI ALOKSAN

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    Deni Firmansyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata plant is a medicinal plant using by research and drug for human healthy including diabetes mellitus. This research aimed to determine the effect of ethanol extract and chloroform extract of the sirsak leaf as antidiabetes mellitus. This research was conducted in 9 groups of male Wistar rats consisting of 5 rats per group, consisting of normal control, alloxan control, glibenclamide control dose of 10 mg/Kg BW, group of ethanol extract sirsak leaf dose of 50 mg/Kg BW; 100 mg/Kg BW; 200 mg/Kg BW, and group of chloroform extract sirsak leaf dose of 50 mg/kg BW; 100 mg/Kg BW; 250 mg/Kg BW. Tests carried out for 2 weeks. It also conducted assays of total flavonoids and histopathological tests of pancreatic β cells. Results of this research showed that the ethanol extract of sirsak leaves dose of 200 mg/Kg BW has activity in decreasing blood glucose levels better than any other group. Results of the ethanol extract and chloroform extract all doses except the ethanol extract treatment group dose of 200 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW after a 14-day look is still high triglyceride levels and decrease in total cholesterol (TC were seen in all group Ethanol extract dose of 200 mg / kgBW has a good potential to reduce levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol. The conclusion of this research is the ethanol extract of sirsak leaf have activity antidiabetic mellitusand decreased total cholesterol.

  12. Effects of co-administration of methanol leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus on the hypoglycemic activity of metformin and glibenclamide in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ohadoma SC; Michael HU

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the interacting effects of co-administration of methanol leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) on the hypoglycemic activity of metformin as well as glibenclamide using experimental rats. Methods: Phytochemical analysis as well as acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) test were carried out on its methanol leaf extract. The alloxan model for experimental induction of diabetes in rats was employed. Six groups comprising five rats each were used. GroupsⅡ,ⅢandⅣreceived 250 mg/kg of extract, 100 mg/kg of metformin and 1 mg/kg of glibenclamide respectively, whileⅤandⅥwere administered metformin-extract and glibenclamide-extract combinations respectively at doses as above. GroupⅠserved as negative control and received only distilled water. All administration was done once daily for seven days. Fasting blood glucose was determined at 2, 12, 24, 72 and 168 h using a glucometer. One-way ANOVA with post-hoc tests was used to assess for significant difference due to administration of drug alone and with co-administration of drug and extract. Results:The LD50 was 2 121.32 mg/kg. The phytochemical studies indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, phlotatannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, reducing sugars, anthraquinones and glycosides. All medicaments significantly reduced blood glucose levels when compared with control alone (P<0.05) with the highest percentage reduction in blood glucose (64.86%) exhibited by metformin-extract combination. Conclusions:The leaf extract of C. roseus significantly increases the hypoglycemic effect of metformin.

  13. Melatonin, endocrine pancreas and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschke, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    Melatonin influences insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro. (i) The effects are MT(1)-and MT(2)-receptor-mediated. (ii) They are specific, high-affinity, pertussis-toxin-sensitive, G(i)-protein-coupled, leading to inhibition of the cAMP-pathway and decrease of insulin release. [Correction added after online publication 4 December 2007: in the preceding sentence, 'increase of insulin release' was changed to 'decrease of insulin release'.] Furthermore, melatonin inhibits the cGMP-pathway, possibly mediated by MT(2) receptors. In this way, melatonin likely inhibits insulin release. A third system, the IP(3)-pathway, is mediated by G(q)-proteins, phospholipase C and IP(3), which mobilize Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, with a resultant increase in insulin. (iii) Insulin secretion in vivo, as well as from isolated islets, exhibits a circadian rhythm. This rhythm, which is apparently generated within the islets, is influenced by melatonin, which induces a phase shift in insulin secretion. (iv) Observation of the circadian expression of clock genes in the pancreas could possibly be an indication of the generation of circadian rhythms in the pancreatic islets themselves. (v) Melatonin influences diabetes and associated metabolic disturbances. The diabetogens, alloxan and streptozotocin, lead to selective destruction of beta-cells through their accumulation in these cells, where they induce the generation of ROS. Beta-cells are very susceptible to oxidative stress because they possess only low-antioxidative capacity. Results suggest that melatonin in pharmacological doses provides protection against ROS. (vi) Finally, melatonin levels in plasma, as well as the arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity, are lower in diabetic than in nondiabetic rats and humans. In contrast, in the pineal gland, the AANAT mRNA is increased and the insulin receptor mRNA is decreased, which indicates a close interrelationship between insulin and melatonin.

  14. Ameliorative Effect of Active Principle Isolated from Seeds of Eugenia jambolana on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Experimental Diabetes

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    Suman Bala Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of LH II purified from ethanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced mild diabetic (MD and severely diabetic (SD rabbits. Ethanolic extract upon chromatographic purification yielded partially purified hypoglycemic principle (SIII which on further purification by sephadex LH 20 yielded pharmacological active compound LH II. Homogeneity of LH II was tested by HPLC. Phytochemical investigation of LH II by various structural spectra showed the presence of saturated fatty acid, Δ5 lipid and presence of sterol. LH II was administered orally at a dose of 10 mg kg−1 body weight to MD and SD. LH II resulted, significant fall in FBG at 90 min (21.2% MD: 28.6% SD, 7th day (35.6% MD and 15th day (59.6% SD. Glycosylated hemoglobin was significantly decreased (50.5% in SD after 15 days treatment (Tt. Plasma insulin levels were significantly increased (P <  .001. In vitro studies with pancreatic islets showed 3-fold increase in insulin levels as compared to untreated animals. LH II also showed extrapancreatic effect by significantly increasing (P <  .001 the activity of key enzymes of glycolysis and significantly decreasing (P <  .001 the activity of key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Liver and muscle glycogen content were increased by 36.6 and 30% for MD, and 52 and 47% for SD, respectively. Thus, the present study demonstrates that LH II possesses potent antidiabetic activity and it is effective in both MD and SD rabbits.

  15. Isolation and intracellular localization of insulin-like proteins from leaves of Bauhinia variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, C R; Maciel, F M; Silva, L B; Ferreira, A T S; da Cunha, M; Machado, O L T; Fernandes, K V S; Oliveira, A E A; Xavier-Filho, J

    2006-11-01

    Evidence based on immunological cross-reactivity and anti-diabetic properties has suggested the presence of insulin-like peptides in plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of insulin-like proteins in the leaves of Bauhinia variegata ("pata-de-vaca", "mororó"), a plant widely utilized in popular medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. We show that an insulin-like protein was present in the leaves of this plant. A chloroplast protein with a molecular mass similar to that of bovine insulin was extracted from 2-mm thick 15% SDS-PAGE gels and fractionated with a 2 x 24 cm Sephadex G-50 column. The activity of this insulin-like protein (0.48 mg/mL) on serum glucose levels of four-week-old Swiss albino (CF1) diabetic mice was similar to that of commercial swine insulin used as control. Further characterization of this molecule by reverse-phase hydrophobic HPLC chromatographic analysis as well as its antidiabetic activity on alloxan-induced mice showed that it has insulin-like properties. Immunolocalization of the insulin-like protein in the leaves of B. variegata was performed by transmission electron microscopy using a polyclonal anti-insulin human antibody. Localization in the leaf blades revealed that the insulin-like protein is present mainly in chloroplasts where it is also found associated with crystals which may be calcium oxalate. The presence of an insulin-like protein in chloroplasts may indicate its involvement in carbohydrate metabolism. This finding has strengthened our previous results and suggests that insulin-signaling pathways have been conserved through evolution.

  16. Isolation and intracellular localization of insulin-like proteins from leaves of Bauhinia variegata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Azevedo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based on immunological cross-reactivity and anti-diabetic properties has suggested the presence of insulin-like peptides in plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of insulin-like proteins in the leaves of Bauhinia variegata ("pata-de-vaca", "mororó", a plant widely utilized in popular medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. We show that an insulin-like protein was present in the leaves of this plant. A chloroplast protein with a molecular mass similar to that of bovine insulin was extracted from 2-mm thick 15% SDS-PAGE gels and fractionated with a 2 x 24 cm Sephadex G-50 column. The activity of this insulin-like protein (0.48 mg/mL on serum glucose levels of four-week-old Swiss albino (CF1 diabetic mice was similar to that of commercial swine insulin used as control. Further characterization of this molecule by reverse-phase hydrophobic HPLC chromatographic analysis as well as its antidiabetic activity on alloxan-induced mice showed that it has insulin-like properties. Immunolocalization of the insulin-like protein in the leaves of B. variegata was performed by transmission electron microscopy using a polyclonal anti-insulin human antibody. Localization in the leaf blades revealed that the insulin-like protein is present mainly in chloroplasts where it is also found associated with crystals which may be calcium oxalate. The presence of an insulin-like protein in chloroplasts may indicate its involvement in carbohydrate metabolism. This finding has strengthened our previous results and suggests that insulin-signaling pathways have been conserved through evolution.

  17. Zinc on Experimental Diabetic Rats Antioxidantion Effects%锌对糖尿病大鼠抗氧化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂琪; 李燕燕; 林刚

    2008-01-01

    观察Zn2+对四氧嘧啶诱发的糖尿病大鼠血液流变学的影响.按200mg/kg剂量腹腔内一次性注射四氧嘧啶(Alloxan),建立大鼠糖尿病模型.应用Zn和二甲双胍进行为期4周的灌胃治疗,每周眼眶采血1次,对大鼠的红细胞超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和血浆过氧化脂质产物(MDA)进行检测,4周后处死动物取肝脏检测肝脏SOD活性.结果表明10mg/ks·d ZnSO4组、100mg/kg·d二甲双胍加5mg/kg·d ZnSO4组、100mg/kg·d二甲双胍加10mg/kg·d ZnSO4组可使糖尿病大鼠显著提高红细胞、肝脏SOD酶活性和降低血浆MDA含量(P<0.05或P<0.01).Zn对实验性糖尿病大鼠提高SOD、减少MDA含量有明显作用,结合二甲双胍治疗效果更佳.

  18. Novel tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate mucoadhesive microspheres for oral gliclazide delivery: in vitro-in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Novel tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared using TSP and alginate as blend in different ratios with different calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) concentration as a cross linker by ionotropic gelation. The prepared microspheres were of spherical shape having rough surfaces, and average particle sizes within the range of 752.12 ± 6.42 to 948.49 ± 20.92 µm. The drug entrapment efficiency of these microspheres were within the range between 58.12 ± 2.42 to 82.78 ± 3.43% w/w. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies indicated that there were no reactions between gliclazide, and polymers (TSP, and sodium alginate) used. Different formulations of gliclazide loaded TSP-alginate microspheres showed prolonged in vitro release profiles of gliclazide over 12 hours in both stomach pH (pH 1.2), and intestinal pH (pH 7.4). It was found that the gliclazide release in gastric pH was comparatively slow and sustained than intestinal pH. These TSP-alginate microspheres also exhibited good mucoadhesivity. The in vivo studies on alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Animal Ethical Committee registration number: IFTM/837ac/0160) demonstrated the significant hypoglycemic effect of selected formulation of TSP-alginate mucoadhesive microspheres containing gliclazide on oral administration. This developed gliclazide loaded new TSP-alginate mucoadhesive microspheres may be very much useful for prolonged systemic absorption of gliclazide for proper maintaining blood glucose level and advanced patient compliance.

  19. Effect Of Some Herbal Medicine On Some biochemical parameters In Diabetic Rats

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    Eman G.E. Helal, Mervat A.Abbas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study was planned to follow up the effect of famous mixture used as a hypoglycemic traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia on diabetic albino rats and their effects on some biochemical parameter as DHEA .This study also aimed to study the effect of each plants alone to illustrate the most powerful one of them. The present study was carried out on eighty adult male albino rats (120+20gm b.wt. They were randomly divided into eight groups. First group conserved as control group.The others groups received alloxan to become diabetic .The second group conserved as diabetic, the third group treated with a mixture of plants (0.5gm/120gm b.wt.From he fourth to eight group,the rats treated with Nigella sativa (0.25gm/120gm b.wt,Aloe vera,Ferulaassa-foetid,Boswellia Carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha respectively (0.5gm/120gm b.wt..Our result showed that the body weight was reduced significantly in diabetic group and Nigella sativa treated group. On the other hand, treatment with commiphora myrrha revealed significant increase in body weight gain, while mixture and Aloe vera treated rats recorded insignificant change. Diabetic rats revealed a significant decrease in serum glucose and DHEA-S levels and liver glycogen content, while insignificant difference was recoded in all treated groups. A significant decrease in serum insulin level was observed in diabetic group, Nigella sativa and Ferula assa-foetida treated groups, but insignificant different was recorded in the rest treated groups throughout the experiment. A significant increase in LDH activities in diabetic and Ferula assa-foetida treated groups was recorded while rest treated groups recorded insignificant change During experimental period.

  20. Inhibitory effects of 1alpha, 25dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Ajuga iva extract on oxidative stress, toxicity and hypo-fertility in diabetic rat testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamden, K; Carreau, S; Jamoussi, K; Ayadi, F; Garmazi, F; Mezgenni, N; Elfeki, A

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the therapeutic and preventive effects of 1alpha, 25dihydroxyvitaminD3 (1,25 (OH)2 D3) and Afuga iva (AI) extract on diabetes toxicity in rats testes. Thus diabetic rats were treated with 1alpha, 25dihydroxyvitaminD3 or Ajuga iva extract as both therapeutic and preventive treatments on diabetes toxicity in rats testes. Our results showed that diabetes induced a decrease in testosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels in testes and plasma. Besides, a fall in testicular antioxidant capacity appeared by a decrease in both antioxidant (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities) and nonenzymatic antioxidant (copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) levels). All theses changes enhanced testicular toxicity (increase in testicular aspartate amino transaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and the lipid peroxidation and triglyceride (TG) levels). In addition, a decrease in testicular total cholesterol (TCh) level was observed in diabetic rats testes. All the changes lead to a decrease in the total number and mobility of epididymal spermatozoa. The administration of 1alpha,25dihydroxyvitaminD3 and Ajuga iva extract three weeks before and after diabetes induction interfered and prevented diabetes toxicity in the reproductive system. 1,25 (OH)2 D3 and Ajuga iva extract blunted all changes observed in diabetic rats. To sum up, the data suggested that 1,25 (OH)2 D3 and Ajuga iva extract have a protective effect on alloxan-induced damage in reproductive system by enhancing the testosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, consequently protecting from oxidative stress, cellular toxicity and maintaining the number and motility of spermatozoids.

  1. A vascular endothelial growth factor activating transcription factor increases the endothelial progenitor cells population and induces therapeutic angiogenesis in a type 1 diabetic mouse with hindlimb ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diao Yongpeng; Lian Lishan; Guo Lilong; Chen Houzao; Chen Yuexin; Song Xiaojun; Li Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    Background Therapeutic angiogenesis has been shown to promote blood vessel growth and improve tissue perfusion.Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis.However,it has side effects that limit its therapeutic utility in vivo,especially at high concentrations.This study aimed to investigate whether an intramuscular injection of a genetically engineered zinc finger VEGF-activating transcription factor modulates the endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and promotes therapeutic angiogenesis in a hindlimb ischemia model with type 1 diabetes.Methods Alloxan (intravenous injection) was used to induce type Ⅰ diabetes in C57BL/6 mice (n=58).The ischemic limb received ZFP-VEGF (125 μg ZFP-VEGF plasmid in 1% poloxamer) or placebo (1% poloxamer) intramuscularly.Mice were sacrificed 3,5,10,or 20 days post-injection.Limb blood flow was monitored using laser Doppler perfusion imaging.VEGF mRNA and protein expression were examined using real-time PCR and ELISA,respectively.Capillary density,proliferation,and apoptosis were examined using immunohistochemistry techniques.Flow cytometry was used to detect the EPC population in bone marrow.Two-tailed Student's paired t test and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis.Results ZFP-VEGF increased VEGF mRNA and protein expression at 3 and 10 days post-injection,and increased EPC in bone marrow at day 5 and 20 post-injection compared with controls (P<0.05).ZFP-VEGF treatment resulted in better perfusion recovery,a higher capillary density and proliferation,and less apoptosis compared with controls (P<0.05).Conclusions Intramuscular ZFP-VEGF injection promotes therapeutic angiogenesis in an ischemic hindlimb model with type 1 diabetes.This might be due to the effects of VEGF on cell survival and EPC recruitment.

  2. Co-therapy using lytic bacteriophage and linezolid: effective treatment in eliminating methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from diabetic foot infections.

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    Sanjay Chhibber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant pathogen in diabetic foot infections and prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA strains further complicates the situation. The incidence of MRSA in infected foot ulcers is 15-30% and there is an alarming trend for its increase in many countries. Diabetes acts as an immunosuppressive state decreasing the overall immune functioning of body and to worsen the situation, wounds inflicted with drug resistant strains represent a morbid combination in diabetic patients. Foot infections caused by MRSA are associated with an increased risk of amputations, increased hospital stay, increased expenses and higher infection-related mortality. Hence, newer, safer and effective treatment strategies are required for treating MRSA mediated diabetic foot infections. The present study focuses on the use of lytic bacteriophage in combination with linezolid as an effective treatment strategy against foot infection in diabetic population. METHODOLOGY: Acute hindpaw infection with S.aureus ATCC 43300 was established in alloxan induced diabetic BALB/c mice. Therapeutic efficacy of a well characterized broad host range lytic bacteriophage, MR-10 was evaluated alone as well as in combination with linezolid in resolving the course of hindpaw foot infection in diabetic mice. The process of wound healing was also investigated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A single administration of phage exhibited efficacy similar to linezolid in resolving the course of hindpaw infection in diabetic animals. However, combination therapy using both the agents was much more effective in arresting the entire infection process (bacterial load, lesion score, foot myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological analysis. The entire process of tissue healing was also hastened. Use of combined agents has been known to decrease the frequency of emergence of resistant mutants, hence this approach can serve as an effective strategy in

  3. Actividad hipoglucemiante de Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia y Parmentiera edulis Hypoglicemic activity of Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia and Parmentiera edulis

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    Rosa Martha Pérez-Gutiérrez

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad hipoglucemiante de los extractos de hexano, cloroformo y metanol de Brickellia veronicaefolia, Bouvardia terniflora y Parmentiera edulis. Material y métodos. Se probaron los extractos de las plantas (100, 200 y 300 mg/kg, vía intraperitoneal en ratones normoglucémicos y con diabetes inducida con aloxana. Resultados. La administración de 300 mg/kg de los extractos clorofórmicos de P. edulis, B. terniflora y hexánico de B. veronicaefolia en ratones diabéticos disminuye el nivel de glucosa sanguínea en 43.75, 58.56 y 72.13%, respectivamente. Estos extractos (300 mg/kg, administrados en ratones normoglucémicos, reducen la glucosa sanguínea en 29.61, 33.42 y 39.84%, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Con este estudio se confirma la actividad hipoglucemiante de estas plantas usadas en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de la diabetes.Objective. To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of Bouvardia terniflora, Brickelia veronicaefolia and Parmentiera edulis. Material and methods. Normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice were administered these plant extracts (intraperitoneal 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Results. The administration of 300 mg/kg of chloroform extracts from P. edulis and B. terniflora and hexane from B. veronicaefolia to diabetic mice decreased the blood glucose levels in 43.75, 58.56 and 72.13%, respectively. These extracts administered to normal mice reduced blood glucose levels in 29.61, 33.42 and 39.84%, respectively. Conclusions. The hypoglycemic effect of these plant extracts used in traditional medicine for diabetes treatment is confirmed.

  4. Pulmonary tissue volume in dogs during pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B.T.; Petrini, M.F.; Hyde, R.W.; Schreiner, B.F.

    1978-01-01

    Pulmonary tissue volume (Vt) and pulmonary capillary blood flow (Qc) were measured in anesthetized dogs by analyzing end-expiratory concentrations of dimethyl ether (DME), acetylene (C/sub 2/H/sub 2/), and sulfur hexafluoride during a 30-s rebreathing maneuver. Vt was compared to the postmortem lung weight of control dogs and dogs with hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic (alloxan) pulmonary edema. Qc was compared to the cardiac output measured by dye dilution. A 100 ml increase in alveolar volume (Va) in the range of 1 to 2 liters resulted in a 9 +- 3 ml increase in Vt. Vt measured at a Va of 1.9 liters measures 114 +- 18% of the postmortem lung weight in 20 control dogs and in 6 dogs with moderate edema (lung weight <250% of predicted). Vt measured only 53 +- 14% of the lung weight in 11 dogs with more severe edema. DME and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ gave the same mean values of Vt, but the reproducibility of a series of 3 to 7 measurements was greater with DME (coefficient of variation was 5% with DME and 8% C/sub 2/H/sub 2/). Qc measured 96 +- 15% of the cardiac output during the rebreathing maneuver, but the maneuver caused a 4 to 40% fall in the cardiac output. These data show that Vt determined by rebreathing DME is between 86% and 135% of the lung weight in dogs with pulmonary edema until the lung weight is greater than 250% of the predicted value.

  5. Antidiabetic principles ofLoranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic onPersea americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patience Ogoamaka Osadebe; Edwin Ogechukwu Omeje; Sylvester Chukwuemeka Nworu; Charles Okechukwu Esimone; Philip Felix Uzor; Ernest kenechukwu David; John Uchechukwu Uzoma

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore antidiabetic principles of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic on Persea Americana.Methods:The weakly acidic fraction of the aqueous methanol extract of the leaves ofLoranthus micranthus (Linn.) was isolated and tested for its antidiabetic activities. The isolation of the weakly acidic fraction was carried out following established physico-chemical based procedures. Furthermore, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated intraperitoneally (ip) with250 mg/kg and400 mg/kg of the weakly acidic fraction, glibenclamide10mg/kg (positive control) and 2 mg/kg of3 % v/v tween20 (negative control). The sugar levels of the treated and untreated animals were determined by withdrawing the blood at regular intervals and testing them with an automated glucometer. The phytochemical analysis of the acidic fraction was carried out using standard procedures. Chromatographic techniques were employed in the subsequent isolation and purification of the constituents of the weakly acidic fraction.Results:It was shown that the maximum effect of the weakly acidic fraction was obtained at24 hours after administration and was found to be statistically comparable with that of the positive control. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, saponins, and acidic compounds in the crude extract and carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenoids and oil in the weakly acidic fraction. Further purification of the weakly acidic fraction of the methanol extract using thin layer chromatography shows that toluene : methanol : diethyl amine (3:1:1) and chloroform: methanol: diethyl amine (9:1:1) are the best solvent system for the isolation of the various components of the weakly acidic fraction of the crude methanol extract ofLoranthus micranthus.Conclusions:The present study has led to the conclusion that the weakly acidic fraction of the plant under study has the potent

  6. Acute oral toxicity study of ethanol extract of Ceiba pentandra leaves as a glucose lowering agent in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadiza Lami Muhammad; Adamu Yusuf Kabiru; Musa Bola Busari; Abdullah Mann; Abubakar Siddique Abdullah; Abdulrazaq Taye Usman; Usman Adamu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of Ceiba pentandra (C. pentandra) as a glucose lowering agent and the attendant physiological changes in albino rats. Methods: Acute oral toxicity study of the extract was carried out by the administration of 10, 100, 1 000, 1 600, 2 900, and 5 000 mg/kg body weight of C. pentandra to rats in their respective groups. Twenty healthy albino rats weighing between 140 and 150 g were randomly allotted to five groups of four rats each. 100 mg/kg body weight of alloxan monohydrate was i.p. administered to rats and rats with blood glucose ? 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. 5 mg/kg body weight of standard drug, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of ethanol extract of C. pentandra were orally administered to diabetic rats in their respective groups once daily for 12 days while the control groups received 0.1 mL of normal saline for the same period. The blood glucose was checked after every 4 days and the experiment was terminated on the 17th day. Results: The safe dose (LD50) of the extract was greater than 5 000 mg/kg body weight. The extract treated groups exhibited a remarkable reduction in blood glucose [(87.72 ± 7.67) mg/dL for 200 mg/kg body weight dose and (86.33 ± 4.54) mg/dL for 400 mg/kg body weight dose] competitively with the normoglycemic group [(88.71 ± 4.56) mg/dL]. The body weight of the extract and standard drug treated groups appreciated significantly (P Conclusions: Ethanol extract of C. pentandra has glucose lowering effect and can ameliorate the biochemical abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus.

  7. Metforminium Decavanadate as a Potential Metallopharmaceutical Drug for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

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    Samuel Treviño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New potential drugs based on vanadium are being developed as possible treatments for diabetes mellitus (DM and its complications. In this regard, our working group developed metforminium decavanadate (MetfDeca, a compound with hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. MetfDeca was evaluated in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, on male Wistar rats. Alloxan-induction was employed to produce DM1 model, while a hypercaloric-diet was employed to generate DM2 model. Two-month treatments with 3.7 μg (2.5 μM/300 g/twice a week for DM2 and 7.18 μg (4.8 μM/300 g/twice a week for DM1 of MetfDeca, respectively, were administered. The resulting pharmacological data showed nontoxicological effects on liver and kidney. At the same time, MetfDeca showed an improvement of carbohydrates and lipids in tissues and serum. MetfDeca treatment was better than the monotherapies with metformin for DM2 and insulin for DM1. Additionally, MetfDeca showed a protective effect on pancreatic beta cells of DM1 rats, suggesting a possible regeneration of these cells, since they recovered their insulin levels. Therefore, MetfDeca could be considered not only as an insulin-mimetic agent, but also as an insulin-enhancing agent. Efforts to elucidate the mechanism of action of this compound are now in progress.

  8. Stevia rebaudiana loaded titanium oxide nanomaterials as an antidiabetic agent in rats

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    Ariadna Langle

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, is a plant with hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties. S. rebaudiana (SrB has become a lead candidate for the treatment of the diabetes mellitus. However, chronic administrations of S. rebaudiana are required to cause the normoglycemic effect. Importantly, nanomaterials in general and titanium dioxide (TiO2 in particular have become effective tools for drug delivery. In this work, we obtained TiO2 nanomaterials with SrB at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 µM by sol–gel method. After this nanomaterials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Where it was demonstrated, the presence of the S. rebaudiana in TiO2 nanomaterials, which were observed as hemispherical agglomerated particles of different sizes. The nanomaterials were evaluated in male rats whose diabetes mellitus-phenotype was induced by alloxan (200 mg/kg, i.p.. The co-administration of TiO2-SrB (20 and 30 µM induced a significant and permanent decrease in the glucose concentration since 4 h, until 30 days post-administration. Likewise, the concentrations of insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triacylglycerides showed a significant recovery to basal levels. The major finding of the study was that the TiO2-SrB (20 and 30 µM has a potent and prolonged activity antidiabetic. TiO2 can be considered like an appropriated vehicle in the continuous freeing of active substances to treat of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Beneficial action of resveratrol: How and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gerevini, Gustavo Tomas; Repossi, Gaston; Dain, Alejandro; Tarres, María Cristina; Das, Undurti Narasimha; Eynard, Aldo Renato

    2016-02-01

    Flavonoid resveratrol modulates the transcription factor NF-κB; inhibits the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP1 A1; suppresses the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes; and modulates Fas/Fas-ligand-mediated apoptosis, p53, mammalian target of rapamycin, and cyclins and various phosphodiesterases. This increases the cytosolic cAMP that activates Epac1/CaMKKβ/AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway, which in turn facilitates increased oxidation of fatty acids, mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial respiration, and gluconeogenesis. Resveratrol triggers apoptosis of activated T cells and suppresses tumor necrosis factor-α, interluekin-17 (IL-17), and other proinflammatory molecules, and thus is of benefit in autoimmune diseases. In addition, resveratrol inhibits expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor, explaining its effective action against cancer. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome is also altered in depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. We noted that BDNF protects against cytotoxic actions of alloxan, streptozotocin, and benzo(a)pyrene. Resveratrol prevents bisphenol A-induced autism, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, suggesting that it may augment BDNF synthesis and action. We also observed that BDNF levels are low in type 2 diabetes mellitus and that BDNF enhances production of antiinflammatory lipid, lipoxin A4, whose levels are low in diabetes mellitus. Thus, resveratrol may augment production of lipoxin A4. Resveratrol alters gut microbiota and influences stem cell proliferation and differentiation. These pleiotropic actions of resveratrol may explain the multitude of its actions and benefits.

  10. Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang in Treating Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with Hearing Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-yu; LI Meng; WANG Rui; LI Bin; GUO Ya-jing

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang (Hypoglycemic Anti-Deafness Capsule) in treating non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with hearing loss. Methods Two hundred ninety six patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and hearing loss were randomly assigned to a treatment group(n=164, 208 ears) and a control group(n=132,184 ears). Patients in the treatment group were treated with the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang and supplement herbal preparations as indicated by traditional Chinese medicine dialectical assessment, while control patients received glibenclamide and conventional treatments for deafness. Hearing, fasting blood glucose (FBG), post-prandial blood glucose(PBG), 24 hour urine sugar, platelet function indices, blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxides (LPO) levels, and symptom improvement were compared between the two groups. Results The rate of hearing improvement was 56.7% for the treatment group and 26.6% for the control. FBG, PBG and 24 hour urine sugar improved in both groups, but the last two were superior in the treatment group compared to the control. Symptoms improvement was also superior in the treatment group compared to the control. In patients receiving Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang treatment, platelet function indices, SOD and LPO were all improved, while only LOP improvement was noticed in control patients. No acute or long-term toxicity was demonstrated for the Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang in animal tests. The Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang lowered blood glucose and serum triglycerides in a rat model of alloxan-induced diabetes. Conclusion The Jiang Tang Fang Long Jiao Nang is effective in improving hearing and diabetic indices in diabetic patients with deafness, without significant side effects.

  11. Chronic intrarenal insulin replacement reverses diabetes mellitus-induced natriuresis and diuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhiani, M Marlina; Duggan, A Daniel; Wilson, Hunter; Brands, Michael W

    2012-02-01

    We showed recently that sustained natriuresis in type 1 diabetic dogs was attributed to the decrease in insulin rather than the hyperglycemia alone. The sodium-retaining action of insulin appeared to require hyperglycemia, and it completely reversed the diabetic natriuresis and diuresis. This study tested whether the sodium-retaining effect was attributed to direct intrarenal actions of insulin. Alloxan-treated dogs (D; n=7) were maintained normoglycemic using 24-h/d IV insulin replacement. After control measurements, IV insulin was decreased to begin a 6-day diabetic period. Blood glucose increased from 84±6 mg/dL to an average of 428 mg/dL on days 5 and 6, sodium excretion increased from 74±8 to 98±7 meq/d over the 6 days, and urine volume increased from 1645±83 to 2198±170 mL/d. Dir dogs (n=7) were subjected to the same diabetic regimen, but, in addition, insulin was infused continuously into the renal artery at 0.3 mU/kg per minute during the 6-day period. This did not affect plasma insulin. Blood glucose increased from 94±10 mg/dL to an average of 380 mg/dL on days 5 and 6, but sodium excretion averaged 76±5 and 69±8 meq/d during control and diabetes mellitus, respectively. The diuresis also was prevented. Glomerular filtration rate increased only in Dir dogs, and there was no change in mean arterial pressure in either group. This intrarenal insulin infusion had no effect on sodium or volume excretion in normal dogs. Intrarenal insulin replacement in diabetic dogs caused a sustained increase in tubular reabsorption that completely reversed diabetic natriuresis. Insulin plus glucose may work to prevent salt wasting in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. A therapeutic TDS patch of Metformin from a HPMC-PVA blend studied with a biological membrane of fish-swim bladder: An approach for dermal application in NIDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sharif Mohammad; Jahan, Lubna; Ferdaus, Rahat

    2015-09-01

    In order to introduce an easily applicable, removable, painless and long-term drug delivery system for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose with polyvinyl alcohol (HPMC-PVA) blend patches of metormin HCl were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A suitable patch of metformin 800 mg with HPMC-PVA blend were used, following a three cycle freeze-thaw technique. Drug release kinetic profiles were performed in both patch and swim bladder. Albino mice were artificially generated as NIDDM mice by alloxan insertion i.p and after then treated with the therapeutic patch. Blood glucose was estimated by commercially available glucose kit based on glucose oxidase method. Drug release parameters from the patch and swim bladder were typical non-Fickian diffusion and both have the same kinetic constant, revealing its possible diffusion through stratum corneum. Hypoglycemia was observed in treatment of normal mice with TDDS of metformin HCl within 4 hours i.e. 25 ± 2.13 mg/dl and within 16 hours in diabetic rats blood glucose level returned to normal level i.e. from 360 ± 3.3 mg/dl (NIDDM level) to 105 ± 2.5 mg/dl (Normal level). The TDS-patch has got the same kinetic simulation with that of swim-bladder, which might be a prediction for in vivo application. Here metformin was delivered to diabetic mice and has got significant anti-diabetic effect can be considered as a kind of patch for NIDDM just like wearing and taking off a hand watch because hypoglycaemia can be removed by just taking off the patch.

  13. Hypolipidemic mechanisms of Ananas comosus L. leaves in mice: different from fibrates but similar to statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weidong; Wang, Wei; Su, Hui; Xing, Dongming; Cai, Guoping; Du, Lijun

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we investigated hypolipidemic mechanisms of the ethanolic extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves (AC) in mice and then determined its activities in related enzymes. The results showed that AC (0.40 g/kg) significantly inhibited the increase in serum triglycerides by 40% in fructose-fed mice. In mice induced by alloxan and high-fat diets, serum total cholesterol remained at a high level (180 - 220 mg/dl) within 7 days of removing high-fat diets but reached normal level (120 - 140 mg/dl) after AC (0.40 g/kg per day) treatment. Also, AC (0.40 and 0.80 g/kg) significantly inhibited serum lipids from the increase in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic mice. AC (0.01 - 100 microg/ml) selectively activated lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity by 200% - 400% and significantly inhibited 3-hydroxyl-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMGCoA) reductase activity by 20% - 49% in vitro. Furthermore, 2 months of fenofibrate (0.20 g/kg) administration particularly increased mice liver weights (0.0760 +/- 0.0110 g/g) while AC (0.40 g/kg) had no effect (0.0403 +/- 0.0047). Taken together, these results suggest that AC will be a new potential natural product for the treatment of hyperlipidemia that exerts its actions through mechanisms of inhibiting HMGCoA reductase and activating LPL activities. Its action mechanisms differentiate from those with fibrates but may be partly similar to those with statins. It is hopeful that AC may serve as the adjuvant for fibrates.

  14. Antihyperglycemic potentials of a threatened plant, Helonias dioica: antioxidative stress responses and the signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debrup; Samadder, Asmita; Dutta, Suman; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Helonias dioica (HD) is a threatened species of herb growing in North America. It is used as a traditional medicine for treating various ailments particularly related to reproductive issues. The root is reported to contain approximately 10% of a saponin (chamaelirin; C(36)H(62)O(18)) apart from certain other fatty acids. As saponins are known to have hypoglycemic effects, we suspected its possible antihyperglycemic potentials. We injected intraperitoneally alloxan (ALX) at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight (bw) to induce hyperglycemia in mice and tested possible hypoglycemic effects of HD in vivo by deploying two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg bw, respectively). We also tested its effects on the isolated pancreatic islets cells in vitro. We used various standard protocols like reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage, activities of biomarkers like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidase (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) of the pancreas tissue and glucokinase and glycogen content of the liver of hyperglycemic mice. With a mechanistic approach, we also tracked down the possible signaling pathway involved. We found an elevated level of ROS generation, LPO and overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), p38 Map kinase (p38 MAPK), nuclear factor (NF)-κβ, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), cytochrome c, caspase 3, poly [ADP ribose] polymerase (PARP) and cyclo oxygenase 2 (COX2) in ALX-induced diabetic mouse. Treatment of hyperglycemic mice with both the doses of HD showed a significant decrease with respect to all these parameters of study. Thus, our results suggest that HD prevents ALX-induced islet cell damage and possesses antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potentials.

  15. Seasonal variation for the antidiabetic activity ofLoranthus micranthus methanol extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patience Ogoamaka Osadebe; Edwin Ogechukwu Omeje; Philip Felix Uzor; Ernest Kenechukwu David; Damian Chiedozie Obiorah

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the season in which the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus, parasitic onPersea americana possesses optimum antidiabetic activity and to determine the seasonal variation in the constituents.Methods: The antidiabetic activities of the aqueous methanol extracts of the leaves of Eastern Nigeria mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus, harvested in two seasons of the year, the onset of rainy season (April) and the peak of rainy season (July) were compared. The tests were carried out on six (6) groups (A-F) of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Groups A and B received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the April sample extracts respectively while groups C and D received same doses of the July sample extracts. Group E and F which were the positive and negative controls received 10 mg/kg of glibenclamide and 2 ml/kg of 3% tween 20 respectively. The blood glucose levels of the animals were monitored hourly with a glucometer for six hours. The phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were also carried out by standard procedures.Results: The results showed that group A and B exhibited significant (P0.05) FBS reduction (15.9%) while group D exhibited highly significant (P<0.01) reduction (47.5%) with the maximum reduction occurring after 6 hours. The phytochemical analysis of the crude methanol extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, acidic compounds, resins and oils. These were present in different proportions in both seasons.Conclusions: This study shows that there is a seasonal, dose-dependent variation in the chemical compositionviz-a-viz the antidiabetic activity of the plant under study. This activity is highest at the peak of the rainy season.

  16. A protective effect of endomorphins on the oxidative injury of islet.

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    Tian, L M; Liu, J; Sun, X L; Gao, C X; Fan, Y; Guo, Q

    2010-08-01

    The antioxidative capacity of endomorphins (EMs), endogenous μ-opioid receptor agonists, has been demonstrated by IN VIVO assays. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the effects of endomorphin 1 (EM1) and endomorphin 2 (EM2) on pancreatic islet injuries induced by streptozotocin (STZ), alloxan (ALX) and H(2)O(2), respectively. Wistar rats' islets were isolated and purified. The function of the islet cells, the insulin response to glucose stimulation was examined by insulin Radio Immuno Assay and the cell viability was measured by MTT assay. DNA fragments were performed to evaluate the apoptosis, while the cell cycle distribution was analyzed by PI staining flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, the islet were treated with EM1, EM2 or ALX for 24 h, and the expression of p53 and p21 protein were determined by Western blot. The results showed that STZ, ALX, and H(2)O(2) displayed clear concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on the pancreatic islet cells. While EMs improved the viability of islet induced by STZ, ALX or H(2)O(2), and EMs enhanced insulin accumulation of the cell supernatant after ALX and STZ stimulation. Our data also showed both that EMs inhibited cell apoptosis and cell cycle G1 arrest induced by STZ and ALX through down-regulaing p53 and p21 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that EMs can protect islet cells from STZ, ALX and H(2)O(2) induced injuries. Our observations imply that the endomorphins may have protective effects on islet cells oxidative injury.

  17. Diabetes attenuates the inhibitory effects of endomorphin-2, but not endomorphin-1 on gastrointestinal transit in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-lin; Diao, Yu-xiang; Xiang, Qiong; Ren, Yu-kun; Gu, Ning

    2014-09-05

    Diabetes affects the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus to the anus. In the present study, the charcoal meal test was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of endomorphins (EMs) on gastrointestinal transit in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Significantly delayed gastrointestinal transit was found in both 4 and 8 weeks alloxan-induced diabetes compared to non-diabetes. Moreover, i.c.v. EM-1 and EM-2 dose-dependently delayed gastrointestinal transit in non-diabetes and diabetes. The EM-1-induced inhibitory effects of gastrointestinal transit in 4 weeks diabetes were qualitatively similar to those of non-diabetes. However, at higher doses, the EM-1-induced effects in 8 weeks diabetes were largely enhanced. Different to EM-1, the EM-2-induced inhibition of gastrointestinal transit in diabetic mice was significantly attenuated compared to non-diabetic mice. Moreover, these effects were further decreased in 8 weeks diabetes. The delayed gastrointestinal transit effects caused by EM-1 may be primarily mediated by μ2-opioid receptor in both non-diabetes and 4 weeks diabetes. Interestingly, in 8 weeks diabetes, these effects were mediated by μ2- and δ-receptors. However, the inhibitory effects of EM-2 were mediated by μ1-opioid receptor, which exerted a reduced function in diabetes. Also, poor blood glucose control might result in the attenuated effects of EM-2. Our present results demonstrated that diabetes attenuates the inhibitory effects of EM-2, but not EM-1 on gastrointestinal transit in mice. The different effects of EM-1 and EM-2 on gastrointestinal transit in diabetes may be due to changes of opioid receptor subtypes and their functional responses.

  18. Acylhydrazones contribute to serum glucose homeostasis through dual physiological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, Marisa Jádna Silva; Castro, Allisson Jhonatan Gomes; Mascarello, Alessandra; Mendes, Camila Pires; Kappel, Virgínia Dermachi; Stumpf, Taisa Regina; Leal, Paulo Cesar; Nunes, Ricardo José; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Silva, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto

    2012-01-01

    In this study the in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effects of four acylhydrazone derivatives were investigated in rats. The secretagogue action, oral glucose tolerance, insulinogenic index and mechanism of action of these acylhydrazones in relation to calcium uptake in pancreatic islets were studied. Also, the insulinomimetic effect on glycemia in diabetic rats was verified. Of the acylhydrazones studied, 1 and 4 were able to increase glucose tolerance in an acute time-course. A powerful secretagogue effect was exhibited by 1 and glibenclamide with an insulinogenic index around 3.9 and 1.3-fold higher than that of the hyperglycemic group, respectively. Moreover, an acute and dose-dependent effect of glibenclamide and 1 on calcium uptake in pancreatic islets was observed. The rapid stimulatory effect of 1 on calcium uptake seems to be mediated, at least in part, by ATP-dependent K+ channels (K+-ATP) since the stimulatory effect of 1 was similar to that observed for glibenclamide but was not potentiated by sulphonylurea. Furthermore, both extracellular and calcium from stocks mediate the signal transduction of stimulatory effect of 1 on calcium uptake which may contribute to insulin secretion. In addition, the insulinomimetic effect of 1 was evidenced through the level of serum glucose lowering in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Also, 1 induced a significant increase in glycogen content in vivo and glucose uptake in soleus muscle in vitro. The results of this study indicate dual physiological targets for the acylhydrazone 1, i.e., pancreatic islets and skeletal muscle, as a result of insulin secretagogue and insulinomimetic action.

  19. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis in improvement of the reproductive performance and easing teratogenicity in hyperglycemic albino mice

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    Pranay Punj Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of cell suspension of Spirulina platensis (SP on estrous cycle, fetal development and embryopathy in alloxan (AXN induced hyperglycemic mice. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of AXN. Mice with blood glucose level above 200 mg/dl were divided into Group I (control, Group II (diabetic control, Group III (diabetic control mice fed with SP, and Group IV (control mice fed with SP. Litter counts, estrous cycles, percent survival of litter, and gestation length were recorded. Results: In hyperglycemic mice, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in duration of diestrus (14.48%, estrus (84.21%, and metestrus (164.15% with concomitant decrease in proestrus phase by 26.13% was recorded when compared with control. Reduction in litter count and survival of litter was 68.67% and 88.38%, respectively, whereas gestation length increased to 14.51% day in diabetic mice, but recovery in these parameters was observed (P < 0.05 when subjected to SP treatment. SP resulted in increased fertility rate from 77.5% to 82.5% and dropped off resorption of the fetus to 33.73% while the survival rate of offspring of diabetic mice went up to 88.89% from 83.61%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SP is effective in improving the reproductive performance and easing teratogenic effects in diabetic mice and hence warrants further detailed dose-dependent studies to understand its mechanism of action.

  20. Characterization of pioglitazone cyclodextrin complexes: Molecular modeling to in vivo evaluation

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    Dinesh M Bramhane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to study the influence of different β-cyclodextrin derivatives and different methods of complexation on aqueous solubility and consequent translation in in vivo performance of Pioglitazone (PE. Material and Methods: Three cyclodextrins: β-cyclodextrin (BCD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD and Sulfobutylether-7-β-cyclodextrin (SBEBCD were employed in preparation of 1:1 Pioglitazone complexes by three methods viz. co-grinding, kneading and co-evaporation. Complexation was confirmed by phase solubility, proton NMR, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and X-Ray diffraction (XRD. Mode of complexation was investigated by molecular dynamic studies. Pharmacodynamic study of blood glucose lowering activity of PE complexes was performed in Alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Results: Aqueous solubility of PE was significantly improved in presence of cyclodextrin. Apparent solubility constants were observed to be 254.33 M–1 for BCD-PE, 737.48 M–1 for HPBCD-PE and 5959.06 M–1 for SBEBCD-PE. The in silico predictions of mode of inclusion were in close agreement with the experimental proton NMR observation. DSC and XRD demonstrated complete amorphization of crystalline PE upon inclusion. All complexes exhibited >95% dissolution within 10 min compared to drug powder that showed <40% at the same time. Marked lowering of blood glucose was recorded for all complexes. Conclusion: Complexation of PE with different BCD significantly influenced its aqueous solubility, improved in vitro dissolution and consequently translated into enhanced pharmacodynamic activity in rats

  1. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

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    Park Na-Young

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.

  2. Probiotics decreased the bioavailability of the bile acid analog, monoketocholic acid, when coadministered with gliclazide, in healthy but not diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salami, Hani; Butt, Grant; Tucker, Ian; Golocorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Mikov, Momir

    2012-06-01

    In recent studies we showed that gliclazide has no hypoglycemic effect on type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats while MKC does, and their combination exerted a better hypoglycemic effect than MKC alone. We also showed that the most hypoglycemic effect was noticed when T1D rats were treated with probiotics then gavaged with MKC + gliclazide (blood glucose decreased from 24 ± 3 to 10 ± 2 mmol/l). The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of probiotics on MKC pharmacokinetics when coadministered with gliclazide, in T1D rats. 80 male Wistar rats (weight 350 ± 50 g) were randomly allocated into 8 groups (10 rats/group), 4 of which were injected with alloxan (30 mg/kg) to induce T1D. Group 1 was healthy and group 2 was diabetic. Groups 3 (healthy) and 4 (diabetic) were gavaged with probiotics (75 mg/kg) every 12 h for 3 days and 12 h later all groups received a single oral dose of MKC + gliclazide (4 and 20 mg/kg respectively). The remaining 4 groups were treated in the same way but administered MKC + gliclazide via the i.v. route. Blood samples collected from T1D rats prior to MKC + gliclazide revealed that probiotic treatment alone reduced blood glucose levels twofold. When coadministered with gliclazide, the bioavailability of MKC was reduced in healthy rats treated with probiotics but remained the same in diabetic pretreated rats. The decrease in MKC bioavailability, when administered with gliclazide, caused by probiotic treatment in healthy but not diabetic rats suggests that probiotic treatment induced MKC metabolism or impaired its absorption, only in healthy animals. The different MKC bioavailability in healthy and diabetic rats could be explained by different induction of presystemic elimination of MKC in the gut by probiotic treatment.

  3. Increased expression and local accumulation of the Prion Protein, Alzheimer Aβ peptides, superoxide dismutase 1, and Nitric oxide synthases 1 & 2 in muscle in a rabbit model of diabetes

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    Bitel Claudine L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle disease associated with different etiologies has been shown to produce localized accumulations of amyloid and oxidative stress-related proteins that are more commonly associated with neurodegeneration in the brain. In this study we examined changes in muscle tissue in a classic model of diabetes and hyperglycemia in rabbits to determine if similar dysregulation of Alzheimer Aβ peptides, the prion protein (PrP, and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1, as well as nitric oxide synthases is produced in muscle in diabetic animals. This wild-type rabbit model includes systemic physiological expression of human-like Alzheimer precursor proteins and Aβ peptides that are considered key in Alzheimer protein studies. Results Diabetes was produced in rabbits by injection of the toxic glucose analogue alloxan, which selectively enters pancreatic beta cells and irreversibly decreases insulin production, similar to streptozotocin. Quadriceps muscle from rabbits 16 wks after onset of diabetes and hyperglycemia were analyzed with biochemical and in situ methods. Immunoblots of whole muscle protein samples demonstrated increased PrP, SOD1, as well as neuronal and inducible Nitric oxide synthases (NOS1 and NOS2 in diabetic muscle. In contrast, we detected little change in Alzheimer Aβ precursor protein expression, or BACE1 and Presenilin 1 levels. However, Aβ peptides measured by ELISA increased several fold in diabetic muscle, suggesting a key role for Aβ cleavage in muscle similar to Alzheimer neurodegeneration in this diabetes model. Histological changes in diabetic muscle included localized accumulations of PrP, Aβ, NOS1 and 2, and SOD1, and evidence of increased central nuclei and cell infiltration. Conclusions The present study provides evidence that several classic amyloid and oxidative stress-related disease proteins coordinately increase in overall expression and form localized accumulations in diabetic muscle. The present study

  4. Hypoglycemic Activity of Polysaccharides from Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis and Their Antioxidant Activity in vitro and in vivo.%掌叶蝎子草多糖降血糖活性及其体内外抗氧化能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈章宝; 彭霞; 何江梅; 周泽扬

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究掌叶蝎子草Girardinia diversifolia(Link)Friis多糖对糖尿病小鼠的降糖效果及体内外抗氧化活性.方法:在体外化学模拟条件下,测定掌叶蝎子草粗多糖对超氧阴离子(O2^-·)、羟基自由基(·OH)的清除活性;采用四氧嘧啶诱导建立糖尿病小鼠模型,糖尿病小鼠分别灌胃盐酸二甲双胍、掌叶蝎子草多糖低剂量(200mg/kg)、高剂量(400mg/kg),给药后测定小鼠的空腹血糖值,血清MDA体积分数和SOD的活性.结果:掌叶蝎子草粗多糖清除·OH的IC50值≥2mg/mL,清除O2^-·的IC50值≥5mg/mL,掌叶蝎子草粗多糖清除自由基活性与其体积质量分数成正比.掌叶蝎子草高剂量多糖能降低糖尿病小鼠的血糖值、采食量和饮水量,提高了小鼠胸腺指数和脾脏指数,升高血清SOD水平,降低血清MDA水平,抑制糖尿病小鼠体质量减轻,但治疗效果略低于阳性药物盐酸二甲双胍片;掌叶蝎子草多糖低剂量降血糖效果不明显.结论:掌叶蝎子草多糖具有降血糖作用,这为蝎子草多糖有可能成为新的天然降糖药物或保健品提供了科学依据.%To investigate the hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharides from Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis on diabetic mice caused by alloxan, and their antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, an experiment was conducted under in vitro chemical simulated conditions, in which their acanverging activities for super- oxide anion radicals (O2^- · ) and hydroxyl radicals ( · OH) were examined. A hyperglycemic model of mice was made by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Alloxan-indueed diabetic mice were garaged with sa- line, metformin hydrochloride, and low-dose (200 mg/kg) and high-dose (400 mg/kg) polysaccharides from G. diversifolia according to weight, and administered orally for fourteen days. The results showed that polysaccharides had the activities of

  5. Antihyperglycemic and subchronic toxicity study of Moringa stenopetala leaves in mice

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    Tesemma Sileshi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity and subchronic toxicity of an extract of Moringa stenopetala (M. stenopetala leaves in mice. Methods: Antihyperglycemic activities of various solvent subfractions and chromatographic fractions were investigated in alloxan induced diabetic mice. All fractions were administered intragastrically using oral gavage at a dose of 500 mg/kg. For the subchronic toxicity investigation of the 70% ethanol extract of M. stenopetala leaves, a daily dose of 300 or 600 mg/kg body weight was administered to mice over 96 d. Some hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were measured as indices of organ specific toxicity. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity investigation was done using thin layer chromatography method. Results: Among the solvent subfractions of the 70% ethanol extract tested only butanol subfraction exhibited significant reduction of blood glucose level (P<0.05 at 2 h (53.44% and 4.5 h (46.34% in diabetic mice and it was further fractionated chromatographically. This resulted in isolation of three chromatographic fractions (fraction 1, 2, and 3 which exhibited maximal blood glucose reduction (P<0.01 at 6 h (77.2%, at 4.5 h (69.1% and at 4.5 h (71.96% after administration. Furthermore, these fractions exhibited comparable antioxidant activity, and preliminary phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds which may be phenolic glycoside in all fractions. The subchronic toxicity study of the 70% ethanol extract of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that there were no significant differences in body weight, between controls and treated mice. Hematological analysis showed no differences in most parameters examined. Furthermore, it did not significantly affect plasma creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides and CA125 levels. It also did not significantly affect the plasma T3, T4 and THS level. It, however, caused a significant dose

  6. 微量元素调节糖尿病大鼠糖脂代谢的研究%Study on regulating effect of trace elements on metabolism of glucose and lipid in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙忠; 吴蕴棠; 车素萍; 常红; 王永明

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察微量元素锌铬硒对糖尿病大鼠降糖降脂的作用。方法:对四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病大鼠经灌胃分别补充锌铬硒及三者混合物。实验分为6组:0组为正常对照组;1组为阳性对照组;2组为补锌组;3组为补铬组;4组为补硒组;5组为混合组,6组均自由进食。灌胃4周时取血测血糖、血脂等指标。结果:(1)锌对糖尿病大鼠的生长发育有一定的促进作用(2)硒可使糖尿病大鼠的高血糖状况得到一定改善(3)补充锌对血清胆固醇上升、补充硒对血清甘油三酯上升有一定的抑制作用。结论:给糖尿病大鼠补充适量的锌、铬、硒,对其糖脂代谢有一定的改善作用。%Objective: To observe the effects of zinc, chromium, selenium on metabolism of glucose and lipids in diabetic rats. Methods: The diabetic rat's model was established with the alloxane. Zinc, chromium, selenium, and their mixture were supplemented by means of gavage to the diabetic rats . 62 rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, diabetic control, zinc group, chromium group, selenium group and mixed group. After the diabetic rats were feed for four weeks, blood glucose and serum lipids were detected. Results: Zinc can promote the growth and development of diabetic rats . The status of high blood glucose in diabetic rats was improved by supplement of selenium. Supplement of zinc and selenium can inhibit the rise in serum cholesterol and triglyceride, respectively. Conclusion: The adequate supplement of Zinc, chromium, and selenium to diabetic rats can improve their metabolism of glucose and lipids.

  7. Comparative DNA profiling, phytochemical investigation, and biological evaluation of two Ficus species growing in Egypt

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    El-Sayeda A El-Kashoury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: A comparison between two Ficus species, cultivated in Egypt, was carried out in this study. Their DNA analysis revealed that they are not closely related. Materials and Methods: The pharmacopoeial constants of the leaves showed higher total ash and acid insoluble ash in F. lyrata than in F. platypoda. The other parameters were close in both species. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate and/or glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, sterols, and triterpenes in their leaves and was detected in traces in their stems. Results: Saponification of n-hexane extract of the leaves yielded 46% and 74.8% for the unsaponifiable matters and 20% and 15% for the fatty acids for F. platypoda and F. lyrata, respectively. n-Docosane (21.69% and n-heptacosane (33.77% were the major hydrocarbons in F. platypoda and F. lyrata, respectively. b-Sitosterol was the main sterol, palmitic (22.07% and carboceric (35.72% acids were the major identified saturated fatty acids in both species, while linoleic acid was the main unsaturated fatty acid (18.66% and 16.7% in both species, respectively. The acute toxicity study revealed that the two species were safe up to 2 g/kg. The antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay and pyrogallol as the standard was more significant for F. platypoda (232.6 μg/ml than for F. lyrata, (790.9 μg/ml. The oral antihyperglycemic activity in diabetic rats using alloxan revealed that the 80% ethanolic extract of the leaves of F. platypoda was more active than that of the leaves of F. lyrata in decreasing the blood glucose level at 200 mg/kg/day (107.9 ± 5.817, 127.2 ± 4.359 and 400 mg/kg/day (64.11 ± 4.358, 127.7 ± 6.889, respectively, when compared with the diabetic control gliclazide (172.3 ± 2.089. Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence that the two Ficus species have antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity, in the order F. platypoda and then F

  8. Assessment of In Vivo Antidiabetic Properties of Umbelliferone and Lupeol Constituents of Banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Flower in Hyperglycaemic Rodent Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Ramith; S Shirahatti, Prithvi; S, Nanjunda Swamy; Zameer, Farhan; Lakkappa Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura; M N, Nagendra Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana flower is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. This study is based on an investigation of the in vivo antihyperglycaemic activity of Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) isolated from the ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) in alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EF (100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt.) for 4 weeks showed deterioration in fasting hyperglycaemia and reversal of abnormalities in serum/urine protein, urea and creatinine, when compared to the diabetic control group of rats. The diabetic group of rats fed with EF, C1 and C2 (100 mg/kg b. wt.) once daily, for a period of 28 days resulted in a significant reduction of diabetic symptoms viz., polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria and urine sugar together with an improved body weight. HbA1c extent was reduced whereas levels of insulin and Hb were increased. Both the extract and compounds wielded positive impacts in diabetic rats by reversal of altered activities of hepatic marker enzymes viz., aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP); glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase); shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase); gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase) and pyruvate kinase. The characteristic diabetic complications such as hypercholesterolemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia also significantly reverted to normal in the serum/liver of diabetic rats. Besides these, the treatment increased the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the serum and liver. The histological observations revealed a marked regeneration of the β-cells in the drug treated diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study illustrates that EF, C1 and C2 enhances the glycolytic activities, besides

  9. Efeito do extrato da casca de Syzygium cumini sobre a atividade da acetilcolinesterase em ratos normais e diabéticos Syzygium cumini bark extract effect on acetylcholinesterase activity in normal and diabetic rats

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    Cinthia Melazzo Mazzanti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a eficiência do extrato etanólico da casca de Syzygium cumini sobre o sistema colinérgico de ratos normais e diabéticos induzidos com aloxano. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (C, tratado com Syzygium cumini (TS, diabético (D e diabético tratado com Syzygium cumini (DS. A atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE foi analisada nas seguintes estruturas cerebrais: cerebelo, córtex, estriado e hipocampo. O extrato etanólico da casca de Syzygium cumini na dose de 1g.kg-1 foi administrado diariamente por um período de trinta dias. Foi verificado após este período que o extrato inibiu a atividade da AChE no cerebelo e córtex cerebral dos ratos do grupo DS (PThe present study verified the efficiency of the bark ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini on the cholinergic system of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Thirty-nine female rats were divided in control (C, treated with Syzygium cumini (TS, diabetic (D and diabetic treated with Syzygium cumini (DS. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE was analyzed in the following cerebral structures: cerebellum, cortex, striatum and hippocampus. The extract of the bark of Syzygium cumini in the dose of 1g.kg-1 was administered orally daily for a period of thirty days. After this period the extract inhibited the activity of the AChE in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of the rats in the DS group (P<0.05 as, compared to TS. In the striatum there was a significant increase in the activity of the AChE in rats of the TS group (P<0.01 when compared to the C group, and in the hippocampus there was no significant variation. These results indicate that the bark extract of "Jambolão"has an inhibitory effect on AChE in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex and an stimulatory effect on striatum, indicating a possible alteration in the functionality of the cholinergic system in such cerebral structures.

  10. Insulin Modulates Liver Function in a Type I Diabetes Rat Model

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    Eduardo L. Nolasco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several studies have been performed to unravel the association between diabetes and increased susceptibility to infection. This study aimed to investigate the effect of insulin on the local environment after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in rats. Methods: Diabetic (alloxan, 42 mg/kg i.v., 10 days and non-diabetic (control male Wistar rats were subjected to a two-puncture CLP procedure and 6 h later, the following analyses were performed: (a total and differential cell counts in peritoneal lavage (PeL and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluids; (b quantification of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 and CINC-2 in the PeL and BAL fluids by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; (c total leukocyte count using a veterinary hematology analyzer and differential leukocyte counts on stained slides; (d biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP by colorimetric analyses; and (e lung, kidney, and liver morphological analyses (hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Relative to controls, non-diabetic and diabetic CLP rats exhibited an increased in the concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, CINC-1, and CINC-2 and total and neutrophil in the PeL fluid. Treatment of these animals with neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin (NPH, 1IU and 4IU, respectively, s.c., 2 hours before CLP procedure, induced an increase on these cells in the PeL fluid but it did not change cytokine levels. The levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and urea were higher in diabetic CLP rats than in non-diabetic CLP rats. ALP levels were higher in diabetic sham rats than in non-diabetic sham rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin completely restored ALT, AST, and ALP levels. Conclusion: These results together suggest that insulin attenuates liver dysfunction during early two-puncture CLP-induced peritoneal

  11. Efeitos biológicos da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae Biological effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae

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    Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae são plantas nativas da região alagada das ilhas de Porto Rico, Paraná, Brasil. São utilizadas na medicina popular como tônico, afrodisíaco e antidiabético. O extrato bruto metanólico, obtido das raízes das duas espécies, foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade moluscicida de caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata. Além disso, o potencial hipoglicemiante da Pfaffia glomerata foi investigado em ratos tratados com aloxana. As saponinas do extrato bruto metanólico da P. glomerata e da P. paniculata foram analisadas em cromatografia em camada delgada e foi determinado o índice hemolítico. O extrato bruto metanólico obtido da Pfaffia glomerata apresentou maior conteúdo de saponinas hemolíticas e maior atividade moluscicida em relação à Pfaffia paniculata. Todavia, o tratamento com extrato de Pfaffia glomerata não promoveu efeitos significativos sobre os níveis glicêmicos.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen. (Amaranthaceae and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze are native plants found in the flooded area of the islands of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. They are used in folk medicine as tonics, aphrodisiacs, and to treat diabetes. The methanolic extract obtained from roots of both species was used to evaluate the molluscicidal activity against the periwinkle Biomphalaria glabrata and the hypoglycemic activity of Pfaffia glomerata was investigated in rats with diabetes induced by alloxan. The saponins from the methanolic extract of P. glomerata and P. paniculata were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and scum and the hemolitic index was measured. The methanolic extract obtained from Pfaffia glomerata showed higher content of hemolytic saponin than Pfaffia paniculata and presented molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata from 200 ppm. However, the treatment with P. glomerata extract did not promote any significant effect on

  12. Insulin Influences Autophagy Response Distinctively in Macrophages of Different Compartments

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    Karen K. S. Sunahara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM is characterized by hyperglycemia, associated to a lack or inefficiency of the insulin to regulate glucose metabolism. DM is also marked by alterations in a diversity of cellular processes that need to be further unraveled. In this study, we examined the autophagy pathway in diabetic rat macrophages before and after treatment with insulin. Methods: Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and splenic tissue of diabetic male Wistar rats (alloxan, 42 mg/kg, i.v., 10 days and control rats (physiological saline, i.v.. Some diabetic rats were given neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin (4 IU, s.c. 8 h before experiments. For characterization of the model and evaluation of the effect of insulin on the autophagic process, the following analyzes were performed: (a concentrations of cytokines: interleukin (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 and CINC-2 in the BAL supernatant was measured by ELISA; (b characterization of alveolar macrophage (AM of the BAL as surface antigens (MHCII, pan-macrophage KiM2R, CD11b and autophagic markers (protein microtubule-associated light chain (LC3, autophagy protein (Atg12 by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy (c study of macrophages differentiated from the bone marrow by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy (d histology of the spleen by immunohistochemistry associated with confocal microscopy. Results: Interestingly, insulin exerted antagonistic effects on macrophages from different tissues. Macrophages from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL enhanced their LC3 autophagosome bound content after treatment with insulin whereas splenic macrophages from red pulp in diabetic rats failed to enhance their Atg 12 levels compared to control animals. Insulin treatment in diabetic rats did not change LC3 content in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM. M1 and M2 macrophages behaved accordingly to the

  13. Homogenous demineralized dentin matrix and platelet-rich plasma for bone tissue engineering in cranioplasty of diabetic rabbits: biochemical, radiographic, and histological analysis.

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    Gomes, M F; Valva, V N; Vieira, E M M; Giannasi, L C; Salgado, M A C; Vilela-Goulart, M G

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of homogenous demineralized dentin matrix (HDDM) slices and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in surgical defects created in the parietal bones of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits, treated with a guided bone regeneration technique. Biochemical, radiographic, and histological analyses were performed. Sixty adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into five groups of 12: normoglycaemic (control, C), diabetic (D), diabetic with a PTFE membrane (DM), diabetic with a PTFE membrane and HDDM slices (DM-HDDM), and diabetic with PTFE membrane and PRP (DM-PRP). The quantity and quality of bone mass was greatest in the DM-HDDM group (respective radiographic and histological analyses: at 15 days, 71.70 ± 16.50 and 50.80 ± 1.52; 30 days, 62.73 ± 16.51 and 54.20 ± 1.23; 60 days, 63.03 ± 11.04 and 59.91 ± 3.32; 90 days, 103.60 ± 24.86 and 78.99 ± 1.34), followed by the DM-PRP group (respective radiographic and histological analyses: at 15 days 23.00 ± 2.74 and 20.66 ± 7.45; 30 days 31.92 ± 6.06 and 25.31 ± 5.59; 60 days 25.29 ± 16.30 and 46.73 ± 2.07; 90 days 38.10 ± 14.04 and 53.38 ± 9.20). PRP greatly enhanced vascularization during the bone repair process. Abnormal calcium metabolism was statistically significant in the DM-PRP group (P<0.001) for all four time intervals studied, especially when compared to the DM-HDDM group. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in the DM-HDDM group (P<0.001) in comparison to the C, D, and DM-PRP groups, confirming the findings of intense osteoblastic activity and increased bone mineralization. Thus, HDDM promoted superior bone architectural microstructure in bone defects in diabetic rabbits due to its effective osteoinductive and osteoconductive activity, whereas PRP stimulated angiogenesis and red bone marrow formation.

  14. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue

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    Rezik Azab Awad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artifi cial, extruded, synthetic and/or fi lled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, fl avorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA. Material and methods. Matured Ras cheese (3 months old was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fi ne paste and kept frozen until used. Results. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA. The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and fi rmness of

  15. THE ROLE OF IGF-1 GENE EXPRESSION ABNORMALITY IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY

    Insti