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Sample records for allowing normal bone

  1. Do vegetarians have a normal bone mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Susan A

    2004-09-01

    Public health strategies targeting the prevention of poor bone health on a population-wide basis are urgently required, with particular emphasis being placed on modifiable factors such as nutrition. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of a vegetarian diet on indices of skeletal integrity to address specifically whether vegetarians have a normal bone mass. Analysis of existing literature, through a combination of observational, clinical and intervention studies were assessed in relation to bone health for the following: lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan diets versus omnivorous, predominantly meat diets, consumption of animal versus vegetable protein, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Mechanisms of action for a dietary "component" effect were examined and other potential dietary differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians were also explored. Key findings included: (i) no differences in bone health indices between lacto-ovo-vegetarians and omnivores; (ii) conflicting data for protein effects on bone with high protein consumption (particularly without supporting calcium/alkali intakes) and low protein intake (particularly with respect to vegan diets) being detrimental to the skeleton; (iii) growing support for a beneficial effect of fruit and vegetable intake on bone, with mechanisms of action currently remaining unclarified. The impact of a "vegetarian" diet on bone health is a hugely complex area since: 1) components of the diet (such as calcium, protein, alkali, vitamin K, phytoestrogens) may be varied; 2) key lifestyle factors which are important to bone (such as physical activity) may be different; 3) the tools available for assessing consumption of food are relatively weak. However, from data available and given the limitations stipulated above, "vegetarians" do certainly appear to have "normal" bone mass. What remains our challenge is to determine what components of a vegetarian diet are of particular benefit to bone, at what levels and under

  2. Normal human bone marrow and its variations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Schmidt, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Physiology and age dependant changes of human bone marrow are described. The resulting normal distribution patterns of active and inactive bone marrow including the various contrasts on different MR-sequences are discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. MR imaging of normal bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajgis, M.; Paprzycki, W.

    1994-01-01

    Principles of MR bone marrow imaging on the basis of retrospective analysis of MR examinations of bone marrow in different anatomic sites in 200 patients have been discussed. Significance of different physiologic factors and processes such as age, steatosis, osteoporosis, conversion and reconversion, which influence on MR bone marrow images, have been emphasized. T1-weighted images obtained with spin-echo sequences give the most of information about bone marrow structure in MR. Thorough knowledge of bone marrow physiology and clinical status of the patient is indispensable in correct interpretation of hypointensive lesions on T1-weighted images. When presence of disseminated bone marrow disease is suspected, authors propose routine imaging of lumbar vertebral column, pelvis and proximal parts of femoral bones. (author)

  4. Diffusely increased uptake in the skull in normal bone scans

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    Suematsu, Toru; Yoshida, Shoji; Motohara, Tomofumi; Fujiwara, Hirofumi; Nishii, Hironori; Komiyama, Toyozo; Yanase, Masakazu; Mizutani, Masahiro (Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    Diffusely increased skull uptake (a hot skull) is often seen in patients with bone metastases and metabolic disease. This finding is also, however, noticed in normal bone scans of aged women. To determine whether the hot skull could be considered a normal variant in elderly women and is associated to menopause, we studied 282 normal bone scans (166 women and 116 men without metabolic and hormonal disease; age range 11 to 84 yr). We divided the patients into eight age groups--ages 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80-89 yrs. Measurements of skull uptake were obtained from anterior total body views using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). CNR for the skull was calculated using an equation. The sex dependent difference in skull uptake began to develop in the age group 30-39 yrs (p<0.05). The skull showed greater activity in women than in men for age groups from 30-39 to 80-89 yrs. In the age groups 50-59 and 60-69, the difference was particularly large (p<0.001). For women, the 50-59 yr age group had a significantly higher CNR than the 40-49 yr (p<0.01), 30-39 yr (p<0.05), and 20-29 yr age group (p<0.05). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr age groups. For men, the skull uptake was virtually unchanged with age. Our data strongly suggested that the hot skull in normal bone scan is related to menopausal estrogen deficiency. One should not necessarily regard it abnormal that elderly women suffer hot skull. (J.P.N.).

  5. Diffusely increased uptake in the skull in normal bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suematsu, Toru; Yoshida, Shoji; Motohara, Tomofumi; Fujiwara, Hirofumi; Nishii, Hironori; Komiyama, Toyozo; Yanase, Masakazu; Mizutani, Masahiro

    1992-01-01

    Diffusely increased skull uptake (a hot skull) is often seen in patients with bone metastases and metabolic disease. This finding is also, however, noticed in normal bone scans of aged women. To determine whether the hot skull could be considered a normal variant in elderly women and is associated to menopause, we studied 282 normal bone scans (166 women and 116 men without metabolic and hormonal disease; age range 11 to 84 yr). We divided the patients into eight age groups--ages 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80-89 yrs. Measurements of skull uptake were obtained from anterior total body views using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). CNR for the skull was calculated using an equation. The sex dependent difference in skull uptake began to develop in the age group 30-39 yrs (p<0.05). The skull showed greater activity in women than in men for age groups from 30-39 to 80-89 yrs. In the age groups 50-59 and 60-69, the difference was particularly large (p<0.001). For women, the 50-59 yr age group had a significantly higher CNR than the 40-49 yr (p<0.01), 30-39 yr (p<0.05), and 20-29 yr age group (p<0.05). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr age groups. For men, the skull uptake was virtually unchanged with age. Our data strongly suggested that the hot skull in normal bone scan is related to menopausal estrogen deficiency. One should not necessarily regard it abnormal that elderly women suffer hot skull. (J.P.N.)

  6. Bone marrow blood vessels: normal and neoplastic niche

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    Saeid Shahrabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are among the most important factors in the transport of materials such as nutrients and oxygen. This study will review the role of blood vessels in normal bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as pathological conditions like leukemia and metastasis. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2016 of English-language papers using the terms bone marrow, leukemia, metastasis, and vessel. Given that blood vessels are conduits for the transfer of nutrients, they create a favorable situation for cancer cells and cause their growth and development. On the other hand, blood vessels protect leukemia cells against chemotherapy drugs. Finally, it may be concluded that the vessels are an important factor in the development of malignant diseases.

  7. Quantitative MR imaging of normal and leukemic bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinks, R.S.; Dunlap, H.J.; Poon, P.Y.; Curtis, J.; Henkelman, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed and tested a protocol that allows extraction of reliable T1 and T2 relaxation times from imaging data. They have used these methods to study in vivo the bone marrow of healthy volunteers and patients with acute leukemia. Examinations were performed at 6.25 MHz using an interleaved ISE/SE sequence to calculate T1 and an eight echo (TE = 25) sequence to calculate T2. The results are summarized as follows: In leukemic patients, T1 = 476 +- 115 msec; in leukemic patients in remission, T1 = 290 +- 31 msec; in healthy volunteers, T1 = 329 +- 32 msec. The T2 values were not significantly different for the three groups (105 +- 10 msec). Work is underway to evaluate whether T1 values of bone marrow may be used to monitor patients in remission and to detect the onset of relapse

  8. Rac1 Dosage Is Crucial for Normal Endochondral Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Dai; Bush, Jason R; Bryce, Dawn-Marie; Kamijo, Ryutaro; Beier, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Rac1, a member of the small Rho GTPase family, plays multiple cellular roles. Studies of mice conditionally lacking Rac1 have revealed essential roles for Rac1 in various tissues, including cartilage and limb mesenchyme, where Rac1 loss produces dwarfism and long bone shortening. To gain further insight into the role of Rac1 in skeletal development, we have used transgenic mouse lines to express a constitutively active (ca) Rac1 mutant protein in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Overexpression of caRac1 in limb bud mesenchyme or chondrocytes leads to reduced body weight and shorter bones compared with control mice. Histological analysis of growth plates showed that caRac1;Col2-Cre mice displayed ectopic hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferative zone and enlarged hypertrophic zones. These mice also displayed a reduced proportion of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in the proliferative zone and nuclear β-catenin localization in the ectopic hypertrophic chondrocytes. Importantly, overexpression of caRac1 partially rescued the phenotypes of Rac1fl/fl;Col2-Cre and Rac1fl/fl;Prx1-Cre conditional knockout mice, including body weight, bone length, and growth plate disorganization. These results suggest that tight regulation of Rac1 activity is necessary for normal cartilage development. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  9. Bone Mass Density in Normal Iranian Population - Shariati Hospital (1996

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    M Pajoohi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bone mass density (BMD may vary in different countries due to different genetic and environmental factors. This study was performed to determine the BMD of the normal population in Iran. Methods and Materials: Subjects were selected randomly from different works and social classes in Tehran (from the lowest to the highest. For each decade and sexes, 20 normal subjects were selected (140 men and 140 women. BMD was measured with a Hologic 1000 plus machine by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method for the lumber spine (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4 and the femoral neck (neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, ward, total. Data were treated by polynomial approximation (3 rd degree. The obtained curves were compared with the standard Hologic curves for Caucasians. Results: In female the peak bone mass (PBM was 1.019 g/cm² for the lumbar spine and 0.832 for the femoral neck. In male the peak bone mass (PBM was 0.987 g/cm² for the lumbar spine and 0.907 for the femoral neck. The BMD of both lumbar spine and femoral neck were lower than the Hologic standards. For the lumbar spine the mean difference was 6.5 percent (2 to 21 percent, CI=1 for women and 13.8 percent (2 to 36 percent, CI=1.45 for men. In femoral neck the mean difference was 5.4 percent (2 to 16 percent, CI=0.96 for women and 4.6 percent (1 to 14 percent, CI=0.96 for men. Conclusion: The BMD of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck was lower in Iranian compared to the Hologic standards for Caucasians. This was seen in all age groups and in both sexes. It was less pronounced for the PBM in spine was lower in men than woman. The lower BMD of the spine in men was also seen in a cohort of patients with different diseases (inflammatory and non-inflammatory.

  10. Bone Marrow Micro-Environment in Normal and Deranged Hematopoiesis: Opportunities for Regenerative Medicine and Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkaria, Shawn M; Decker, Matthew; Ding, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Various cell types cooperate to create a highly organized and dynamic micro-environmental niche in the bone marrow. Over the past several years, the field has increasingly recognized the critical roles of the interplay between bone marrow environment and hematopoietic cells in normal and deranged hematopoiesis. These advances rely on several new technologies that have allowed us to characterize the identity and roles of these niches in great detail. Here, we review the progress of the last several years, list some of the outstanding questions in the field and propose ways to target the diseased environment to better treat hematologic diseases. Understanding the extrinsic regulation by the niche will help boost hematopoiesis for regenerative medicine. Based on natural development of hematologic malignancies, we propose that combinatory targeting the niche and hematopoietic intrinsic mechanisms in early stages of hematopoietic malignancies may help eliminate minimal residual disease and have the highest efficacy. © 2018 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Lining cells on normal human vertebral bone surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.B.; Lloyd, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    Thoracic vertebrae from two individuals with no bone disease were studied with the electron microscope to determine cell morphology in relation to bone mineral. The work was undertaken to determine if cell morphology or spatial relationships between the bone lining cells and bone mineral could account for the relative infrequency of bone tumors which arise at this site following radium intake, when compared with other sites, such as the head of the femur. Cells lining the vertebral mineral were found to be generally rounded in appearance with varied numbers of cytoplasmic granules, and they appeared to have a high density per unit of surface area. These features contrasted with the single layer of flattened cells characteristic of the bone lining cells of the femur. A tentative discussion of the reasons for the relative infrequency of tumors in the vertebrae following radium acquisition is presented

  12. Normal bone density in male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5a- reductase 2 deficiency

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    Costa Elaine Maria Frade

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is an androgen-dependent tissue, but it is not clear whether the androgen action in bone depends on testosterone or on dihydrotestosterone. Patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency present normal levels of testosterone and low levels of dihydrotestosterone, providing an in vivo human model for the analysis of the effect of testosterone on bone. OBJECTIVE: To analyze bone mineral density in 4 adult patients with male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. RESULTS: Three patients presented normal bone mineral density of the lumbar column (L1-L4 and femur neck, and the other patient presented a slight osteopenia in the lumbar column. CONCLUSION: Patients with dihydrotestosterone deficiency present normal bone mineral density, suggesting that dihydrotestosterone is not the main androgen acting in bone.

  13. Mice deficient in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lack bone marrow adipocytes, but maintain normal bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jeannette; Mosekilde, Lis; Holmes, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert potent, but poorly characterized, effects on the skeleton. The cellular activity of GCs is regulated at a prereceptor level by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11betaHSDs). The type 1 isoform, which predominates in bone, functions as a reductase in intact cells...... and regenerates active cortisol (corticosterone) from circulating inert 11-keto forms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of this intracrine activation of GCs on normal bone physiology in vivo using mice deficient in 11betaHSD1 (HSD1(-/-)). The HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited no significant changes...... in cortical or trabecular bone mass compared with wild-type (Wt) mice. Aged HSD1(-/-) mice showed age-related bone loss similar to that observed in Wt mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed similar bone formation and bone resorption parameters in HSD1(-/-) and Wt mice. However, examination of bone marrow...

  14. MRI of spinal bone marrow: part I, techniques and normal age-related appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Lubdha M; Hanrahan, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    This article reviews MRI protocols, including routine and nonroutine pulse sequences as well as the normal MRI appearance of spinal marrow and expected age-related changes. Routine MRI of the spine provides useful evaluation of the spinal bone marrow, but nonroutine MRI pulse sequences are increasingly being used to evaluate bone marrow pathology. An understanding of MRI pulse sequences and the normal and age-related appearances of bone marrow is important for the practicing radiologist.

  15. A humanised tissue-engineered bone model allows species-specific breast cancer-related bone metastasis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quent, Vmc; Taubenberger, A V; Reichert, J C; Martine, L C; Clements, J A; Hutmacher, D W; Loessner, D

    2018-02-01

    Bone metastases frequently occur in the advanced stages of breast cancer. At this stage, the disease is deemed incurable. To date, the mechanisms of breast cancer-related metastasis to bone are poorly understood. This may be attributed to the lack of appropriate animal models to investigate the complex cancer cell-bone interactions. In this study, two established tissue-engineered bone constructs (TEBCs) were applied to a breast cancer-related metastasis model. A cylindrical medical-grade polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold produced by fused deposition modelling (scaffold 1) was compared with a tubular calcium phosphate-coated polycaprolactone scaffold fabricated by solution electrospinning (scaffold 2) for their potential to generate ectopic humanised bone in NOD/SCID mice. While scaffold 1 was found not suitable to generate a sufficient amount of ectopic bone tissue due to poor ectopic integration, scaffold 2 showed excellent integration into the host tissue, leading to bone formation. To mimic breast cancer cell colonisation to the bone, MDA-MB-231, SUM1315, and MDA-MB-231BO breast cancer cells were cultured in polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels and implanted adjacent to the TEBCs. Histological analysis indicated that the breast cancer cells induced an osteoclastic reaction in the TEBCs, demonstrating analogies to breast cancer-related bone metastasis seen in patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Mechanical properties of the normal human cartilage-bone complex in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the age-related variations in the mechanical properties of the normal human tibial cartilage-bone complex and the relationships between cartilage and bone. DESIGN: A novel technique was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the cartilage and bone by mea...... that are of importance for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases, such as arthrosis....

  17. Bone Density and Cortical Thickness in Normal, Osteopenic, and Osteoporotic Sacra

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    Andrew M. Richards

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear if a decrease in cancellous bone density or cortical bone thickness is related to sacral insufficiency fractures. We hypothesized that reduction in overall bone density leads to local reductions in bone density and cortical thickness in cadaveric sacra that match clinically observed fracture patterns in patients with sacral insufficiency fractures. We used quantitative computed tomography to measure cancellous density and cortical thickness in multiple areas of normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic sacra. Cancellous bone density was significantly lower in osteoporotic specimens in the central and anterior regions of the sacral ala compared with other regions of these specimens. Cortical thickness decreased uniformly in all regions of osteopenic and osteoporotic specimens. These results support our hypothesis that areas of the sacrum where sacral insufficiency fractures often occur have significantly larger decreases in cancellous bone density; however, they do not support the hypothesis that these areas have local reduction of cortical bone thickness.

  18. Regulation of heme metabolism in normal and sideroblastic bone marrow cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraham, N.G.; Lutton, J.D.; Hoffman, R.; Levere, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Heme metabolism was examined in developing in vitro erythroid colonies (CFUE) and in bone marrow samples taken directly from four normal donors and four patients with sideroblastic anemia. Maximum activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), ALA dehydratase (ALAD), and 14 C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in normal marrow CFUE after 8 days of culture, whereas heme oxygenase progressively decreased to low levels of activity during the same period. Assays on nucleated bone marrow cells taken directly from patients revealed that ALAS activity was considerably reduced in idiopathic sideroblastic anemia (IASA) and X-linked sideroblastic anemia (X-SA) bone marrow specimens, whereas the activity increased more than twofold (normal levels) when cells were assayed from 8-day CFUE. In all cases, ALAD activity appeared to be within normal levels. Measurement of heme synthesis revealed that normal levels of 14 C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in IASA cells but were reduced in X-SA cells. In marked contrast to levels in normal cells, heme oxygenase was found to be significantly elevated (two- to fourfold) in bone marrow cells taken directly from patients with IASA and X-SA. Results from this study demonstrate that IASA and X-SA bone marrow cells have disturbances in ALAS and heme metabolism, and that erythropoiesis (CFUE) can be restored to normal levels when cells are cultured in methylcellulose

  19. Apparently normal accumulation in the patellae on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Masanori; Yoshida, Kiyo; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influences of gender and ages on accumulation in the patellae on scintigram. The subjects were 828 patients who underwent bone scintigraphy during the past one and half years at the Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Hospital. Patients younger than 20 years old and those with abnormality of the patellae were excluded. The degree of accumulation in the patellae was evaluated using the A-P whole body scintigraphy in comparison with accumulation at the diaphysis of the femur and classified to two categories, ''Positive'' (higher accumulation than that of the diaphysis of the femur) and ''Negative'' (equal or lower than that of the diaphysis of the femur). In general, the degree of accumulation was higher in females than in males. In both males and females, the degree of accumulation increased with age. A difference between the two sides in the degree of accumulation in the patellae was observed in 32% of subjects. The results of this study may serve as basic data for the interpretation of bone scintigrams. (author)

  20. Normal tempo of bone formation in Turner syndrome despite signs of accelerated bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line Hartvig; Holm, Kirsten Bagge; Kobbernagel, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n...

  1. Normal Tempo of Bone Formation in Turner Syndrome despite Signs of Accelerated Bone Resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Holm, Kirsten; Kobbernagel, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n...

  2. Comparison of the Mandibular Bone Densitometry Measurement between Normal, Osteopenic and Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women

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    Leila Khojastepour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to compare the mandibular bone density between postmenopausal women with normal skeletal bone mass density (BMD and those with low skeletal BMD using digital panoramic radiographs.Materials and Methods: One hundred fifteen postmenopausal women were divided into normal and osteoporotic/osteopenic groups. Digital panoramic radiographs were prepared using Digora PCT Sorodex equipment and Promax panoramic X-ray unit (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland, Kvp=68 and mA=9. The mandibular bone density of an area (approximately 4×4 mm, exactly near the distal edge of the right mental foramen was determined in digital panoramic radiographs using Digora for Windows (DfW Software.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mandibular bone density between the normal and osteoporotic/osteopenic participants (P >0.05. Mandibular bone density was not statistically different in normal and osteoporotic individuals with SBMD or FBMD T-score -2.5 (P >0.05. Density of the region of interest differed significantly between the normal and the osteoporotic group with SBMD and FBMD T-score -2.5 (P <0.05. The same results also gained in women who were osteoporotic only in the femoral region (P <0.05.Conclusion: Mandibular bone density in subjects with low BMD was related to FBMD. So, digital panoramic radiographs could be beneficial in the diagnosis of postmenopausal women who are at risk of osteoporosis.

  3. MRI ''road-map'' of normal age-related bone marrow. Pt. 1. Cranial bone and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccone, A.; Oddone, M.; Occhi, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Ciccone, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 733 cranial and 250 spinal T1-weighted MR images of patients younger than 24 years to evaluate the bone marrow changes. The signal intensity of the bone marrow on short-TR/TE images was compared with that of fat and normal muscles in the contiguous region and graded. The signal intensity of all anatomic segments was as low as that of muscle, or inferior, in all patients younger than 3 months because of hematopoietic tissue and probably greater amounts of trabecular bone. The first anatomic segments of cranial bone to become hyperintense were the zygomatic bone and mandibular symphysis, followed by the presphenoid bone, basisphenoid, basiocciput, calvaria, and the petrous apex. After 3 years of age, most patients demonstrated pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus. We describe the most interesting changes in the developing spine, which occur in the first 2 years of life. The morphology of the vertebral bodies was evaluated. The variability of the signal and the morphology of the disks were also evaluated. Regional patterns of bone marrow signal intensity and age-related differences should not be misinterpreted as a pathologic condition. (orig.). With 14 figs., 2 tabs

  4. MRI ``road-map`` of normal age-related bone marrow. Pt. 1. Cranial bone and spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccone, A. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy); Oddone, M. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy); Occhi, M. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy); Dell`Acqua, A. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy); Ciccone, M.A. [Radiology Dept., G. Gaslini Children`s Hospital, Genova (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 733 cranial and 250 spinal T1-weighted MR images of patients younger than 24 years to evaluate the bone marrow changes. The signal intensity of the bone marrow on short-TR/TE images was compared with that of fat and normal muscles in the contiguous region and graded. The signal intensity of all anatomic segments was as low as that of muscle, or inferior, in all patients younger than 3 months because of hematopoietic tissue and probably greater amounts of trabecular bone. The first anatomic segments of cranial bone to become hyperintense were the zygomatic bone and mandibular symphysis, followed by the presphenoid bone, basisphenoid, basiocciput, calvaria, and the petrous apex. After 3 years of age, most patients demonstrated pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus. We describe the most interesting changes in the developing spine, which occur in the first 2 years of life. The morphology of the vertebral bodies was evaluated. The variability of the signal and the morphology of the disks were also evaluated. Regional patterns of bone marrow signal intensity and age-related differences should not be misinterpreted as a pathologic condition. (orig.). With 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the water fraction of normal bone marrow and diffuse bone marrow disease

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    Katsuya, Tomoo; Inoue, Tomio; Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Aoki, Jun; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    To clarify the contrast-enhancement pattern of the normal hematopoietic element by isolating the signal of the water fraction in vertebral bone marrow and to investigate whether this approach can be used to characterize bone marrow pathology in several diffuse bone marrow diseases. Two groups were examined: 30 normal healthy volunteers and 19 patients with primary diffuse bone marrow disease (aplastic anemia [n=8], myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [n=5], chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML) [n=4], polycythemia vera [n=2]). Isolation of the signal of hematopoietic tissue was done by the chemical-shift misregistration effect. Twenty consecutive T1-weighted midsagittal lumber vertebral images were obtained immediately after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, and the pattern of the time-intensity curve, the peak contrast-enhancement (CE) ratio, and the washout rate (%/min) of bone marrow in normal volunteers were compared with those in patients suffering from primary diffuse bone marrow disease. The pattern of the time-intensity curve of patients with aplastic anemia showed a low peak value followed by a slow washout. However, the pattern of time-intensity curves in patients with MDS, CML, and polycythemia vera was similar to that of normal volunteers. The peak CE ratio of the water fraction in normal marrow ranged from 0.45 to 1.26 (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.87{+-}0.18). Patients with aplastic anemia showed an abnormally lower peak CE ratio of the water fraction (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.34{+-}0.19, p<0.0001). On the other hand, the peak CE ratio of the water fraction in patients with MDS was significantly higher than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D. 1.35{+-}0.39, p<0.05). In contrast, the peak CE ratio of patients with CML or polycythemia vera did not differ significantly from that of normal volunteers. The mean washout rate of patients with aplastic anemia was significantly lower than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D.: 3.50{+-}2.51 %/min

  6. Age-related contrast enhancement study of normal bone marrow in lumbar spinal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young A; Ha, Doo Hoe

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of contrast enhancement of normal bone marrow in L-spine relating to aging and to determine the range of contrast enhancement in normal bone marrow. We analyzed a total of 120 patients (20 per decade) who had undergone lumbar spinal MRI and who ranged in age from the 2nd decade to more than the 7th. Bone marrow revealed no abnormal pathology. Sagittal T1-weighted spin echo sequences were obtained before and after gadolinium administration. For each sequence, a region of interest was drawn within the L1 vertebral body from the midsagittal slice. Signal intensity (SI) values of each sequence were ascertained and the percentage increase in SI was calculated. After contrast enhancement, lumbar MRI revealed no statistically significant in the percentage increase in SI of normal bone marrow in relation to aging. Most patients (99%) however showed an SI increase of between 10% and 49%. In only four, none of whom were aged over 40, was this increase above 50%. Lumbar MRI, revealed no statistically significant difference in percentage increase in SI in normal bone marrow relating to aging, but when the increase is above 50% in a patient aged over 40, bone marrow pathology should be further investigated

  7. Axial compressive strength of human vertebrae trabecular bones classified as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic by quantitative ultrasonometry of calcaneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cesar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Biomechanical assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture contributes to the evaluation of fractures risk associated with osteoporosis and plays a crucial role in planning preventive strategies. One of the most widely clinical technics used for osteoporosis diagnosis by health professionals is bone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. However, doubts about its accuracy motivate the introduction of congruent technical analysis such as calcaneal ultrasonometry (Quantitative Ultrasonometry - QUS. Methods Correlations between Bone Quality Index (BQI, determined by calcaneal ultrasonometry of thirty (30 individuals classified as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic, and elastic modulus (E and ultimate compressive strength (UCS from axial compression tests of ninety (90 proof bodies from human vertebrae trabecular bone, which were extracted from cadavers in the twelfth thoracic region (T12, first and fourth lumbar (L1 and L4. Results Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed significant differences for E (p = 0.001, for UCS (p = 0.0001 and BQI. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rho between BQI and E (r = 0.499 and BQI and UCS (r = 0.508 were moderate. Discussion Calcaneal ultrasonometry technique allowed a moderate estimate of bone mechanical strength and fracture risk associated with osteoporosis in human vertebrae.

  8. Does cisplatin chemotherapy decrease the MDP uptake of normal bone? An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdogan, Ozhan; Ertay, Turkan; Arslan, Gulhan; Sisman, Ali R.; Capa Kaya, Gamze; Yilmaz, Osman; Coker, Canan; Gure, Ataman; Durak, Hatice

    2008-01-01

    Bone scan is the accepted initial imaging modality for skeletal metastases. Cisplatin is a cell-cycle nonspecific antineoplastic agent used in some chemotherapy regimens. Knowing that platinum reacts with phosphate compounds such as methylenediphosphonic acid (MDP), decreases bone resorption and new bone formation, it can be proposed that cisplatin chemotherapy may decrease Tc-99m MDP bone uptake. We aimed to demonstrate, if present, the decrease in bone uptake and to determine the duration of this effect. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups, namely, placebo group (G1) and cisplatin groups (G2, G3, G4, G5). Pre-therapy bone scintigraphies were obtained in all the groups. Cisplatin chemotherapy was given as infusion. Post-therapy bone scintigraphies were obtained 10 min, 1 h, 24 h, and 72 h after chemotherapy in groups G2-G5, respectively. A placebo bone scintigraphy was obtained 10 min after infusion of serum physiologic in G1. Plasma samples for cisplatin plasma values were obtained. The graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique was used for cisplatin analysis. Quantitative analysis (bone uptake ratios) was performed by drawing regions of interest on the right femur, vertebral column, and adjacent soft tissues. The injection/examination time delay and the net injected MDP doses were also noted. There was no statistically significant difference in bone uptake values, injected MDP doses or injection/examination time delay in any group. Cisplatin plasma values were significantly different in G2, G3, G4, and G5 (P<0.05) but not in G1. Cisplatin chemotherapy seems to have no effect on the Tc-99m MDP uptake of normal bone. (author)

  9. Altered glycosylation pattern allows the distinction between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) from normal and tumor origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracaula, Rosa; Tabarés, Glòria; Royle, Louise; Harvey, David J; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M; de Llorens, Rafael

    2003-06-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein secreted by prostate epithelial cells. PSA is currently used as a marker of prostate carcinoma because high levels of PSA are indicative of a tumor situation. However, PSA tests still suffer from a lack of specificity to distinguish between benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. To determine whether PSA glycosylation could provide a means of differentiating between PSA from normal and tumor origins, N-glycan characterization of PSA from seminal fluid and prostate cancer cells (LNCaP cell line) by sequencing analysis and mass spectrometry was carried out. Glycans from normal PSA (that correspond to low and high pI PSA fractions) were sialylated biantennary complex structures, half of them being disialylated in the low pI PSA fraction and mostly monosialylated in the high pI PSA. PSA from LNCaP cells was purified to homogeneity, and its glycan analysis showed a significantly different pattern, especially in the outer ends of the biantennary complex structures. In contrast to normal PSA glycans, which were sialylated, LNCaP PSA oligosaccharides were all neutral and contained a higher fucose content. In 10-15% of the structures fucose was linked alpha1-2 to galactose, forming the H2 epitope absent in normal PSA. GalNAc was increased in LNCaP glycans to 65%, whereas in normal PSA it was only present in 25% of the structures. These carbohydrate differences allow a distinction to be made between PSA from normal and tumor origins and suggest a valuable biochemical tool for diagnosis and follow-up purposes.

  10. Normal serum bone markers in bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Montazem, André; Ramanathan, Lakshmi; Pessin-Minsley, Melissa; Pfail, John; Stock, Richard G; Kogan, Rita

    2008-09-01

    We obtained serum bone markers and other relevant endocrine assays on 5 patients with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). The assays were C-telopeptide, N-telopeptide, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, intact parathyroid hormone, T3, T4, TSH, and Vitamin D 25 hydroxy. Diagnostic criteria for ONJ were those formulated by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Four of our patients were women. Two had metastatic breast cancer and had been treated with zoledronic acid; one had also received pamidronate. Two others had osteoporosis and had been treated with daily alendronate. One man had metastatic prostate cancer treated with zoledronic acid. All patients had been withdrawn from bisphosphonate for at least 6 months. None were taking or had taken corticosteroids. None of the lesions had shown any significant healing and all were still causing the patients considerable distress. Yet the bone markers were within the normal range as measured in our laboratory, except for intact parathyroid hormone, which was slightly elevated in one case of metastatic breast cancer (177 pg/mL). Because the jaws have a greater blood supply than other bones, and a high bone turnover rate, bisphosphonates are highly concentrated in the jaws. This anatomic concentration of bisphosphonates might cause bisphosphonate-osteonecrosis to be manifested exclusively in the jaws and is consistent with our finding of normal serum bone markers in ONJ patients.

  11. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life

  12. Normal values for bone mineral content measured by dual photon absorptiometry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, F.; Lecouffe, P.; Rousseau, J.; Marchandise, X.; Ythier, H.

    1990-01-01

    The results of dual photon absorptiometry measurements in 43 normal children are analyzed. Results were correlated with age, body weight, and stature. Reference stature-specific values for bone mineral content in children are proposed. Furthermore, the results show that mineralization continues beyond the end of statural growth [fr

  13. Impairing effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor Captopril on bone of normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Xia, Chao; Song, Yan; Zhao, Xi; Wong, Man-Sau; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-15

    There are contradicting results about the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) on bones. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of ACEI, Captopril, on bone metabolism and histology as well as the action of Captopril on skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and bradykinin receptor pathway in normal male mice. The urine, serum, tibias and femurs from normal control mice and Captopril-treated (10mg/kg) mice were collected for biochemical, histological and molecular analyses after drug administration for eight weeks. The mice after the treatment with Captopril had a significant decrease of serum testosterone level. The histological measurements showed the loss of trabecular bone mass and trabecular bone number, and the breakage of trabecular bone network as well as the changes of chondrocyte zone at epiphyseal plate in Captopril-treated mice. The defect of Captopril on trabecular bone was reflected by the quantitative bio-parameters from micro-CT. The expression of renin receptor and bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) was significantly up-regulated in tibia of mice upon to the Captopril treatment, which decreased the ratio of OPG/RANKL and the expression of osteoblastic factor RUNX2. Furthermore, Captopril treatment resulted in the increase of pAkt/Akt and pNFκB expression in tibia. The present study revealed the impairing effects of Captopril on bone via interfering with the circulating sex hormone level and B2R pathway, which suggests that the bone metabolism of patients need to be carefully monitored when being prescribed for ACEIs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiparameter MRI assessment of normal-appearing and diseased vertebral bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf [LMU University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Baur-Melnyk, Andrea; Schmidt, Gerwin P. [LMU University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich 81377 (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [LMU University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); LMU University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times as well as apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of the fat and water components in the vertebral bone marrow (vBM) of patients with benign and malignant lesions. Forty-four patients were examined at 1.5 T: there were 24 osteoporotic vertebral fractures (15 women, 9 men; median age: 73, 48-86 years) and 20 malignant vertebral infiltrations (9 women, 11 men; median age: 60, 25-87). Relaxation times were determined separately for the water and the fat component using a saturation-recovery technique for T1 and measurements with variable echo times for T2. ADCs were determined with a diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) and a single-shot turbo-spin-echo (ssTSE) sequence. T1 of the water component and ADCs were significantly increased in the lesions compared with normal-appearing vBM (malignant: 1,252 vs. 828 ms, osteoporotic: 1,315 vs. 872 ms). ADCs determined with the DW-ssTSE were significantly increased compared with the DW-EPI. ADCs determined with the DW-ssTSE differed significantly between osteoporotic and malignant lesions (1.74vs1.35 x 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s). All parameters exhibit significant differences between normal-appearing vBM and the lesions. However, only the ADCs determined with the DW-ssTSE differed significantly between osteoporotic fractures and malignant lesions, potentially allowing for a differential diagnosis of these two entities. (orig.)

  15. Bone Marrow Cells in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Create a Proinflammatory Microenvironment Influencing Normal Hematopoietic Differentiation Fates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Vilchis-Ordoñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL is a serious public health problem in the pediatric population worldwide, contributing to 85% of deaths from childhood cancers. Understanding the biology of the disease is crucial for its clinical management and the development of therapeutic strategies. In line with that observed in other malignancies, chronic inflammation may contribute to a tumor microenvironment resulting in the damage of normal processes, concomitant to development and maintenance of neoplastic cells. We report here that hematopoietic cells from bone marrow B-ALL have the ability to produce proinflammatory and growth factors, including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, and GM-CSF that stimulate proliferation and differentiation of normal stem and progenitor cells. Our findings suggest an apparently distinct CD13+CD33+ population of leukemic cells contributing to a proinflammatory microenvironment that may be detrimental to long-term normal hematopoiesis within B-ALL bone marrow.

  16. Recruitment of Bone Marrow-Derived Valve Interstitial Cells is a Normal Homeostatic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Zoltan; Romeo, Stephen J.; Fleming, Paul A.; Markwald, Roger R.; Visconti, Richard P.; Drake, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in understanding of the maintenance of the cardiac valves during normal cardiac function and response to injury have lead to several novel findings, including that there is contribution of extra-cardiac cells to the major cellular population of the valve: the valve interstitial cell (VIC). While suggested to occur in human heart studies, we have been able to experimentally demonstrate, using a mouse model, that cells of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell origin engraft into the valves and synthesize collagen type I. Based on these initial findings, we sought to further characterize this cell population in terms of its similarity to VICs and begin to elucidate its contribution to valve homeostasis. To accomplish this, chimeric mice whose bone marrow was repopulated with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expressing total nucleated bone marrow cells were used to establish a profile of EGFP+ valve cells in terms of their expression of hematopoietic antigens, progenitor markers, fibroblast- and myofibroblast-related molecules, as well as their distribution within the valves. Using this profile, we show that normal (non-irradiated, non-transplanted) mice have BM-derived cell populations that exhibit identical morphology and phenotype to those observed in transplanted mice. Collectively, our findings establish that the engraftment of bone marrow-derived cells occurs as part of normal valve homeostasis. Further, our efforts demonstrate that the use of myeloablative irradiation, which is commonly employed in studies involving bone marrow transplantation, does not elicit changes in the bone marrow-derived VIC phenotype in recipient mice. PMID:21871458

  17. Bone densitometry in normal women of reproductive age: Correlation with reference values and anthropometric variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Palma, T.; Ladron de Guevara, D.

    2002-01-01

    Bone mass density measurements using X rays is considered to be the non-invasive reference method to measure bone mineral density. Even though the technology has reached a high level of development, precision and reproducibility must be optimised to assure that the observed variations are due solely to the variations in bone mineral content, and not to other associated variables, either technical or biological. The main factors affecting bone density measurements are those that depend on the technique used and those which depend on characteristics of the individuals. The variability associated with the technique can be minimised by an adequate standardisation and quality control. Among those characteristics of the individuals, which have been mentioned as a source of variability, the most important are related to the anthropomorphic characteristics such as size and depth of osseous structures, and thickness and characteristics of soft tissues. These factors may be especially important because the interpretation of bone mass density measurements depends on values obtained for reference normal populations, which are incorporated into the bone mass densitometers as reference value databases. Usually the anthropomorphic characteristics of this reference population are unknown and can be different from those of the local population, independently of genetic or ethnic factors. This situation leads to error both in the definition of basic concepts such as osteopenia and osteoporosis, and in the interpretation of individual results for population studies. The purpose of this study is to correlate bone density measurements of normal Chilean women with reference value databases and with parameters, which depend on body size

  18. Normal epidermal growth factor receptor signaling is dispensable for bone anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marlon R; Dahlhoff, Maik; Andrukhova, Olena; Grill, Jessica; Glösmann, Martin; Schüler, Christiane; Weber, Karin; Wolf, Eckhard; Erben, Reinhold G

    2012-01-01

    Although the bone anabolic properties of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) have long been employed in the treatment of osteoporosis, the molecular mechanisms behind this action remain largely unknown. Previous studies showed that PTH increases the expression and the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in osteoblasts, and activation of ERK1/2 by PTH in osteoblasts was demonstrated to induce the proteolytical release of EGFR ligands and EGFR transactivation. However, conclusive evidence for an important role of the EGFR system in mediating the anabolic actions of intermittent PTH on bone in vivo is lacking. Here, we evaluated the effects of intermittent PTH on bone in Waved-5 (Wa5) mice which carry an antimorphic Egfr allele whose product acts as a dominant negative receptor. Heterozygous Wa5 females and control littermates received a subcutaneous injection of PTH (80 μg/kg) or buffer on 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Wa5 mice had slightly lower total bone mineral density (BMD), but normal cancellous bone volume and turnover in the distal femoral metaphysis. The presence of the antimorphic Egfr allele neither influenced the PTH-induced increase in serum osteocalcin nor the increases in distal femoral BMD, cortical thickness, cancellous bone volume, and cancellous bone formation rate. Similarly, the PTH-induced rise in lumbar vertebral BMD was unchanged in Wa5 relative to wild-type mice. Wa5-derived osteoblasts showed considerably lower basal extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation as compared to control osteoblasts. Whereas activation of ERK1/2 by the EGFR ligand amphiregulin was largely blocked in Wa5 osteoblasts, treatment with PTH induced ERK1/2 activation comparable to that observed in control osteoblasts, relative to baseline levels. Our data indicate that impairment of EGFR signaling does not affect the anabolic action of intermittent PTH on cancellous and cortical bone. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Age-related pattern of normal cranial bone marrow: MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shinong; Li Qi; Li Wei; Chen Zhian; Wu Zhenhua; Guo Qiyong; Liu Yunhui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the age-related pattern of normal skull bone marrow with 3.0 T MR T 1 WI. Methods: Cranial MR T 1 WI images which were defined to be normal were retrospectively reviewed in 360 cases. Patients with known diffuse bone marrow disease, focal lesions, history of radiation treatment or steroid therapy were excluded, while patients whose cranial MRI and follow-up visits were all normal were included in this study. All the subjects were divided into 7 groups according to the age: 50 years group. Mid- and para- sagittal T 1 WI images were used to be analyzed and the type of cranial bone marrow was classified according to the thickness of diploe and the pattern of the signal characteristics. Statistical analysis was conducted to reveal the relationship between the age and the type. Results: The normal skull bone marrow could be divided into four types as follows: (1) Type-I: 115 cases, 47 of which appeared type- Ia and the mean thickness was (1.24±0.31) mm; 68 of which appeared type-Ib and the mean thickness was (1.76±0.37) mm. Type-II: 57 cases and the mean thickness was (2.78 ± 0.69) mm. Type-III: 148 cases, 18 of which appeared type-IIIa and the mean thickness was (2.33 ± 0.65) mm; 88 of which appeared type-IIIb and the mean thickness was (4.01± 0.86) mm; 42 of which appeared type-IIIc and the mean thickness was (4.31±0.73) mm. Type-IV: 40 cases, 25 of which appeared type-IVa and the mean thickness was (5.17±1.02) mm; 15 of which appeared type-IVb and the mean thickness was (5.85±1.45) mm. (2) 2 =266.36, P<0.01). Conclusion: There is characteristic in the distribution of normal skull bone marrow with age growing. And skull bone marrow transforms gradually from type-I to IV with aging. (authors)

  20. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal osteoporosis and normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Smoom, Riham; Bader, Khaldoun; Darwish, Hisham

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the association of vitamin D and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with serum vitamin D levels, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, obesity, and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Three hundred eighty-two postmenopausal women (≥45 years) were recruited from various women clinics for BMD assessment (131 women had osteoporosis and 251 were normal and served as controls). Blood samples were obtained for serum calcium, PTH, 25(OH)D, bone formation (N-terminal propeptide (PINP)), and bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX1)) markers. Women with osteoporosis had statistically significant lower mean weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and serum calcium (p osteoporosis decreased with increasing BMI (overweight OR = 0.11, p = 0.053; obese OR = 0.05, p = 0.007). There was no direct correlation between BMD and PTH, bone turnover markers, and vitamin D except at the lumbar spine. A negative correlation between BMD and age and a positive correlation with BMI were observed. The protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis was complicated by the effect of obesity on vitamin D and PTH.

  1. Comparison of Hyoid Bone Position Among Cleft Lip Palate and Normal Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahaj, A.; Erum, G.; Ahmed, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the hyoid bone position between cleft lip/palate and normal patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences (DIEKIOHS), Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, from March 2012 to February 2013. Methodology: The sample for this study consisted of total 68 subjects among which Group 1 consisted of 34 nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (both unilateral and bilateral) and Group 2 included 34 subjects with normal facial morphology. Both groups included males and females with mean age 14.3 +- 0.1 year. Analysis was done on lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients including angulations taken as Hp-Mp, Hp-Ol, Hp-Sn, Cvt-Evt, Opt-Cvt, Nke, Sn-Vert, Cvt-Vert, Sn-Vert and linear distance of hyoid bone measured as C3-H, C3-RGN, and H-RGN. Results: Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) in C3-H, C3-Rgn, H-Rgn, and Sn-Cvt were found between cleft lip/palate group and normal group. Conclusion: Hyoid bone is located anteriorly and caudally in cleft lip and palate group. (author)

  2. DESCRIPTION OF BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSES (AIR AND BONE CONDUCTION IN CHILDREN WITH NORMAL HEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pashkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hearing level in small children with conductive hearing loss associated with congenital craniofacial abnormalities, particularly with agenesis of external ear and external auditory meatus is a pressing issue. Conventional methods of assessing hearing in the first years of life, i. e. registration of brainstem auditory evoked responses to acoustic stimuli in the event of air conduction, does not give an indication of the auditory analyzer’s condition due to potential conductive hearing loss in these patients. This study was aimed at assessing potential of diagnosing the auditory analyzer’s function with registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs to acoustic stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator. The study involved 17 children aged 3–10 years with normal hearing. We compared parameters of registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (peak V depending on the type of stimulus transmission (air/bone in children with normal hearing. The data on thresholds of the BAERs registered to acoustic stimuli in the event of air and bone conduction obtained in this study are comparable; hearing thresholds in the event of acoustic stimulation by means of a bone vibrator correlates with the results of the BAERs registered to the stimuli transmitted by means of air conduction earphones (r = 0.9. High correlation of thresholds of BAERs to the stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator with thresholds of BAERs registered when air conduction earphones were used helps to assess auditory analyzer’s condition in patients with any form of conductive hearing loss.  

  3. Normal age-related conversion of bone marrow in the skull base. Assessment with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Koki; Tomura, Noriaki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Izumi, Junichi; Kurosawa, Ryo; Sashi, Ryuji; Watarai, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the normal age-related sequence of conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base by means of MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed T1-weighted MR images of the skull base for the distribution of hematopoietic and fatty marrow. The subjects consisted of 169 MR examinations that were performed with the spin-echo technique. The age of the subjects ranged from 0 months to 20 years old. Patients with known marrow abnormalities were excluded from this study. Marrow conversion was assessed in the presphenoid, postsphenoid, basiocciput, petrous apex, clivus, zygomatic bone, and condyle of the mandible. The signal intensity was visually graded, and the signal intensity ratio was determined on the basis of the intensities of the subcutaneous fat and air. The signal intensity of all observed regions was as low as that of muscles until 3 months of age. Conversion of hematopoietic to fatty marrow first occurred in the zygomatic bone until 6 months of age. The presphenoid increased in signal intensity from 5 months to 2 years of age, and the sphenoid sinus began to be pneumatic at this age. Marrow conversion of the postsphenoid and basiocciput was later than that of the presphenoid. Most of the bone marrow of the skull base appeared as fatty conversion until 3 years of age, although some mandibular condyles appeared hematopoietic at 3 years of age. The normal age-related conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base followed a well-defined sequence. Knowledge of the normal bone marrow conversion by MR imaging is essential for the recognition of pathologic marrow processes. (author)

  4. 99mTc-MDP Uptake Pattern of Normal Pubic Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Myung Hee; Lee, Hong Jae; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Yim, Jung Ik; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1992-01-01

    n order to establish the clinical significance of pubic bone uptake of radionuclide on 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphs, we analyzed uptake patterns of normal adult pubic bone in 300 randomly sampled subjects. Bone scintigraphy was performed in each patient for the reasons other than pubic or pelvic problems. One hundred fifty four were men and 146 women. The age ranged from 8 to 78 years. The pubic uptake was graded arbitrarily into 4 grades by comparing the pubic uptake density with that of L5 vertebra. Thus, grade I was defined as the L5 density greater than the pubic density, grade II as the L5 density equals to the pubic density, grade III as the L5 density less than the pubic density, and grade IV as the L5 density much less than the pubic density. Statistical analysis revealed negative trend in the pubic uptake from grade IV to grade I with age. There was no sexual difference in the pubic uptake. The women in the 3rd and 4th decades disclosed higher pubic uptake (grades III, IV) probably due to pregnancy and labor.

  5. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology, OH (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  6. An integrative approach for comparing microcirculation between normal and alveolar cleft gingiva in children scheduled for secondary bone grafting procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milstein, Dan M. J.; Cheung, Yuk Wah; Žiūkaitė, Laura; Ince, Can; van den Akker, Hans P.; Lindeboom, Jérôme A. H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare microcirculatory parameters in normal versus alveolar cleft gingiva in children selected for secondary bone grafting procedures. This study included 11 consecutive patients with complete unilateral alveolar clefts who required secondary bone grafting procedures.

  7. μCT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry allows 3D evaluation of the early responses of bone resorption and formation to PTH and alendronate combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Chantal M J; Altman, Allison R; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Tribble, Mary Beth; Li, Connie; Chandra, Abhishek; Qin, Ling; Liu, X Sherry

    2015-04-01

    Current osteoporosis treatments improve bone mass by increasing net bone formation: anti-resorptive drugs such as bisphosphonates block osteoclast activity, while anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) increase bone remodeling, with a greater effect on formation. Although these drugs are widely used, their role in modulating formation and resorption is not fully understood, due in part to technical limitations in the ability to longitudinally assess bone remodeling. Importantly, it is not known whether or not PTH-induced bone formation is independent of resorption, resulting in controversy over the effectiveness of combination therapies that use both PTH and an anti-resorptive. In this study, we developed a μCT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry technique for rat tibiae, and applied this method to longitudinally track changes in bone resorption and formation as a result of treatment with alendronate (ALN), PTH, or combination therapy of both PTH and ALN (PTH+ALN). Correlations between our μCT-based measures of bone formation and measures of bone formation based on calcein-labeled histology (r=0.72-0.83) confirm the accuracy of this method. Bone remodeling parameters measured through μCT-based in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry indicate an increased rate of bone formation in rats treated with PTH and PTH+ALN, together with a decrease in bone resorption measures in rats treated with ALN and PTH+ALN. These results were further supported by traditional histology-based measurements, suggesting that PTH was able to induce bone formation while bone resorption was suppressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging of the clivus in pediatric leukemia patients and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Tatsuya; Kono, Atsushi K; Akasaka, Yoshinobu; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Iijima, Kazumoto; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2015-03-01

    An MRI-based pre-test to determine the probability of pediatric leukemia prior to bone marrow aspiration would be useful to prevent unnecessary exposure to this invasive test. We aimed to evaluate the clivus-to-pons signal intensity ratio (CPR) and visual scoring (VS) on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) to distinguish pediatric leukemia patients from normal controls. We retrospectively reviewed 1.5-T brain MR images of 13 consecutive leukemia patients (3 girls, 10 boys; mean age, 8.23 years; range, 1-17 years) and 40 age- and gender-matched normal controls. We evaluated differences between leukemia patients and normal controls using Wilcoxon rank-sum and Mann-Whitney U tests with respect to the following parameters: (1) CPR on T1WI (CPRT1WI); (2) CPR on DWI (CPRDWI); (3) VS on T1WI (VST1WI); and (4) VS on DWI (VSDWI). The CPRT1WI values for leukemia patients and normal controls were 0.77 ± 0.12 and 1.39 ± 0.47, respectively (P pediatric leukemia patients from normal subjects.

  9. Normal Collagen and Bone Production by Gene-targeted Human Osteogenesis Imperfecta iPSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyle, David R; Khan, Iram F; Ren, Gaoying; Wang, Pei-Rong; Kho, Jordan; Schwarze, Ulrike; Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by dominant mutations in the type I collagen genes. In principle, the skeletal abnormalities of OI could be treated by transplantation of patient-specific, bone-forming cells that no longer express the mutant gene. Here, we develop this approach by isolating mesenchymal cells from OI patients, inactivating their mutant collagen genes by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene targeting, and deriving induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that were expanded and differentiated into mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs). Gene-targeted iMSCs produced normal collagen and formed bone in vivo, but were less senescent and proliferated more than bone-derived MSCs. To generate iPSCs that would be more appropriate for clinical use, the reprogramming and selectable marker transgenes were removed by Cre recombinase. These results demonstrate that the combination of gene targeting and iPSC derivation can be used to produce potentially therapeutic cells from patients with genetic disease. PMID:22031238

  10. Relation Between Ghrelin Hormone Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Normal Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Naghiaee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ghrelin hormone is a polypeptide with 28 amino acids that is secreted along the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in fundus of stomach. Some physiological functions of ghrelin include increase of appetite and food intake, energy balance, stimulation of growth hormone secretion and heart output and decrease in blood pressure. Recently, relation of ghrelin and bone mineral density has been considered. Methods: This descriptive study included 33 adult persons above 20 years of age. Bone mineral density was determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in femur and lumbar regions. T-score over than -1 was considered as normal case. Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA method. Results: The mean of age, body mass index and serum ghrelin were 40±10.6years, 27±3.6 kg/m² and 100.5±128 pg/ml, respectively. Correlation of ghrelin and variables was not statistically significant except weight (p=0.05. Conclusion: Range of serum ghrelin levels varies with age. In the present research, there was no relationship between ghrelin levels and bone mineral density in femur and lumbar regions. More studies with larger number of samples are proposed.

  11. A collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold allows for binding and co-delivery of recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins and bisphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ciara M; Schindeler, Aaron; Gleeson, John P; Yu, Nicole Y C; Cantrill, Laurence C; Mikulec, Kathy; Peacock, Lauren; O'Brien, Fergal J; Little, David G

    2014-05-01

    An emerging paradigm in orthopedics is that a bone-healing outcome is the product of the anabolic (bone-forming) and catabolic (bone-resorbing) outcomes. Recently, surgical and tissue engineering strategies have emerged that combine recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs) and bisphosphonates (BPs) in order to maximize anabolism and minimize catabolism. Collagen-based scaffolds that are the current surgical standard can bind rhBMPs, but not BPs. We hypothesized that a biomimetic collagen-hydroxyapatite (CHA) scaffold would bind both agents and produce superior in vivo outcomes. Consistent with this concept, in vitro elution studies utilizing rhBMP-2 ELISA assays and scintillation counting of (14)C-radiolabeled zoledronic acid (ZA) confirmed delayed release of both agents from the CHA scaffold. Next, scaffolds were tested for their capacity to form ectopic bone after surgical implantation into the rat hind limb. Using CHA, a significant 6-fold increase in bone volume was seen in rhBMP-2/ZA groups compared to rhBMP-2 alone, confirming the ability of ZA to enhance rhBMP-2 bone formation. CHA scaffolds were found to be capable of generating mineralized tissue in the absence of rhBMP-2. This study has implications for future clinical treatments of critical bone defects. It demonstrates the relative advantages of co-delivering anabolic and anti-catabolic agents using a multicomponent scaffold system. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. HSP10 selective preference for myeloid and megakaryocytic precursors in normal human bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cappello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs constitute a heterogeneous family of proteins involved in cell homeostasis. During cell life they are involved in harmful insults, as well as in immune and inflammatory reactions. It is known that they regulate gene expression, and cell proliferation, differentiation and death. HSP60 is a mitochondrial chaperonin, highly preserved during evolution, responsible of protein folding. Its function is strictly dependent on HSP10 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements. We investigated the presence and the expression of HSP60 and HSP10 in a series of 20 normal human bone marrow specimens (NHBM by the means of immunohistochemistry. NHBM showed no expression of HSP60, probably due to its being below the detectable threshold, as already demonstrated in other normal human tissues. By contrast, HSP10 showed a selective positivity for myeloid and megakaryocytic lineages. The positivity was restricted to precursor cells, while mature elements were constantly negative.We postulate that HSP10 plays a role in bone marrow cell differentiation other than being a mitochondrial co-chaperonin. The present data emphasize the role of HSP10 during cellular homeostasis and encourage further investigations in this field.

  13. Operative findings of conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane and normal temporal bone computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Despite recent technological advances in diagnostic methods including imaging technology, it is often difficult to establish a preoperative diagnosis of conductive hearing loss (CHL) in patients with an intact tympanic membrane (TM). Especially, in patients with a normal temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT), preoperative diagnosis is more difficult. We investigated middle ear disorders encountered in patients with CHL involving an intact TM and normal TBCT. We also analyzed the surgical results with special reference to the pathology. We reviewed the medical records of 365 patients with intact TM, who underwent exploratory tympanotomy for CHL. Fifty nine patients (67 ears, eight bilateral surgeries) had a normal preoperative TBCT findings reported by neuro-radiologists. Demographic data, otologic history, TM findings, preoperative imaging findings, intraoperative findings, and pre- and postoperative audiologic data were obtained and analyzed. Exploration was performed most frequently in the second and fifth decades. The most common postoperative diagnosis was stapedial fixation with non-progressive hearing loss. The most commonly performed hearing-restoring procedure was stapedotomy with piston wire prosthesis insertion. Various types of hearing-restoring procedures during exploration resulted in effective hearing improvement, especially with better outcome in the ossicular chain fixation group. In patients with CHL who have intact TM and normal TBCT, we should consider an exploratory tympanotomy for exact diagnosis and hearing improvement. Information of the common operative findings from this study may help in preoperative counseling.

  14. Pegvisomant-induced serum insulin-like growth factor-I normalization in patients with acromegaly returns elevated markers of bone turnover to normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkinson, C; Kassem, M; Heickendorff, Lene

    2003-01-01

    Active acromegaly is associated with increased biochemical markers of bone turnover. Pegvisomant is a GH receptor antagonist that normalizes serum IGF-I in 97% of patients with active acromegaly. We evaluated the effects of pegvisomant-induced serum IGF-I normalization on biochemical markers...... of bone and soft tissue turnover, as well as levels of PTH and vitamin D metabolites, in 16 patients (nine males; median age, 52 yr; range, 28-78 yr) with active acromegaly (serum IGF-I at least 30% above upper limit of an age-related reference range). Serum procollagen III amino-terminal propeptide...... (PIIINP) and type I procollagen amino-terminal propeptide, osteocalcin (OC), bone-related alkaline phosphatase, C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), albumin-corrected calcium, intact PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25-(OH)(2) vit D], urinary type 1 collagen...

  15. False air-bone gaps at 4 kHz in listeners with normal hearing and sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Robert H; Eikelboom, Robert H; Johnson, Chad; Ginter, Samantha M; Swanepoel, De Wet; Moore, Brian C J

    2013-08-01

    This report presents data from four studies to examine standard bone-conduction reference equivalent threshold force levels (RETFL), especially at 4 kHz where anomalous air-bone gaps are common. Data were mined from studies that obtained air- and bone-conduction thresholds from normal-hearing and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) participants, using commercial audiometers and standard audiometric transducers. There were 249 normal-hearing and 188 SNHL participants. (1) Normal-hearing participants had small air-bone gaps at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kHz (-1.7 to 0.3 dB) and larger air-bone gaps at 4 kHz (10.6 dB). (2) SNHL participants had small air-bone gaps at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kHz (-0.7 to 1.7 dB) and a larger air-bone gap at 4 kHz (14.1 dB). (3) The 4-kHz air-bone gap grew with air-conduction threshold from 10.1 dB when the air-conduction threshold was 5-10 dB HL to 21.1 dB when the air-conduction threshold was greater than 60 dB. (4) With the 4-kHz RETFL corrected by the average SNHL air-bone gap, the relationship between RETFL and frequency is linear with a slope of - 12 dB per octave. The 4-kHz air-bone gaps for listeners with SNHL could be avoided by adjusting the 4-kHz RETFL by - 14.1 dB.

  16. Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cornerstone of Montessori theory, normalization, which asserts that if a child is placed in an optimum prepared environment where inner impulses match external opportunities, the undeviated self emerges, a being totally in harmony with its surroundings. Makes distinctions regarding normalization, normalized, and normality, indicating how…

  17. Melatonin therapy reduces the risk of osteoporosis and normalizes bone formation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareghani, Majid; Scavo, Linda; Arnoult, Damien; Zibara, Kazem; Farhadi, Naser

    2018-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Serum levels of melatonin decrease in MS patients who are also at risk of osteoporosis. Procalcitonin (proCT) has been reported as a biomarker of systemic inflammation and autoimmune disease; however, its changes in MS patients have not been well explored. This study investigated, using ELISA, the clinical correlation between serum melatonin and proCT in MS patients. We then assessed the effect of melatonin (10 mg/kg) therapy on bone metabolism and osteoporosis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS and in MS patients. Data showed a significant increase (*P < 0.05) in serum levels of proCT in MS patients, inversely correlated (r  =  -0.945; P  =  0.0001) with melatonin levels, compared to healthy participants. On the other hand, melatonin therapy ameliorated EAE severity by significantly decreasing (*P < 0.05) mean clinical scores, compared to control EAE mice. In addition, serum levels of proCT significantly (**P < 0.01) increased in EAE mice, compared to controls, which was significantly (*P < 0.05) reduced by melatonin. Moreover, EAE-induced decrease in 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, and osteocalcin (OCN) in EAE mice, compared to controls, was significantly (*P < 0.05) increased by melatonin. Finally, OCN serum levels were found to be significantly decreased (*P < 0.05) in MS patients, in comparison with controls. Taken together, we suggest that proCT could be used as a diagnostic biomarker in MS patients and that melatonin normalizes bone metabolites in MS. Further clinical and experimental investigations are needed to understand bone metabolism in MS. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  18. Novel nano-composite biomimetic biomaterial allows chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow concentrate derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigolo, Brunella; Cavallo, Carola; Desando, Giovanna; Manferdini, Cristina; Lisignoli, Gina; Ferrari, Andrea; Zini, Nicoletta; Facchini, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In clinical orthopedics suitable materials that induce and restore biological functions together with the right mechanical properties are particularly needed for the regeneration of osteochondral lesions. For this purpose, the ideal scaffold should possess the right properties with respect to degradation, cell binding, cellular uptake, non-immunogenicity, mechanical strength, and flexibility. In addition, it should be easy to handle and serve as a template for chondrocyte and bone cells guiding both cartilage and bone formation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the chondrogenic and osteogenic capability of bone marrow concentrated derived cells seeded onto a novel nano-composite biomimetic material. These properties have been evaluated by means of histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopy analyses. The data obtained demonstrated that freshly harvested cells obtained from bone marrow were able, once seeded onto the biomaterial, to differentiate either down the chondrogenic and osteogenic pathways as evaluated by the expression and production of specific matrix molecules. These findings support the use, for the repair of osteochondral lesions, of this new nano-composite biomimetic material together with bone marrow derived cells in a "one step" transplantation procedure.

  19. Pediatric spinal bone marrow: assessment of normal age-related changes in the MRI appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebag, G.H.; Dubois, J.; Tabet, M.; Bonato, A.; Lallemand, D.

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study of 100 children (0-15 years) without known bone marrow abnormality, was performed to elucidate the spectrum of the MRI appearance of spinal bone marrow with age on T1-weighted images at 0.5 T. Fatty marrow distribution and vertebral signal intensity (SI) relative to disk SI were noted in each subject, and allowed the identification of distinctive patterns. The spinal marrow patterns and their relative frequency for different age groupps were consistent with the known physiologic conversion from cellular to fatty marrow with age. Between the ages of 0 and 1 year, SI of corporeal ossification centers was similar or lower than SI of adjacent cartilage and disk in 87% of cases. Between the ages of 5 and 15 years, vertebral SI was higher than SI of adjacent disks in 90% of cases. A central or basivertebral zone of high SI consistent with focal fatty marrow was found in 16% and 31% of cases respectively. In conclusion, knowledge of these conversion patterns should serve as a practical aid in the interpretation of MRI examinations of the spine in children. (orig.)

  20. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone ... to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether ...

  1. The Ability of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography to Distinguish Normal Bone Marrow From Metastases Using Bone Marrow Color Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Ghada; Davis, Derik; Mulligan, Michael E

    2018-02-27

    The objective of this study was to determine if dual-energy computed-tomography bone marrow color maps can improve sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and confidence of detection of bone metastases. Institutional review board approved this retrospective review of a consecutive series of cancer patients. Two radiologists first evaluated the fused 120 kV computed tomography images and recorded a number of suspicious lesions, confidence level, and Hounsfield units for each lesion. After a time gap, the studies were randomized for a second review with dual-energy computed-tomography bone marrow color maps. Eighteen patients and 1105 bones were reviewed. A total of 227 true metastatic lesions were present. With bone marrow color map review, sensitivity increased from 76.2% to 86.8%, for reader 1, and from 80.2% to 92.8%, for reader 2. Specificity and accuracy also increased. Confidence level increased for 12 lesions. Dual-energy computed-tomography bone marrow color map analysis of patients with metastatic cancers can improve the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and confidence level for the detection of bone metastases.

  2. Evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones (radius) by photon-absorption technique in normals as well as in patients with various types of bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, H.; Fengler, F.; Franke, J.; Koall, W.

    1980-10-01

    The evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones by measuring the photon absorption of the radius has proven to be a valuable method for routine clinical work: for diagnosis, follow-up and control of therapy. While there was a significant difference in the findings of normal persons compared with those of patients suffering from osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta and skeletal fluorosis, there was no difference between normals and these patients suffering from Bechterew, Scheuermann, coxarthrosis, spondylosis, skoliosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Normal values for the mineral content and the width of the radius at the junction of the middle and lower third - based on 8000 examinations - are mentioned.

  3. Involvement of Renin-Angiotensin System in Damage of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Captopril on Bone of Normal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Xin; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, on bone metabolism and histology, and the action of captopril on the components of the skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and bradykinin receptor in normal male mice. The mice were orally administered captopril (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks with vehicle-treated mice as normal control. The histology of trabecular bone at the distal femoral end was determined by hematoxylin & eosin, Safranin O and Masson-Trichrome staining. The captopril-treated mice showed a decreased level of testosterone (pCaptopril has detrimental effects on trabecular bone as demonstrated by the loss of cancellous bone mass and network connections as well as changes to the chondrocytes zone. The expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (pcaptopril treatment. Thus, the potential underlying mechanism of the damage of captopril on bone can be attributed the increased activity of local bone RAS and the activation of bradykinin receptor.

  4. Time course of 25(OHD3 vitamin D3 as well as PTH (parathyroid hormone during fracture healing of patients with normal and low bone mineral density (BMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wöfl Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until now the exact biochemical processes during healing of metaphyseal fractures of healthy and osteoporotic bone remain unclear. Especially the physiological time courses of 25(OHD3 (Vitamin D as well as PTH (Parathyroid Hormone the most important modulators of calcium and bone homeostasis are not yet examined sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to focus on the time course of these parameters during fracture healing. Methods In the presented study, we analyse the time course of 25(OHD3 and PTH during fracture healing of low BMD level fractures versus normal BMD level fractures in a matched pair analysis. Between March 2007 and February 2009 30 patients older than 50 years of age who had suffered a metaphyseal fracture of the proximal humerus, the distal radius or the proximal femur were included in our study. Osteoporosis was verified by DEXA measuring. The time courses of 25(OHD3 and PTH were examined over an eight week period. Friedmann test, the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Mann-Withney U test were used as post-hoc tests. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results Serum levels of 25(OHD3 showed no differences in both groups. In the first phase of fracture healing PTH levels in the low BMD level group remained below those of the normal BMD group in absolute figures. Over all no significant differences between low BMD level bone and normal BMD level bone could be detected in our study. Conclusions The time course of 25(OHD3 and PTH during fracture healing of patients with normal and low bone mineral density were examined for the first time in humans in this setting and allowing molecular biological insights into fracture healing in metaphyseal bones on a molecural level. There were no significant differences between patients with normal and low BMD levels. Hence further studies will be necessary to obtain more detailed insight into fracture healing in order to provide reliable decision criteria for

  5. Histomorphometric Assessment of Cancellous and Cortical Bone Material Distribution in the Proximal Humerus of Normal and Osteoporotic Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Christoph M.; Schmidutz, Florian; Helfen, Tobias; Richards, R. Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Milz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder predominantly affecting postmenopausal women but also men at an advanced age. Both genders may suffer from low-energy fractures of, for example, the proximal humerus when reduction of the bone stock or/and quality has occurred. The aim of the current study was to compare the amount of bone in typical fracture zones of the proximal humerus in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic individuals. The amount of bone in the proximal humerus was determined histomorphometrically in frontal plane sections. The donor bones were allocated to normal and osteoporotic groups using the T-score from distal radius DXA measurements of the same extremities. The T-score evaluation was done according to WHO criteria. Regional thickness of the subchondral plate and the metaphyseal cortical bone were measured using interactive image analysis. At all measured locations the amount of cancellous bone was significantly lower in individuals from the osteoporotic group compared to the non-osteoporotic one. The osteoporotic group showed more significant differences between regions of the same bone than the non-osteoporotic group. In both groups the subchondral cancellous bone and the subchondral plate were least affected by bone loss. In contrast, the medial metaphyseal region in the osteoporotic group exhibited higher bone loss in comparison to the lateral side. This observation may explain prevailing fracture patterns, which frequently involve compression fractures and certainly has an influence on the stability of implants placed in this medial region. It should be considered when planning the anchoring of osteosynthesis materials in osteoporotic patients with fractures of the proximal humerus. PMID:26705200

  6. Special proliferative sites are not needed for seeding and proliferation of transfused bone marrow cells in normal syngeneic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.; Ansell, J.D.; Micklem, H.S.; Tjio, J.H.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    The widely held view that transfused bone marrow cells will not proliferate in normal mice, not exposed to irradiation or other forms of bone marrow ablation, was reinvestigated. Forty million bone marrow cells from male donors were given to female recipients on each of 5 consecutive days, 5 to 10 times the number customarily used in the past. When the recipients were examined 2-13 weeks after the last transfusion, donor cells were found to average 16-25% of total marrow cells. Similar percentages of donor cells were found when variants of the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase determined electrophoretically were used for identification of donor and recipient cells. Evidence is presented that the proportion of donor cells is compatible with a nonlinear dependence on the number of cells transfused over the range tested - i.e., 20-200 million bone marrow cells injected intravenously. Special proliferative sites thus do not appear to be required

  7. Bi-iliac distance and iliac bone position compared to the vertebral column in normal fetal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, U B; Fischer Hansen, B; Skovgaard, L T

    2001-01-01

    caliper. The caudo-cranial position of the iliac bones was evaluated. The present study shows that in normal fetal development there is a continuous linear enlargement of the pelvic region in the transverse and vertical planes. The upper iliac contour stays at the level of the first sacral vertebral body...

  8. An integrative approach for comparing microcirculation between normal and alveolar cleft gingiva in children scheduled for secondary bone grafting procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milstein, D.M.J.; Cheung, Y.W.; Ziukaite, L.; Ince, C.; van den Akker, H.P.; Lindeboom, J.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare microcirculatory parameters in normal versus alveolar cleft gingiva in children selected for secondary bone grafting procedures. Study Design This study included 11 consecutive patients with complete unilateral alveolar clefts who required secondary

  9. Use of a new model allowing controlled uniaxial loading to evaluate tendon healing in a bone tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeo, Scott A; Voigt, Clifford; Ma, Richard; Solic, John; Stasiak, Mark; Ju, Xiaodong; El-Amin, Saddiq; Deng, Xiang-Hua

    2016-05-01

    The optimal mechanical loading regimen for the healing of a tendon graft in a bone tunnel is unknown. We developed a rat model that directly tensions a healing tendon graft, without the use of confounding joint motion. Fifty cycles of either 0, 3, or 6 N of tension were applied to groups daily for 3 or 6 weeks. At 3 weeks the low load (3 N) group had the highest failure load (p = 0.009), but by 6 weeks there were no differences in failure load among groups. At 3 weeks the high load (6 N) group had greater osteoclast activity compared to the immobilized (0 N) group (p < 0.05), and by 6 weeks there were significantly more osteoclasts in the high load group compared to the low load group (p = 0.01). Bone volume fraction was higher in the immobilized group compared to the 3 N load group at 3 weeks (p = 0.014) and 6 weeks (p = 0.007). At 6 weeks, the immobilized group had greater trabecular number compared to both loading groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low magnitude loading had a beneficial early effect but continued loading led to poorer new bone formation over time and no beneficial effect at 6 weeks, perhaps due to delayed maturation from cumulative loads. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:852-859, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. MR imaging of normal bone marrow; Obraz MR prawidlowego szpiku kostnego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stajgis, M.; Paprzycki, W. [Osrodek Diagnostyki Obrazowej IR, Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Principles of MR bone marrow imaging on the basis of retrospective analysis of MR examinations of bone marrow in different anatomic sites in 200 patients have been discussed. Significance of different physiologic factors and processes such as age, steatosis, osteoporosis, conversion and reconversion, which influence on MR bone marrow images, have been emphasized. T1-weighted images obtained with spin-echo sequences give the most of information about bone marrow structure in MR. Thorough knowledge of bone marrow physiology and clinical status of the patient is indispensable in correct interpretation of hypointensive lesions on T1-weighted images. When presence of disseminated bone marrow disease is suspected, authors propose routine imaging of lumbar vertebral column, pelvis and proximal parts of femoral bones. (author) 7 refs, 7 figs

  11. Collagen osteoid-like model allows kinetic gene expression studies of non-collagenous proteins in relation with mineral development to understand bone biomineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Silvent

    Full Text Available Among persisting questions on bone calcification, a major one is the link between protein expression and mineral deposition. A cell culture system is here proposed opening new integrative studies on biomineralization, improving our knowledge on the role played by non-collagenous proteins in bone. This experimental in vitro model consisted in human primary osteoblasts cultured for 60 days at the surface of a 3D collagen scaffold mimicking an osteoid matrix. Various techniques were used to analyze the results at the cellular and molecular level (adhesion and viability tests, histology and electron microscopy, RT- and qPCR and to characterize the mineral phase (histological staining, EDX, ATG, SAED and RMN. On long term cultures human bone cells seeded on the osteoid-like matrix displayed a clear osteoblast phenotype as revealed by the osteoblast-like morphology, expression of specific protein such as alkaline phosphatase and expression of eight genes classically considered as osteoblast markers, including BGLAP, COL1A1, and BMP2. Von Kossa and alizarine red allowed us to identify divalent calcium ions at the surface of the matrix, EDX revealed the correct Ca/P ratio, and SAED showed the apatite crystal diffraction pattern. In addition RMN led to the conclusion that contaminant phases were absent and that the hydration state of the mineral was similar to fresh bone. A temporal correlation was established between quantified gene expression of DMP1 and IBSP, and the presence of hydroxyapatite, confirming the contribution of these proteins to the mineralization process. In parallel a difference was observed in the expression pattern of SPP1 and BGLAP, which questioned their attributed role in the literature. The present model opens new experimental possibilities to study spatio-temporal relations between bone cells, dense collagen scaffolds, NCPs and hydroxyapatite mineral deposition. It also emphasizes the importance of high collagen density

  12. Anatomic landmarks and availability of bone for placement of orthodontic mini-implants for normal and short maxillary body lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourfar, Jan; Bister, Dirk; Lux, Christopher J; Al-Tamimi, Bouthayna; Ludwig, Björn

    2017-05-01

    Increasing numbers of orthodontic mini-implants are placed in the anterior maxilla. To our knowledge, bone levels and root proximity of patients with cephalometrically short maxillae have not been investigated before. The first, second, and third rugae were used as clinical reference lines, and the aim of this study was to measure bone availability in that area by comparing patients with short and normal maxillary body lengths. The sample consisted of 21 patients in each group: short maxillary body length and normal maxillary body length. The patients' study models were bisected, and the outline of the palatal contour was marked on the surface. The models were scanned, and the palatal contours were superimposed on the palatal structures of their respective initial cephalometric headfilms, and the vertical and oblique bone levels of the sagittal plane were compared using the Student t test. The level of significance was set at P 0.05) at the third rugae. Almost equivalent average bone depth at the third rugae in patients with normal and short maxillary body lengths suggests that this site can be used for 8-mm long obliquely inserted orthodontic mini-implants. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cephalometric evaluation of the airway space and hyoid bone in children with normal and atypical deglutition: correlation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almiro José Machado Júnior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Although there is a close relationship between swallowing and breathing, there are no studies evaluating the radiographic anatomy of the airway and its possible correlation with the radiographic position of the hyoid bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible correlation of the radiographic position of the hyoid bone and airway space (PAS in lateral radiographs on children with atypical deglutition, in comparison with those with normal swallowing. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study with control group in a public university. METHODS: Using cephalometric analysis on lateral teleradiographs, the distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (MP-H and the distance from the hyoid bone to the tuber (T-H were correlated with the PAS measurement (airway in two groups: 55 teleradiographs in the experimental group (with atypical deglutition and 55 teleradiographs in the control group (normal deglutition. Both groups included subjects at the mixed dentition stage. RESULTS: The variable T-H presented a statistically significant correlation with PAS (0.0286 and the variable MP-H had a significant correlation with the variable PAS (0.0053. This positive correlation was significant only in the control group and not in the group with atypical swallowing. CONCLUSIONS: There was a positive correlation between the MP-H and PAS measurements and between the T-H and PAS measurements only in the group with normal swallowing. These correlations were not observed in the group with atypical swallowing.

  14. Bone mass in schizophrenia and normal populations across different decades of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh Ching-Mo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic schizophrenic patients have been reported as having higher osteoporosis prevalence. Survey the bone mass among schizophrenic patients and compare with that of the local community population and reported data of the same country to figure out the distribution of bone mass among schizophrenic patients. Methods 965 schizophrenic patients aged 20 years and over in Yuli Veterans Hospital and 405 members aged 20 and over of the community living in the same town as the institute received bone mass examination by a heel qualitative ultrasound (QUS device. Bone mass distribution was stratified to analyzed and compared with community population. Results Schizophrenic patients have lower bone mass while they are young. But aging effect on bone mass cannot be seen. Accelerated bone mass loss during menopausal transition was not observed in the female schizophrenic patients as in the subjects of the community female population. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients have lower bone mass than community population since they are young. Further study to investigate the pathophysiological process is necessary to delay or avoid the lower bone mass in schizophrenia patients.

  15. Vitamin D receptor alleles and bone mineral density in a normal premenopausal Brazilian female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaretti-Castro M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD in different populations have produced conflicting results probably due to ethnic differences in the populations studied. The Brazilian population is characterized by a very broad genetic background and a high degree of miscegenation. Of an initial group of 164, we studied 127 women from the city of São Paulo, aged 20 to 47 years (median, 31 years, with normal menses, a normal diet and no history of diseases or use of any medication that could alter BMD. VDR genotype was assessed by PCR amplification followed by BsmI digestion of DNA isolated from peripheral leukocytes. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX at the lumbar site (L2-L4 and femoral neck. Most of the women (77.6% were considered to be of predominantly European ancestry (20.6% of them reported also native American ancestry, 12.8% were of African-Brazilian ancestry and 9.6% of Asian ancestry, 41.0% (52 were classified as bb, 48.8% (62 as Bb and 10.2% (13 as BB. The BB, Bb and bb groups did not differ in age, height, weight, body mass index or age at menarche. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher in the bb group (1.22 ± 0.16 g/cm² than in the BB group (1.08 ± 0.14; P<0.05, and the Bb group presented an intermediate value (1.17 ± 0.15. Femoral neck BMD was higher in the bb group (0.99 ± 0.11 g/cm² compared to Bb (0.93 ± 0.12 and BB (0.90 ± 0.09 (P<0.05. These data indicate that there is a significant correlation between the VDR BsmI genotype and BMD in healthy Brazilian premenopausal females.

  16. Assessment of age-related bone loss in normal South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thyroid disease and severe arthritis. Current use of oestrogen ... These 2 subgroups were compared in respect of all BMD measurements taken at the vertebrae and left hip. They were not age-matched, but the age range. (18 - 59 years) was ..... Clearly, quality of bone is likely to be as important as quantity of bone in the ...

  17. Multi-axial fatigue of trabecular bone with respect to normal walking

    CERN Document Server

    Mostakhdemin, Mohammad; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the analysis and treatment of osteoporotic bone based on drug administration, tracking fatigue behavior and taking into consideration the mechanical interaction of implants with trabecular bone. Weak trabeculae are one of the most important clinical features that need to be addressed in order to prevent hip joint fractures.

  18. METHODS USED FOR THE VIRTUAL HUMAN BONES AND JOINTS RECONSTRUCTION. NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL HUMAN JOINTS VIRTUAL SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Laurentiu Dragos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the problems, which appear in every human joint, it is very important to know the anatomy and morphology of the human bones and the way in which the components are working together to realize a normal functionality. For this purpose was used a CAD parametric software which permits to define models with a high degree of difficulty. First, it was used a CT or MRI device to obtain the parallel sections to study each component of the bone. A 3D scanner can be used only for the outer geometry. In the second step the images were transferred to a 2D CAD software, like AutoCAD, where the outer and inner contours of the bone were approximate to polygonal lines composed by many segments. After this, the contours were transferred to a 3D CAD software, like SolidWorks, where, step by step, and section by section, was defined the virtual bone component. Additionally to the main shape can be attached other Loft, Round or Dome shapes. For some components, as vertebrae, mandible or skull bones, can be used a preliminary model obtained by parallel sections. Starting from this, the model can be defined using the main 3D curves and we can get the final virtual solid model. In some simulations, the soft components, as muscles or ligaments, were included in simulations using non-linear virtual springs. Also, sometimes were used implants or prosthetic elements. In the final of the paper, were extracted important conclusions.

  19. Microstructural, densitometric and metabolic variations in bones from rats with normal or altered skeletal states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N Luu

    Full Text Available High resolution μCT, and combined μPET/CT have emerged as non-invasive techniques to enhance or even replace dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the current preferred approach for fragility fracture risk assessment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of µPET/CT imaging to differentiate changes in rat bone tissue density and microstructure induced by metabolic bone diseases more accurately than current available methods.Thirty three rats were divided into three groups of control, ovariectomy and vitamin-D deficiency. At the conclusion of the study, animals were subjected to glucose ((18FDG and sodium fluoride (Na(18F PET/CT scanning. Then, specimens were subjected to µCT imaging and tensile mechanical testing.Compared to control, those allocated to ovariectomy and vitamin D deficiency groups showed 4% and 22% (significant increase in (18FDG uptake values, respectively. DXA-based bone mineral density was higher in the vitamin D deficiency group when compared to the other groups (cortical bone, yet μCT-based apparent and mineral density results were not different between groups. DXA-based bone mineral density was lower in the ovariectomy group when compared to the other groups (cancellous bone; yet μCT-based mineral density results were not different between groups, and the μCT-based apparent density results were lower in the ovariectomy group compared to the other groups.PET and micro-CT provide an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in bone tissue mineral density, as well as microstructure for cortical and cancellous bone and metabolic activity. As osteomalacia is characterized by impaired bone mineralization, the use of densitometric analyses may lead to misinterpretation of the condition as osteoporosis. In contrast, µCT alone and in combination with the PET component certainly provides an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in both bone tissue mineral density, as well as

  20. Three-dimensional analysis of tarsal bone response to axial loading in patients with hallux valgus and normal feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Ikeda, Yasutoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Teramoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takuma; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2017-02-01

    Patients with hallux valgus present a variety of symptoms that may be related to the type of deformity. Weightbearing affects the deformities, and the evaluation of the load response of tarsal bones has been mainly performed using two-dimensional plane radiography. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare structural changes in the medial foot arch between patients with hallux valgus and normal controls using a computer image analysis technique and weightbearing computed tomography data. Eleven patients with hallux valgus and eleven normal controls were included. Computed tomograms were obtained with and without simulated weightbearing using a compression device. Computed tomography data were transferred into a personal computer, and a three-dimensional bone model was created using image analysis software. The load responses of each tarsal bone in the medial foot arch were measured three-dimensionally and statistically compared between the two groups. Displacement of each tarsal bone under two weightbearing conditions was visually observed by creating three-dimensional bone models. At the first metatarsophalangeal joint, the proximal phalanges of the hallux valgus group showed significantly different displacements in multiple directions. Moreover, opposite responses to axial loading were also observed in both translation and rotation between the two groups. Weightbearing caused deterioration of the hallux valgus deformity three-dimensionally at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Information from the computer image analysis was useful for understanding details of the pathology of foot disorders related to the deformities or instability and may contribute to the development of effective conservative and surgical treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunophenotypic Characterization of Human Bone Marrow Mast Cells. A Flow Cytometric Study of Normal and Pathological Bone Marrow Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Escribano

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present paper was to define the immunophenotype of bone marrow mast cells (BMMC from healthy controls and patients with hematologic malignancies (HM based on the use of multiple stainings with monoclonal antibodies analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results show that BMMC from both groups of individuals display a similar but heterogenous immunophenotype. The overall numbers of BMMC are higher in the HM group of individuals (p = 0.08. Three patterns of antigen expression were detected: (1 markers constantly positive in all cases analyzed (CD9, CD29, CD33, CD43, CD44, CD49d, CD49e, CD51, CD71, CD117, and FcεRI, (2 antigens that were constantly negative (CD1a, CD2, CD3, CD5, CD6, CD11a, CD14, CD15, CD16, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD23, CD25, CD30, CD34, CD38, CD41a, CD42b, CD65, CD66b, HLA-DR, and CD138, and (3 markers that were positive in a variable proportion of cases – CD11b (50%, CD11c (77%, CD13 (40%, CD18 (20%, CD22 (68%, CD35 (27%, CD40 (67%, CD54 (88% and CD61 (40%. In addition, BMMC from all cases explored were CD45+, and this antigen was expressed at an intensity similar to that of mature granulocytes.

  2. Differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J; Koes, B W; Paulis, W D; van Middelkoop, M

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight or obesity. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (published up to 22 June 2016) on the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and overweight and obese children was performed. Results were pooled when possible and mean differences (MDs) were calculated between normal-weight and overweight and normal-weight and obese children for bone content and density measures at different body sites. Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 5,958 children, were included. There was moderate and high quality of evidence that overweight (MD 213 g; 95% confidence interval [CI] 166, 261) and obese children (MD 329 g; 95%CI [229, 430]) have a significantly higher whole body bone mineral content than normal-weight children. Similar results were found for whole body bone mineral density. Sensitivity analysis showed that the association was stronger in girls. Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher bone mineral density compared with normal-weight children. Because there was only one study included with a longitudinal design, the long-term impact of childhood overweight and obesity on bone health at adulthood is not clear. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Subchondral bone density distribution of the talus in clinically normal Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemanse, W; Müller-Gerbl, M; Jonkers, I; Vander Sloten, J; van Bree, H; Gielen, I

    2016-03-15

    Bones continually adapt their morphology to their load bearing function. At the level of the subchondral bone, the density distribution is highly correlated with the loading distribution of the joint. Therefore, subchondral bone density distribution can be used to study joint biomechanics non-invasively. In addition physiological and pathological joint loading is an important aspect of orthopaedic disease, and research focusing on joint biomechanics will benefit veterinary orthopaedics. This study was conducted to evaluate density distribution in the subchondral bone of the canine talus, as a parameter reflecting the long-term joint loading in the tarsocrural joint. Two main density maxima were found, one proximally on the medial trochlear ridge and one distally on the lateral trochlear ridge. All joints showed very similar density distribution patterns and no significant differences were found in the localisation of the density maxima between left and right limbs and between dogs. Based on the density distribution the lateral trochlear ridge is most likely subjected to highest loads within the tarsocrural joint. The joint loading distribution is very similar between dogs of the same breed. In addition, the joint loading distribution supports previous suggestions of the important role of biomechanics in the development of OC lesions in the tarsus. Important benefits of computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry (CTOAM), i.e. the possibility of in vivo imaging and temporal evaluation, make this technique a valuable addition to the field of veterinary orthopaedic research.

  4. Bone marrow stromal elements in murine leukemia; Decreased CSF-producing fibroblasts and normal IL-1 expression by macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Ishay, Z. (Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School (Israel)); Barak, V. (Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital (Israel)); Shoshan, S. (Faculty of Dental Medicine, Connective Tissue Research Laboratory, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)); Prindull, G. (Department of Pediatrics, University of Gottingen, Gottingen (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    A study of bone marrow stromal elements in murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was carried out. Our previous studies had indicated marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML. In the current investigation, separate stromal cells were cultured and the results obtained have shown that, while marrow stromal macrophages are normal in leukemia and express adequate amounts of IL-1, the fibroblasts are markedly reduced. However, if sufficient fibroblasts are pooled in vitro, they produce adequate amounts of CSF. Test of TNF{alpha} in leukemic cells CM, as possible cause of marrow stromal inhibition in leukemia, had not disclosed this cytokine. Further, it was observed that total body lethal irradiation of leukemic mice aggravates the stromal deficiency, confirming results of our previous investigations. It is concluded that bone marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML is due to decreased fibroblasts and, implicity, reduced CSF production. (author).

  5. The pulmonary pseudonodule: Characteristic features of a normal variant due to a bone thickening at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The normal thickening of bone at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine should not be confused with a patholigc process. Its appearance on the plain radiograph and computed tomography is pathognomonic. (orig.)

  6. Deceptive appearance of normal variant of scaphoid bone in a teenage patient: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad N. Bhatti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid fractures are a common injury in late teens and mid twenties with a peak period in skeletally immature children at about 15 years of age, although considered to be rare in first decade of life, its exact incidence in early teen age remains to be a subject of debate. We report an unusual case of anatomical variation of scaphoid bone at the level of waist which could potentially cause diagnostic confusion. A 14-years-old boy presented in the fracture clinic 2 weeks after injury to his Right wrist which was managed in a scaphoid cast. X-ray examinations, both at the time of injury and later on in the fracture clinic revealed features suspicious of a fracture at the level of waist of the scaphoid bone, however the clinical examination did not correlate with imaging, in view of that radiological imaging of the unaffected side was performed for comparison, which revealed it to be an anatomical variant of scaphoid at this age. To our knowledge there are very few cases of such variation reported in literature in this age group of patients. This case highlights the importance of anatomical variants in scaphoid bone in this age group, which might pose a diagnostic challenge and the need for appropriate management plan and reassurance to avoid unnecessary anxiety.

  7. Maturation disparity between hand-wrist bones in a Chinese sample of normal children: An analysis based on automatic boneXpert and manual Greulich and Pyle atlas assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji; Dig, Xiao Yi [Dept. of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Lin, Fang Qin [Dept. of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    To assess the maturation disparity of hand-wrist bones using the BoneXpert system and Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas in a sample of normal children from China. Our study included 229 boys and 168 girls aged 2 - 14 years. The bones in the hand and wrist were divided into five groups: distal radius and ulna, metacarpals, proximal phalanges, middle phalanges and distal phalanges. Bone age (BA) was assessed separately using the automatic BoneXpert and GP atlas by two raters. Differences in the BA between the most advanced and retarded individual bones and bone groups were analyzed. In 75.8% of children assessed with the BoneXpert and 59.4% of children assessed with the GP atlas, the BA difference between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones exceeded 2.0 years. The BA mean differences between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones were 2.58 and 2.25 years for the BoneXpert and GP atlas methods, respectively. Furthermore, for both methods, the middle phalanges were the most advanced group. The most retarded group was metacarpals for BoneXpert, while metacarpals and the distal radius and ulna were the most retarded groups according to the GP atlas. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges were closer to the chronological ages than those of the other bone groups. Obvious and regular maturation disparities are common in normal children. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges are more useful for BA estimation than those of the other bone groups.

  8. Calcium and contribution to the normal development of bones: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    . The target population proposed by the applicant is infants (from birth) and young children up to 3 years of age. The Panel has previously assessed a claim on calcium and normal growth and development of bone with a favourable outcome. The target population was children and adolescents. The Panel considers...... that the role of calcium in the development of bones applies to all ages including infants and young children up to 3 years of age. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of calcium and contribution to the normal development of bones....

  9. Body composition and bone mineral mass in normal and obese female population using dual X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, T.; Gonzalez, P.; Coll, C.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Solis, I.; Oviedo, S.

    2002-01-01

    It has been observed that a greater percentage of body fat is associated with augmented bone mineral mass. Objective: The goal of this work was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD in g/cm 2 ) and content (BMC in g) and soft tissue components, fat and lean mass (in g) in whole body of adult female population in Chile. Method: We studied 185 volunteers, asymptomatic, excluding those using estrogens, regular medication, tobacco (>10 cigarettes/day), excessive alcohol intake or with prior oophorectomy. They were separated in 111 pre and 74 post menopausal and according to body mass index (BMI) they were 37 women > 30 kg/m 2 and 148 2 . A Lunar Dual X-Ray absorptiometer was used to determine whole BMD and BMC. Results: Post menopausal women were older and smaller [p:0.0001], with higher body mass index [p:0.0007] and with lower BMD and BMC and higher fat mass than the pre menopausal group; In the whole group, women with BMI ≥ 30 (obese) were compared with normal weight observing no difference in BMD. The fat mass incremented significantly with age. Obese women > 50 years presented greater BMC than the non-obese. The percentage of fat corresponded to 48% in the obese group and to 39% in the non-obese [p<0.0001]. Conclusion: Fat mass somehow protect bone mineral loss in older normal population, probably associated to multifactorial causes including extra ovaric estrogen production. Postmenopausal women presented lower mineral content than premenopausal, as it was expected

  10. Evaluation of the normal values of bone densitometry in brazilian women population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Martins, L.R.F.; Alonso, C.R.; Blomer, E.

    1992-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) can vary according with color, sex, feed and knowing the miscegenation and nutritional state of the Brazilian people; it is obvious that the fixed values of Caucasian females BMD cannot be employed to the Brazilian women. We have studied 158 Brazilian women with average age of 42 ± 14 years in whom it was settled the BMD over the lumbar vertebral column (L2, L3 and L4) and the femoral neck with a gadolinium-153 source double-photon densitometer and analyzed images in a IBM/PC/AT 286 processor computer. It was determined the linear regression equation corresponding to the variation of the bone mineral density as a function of age. The results were: BMD-lumbar column = 1.405 - 0.0086 x age ± 0.013 g/cm 2 and BMD-femoral neck = 0.909 - 0.0034 x age ± 0.11 g/cm 2 preferred to the age group between 25 to 80 years old. The results analysis shows that the Brazilian women BMD is lesser than the Caucasian. (author)

  11. Multislice quantitative computed tomography allows early detection of bone mineral density alterations induced by atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubert, M.J.; Monforte, F.; Calo, C.; Lylyk, P.; Friedman, M.F.; Gamba, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To demonstrate the utility of Multislice Quantitative Computed Tomography (MS-QCT) in the early detection of mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) alterations induced by an atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model. Materials and Methods. Male weanling Wistar rats (n =16) were divided by body weight (Wt) into 2 groups: control (C) and experimental (E), with no significant differences in the mean initial Wt (p>0.05). C was fed rodent stock diet ad libitum, and E an atherogenic diet for 3 weeks (3w). Zoometry (body weight and length) and diet intake (g/100g rat/day) were monitored. At 3 w in serum (mg/dL) lipidlipoprotein profile was studied: total cholesterol (t-C), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and MSQCT (Philips 64 CT, quantified with the eFilm Workstation 2.1) in seven mandibular areas (MA): n. 1 to 4: from chin to mandibular foramen, n. 5: coronoid process, n. 6: condylar process, n. 7: angular process. Statistics: Pearson's correlation between BMD in each MA and serum t-C. p 0.05). Correlation coefficients (r) and their significance levels (p) were relevant in 5/7 MA. MA1:-0.580 (p=0.019), MA2:-0.709 (p=0.002), MA3:-0.635 (p=0.008), MA5:-0.674 (p=0.004), MA6:-0.564 (p=0.023). Conclusions. These results suggest that MS-QCT is an imaging diagnostic method that allows the early detection of mandible bone architecture alterations induced by an atherogenic diet. Inverse correlation between BMD and t-C would indicate an association between an atherogenic diet intake and potential temporomandibular disorders. (authors)

  12. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density in normal postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Kamineni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted with the objective of assessing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD in postmenopausal women (PMW, to detect osteopenia or osteoporosis in PMW and to establish a correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and bone mineral density (BMD. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy PMW were selected, and a prospective observational study was conducted to correlate the BMD with serum 25(OHD levels. Their laboratory investigations along with serum 25(OHD levels were done. Their BMD was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine and neck of femur; T-scores were derived. Correlation analysis was done to investigate the relationship between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD. Results: The proportion of osteoporosis at the hip was 31.9% in deficient group, 16.1% in insufficient, and 18.2% in sufficient group and at lumbar spine, it was 27.7%, 16.1%, and 22.7%, respectively. Forty-seven percent of PMW had deficient (<20 ng/ml serum 25(OHD levels and 31% had insufficiency. T-score at hip in deficient group was −2.05 ± 0.25, and in an insufficient group, it was −1.79 ± 0.13; T-score at lumbar spine was −1.92 ± 0.12 and −1.79 ± 0.12, respectively, but both were not statistically significant. Osteoporosis was seen in 24%, osteopenia in 55% at hip level and 23% and 59% respectively at lumbar spine. There was no association between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD neither at hip nor at lumbar spine ( P = 0.51 and P = 0.79 respectively. Conclusion: In this study, among our cohort of patients there was no correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD. However, Vitamin D deficiency coexists with low BMD. Vitamin D insufficiency is a common risk factor for osteoporosis associated with increased bone remodeling and low bone mass.

  13. Assessment of age-related bone loss in normal South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The range encompasses the mean and 2. SO to either side of the mean per decade. Subjects are regarded as being at high risk for fracture if the BMO falls below 2 SO of the mean (or the lowest quartile) relative to young normals (aged 30 - 39 years) (t-score). Both sets of graphs confirm the relatively steep fall in BMO after.

  14. Normal bone mineral content but unfavourable muscle/fat ratio in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Mølgaard, Christian; Skakkebaek, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    and six boys with KS receiving androgen substitution with a median age of 11.0 years (range 4.3-18.6) participated in the study. INTERVENTION: Dual energy x ray absorptiometry and anthropometric measurements were analysed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lumbar and whole body BMC, lean body mass (LBM), body fat...... mass (BFM), body fat percentage (BF%), height and body mass index (BMI) were compared between treated and untreated boys with KS and compared to normal age-matched boys. RESULTS: LBM (untreated -0.3 (-2.4 to +2.1) and treated +1.1 (-1.6 to +2.1)) was normal, while BFM (untreated +0.5 (-1.0 to +2.3), p...... in childhood as evidenced by the increased fat mass, whereas the reported low BMD seems to develop after puberty Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  15. Nature works best when allowed to run its course. The experience of midwives promoting normal births in a home birth setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Ingvild; Hoston, Mari A; Kolshus, Nora J; Larsen, Christel E G

    2017-07-01

    to gain a deeper understanding of how midwives promote a normal birth in a home birth setting in Norway. a qualitative approach was chosen for data collection. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine midwives working in a home birth setting in different areas in Norway. The transcribed interviews were analysed with the help of systematic text condensation. the analysis generated two main themes: «The midwife's fundamental beliefs» and «Working in line with one's ideology». The midwives had a fundamental belief that childbirth is a normal event that women are able to manage. It is important that this attitude is transferred to the woman in order for her to believe in her own ability to give birth. The midwives in the study were able to work according to their ideology when promoting a normal birth at home. To avoid disturbing the natural birth process was described as an important factor. Also crucial was to approach the work in a patient manner. Staying at home in a safe environment and establishing a close relationship with the midwife also contributed positively to a normal birth. the midwife's attitude is important when trying to promote a normal birth. Patience was seen as essential to avoid interventions. Being in a safe environment with a familiar midwife provides a good foundation for a normal birth. The attitude of the midwives towards normal childbirth ought to be more emphasised, also in the context of maternity wards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Frequency of Osteoporosis and Osteopenia According To Bone Mineral Density of Proximal Femur Subregions in Normal and Osteopenic Postmenopausal Women With Respect to Total Hip Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ersöz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study 29 normal (mean age: 65.6 ± 5.1 years and 33 osteopenic (mean age: 67.6 ± 4.9 years postmenopausal women according to total bone mineral density (BMD of the hip were evaluated for BMD values of subregions of proximal femur. The percentages for osteoporosis and osteopenia with respect to subregions were 13.8% and 58.6% for femoral neck and 20.7% and 41.4% for Ward’s triangle in normal group. In trochanteric and intertrochanteric measurements there were no T scores below –2.5 but 17.2% of the subjects were osteopenic with regard to trochanteric and 6.9% were osteopenic due to intertrochanteric BMD values. The percentages for osteoporosis and osteopenia with respect to subregion measurements were 57.6% and 42.4% for femoral neck, 60.6% and 36.4% for Ward’s triangle, 3% and 78.8% for trochanteric, 9.1% and 87.9% for intertrochanteric regions in osteopenic group according to total hip values. Knowing that hip fracture risk is increasing 2-3 fold for 1 standart deviation decrease from the young adult mean value for all subregions and knowing the relation between cervical hip fractures and BMD values of Ward’s triangle and femoral neck and the relation between intertrochanteric fractures and trochanteric BMD values, it is recommended to evaluate the BMD values of subregions of the hip besides the total hip values in daily practice.

  17. Measurement of forearm bone mineral density in normal women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.J.; Blake, G.M.; Fogelman, I. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-02-01

    The authors report the results of forearm measurements, without the use of a water bath, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 100 normal women aged 29-69 years (average age, 52 years). Studies were performed using the Hologic QDR-1000, with bone mineral density (BMD) measured at three sites in the non-dominant forearm: ultradistal, distal one-third and a region between these two. The precision of the technique was 0.74%, 0.55% and 0.58%, respectively. The normal range for forearm BMD and variation with age was established. BMD was also measured in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck. Linear regression analysis gave a range of correlation coefficients between forearm and axial sites of r 0.49-0.67. Standard errors of the estimate (SEE) in predicting axial from peripheral measurements gave average values from the three forearm sites of 0.085 g/cm{sup 2} for the femoral neck and 0.118 g/cm{sup 2} for the spine. (author).

  18. Salivary testosterone is associated with higher lumbar bone mass in premenopausal healthy women with normal levels of serum testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, P; Navarro, M A; Nolla, J M

    2000-01-01

    The relationships among lumbar and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and different forms of testosterone--total, salivary testosterone and free testosterone index (FTI) calculated with the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)--, body mass index (BMI) and body fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio and breast-to-hip ratio) were analysed in a cross-sectional study with 66 Spanish premenopausal healthy women aged 42 years and with normal levels of serum testosterone. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000), and salivary and blood samples were obtained during early follicular phase. In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, lumbar BMD was positively predicted by salivary testosterone and negatively by SHBG adjusted by BMI (R2 = 0.20; p testosterone (n = 12) had higher lumbar BMD than those with normal value (1.120 +/- 0.112 vs. 1.026 +/- 0.118; p testosterone, low levels of SHBG and high levels of salivary testosterone are associated with higher lumbar BMD, whereas low levels of SHBG together with higher breast-to-hip ratio are associated with higher femoral BMD.

  19. Does pulsed low intensity ultrasound allow early return to normal activities when treating stress fractures? A review of one tarsal navicular and eight tibial stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, J C; Brindle, T; Nyland, J; Caborn, D N; Johnson, D L

    1999-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the efficacy of daily pulsed low intensity ultrasound (LIUS) with early return to activities for the treatment of lower extremity stress fractures. Eight patients (2 males, 6 females) with radiographic and bone scan confirmed tibial stress fractures participated in this study. Additionally, a case report of a tarsal navicular stress fracture is described. All patients except one were involved in athletics. Prior to the study, subjects completed a 5 question, 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) regarding pain level (10 = extreme pain, 1 = no pain) and were assessed for functional performance. Subjects received 20-minute LIUS treatments 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Subjects maintained all functional activities during the treatment period. Seven patients with posterior-medial stress fractures participated without a brace. Subjects were re-tested after 4 weeks of treatment. Mann-Whitney U tests (VAS data) and paired t-tests (functional tests) assessed statistical significance (psports was prescribed for the patients with the tibial stress fractures. The patient with the anterior tibial stress fracture underwent tibial intramedullary nailing at the conclusion of a season of play. In this uncontrolled experience, treatment of tibial stress fractures with daily pulsed LIUS was effective in pain relief and early return to vigorous activity without bracing for the patients with posterior-medial stress fractures.

  20. Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroko; Kawawa, Rie; Ichi, Ikuyo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Koike, Taisuke; Aoki, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD. Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography. Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice ( P vitamin E/kg. Conclusions: The results suggest that excess vitamin E intake does not cause bone loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Histomorphometric Assessment of Cancellous and Cortical Bone Material Distribution in the Proximal Humerus of Normal and Osteoporotic Individuals: Significantly Reduced Bone Stock in the Metaphyseal and Subcapital Regions of Osteoporotic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Christoph M; Schmidutz, Florian; Helfen, Tobias; Richards, R Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Milz, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder predominantly affecting postmenopausal women but also men at an advanced age. Both genders may suffer from low-energy fractures of, for example, the proximal humerus when reduction of the bone stock or/and quality has occurred.The aim of the current study was to compare the amount of bone in typical fracture zones of the proximal humerus in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic individuals.The amount of bone in the proximal humerus was determined histomorphometrically in frontal plane sections. The donor bones were allocated to normal and osteoporotic groups using the T-score from distal radius DXA measurements of the same extremities. The T-score evaluation was done according to WHO criteria. Regional thickness of the subchondral plate and the metaphyseal cortical bone were measured using interactive image analysis.At all measured locations the amount of cancellous bone was significantly lower in individuals from the osteoporotic group compared to the non-osteoporotic one. The osteoporotic group showed more significant differences between regions of the same bone than the non-osteoporotic group. In both groups the subchondral cancellous bone and the subchondral plate were least affected by bone loss. In contrast, the medial metaphyseal region in the osteoporotic group exhibited higher bone loss in comparison to the lateral side.This observation may explain prevailing fracture patterns, which frequently involve compression fractures and certainly has an influence on the stability of implants placed in this medial region. It should be considered when planning the anchoring of osteosynthesis materials in osteoporotic patients with fractures of the proximal humerus.

  2. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Vorinostat, Reduces Tumor Growth at the Metastatic Bone Site and Associated Osteolysis, but Promotes Normal Bone Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap, Jitesh; Akech, Jacqueline; Wixted, John J.; Szabo, Gabriela; Hussain, Sadiq; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Li, Xiaodong; Bedard, Krystin; Dhillon, Robinder J.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Lian, Jane B.

    2010-01-01

    Vorinostat, an oral histone deacetylase inhibitor with anti-tumor activity, is in clinical trials for hematological and solid tumors that metastasize and compromise bone structure. Consequently, there is a requirement to establish the effects of vorinostat on tumor growth within bone. Breast (MDA-231) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells were injected into tibias of SCID/NCr mice and the effects of vorinostat on tumor growth and osteolytic disease were assessed by radiography, μCT, histological an...

  3. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  4. Strontium-Doped Calcium Phosphate and Hydroxyapatite Granules Promote Different Inflammatory and Bone Remodelling Responses in Normal and Ovariectomised Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Emanuelsson, Lena; Norlindh, Birgitta; Omar, Omar; Thomsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The healing of bone defects may be hindered by systemic conditions such as osteoporosis. Calcium phosphates, with or without ion substitutions, may provide advantages for bone augmentation. However, the mechanism of bone formation with these materials is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process in bone defects implanted with hydroxyapatite (HA) or strontium-doped calcium phosphate (SCP) granules, in non-ovariectomised (non-OVX) and ovariectomised (OVX) rats. After 0 (baseline), six and 28d, bone samples were harvested for gene expression analysis, histology and histomorphometry. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), at six days, was higher in the HA, in non-OVX and OVX, whereas interleukin-6 (IL-6), at six and 28d, was higher in SCP, but only in non-OVX. Both materials produced a similar expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Higher expression of osteoclastic markers, calcitonin receptor (CR) and cathepsin K (CatK), were detected in the HA group, irrespective of non-OVX or OVX. The overall bone formation was comparable between HA and SCP, but with topological differences. The bone area was higher in the defect centre of the HA group, mainly in the OVX, and in the defect periphery of the SCP group, in both non-OVX and OVX. It is concluded that HA and SCP granules result in comparable bone formation in trabecular bone defects. As judged by gene expression and histological analyses, the two materials induced different inflammatory and bone remodelling responses. The modulatory effects are associated with differences in the spatial distribution of the newly formed bone. PMID:24376855

  5. Trabecular bone microstructure is impaired in the proximal femur of human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with normal bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakia, Galateia J; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Lai, Andrew; Nardo, Lorenzo; Facchetti, Luca; Pasco, Courtney; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Han, Misung; Parrott, Amanda Hutton; Tien, Phyllis; Krug, Roland

    2018-02-01

    There is evidence that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are independent risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture which is not solely explained by changes in bone mineral density. Thus, we hypothesized that the assessment of trabecular microstructure might play an important role for bone quality in this population and might explain the increased fracture risk. In this study, we have assessed bone microstructure in the proximal femur using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as in the extremities using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in HIV-infected men and healthy controls and compared these findings to those based on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) derived from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) which is the standard clinical parameter for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Eight HIV-infected men and 11 healthy age-matched controls were recruited and informed consent was obtained before each scan. High-resolution MRI of the proximal femur was performed using fully balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) on a 3T system. Three volumes of interest at corresponding anatomic locations across all subjects were defined based on registrations of a common template. Four MR-based trabecular microstructural parameters were analyzed at each region: fuzzy bone volume fraction (f-BVF), trabecular number (Tb.N), thickness (Tb.Th), and spacing (Tb.Sp). In addition, the distal radius and distal tibia were imaged with HR-pQCT. Four HR-pQCT-based microstructural parameters were analyzed: trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), Tb.N, Tb.Th, and Tb.Sp. Total hip and spine aBMD were determined from DXA. Microstructural bone parameters derived from MRI at the proximal femur and from HR-pQCT at the distal tibia showed significantly lower bone quality in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. In contrast, DXA aBMD data showed no significant differences between HIV

  6. Long term higher urinary calcium excretion within the normal physiologic range predicts impaired bone status of the proximal radius in healthy children with higher potential renal acid load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lijie; Libuda, Lars; Schönau, Eckhard; Frassetto, Lynda; Remer, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass have been observed in children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Whether urinary calcium excretion at the higher end of the normal physiologic range can influence bone health in healthy children independent of dietary intake is unknown. Urinary calcium was quantified in 603 24-h urine samples from 154 healthy children and adolescents who had ≥3 urine collections and parallel 3-day weighed dietary records during the 4years preceding proximal forearm bone analyses by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was determined according to urine ionogram by subtracting measured quantitatively important mineral cations from nonbicarbonate anions. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly associated with volumetric (v)BMD (P=0.04), almost significantly with cortical bone mineral content (BMC) (P=0.05), but not with cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) (P=0.09), total CSA (P=0.3), or Strength-Strain Index (P=0.8) in the total population sample. Stratified analyses based on the median split of uPRAL showed that calcium excretion was negatively associated with vBMD (P=0.007), cortical BMC (P=0.001), and cortical CSA (P=0.004) in those children with higher uPRALs, but not in those with low uPRALs (P>0.3). In conclusion, long-term higher calciuria within the physiological range predicts reduced diaphyseal bone mass and bone density particularly in healthy children and adolescents with long-term unfavorable higher dietary acid load, i.e., with lower fruit and vegetable intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Annual intravenous zoledronic acid for three years increased cancellous bone matrix mineralization beyond normal values in the HORIZON biopsy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, Barbara M; Roschger, Paul; Gabriel, Daniela; Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Eriksen, Erik F; Recker, Robert R; Gasser, Jürg A; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    The efficacy of 3 years of annual intravenous administration of zoledronic acid (ZOL) in reducing vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis has been shown by the HORIZON pivotal fracture trial. Histomorphometric analysis of transiliac bone biopsies from the HORIZON participants revealed significantly improved trabecular architecture and reduced bone remodeling for the ZOL-treated versus placebo-treated patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the cancellous and cortical bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in these biopsies by quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI). The study cohort comprised 82 patients on active treatment (ZOL, yearly doses of 5 mg) and 70 treated with placebo, and all received adequate Ca and VitD supplementation. Comparison of ZOL-treated versus placebo-treated cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) BMDD-derived variables resulted in significantly higher average (Cn.CaMean + 3.2%, Ct.CaMean + 2.7%) and mode calcium concentrations (Cn.CaPeak + 2.1%, Ct.CaPeak + 1.5%), increased percentages of highly mineralized bone areas (Cn.CaHigh + 64%, Ct.CaHigh + 31%), lower heterogeneity of mineralization (Cn.CaWidth -14%, Ct.CaWidth -13%), and decreased percentages of low mineralized bone areas (Cn.CaLow -22%, Ct.CaLow -26%) versus placebo (all p matrix mineralization. However, the differences in BMDD variables between the study groups remained when adjusted for Cn. MS/BS, suggesting that other factors in addition to reduced bone turnover might contribute to the higher bone matrix mineralization after ZOL treatment. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-07-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone.

  9. Lack of Association between Body Weight, Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Normal and Osteoporotic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Poggi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In an ethnically homogeneous population of women living in Tuscany, Italy, the relationships between age, body weight, bone mineral density and the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene polymorphism were studied, with the objective of recognizing patients at risk for osteoporosis. In 275 women bone mineral density was measured by Dual Energy X-rays Absorptiometry (DEXA. In 50 of them the individual genetic pattern for VDR was evaluated by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification of the VDR gene, and digestion with the restriction enzyme BsmI. Age and bone mineral density were inversely related (R2 = 0.298. Body weight was associated with bone mineral density (R2 = 0.059, but not with age. In osteoporotic women, mean (± SD body weight was 59.9 ± 6.5 Kg, lower than that recorded in non osteoporotic women (64.2 ± 9.4 Kg, even though not significantly different (p = 0.18. No association was found between VDR gene polymorphism, bone density or body weight. The performance of anthropometric and genetic components appear to be poor, and, at least for the time being, bone mineral density measurement by means of MOC-DEXA represents the optimal method to detect women at risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  10. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-frozen air-chilled turkey breast allows for reduced sodium content in protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Medellin-Lopez, M; Singh, P; Sansawat, T; Chin, K B; Kang, I

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate sodium reduction in the protein gels that were prepared with turkey breasts after hot boning (HB), quarter (¼) sectioning, crust-frozen air-chilling (CFAC), and cold temperature mincing. For each of 4 replications, 36 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. One-half of the carcasses were randomly assigned to water immersion chilling for chill boning (CB), whereas the remaining carcasses were immediately HB and quarter-sectioned/crust-frozen air-chilled (HB-¼CFAC) in a freezing room (-12°C, 1.0 m/s). After deboning, CB fillets were conventionally minced, whereas HB-¼CFAC fillets were cold minced up to 27 min with 1 or 2% salt. From the beginning of mincing, the batter temperatures of HB-¼CFAC were lower (P batters up to 12 and 21 min for 2 and 1% salts, respectively. Upon mincing, the batter pH of the HB-¼CFAC (P 0.05) from the pH of CB batters, except for the 1% salt HB-¼CFAC batter after 15 min of mincing. The pattern of pH was not changed when the batters were stored overnight. The protein of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P batter appears to have more open space, less protein aggregation, and more protein-coated fat particles than those of postrigor batters. Based on these results, the combination of HB-¼CFAC and cold-batter-mincing technologies appear to improve protein functionality and sodium reduction capacity. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Mice with hypomorphic expression of the sodium-phosphate cotransporter PiT1/Slc20a1 have an unexpected normal bone mineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Bourgine

    Full Text Available The formation of hydroxyapatite crystals and their insertion into collagen fibrils of the matrix are essential steps for bone mineralization. As phosphate is a main structural component of apatite crystals, its uptake by skeletal cells is critical and must be controlled by specialized membrane proteins. In mammals, in vitro studies have suggested that the high-affinity sodium-phosphate cotransporter PiT1 could play this role. In vivo, PiT1 expression was detected in hypertrophic chondrocytes of murine metatarsals, but its implication in bone physiology is not yet deciphered. As the complete deletion of PiT1 results in embryonic lethality at E12.5, we took advantage of a mouse model bearing two copies of PiT1 hypomorphic alleles to study the effect of a low expression of PiT1 on bone mineralization in vivo. In this report, we show that a 85% down-regulation of PiT1 in long bones resulted in a slight (6% but significant reduction of femur length in young mice (15- and 30-day-old. However, despite a defect in alcian blue / alizarin red S and Von Kossa staining of hypomorphic 1-day-old mice, using X-rays micro-computed tomography, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and histological staining techniques we could not detect differences between hypomorphic and wild-type mice of 15- to 300-days old. Interestingly, the expression of PiT2, the paralog of PiT1, was increased 2-fold in bone of PiT1 hypomorphic mice accounting for a normal phosphate uptake in mutant cells. Whether this may contribute to the absence of bone mineralization defects remains to be further deciphered.

  12. A Computed Tomographic Study on the Size and Bone Wall Thickness of the Maxillary Sinus in Normal, Preoperative and Postoperative Maxillary Sinusitis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Young; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Institute of Oral Bio Science, School of Dentistry, Chpnbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-15

    To compare the size and bone wall thickness of the maxillary sinus in normal, preoperative and postoperative maxillary sinusitis patients. The author analyzed CT images of both left and right maxillary sinuses in 357 patients who visited Chonbuk National University Hospital between January 1997 and December 1998. The size and bone wall thickness of the maxillary sinus of normal, inflammatory and post-Caldwell-Luc groups were compared. The significant differences of transverse, maximum medio-lateral, maximum supero-inferior dimensions and medio-lateral dimension at nasal floor level between normal and post-Caldwell-Luc groups were found (P<0.05). And the significant differences of antero-posterior dimensions between inflammatory and post-Caldwell-Luc group were found (P<0.05). But, no significant differences of vertical height dimensions between groups was found (P>0.05). The significant differences of postero-lateral, infero-lateral and medial wall thickness between normal and post-Caldwell-Luc groups were found (P<0.05). The results of this study will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of maxillary sinus diseases and post operative treatment planning.

  13. A single injection of the anabolic bone agent, parathyroid hormone-collagen binding domain (PTH-CBD), results in sustained increases in bone mineral density for up to 12 months in normal female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Suda, Hirofumi; Miyata, Shigeru; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua; Gensure, Robert C

    2012-09-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the most effective osteoporosis treatment, but it is only effective if administered by daily injections. We fused PTH(1-33) to a collagen binding domain (PTH-CBD) to extend its activity, and have shown an anabolic bone effect with monthly dosing. We tested the duration of action of this compound with different routes of administration. Normal young C57BL/6J mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of PTH-CBD (320 μg/kg). PTH-CBD treated mice showed a 22.2 % increase in bone mineral density (BMD) at 6 months and 12.8 % increase at 12 months. When administered by subcutaneous injection, PTH-CBD again caused increases in BMD, 15.2 % at 6 months and 14.3 % at 12 months. Radiolabeled PTH-CBD was concentrated in bone and skin after either route of administration. We further investigated skin effects of PTH-CBD, and histological analysis revealed an apparent increase in anagen VI hair follicles. A single dose of PTH-CBD caused sustained increases in BMD by >10 % for 1 year in normal mice, regardless of the route of administration, thus showing promise as a potential osteoporosis therapy.

  14. Glucocorticoids and irradiation-induced apoptosis in normal murine bone marrow B-lineage lymphocytes as determined by flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvy, B.A.; Telford, W.G.; King, L.E.; Fraker, P.J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States))

    1993-06-01

    A substantial proportion of murine bone marrow B220[sup +] and IgM[sup +] cells were induced to undergo apoptosis when exposed to glucocorticoids or ionizing radiation in vitro. Two-colour flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle indicated that a distinct subpopulation of cells formed to the left of G[sub o]/G[sub 1] in the hypodiploid or A[sub o] region previously shown to contain apoptotic cells with fragmented DNA. Indeed, 45-65% of all B220[sup +] or IgM[sup +] cells of the marrow were found in this apoptotic region 12 hr after treatment with dexamethasone (Dex) or exposure to 500 rads or irradiation. Zinc sulphate, a frequently cited inhibitor of apoptosis, prevented accumulation of cells exposed to glucocorticoids or ionizing radiation in the A[sub o] region as did the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU 38486. Although Dex was more potent, corticosterone and cortisol also induced significant degrees of apoptosis in B220[sup +] and IgM[sup +] marrow cells at physiological concentrations. These results demonstrate that freshly isolated B-lineage cells of the murine bone marrow readily undergo apoptosis upon exposure to glucocorticoids and ionizing radiation and suggest that apoptosis may play a role in the regulation of lymphopoiesis. The data also show the value of flow cytometry to the study of apoptosis in subsets of cells within a heterogenous population such as the bone marrow which heretofore was exceedingly difficult to evaluate. (Author).

  15. Whole-body bone mineral content, lean body mass, and fat mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in a population of normal Canadian children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, A. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca; Morrison, J. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Beaumont, L.F. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Barr, R.D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Measurements of body composition have evident value in evaluating growing children and adolescents, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a tool that provides accurate measurements of whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM). To interpret such measurements in the context of ill health, normative values must be available. Such information could be expected to be regionally specific because of differences in ethnic, dietary, and physical activity determinants. In this study, DXA was performed with Hologic densitometers in normal girls (n = 91) and boys (n 88) between 3 and 18 years of age. The derivation of normal ranges is presented for boys and girls. The correlation of the sum of WBBMC, LBM, and FM with directly measured body weight was almost perfect (r > 0.997). As expected, FM and body mass index correlated strongly. The normal values for WBBMC, LBM, and FM from this study are compared with other Canadian data and with published normative data from Argentina and the Netherlands, all of which use different densitometers. The results of this study allow the calculation of z scores for each facet of body composition and facilitate the use of DXA to report routine evaluations of body composition in children and adolescents. (author)

  16. Effective masking levels for 500 and 2000 Hz bone conduction auditory steady state responses in infants and adults with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Susan A; Smyth, Aisling; Leon, Griselle

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated effective masking levels (EMLs) needed to isolate the test ear for bone conduction assessments in infants. The objective of this study was to determine EMLs for 500 and 2000 Hz bone conduction auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) to amplitude (AM)/frequency-modulated (FM) stimuli for infants and adults with normal hearing. Maturational factors that contribute to infant-adult differences in EMLs will also be investigated. The present study and previously published 1000 and 4000 Hz EML data will be compared to investigate EML across four frequencies. These findings will provide a starting point for implementing clinical masking for infant bone conduction testing using physiological measures. Participants were 15 infants (7 to 35 weeks) and 15 adults (21 to 56 years) with normal hearing. Bone-conducted single ASSR stimuli (research MASTER) were 100% AM and 25% FM at 85 and 101 Hz for 500 and 2000 Hz carrier frequencies, respectively. They were presented at 25 and 35 dB HL for 500 Hz and at 35 and 45 dB HL for 2000 Hz for both infants and adults (approximately 10 and 20 dB SL at each frequency for infants). Air-conducted narrowband maskers were presented to both ears simultaneously. Real-ear to coupler differences were measured to account for differences in the sound pressure developed in infant and adult ear canals as a result of ear-canal size. Data analyses were conducted for mean EMLs across frequency (500 to 4000 Hz) and between age groups. Masked and unmasked ASSR amplitudes were compared for 500 and 2000 Hz. Both infants and adults required much more masking (25 to 33 dB) to eliminate responses at 500 compared with 2000 Hz. On average, infants required 16 dB more masking at 500 Hz and similar amounts of masking at 2000 Hz compared with adults. When adjusted for ear-canal size and bone conduction sensitivity, the pattern of results did not change. Across all four frequencies, infants showed a systematic decrease in mean EMLs with

  17. [Number of teeth and hormonal profile of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal bone mineral density--a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagraczyński, Maciej; Kulczyk, Tomasz; Leszczyński, Piotr; Męczekalski, Błażej

    2015-10-01

    Profound hypoestrogenism causes increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture in menopause. This period of women life is also characterized by decrease number of teeth and deterioration of oral cavity health. The aim of the study was to assess the number of teeth, hormonal profile (Follicle-stimualting hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar part of the spine in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal BMD. The next step of the study was to determine whether there was a correlation between vertebral mineral bone density, the hormonal profile and the number of teeth. A total number of 47 women was involved in the study. Based on the results of densitometry tests (DEXA) of vertebral column the subjects were divided into 3 groups: 10 with osteoporosis, 20 with osteopenia and 17 with normal BMD. All the subjects had undergone a hormonal assessment which included blood serum estimation for FSH, E2, DHEA-S and T levels. Also the total number of teeth present was recorded. Serum estradiol and testosterone levels in postmenopausal women were found to be positively correlated with the number of teeth present. A negative correlation was found between age and the number of maxillary teeth in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. There was no influence of serum FSH, estradiol, testosterone and DHEA-S levels on vertebral BMD loss in postmenopausal women. There was no correlation between teeth number and BMD of vertebral column. Serum levels of estradiol and testosterone in postmenopausal women positively correlate with teeth numbers. Age is the main risk factor for teeth loss in postmenopausal women. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  18. Changes in Physical Fitness, Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment of Underweight and Normal Weight Females with Longstanding Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solfrid Bratland-Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED. Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7 and normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5, n = 22 inpatients (mean (SD age: 31.0 (9.0 years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8 years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5 weeks completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33% managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED.

  19. Assessment of age-related bone loss in normal South African women by means of the Hologic QDR 1000 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, A A; Fataar, A B; Bewerunge, L

    1994-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related changes in cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in South African subjects, and to develop a local reference database for dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with the QDR 1000 densitometer. A questionnaire was used to recruit volunteers. Age, years since menopause, use of medications and medical diseases were recorded. Men were excluded. Only whites and coloureds were studied. Three hundred and eleven women had single measurements over a 2-year period. Seven sets of subjects were defined according to age (18-44; 45-49; 50-54; 55-59; 60-64; 65-69; > 70 years) (N = 163; 32; 35; 23; 25; 16; 17 respectively). Height and weight did not change significantly with age. There were significant differences in lumbar and femoral BMD (Ward's) compared with those of American subjects in the different age categories. Both the lumbar and total femoral BMD began to fall significantly between the ages of 60 and 65 years (P < 0.01). Ward's triangle showed a significant fall in BMD between 45 and 50 years of age (P < 0.01). Ward's BMD predicted 36% of the variation in lumbar BMD at 45 years but 10% at 70 years. Ward's triangle is a useful predictor of femoral bone loss in later years. The fracture threshold at the lumbar vertebrae was 0.822 g/cm2; at Ward's triangle it was 0.443 g/cm2. This gave a 16% prevalence of osteopenia in the lumbar region and a prevalence of 24% at Ward's area.

  20. In vitro simulation of pathological bone conditions to predict clinical outcome of bone tissue engineered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duong Thuy Thi

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, the geriatric population of ≥65 years of age will increase to 51.5 million in 2020; 40% of white women and 13% of white men will be at risk for fragility fractures or fractures sustained under normal stress and loading conditions due to bone disease, leading to hospitalization and surgical treatment. Fracture management strategies can be divided into pharmaceutical therapy, surgical intervention, and tissue regeneration for fracture prevention, fracture stabilization, and fracture site regeneration, respectively. However, these strategies fail to accommodate the pathological nature of fragility fractures, leading to unwanted side effects, implant failures, and non-unions. Compromised innate bone healing reactions of patients with bone diseases are exacerbated with protective bone therapy. Once these patients sustain a fracture, bone healing is a challenge, especially when fracture stabilization is unsuccessful. Traditional stabilizing screw and plate systems were designed with emphasis on bone mechanics rather than biology. Bone grafts are often used with fixation devices to provide skeletal continuity at the fracture gap. Current bone grafts include autologous bone tissue and donor bone tissue; however, the quality and quantity demanded by fragility fractures sustained by high-risk geriatric patients and patients with bone diseases are not met. Consequently, bone tissue engineering strategies are advancing towards functionalized bone substitutes to provide fracture reconstruction while effectively mediating bone healing in normal and diseased fracture environments. In order to target fragility fractures, fracture management strategies should be tailored to allow bone regeneration and fracture stabilization with bioactive bone substitutes designed for the pathological environment. The clinical outcome of these materials must be predictable within various disease environments. Initial development of a targeted

  1. The proximal hamstring muscle–tendon–bone unit: A review of the normal anatomy, biomechanics, and pathophysiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Luis; Ghazikhanian, Varand; Padron, Mario; Beltran, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Proximal hamstring injuries occur during eccentric contraction with the hip and the knee on extension; hence they are relatively frequent lesions in specific sports such as water skiing and hurdle jumping. Additionally, the trend toward increasing activity and fitness training in the general population has resulted in similar injuries. Myotendinous strains are more frequent than avulsion injuries. Discrimination between the two types of lesions is relevant for patient management, since the former is treated conservatively and the latter surgically. MRI and Ultrasonography are both well suited techniques for the diagnosis and evaluation of hamstring tendon injuries. Each one has its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy and biomechanics of the proximal hamstring muscle–tendon–bone unit and the varied imaging appearances of hamstring injury, which is vital for optimizing patient care. This will enable the musculoskeletal radiologist to contribute accurate and useful information in the treatment of athletes at all levels of participation.

  2. The proximal hamstring muscle–tendon–bone unit: A review of the normal anatomy, biomechanics, and pathophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, Luis, E-mail: luisbeltran@mac.com [Department of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, NYU, New York, NY (United States); Ghazikhanian, Varand, E-mail: varandg@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Padron, Mario, E-mail: mario.padron@cemtro.es [Clinica CEMTRO, Avenida del Ventisquero de la Condesa 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Beltran, Javier, E-mail: Jbeltran46@msn.com [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Proximal hamstring injuries occur during eccentric contraction with the hip and the knee on extension; hence they are relatively frequent lesions in specific sports such as water skiing and hurdle jumping. Additionally, the trend toward increasing activity and fitness training in the general population has resulted in similar injuries. Myotendinous strains are more frequent than avulsion injuries. Discrimination between the two types of lesions is relevant for patient management, since the former is treated conservatively and the latter surgically. MRI and Ultrasonography are both well suited techniques for the diagnosis and evaluation of hamstring tendon injuries. Each one has its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy and biomechanics of the proximal hamstring muscle–tendon–bone unit and the varied imaging appearances of hamstring injury, which is vital for optimizing patient care. This will enable the musculoskeletal radiologist to contribute accurate and useful information in the treatment of athletes at all levels of participation.

  3. Common normal variants of pediatric vertebral development that mimic fractures: a pictorial review from a national longitudinal bone health study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Jacob Lester; Siminoski, Kerry; Firth, Gregory; Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Konji, Victor N.; Roth, Johannes; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Reed, Martin; O’Brien, Kathleen; Nadel, Helen; McKillop, Scott; Kloiber, Reinhard; Dubois, Josée; Coblentz, Craig; Charron, Martin; Ward, Leanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with glucocorticoid-treated illnesses are at risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures and growing awareness has led to increased monitoring for these fractures. However scant literature describes developmental changes in vertebral morphology that can mimic fractures. The goal of this paper is to aid in distinguishing between normal variants and fractures. We illustrate differences using lateral spine radiographs obtained annually from children recruited to the Canada-wide STeroid-Associated Osteoporosis in the Pediatric Population (STOPP) observational study, in which 400 children with glucocorticoid-treated leukemia, rheumatic disorders, and nephrotic syndrome were enrolled near glucocorticoid initiation and followed prospectively for 6 years. Normal variants mimicking fractures exist in all regions of the spine and fall into two groups. The first group comprises variants mimicking pathological vertebral height loss, including not-yet-ossified vertebral apophyses superiorly and inferiorly which can lead to a vertebral shape easily over-interpreted as anterior wedge fracture, physiologic beaking, and spondylolisthesis associated with shortened posterior vertebral height. The second group includes variants mimicking other radiologic signs of fractures: anterior vertebral artery groove resembling an anterior buckle fracture, Cupid’s bow balloon disk morphology, Schmorl nodes mimicking concave endplate fractures, and parallax artifact resembling endplate interruption or biconcavity. If an unexpected vertebral body contour is detected, careful attention to its location, detailed morphology, and (if available) serial changes over time may clarify whether it is a fracture requiring change in management or simply a normal variant. Awareness of the variants described in this paper can improve accuracy in the diagnosis of pediatric vertebral fractures. PMID:25828359

  4. Bone scintigraphy in lesions of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Wasilewski, A.; Deitmer, T.

    1982-01-01

    The value of 3-phase-scintigraphy in bone lesions of the skull with a new seeking agent 99mTc-2,3-dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (DPD) is studied. A high soft tissue-bone-ratio of DPD is emphasized. For this reason DPD is used for bone scintigraphy of the skull, because the mass of soft tissue in relation to bone is high and a higher clearance improves the interpretation of the images of the first two phases. An increased tracer uptake is found for skeletal neoplasms (malignant and benign lesions) and for acute osteomyelitis. By contrast, the chronic inflammatory bone lesions showed normal tracer uptake. This new bone seeking agent allows to localize and differentiate tumorous or acute inflammatory lesions and chronic inflammatory bone lesions of the skull

  5. Subtype assignment of CLL based on B-cell subset associated gene signatures from normal bone marrow – A proof of concept study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Caroline Holm; Jakobsen, Lasse Hjort; Gentles, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    . Our hypothesis is that by segregating CLL according to BAGS, we can identify subtypes with prognostic implications in support of pathogenetic value of BAGS. Microarray-based gene-expression samples from eight independent CLL cohorts (1,024 untreated patients) were BAGS-stratified into pre-BI, pre...... subtype resistance towards rituximab and cyclophosphamide varied for rituximab, whereas all subtypes were sensitive to cyclophosphamide. This study supports our hypothesis that BAGS-subtyping may be of tangible prognostic and pathogenetic value for CLL patients.......Diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) involves blood cell counts, immunophenotyping, IgVH mutation status, and cytogenetic analyses. We generated B-cell associated gene-signatures (BAGS) based on six naturally occurring B-cell subsets within normal bone marrow...

  6. Signal transductions induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor-beta in normal human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung-Fang; Cheng, Su-Li

    2002-05-03

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) activates Ras/MAPK signaling in many cell types. Because TGF-beta and BMP-2 exert similar effects, we examined if this signaling is stimulated by both factors and analyzed the relationship between this signaling and the Smads in osteoblasts. BMP-2 and TGF-beta stimulated Ras, MAPK, and AP-1 activities. The DNA binding activities of c-Fos, FosB/Delta FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2, and JunB were up-regulated whereas JunD activity was decreased. c-Fos, FosB/Delta FosB, and JunB were associated with Smad4. The stimulation of AP-1 by BMP-2 and TGF-beta was dependent on Smad signaling, and anti-Smad4 antibody interfered with AP-1 activity. Thus, BMP-2 and TGF-beta activate both Ras/MAPK/AP-1 and Smad signaling in osteoblasts with Smads modulating AP-1 activity. To determine the roles of MAPK in BMP-2 and TGF-beta function, we analyzed the effect of ERK and p38 inhibitors on the regulation of bone matrix protein expression and JunB and JunD levels by these two factors. ERK and p38 mediated TGF-beta suppression of osteocalcin and JunD as well as stimulation of JunB. p38 was essential in BMP-2 up-regulation of type I collagen, fibronectin, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase activity whereas ERK mediated BMP-2 stimulation of fibronectin and osteopontin. Thus, ERK and p38 differentially mediate TGF-beta and BMP-2 function in osteoblasts.

  7. Systemic bone marker expression induced by grey and white mineral trioxide aggregate in normal and diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Queiroz, I O; Mello, W G; Martins, C M; Dal Fabbro, R; Narciso, L G; Massunari, L; Cintra, L T A; Ervolino, E; Gomes-Filho, J E

    2018-01-29

    To investigate the relationship between diabetes mellitus and local/systemic effects of both grey and white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus on bone marker expression. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: healthy and diabetic (Alloxan induced), which were further divided into three subgroups (control, GMTA Angelus and WMTA Angelus). Polyethylene tubes filled with MTA materials or empty tubes were implanted in dorsal connective tissue. On days 7 and 30, blood samples were collected for calcium, phosphorus and ALP measurement. The animals were euthanized; implanted tubes were removed and processed for immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN). Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test was performed for nonparametric data, and anova followed by Tukey's test for parametric data. No difference in systemic serum calcium levels between both groups was observed. On day 7, serum phosphorus levels within the WMTA healthy group were higher than that of the diabetic group. On day 30, healthy rats exhibited lower phosphorus levels than diabetic ones. At both time points, the diabetic group was associated with more ALP activity than the healthy group. Immunohistochemical analyses of the healthy group revealed OCN- and OPN-positive cells in the presence of both MTA materials. However, under diabetic conditions, both OCN and OPN were absent. Both MTA materials were associated with an increase in serum calcium, phosphorus and ALP, suggesting a potential systemic effect, along with triggered differentiation of OCN- and OPN-positive cells. Moreover, in diabetic conditions, an inhibitory effect on MTA-induced differentiation of OCN- and OPN-positive cells was detected. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Numeric scintigraphy in the exploration of bone metastases. About 619 patients, 819 scans and 97 biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillard, J.; Couette, J.E.; Ly Van Hoa; Chedeville, R.; Mandard, A.M.; Chasles, J.

    1977-01-01

    Histograms which show uptake rate distribution on bone metastases and on normal bones, arthrosic bone, uncalcified bone, have been drawn up. 819 scans performed on 627 patients have been classified according to ratio of bone segment/knee, bone segment/whole body and bone segment/minimum (knee, whole body). Henry's straight lines have been drawn in man and in woman for these different ratios in order to select the best discriminant. At last a biopsy on 97 patients has controlled the validity of the method. Quantitative scanning allows, on the other hand, to observe the evaluation of metastases under treatment as shown by the fixation curves during this time [fr

  9. Swine cortical and cancellous bone: histomorphometric and densitometric characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Andreis

    2017-06-01

    allow comparative evaluation. Conclusion: The results of this study, although preliminary, may be considered a dependable starting point for the definition of normal bone features in pigs.

  10. Microtomographic imaging in the process of bone modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralph

    1999-09-01

    Micro-computed tomography ((mu) CT) is an emerging technique to nondestructively image and quantify trabecular bone in three dimensions. Where the early implementations of (mu) CT focused more on technical aspects of the systems and required equipment not normally available to the general public, a more recent development emphasized practical aspects of micro- tomographic imaging. That system is based on a compact fan- beam type of tomograph, also referred to as desktop (mu) CT. Desk-top (mu) CT has been used extensively for the investigation of osteoporosis related health problems gaining new insight into the organization of trabecular bone and the influence of osteoporotic bone loss on bone architecture and the competence of bone. Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by excessive bone loss and deterioration in bone architecture. The reduced quality of bone increases the risk of fracture. Current imaging technologies do not allow accurate in vivo measurements of bone structure over several decades or the investigation of the local remodeling stimuli at the tissue level. Therefore, computer simulations and new experimental modeling procedures are necessary for determining the long-term effects of age, menopause, and osteoporosis on bone. Microstructural bone models allow us to study not only the effects of osteoporosis on the skeleton but also to assess and monitor the effectiveness of new treatment regimens. The basis for such approaches are realistic models of bone and a sound understanding of the underlying biological and mechanical processes in bone physiology. In this article, strategies for new approaches to bone modeling and simulation in the study and treatment of osteoporosis and age-related bone loss are presented. The focus is on the bioengineering and imaging aspects of osteoporosis research. With the introduction of desk-top (mu) CT, a new generation of imaging instruments has entered the arena allowing easy and relatively inexpensive access to

  11. Assessment of regeneration of bone in the extracted third molar sockets augmented using xenograft (CollaPlugTN Zimmer in comparison with the normal healing on the contralateral side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan Ranganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alveolar bone resorption is a significant clinical problem. Bone loss in third molar region following extraction or surgical removal not only leads to periodontal problems in second molar region but also it may lead to some serious problems like increased incidence of angle fractures. In order to reduce the risks following third molar surgery, the socket should be augmented with bone grafts. In recent days guided tissue regeneration is the most accepted and successful technique followed many authors and its efficacy has been proved. Materials and Methods: Based upon our clinical experience, the use of bio absorbable collagen wound dressing such as CollaPlugTN has achieved quick healing and more primary wound coverage. Amongst the graft materials collagen is preferable due to its high biocompatibility and hemostatic ability. This study was done to assess the regeneration of bone in the extracted third molar sockets using xenograft (CollaPlugTN-Zimmer which was compared with the normal healing on the contra lateral side. The assessment was done to analyze post-operative healing complications and to compare the bone density formed between control site and implant site radiologically. Conclusion: On this basis of this study, the use of collaplugTN appears to be beneficial to the patient in postoperative wound healing and also for better bone formation. The use of this material was advantageous because of its simplicity of application cost effectiveness and availability. There is enhanced wound healing and early bone formation.

  12. Antioxidant-induced INrf2 (Keap1) tyrosine 85 phosphorylation controls the nuclear export and degradation of the INrf2-Cul3-Rbx1 complex to allow normal Nrf2 activation and repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, James W; Niture, Suryakant K; Jaiswal, Anil K

    2012-02-15

    INrf2 (Keap1) serves as a negative regulator of the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2. At basal levels, INrf2 functions as a substrate adaptor to sequester Nrf2 into the Cul3-Rbx1 E3 ligase complex for ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. In response to antioxidants, Nrf2 is released from the INrf2-Cul3-Rbx1 complex and translocates into the nucleus, where it activates ARE-mediated cytoprotective gene expression. The present studies demonstrate that INrf2, Cul3 and Rbx1 export out of the nucleus and are degraded during the early or pre-induction response to antioxidants. Mutation of Tyr85 in INrf2 stymied the nuclear export of INrf2, suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation controls the pre-induction nuclear export and degradation in response to antioxidants. The nuclear export of Cul3-Rbx1 were also blocked when INrf2Tyr85 was mutated, suggesting that INrf2-Cul3-Rbx1 undergo nuclear export as a complex. INrf2 siRNA also inhibited the nuclear export of Cul3-Rbx1, confirming that Cul3-Rbx1 requires INrf2 for nuclear export. Newly synthesized INrf2-Cul3-Rbx1 is imported back into the nucleus during the post-induction period to ubiquitylate and degrade Nrf2. Mutation of INrf2Tyr85 had no effect on activation of Nrf2 but led to nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 during the post-induction period owing to reduced export and degradation of Nrf2. Our results also showed that nuclear export and degradation followed by the new synthesis of INrf2-Cul3-Rbx1 controls the cellular abundance of the proteins during different phases of antioxidant responses. In conclusion, the early or pre-induction nuclear export of INrf2 in response to antioxidants is controlled by tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas the nuclear export of Cul3 and Rbx1 is controlled by INrf2, allowing normal activation or repression of Nrf2.

  13. The 18 kDa translocator protein (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor expression in the bone of normal, osteoprotegerin or low calcium diet treated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Wai-Ying Kam

    Full Text Available The presence of the translocator protein (TSPO, previously named as the mitochondrial or peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, in bone cells was studied in vitro and in situ using RT-qPCR, and receptor autoradiography using the selective TSPO ligand PK11195.In vitro, the TSPO is highly expressed in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells.In situ, constitutive expression of TSPO is found in bone marrow and trabecular bone, e.g., spongiosa. Mice with a reduction of bone turnover induced by a 4-day treatment of osteoprotegerin reduces [(3H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (320±128 Bq x mg(-1, 499±106 Bq x mg(-1 in saline-treated controls. In contrast, mice with an increase in bone turnover caused by a 4-day low calcium diet increases [(3H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (615±90 Bq x mg(-1. Further, our study includes technical feasibility data on [(18F]fluoride microPET imaging of rodent bone with altered turnover. Despite [(18F]fluoride having high uptake, the in vivo signal differences were small. Using a phantom model, we describe the spillover effect and partial volume loss that affect the quantitative microPET imaging of the small bone structures in experimental mouse models. In summary, we demonstrate the expression of TSPO in small rodent bone tissues, including osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A trend increase in TSPO expression was observed in the spongiosa from low to high bone turnover conditions. However, despite the potential utility of TSPO expression as an in vivo biomarker of bone turnover in experimental rodent models, our small animal PET imaging data using [(18F]fluoride show that even under the condition of a good biological signal-to-noise ratio and high tracer uptake, the currently achievable instrument sensitivity and spatial resolution is unlikely to be sufficient to detect subtle differences in small structures, such as mouse bone.

  14. Combined preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection with 6-thioguanine alone achieves highly efficient reconstitution of normal hematopoiesis with HPRT-deficient bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Katrin; Szakmary, Akos; Cuddihy, Andrew R; Rozengurt, Nora; Lemp, Nathan A; Aubrecht, Jiri; Lawson, Gregory W; Rao, Nagesh P; Crooks, Gay M; Schiestl, Robert H; Kasahara, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Purine analogs such as 6-thioguanine (6TG) cause myelotoxicity upon conversion into nucleotides by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Here we have developed a novel and highly efficient strategy employing 6TG as a single agent for both conditioning and in vivo chemoselection of HPRT-deficient hematopoietic stem cells. The dose-response and time course of 6TG myelotoxicity were first compared in HPRT wild-type mice and HPRT-deficient transgenic mice. Dosage and schedule parameters were optimized to employ 6TG for myelosuppressive conditioning, immediately followed by in vivo chemoselection of HPRT-deficient transgenic donor bone marrow (BM) transplanted into syngeneic HPRT wild-type recipients. At appropriate doses, 6TG induced selective myelotoxicity without any adverse effects on extrahematopoietic tissues in HPRT wild-type mice, while hematopoietic stem cells deficient in HPRT activity were highly resistant to its cytotoxic effects. Combined 6TG conditioning and post-transplantation chemoselection consistently achieved ∼95% engraftment of HPRT-deficient donor BM, with low overall toxicity. Long-term reconstitution of immunophenotypically normal BM was achieved in both primary and secondary recipients. Our results provide proof-of-concept that single-agent 6TG can be used for both myelosuppressive conditioning without requiring irradiation and for in vivo chemoselection of HPRT-deficient donor cells. Our results show that by applying the myelosuppressive effects of 6TG both before (as conditioning) and after transplantation (as chemoselection), highly efficient engraftment of HPRT-deficient hematopoietic stem cells can be achieved. Copyright © 2012 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene Expression in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrogio, A.

    Skeletal system has two main functions, to provide mechanical integrity for both locomotion and protection and to play an important role in mineral homeostasis. There is extensive evidence showing loss of bone mass during long-term Space-Flights. The loss is due to a break in the equilibrium between the activity of osteoblasts (the cells that forms bone) and the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that resorbs bone). Surprisingly, there is scanty information about the possible altered gene expression occurring in cells that form bone in microgravity.(Just 69 articles result from a "gene expression in microgravity" MedLine query.) Gene-chip or microarray technology allows to screen thousands of genes at the same time: the use of this technology on samples coming from cells exposed to microgravity could provide us with many important informations. For example, the identification of the molecules or structures which are the first sensors of the mechanical stress derived from lack of gravity, could help in understanding which is the first event leading to bone loss due to long-term exposure to microgravity. Consequently, this structure could become a target for a custom-designed drug. It is evident that bone mass loss, observed during long-time stay in Space, represents an accelerated model of what happens in aging osteoporosis. Therefore, the discovery and design of drugs able to interfere with the bone-loss process, could help also in preventing negative physiological processes normally observed on Earth. Considering the aims stated above, my research is designed to:

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  17. Maxillary Bone Regeneration Based on Nanoreservoirs Functionalized ε-Polycaprolactone Biomembranes in a Mouse Model of Jaw Bone Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Strub

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches of regenerative therapies constitute strategies for bone tissue reparation and engineering, especially in the context of genetical diseases with skeletal defects. Bone regeneration using electrospun nanofibers’ implant has the following objectives: bone neoformation induction with rapid healing, reduced postoperative complications, and improvement of bone tissue quality. In vivo implantation of polycaprolactone (PCL biomembrane functionalized with BMP-2/Ibuprofen in mouse maxillary defects was followed by bone neoformation kinetics evaluation using microcomputed tomography. Wild-Type (WT and Tabby (Ta mice were used to compare effects on a normal phenotype and on a mutant model of ectodermal dysplasia (ED. After 21 days, no effect on bone neoformation was observed in Ta treated lesion (4% neoformation compared to 13% in the control lesion. Between the 21st and the 30th days, the use of biomembrane functionalized with BMP-2/Ibuprofen in maxillary bone lesions allowed a significant increase in bone neoformation peaks (resp., +8% in mutant Ta and +13% in WT. Histological analyses revealed a neoformed bone with regular trabecular structure, areas of mineralized bone inside the membrane, and an improved neovascularization in the treated lesion with bifunctionalized membrane. In conclusion, PCL functionalized biomembrane promoted bone neoformation, this effect being modulated by the Ta bone phenotype responsible for an alteration of bone response.

  18. Efeito da atividade física no osso normal e na prevenção e tratamento da osteoporose Efectos de la actividad física en huesos normales y en la prevención y tratamiento de osteoporosis Effect of the physical activity on normal bone and on the osteoporosis prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Melo Ocarino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A osteoporose é uma doença cada vez mais diagnosticada em mulheres e homens de todo o mundo. Embora os esteróides sexuais sejam importantes na gênese da osteoporose, a inatividade física constitui um fator de risco. O exercício físico atua no osso por efeito direto, via força mecânica, ou indireto, mediado por fatores hormonais. Mas os mecanismos pelos quais a atividade física melhora a massa óssea ainda não são totalmente conhecidos. Baseando-se nos resultados que demonstram os efeitos benéficos da atividade física no tecido ósseo, a prática de esportes vem sendo cada vez mais indicada na prevenção e até mesmo no tratamento da osteoporose. O objetivo desta revisão é descrever os efeitos da atividade física no tecido ósseo normal e na prevenção e tratamento da osteoporose.La osteoporosis es una enfermedad que cada vez más se diagnostica en mujeres y hombres de todo el mundo. Aunque los esteroides sexuales sean importantes en la génesis de la osteoporosis, la inactividad física constituye un factor de riesgo. El ejercicio físico actúa en el hueso de forma directa, vía fuerza mecánica, o indirecta, mediado por factores hormonales. Sin embargo la patogénesis por la que la actividad física mejora la masa ósea todavía no es totalmente conocida. Con base en los resultados que demuestran los efectos benéficos de la actividad física en el tejido óseo, la práctica de deportes viene siendo indicada cada vez más como medio de prevención y hasta incluso como tratamiento de la osteoporosis. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir los efectos de la actividad física en el tejido óseo normal y en la prevención y tratamiento de la osteoporosis.Osteoporosis has been increasingly diagnosed in women and men worldwide. Although the sexual steroids are important in the genesis of human osteoporosis, it is believed that the lack of physical activity constitutes a risk factor. Physical activity acts on the bone by direct

  19. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-4 and BMP-7 regulate differentially Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Clare M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway remodelling is thought to be under the control of a complex group of molecules belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-superfamily. The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs belong to this family and have been shown to regulate fibrosis in kidney and liver diseases. However, the role of BMPs in lung remodelling remains unclear. BMPs may regulate tissue remodelling in asthma by controlling TGF-β-induced profibrotic functions in lung fibroblasts. Methods Cell cultures were exposed to TGF-β1 alone or in the presence of BMP-4 or BMP-7; control cultures were exposed to medium only. Cell proliferation was assessed by quantification of the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the main results were confirmed by ELISA. Cell differentiation was determined by the analysis of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity was assessed by zymography. Results We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin and collagen type I and IV when compared to unstimulated NHLF, and confirmed these results at the protein level. BMP-4, but not BMP-7, reduced TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix protein production. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of MMP-2 which was inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Both BMP-4 and BMP-7 downregulated TGF-β1-induced MMP-13 release compared to untreated and TGF-β1-treated cells. TGF-β1 also induced a myofibroblast-like transformation which was partially inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Conclusions Our study suggests that some regulatory properties of BMP-7 may be tissue or cell type specific and unveil a potential regulatory role for

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and contribution to normal bone and tooth development pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and contribution to normal development of bones and teeth. The food constituent, vitamin D, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal development of bones and teeth is a beneficial physiological effect...... and young children (from birth to three years). The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of vitamin D and contribution to normal development of bones and teeth....... for infants and young children. A claim on vitamin D and maintenance of normal bones and teeth in the general population has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. The Panel considers that the role of vitamin D in bone and tooth mineralisation and homeostasis applies to all ages, including infants...

  1. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  2. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  3. AGE-RELATED FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD MARKERS IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL REMODELING OF BONE TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Dvornichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activities of total alkaline phosphatase (TALP and its bone isoform (BALP was greater in groups of children and adolescents in the late posttraumatic period (pattern of reparative bone remodeling and scoliosis (pathological bone remodeling, than in the control (healthy children and adolescents. The content of collagen type I degradation products (CrossLaps peripheral blood practically was unchanged. Examined group with posttraumatic period had high activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form (TRACP. TALP activity reached minimum values in all the studied groups. In the process of children growing to 15–18 years old, as compared to 7–10 years old, reducing activity of remodeling was observed under physiological (healthy donors and reparative osteogenesis. It’s changes was recorded by significant decrease of the studied indicators. On the contrary, children 15–18 years old with scoliosis had maximum of the imbalance (activation/inhibition of various signs of osteogenesis of resorptive/synthetic bone processes. Also, for this group we discovered decrease osteocalcin concentration of 4 times in comparison with the group children of 7–10 years old. The detected growth of the correlations number in the correlation matrix of bone remodeling markers in case of scoliosis proposes the reduction of adaptation reserve of 15–18 years old adolescents, suffering from dysplasia of connective tissue. Thus, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of distant markers of bone metabolism screening in peripheral blood the is ambiguous. The interpretation of these indicators is difficult and largely depends on the clinical situation and age of patients. This requires improving the diagnostic approach to assess physiological and pathological remodeling of bone tissue by means of biochemical blood indicators. 

  4. [Bone homeostasis and Mechano biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    The weight-bearing exercises help to build bones and to maintain them strength. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. During bone remodeling, resorption by osteoclasts precedes bone formation by osteoblasts. Based on the osteocyte location within the bone matrix and the cellular morphology, it is proposed that osteocytes potentially contribute to the regulation of bone remodeling in response to mechanical and endocrine stimuli.

  5. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary intake is positively associated with bone mineral density in normal and osteopenic Spanish women

    OpenAIRE

    Lavado-García, Jesus; Roncero-Martin, Raul; Moran, Jose M.; Pedrera-Canal, Maria; Aliaga, Ignacio; Leal-Hernandez, Olga; Rico-Martin, Sergio; Canal-Macias, Maria L.

    2018-01-01

    The regular consumption of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCO3-PUFAs) results in general health benefits. The intake of LCO3-PUFAs has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. We aimed to investigate the relationships between dietary intakes of LCO3-PUFAs and bone mineral density (BMD) in Spanish women aged 20–79 years old. A total of 1865 female subjects (20–79 years old) were enrolled, and lumbar (L2, L3, L3 and total spine), hip (femoral neck (FN), femoral trochante...

  6. Bone Quest - A Space-Based Science and Health Education Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; David-Street, Janis E.; Abrams, Steve A.

    2000-01-01

    This proposal addresses the need for effective and innovative science and health education materials that focus on space bone biology and its implications for bone health on Earth. The focus of these materials, bone biology and health, will increase science knowledge as well as health awareness. Current investigations of the bone loss observed after long-duration space missions provide a link between studies of bone health in space, and studies of osteoporosis, a disease characterized by bone loss and progressive skeletal weakness. The overall goal of this project is to design and develop web-based and print-based materials for high school science students, that will address the following: a) knowledge of normal bone biology and bone biology in a microgravity environment; b) knowledge of osteoporosis; c) knowledge of treatment modalities for space- and Earth-based bone loss; and d} bone-related nutrition knowledge and behavior. To this end, we propose to design and develop a Bone Biology Tutorial which will instruct students about normal bone biology, bone biology in a microgravity environment, osteoporosis - its definition, detection, risk factors, and prevention, treatment modalities for space- and Earth-based bone loss, and the importance of nutrition in bone health. Particular emphasis will be placed on current trends in . adolescent nutrition, and their relationships to bone health. Additionally, we propose to design and develop two interactive nutrition/health ' education activities that will allow students to apply the information provided in the Bone Biology Tutorial. In the first, students will apply constructs provided in the Bone Biology Tutorial to design "Bone Health Plans" for space travelers.

  7. Air and Bone Conduction Thresholds of Deaf and Normal Hearing Subjects before and during the Elimination of Cutaneous-Tactile Interference with Anesthesia. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nober, E. Harris

    The study investigated whether low frequency air and bone thresholds elicited at high intensity levels from deaf children with a sensory-neural diagnosis reflect valid auditory sensitivity or are mediated through cutaneous-tactile receptors. Subjects were five totally deaf (mean age 17.0) yielding vibrotactile thresholds but with no air and bone…

  8. Bone morphogenic protein 6 : a member of a novel class of prognostic factors expressed by normal and malignant plasma cells inhibiting proliferation and angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seckinger, A.; Meissner, T.; Moreaux, J.; Goldschmidt, H.; Fuhler, G. M.; Benner, A.; Hundemer, M.; Reme, T.; Shaughnessy, J. D.; Barlogie, B.; Bertsch, U.; Hillengass, J.; Ho, A. D.; Pantesco, V.; Jauch, A.; De Vos, J.; Rossi, J. F.; Moehler, T.; Klein, B.; Hose, D.

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenesis of multiple myeloma is associated with an aberrant expression of pro-proliferative, pro-angiogenic and bone-metabolism-modifying factors by malignant plasma cells. Given the frequently long time span from diagnosis of early-stage plasma cell dyscrasias to overt myeloma and the mostly

  9. Pediatric data for dual X-ray absorptiometric measures of normal lumbar bone mineral density in children under 5 years of age using the lunar prodigy densitometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, D; Rauch, F; Chabot, G; Dubois, J; Fiscaletti, M; Alos, N

    2016-09-07

    Knowledge of physiological variations of bone mineral density (BMD) in newborns and infants is necessary to evaluate pathological changes associated with fractures. Limited reference data for children under 5 years old are available. This study provides normative data of lumbar BMD for the Lunar Prodigy in young children under 5 years old. We assessed cross-sectionally 155 healthy children (77 boys, 80% Caucasian), ranging in age from newborn to the age of 5 years. Lumbar bone mineral content (BMC) and areal BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Lunar Prodigy absorptiometer. Volumetric BMD was calculated using the Kroeger and Carter methods. BMC and areal BMD increased from birth to 5 years (pProdigy DXA system.

  10. Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Test Do? The T-Score World Health Organization Definitions Based on Bone Density Levels Low Bone Mass ... number, the more severe the osteoporosis. World Health Organization Definitions Based on Bone Density Levels Level Definition Normal ...

  11. Endocrine Regulation of Bone and Energy Metabolism in Hibernating Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Alison H.; Florant, Gregory L.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2014-01-01

    Precise coordination among organs is required to maintain homeostasis throughout hibernation. This is particularly true in balancing bone remodeling processes (bone formation and resorption) in hibernators experiencing nutritional deprivation and extreme physical inactivity, two factors normally leading to pronounced bone loss in non-hibernating mammals. In recent years, important relationships between bone, fat, reproductive, and brain tissues have come to light. These systems share interconnected regulatory mechanisms of energy metabolism that potentially protect the skeleton during hibernation. This review focuses on the endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of bone/fat/energy metabolism in hibernators. Hibernators appear to have unique mechanisms that protect musculoskeletal tissues while catabolizing their abundant stores of fat. Furthermore, the bone remodeling processes that normally cause disuse-induced bone loss in non-hibernators are compared to bone remodeling processes in hibernators, and possible adaptations of the bone signaling pathways that protect the skeleton during hibernation are discussed. Understanding the biological mechanisms that allow hibernators to survive the prolonged disuse and fasting associated with extreme environmental challenges will provide critical information regarding the limit of convergence in mammalian systems and of skeletal plasticity, and may contribute valuable insight into the etiology and treatment of human diseases. PMID:24556365

  12. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  13. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie

    2008-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot

  14. Methods and application of bone densitometry in clinical diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahner, H.W.; Riggs, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    With the awareness of osteoporosis as a major health problem for an aging population, there is great interest in early recognition and treatment of abnormal bone loss. Effective prevention of bone loss has to occur prior to the occurrence of irreparable damage. Standard radiographic procedures are not sensitive enough for the task. Therefore, a number of alternative procedures to estimate bone loss have been developed over the years, ranging from efforts to quantitate information obtained from radiographic images to sophisticated procedures such as neutron activation analysis or procedures based on the Compton scatter phenomenon. Only two procedures, photon absorptiometry and computed tomography (CT), have emerged as applicable for routine clinical use. In photon absorptiometry the entire bone mineral (cortical and trabecular bone) of a specific skeletal site is measured. CT allows measuring of bone mineral of trabecular or cortical bone alone. Normally, bone mass reaches a maximum in the third decade and then continuously declines. This age-related bone loss is greater in women in whom an accelerated rate of loss occurs at the menopause. When bone density reaches a critical fracture threshold, skeletal fractures occur (spine, hip, and distal long bones). The age at which this critical fracture threshold is reached depends on the maximal bone mass achieved in early adulthood and the rate of loss with increasing age. With the exception of NaF, present-day therapeutic efforts only retard or prevent bone loss but do not significantly add bone mineral to the skeleton. Recognition of high-risk groups and early treatment are therefore required. 79 references.

  15. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  16. Bone regeneration assessment by optical coherence tomography and MicroCT synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Canjau, Silvana; Manescu, Adrian; Topalá, Florin I.; Hoinoiu, Bogdan; Romînu, Mihai; Márcáuteanu, Corina; Duma, Virgil; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2013-06-01

    Bone grafting is a commonly performed surgical procedure to augment bone regeneration in a variety of orthopaedic and maxillofacial procedures, with autologous bone being considered as the "gold standard" bone-grafting material, as it combines all properties required in a bone-graft material: osteoinduction (bone morphogenetic proteins - BMPs - and other growth factors), osteogenesis (osteoprogenitor cells) and osteoconduction (scaffold). The problematic elements of bone regenerative materials are represented by their quality control methods, the adjustment of the initial bone regenerative material, the monitoring (noninvasive, if possible) during their osteoconduction and osteointegration period and biomedical evaluation of the new regenerated bone. One of the research directions was the interface investigation of the regenerative bone materials and their behavior at different time periods on the normal femoral rat bone. 12 rat femurs were used for this investigation. In each ones a 1 mm diameter hole were drilled and a bone grafting material was inserted in the artificial defect. The femurs were removed after one, three and six months. The defects repaired by bone grafting material were evaluated by optical coherence tomography working in Time Domain Mode at 1300 nm. Three dimensional reconstructions of the interfaces were generated. The validations of the results were evaluated by microCT. Synchrotron Radiation allows achieving high spatial resolution images to be generated with high signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, Synchrotron Radiation allows acquisition of volumes at different energies and volume subtraction to enhance contrast. Evaluation of the bone grafting material/bone interface with noninvasive methods such as optical coherence tomography could act as a valuable procedure that can be use in the future in the usual clinical techniques. The results were confirmed by microCT. Optical coherence tomography can be performed in vivo and can provide a

  17. Disturbances of bone growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledesma-Medina, J.; Newman, B.; Oh, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    ''What is growth anyway? Can one talk about positive growth in childhood, neutral growth in maturity, and negative growth in old age? Our goal is to help promote normal positive growth in infants and children. To achieve this, we must be cognizant of the morphologic changes of both normal and abnormal bone formation as they are reflected in the radiographic image of the skeleton. The knowledge of the various causes and the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disturbances of bone growth and development allows us to recognize the early radiographic manifestations. Endocrine and metabolic disorders affect the whole skeleton, but the early changes are best seen in the distal ends of the femurs, where growth rate is most rapid. In skeletal infections and in some vascular injuries two-or three-phase bone scintigraphy supercedes radiography early in the course of the disease. MRI has proved to be very helpful in the early detection of avascular bone necrosis, osteomyelitis, and tumor. Some benign bone tumors and many bone dysplasias have distinct and diagnostic radiographic findings that may preclude further studies. In constitutional diseases of bone, including chromosomal aberrations, skeletal surveys of the patient and all family members together with biochemical and cytogenetic studies are essential for both diagnosis and genetic counseling. Our role is to perform the least invasive and most informative diagnostic imaging modalities that corroborate the biochemical and histologic findings to establish the definitive diagnosis. Unrecognized, misdiagnosed, or improperly treated disturbance of bone growth can result in permanent deformity usually associated with disability. 116 references

  18. A normal reference of bone mineral density (BMD measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy thai children and adolescents aged 5-18 years: a new reference for Southeast Asian Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairunyar Nakavachara

    Full Text Available Ethnic-specific normative data of bone mineral density (BMD is essential for the accurate interpretation of BMD measurement. There have been previous reports of normative BMD data for Caucasian and Asian children including Japanese, Chinese, Korean and Indian. However, the normative BMD data for Southeast Asian including Thai children and adolescents are not currently available. The goals of our study were 1 to establish normative data of BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, bone area (BA and lean body mass (LBM for healthy Thai children and adolescents; aged 5-18 years measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy and 2 to evaluate the relationships between BMD vs. age, sex, puberty, weight, height, calcium intake and the age of menarche in our population. Gender and age-specific BMD (L2-4; LS and total body; TB, BMADLS (apparent BMD of the lumbar spine, BMC (L2-4 and total body, BA (L2-4 and total body and LBM were evaluated in 367 children (174 boys and 193 girls. All parameters increased progressively with age. A rapid increase in BMD, BMC and BMADLS was observed at earlier ages in girls. Gender and Tanner stage-specific BMD normative data were also generated. The dynamic changes of BMD values from childhood to early and late puberty of Thai children appeared to be consistent with those of Caucasian and Asian populations. Using a multiple-regression, weight and Tanner stage significantly affected BMDLS, BMDTB and BMADLS in both genders. Only in girls, height was found to have significant influence on BMDTB and BMADLS. The positive correlation between BMD and several demographic parameters, except the calcium intake, was observed. In summary, we established a normal BMD reference for Thai children and adolescents and this will be of useful for clinicians and researchers to appropriately assess BMD in Thais and other Southeast Asian children.

  19. Bone changes in endometrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.S.; Orphanoudakis, S.C.; Hutchinson-Williams, K.; Lewis, A.B.; Lovett, L.; Polan, M.L.; DeCherney, A.H.; Comite, F.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, quantitative CT is used to measure bone in the distal radius in normal women, women with endometriosis who had not been treated, and women with endometriosis who had been treated with danazol--an anabolic (androgen) steroid. Measurements of cortex and trabeculae indicate that untreated women have decreased bone mass (1125 HU and 160 HU, respectively), compared with bone mass in normal women (1269 HU and 257 HU; P < .05) and treated women (1238 HU and 255 HU). This finding is important because the most effective way to reduce the complications of osteoporosis is identification of risk factors, prevention, and early treatment

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone (ID 331, 1402) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium. The Panel considers that carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “acid...... the dietary intake of carbonate or bicarbonate salts of sodium or potassium and maintenance of normal bone....

  1. Comparação do processo de reparo ósseo em tíbias de ratas normais e osteopênicas Bone repair process in normal and osteopenic female rats' tibiae: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Rossi Sartori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi comparar a consolidação óssea em tíbias de ratas normais e osteopênicas. 49 ratas albinas fêmeas, linhagem Wistar, peso médio de 160 (± 20g e 100 dias foram distribuídas em 2 grupos: Ooforectomizado (OOF e Pseudo-ooforectomizado (Grupo controle - SHAM. 30 dias após a ooforectomia e/ou cirurgia simulada, todas foram submetidas à produção de lesão óssea cortical. Foram sacrificadas na 2ª, 4ª, 6ª e 8ª semanas. Os osteoblastos foram contados. O peso aumentou progressivamente, porém as OOF apresentaram maior peso (pThe purpose was to compare tibial bone union in normal and osteopenic female rats. Forty-nine Wistar albino female rats weighing 160 g (±20g and 100 days were distributed into 2 groups: Oophorectomized (OOF and Pseudo-oophorectomized (SHAM. Thirty days later, a cortical injury was produced in all the animals. They were sacrificed in the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks. Osteoblasts count was performed. Progressive weight increase was observed, but the OOF group was shown to have gained more weight (p£0.05 than the SHAM group, at the time of the second surgery. After 15 days post-injury, the animals in the OOF group presented a higher number of osteoblasts (p£0.05 compared to the SHAM group. Thirty days after injury, the number of osteoblasts was reduced, but both groups showed similar amounts. Forty-five days after injury, despite a constant reduction, the number of osteoblasts in the OOF group remained high when compared to SHAM (p£0.05 group. After 60 days, we found less osteoblasts in the SHAM group, suggesting an advanced bone repair process. The osteopenic animals showed an early accelerated response, which became equivalent between both groups 30 days after injury. However, after that period, they showed a delayed osteoid mineralization, suggesting delayed late bone repair process.

  2. Advances in the biology of bone metastasis: how the skeleton affects tumor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Julie A; Edwards, James R; Martin, T John; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that the microenvironment of bone can influence the cancer phenotype in many ways that favor growth in bone. The ability of cancer cells to adhere to bone matrix and to promote osteoclast formation are key requirements for the establishment and growth of bone metastases. Several cytokine products of breast cancers (e.g. PTHrP, IL-11, IL-8) have been shown to act upon host cells of the bone microenvironment to promote osteoclast formation, allowing for excessive bone resorption. The increased release of matrix-derived growth factors, especially TGF-β, acts back upon the tumor to facilitate further tumor expansion and enhance cytokine production, and also upon osteoblasts to suppress bone formation. This provides a self-perpetuating cycle of bone loss and tumor growth within the skeleton. Other contributing factors favoring tumor metastasis and colonization in bone include the unique structure and stiffness of skeletal tissue, along with the diverse cellular composition of the marrow environment (e.g. bone cells, stromal fibroblasts, immune cells), any of which can contribute to the phenotypic changes that can take place in metastatic deposits that favor their survival. Additionally, it is also apparent that breast cancer cells begin to express different bone specific proteins as well as proteins important for normal breast development and lactation that allow them to grow in bone and stimulate bone destruction. Taken together, these continually emerging areas of study suggest new potential pathways important in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis and potential areas for targeting therapeutics. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone (ID 330) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly...... from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are sodium and potassium salts of citric acid. The Panel considers that sodium and potassium salts of citric acid are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “acid-base balance and bone health”. The target...... using a higher dose of potassium citrate did not show an effect on bone mineral density. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the dietary intake of potassium or sodium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal...

  4. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth.The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests.The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect.Our findings suggested a new bioactive

  5. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  6. An approach to the histomorphological and histochemical variations of the humerus cortical bone through human ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra-Moo, Oscar; Nacarino Meneses, Carmen; Rodríguez Barbero, Miguel Ángel; García Gil, Orosia; Rascón Pérez, Josefina; Rello-Varona, Santiago; D'Angelo, Manuel; Campo Martín, Manuel; González Martín, Armando

    2014-01-01

    For many years, clinical and non-clinical investigations have investigated cortical bone structure in an attempt to address questions related to normal bone development, mineralisation, pathologies and even evolutionary trends in our lineage (adaptations). Research in the fields of medicine, materials science, physical anthropology, palaeontology, and even archaeobiology has contributed interesting data. However, many questions remain regarding the histomorphological and histochemical variations in human cortical bone during different stages of life. In the present work, we describe a study of long bone cortex transformations during ontogeny. We analysed cross-sections of 15 human humeri histomorphologically and histochemically from perinatal to adult age, marking and quantifying the spatial distribution of bone tissue types using GIS software and analysing the mineral composition and crystallinity of the mineralised cortex using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our results allowed us to propose that human cortical bone undergoes three main ‘events’ through ontogeny that critically change the proportions and structure of the cortex. In early development, bone is not well mineralised and proportionally presents a wide cortex that narrows through the end of childhood. Before reaching complete maturity, the bone mineral area increases, allowing the bone to nearly reach the adult size. The medullary cavity is reduced, and the mineral areas have a highly ordered crystalline structure. The last event occurs in adulthood, when the ‘oldest’ individuals present a reduced mineralised area, with increasing non-mineralised cavities (including the medullary cavity) and reduced crystalline organisation. PMID:24660964

  7. A Retrospective Review of Temporal Bone Imaging With Respect to Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Aaron R; Fanelli, David G; Kanekar, Sangam; Isildak, Huseyin

    2017-01-01

    Current bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) guidelines recommend placement of the titanium implant 5 to 7 cm posterior to the ear canal. Previous studies show that bone conducted hearing is maximized the closer the transducer is to the cochlea. We aim to investigate the position of the sigmoid sinus with respect to BAHA implants to determine whether they may be safely placed closer to the ear canal in patients with chronic ear disease, enhancing the amplification available to the patient. We performed a retrospective review of high-resolution temporal bone computed tomographies (CTs), comparing multiple measurements between ears with chronic ear disease and normal controls. Images were obtained at a single academic medical center. Eighty patients (160 ears) with temporal bone CTs performed between 2006 and 2009 were measured. Patients with chronic ear disease were identified by international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, revision 9 code and confirmation by review of the imaging. Measurements were made on axial CT slices from a point 1 cm posterior to the sigmoid sinus to the posterior margin of the external canal. The squamous temporal bone thickness was also measured at this point. Forty-seven patients (55 ears) had chronic ear disease. Distance from the posterior canal was significantly different between normal and diseased ears (36.3 mm versus 33.5 mm, p bone thickness varied widely, and was similar between groups (6.9 mm versus 6.8 mm, p = 0.76). According to our data, titanium implants for bone-anchored hearing aids may be safely placed closer to the external canal than the current recommendations. This could allow for better transduction as well as sound localization in BAHA patients.

  8. Changes in tissue morphology and collagen composition during the repair of cortical bone in the adult chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimcher, M J; Shapiro, F; Ellis, R D; Eyre, D R

    1980-09-01

    An animal model was developed to study the histology and collagen chemistry of healing cortical bone. A hole was cut through the cortex of the mid-shaft of the humerus of the adult chicken, which allowed for repair at a mechanically stable site. After one to two weeks the collagen of the repair tissue, which consisted principally of woven bone, contained almost three times as much hydroxylysine as the collagen of normal adult bone and thus resembled the collagen of embryonic long bones. By eight weeks, when lamellar one predominated, the hydroxylysine content had fallen to normal levels. Type I was the major genetic type of collagen present throughout. No type-II collagen, characteristic of cartilage, was detected; this was consistent with the histological findings. The results established that hydroxylysine-rich type-I collagen can be made by osteoblasts of adult animals as well as by those of embryos and early postnates. In order to understand the biological characteristics of fracture healing, it is vital to study not only the macroscopic organization of the repair tissue but also the chemical properties of its molecular components. The strength of healing fractured bone, and indeed of normal bone, depends largely on the properties of the structural protein collagen. To date, it is not known whether the collagen in healing fractures is the same as that in normal bone, or whether it has distinct chemical features that may suit it for bone repair.

  9. Osteoclasts secrete non-bone derived signals that induce bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2008-01-01

    Bone turnover is a highly regulated process, where bone resorption in the normal healthy individual always is followed by bone formation in a manner referred to as coupling. Patients with osteopetrosis caused by defective acidification of the resorption lacuna have severely decreased resorption......, in face of normal or even increased bone formation. This suggests that osteoclasts, not their resorptive activity, are important for sustaining bone formation. To investigate whether osteoclasts mediate control of bone formation by production of bone anabolic signals, we collected conditioned media (CM...

  10. Bone anabolic versus bone anticatabolic treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyritis, George P; Georgoulas, Thomas; Zafeiris, Christos P

    2010-09-01

    Increased bone fragility after menopause is commonly associated with accelerated bone loss and aggressive osteoclastic function. This is attributed to increased RANKL production and impaired osteoprotegerin synthesis. Fast bone loss leads to trabecular perforations, dramatic diminution of bone strength, and unexpected fractures. To avoid osteoporotic fractures, elimination of fast bone loss is recommended. Antiosteoclastic drugs, apart from estrogens, are the selective estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonins, and amino-bisphosphonates. These drugs increase bone mass by 1-5%, but reduce the relative risk of a vertebral fracture by 30-70%. Long-term exposure to bisphosphonates may be related to low bone turnover. In elderly and severe osteoporosis, antiosteoclastic regimens hardly correct the depressed osteoblastic function. Intermittent teriperatide stimulates osteoblastic function, improves bone geometry, and has an additional analgesic effect. While both anticatabolic and anabolic agents increase bone mass and decrease the risk of spinal fractures and occasionally of the fracture of the femoral neck, there are differences in the mode of their action. These pathophysiological differences are tentative therapeutic tools for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. A fast bone loss, associated with increased biochemical markers, is the main indicator for anticatabolic agents, while impaired bone geometry, normal or low bone markers, and established bone architectural changes are in favor of the anabolic agents. Strontium ranelate combines the anticatabolic effect with an additional anabolic action. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Horizontal bone augmentation by means of guided bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benic, Goran I; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2014-10-01

    The development of bone augmentation procedures has allowed placement of dental implants into jaw bone areas lacking an amount of bone sufficient for standard implant placement. Thus, the indications for implants have broadened to include jaw regions with bone defects and those with a bone anatomy that is unfavorable for implant anchorage. Of the different techniques, the best documented and the most widely used method to augment bone in localized alveolar defects is guided bone regeneration. A large body of evidence has demonstrated the successful use of guided bone regeneration to regenerate missing bone at implant sites with insufficient bone volume and the long-term success of implants placed simultaneously with, or after, guided bone regeneration. However, the influence of guided bone regeneration on implant survival and success rates, and the long-term stability of the augmented bone, remain unknown. Many of the materials and techniques currently available for bone regeneration of alveolar ridge defects were developed many years ago. Recently, various new materials and techniques have been introduced. Many of them have, however, not been sufficiently documented in clinical studies. The aim of this review was to present the scientific basis of guided bone regeneration and the accepted clinical procedures. A classification of bone defects has been presented, aiming at simplifying the decision-making process regarding the choice of strategy for bone augmentation. Finally, an outlook into actual research and the possible future options related to bone augmentation has been provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Metabolic, endocrine, and related bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  13. Determination of normal expression patterns of CD86, CD210a, CD261, CD262, CD264, CD358, and CD361 in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf-Oliveira, Renata Cristina Messores; Auat, Mariangeles; Cardoso, Chandra Chiappin; Santos-Pirath, Iris Mattos; Lange, Barbara Gil; Pires-Silva, Jéssica; Moraes, Ana Carolina Rabello de; Dametto, Gisele Cristina; Pirolli, Mayara Marin; Colombo, Maria Daniela Holthausen Périco; Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia

    2018-02-01

    In 2010, new monoclonal antibodies were submitted to the 9th International Workshop on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens, and there are few studies demonstrating normal expression patterns of these markers. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the normal patterns of cell expression of CD86, CD210a, CD261, CD262, CD264, CD358, and CD361 in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples by flow cytometry. In the present study, CD86 was expressed only in monocytes and B lymphocytes in PB and in monocytes and plasma cells in BM. Regarding CD210a expression, in PB samples, monocytes and NK cells showed weak expression, while neutrophils, B and T lymphocytes, and basophils showed weak and partial expression. In BM samples, expression of CD210a was observed in eosinophils, monocytes, and B and T/NK lymphocytes. Weak expression of CD210a was also observed in neutrophilic cells and plasma cells. All B cell maturation stages had weak expression of CD210a except for immature B cells, which did not express this marker. In the present study, no cell type in PB samples showed positivity for CD261 and, in BM samples, there was very weak expression in neutrophilic series, monocytes, and B lymphocytes. Conversely, plasma cells showed positivity for CD261 with a homogeneous expression. For CD262, there was weak expression in monocytes, neutrophils, and B lymphocytes in PB samples and weak expression in monocytes, B lymphocytes, and plasma cells in BM samples. The evaluation of CD264 showed very weak expression in B cells in PB samples and no expression in BM cells. Very weak expression of CD358 was observed in neutrophils, monocytes, and B lymphocytes in PB and BM samples. In addition, in BM samples, plasma cells and T lymphocytes showed weak expression of CD358. In relation to the maturation stages of B cells, there was weak expression in pro-B cel, pre-B cell, and mature B cell. In the present study, it was possible to observe expression of CD361 in all

  14. Rationale for the evaluation of trabecular bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, D.B.; Jee, W.S.S.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the morphometric evaluation of trabecular bone is identified. Its scrupulous use allows total identification of bone formation and resorption rates, items necessary for the direct histologic analysis of bone turnover

  15. Bone scintigraphy in detection of bone invasion by oral carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Kotaro; Wakao, Hiromi; Ikuta, Hiroyuki; Kashima, Isamu; Everhart, F.R. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Detecting osseous involvement is clinically important in the management of oral carcinoma. Thirty-one patients with osseous involvement due to oral carcinoma who underwent panoramic radiography and bone scintigraphy were evaluated retrospectively. Bone scintigraphy confirmed osseous involvement in all 31 (100%) of these patients. In 27 (87%) of 31 patients with osseous involvement, both the panoramic radiogram and bone scintigram were positive. In the remaining four patients (13%), bone scintigram was positive for mandibular or maxillary invasion, while panoramic radiogram was negative. There were no instances of an abnormal radiogram with a normal bone scintigram. These findings strongly suggest that bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than panoramic radiography in detecting osseous involvement of the mandible and maxilla due to oral carcinoma. Furthermore, bone scintigraphy was a critical pre-surgical tool in determining the extent of the osseous involvement. (author)

  16. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...

  17. 76 FR 5733 - Clothing Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN64 Clothing Allowance AGENCY: Department... to amend its adjudication regulations regarding clothing allowances. The amendment would provide for annual clothing allowances for each qualifying prosthetic or orthopedic appliance worn or used by a...

  18. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use

  19. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  20. False air-bone gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmin, F

    1983-01-01

    A single case is reported of a severely hearing-impaired child with a finding of a large air-bone gap on pure-tone audiometry on multiple tests. Exploratory surgery found normal middle ear function. Subsequent audiometry indicated the presence of a false air-bone gap resulting from vibrotactile responses. Test procedures for identifying vibrotactile responses are discussed.

  1. Bone scintigraphy in the preoperative evaluation of osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanicolaou, N.; Treves, S. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))

    Six young patients with biopsy proven osteoid osteoma or osteoblastoma of the spine underwent preoperative bone scintigraphy. Intense focal uptake of the radionuclide by the pathologic process was observed in all of them. Pinhole collimation imaging was an essential part of the examination, since it allowed accurate localization of the lesions as well as determination of their extent. In three patients, plain radiographs of the spine were initially reported as normal. The scintigrams guided and complemented subsequent positive tomographic studies in four patients. In our experience, a normal bone scan virtually excludes the diagnosis of either one of these entities. Bone scintigraphy should be performed in patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of vertebral osteoid osteoma or osteoblastoma and normal or inconclusive radiographs.

  2. Porcine bone marrow: extraction procedure and characterization by bone type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, C M; Schnell, T D; Mandigo, R W

    1998-12-01

    Data on porcine and bovine bone marrow composition indicate high calcium content, which may be erroneously elevated owing to the marrow recovery process. A method of bone marrow recovery was developed that involved passing marrow extracted from bone through a filter-press mechanism to remove very fine bone particles and dust, allowing a more accurate analysis of marrow. Calcium values were reduced approximately 90% and ash values reduced more than 50% compared to other reported data. The new recovery method did not require sawing away the hard bone and it removed particulate that may have interfered with analyses. Bone marrow was characterized by bone type. Rib bone marrow had higher protein, iron, non-heme iron and total pigment than scapula, aitch/hip bone or vertebrae marrow. Fat ranged from 17·81 to 26·76% and calcium ranged from 27·25 to 44·33mg 100g(-1) among bone types. The pH of bone marrow ranged from 7·14 to 7·53. Bone marrow appears to contribute to some of the properties of meat obtained from advanced meat recovery systems.

  3. In Vitro Study of the Independent and Combined Effects of Recombinant Human GM-CSF and G-CSF on Normal Bone Marrow Granulocytes : GM-CSF Enhances the Growth Effect but Suppresses the Terminal Maturation-inducing Effect of G-CSF

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Jinnai, Itsuro; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Amenomori, Tatsuhiko; Yoshida, Yoshiharu; Ichimaru, Michito; Golde, Davidw.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the independent and combined effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony- stimularting factor (rhG-CSF) and recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) on the growth and maturation of neutrophilic granulocytes. Absolute granulocyte numbers, cellular composition, and neutrophil alkailne phosphatase (NAP) activity were examined after normal nonphagocytic bone marrow cells were cultured for seven days with rhG-CSF, rhGM-CSF, and a combination of b...

  4. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.

    1980-11-01

    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  5. [Imaging diagnostics of bone sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, J A; Gübitz, R; Beck, L; Heindel, W; Vieth, V

    2014-06-01

    Bone tumors and especially bone sarcomas are rare lesions of the skeletal system in comparison to the much more frequently occurring bone metastases. Despite the relative rarity they are important differential diagnoses of bone lesions. The aim of this article is to give the reader an insight into the fundamentals of the primary imaging of bone sarcomas and to illustrate this with the help of two examples (e.g. osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma). The foundation of the imaging of bone sarcomas is the radiograph in two planes. This method delivers important information on bone tumors. This information should be analyzed with the help of the Lodwick classification, the configuration of periosteal reactions and a possible reaction of the cortex. A possible tumor matrix and the localization within the skeleton or within long bones also provide important information for differential diagnostic delimitation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with specific adapted bone tumor sequences allows an exact local staging of a bone sarcoma. In addition to local imaging a compartmental MRI which illustrates the entire extent of tumor-bearing bone and the adjacent joints should be performed to rule out possible skip lesions. The most common distant metastases of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma occur in the lungs; therefore, a computed tomography (CT) of the chest is part of staging. Other imaging methods, such as CT of the tumor, positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT), bone scan and whole body MRI supplement the imaging depending on tumor type.

  6. Heritability of bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, S; Benmalek, A; Guaydier-Souquières, G; Sabatier, J P; Marcelli, C

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of genetic background as a determinant of peak bone mass. We compared lumbar spine bone mineral density in 175 girls with a bone age of 16 years or older and in their premenopausal mothers. We also investigated the influence of a family history of osteoporosis on lumbar spine bone mineral density in 275 women and their 559 daughters. In the 175 mother-daughter pairs, heritability (h2) was significantly different from 0 (P < 0.0001) for lumbar spine bone mineral density (h2 = 53%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 28.5-77.6%), bone mineral content (h2 = 62.3%; 95% CI = 37.7-86.8%), bone mineral density adjusted for body mass index (h2 = 56%; CI = 31.5-80.5%), and bone mineral content adjusted for body mass index (h2 = 68.2%; CI = 43.6-92.7%). However, the heritability estimations lacked accuracy, as shown by the wide 95% CIs. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were found in 16.4% and 1% of the mothers, respectively. In the subgroup defined by osteopenia or osteoporosis in the mother, lumbar spine bone mineral density was significantly higher in the daughters than in the mothers (0.994 +/- 0.095 g/cm2 versus 0.895 +/- 0.098 g/cm2; P < 0.0001), whereas the opposite was true in the subgroup defined by normal bone mass in the mothers (1.068 +/- 0.110 g/cm2 versus 1.109 +/- 0.098 g/cm2; P = 0.0003). Nevertheless, lumbar spine bone mineral density was significantly lower in the daughters of low-bone-mass women than in those of normal-bone-mass women (0.994 +/- 0.009 g/cm2 versus 1.069 +/- 0.012 g/cm2; P = 0.0006). These findings suggest a role of genetic factors inherited from the father and also indicate that bone mass gains during adulthood contribute to achievement of the optimal peak bone mass. In the family history study, bone mass was lower in the subjects with a family history of osteoporosis (123 of the 559 daughters, Z-scores normalized for height, weight, and pubertal status: bone mineral density Z-score, -0.054 +/- 1.104; bone mineral

  7. Computed tomography of the llama head: technique and normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathcock, J.T.; Pugh, D.G.; Cartee, R.E.; Hammond, L.

    1996-01-01

    Computed tomography was performed on the head of 6 normal adult llamas. The animals were under general anesthesia and positioned in dorsal recumbency on the scanning table. The area scanned was from the external occipital protuberance to the rostral portion of the nasal passage, and the images are presented in both a bone window and a soft tissue window to allow evaluation and identification of the anatomy of the head. Computed tomography of the llama head can be accomplished by most computed tomography scanners utilizing a technique similar to that used in small animals with minor modification of the scanning table

  8. Galloping exercise induces regional changes in bone density within the third and radial carpal bones of Thoroughbred horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, E.C.; Delahunt, J.; Wichtel, J.W.; Birch, H.L.; Goodship, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that a localised bone hypertrophy could occur within the subchondral cancellous architecture of the third and radial carpal bones. Using 2 levels of controlled and defined exercise, it was observed that a high intensity treadmill exercise protocol resulted in functional adaptation of the carpal bones. The increase in trabecular thickening and density was seen to be localised to those regions underlying common sites of cartilage degradation, the interface of the thickened trabeculae with the normal architecture in the third carpal hone was coincident with a common site of clinical fractures. The bone changes were determined both qualitatively on examination of slab radiographs and quantified by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The findings from this study are relevant to mechanical factors involved in the pathophysiology of joint degeneration. The potential clinical implications of this study are in relation to changes in the type and duration of exercise regimens used in training of equine athletes. The rapid response of bone to mechanical stimulation has implications in the longer term for localised cartilage degradation. Imaging techniques could be developed to monitor these early bone changes in the specific areas identified in this study and thus allow appropriate changes in training intensity to minimise subsequent damage to the articular surface

  9. Bone disease of primary hyperoxaluria in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, E.; Wendler, H.; Zobel, G.; Ratschek, M.

    1989-01-01

    A patient with primary hyperoxaluria type I in infancy is reported. He had renal insufficiency, but urolithiasis was absent. Demonstration of diffuse nephrocalcinosis by renal ultrasound contributed to early diagnosis. Prolonged survival leads to extensive extrarenal oxalate deposition. Repeated skeletal surveys showed the development and the progression of severe hyperoxaluria-related bone disease. Translucent metaphyseal bands with sclerotic margins, wide areas of rarefaction at the ends of the long bones, and translucent rims around the epiphyses and the tarsal bones were signs of disordered bone growth. Bone density generally increased with time indicating progressive sclerosis due to oxalate deposition in the previously normal bone structure. (orig.)

  10. How to exhaust your bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise; Salomo, Morten; Andersen, Steven A W

    2013-01-01

    at work and in his spare time, and kept a very thorough training and weight diary. Owing to a high intake of energy and protein drinks he tried to optimise his physical performance and kept a normal body mass index  at 23.7. A bone marrow biopsy showed gelatinous bone marrow transformation, normally seen...

  11. Naringin prevents bone loss in a rat model of type 1 Diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoira, M; Rodríguez, V; Picotto, G; Battaglino, R; Tolosa de Talamoni, N

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to know whether naringin (NA) could prevent the bone complications in a model of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Rats were divided in: 1) controls, 2) STZ-rats, 3) STZ-rats treated with 40 mg NA/kg, and 4) STZ-rats treated with 80 mg NA/kg. BMD and BMC were performed by DEXA. Bone histomorphometry and histology as well as TRAP staining were done in tibia. Osteocalcin (OCN) was determined in bone and serum. Glutathione content and SOD and catalase activities were assayed in bone marrow from femur. The data showed that NA80 increased the BMD and BMC from the long bones of STZ-rats. Both NA40 and NA80 normalized the trabecular number and the trabecular separations. An increase in the number of adipocytes and TRAP(+) cells in tibia from STZ-rats was blocked by NA. NA40 treatment increased the number of OCN(+) cells, but only the NA80 treatment allowed to reach the control values. NA normalized the SOD and catalase activities in bone marrow of femur from STZ-rats. In conclusion, NA avoids alterations in the physical properties and microstructure of bone from STZ-rats probably by stimulation of osteoblastogenesis, inhibition of the osteoclastogenesis and adipogenesis via blocking the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal response of bone to unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Globus, R.K.; Bikle, D.D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1986-02-01

    A model of weightlessness in which the hindlimbs of rats are elevated by their tails at a 40 degrees angle to unload the hindlimbs while maintaining normal weight bearing on the forelimbs has been used to simulate certain conditions of space flight. When we used this model in growing rats, we found that growth in bone weight ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae, whereas growth in bone weight in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. Within 2 weeks, however, the accretion of bone weight in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae returned to normal despite continued skeletal unloading. Since bone weight in the growing rat is primarily determined by bone formation (bone resorption is modest), we investigated the effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of hindlimb elevation using radioisotope incorporation (with /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The studies using radioisotope incorporation showed that bone formation was inhibited by the fifth day of skeletal unloading. By the 10th to 12th day, bone formation had returned toward normal. In comparison with cortical bone, cancellous bone (lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibiae) incorporated more /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline (indicating greater metabolic activity) and had a greater absolute response to skeletal unloading. The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. We conclude that this model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed by a cessation in the accretion of bone weight, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days despite continued skeletal unloading.

  13. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  14. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M

    2014-01-01

    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  15. Bone graft viability evaluated by three phase bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljiljana Jaukovic Rajko Spaic; Marijan Novakovic; Srbislav Stosic

    2004-01-01

    Bone defects resulting war injury can be replaced by microvascular bone grafts from fibula. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the value of three phase (3P) bone scintigraphy in the early detection of the bone graft complications. Method: 3P bone scans were performed in four patients (two after mandible reconstruction with micro vascular fibular bone grafts, one after fibular transplantation for ulnar and one with humeral reconstruction). First dynamic phase scan was performed immediately after iv injection of 740 MBq Tc- 99m DPD, acquiring 15 two seconds duration frames. Second, early static scan was performed during next 300 seconds, and third, delayed scan three hours later. All scans were obtained under the bone graft region. The scans were evaluated using ROI under graft region and the corresponding contra lateral area. Blood flow in graft region was determined using first phase scan, and tracer uptake in the same region was determined using second and third phase scans. Results: in all patients blood flow in graft region was particularly normal. Tracer uptake in one of two patients with mandible reconstruction was diffusely increased in graft, strongly suggesting infection; In the other patient delayed scan showed no tracer uptake in graft center .Both patients with ulnar and humeral reconstruction showed only slightly decreased tracer uptake in bone grafts. 3 phase bone scintigraphy may play a role in the evaluation of bone graft viability by predicting the infection and necrosis. (authors)

  16. Optimal selection of dental implant for different bone conditions based on the mechanical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandipan; DAS, Mainak; Chakraborty, Pratyaya; Biswas, Jayanta Kumar; Chatterjee, Subhomoy; Khutia, Niloy; Saha, Subrata; Chowdhury, Amit Roy

    2017-01-01

    Bone quality varies from one patient to another extensively. Young's modulus may deviate up to 40% of normal bone quality, which results into alteration of bone stiffness immensely. The prime goal of this study is to design the optimum dental implant considering the mechanical response at bone implant interfaces for a patient with specific bone quality. 3D models of mandible and natural molar tooth were prepared from CT scan data, while dental implants were modelled using different diameter, length and porosity and FE analysis was carried out. Based on the variation in bone density, five different bone qualities were considered. First, failure analysis of implants, under maximum biting force of 250 N had been performed. Next, the implants that remained were selected for observation of mechanical response at bone implant interfaces under common chewing load of 120 N. Maximum Von Mises stress did not surpass the yield strength of the implant material (TiAl4V). However, factor of safety of 1.5 was considered and all but two dental implants survived the design stress or allowable stress. Under 120 N load, distribution of Von Mises stress and strain at the boneimplant interface corresponding to the rest of the implants for five bone conditions were obtained and enlisted. Implants exhibiting interface strain within 1500-3000 microstrain range show the best bone remodelling and osseointegration. So, implant models having this range of interface strains were selected corresponding to the particular bone quality. A set of optimum dental implants for each of the bone qualities were predicted.

  17. Assessment of photon migration for subsurface probing in selected types of bone using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Churchwell, John H.; Buckley, Kevin; Kerns, Jemma G.; Goodship, Allen E.; Parker, Anthony W.; Matousek, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Bone diseases and disorders are a growing challenge in aging populations; so effective diagnostic and therapeutic solutions are now essential to manage the demands of healthcare sectors effectively. Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) allows for chemically specific sub-surface probing and has a great potential to become an in vivo tool for early non-invasive detection of bone conditions. Bone is a complex hierarchical material and the volume probed by SORS is dependent on its optical properties. Understanding and taking into account the variations in diffuse scattering properties of light in various bone types is essential for the effective development and optimization of SORS as a diagnostic in vivo tool for characterizing bone disease. This study presents SORS investigations at 830 nm excitation on two specific types of bone with differing mineralization levels. Thin slices of bone from horse metacarpal cortex (0.6 mm thick) and whale bulla (1.0 mm thick) were cut and stacked on top of each other (4-7 layers with a total thickness of 4.1 mm). To investigate the depth origin of the detected Raman signal inside the bone a 0.38 mm thin Teflon slice was used as test sample and inserted in between the layers of stacked bone slices. For both types of bone it could be demonstrated that chemically specific Raman signatures different from those of normal bone can be retrieved through 3.8-4.0 mm of overlying bone material with a spatial offset of 7-8 mm. The determined penetration depths can be correlated with the mechanical and optical properties of the specimens. The findings of this study increase our understanding of SORS analysis of bone and thus have impact for medical diagnostic applications e.g. enabling the non-invasive detection of spectral changes caused by degeneration, infection or cancer deep inside the bone matrix.

  18. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Adult bone; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: l'os chez l'adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargos, P.; Mamou, N.; Dejean, C.; Henriques de Figueiredo, B.; Kantor, G. [Departement de radiotherapie, Centre regional de lutte contre le cancer, institut Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Huchet, A. [Departement de radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Andre, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Italiano, A. [Service d' oncologie medicale, Centre regional de lutte contre le cancer, institut Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2010-07-15

    Radiation tolerance for bone tissue has been mostly evaluated with regard to bone fracture. Main circumstances are mandibula osteoradionecrosis, hip and costal fracture, and patent or radiologic fractures in the treated volume. After radiation therapy of bone metastasis, the analysis of related radiation fracture is difficult to individualize from a pathologic fracture. Frequency of clinical fracture is less than 5% in the large series or cohorts and is probably under-evaluated for the asymptomatic lesions. Women older than 50 years and with osteoporosis are probably the main population at risk. Dose-effect relations are difficult to qualify in older series. Recent models evaluating radiations toxicity on diaphysa suggest an important risk after 60 Gy, for high dose-fraction and for a large volume. (authors)

  19. Defective cancellous bone structure and abnormal response to PTH in cortical bone of mice lacking Cx43 cytoplasmic C-terminus domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Davis, Hannah M.; Sorenson, Chad; Hon, Mary C.; Hassan, Iraj; Reginato, Rejane D.; Allen, Matthew R.; Bellido, Teresita; Plotkin, Lilian I.

    2015-01-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) forms gap junction channels and hemichannels that allow the communication among osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Cx43 carboxy-terminal (CT) domain regulates channel opening and intracellular signaling by acting as a scaffold for structural and signaling proteins. To determine the role of Cx43 CT domain in bone, mice in which one allele of full length Cx43 was replaced by a mutant lacking the CT domain (Cx43ΔCT/fl) were studied. Cx43ΔCT/fl mice exhibit lower cancellous bone volume but higher cortical thickness than Cx43fl/fl controls, indicating that the CT domain is involved in normal cancellous bone gain but opposes cortical bone acquisition. Further, Cx43ΔCT is able to exert the functions of full length osteocytic Cx43 on cortical bone geometry and mechanical properties, demonstrating that domains other than the CT are responsible for Cx43 function in cortical bone. In addition, parathyroid hormone (PTH) failed to increase endocortical bone formation or energy to failure, a mechanical property that indicates resistance to fracture, in cortical bone in Cx43ΔCT mice with or without osteocytic full length Cx43. On the other hand, bone mass and bone formation markers were increased by the hormone in all mouse models, regardless of whether full length or Cx43ΔCT were or not expressed. We conclude that Cx43 CT domain is involved in proper bone acquisition; and that Cx43 expression in osteocytes is dispensable for some but not all PTH anabolic actions. PMID:26409319

  20. Human histologic evaluation of anorganic bovine bone mineral combined with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB in maxillary sinus augmentation: case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Myron; Garber, David; Hanratty, James J; McAllister, Bradley S; Nevins, Marc L; Salama, Maurice; Schupbach, Peter; Wallace, Steven; Bernstein, Simon M; Kim, David M

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this proof-of-principle study was to examine the potential for improved bone regenerative outcomes in maxillary sinus augmentation procedures when recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (0.3 mg/mL) is combined with particulate anorganic bovine bone mineral. The surgical outcomes in all treated sites were uneventful at 6 to 8 months, with sufficient regenerated bone present to allow successful placement of maxillary posterior implants. Large areas of dense, well-formed lamellar bone were seen throughout the intact core specimens in more than half of the grafted sites. Abundant numbers of osteoblasts were noted in concert with significant osteoid in all sites, indicating ongoing osteogenesis. A number of cores demonstrated efficient replacement of the normally slowly resorbing anorganic bovine bone mineral matrix particles with newly formed bone when the matrix was saturated with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB.

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x- ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more ...

  2. How B cells influence bone biology in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Mark C; Fretz, Jackie A; Lorenzo, Joseph A

    2010-09-01

    It is now well established that important regulatory interactions occur between the cells in the hematopoietic, immune and skeletal systems (osteoimmunology). B lymphocytes (B cells) are responsible for the generation and production of antibodies or immunoglobulins in the body. Together with T cells these lymphocytes comprise the adaptive immune system, which allows an individual to develop specific responses to an infection and retain memory of that infection, allowing for a faster and more robust response if that same infection occurs again. In addition to this immune function, B cells have a close and multifaceted relationship with bone cells. B cells differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in supportive niches found on endosteal bone surfaces. Cells in the osteoblast lineage support HSC and B cell differentiation in these niches. B cell differentiation is regulated, at least in part, by a series of transcription factors that function in a temporal manner. While these transcription factors are required for B cell differentiation, their loss causes profound changes in the bone phenotype. This is due, in part, to the close relationship between macrophage/osteoclast and B cell differentiation. Cross talk between B cells and bone cells is reciprocal with defects in the RANKL-RANK, OPG signaling axis resulting in altered bone phenotypes. While the role of B cells during normal bone remodeling appears minimal, activated B cells play an important role in many inflammatory diseases with associated bony changes. This review examines the relationship between B cells and bone cells and how that relationship affects the skeleton and hematopoiesis during health and disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute postoperative osteomyelitis in femur fracture: contribution of bone scintilography (case report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira; Rezende, Cleuza Maria de Faria; Sanchez-Ucros, Natalia; Laguardia, Priscilla; Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Rodrigues, Carlos Jorge Simal; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of bone fractures is aimed at consolidating and returns of function as soon as possible and can be performed by different methods. Treatment with the plate in fractures of the femur in bridge aims not to address the location of fracture and stabilize it, maintaining the anatomical axis by the fixation of proximal and distal segments. Postoperative follow-up of the fracture is necessary to evaluate the irrigation of the bone structure and the effect of the method. The scintigraphy is a method capable of assessing the degree of bone remodeling and the presence or absence of local bone homeostasis. The objective of this report is to present the case of a rabbit, male, which was subjected to osteotomy and fixation of the femoral diaphysis by means of the plate in the bridge. After 10 days the animal was subjected to scintigraphic and radiographic evaluations. The animal came to death and an autopsy was performed on the same when it was observed macroscopy consistent with acute osteomyelitis due to contamination postoperative time. Radiographic evaluation in acute osteomyelitis is unclear. The methods assist in the scintigraphic diagnosis of osteomyelitis by allowing the detection of functional changes in this infectious process. The bone scintigraphy with diphosphonates labeled with technetium-99m shows increased bone turnover in the infected area and its high sensitivity, even in an early stage makes it the method of choice in the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in patients without prior bone disease and bone radiologically normal. (author)

  4. Acute postoperative osteomyelitis in femur fracture: contribution of bone scintilography (case report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira; Rezende, Cleuza Maria de Faria; Sanchez-Ucros, Natalia; Laguardia, Priscilla [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria; Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Rodrigues, Carlos Jorge Simal [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolcimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2009-07-01

    The treatment of bone fractures is aimed at consolidating and returns of function as soon as possible and can be performed by different methods. Treatment with the plate in fractures of the femur in bridge aims not to address the location of fracture and stabilize it, maintaining the anatomical axis by the fixation of proximal and distal segments. Postoperative follow-up of the fracture is necessary to evaluate the irrigation of the bone structure and the effect of the method. The scintigraphy is a method capable of assessing the degree of bone remodeling and the presence or absence of local bone homeostasis. The objective of this report is to present the case of a rabbit, male, which was subjected to osteotomy and fixation of the femoral diaphysis by means of the plate in the bridge. After 10 days the animal was subjected to scintigraphic and radiographic evaluations. The animal came to death and an autopsy was performed on the same when it was observed macroscopy consistent with acute osteomyelitis due to contamination postoperative time. Radiographic evaluation in acute osteomyelitis is unclear. The methods assist in the scintigraphic diagnosis of osteomyelitis by allowing the detection of functional changes in this infectious process. The bone scintigraphy with diphosphonates labeled with technetium-99m shows increased bone turnover in the infected area and its high sensitivity, even in an early stage makes it the method of choice in the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in patients without prior bone disease and bone radiologically normal. (author)

  5. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease...

  6. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...), Compensation Service, Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue NW... limited knee movement when walking'' which causes shoes to wear out faster. VA makes no change based on... that multiple appliances might allow the award of multiple benefits.'' That decision provides no basis...

  7. A novel osteogenesis technique: The expansible guided bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Zakaria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guided bone regeneration is a unique osteogenesis technique that requires a barrier membrane under periosteum to create space for bone regeneration. However, creating sizeable spaces is clinically not commonly feasible. A titanium plate and a thin silicone membrane were surgically layered on each calvaria of eight rabbits. Then, the periphery of the silicone membrane was fixed by a plastic ring to the underlying bone using titanium micro screws. After 1 week, a 5-mm-length titanium screw was used to elevate the titanium plate, which in turn elevated the silicone membrane together with overlying soft tissue in a rate of 1 mm/day for 5 days to create a secluded space. Animals were killed at 2 months (n = 4, group 1 and 4 months (n = 4, group 2 after the elevation. Histological and microradiographical analyses demonstrated creation of an amount of de novo bone formation (68.2 ± 22 mm3 in group 1 and 70.3 ± 14 mm3 in group 2 in the sizeable created spaces (207.1 ± 31 mm3 in group 1 and 202 ± 21 mm3 in group 2 without exposure of the device. This novel osteogenesis technique, “expansible guided bone regeneration,” created a substantial in vivo incubator without applying growth factors or osteoprogenitor cells. Creating a growing space over the secluded surface allowed the development of normal biological healing process occurring on the bone surface into a regenerative process, generating bone outside the genetically determined skeletal bone. This technique is a new tissue engineering approach stimulating endogenous tissue repair without applying cells or factors exogenously.

  8. Artificial composite bone as a model of human trabecular bone: the implant-bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J A; Bishop, N E; Götzen, N; Sprecher, C; Honl, M; Morlock, M M

    2007-01-01

    The use of artificial bones in implant testing has become popular due to their low variability and ready availability. However, friction coefficients, which are critical to load transfer in uncemented implants, have rarely been compared between human and artificial bone, particularly for wet and dry conditions. In this study, the static and dynamic friction coefficients for four commercially used titanium surfaces (polished, Al(2)O(3) blasted, plasma sprayed, beaded) acting on the trabecular component of artificial bones (Sawbones) were compared to those for human trabecular bone. Artificial bones were tested in dry and wet conditions and normal interface stress was varied (0.25, 0.5, 1.0MPa). Friction coefficients were mostly lower for artificial bones than real bone. In particular, static friction coefficients for the dry polished surface were 20% of those for real bone and 42-61% for the dry beaded surface, with statistical significance (alphaartificial bone models for pre-clinical implant testing that rely on interface load transfer with trabecular bone for mechanical integrity can be particularly sensitive to surface finish and lubrication conditions.

  9. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casina Kan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow.

  10. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Rikushi

    1994-01-01

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)

  11. A Review of Temporal Bone CT Imaging With Respect to Pediatric Bone-anchored Hearing Aid Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Aaron; Fanelli, David; Kanekar, Sangam; Isildak, Huseyin

    2016-10-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aid has been shown to be effective in hearing rehabilitation for conductive loss or single-sided deafness. Current FDA guidelines allow implantation in patients over 5 years old. This guideline is at least partially due to concern for thickness of bone stock at the implant site. We aim to investigate whether temporal bone thickness should be a deterrent to implantation in those younger than five. A retrospective review of high-resolution temporal bone computed tomographies (CTs) comparing measurements between ears with chronic disease and controls. Single institution tertiary care center. One hundred patients between 1 and 5.99 years had temporal bone CTs performed between 2000 and 2009. Patients with chronic ear disease were identified by ICD-9 code, as well as confirmation by review of the imaging. None. Temporal bone thickness was measured on axial CT slices at a point 1 cm posterior to the sigmoid sinus, at the superior margin of the bony canal. Average thickness was greater than 3 mm in all age groups. No significant difference was found between age groups, or between normal ears and ears with chronic disease (3.5 mm versus 3.3 mm, p = 0.21) when compared individually. This data shows pediatric temporal bone thickness is frequently greater than the recommended 3 mm, even in patients as young as one. Anatomically, concerns regarding temporal bone thickness in patients younger than five could be reliably addressed with imaging typically obtained in workup of hearing loss.

  12. Clinical research of bone scan characteristics for metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ruisen; Luo Qiong; Lu Haikui; Chen Libo; Luo Quanyong

    2009-01-01

    Characteristic images of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy in patients with metabolic bone diseases (MBD) were analyzed and compared, in an attempt to improve the capability of differential diagnosis in this aspect. A total of 142 cases, clinically confirmed as (MBD), were categorized into six groups: hyperparathyroidism (117), renal osteodystrophy (4), Paget's disease (16), hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (2), Albers-Schonberg disease (2), and Brittle bone disease (1). They were diagnosed clinically or pathologically, and scanned with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintegraphy, from which the 142 MBD cases were classified into 4 types. The cases of Type I had increased amount of 99m Tc-MDP uptake in whole body bones, including hyperparathyroidism, Albers-Schonberg disease, brittle bone disease and renal osteodystrophy. The cases of Type II had high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in local region of bones, including paget's disease, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. A Type I case with pathological fracture or secondary osteopathy was classified as Type III. Type IV cases were in early stage of hyperparathyroidism, with normal bone scan image. Analysis of the characteristics of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphic findings (locations, morphology and intensities) in patients with MBD may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of MBD, in association with the patient's history and X-ray data altogether. (authors)

  13. Remnant Woven Bone and Calcified Cartilage in Mouse Bone: Differences between Ages/Sex and Effects on Bone Strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ip

    Full Text Available Mouse models are used frequently to study effects of bone diseases and genetic determinates of bone strength. Murine bones have an intracortical band of woven bone that is not present in human bones. This band is not obvious under brightfield imaging and not typically analyzed. Due to the band's morphology and location it has been theorized to be remnant bone from early in life. Furthermore, lamellar and woven bone are well known to have differing mechanical strengths. The purpose of this study was to determine (i if the band is from early life and (ii if the woven bone or calcified cartilage contained within the band affect whole bone strength.In twelve to fourteen week old mice, doxycycline was used to label bone formed prior to 3 weeks old. Doxycycline labeling and woven bone patterns on contralateral femora matched well and encompassed an almost identical cross-sectional area. Also, we highlight for the first time in mice the presence of calcified cartilage exclusively within the band. However, calcified cartilage could not be identified on high resolution cone-beam microCT scans when examined visually or by thresholding methods.Subsequently, three-point bending was used to analyze the effects of woven bone and calcified cartilage on whole bone mechanics in a cohort of male and female six and 13 week old Balb/C mice. Three-point bending outcomes were correlated with structural and compositional measures using multivariate linear regression. Woven bone composed a higher percent of young bones than older bones. However, calcified cartilage in older bones was twice that of younger bones, which was similar when normalized by area. Area and/or tissue mineral density accounted for >75% of variation for most strength outcomes. Percent calcified cartilage added significant predictive power to maximal force and bending stress. Calcified cartilage and woven bone could have more influence in genetic models where calcified cartilage percent is double

  14. Extensive cranioplasty for sagittal synostosis in young children by preserving cranial bone flaps adhered to the dura mater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Bao; Bo, Yang; Yun-Hai, Song; Cheng, Chen; Xiong-Zheng, Mu

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate extensive cranioplasty involving the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal bones without removing the floating bone flaps in the treatment of sagittal synostosis. Sixty-three children with sagittal synostosis, aged 5 months to 3 years, were included in the study. The frontal bone flap was removed using an air drill. The occipital and bilateral temporal bone flaps were cut open but not detached from the dura mater or fixed to produce floating bone flaps. The skull bone was cut into palisade-like structures. Brain compression from both sides and the base of the skull was released and the brain expanded bilaterally through the enlarged space. Only a long strip-shaped bone bridge remained in the central parietal bone. Subsequently, the frontal bone flaps and occipital bone flap were pushed towards the midline and fixed with the parietal bone bridge to shorten the anteroposterior diameter of the cranial cavity and allow the brain to expand bilaterally to correct scaphocephaly. Patients were followed up 1-5 years. Skull growth was excellent in all patients, the anteroposterior diameter was shortened, the transverse diameter was increased, the prominent forehead was corrected, and scaphocephaly improved significantly. There were no complications such as death and skull necrosis. Surgery without removing bone flaps is less traumatic and results in no massive bleeding. It can effectively relieve brain compression and promotes transversal expansion of the brain during surgery and subsequent normal brain development. The skull of young children is relatively thin and early surgery can easily achieve satisfactory bone reshaping. Our surgical technique is not only safe and effective but also can avoid subsequent psychological disorders caused by skull deformity.

  15. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulaud, J.P.; Mechali, D.; Morau, G.

    1982-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations [fr

  16. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulaud, J.P.; Mechali, D.; Morau, G. (Hopital Claude-Bernard, Paris (France))

    1982-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations.

  17. Relationship between bone scintigraphy and tumor markers in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, M.; Oral, B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to specify the precise role of bone scintigraphy and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and breast cancer-associated antigen (CA) 15-3 assays in the monitoring of breast cancers in order to optimize their use and to determine whether it is possible to guide the prescription of bone scan by the use of CEA and CA 15-3 assays in the monitoring of breast cancer. For this purpose, from November 1997 to May 2002, 98 consecutive female breast cancer patients (median age, 52 years; range 35-77 years) underwent bone scintigraphy during follow-up. In these patients values of tumor markers were compared with the results of bone scintigraphy. Some of the patients with bone metastasis were checked repeatedly at intervals of 6 to 12 months, resulting in 49 patients with bone metastasis and 74 patients without bone metastasis being included in the study. In patients with bone metastasis, serum CEA levels were abnormal in 23/49 cases and CA 15-3 serum concentrations were elevated above the cut-off in 33/49 cases. Among patients without bone metastasis, CEA and CA 15-3 serum concentrations were normal in 50/74 and 55/74 cases respectively. The combination of the two markers improved the diagnostic sensitivity. Although serial tumor marker measurements are an efficient and cost effective method of monitoring disease progression, it does not allow prediction of the bone scan results; so it is not justifiable to reject a bone scintigraphy on the basis of these markers. (author)

  18. Stage I Breast Cancer and Bone Mass in Older Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Diane

    2001-01-01

    The specific aims of the study are I) to assess the bone mineral density of women 65 years of age and older with breast cancer in comparison with the bone mineral density of same aged women with normal mammograms; 2...

  19. Stage 1 Breast Cancer and Bone Mass in Older Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Diane

    2002-01-01

    The specific aims of the study are 1) to assess the bone mineral density of women 65 years of age and older with breast cancer in comparison with the bone mineral density of same aged women with normal mammograms; 2...

  20. Multifocal bone and bone marrow lesions in children - MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria; Demetriou, Stelios; Spanakis, Konstantinos; Skiadas, Christos; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katzilakis, Nikolaos; Stiakaki, Eftichia [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Velivassakis, Emmanouil G. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Orthopedic Clinic, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    Polyostotic bone and bone marrow lesions in children may be due to various disorders. Radiographically, lytic lesions may become apparent after loss of more than 50% of the bone mineral content. Scintigraphy requires osteoblastic activity and is not specific. MRI may significantly contribute to the correct diagnosis and management. Accurate interpretation of MRI examinations requires understanding of the normal conversion pattern of bone marrow in childhood and of the appearances of red marrow rests and hyperplasia. Differential diagnosis is wide: Malignancies include metastases, multifocal primary sarcomas and hematological diseases. Benign entities include benign tumors and tumor-like lesions, histiocytosis, infectious and inflammatory diseases, multiple stress fractures/reactions and bone infarcts/ischemia. (orig.)

  1. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  2. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  3. Broken bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken bone URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... following steps to reduce your risk of a broken bone: Wear protective ... pads. Create a safe home for young children. Place a gate at stairways ...

  4. Minimal residual disease and normalization of the bone marrow after long-term treatment with alpha-interferon2b in polycythemia vera. A report on molecular response patterns in seven patients in sustained complete hematological remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Møller, Michael Boe; de Stricker, Karin

    2009-01-01

    PV patients with profound molecular responses during and after long-term treatment with alpha-interferon 2b. All patients obtained a major molecular response (MMR). Subsequently all patients discontinued alpha-interferon and sustained complete hematological remission with a follow-up period of median...... of histomorphological bone marrow features of PV. Finally, hematological remissions and major molecular responses can be sustained after discontinuation of long-term treatment with IFN2b....

  5. Vitamin D - Prevalence, mortality and bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durup, Darshana Tiffany; Schwarz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the pain syndrome in patients with vitamin D deficiency and bone pain. Furtherme, development of a non-cancer animal model of bone pain, was carried out, to enable investigations of bone pain threshold, bone microenvironment and endocrinology parameters involved in this debilitating disease. A unique...... deficiency. These subjects might be prone to bone pain. Characterization and quantification of bone pain in patients suffering from vitamin D deficiency is being investigated and might provide clues to the nature of bone pain and assist in evaluating the results from the animal model. So far the study...... of pain questionnaires and quantified by the use of pressure algometry. The pain will decrease by normalization of vitamin D. To invent an animal model for clinical osteomalacic bone pain, fifty seven-month-old, female Spraque-Dawley rats were maintained four months on synthetic diets containing...

  6. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  7. [Effects of Chinese Bushen Zhuanggu medicine on bone loss in female rats after simulated weightlessness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Huang, Zhen; Cai, De-Hong; He, Lei

    2007-02-01

    To study the effect of Bushen Zhuanggu, the traditional Chinese medicine for reinforcing kidney and strengthening bone, on bone loss in female rats after simulated weightlessness. Thirty-six female SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely normal control group (group A) and two groups of weightlessness simulated by tail suspension (groups B and C). Group C were treated with the Chinese medicine, while groups A and B were given the same dose of normal saline. The experiment lasted 28 days, and all rats were allowed to drink water freely. In the rats of group B, serum bone Gla protein (BGP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), estradiol (E(2)) and P content and femur bone mineral content (BMD) were significantly lower than those in group A (P<0.01, P<0.05), whereas serum calcium concentration was markedly higher than that in group A (P<0.01). In rats of group C, serum BGP, ALP, E2 and P content and femur BMD were significantly higher than those in group B (P<0.01, P<0.05), but serum calcium concentration was markedly lower (P<0.01). This Chinese prescription can stimulate bone formation and reduce bone loss in female rats subjected to simulated weightlessness.

  8. CT-guided bone biopsy in cancer patients with suspected bone metastases: retrospective review of 308 procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Lorenzo; Preda, Lorenzo; Aurilio, Gaetano; Rizzo, Stefania; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Renne, Giuseppe; Maccagnoni, Sara; Vigna, Paolo Della; Davide, Disalvatore; Bellomi, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    The authors assessed the adequacy and sensitivity of CT-guided bone biopsy in 308 procedures performed in 286 cancer patients with suspected bone metastases. An electronic search of our CT-guided bone biopsy database was retrospectively performed to evaluate the adequacy of samples and, in the event of negative samples, whether the patients had radiological progression at the site of biopsy (false negative). Adequacy and false-negative rate were compared with radiological features, biopsy location, specimen length and complications to assess any statistically relevant association with a multivariate logistic regression model. A total of 290/308 (94.1 %) samples were adequate. Forty-five patients had normal bone marrow and were followed-up, with evidence of progression at the site of biopsy in 10 cases (false-negative cases); overall sensitivity was 96.7 %. Specimen length was significantly correlated to the probability of an adequate biopsy (p = 0.035) and inversely correlated to the probability to obtain a false-negative result (p = 0.02). We encountered 11/308 (3.5 %) minor complications and no major complications. CT-guided biopsy of bone lesions in cancer patients allows for a final diagnosis in 94 % of cases. A specimen longer than 1 cm may lead to a significant result in terms of adequacy and sensitivity. Negative biopsies with positive positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and specimen shorter than 1 cm should be repeated to avoid a false-negative result.

  9. [Clinical application of biological bone carrier in repair of long bone defect of femur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, L; Chen, J; Hu, X

    1997-05-01

    It is difficult to repair long defect of bone. Biological bone carrier (BBC) was one of the artifical bone substitutes. It was obtained from human or swine bone after a series of biochemical treatment. It had good histocompatibility. It had the same components and structure of bone, and its biological strength was samiliar to bone. In clinic, BBC was applied to repair of long defect of bone in two cases. The lengths of defect were 13 cm and 11 cm, respectively. After followed up for 2 to 3 years, it was found that the implanted BBC had been combined with the femur with new bone. It had the same metabolism and density as that of the normal bone.

  10. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.

    1988-02-01

    Studies of the bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis are essential, because the associated bone loss is inevitably due to the relative increase of bone resorption compared with bone formation. Measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC) in normal adults is assessed - partly on the uncorrected values and partly in proportion to the body muscle mass. The whole body retention (WBR) method is presented. The WBR and alternative urinary excretion (UE) methods used by the author are characterised and compared with the retention methods described in the literature. The representativity of WBR and UE for the estimation of bone turnover in normal subjects and patients with various bone metabolic diseases is discussed. The conclusion is that the modified retention methods used by the author have a satisfactory precision and accuracy in relation to the clinical studies carried out. The author's modification of the WBR method for determination of bone turnover and the alternative urinary excretion method (UE) consists in continuous scanning in the whole body count, using a gamma camera, and with the collimator a short distance from the volunteer. This procedure has the advantage of restricting the radioactive dose to 2 mCi (72 MBa). This is smaller by a factor of 5-10 than the dose used to measure WBR with equally simple counting equipment: With the author's procedure, using frontal counting, WBR is systematically underestimated by about 4 per cent point compared to the purely dorsal count, but since the frontal position is the most comfortable, requires a smaller radioactive dose, and the error is systematic, it is the preferred counting procedure. Correction of WBR and UE for bone mineral content is in principle a new parameter of bone turnover, whose improved accuracy increases the validity of the retention determinations. 136 refs. (EG)

  11. The usefulness of bone marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Morita, Rikushi

    1985-01-01

    A combination study of bone and bone marrow scintigraphy was performed on 25 pts with prostatic cancer, and, in order to study the usefulness in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, the findings of 2 scintigraphies were compared with those of skeletal roentgenography. Out of the 18 cases with the hot spots of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in the lower lumbar spine or/and the pelvic bone, 8 showed normal bone marrow scintigrams which were eventually proved to have degenerative changes of the spine accompanied by aging. On the other hand, nine cases of the ten, who had accumulation defects on the bone marrow scintigrams were finally proved having bone metastasis. All six cases with extensive bone metastases shown by bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-MDP, demonstrated multiple accumulation defects on bone marrow scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid. In conclusion, bone marrow scintigraphy was thought to be helpful in distinguishing the metastatic lesions from the benign spinal degenerative changes in the cases with suspicions bone involvement and in evaluating equivocal lesions in the pelvis. Therefore, it was shown that, in the detection and diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer, bone scintigraphy alone was insufficient, and that combination with bone marrow scintigraphy was found to be useful. (author)

  12. Avascular Necrosis of Bone after Renal Transplantation - Prevalence and Usefulness of Bone SPECT -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Young; Yang, Seoung Oh; Ryuu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1995-01-01

    Avascular necrosis(AVN) of bone can be resulted from various causes that disturb vascular supply to bone tissue, including steroid therapy after renal transplantation. In this study, we determine the prevalence of the avascular necrosis of bone after renal transplantation and compare the role of the bone scan, SPECT and MRI. In 301 patients with transplanted kidney, the prevalence of avascular necrosis was determined clinically. Site of bone necrosis was evaluated by clinical symptom, bone scan, SPECT and MRI. Bone scan was done in all patients with AVN. Bone SPECT and MRI were done in six cases; and MRI was done in two cases. The prevalence of AVN was 3.3% (10/301), and the site of AVN was 16 femoral heads in 10 patients (bilateral: 60%) and bilateral calcaneal tuberosity in one patient. Bone scan showed typical AVN (cold area with surrounding hot uptake) in 13 lesions, only hot uptake in three lesions (including two calcaneal tuberosities), decreased uptake in one lesion, and normal in one lesion. Decreased uptake and normal lesion showed an equivocal cold area without surrounding hot uptake on SPECT. A symptomatic patient with positive bone SPECT showed normal finding on MRI. The prevalence of AVN of bone after renal transplantation was 3.3%, and whole body bone scan showed multiple bone involvement. Two symptomatic hip joints without definite lesion on whole body bone scan or MRI showed cold defect on SPECT. Therefore, we conclude that bone SPECT should be performed in a symptomatic patient with negative bone scan or MRI in case with high risk of AVN after renal transplantation.

  13. Bone Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posts Join Mayo Clinic Connect Bone scan About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  14. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Bone Biopsy Sponsored by Please note ...

  15. Bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are malignancies with peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The most frequent are osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET, in an older adults are seen chondrosarcomas, other ones are rare. In general, biology of sarcomas is closely related to pediatric malignancies with fast growth, local aggressiveness, tendency to early hematogenic dissemination and chemo sensitivity. Diagnostics and treatment of bone sarcomas should be done in well experienced centres due to low incidence and broad issue of this topic. An interdisciplinary approach and staff education is essential in due care of patients with bone sarcoma. If these criteria are achieved, the cure rate is contemporary at 65 - 70 %, while some subpopulation of patients has chance for cure up to 90 %. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET are discussed below as types of most frequent bone sarcoma. (author)

  16. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  17. Bone scintigraphy in the preoperative evaluation of osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanicolaou, N.; Treves, S.

    1984-01-01

    Six young patients with biopsy proven osteoid osteoma or osteoblastoma of the spine underwent preoperative bone scintigraphy. Intense focal uptake of the radionuclide by the pathologic process was observed in all of them. Pinhole collimation imaging was an essential part of the examination, since it allowed accurate localization of the lesions as well as determination of their extent. In three patients, plain radiographs of the spine were initially reported as normal. The scintigrams guided and complemented subsequent positive tomographic studies in four patients. In our experience, a normal bone scan virtually excludes the diagnosis of either one of these entities. Bonne scintigraphy should be performed in patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of vertebral osteoid osteoma or osteoblastoma and normal or inconclusive radiographs [fr

  18. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (λ=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  19. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  20. [The hyoid bone and vertical dimension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doual, A; Léger, J L; Doual, J M; Hadjiat, F

    2003-09-01

    characteristics. Its maturation and its ossification occur slowly and late even though it migrates much more rapidly to a vertical position than does the bulk of the cervical complex. True articulations between the body and the horns of the hyoid bone persist for a very long time; and so the junction between the small horns doesn't fully calcify until about the age of 50; and, in spite of its appearance, the hyoid bone is extremely supple, a quality that allows it to make substantial contributions to functional activity. If the hyoid bone itself scarcely moves during normal respiration, modern research attributes an increasing role to it in the maintenance of the equilibrium of the pharyngeal column. It seems to be called upon to respond to a number of demands that it manages to satisfy as it helps to maintain the permeability of the pharyngeal column and thus make respiration possible. In so doing, the hyoid bone adjusts its positioning, and, perhaps most important, its orientation to the physiological requirements imposed by pharyngeal obstruction and mouth breathing. Intimately connected to the larynx, the hyoid bone plays a part in phonation that has long been recognized. Recent studies now also show that the contribution the hyoid bone makes to respiratory equilibrium is far more important than its small size would suggest.

  1. Current understanding of osteoconduction in bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C N; Lane, J M

    1998-10-01

    Bone tissue is osteoconductive. In particular, cancellous bone with its porous and highly interconnected trabecular architecture allows easy ingrowth of surrounding tissues. When placed in an osseous environment, living tissue for the host bed migrates into the cancellous structure, which results in new bone formation and incorporation of that structure. This is the process of osteoconduction. The mineral and collagenous components of bone are osteoconductive. Osteoconduction also is observed in fabricated materials that have porosity similar to that of bone structure. Corallin ceramics, hydroxyapatite beads, and combinations of hydroxyapatite and collagen all have osteoconductive properties, and porous metals and biodegradable polymers. Osteoconduction appears to be optimized in devices that mimic not only bone structure, but also bone chemistry. The incorporation of calcium salts and collagen by osteoconductive matrices leads to more complete ingrowth with new bone formation.

  2. Differentiation of bone marrow cells with irradiated bone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiyuki Tominaga; Moritoshi Itoman; Izumi, T.; Wakita, R.; Uchino, M.

    1999-01-01

    , while in the groups of 40 and 50 kGy ALP staining increased slowly. The in vivo studies showed that the osteoinductive activity of the irradiated bones at 20-35 kGy decreased by 50-80 %. Our in vitro study revealed that ALP staining decreased by 1 0 % at 20-30 kGy on day 7. Since our system employed cell culture inserts which allow the action of humoral factors alone, other factors may explain the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro studies

  3. Histologic diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases: bone histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalle Carbonare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.

  4. [Extensive cranioplasty for sagittal synostosis in young children by preserving multiple cranial bone flaps adhered to the dura mater: experience with 63 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao Nan; Chu Jun; Wang Xue; Yang, Bo; Song, Yunhai; Cai, Jinjing

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effort of applying frontal and occipital bones in extensive cranioplasty and preserving multiple cranial bone flaps adhered to the dura mater in the treatment of sagittal synostosis. From April 2008 to June 2013, sixty-three children with sagittal synostosis, aged 5 months to 3 years, were included in the study. The frontal bone flap was removed using an air drill. The occipital and bilateral temporal bone flaps were cut open but not detached from the dura mater or fixed to produce floating bone flaps. The skull bone was cut into palisade-like structures. Brain compression from both sides and the base of the skull was released and the brain expanded bilaterally through the enlarged space. Only a long strip-shaped bone bridge remained in the central parietal bone. Subsequently, the frontal bone flaps and occipital bone flap were pushed towards the midline and fixed with the parietal bone bridge to shorten the anteroposterior diameter of the cranial cavity and allow the brain to expand bilaterally to correct scaphocephaly. The CT images showed that both sides of the parietal bone of artificial sagittal groove gradually merged postoperative 1 year, and skull almost completely normal healing after operation 2 or 3 years, without deformity recurrence within 5 years. Among them all, 61 children's intelligence is normal and 2 children's lagged behind normal level, no further improvement. Patients were followed up 1 - 5 years (an average of 43 months). Skull growth was excellent in all patients, the anteroposterior diameter was shortened by 14.6 mm averagely, the transverse diameter was increased by 12.3 mm averagely, the prominent forehead was corrected, and scaphocephaly improved significantly. There were no complications such as death and skull necrosis. The application of frontal and occipital bones in extensive cranioplasty and preserving multiple cranial bone flaps adhered to the dura mater can be used in the treatment of sagittal

  5. Blocking antibody to the beta-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low estrogen levels undoubtedly underlie menopausal bone thinning. However, rapid and profuse bone loss begins three years prior to the last menstrual period, when serum estrogen is relatively normal. We have shown that the pituitary hormone FSH, the levels of which are high during the late peri-men...

  6. The effect of antiresorptives on bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recker, Robert R; Armas, Laura

    2011-08-01

    Currently, antiresorptive therapy in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis includes bisphosphonates, estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (raloxifene), and denosumab (a human antibody that inactivates RANKL). The original paradigm driving the development of antiresorptive therapy was that inhibition of bone resorption would allow bone formation to continue and correct the defect. However, it is now clear increases in bone density account for little of the antifracture effect of these treatments. We examined the antifracture benefit of antiresorptives deriving from bone quality changes. We searched the archive of nearly 30,000 articles accumulated over more than 40 years in our research center library using a software program (Refman™). Approximately 250 publications were identified in locating the 69 cited here. The findings document antiresorptive agents are not primarily anabolic. All cause a modest increase in bone density due to a reduction in the bone remodeling space; however, the majority of their efficacy is due to suppression of the primary cause of osteoporosis, ie, excessive bone remodeling not driven by mechanical need. All of them improve some element(s) of bone quality. Antiresorptive therapy reduces risk of fracture by improving bone quality through halting removal of bone tissue and the resultant destruction of microarchitecture of bone and, perhaps to some extent, by improving the intrinsic material properties of bone tissue. Information presented here may help clinicians to improve selection of patients for antiresorptive therapy by avoiding them in cases clearly not due to excessive bone remodeling.

  7. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Medici a ne n s d Bone Loss Some types of medicines can cause bone loss, making your bones weak, if used for a long time. Use over a short time ... old bone and replaces it with new bone. Bone loss occurs when old bone breaks down faster than ...

  8. Effect of graded levels of iron, zinc, and copper supplementation in diets with low-phytate or normal barley on growth performance, bone characteristics, hematocrit volume, and zinc and copper balance of young swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty crossbred barrows with an average initial age of 31 d and BW of 9.94 kg were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the effect of a low-phytic acid (LPA) barley mutant (M) M955, a near-isogenic progeny of the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington with about 90% less phytate than NB, to increas...

  9. Magnetic resonance microscopy of osteoporotic bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffanin, Renato; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Jellúš, Vladimír; Cova, Maria; Pozzi-Mucelli, Roberto S.; Vittur, Franco

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) may be very useful in the ex vivo study of osteoporosis as non destructive technique able to provide three dimensional information of the bone architecture. However, the trabecular width appears larger in conventional MR images, as the susceptibility effect at the bone-marrow interface causes signal dephasing. Such an effect can be minimized if the echo-time (TE) or voxel size are reduced. The purpose of our research was the development of new MRM techniques that have a potential role in the characterization of trabecular bone architecture. In this study we describe the use of short-TE projection reconstruction MRM for the study of normal and osteoporotic bone explants. This method promises to be more accurate than conventional MRM in the analysis of trabecular bone. In vivo projection reconstruction MR imaging could be applied to evaluate bone architecture and bone quality evolution after space flight exposure. .

  10. High-dose therapy improved the bone remodelling compartment canopy and bone formation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling....... Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell...... transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed...

  11. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem

  12. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Majano, V.; Miskew, D.; Sansi, P.

    1981-01-01

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of 99 sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections. (orig.) [de

  13. An insight in to Paget′s disease of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Sabharwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paget′s disease of bone (PDB is a common disorder which may affect one or many bones. Although many patients are asymptomatic, a variety of symptoms and complications may occur. PDB is a focal disorder of bone turnover characterized by excessive bone resorption coupled with bone formation. PDB begins with a period of increased osteoclastic activity and bone resorption, followed by increased osteoblast production of woven bone that is poorly mineralized. In the final phase of the disease process, dense cortical and trabecular bone deposition predominates, but the bone is sclerotic and poorly organized and lacks the structural integrity and strength of normal bone. This article briefly reviews the etiopathogenesis, clinical radiographic and histological features of Paget′s disease.

  14. Three-dimensional microarchitecture of adolescent cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Hvid, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated microarchitectural, mechanical, collagen and mineral properties of normal adolescent cancellous bone, and compared them with adult and aging cancellous bone, to obtain more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations during development and growth. Twenty-three human...... proximal tibiae were harvested and divided into 3 groups according to their ages: adolescence (9 to 17years, n=6), young adult (18 to 24years, n=9), and adult (25 to 30years, n=8). Twelve cubic cancellous bone samples with dimensions of 8×8×8mm(3) were produced from each tibia, 6 from each medial......, the adolescent cancellous bone had similar bone volume fraction (BV/TV), structure type (plate, rod or mixtures), and connectivity (3-D trabecular networks) as the adult cancellous bone. The adolescent cancellous bone had significantly lower bone surface density (bone surface per total volume of specimen...

  15. From bone biology to bone analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenau, E.; Saggese, G.; Peter, F.; Baroncelli, G.I.; Shaw, N.J.; Crabtree, N.J.; Zadik, Z.; Neu, C.M.; Noordam, C.; Radetti, G.; Hochberg, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has

  16. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized usin...

  17. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  18. Study of sideroblasts and iron stores in bone marrow aspirates using Perls′ stain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Dharwadkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A bone marrow examination is a critical part of the evaluation of patients with a variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic diseases. A Perls′ or Prussian blue stain demonstrates hemosiderin in bone marrow macrophages and iron within sideroblasts. Examination of iron stain allows detection not only of an increased or decreased proportion of sideroblasts but also of abnormal sideroblasts. We undertook this study to evaluate the iron stores in bone marrow as judged by Perls′ stain. Materials and Methods: A Prospective analysis of 55 bone marrow aspirates in a tertiary care center. Results: Sideroblasts were present in all the cases. They were decreased in iron deficiency anemia (IDA, and few other chronic diseases whereas normal to increase in megaloblastic anemia. According to Gale′s method, cases of IDA had absent or decreased iron stores while those of megaloblastic anemia or normoblastic marrows showed normal to increased stores. Grading by the recent intensive method showed combined functional and iron stores deficiency. Conclusion: Perls′ stain on bone marrow aspirates is an important tool not only for assessing the iron stores, increased or decreased but also to study abnormal sideroblasts.

  19. Bone maturation in children with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, A.; Nielsen, H.E.; Hansen, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    In 8 of 11 children with terminal chronic renal failure, bone age was retarded 6 months to 3 years. During hemodialysis the bone maturation rate decreased. 1α-OH vitamin D 3 treatment and renal transplantation normalized the bone maturation rate. (Auth.)

  20. The Role od Bone Marrow Aspirate and Trephine Samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other disorders diagnosed after bone marrow examination include myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), aplastic anaemia, megaloblastic anaemia and myelofibrosis. Only 8.75% of these patients had a normal bone marrow. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the complexity of using bone marrow examination in ...

  1. Negative bone scintigraphy and diffuse osteoblastic breast carcinoma metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, C.; Resche, I.; Chatal, J.F.; Campone, M.; Fumoleau, P.; Cussac, A.; Meingan, P.

    2001-01-01

    The authors report a case of metastatic breast carcinoma with a negative bone scan in spite of densely sclerotic metastases on radiography. The literature is reviewed with regard to the subject of such negative bone scan in this clinical situation and the alternative possibilities to document the diagnostic of breast bone metastases are discussed. The 'normal' scintigraphic pattern is not clearly explained. (authors)

  2. Bone metastasis risk factors in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227

  3. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Kids / Broken Bones What's in this ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  4. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  5. Physical activity and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bones play an important structural role in the organism. They provide mobility, support, and protect the body, and the place where the storage essential minerals. Healthy bones have a crucial impact on the overall health of a person, and activities that promote health and preventive influence on the formation of bone disease are crucial in maintaining a strong and healthy skeletal system. Physical inactivity affects the decrease in function of bone, and the most common disease of bone osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder that results in low bone density and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, that results in less bone density, and may lead to fracture. Physical activity is essential for bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. Based on available information, the best effect to maintain and stimulate the formation of bone mineral density is a combination of dynamic exercises with resistance training that engage multiple joints, large muscle groups, and have influence on the spine and hips. The results suggest that exercises with axial loading, such as running, jumping, and power exercise, promote the positive gains in bone mineral density. Therefore, training should focus on the adaptation of specific parts of the body that is most susceptible to injury, and should be sufficiently intense that exceeds the normal loads.

  6. Biomaterial scaffolds for treating osteoporotic bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Healing fractures resulting from osteoporosis or cancer remains a significant clinical challenge. In these populations, healing is often impaired not only due to age and disease, but also by other therapeutic interventions such as radiation, steroids, and chemotherapy. Despite substantial improvements in the treatment of osteoporosis over the few decades, osteoporotic fractures are still a major clinical challenge in the elderly population due to impaired healing. Similar fractures with impaired healing are also prevalent in cancer patients, especially those with tumor growing in bone. Treatment options for cancer patients are further complicated by the fact that bone anabolic therapies are contraindicated in patients with tumors. Therefore, many patients undergo surgery to repair the fracture, and bone grafts are often used to stabilize orthopaedic implants and provide a scaffold for ingrowth of new bone. Both synthetic and naturally occurring biomaterials have been investigated as bone grafts for repair of osteoporotic fractures, including calcium phosphate bone cements, resorbable polymers, and allograft or autograft bone. In order to re-establish normal bone repair, bone grafts have been augmented with anabolic agents, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP2). These developing approaches to bone grafting are anticipated to improve the clinical management of osteoporotic and cancer-induced fractures. PMID:24458428

  7. Loss of PiT-2 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mineral density and length in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Wallingford, Mary C; Borgeia, Suhaib; Cox, Timothy C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2018-01-01

    Normal bone mineralization requires phosphate oversaturation in bone matrix vesicles, as well as normal regulation of phosphate metabolism via the interplay among bone, intestine, and kidney. In turn, derangement of phosphate metabolism greatly affects bone function and structure. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, PiT-1 and PiT-2, are believed to be important in tissue phosphate metabolism and physiological bone formation, but their requirement and molecular roles in bone remain poorly investigated. In order to decipher the role of PiT-2 in bone, we examined normal bone development, growth, and mineralization in global PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice. PiT-2 deficiency resulted in reduced vertebral column, femur, and tibia length as well as mandibular dimensions. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that bone mineral density in the mandible, femur, and tibia were decreased, indicating that maintenance of bone function and structure is impaired in both craniofacial and long bones of PiT-2 deficient mice. Both cortical and trabecular thickness and mineral density were reduced in PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that PiT-2 is involved in normal bone development and growth and plays roles in cortical and trabecular bone metabolism feasibly by regulating local phosphate transport and mineralization processes in the bone. Further studies that evaluate bone cell-specific loss of PiT-2 are now warranted and may yield insight into complex mechanisms of bone development and growth, leading to identification of new therapeutic options for patients with bone diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...... of aged bones....

  9. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy in psoriatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munz, D.; Altmeyer, P.; Chilf, G.; Schlesinger, G.; Holzmann, H.; Hoer, G.

    1982-01-01

    24 psoriatics as well as 24 normal healthy adults were studied by functional bone marrow scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled human serum albumin millimicrospheres (Tc-99m-HSA-MM). Functional bone marrow scintigraphy is an in vivo test system for the assessment of various functional properties of fixed macrophages. 58% of psoriatics who had no systemic drug treatment demonstrated peripheral extension of the bone marrow space indicating hyperplasia of bone marrow macrophages. This phenomenon could be observed only in one normal subject who was a high-performance sportsman. 83% (n=6) of psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver demonstrated bone marrow extension. The 'capacity' of bone marrow macrophages to engulf Tc-99m-HSA-MM ('uptake ratio') was diminished in 42% of non-treated as well as 66% of psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid. The phagocytic and proteolytic turnover of Tc-99m-HSA-MM in bone marrow, spleen, and liver was found to be accelerated in 66% of non-treated psoriatics, normal, accelerated or delayed in psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid as well as considerably delayed in all of the psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy proved to be an appropriate in vivo test system to reveal abnormalities of fixed macrophages in psoriatics. Furthermore, theratpeutic effects as well as influences of pre-existing disorders on different macrophage populations can be assessed. (Author)

  10. Bone marker gene expression in calvarial bones: different bone microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Osama

    2017-12-01

    In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.

  11. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound-bone mineral density value for evaluating bone metabolism and bone turnover in patients with osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the calcaneal quantitative ultrasound-bone mineral density (QUS-BMD value for evaluating bone metabolism and bone turnover in patients with osteoporotic fracture. Methods: A total of 150 patients who were diagnosed with osteoporotic fracture in Nuclear Industry 417 Hospital between January 2010 and March 2017 were selected as the fracture group of the research, and 70 subjects with normal bone mineral density confirmed by physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group of the research. QUSBMD apparatus was used to measure bone mineral density of calcaneus, and the serum was collected to determine the biochemical indexes of bone metabolism and bone turnover. Results: QUS-BMD value as well as serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of fracture group was significantly lower than those of control group while serum TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of control group; serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia were significantly lower than those of subjects with normal bone mass while TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of subjects with normal bone mass; serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of patients with osteoporosis was significantly lower than those of patients with osteoporosis while TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of patients with osteoporosis. Conclusion: Calcaneal QUS-BMD is valuable for evaluating the bone metabolism activity and bone turnover process in patients with osteoporotic fracture.

  12. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  13. Normalizing cDNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Ekaterina A; Shagina, Irina; Barsova, Ekaterina V; Kelmanson, Ilya; Shagin, Dmitry A; Lukyanov, Sergey A

    2010-04-01

    The characterization of rare messages in cDNA libraries is complicated by the substantial variations that exist in the abundance levels of different transcripts in cells and tissues. The equalization (normalization) of cDNA is a helpful approach for decreasing the prevalence of abundant transcripts, thereby facilitating the assessment of rare transcripts. This unit provides a method for duplex-specific nuclease (DSN)-based normalization, which allows for the fast and reliable equalization of cDNA, thereby facilitating the generation of normalized, full-length-enriched cDNA libraries, and enabling efficient RNA analyses. (c) 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Biomechanical Evaluation of Glenoid Reconstruction With an Implant-Free J-Bone Graft for Anterior Glenoid Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzenberger, Leo; Dyrna, Felix; Obopilwe, Elifho; Heuberer, Philipp R; Arciero, Robert A; Anderl, Werner; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2017-10-01

    The anatomic restoration of glenoid morphology with an implant-free J-shaped iliac crest bone graft offers an alternative to currently widely used glenoid reconstruction techniques. No biomechanical data on the J-bone grafting technique are currently available. To evaluate (1) glenohumeral contact patterns, (2) graft fixation under cyclic loading, and (3) the initial stabilizing effect of anatomic glenoid reconstruction with the implant-free J-bone grafting technique. Controlled laboratory study. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders and J-shaped iliac crest bone grafts were used for this study. J-bone grafts were harvested, prepared, and implanted according to a previously described, clinically used technique. Glenohumeral contact patterns were measured using dynamic pressure-sensitive sensors under a compressive load of 440 N with the humerus in (a) 30° of abduction, (b) 30° of abduction and 60° of external rotation, (c) 60° of abduction, and (d) 60° of abduction and 60° of external rotation. Using a custom shoulder-testing system allowing positioning with 6 degrees of freedom, a compressive load of 50 N was applied, and the peak force needed to translate the humeral head 10 mm anteriorly at a rate of 2.0 mm/s was recorded. All tests were performed (1) for the intact glenoid, (2) after the creation of a 30% anterior osseous glenoid defect parallel to the longitudinal axis of the glenoid, and (3) after anatomic glenoid reconstruction with an implant-free J-bone graft. Furthermore, after glenoid reconstruction, each specimen was translated anteriorly for 5 mm at a rate of 4.0 mm/s for a total of 3000 cycles while logging graft protrusion and mediolateral bending motions. Graft micromovements were recorded using 2 high-resolution, linear differential variable reluctance transducer strain gauges placed in line with the long leg of the graft and the mediolateral direction, respectively. The creation of a 30% glenoid defect significantly decreased glenohumeral

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-08-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  16. Bone regeneration: current concepts and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGonagle Dennis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bone regeneration is a complex, well-orchestrated physiological process of bone formation, which can be seen during normal fracture healing, and is involved in continuous remodelling throughout adult life. However, there are complex clinical conditions in which bone regeneration is required in large quantity, such as for skeletal reconstruction of large bone defects created by trauma, infection, tumour resection and skeletal abnormalities, or cases in which the regenerative process is compromised, including avascular necrosis, atrophic non-unions and osteoporosis. Currently, there is a plethora of different strategies to augment the impaired or 'insufficient' bone-regeneration process, including the 'gold standard' autologous bone graft, free fibula vascularised graft, allograft implantation, and use of growth factors, osteoconductive scaffolds, osteoprogenitor cells and distraction osteogenesis. Improved 'local' strategies in terms of tissue engineering and gene therapy, or even 'systemic' enhancement of bone repair, are under intense investigation, in an effort to overcome the limitations of the current methods, to produce bone-graft substitutes with biomechanical properties that are as identical to normal bone as possible, to accelerate the overall regeneration process, or even to address systemic conditions, such as skeletal disorders and osteoporosis.

  17. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: neerajcbmr@gmail.com [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  18. Nanoscale characterization of bone-implant interface and biomechanical modulation of bone ingrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Paul A. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States)]. E-mail: pclark4@gmail.com; Clark, Andrew M. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States); Rodriguez, Anthony [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States); Hussain, Mohammad A. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States); Mao, Jeremy J. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States)]. E-mail: jmao2@uic.edu

    2007-04-15

    Bone-implant interface is characterized by an array of cells and macromolecules. This study investigated the nanomechancial properties of bone-implant interface using atomic force microscopy in vitro, and the mechanical modulation of implant bone ingrowth in vivo using bone histomorphometry. Upon harvest of screw-type titanium implants placed in vivo in the rabbit maxilla and proximal femur for 4 weeks, nanoindentation was performed in the bone-implant interface at 60-{mu}m intervals radially from the implant surface. The average Young's Moduli (E) of the maxillary bone-implant interface was 1.13 {+-} 0.27 MPa, lacking significant differences at all intervals. In contrast, an increasing gradient of E was observed radially from the femur bone-implant interface: 0.87 {+-} 0.25 MPa to 2.24 {+-} 0.69 MPa, representing significant differences among several 60-{mu}m intervals. In a separate experiment, bone healing was allowed for 6 weeks for proximal femur implants. The right femoral implant received axial cyclic loading at 200 mN and 1 Hz for 10 min/d over 12 days, whereas the left femoral implant served as control. Cyclic loading induced significantly higher bone volume, osteoblast numbers per endocortical bone surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate than controls. These data demonstrate nanoscale and microscale characterizations of bone-implant interface, and mechanical modulation of bone ingrowth surrounding titanium implants.

  19. Nanoscale characterization of bone-implant interface and biomechanical modulation of bone ingrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Paul A.; Clark, Andrew M.; Rodriguez, Anthony; Hussain, Mohammad A.; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2007-01-01

    Bone-implant interface is characterized by an array of cells and macromolecules. This study investigated the nanomechancial properties of bone-implant interface using atomic force microscopy in vitro, and the mechanical modulation of implant bone ingrowth in vivo using bone histomorphometry. Upon harvest of screw-type titanium implants placed in vivo in the rabbit maxilla and proximal femur for 4 weeks, nanoindentation was performed in the bone-implant interface at 60-μm intervals radially from the implant surface. The average Young's Moduli (E) of the maxillary bone-implant interface was 1.13 ± 0.27 MPa, lacking significant differences at all intervals. In contrast, an increasing gradient of E was observed radially from the femur bone-implant interface: 0.87 ± 0.25 MPa to 2.24 ± 0.69 MPa, representing significant differences among several 60-μm intervals. In a separate experiment, bone healing was allowed for 6 weeks for proximal femur implants. The right femoral implant received axial cyclic loading at 200 mN and 1 Hz for 10 min/d over 12 days, whereas the left femoral implant served as control. Cyclic loading induced significantly higher bone volume, osteoblast numbers per endocortical bone surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate than controls. These data demonstrate nanoscale and microscale characterizations of bone-implant interface, and mechanical modulation of bone ingrowth surrounding titanium implants

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone and bone-marrow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.; Blair, R.J.; Thomas, F.D.

    1977-01-01

    The review discusses the current status of available radiopharmaceuticals for bone and bone-marrow imaging. For skeletal imaging 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled diphosphonates as a group seem to be superior to other phosphorous compounds including pyrophosphate. Of the diphosphonates, 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled MDP is better than EHDP. The new compound 99 Tcsup(m)-IDP shows more skeletal uptake than MDP or EHDP in patients, but requires further clinical evaluation. Bone-marrow imaging has not received as much attention as bone imaging because of the lack of suitable radiopharmaceuticals. The erythropoietic marrow can be well visualized by using iron-52, an accelerator-produced positron emitter (511 keV gamma). However, availability (short half-life) and instrumentation problems limit its use to only a few institutions with access to an accelerator. The RES cell function of the bone marrow can be demonstrated by using colloids labelled with a suitable radionuclide. However, none of the available colloids of short-lived radionuclides ( 99 Tcsup(m) or 113 Insup(m)) localize to any great extent in the marrow - their localization often being limited to 10-15% of the injected dose in normal patients. Indium-111 chloride has been claimed to be useful as an erythropoietic cell marrow imaging agent by some investigators but others have disputed this claim. At the present time, we do not have an optimal agent for bone-marrow imaging and further work in this area is warranted. (author)

  1. Alveolar bone tissue engineering using composite scaffolds for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Matsuno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many years, bone graft substitutes have been used to reconstruct bone defects in orthopedic and dental fields. However, synthetic bone substitutes such as hydroxyapatite or β-tricalcium phosphate have no osteoinductive or osteogenic abilities. Bone tissue engineering has also been promoted as an alternative approach to regenerating bone tissue. To succeed in bone tissue engineering, osteoconductive scaffolding biomaterials should provide a suitable environment for osteogenic cells and provide local controlled release of osteogenic growth factors. In addition, the scaffold for the bone graft substitute should biodegrade to replace the newly formed bone. Recent advances in bone tissue engineering have allowed the creation of composite scaffolds with tailored functional properties. This review focuses on composite scaffolds that consist of synthetic ceramics and natural polymers as drug delivery carriers for alveolar bone tissue engineering.

  2. Radiation dosimetry by ESR in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, R. (Universidad de San Agustin de Arequipa (Peru)); Marticorena, B. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    The absorption speed in bovine bone samples irradiated with a /sup 90/Sr ..beta..-source of 45 mCi is studied with ESR. The signal changes linearly with the absorbed quantity of radiation to a maximum dose of 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ rads. This positive result allows to foresee the use of bone as a radiation dosimeter.

  3. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Bone is an important tissue in paleontological studies as it is a commonly preserved element in most fossil vertebrates, and can often allow its ... of the size of the bone's building blocks (such as osteon or trabecular thickness) to meet the metabolic demand concomitant to minimal expenditure of energy.

  4. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines

  5. Peptide based hydrogels for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranny, H.R.; Schneider, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Peptide hydrogels are potentially ideal scaffolds for tissue repair and regeneration due to their ability to mimic natural extra cellular matrix. The 20 amino acid peptide HPL8 (H2N- VKVKVKVKVDPP TKVKVKVKV-CONH2), has been shown to fold and self-assemble into a rigid hydrogel based on Environmental cues such as pH, salt, and temperature. Due to its environmental responsiveness, hydrogel assembly can be induced by cell culture media, allowing for 3D encapsulation of osteogenic cells. Initially, 20 cultures of MC3T3 cells proved that the hydrogel is nontoxic and sustains cellular attachment in the absence of serum proteins without altering the physical properties of the hydrogel. The cell-material structure relationship in normal and pathological conditions was further investigated by 3D encapsulation. Cell were viable for 3 weeks and grew in clonogenic spheroids. Characterization of the proliferation, differentiation and constitutive expression of various osteoblastic markers was performed using spectrophotometric methods. The well-defined, fibrillar nanostructure of the hydrogel directs the attachment and attachment and growth of osteoblast cells and dictates the mineralization of hydroxyapatite in a manner similar to bone. This study will enable control over the interaction of cellular systems with the peptide hydrogel with designs for biomedical applications of bone repair. (author)

  6. Bone Remodelling Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Fardellone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients results from chronic inflammation and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. A few bone remodeling markers have been studied in RA witnessing bone formation (osteocalcin, serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP, serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-CTX, N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-NTX, pyridinolines (DPD and PYD, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP. Bone resorption can be seen either in periarticular bone (demineralization and erosion or in the total skeleton (osteoporosis. Whatever the location, bone resorption results from activation of osteoclasts when the ratio between osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (OPG/RANKL is decreased under influence of various proinflammatory cytokines. Bone remodeling markers also allow physicians to evaluate the effect of drugs used in RA like biologic agents, which reduce inflammation and exert a protecting effect on bone. We will discuss in this review changes in bone markers remodeling in patients with RA treated with biologics.

  7. Endopelvic Approach for Iliac Crest Bone Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Sebastien; Gauthe, Remi; Du Pouget, Laure; Gille, Olivier; Vital, Jean-Marc; Ould-Slimane, Mourad

    2017-10-01

    The anterior approach to lumbar spine surgery has grown in popularity in the past few years; spinal fusion of the last 2 lumbar levels is often required. Although alternatives to bone grafting are available, including recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 or bone substitutes, only cancellous autologous bone has all the required factors for bone growth. To avoid the use of bone substitutes, remote iliac crest bone harvesting remains the gold standard. However, this technique may lead to some unfavorable outcomes. The patient was a 46-year-old man with severe back and left leg pain. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an inflammatory discopathy of L5-S1 associated with a left posterior lateral herniated disc. Conservative treatment failed, and surgical treatment of the lumbar disk disease and the herniated disc was scheduled. A novel iliac crest bone harvesting method was performed during the retroperitoneal approach to the anterior lumbar interbody fusion. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. There were no adverse outcomes related to the bone donor site. This is the first in vivo report of endopelvic iliac crest bone harvesting. This technique allows bone graft harvesting to be performed with the same retroperitoneal approach used for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. It avoids many common complications associated with the remote approach to the iliac crest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment provides insight into the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, M.A.; Henriksen, K.; Sorensen, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    evaluated by osteocalcin. We speculate that attenuated acidification inhibits dissolution of the inorganic phase of bone and results in an increased number of nonresorbing osteoclasts that are responsible for the coupling to normal bone formation. Thus, we suggest that acidification is essential for normal...

  9. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except... therefor, to an annual clothing allowance as specified in 38 U.S.C. 1162. The annual clothing allowance is...

  10. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2543.27 Section 2543.27 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of...

  11. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title IV...

  12. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs...

  13. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 215.27 Section 215.27... § 215.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  14. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84....27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable...

  15. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 80.15 Section 80.15... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What are allowable costs? Allowable costs are costs that are necessary and reasonable for accomplishment of approved...

  16. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under Federal...

  17. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing...

  18. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be...

  19. An intact fibula may contribute to allow early weight bearing in surgically treated tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Ion; Gelber, Pablo Eduardo; Chary, Gaetan; Gomez Masdeu, Mireia; González Ballester, Miguel A; Monllau, Juan Carlos; Noailly, Jerome

    2018-03-01

    The role of the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) in tibial plateau fractures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess, with finite-element (FE) calculations, differences in interfragmentary movement (IFM) in a split fracture of lateral tibial plateau, with and without intact fibula. It was hypothesized that an intact fibula could positively contribute to the mechanical stabilization of surgically reduced lateral tibial plateau fractures. A split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau was recreated in an FE model of a human tibia. A three-dimensional FE model geometry of a human femur-tibia system was obtained from the VAKHUM project database, and was built from CT images from a subject with normal bone morphologies and normal alignment. The mesh of the tibia was reconverted into a geometry of NURBS surfaces. The fracture was reproduced using geometrical data from patient radiographs, and two models were created: one with intact fibula and other without fibula. A locking screw plate and cannulated screw systems were modelled to virtually reduce the fracture, and 80 kg static body weight was simulated. Under mechanical loads, the maximum interfragmentary movement achieved with the fibula was about 30% lower than without fibula, with both the cannulated screws and the locking plate. When the locking plate model was loaded, intact fibula contributed to lateromedial forces on the fractured fragments, which would be clinically translated into increased normal compression forces in the fractured plane. The intact fibula also reduced the mediolateral forces with the cannulated screws, contributing to stability of the construct. This FE model showed that an intact fibula contributes to the mechanical stability of the lateral tibial plateau. In combination with a locking plate fixation, early weight bearing may be allowed without significant IFM, contributing to an early clinical and functional recovery of the patient.

  20. Speech Intelligibility with a Bone Vibrator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellieux, L; Bouy, J. C; Blancard, C; Guillaume, A

    2005-01-01

    .... The main advantage of listening through bone conduction is that it allows for the transmission of information to the soldier, while leaving the soldier's ears free to perceive the surrounding environment...

  1. Measures of Complexity to quantify Bone Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparin, Peter; Gowin, Wolfgang; Kurths, Jürgen; Felsenberg, Dieter

    1998-03-01

    We propose a technique to assess structure of the bone in its spatial distribution by describing and quantifying the structural architecture as a whole. The concept of measures of complexity based on symbolic dynamics is applied to computed tomography (CT) - images obtained from human lumbar vertebra. CT-images have been transformed into images consisting of 5 different symbols, whereby both statical and dynamical coding are included. Different aspects of the bone structure are quantified by several measures which have been introduced: index of global ensemble of elements composing the bone; complexity, homogeneity and dynamics within the bone architecture; complexity and inhomogeneity of the trabecular net. This leads to new insides to the understanding of bone's internal structure. The results give the first experimental and quantitative evidence of the theoretical prediction that complexity of bone structure declines rapidly with the increased disintegration of bone structures leading to the loss of bone mass and specify experimentally that bone structure is exponentially related to its density. Especially, osteoporotic vertebrae are less complex organized than normal ones. In addition, this method is significantly sensitive to changes in bone structure and provides improvements of diagnostic of pathological structural loss.

  2. MR characterization of the hemapoetic bone marrow. Findings in generalized neoplasia and treatment monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machann, J.; Pereira, P.L.; Claussen, C.D.; Schick, F.; Einsele, H.; Kanz, L.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. Methodological work was performed in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) in order to develop suitable tools for non-invasive characterization of hematopoetic bone marrow. The methods were applied for the assessment of normal values in healthy persons and to examine patients with generalized hematological diseases or to monitor effects of therapies influencing the composition of bone marrow. Methods. Besides standard techniques of MRI as T 1 - or T 2 -weighted methods, chemical shift techniques for selective visualization of water or lipid components were applied. The method of magnetization transfer (MT) contrast was used with the intention to differentiate between multiple water containing tissue compartments (intra- vs. extracellular space). A further approach was the determination of the magnetic field distribution within spongy bone marrow. Besides investigations in healthy volunteers, prospective clinical studies were carried out in patients suffering from acute leukemia during their initial treatment and in patients who underwent high dose therapy with following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Results. Especially MR techniques for selective imaging of water of fat signals and proton spectroscopy yielded a high sensitivity to primarily pathological or therapeutically induced changes of hematopoetic bone marrow. Application of MT allowed an improved differentiation of the tissue compartments under PBSCT, which might result in temporary edema. Storage of hemosiderin in bone marrow after blood transfusions and simultaneous hematopoetic insufficiency could be revealed by methods sensitive to magnetic field inhomogeneities. Conclusions. Methods of MRI and MRS allow to non-invasively characterize hematopoetic bone marrow in the course of hematological diseases and during therapy. Marked changes in the composition of hematological bone marrow are detectable for extensive marrow areas. The prognostic

  3. Cold metastases detected by bone scintigraphy in aggressive lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Carsi, C.; Perales Vila, A.; Ruiz Hernandez, G.; Sanchez Marchori, C.; Oro Camps, J.

    1998-01-01

    A case of a 55-year-old man was remitted to Traumatology Department to present back pain of two weeks of evolution. The results of bone scintigraphy and the patient's evolution allowed the diagnosis. This case report and a literature review showed the importance of using a routine bone scan in diagnosis of bone metastases. (orig.) [de

  4. Correlation of radial bone mineral content with total body calcium in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Caselnova, R.C.; Asad, S.N.; Letteri, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral of the skeleton in renal disease can be measured directly by total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA), and also by an absorptiometric technique applied to the appendicular skeleton (radius). In the present study the results of these two techniques are compared in 25 patients with renal insufficiency, 53 patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis, and 24 normal control subjects. It is apparent that there is good correlation between total body calcium (TBCa) and bone mineral content (BMC) in all groups studied. The correlation in the normal contrast group was 0.944 as compared to 0.919 for the renal patients and 0.892 for patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis. In order to measure the relative deficit in TBCa in individual patients from the absolute Ca measurement, it is necessary to normalize the data for sex, age, and skeletal size. For this purpose, an empirically derived relationship was used to predict the normal skeletal Ca in each subject, based on weight, height, sex, and age. The measured TBCa divided by the predicted TBCa is referred to as the calcium ratio. This ratio is useful in expressing the relative deficit of Ca in individual renal patients. In similar manner, BMC data were normalized, with the same relationship used to obtain BMC ratios. The normalization procedures allow both the TBCa and BMC measurements to be used to quantitate the Ca deficit in individual patients with renal insufficiency

  5. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  6. Bone Conduction Thresholds without Bone Vibrator Application Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geal-Dor, Miriam; Chordekar, Shai; Adelman, Cahtia; Sohmer, Haim

    2015-01-01

    Osseous bone conduction (BC) stimulation involves applying the clinical bone vibrator with an application force of about 5 Newton (N) to the skin over the cranial vault of skull bone (e.g., mastoid, forehead). In nonosseous BC (also called soft tissue conduction), the bone vibrator elicits hearing when it is applied to skin sites not over the cranial vault of skull bone, such as the neck. To gain insight into the mechanisms of osseous and nonosseous BC. In general, thresholds were determined with the bone vibrator applied with about 5 N force directly to osseous sites (mastoid, forehead) on the head of the participants, as classically conducted in the clinic, and again without direct physical contact (i.e., 0 N force) achieved by coupling the bone vibrator to gel as in ultrasound diagnostic imaging, on the same or nearby skin sites (nonosseous BC). The participants were equipped with earplugs to minimize air-conducted stimulation. In the first experiment, 10 normal-hearing participants were tested with stimulation (5 and 0 N) at the forehead; in the second experiment, 10 additional normal-hearing participants were tested with stimulation at the mastoid (about 5 N) and at the nearby tragus and cavum concha of the external ear (0 N). The mean thresholds with 0 N were much better than might be expected from classical theories in response to stimulation by a bone vibrator, in the absence of any application force. The differences between the mean thresholds with the 0 N and the 5 N forces depended on condition, site, and stimulus frequency of the comparisons. The difference was 1.5 dB at 1.0 kHz on the forehead; ranged between 10 and 12.5 dB at 1.0 kHz on the cavum and tragus (versus on the mastoid) and at 2.0 and 4.0 kHz on the forehead; 17 and 19 dB at 2.0 kHz on the cavum and tragus (versus on the mastoid); reaching 32 dB only in a single condition (forehead at 0.5 kHz). As it is unlikely that threshold intensity stimulation delivered with 0 N application force could

  7. Three-Dimensional Virtual Bone Bank System Workflow for Structural Bone Allograft Selection: A Technical Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Eduardo Ritacco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural bone allograft has been used in bone defect reconstruction during the last fifty years with acceptable results. However, allograft selection methods were based on 2-dimensional templates using X-rays. Thanks to preoperative planning platforms, three-dimensional (3D CT-derived bone models were used to define size and shape comparison between host and donor. The purpose of this study was to describe the workflow of this virtual technique in order to explain how to choose the best allograft using a virtual bone bank system. We measured all bones in a 3D virtual environment determining the best match. The use of a virtual bone bank system has allowed optimizing the allograft selection in a bone bank, providing more information to the surgeons before surgery. In conclusion, 3D preoperative planning in a virtual environment for allograft selection is an important and helpful tool in order to achieve a good match between host and donor.

  8. Suppressed bone remodeling in black bears conserves energy and bone mass during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan; Buckendahl, Patricia; Carpenter, Caren; Henriksen, Kim; Vaughan, Michael; Donahue, Seth

    2015-07-01

    Decreased physical activity in mammals increases bone turnover and uncouples bone formation from bone resorption, leading to hypercalcemia, hypercalcuria, bone loss and increased fracture risk. Black bears, however, are physically inactive for up to 6 months annually during hibernation without losing cortical or trabecular bone mass. Bears have been shown to preserve trabecular bone volume and architectural parameters and cortical bone strength, porosity and geometrical properties during hibernation. The mechanisms that prevent disuse osteoporosis in bears are unclear as previous studies using histological and serum markers of bone remodeling show conflicting results. However, previous studies used serum markers of bone remodeling that are known to accumulate with decreased renal function, which bears have during hibernation. Therefore, we measured serum bone remodeling markers (BSALP and TRACP) that do not accumulate with decreased renal function, in addition to the concentrations of serum calcium and hormones involved in regulating bone remodeling in hibernating and active bears. Bone resorption and formation markers were decreased during hibernation compared with when bears were physically active, and these findings were supported by histomorphometric analyses of bone biopsies. The serum concentration of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), a hormone known to reduce bone resorption, was 15-fold higher during hibernation. Serum calcium concentration was unchanged between hibernation and non-hibernation seasons. Suppressed and balanced bone resorption and formation in hibernating bears contributes to energy conservation, eucalcemia and the preservation of bone mass and strength, allowing bears to survive prolonged periods of extreme environmental conditions, nutritional deprivation and anuria. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Testing for normality

    CERN Document Server

    Thode, Henry C

    2002-01-01

    Describes the selection, design, theory, and application of tests for normality. Covers robust estimation, test power, and univariate and multivariate normality. Contains tests ofr multivariate normality and coordinate-dependent and invariant approaches.

  10. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  11. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...

  12. Brown Tumor Shown Flare Phenomenon On Bone Scan After Parathyroidectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Ho; Park, Seol Hoon; Baek, So Ra; Chae, Sun Young; Koh, Jung Min; Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Brown tumor is the benign bone lesion consists of woven bone and fibrous tissue without matrix, which develop due to chronic excessive osteoclastic activity such as hyperparathyroidism. Usually they appear with normal uptake or occasionally focally increased uptake on bone scan. We present a case with brown tumor shown more increased uptake and more number of lesions on bone scan after parathyroidectomy, and lesser increased uptake on serial bone scans without any other treatment through several months. This finding is thought to be similar to 'flare phenomenon' which is occasionally seen after treatment of metastatic bone lesions of malignant cancer, and may represent curative process of brown tumor with rapid normal bone formation.

  13. Three-dimensional Microarchitecture of Adolescent Cancellous Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Hvid, I; Overgaard, Søren

    regarding three-dimensional (3-D) microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone. The objective of this study was to investigate 3-D microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone, and compared them with adult cancellous bone, thus seeking more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations...... during development and growth. We hypothesized that adolescent cancellous bone differed significantly from adult cancellous bone in their microarchitecture and mechanical properties. METHODS: Twenty-three human proximal tibiae were harvested and divided into 3 groups according to their ages: adolescence...... of Orthopaedics & Traumatology and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Odense and Aarhus University Hospitals, Denmark. RESULTS: Three-dimensional reconstructions of cancellous bone from micro-CT imaging are shown in Figure 1. Our data showed that trabecular separation was significantly greater in the adolescence...

  14. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Snoeckx, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate

  15. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O' Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  16. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are those listed in § 632.78-80 except that community service employment is not...

  17. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs specified...

  18. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in applicable...

  19. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for— (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors...

  20. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those costs... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and...

  1. 43 CFR 12.927 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.927 Section 12.927... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements... Requirements § 12.927 Allowable costs. Federal awarding agencies shall determine allowable costs in accordance...

  2. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses...

  3. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for stress...

  4. 34 CFR 642.40 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 642.40 Section 642.40 Education...? § 642.40 Allowable costs. Allowable project costs may include the following costs reasonably related to carrying out a Training Program project: (a) Rental of space, if space is not available at a sponsoring...

  5. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2) Costs... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education...

  6. Appliance-induced osteopenia of dentoalveolar bone in the rat: effect of reduced bone strains on serum bone markers and the multifunctional hormone leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, Jayaseelan K; Patel, Kaval J; Lih, Wei-Song; Seow, Yian-San; Cao, Tong; Meikle, Murray C

    2013-12-01

    To understand, in greater detail, the molecular mechanisms regulating the complex relationship between mechanical strain and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic treatment, passive cross-arch palatal springs were bonded to the maxillary molars of 6-wk-old rats, which were killed after 4 and 8 d. Outcome measures included serum assays for markers of bone formation and resorption and for the multifunctional hormone leptin, and histomorphometry of the inter-radicular bone. The concentration of the bone-formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly reduced at both time points in the appliance group, accompanied by a 50% reduction in inter-radicular bone volume; however, osteocalcin (bone Gla protein) levels remained unaffected. Bone collagen deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks increased 2.3-fold at 4 d only, indicating a transient increase in bone resorption; in contrast, the level of the osteoclast-specific marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b), was unchanged. Leptin levels closely paralleled ALP reductions at both time points, suggesting an important role in the mechanostat negative-feedback loop required to normalize bone mass. These data suggest that an orthodontic appliance, in addition to remodeling the periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone interface, may exert unexpected side-effects on the tooth-supporting alveolar bone, and highlights the importance of recognizing that bone strains can have negative, as well as positive, effects on bone mass. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  7. [Effect of SSRIs on bone metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbage, H; Bahadori, S; Léger, J; Carel, J-C; Purper Ouakil, D

    2014-02-01

    SSRIs have been shown to affect bone health in adults, but this has been poorly studied in children. Given the frequency of SSRI prescription in children and adolescents, it is crucial to evaluate the impact of SSRIs on bone growth because the bone mass attained early in life is the most important predictor of a normal bone constitution. Experimental studies have demonstrated a direct functional role of serotonin in bone metabolism, independently of hyperprolactinemia or growth hormone levels. We have reviewed the literature on serotonin and bone metabolism, including experimental studies, clinical studies in adults as well as in the pediatric population. Experimental studies have shown that 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) is expressed in all kind of bone cells and is highly specific of the 5-HT recapture. 5-HTT inhibition by the SSRIs in these cells affects their function in vitro. Even though a few studies have suggested exposure to SSRIs could be beneficial by an anabolic effect on the trabecular bone, more concluding studies have demonstrated that SSRIs negatively affect bone growth, resulting in a specific bone phenotype including a reduction in bone mass, an altered bone architecture, and decreased mechanical properties. This phenotype is most probably the consequence of a decrease in bone formation, rather than an increase in bone resorption and is a direct and dose-dependent effect. However, many aspects of this bone effect of 5-HTT inhibition need to be further clarified, including the signal ways for 5-HTT and 5-HT receptors, origins of 5-HT in bone, and methods to isolate the inhibitory effect of 5-HTT specifically on bone. Metabolic and neuroendocrine side effects have been documented in children and adolescents taking SSRIs but the specific and direct effect of these molecules on bone metabolism has been poorly studied in this population. In adults, clinical studies have shown an association between the use of SSRIs and bone demineralization as well as

  8. [Acute unclassified leukemia with bone marrow necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uoshima, N; Yamazaki, N; Iinuma, S; Kimura, S; Wada, K; Kobayashi, Y; Ozawa, M; Horiuchi, H; Maruo, N; Kondo, M

    1991-01-01

    Massive bone marrow necrosis was seen in a 42-year-old male with acute leukemia. In December, 1988, on admission, laboratory data revealed pancytopenia and a high level of serum LDH and ALKP. Bone marrow aspiration resulted in dry-tap and showed bone marrow necrosis in the bone marrow biopsy specimen. A bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In faintly visualized the bone marrow but visualized area was expanded in the extremities compared with normal subjects. The second bone marrow biopsy showed proliferation of blasts. In the middle of March, blasts began to appear in peripheral blood. The blasts were cytochemically negative for POX, Es, PAS, AcP, TdT and had surface markers CD3-, CD19-, CD33-, CD13-, LCA-, HLA-DR-. Even by investigation on rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain region, an origin of the blasts could not be determined. In April, the number of blasts in peripheral blood increased and hepatosplenomegaly developed rapidly. Therefore, he was put on the chemotherapy with vincristine and prednisolone, but he died of cerebral hemorrhage. The autopsy revealed widespread bone marrow necrosis. It has rarely been reported that massive bone marrow necrosis is found prior to the occurrence of acute unclassified leukemia.

  9. Study of clone forming cells (CFC) in blood and bone marrow of subjects with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, Rolande; Metral, Jacqueline; Hollard, Daniel.

    1975-01-01

    Density of blood and bone marrow CFC of patients with CML (Chronic Myeloid Leukemia) is lower than density of normal CFC. The rate of bone marrow and blood light CFC of normal subjects and of subjects with LMC were determined. Bone marrow and blood samples from the same subject were also studied. Comparative study of blood and bone marrow has shown that the rate of bone marrow light CFC is lower than the rate of blood CFC [fr

  10. The Normal Distribution From Binomial to Normal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. The Normal Distribution From Binomial to Normal. S Ramasubramanian. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 15-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/06/0015-0024 ...

  11. Chondroblastoma of the sphenoid bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrocíni, Tomas Gomes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chondroblastoma is an uncommon cartilaginous benign neoplasm, highly destructive, which specifically appears in the epiphysis of long bones in young patients. Its occurrence is extremely rare in the cranial base, normally occurring in the temporal bone. Objective: To describe a rare case in a patient presenting with a sphenoid bone chondroblastoma that invaded the middle cranial cavity, submitted to a successful surgical resection, without recurrence after 2 years. Case Report: W.J.S, 37 years old, male, forwarded to the otorhinolaryngology service with persistent and strong otalgia for 3 months. He had normal otoscopy and without visible tumorations. The computerized tomography confirmed tumor mass in the left infra-temporal cavity, invading the middle cranial cavity. The biopsy suggested giant cells tumor. After wide resection by frontal approach via orbitozygomatic osteotomy. During the surgery, we confirmed tomographic statements and didn't find temporal bone involvement. The histopathological exam confirmed chondroblastoma. After 18 months after the surgery, he doesn't present with complaints, without motor, sensitive deficits or of cranial nerves and without recurrence tomographic signals. Conclusion: The importance of differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma is remarkable in the cranial base lesions and its therapeutic approach, whose objective must always be the major possible resection with the maximum function conservation.

  12. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  13. Chondroblastoma of the patella with aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Honglue; Yan, Mengning; Yue, Bing; Zeng, Yiming; Wang, You

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma of the patella is rare. Aneurysmal bone cysts, which develop from a prior lesion such as a chondroblastoma, are seldom seen in the patella. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man who presented with 2 years of right knee pain without calor, erythema, pain on palpation, or abnormal range of motion. Radiological studies suggested aneurysmal bone cyst. The lesion was excised with curettage and the residual cavity filled with autogenous bone graft. Histopathology revealed chondroblastoma associated with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. In the follow-up period, the patient demonstrated normal joint activities with no pain. Normal configuration of the patella and bone union were shown on plain radiographs. The authors present a review of the literature of all cases of patellar chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst. This case is the 14th report of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in a chondroblastoma of the patella. According to the literature, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the study of these lesions. The pathologic diagnosis is based on the presence of chondroblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst. Treatment of this lesion includes patellectomy, curettage alone, and curettage with bone grafting. Despite the risk of recurrence of this lesion in the patella, the authors first recommend curettage followed by filling the cavity with bone graft. To protect the anterior tension of the patella intraoperatively, the bone window should be made at the medial edge of the patella to perform the curettage and bone grafting.

  14. Monosodium glutamate-sensitive hypothalamic neurons contribute to the control of bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefteriou, Florent; Takeda, Shu; Liu, Xiuyun; Armstrong, Dawna; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Using chemical lesioning we previously identified hypothalamic neurons that are required for leptin antiosteogenic function. In the course of these studies we observed that destruction of neurons sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) in arcuate nuclei did not affect bone mass. However MSG treatment leads to hypogonadism, a condition inducing bone loss. Therefore the normal bone mass of MSG-treated mice suggested that MSG-sensitive neurons may be implicated in the control of bone mass. To test this hypothesis we assessed bone resorption and bone formation parameters in MSG-treated mice. We show here that MSG-treated mice display the expected increase in bone resorption and that their normal bone mass is due to a concomitant increase in bone formation. Correction of MSG-induced hypogonadism by physiological doses of estradiol corrected the abnormal bone resorptive activity in MSG-treated mice and uncovered their high bone mass phenotype. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed in MSG-sensitive neurons we tested whether NPY regulates bone formation. Surprisingly, NPY-deficient mice had a normal bone mass. This study reveals that distinct populations of hypothalamic neurons are involved in the control of bone mass and demonstrates that MSG-sensitive neurons control bone formation in a leptin-independent manner. It also indicates that NPY deficiency does not affect bone mass.

  15. Normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  16. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone and cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2000-01-01

    is parallel to the longitudinal loading axis of the tibia. The mechanical properties of the normal cartilage and bone vary with age and respond simultaneously to mechanical loading. Both cartilage and bone in early-stage OA are mechanically inferior to normal, and OA cartilage and bone have lost their unit......Initiated and motivated by clinical and scientific problems such as age-related bone fracture, prosthetic loosening, bone remodeling, and degenerative bone diseases, much significant research on the properties of trabecular bone has been carried out over the last two decades. This work has mainly...... focused on the central vertebral trabecular bone, while little is known about age-related changes in the properties of human peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone. Knowledge of the properties of peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone is of major importance for the understanding of degenerative diseases...

  17. The combined use of rhBMP-2/ACS, autogenous bone graft, a bovine bone mineral biomaterial, platelet-rich plasma, and guided bone regeneration at nonsubmerged implant placement for supracrestal bone augmentation. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclar, Anthony G; Best, Steven P

    2013-01-01

    This case report presents the clinical application and outcomes of the use of a combined approach to treat a patient with a severe alveolar defect. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge carrier, along with autogenous bone graft, bovine bone mineral, platelet-rich plasma, and guided bone regeneration, were used simultaneous with nonsubmerged implant placement. At 1 year postsurgery, healthy peri-implant soft tissues and radiographically stable peri-implant crestal bone levels were observed along with locally increased radiographic bone density. In addition, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan demonstrated apparent supracrestal peri-implant bone augmentation with the appearance of normal alveolar ridge contours, including the facial bone wall.

  18. Radiation induced sarcomas of bone following therapeutic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Chu, F.C.H.; Woodward, H.Q.; Huvos, A.

    1983-01-01

    Because of new therapeutic trends of multi-modality and the importance of late effects, we have updated our series of radiation induced bone sarcomas seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center over the past four decades. A total of 37 cases of bone sarcoma arising from normal bone in the irradiated field was analyzed. The median for latent period from irradiation to diagnosis of bone sarcoma was 11 years with a minimum latent period of four years. The median radiation dose for the bone sarcoma was 6000 rad in 6 weeks with a minimum total radiation dose of 3000 rad in 3 weeks. We have found nine patients who developed bone sarcomas in the radiation field after successful treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Criteria for radiation induced bone sarcomas and the magnitude of the risk of bone sarcomas are briefly discussed

  19. A simple method of screening for metabolic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, R.B.K.; Evans, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to find a simple method -to be used as an adjunct to the conventional bone scintigram- that could differentiate between decreased bone metabolism or mass, i.e., osteoporosis -normal bone- and the group of conditions of increased bone metabolism or mass namely, osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, hyperparathyroidism and Paget's disease. The Fogelman's method using the bone to soft tissue ratios from region of interest analysis at 4 hours post injection, was adopted. An initial experience in measuring a value for the count rate density in lumbar vertebrae at 1 hr post injection during conventional bone scintigraphy appears to give a clear indication of the overall rate of bone metabolism. The advantage over whole body retention methods is that the scan performed at the end of the metabolic study will reveal localized bone disease that may otherwise not be anticipated

  20. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... at 146 days of life and five left and right ribs (fourth to eighth) were removed for analysis. The influence of AKG on skeletal system development was evaluated in relation to both geometrical and mechanical properties, as well as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). No significant differences between...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  1. Hemopoietic stem cell niches, recovery from radiation and bone marrow transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Brecher, G.

    1979-01-01

    The long term hematologic effects of single whole body sublethal X-ray exposure, 525 rad, and the low level chronic exposure from 137 Cs gamma ray and ingested HTO were investigated in mice. The single X-ray exposure had early severe effect on bone marrows both in terms of total cellularity and the number of pluripotent stem cells. How do animals maintain normal cellularity in the absence of a normal number of the pluripotent stem cells[ The following 3 different mechanisms may be involved: additional division in the cytologically identifiable divisible pool of bone marrows; shortening of cycle time allowing more divisions in the same time with great amplification of a small number of colony-forming unit spleens; and the recruitment of G 0 stem cells into proliferation. The reduction in the number of bone marrow stem cells might be attributed to stromal injury in the marrows such that they cannot support as many stem cells as those before the radiation exposure. As an alternate to the ''niche'' hypothesis, the injury to the stem cell pool such that self-replication was not sufficient to restore normal cell concentration is a possibility. The time sequence of the transfusion of marrows may be important to the ultimate effect. Attempts to fill empty niches 10 and 12 weeks after a single and severe radiation injury may be impossible due to stromal changes which in effect have eliminated the niches. The bone marrows of animals rescued by the transfusion of 4 x 10 6 bone marrow cells will accept 0 to 25% of the second transfusion of 4 x 10 7 cells. (Yamashita, S.)

  2. Usefulness of bone scintigraphic classification and quantitative evaluation of bone mineralization with X-CT and SPECT in renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Terue; Fukuda, Teruo; Inoue, Yuuichi; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Ikeda, Hozumi; Ochi, Hironobu

    1987-01-01

    1. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m-MDP was performed on 52 patients with chronic renal failure. These bone scintigrams were classified into 4 groups, each of which was correlated to laboratory data and quantitative data of bone mineralization. Group I (32 patients) showed high accumulation of Tc-99m-MDP in the bone. High level of Alk-Pase and c-PTH, low BMC/BW, low EMI number and high radionuclide activity ratio (RN ratio) were observed. Group II (9 patients) demonstrated nuclear bone images with high background activity. RN ratio was slightly higher than the normal. Group III (11 patients) showed extraosseous accumulation of Tc-99m-MDP in the lung, kidney or soft tissues. One patient belonged to Group I. High level of Ca x P product and slightly high RN ratio were observed. In both Group II and III, BMC/BW and EMI number were normal. Group IV (one patient) showed normal skeletal activity on bone scintigram. The mean duration of hemodialysis was the longest in Group I. Our scintigraphic classification is convenient and might contribute an understanding of patho-physiological bone changes in such patients. 2. Subtotal parathyroidectomy (S-PTX) was employed in 18 of 52 patients on chronic renal failure with secondary hyperparathyroidism. These patients were studied before and after S-PTX using 6 different procedures; conventional radiography, microdensitometry, bone mineral analysis, measurement of EMI number with X-CT (frontal bone), bone scintigraphy, and RN ratio (frontal bone/brain) with SPECT. On the bone scan, the diffuse increased activity in the calvarium became less prominent after S-PTX in all 18 patients. We devised a new method to quantify the bone changes revealed by the bone scan; the RN ratio with SPECT. The ratio decreased markedly after surgery. This method seems to be most useful for detecting dynamic bone changes sensitively and quantitatively. (author)

  3. Normal tissue consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter discusses radiotherapy planning and irradiation effects on the following: pelvis (bone, bone marrow, muscles, genital organs, urinary bladder, urethra, ureter, small intestine, rectum, anus); abdomen (stomach, liver, small intestine, kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, spleen); thorax (respiratory system, esophagus, heart, ribs, breasts, brachial plexus, spinal cord); head and neck (salivary glands, teeth, mandible, mucosa, ears, eyes, facial muscles, larynx, thyroid gland, pituitary gland, brain, spinal cord); central nervous system (brain, optic nerves, pituitary gland, scalp, skull, spinal cord); and the extremities

  4. Is Trabecular Bone Score Valuable in Bone Microstructure Assessment after Gastric Bypass in Women with Morbid Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Pia Marengo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of bariatric surgery on skeletal health raise many concerns. Trabecular bone score (TBS is obtained through the analysis of lumbar spine dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA images and allows an indirect assessment of skeletal microarchitecture (MA. The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD and alterations in bone microarchitecture assessed by TBS in morbidly obese women undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, over a three-year follow-up. Material/Methods: A prospective study of 38 morbidly obese white women, aged 46.3 ± 8.2 years, undergoing RYGB was conducted. Biochemical analyses and DXA scans with TBS evaluation were performed before and at one year and three years after surgery. Results: Patients showed normal calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations throughout the study. However, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD3 decreased, and 71% of patients had a vitamin D deficiency at three years. BMD at femoral neck and lumbar spine (LSBMD significantly decreased 13.53 ± 5.42% and 6.03 ± 6.79%, respectively, during the three-year follow-up; however Z-score values remained above those for women of the same age. TBS was within normal ranges at one and three years (1.431 ± 106 and 1.413 ± 85, respectively, and at the end of the study, 73.7% of patients had normal bone MA. TBS at three years correlated inversely with age (r = −0.41, p = 0.010, body fat (r = −0.465, p = 0.004 and greater body fat deposited in trunk (r = −0.48, p = 0.004, and positively with LSBMD (r = 0.433, p = 0.007, fat mass loss (r = 0.438, p = 0.007 and lean mass loss (r = 0.432, p = 0.008. In the regression analysis, TBS remained associated with body fat (β = −0.625, p = 0.031; R2 = 0.47. The fracture risk, calculated by FRAX® (University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, with and without adjustment by TBS, was low. Conclusion: Women undergoing RYGB in the mid-term have a preserved bone MA, assessed by TBS.

  5. Primary aneurysmal bone cyst of patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O0 f all the aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC occurring in the body, less than 1% are seen in the patella. We report here, a 27-year-old woman with Stage III ABC of patella. Curettage, chemical and thermal cautery of the bed followed by autogenous bone grafting of the defect was done. At two-year follow up, there was a suspicion of lucency in the middle of the patella. However a repeat curettage revealed only fibrous tissue. Now at four years of follow up, the bone graft remained well incorporated. Patient has mild anterior knee pain on stair climbing but regained normal knee function.

  6. Menopausal bone loss and estrogen replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meema, S; Meema, H E

    1976-07-01

    Throughout adult life the bone mineral mass of the radius is greater in males than in females. In males, it decreases after 60 years of age, while in females, it decreases earlier, at approximately 50 years, and the loss is greater. At the average age of 67 years, one half of the normal white female population has less than the normal amount of bone in the radius. Premenopausal women over the age of 50 do not show any decline of bone mineral mass, while in postmenopausal women, regardless of age, there is a loss of bone mass related to the number of years after menopause. Castrated women have significantly less bone mass than premenopausal women of the same average age. No decrease in cortical thickness of the radius was found in oophorectomized women treated with estrogens after castration. In a long-term, follow-up study, untreated postmenopausal women (after a natural or an artifical menopause) showed a significant loss of bone mass, while estrogen-treated, postmenopausal women showed no such loss. Estrogen treatment thus appears to prevent postmenopausal bone loss.

  7. Computer assisted analysis of sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate bone uptake in Paget's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayan, M.L.; Eisenberg, J.; Volpert, E.; Shai, F.; Mroczek, R.

    1982-01-01

    The present clinical study describes a method of evaluation of Paget's disease bone by computer assisted analysis of activity curves obtained over normal and pathological portions of the skeleton in the same patient. The data obtained lead to a differential diagnosis between Paget's and metastatic disease of the bone, as well as an evaluation of subsequent therapy. The results indicate a higher bone activity, (expressed by bone flow and bone uptake, of sup(99m)Tc pyrophosphate) in Paget's than in metastatic disease of the bone, as well as a normalization of these parameters after prolonged therapy of Paget's patients with salmon calcitonin

  8. Sclerostin antibody treatment increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Warmington, Kelly S; Morony, Sean; Gong, Jianhua; Cao, Jin; Gao, Yongming; Shalhoub, Victoria; Tipton, Barbara; Haldankar, Raj; Chen, Qing; Winters, Aaron; Boone, Tom; Geng, Zhaopo; Niu, Qing-Tian; Ke, Hua Zhu; Kostenuik, Paul J; Simonet, W Scott; Lacey, David L; Paszty, Chris

    2009-04-01

    The development of bone-rebuilding anabolic agents for potential use in the treatment of bone loss conditions, such as osteoporosis, has been a long-standing goal. Genetic studies in humans and mice have shown that the secreted protein sclerostin is a key negative regulator of bone formation, although the magnitude and extent of sclerostin's role in the control of bone formation in the aging skeleton is still unclear. To study this unexplored area of sclerostin biology and to assess the pharmacologic effects of sclerostin inhibition, we used a cell culture model of bone formation to identify a sclerostin neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbII) for testing in an aged ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomized and left untreated for 1 yr to allow for significant estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, at which point Scl-AbII was administered for 5 wk. Scl-AbII treatment in these animals had robust anabolic effects, with marked increases in bone formation on trabecular, periosteal, endocortical, and intracortical surfaces. This not only resulted in complete reversal, at several skeletal sites, of the 1 yr of estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, but also further increased bone mass and bone strength to levels greater than those found in non-ovariectomized control rats. Taken together, these preclinical results establish sclerostin's role as a pivotal negative regulator of bone formation in the aging skeleton and, furthermore, suggest that antibody-mediated inhibition of sclerostin represents a promising new therapeutic approach for the anabolic treatment of bone-related disorders, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  9. Glucocorticoids and inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halloran, B.P.; Bikle, D.D.; Cone, C.M.; Morey-Holton, E. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA) Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA) NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Skeletal unloading or loss of normal weight bearing in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and reduces bone calcium. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading is a consequence of an increase in plasma glucocorticoids and/or an increase in bone sensitivity to glucocorticoids, the authors measured plasma corticosterone throughout the day in unloaded and normally loaded rats (hindlimb elevation model) and examined the effect of adrenalectomy on the response of bone to skeletal unloading. Plasma corticosterone levels were similar in normally loaded and unloaded rats at all times. Skeletal unloading in sham-adrenalectomized animals reduced tibial and vertebral calcium by 11.5 and 11.1%, respectively, and in adrenalectomized animals by 15.3 and 20.3%, respectively. Uptake of {sup 45}Ca and ({sup 3}H)proline in the tibia was reduced by 8 and 14%, respectively, in the sham-adrenalectomized animals and by 13 and 19% in the adrenalectomized animals. Bone formation and apposition rates were reduced to the same level in sham- and adrenalectomized animals. These results suggest that the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading is not a consequence of increased plasma glucocorticoids or an increase in bone sensitivity to the glucocorticoids but, rather, point to a local mediator in bone that senses mechanical load and transmits that information to the bone-forming cells directly.

  10. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  11. The Clean Air Act and bonus allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markey, E.J.; Moorhead, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses how utility companies can benefit in the form of bonus sulfur dioxide allowances from the Environmental Protection Agency by investing in renewable energy sources such as wind and promoting conservation. Topics discussed include the Clean Air Act Amendments, acid rain, energy conservation, renewable energy sources, and the procedure for gaining bonus allowances

  12. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1210.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for... Educational Institutions.” The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with...

  13. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter and...

  14. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  15. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  16. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  17. 29 CFR 97.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. [53 FR 8069, 8087... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  18. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b) The... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial... principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs are determined in accordance with the cost...

  19. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22 Allowable... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...

  20. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...

  1. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.62 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  2. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... claims for damage or loss when traveling between place of residence and duty station, or when the loss or... in exceptional cases may be allowed by the Claims Officer. (9) Transportation or travel losses... carrier, agent or agency of the government, or private conveyance, may be allowed only if the property is...

  3. Nanotechnology in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Graham G; McArdle, Adrian; Tevlin, Ruth; Momeni, Arash; Atashroo, David; Hu, Michael S; Feroze, Abdullah H; Wong, Victor W; Lorenz, Peter H; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2015-07-01

    Nanotechnology represents a major frontier with potential to significantly advance the field of bone tissue engineering. Current limitations in regenerative strategies include impaired cellular proliferation and differentiation, insufficient mechanical strength of scaffolds, and inadequate production of extrinsic factors necessary for efficient osteogenesis. Here we review several major areas of research in nanotechnology with potential implications in bone regeneration: 1) nanoparticle-based methods for delivery of bioactive molecules, growth factors, and genetic material, 2) nanoparticle-mediated cell labeling and targeting, and 3) nano-based scaffold construction and modification to enhance physicochemical interactions, biocompatibility, mechanical stability, and cellular attachment/survival. As these technologies continue to evolve, ultimate translation to the clinical environment may allow for improved therapeutic outcomes in patients with large bone deficits and osteodegenerative diseases. Traditionally, the reconstruction of bony defects has relied on the use of bone grafts. With advances in nanotechnology, there has been significant development of synthetic biomaterials. In this article, the authors provided a comprehensive review on current research in nanoparticle-based therapies for bone tissue engineering, which should be useful reading for clinicians as well as researchers in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  5. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  6. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  7. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  8. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ride your bike, eat cereal, and play a video game — the ones that allow you to twist, bend, and move different parts of your body. Some moving joints, like the ones in your spine, move only a little. Other joints move a lot. One of the main types of moving joints is called a hinge joint . ...

  9. Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Adel Refaat; Manabe, Jun; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Matsushita, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

  10. Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adel Refaat; Manabe, Jun; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Matsushita, Yasushi

    2003-08-01

    Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors.

  11. Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Adel Refaat [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Kamiikebukuro 1-37-1, Toshima-ku, 170-0012, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Manabe, Jun; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Matsushita, Yasushi [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Kamiikebukuro 1-37-1, Toshima-ku, 170-0012, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

  12. Utility allowed returns and market extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, D.A.; Nan, G.D.; Harrington, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years interest rates have fluctuated from exceptionally high levels in the early 1980s to their current levels, the lowest in two decades. Observers and analysts generally have assumed that allowed returns by regulatory commissions follow the movement of interest rates; indeed some analysts use a risk premium method to estimate the cost of common equity, assuming a constant and linear relationship between interest rates and the cost of common equity. That suggests we could expect a relatively stable relationship between interest rates and allowed returns, as well. However, a simple comparison of allowed returns and interest rates shows that this is not the case in recent years. The relationship between market interest rates and the returns allowed by commissions varies and is obviously a great deal more complicated. Empirically, there appears to be only a narrow range where market interest rates significantly affect the allowed returns on common stock set by state commissions, at least for electric and combination utilities. If rates are at historically low levels, allowed returns based largely on market rates will hasten subsequent rate filings, and commissions appear to look beyond the low rate levels. Conversely, it appears that regulators do not let historically high market rates determine allowed returns either. At either high or low interest levels, caution seems to be the policy

  13. Classification of bone scintigrams in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazunari; Miyamae, Tatsuya

    1985-01-01

    Bone scintigrams from a total of 75 hemodialysis patients using sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate (MDP) were classified into two groups; Group I (56 patients) in which the uptake of the radioactivity appeared to be relatively high in the soft tissue and low in the bone, and Group II (19 patients) in which high uptake in the bone and low uptake in the soft tissue were observed. Patients in Group I were further classified into two subgroups; Group I sub(A) (articular type, 21 patients) which was characterized by relatively high uptake into the joint, and Group I sub(B) (reduction type, 35 patients) where uptake was faint in the whole region of the bone. The classification of patients in Group II was also performed; Group II sub(A) (spinal type, 14 patients) where high spinal uptake was observed, and Group II sub(B) (cranio-facial type, 5 patients) where high uptake into the cranio-facial region was observed. The results were compared with 146 subjects with normal bone scintigram in terms of the ratio of bone to soft tissue uptake (B/S ratio) for the cranial bone, jaw bone, lumbar vertebra and femoral bone, and the ratio of epiphysis to diaphysis uptake (E/D ratio) for the femoral bone. The B/S ratio was low in Group I and high in Group II for the bone studied, and the E/D ratio was markedly high in Group I sub(A). Histobiochemical examination indicated that patients in Group I sub(A) and Group II may have osteomalacia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, respectively. It was considered that the visual classification and semiquantitative study as described here were useful for evaluating the pathological condition of renal osteodystrophy. (author)

  14. The future(s) of emission allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, K.M.; Villarreal, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a sulfur dioxide emission allowance system to be implemented by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the two-phase implementation of the program, electric utilities responsible for approximately 70 percent of SO 2 emissions in the United States will be issued emission allowances, each representing authorization to emit one ton of sulfur dioxide during a specified calendar year or a later year. Allowances will be issued to utilities with electric-generating units affected by the CAAA limits, as well as to certain entities which may choose to opt-in to the program. Each utility or other emission source must hold a number of allowances at least equal to its total SO 2 emissions during any given year. Unused allowances may be sold, traded, or held in inventory for use against SO 2 emissions in future years. Anyone can buy and hold allowances, including affected utilities, non-utility companies, SO 2 allowances brokers and dealers, environmental groups, and individuals. During Phase I of the program, allowances equivalent to approximately 6.4 million tons of SO 2 emissions will be allocated annually to a group of 110 large, high-SO 2 -emitting power plants. In Phase II, virtually all power-generating utilities (representing approximately 99.4 percent of total US utility emissions) will be subject to the program. The number of allowances issued will increase to approximately 8.9 million a year, with certain special allocations raising the actual number issued to 9.48 million between the years 2000 to 2009, and 8.95 million yearly thereafter. Thus, the CAAA goal of annual emissions of 9 million tons should be achieved by 2010, when virtually all US emission sources will be participating in the program

  15. Keynes, family allowances and Keynesian economic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of family allowances and documents the fact that Keynes supported family allowances as early as the 1920s, continuing through the 1930s and early 1940s. Keynes saw this policy as a way to help households raise their children and also as a way to increase consumption without reducing business investment. The paper goes on to argue that a policy of family allowances is consistent with Keynesian economics. Finally, the paper uses the Luxembourg Income Study to...

  16. Bone marrow metastasis presenting as bicytopenia originating from hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Mi Hong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The bone is a common site for metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, bone marrow metastasis from HCC is rarely reported, and its frequency is unclear. Here we report a rare case of bone marrow metastasis that presented as bicytopenia originating from HCC without bone metastasis. A 58-year-old man was admitted for investigation of a liver mass with extensive lymph node enlargement that was detected when examining his general weakness and weight loss. Laboratory findings revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia, mild elevated liver enzymes, normal prothrombin time percentage and high levels of tumor markers (α-fetoprotein and des-γ-carboxyprothrombin. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple enhanced masses in the liver and multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the abdomen. A bone marrow biopsy revealed only a few normal hematopoietic cells and abundant tumor cells. Despite its rarity, bone marrow metastasis should always be suspected in HCC patients even if accompanied by cirrhosis.

  17. Bone creep and short and long term subsidence after cemented stem total hip arthroplasty (THA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, T L; Shultz, T; Noble, G; Gruen, T A; Blaha, J D

    2013-03-15

    Stem-cement and cement-bone interfacial failures as well as cement fractures have been noted in cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) as the cause of aseptic loosening. Attempts to reduce the risk of femoral component loosening include improving the stem-cement interface by various coatings, using a textured or porous coated stem surfaces or by using a tapered stem having a highly-polished surface. The latter approach, often referred to as "force-closed" femoral stem design, would theoretically result in stem stabilization subsequent to debonding and 'taper-lock'. Previous work using three-dimensional finite element analysis has shown a state of stress at the stem-cement interface indicative of 'taper-lock' for the debonded stem and indicated that stem-cement interface friction and bone cement creep played a significant role in the magnitudes of stresses and subsidence of the stem. However, the previous analysis did not include the viscoelastic properties of bone, which has been hypothesized to permit additional expansion of the bone canal and allow additional stem subsidence (Lu and McKellop, 1997). The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of bone viscoelastic behavior on stem subsidence using a 3D finite element analysis. It was hypothesized that the viscoelastic behavior of bone in the hoop direction would allow expansion of the bone reducing the constraint on bone over time and permit additional stem subsidence, which may account for the discrepancies between predicted and clinical subsidence measurements. Analyses were conducted using physiological loads, 'average peak loads' and 'high peak loads' for 'normal patient' and 'active patient' (Bergmann et al., 2010) from which short and long term subsidence was predicted. Results indicated that bone creep does contribute to higher stem subsidence initially and after 10 years of simulated loading. However, it was concluded that the "constraint" upon the cement mantle is not mitigated enough to result in

  18. Distinguishing imaging features between spinal hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow and bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Y; Hirai, T; Kawanaka, K; Shiraishi, S; Yoshida, M; Kitajima, M; Uetani, H; Azuma, M; Iryo, Y; Yamashita, Y

    2014-10-01

    Systematic investigations of the distinguishing imaging features between spinal hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow and bone metastasis have not been reported, to our knowledge. The purpose of this study was to determine the distinguishing imaging features of the 2 entities. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic images of 8 consecutive male patients (age range, 52-78 years; mean, 64 years) with suspected spinal metastasis on MR imaging and FDG-PET, which was later confirmed as hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow. MR imaging, FDG-PET, CT, and bone scintigraphy images were qualitatively and/or quantitatively evaluated. Imaging findings in 24 patients with spinal metastasis were compared, and differences were statistically analyzed. All 8 vertebral hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow lesions were hypointense on T1- and T2-weighted images; lesions contiguous with the adjacent vertebra were significantly more often seen in hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow than in metastasis (P = .035). T2 signal intensity of the lesion was significantly different between the 2 entities (P = .033). FDG-PET showed slightly higher uptake in all hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow lesions; their maximum standard uptake value was significantly lower than that of metastatic lesions (P = .037). CT attenuation of hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow was equal to or slightly higher than that of adjacent normal-appearing vertebra; the CT appearances of hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow and metastasis were significantly different (P bone marrow; the uptake was significantly different from that of metastasis (P 3.6, the lesion was considered metastatic. A normal appearance on CT or bone scintigraphy excluded metastasis. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. The biomechanical basis of bone strength development during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontulainen, Saija A; Hughes, Julie M; Macdonald, Heather M; Johnston, James D

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the development of the material composition and structure of bone during growth, both key determinants of bone strength, and identifying factors that regulate the development of these properties are important for developing effective lifestyle interventions to optimize peak bone strength. New imaging technologies provide the ability to measure estimates of both the material composition and structure of bone, and thus, estimates of whole bone strength. During childhood and adolescence, bone structure is altered by growth in length and width, which is associated with increases in mass, and alterations in tissue density. These processes lead to a bone with an optimal size, shape, and architecture to withstand the normal physiological loads imposed on it. Longitudinal bone growth is the result of endochondral ossification, a process that continues throughout childhood and rapidly increases during the adolescent growth spurt. Along the shaft, long bones continually grow in width, thus improving the resistance to bending forces by depositing new bone on the periosteal surface with simultaneous resorption on the endocortical surface. Sexual dimorphism in periosteal bone formation and endosteal bone resorption result in sex-specific differences in adult bone conformation. Changes in linear and periosteal growth are closely tied to changes in bone mass, with approximately one quarter of adult total body bone mineral accrued during the 2 years around the adolescent growth spurt. These structural and material changes are under mechanical regulation and influenced by the hormonal environment. Overall, bones must continually adapt their geometry and mass to withstand loads from increases in bone length, muscle mass and external forces during growth. However, the tempo, timing, and extent of such adaptations are also closely regulated by several systemic hormones.

  20. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may be considered and allowed. For the purpose of subpart B of this part, an alternative work location..., including property in the custody of a carrier, an agent or agency of the Government, or the claimant. (3...

  1. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  2. 9 CFR 95.13 - Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.13 Bone meal for use as fertilizer or... bone meal, which, in the normal process of manufacture, has been prepared by heating bone under a...

  3. Benign bone-forming tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.; Staebler, A.; Steinborn, M.; Woertler, K.

    2001-01-01

    Benign bone-forming tumors include osteomas, enostomas, osteoid osteomas, and osteoblastomas. These lesions are often characterized by typical imaging findings on radiographs, CT and MR imaging studies. Radiologic findings and additional clinical information allow for a specific diagnosis in most cases. This review article emphasizes the radiological patterns of benign boneforming tumors as well as their epidemiological, clinical, and pathological characteristics. In addition, minimally invasive interventional procedures for the therapy of osteoid osteoma are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  4. Tissue Microarray Analysis Applied to Bone Diagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Mello, Rafael; Regis Silva, Maria Regina; Seixas Alves, Maria Teresa; Evison, Martin; Guimarães, Marco Aurélio; Francisco, Rafaella Arrabaça; Dias Astolphi, Rafael; Miazato Iwamura, Edna Sadayo

    2017-01-01

    Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens....

  5. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, P.D.; Duboeuf, F.; Braillon, P.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments [fr

  6. Vitamin E improved bone strength and bone minerals in male rats given alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuhada Zakaria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress on bone, which in turn increases the risk of osteoporosis. This study determined the effects of vitamin E on bone strength and bone mineral content in alcohol-induced osteoporotic rats. Materials and Methods: Three months old Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: (I control group; (II alcohol (3 g/kg + normal saline; (III alcohol (3 g/kg + olive oil; (IV alcohol (3 g/kg + alpha-tocopherol (60 mg/kg and (V alcohol (3 g/kg + palm vitamin E (60 mg/kg. The treatment lasted for three months. Following sacrifice, the right tibia was subjected to bone biomechanical test while the lumbar (fourth and fifth lumbar and left tibia bones were harvested for bone mineral measurement. Results: Alcohol caused reduction in bone biomechanical parameters (maximum force, ultimate stress, yield stress and Young’s modulus and bone minerals (bone calcium and magnesium compared to control group (P

  7. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, B.; Barnden, L.R.; Kwiatek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T 1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  8. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  9. Glucocorticoids, bone and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mark S; Seibel, Markus J; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to excessive levels of endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoids is associated with serious clinical features including altered body composition and the development of insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. It had been assumed that these adverse effects were mediated by direct effects of glucocorticoids on tissues such as adipose or liver. Recent studies have however indicated that these effects are, at least in part, mediated through the actions of glucocorticoids on bone and specifically the osteoblast. In mice, targeted abrogation of glucocorticoid signalling in osteoblasts significantly attenuated the changes in body composition and systemic fuel metabolism seen during glucocorticoid treatment. Heterotopic expression of osteocalcin in the liver of normal mice was also able to protect against the metabolic changes induced by glucocorticoids indicating that osteocalcin was the likely factor connecting bone osteoblasts to systemic fuel metabolism. Studies are now needed in humans to determine the extent to which glucocorticoid induced changes in body composition and systemic fuel metabolism are mediated through bone. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Bone and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microarchitectural adaptations in aging and osteoarthrotic subchondral bone tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2010-01-01

    in using bone density–enhancing drugs for intervention of primary OA (IX).   Conclusion Age-related musculoskeletal diseases increase as a result of increase in the elderly population and a change in lifestyle. Over the last a few decades, much significant research on the properties has been carried out...... or resorption. This process causes appropriate microarchitectural changes tending to adjust and improve the bone structure to its prevailing mechanical environment. Normal individual reach peak bone mass at age between 25 and 30 years, and thereafter bone mass declines with age in both genders. The bone loss...... is accompanied by microarchitectural deterioration resulting in reduced mechanical strength likely leading to fragility fractures. With aging, inevitable bone loss occurs, which is frequently the cause of osteoporosis; and inevitable bone and joint degeneration happens, which often results in osteoarthrosis...

  11. Whole-body imaging of bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Reiser, Maximilian F; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    For bone marrow screening, multimodality algorithms including conventional radiographs, bone scintigraphy, multislice computed tomography CT (MS-CT) scan, and dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely established in clinical routine. Although radiographs are used as a basic imaging procedure for clarification of suspected focal bone pathologies, low sensitivity has been reported for the detection of limited osteolytic bone marrow destruction. Therefore, skeletal scintigraphy often is used as a more sensitive and integrated method in patients with suspected malignant bone marrow disease. MS-CT scan is the method of choice in the assessment of bone stability and allows for evaluation of fracture risk. Hybrid imaging concepts, such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan, have been established as an effective tool for the detection of skeletal metastases, using the additional metabolic information of a PET scan for the assessment of tumor viability and therapy response. MRI is an imaging technique that allows direct visualization of bone marrow components with high spatial resolution. The unique soft-tissue contrast of MRI enables precise assessment of bone marrow infiltration before osteolytic changes become visible in MS-CT or metabolic changes occur in bone scintigraphy or a PET scan. Furthermore it can depict tumor expansion into adjacent paraosseous structures, such as the spinal canal. The development of multichannel whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) systems has enabled bone marrow screening without use of ionizing radiation at high diagnostic accuracy. Parallel imaging techniques in combination with global matrix coil concepts, as well as the introduction of high-field whole-body scanners, have substantially reduced acquisition times without compromises in spatial resolution. WB-MRI has successfully been applied for screening of bone metastases and hematologic bone marrow diseases, like multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and histiocytosis X

  12. EVALUATION OF BIOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE BONE TISSUE FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Matveychuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The volume of reconstructive surgery in traumatology in recent decades has increased significantly due to an increase in traumas, numbers of affected in local military conflicts, and environmental deterioration. This has led to an increase in demand for plastic materials, and the need to create modern high technologies to meet this need, including alternative sources of bone implants. Any solution to this problem would involve an in-depth study of bone biophysical properties with innovative techniques to develop requirements to elaboration of new effective implants based on natural bone, as well as on natural or synthetic analogues. This study aimed exactly at these aspects. Materials and methods: We studied human bone samples taken from various parts of the skeleton aged from 3 to 89 years and animal (bovine bone samples aged from 1.5 to 2 years. Biophysical characteristics of the studied materials were assessed at the stage of sample preparation with original author's methods of physical and mechanical processing, in the process of analysis of patterns of normal changes in the bone structure and function, as well as during changes in its composition with age, anisotropy of the material and the level of structural organization. Structure patterns were studied by classical (light, scanning electron microscopy and advanced (acoustic microscopy techniques. Methods of engineering biomechanics were used to assess functional changes in macro and micro volumes of bone samples. Results: The main study results involve the development of innovative methods of sample preparation and structural and functional analysis. First of all, these are the methods of mechanical processing of bone fragments based on the use of hollow cylindrical milling cutters in the environment of limited amounts of mineralized biological tissues, as well as on the application of hydrodynamic cutting ensuring a delicate and highly efficient bone cut. Another

  13. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases. Thi...

  14. Amlodipine besylate impairs the morphology of bone marrow in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histo-pathological examinations of the bone marrow showed normal cytoarchitecture of erythrocytes and leukocytes in rats of Control Group I. However, dose-dependent degeneration and lyses of erythrocytes and leukocytes were observed in amlodipine-treated rats. In conclusion, impaired morphology of the bone marrow ...

  15. Regulation of Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells. In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, wingless-type (Wnt genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2 and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX.

  16. Bone disease in hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bart L

    2014-07-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder that may be acquired or inherited. Postsurgical hypoparathyroidism is responsible for the majority of acquired hypoparathyroidism. Bone disease occurs in hypoparathyroidism due to markedly reduced bone remodeling due to the absence or low levels of parathyroid hormone. Chronically reduced bone turnover in patients with hypoparathyroidism typically leads to higher bone mass than in age- and sex-matched controls. Whether this increased bone density reduces fracture risk is less certain, because while increased bone mineralization may be associated with increased brittleness of bone, this does not appear to be the case in hypoparathyroidism. Treatment of hypoparathyroidism with recombinant parathyroid hormone may reduce bone mineral density but simultaneously strengthen the mechanical properties of bone.

  17. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  18. Oral Contraceptives and Bone Health in Female Runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelsey, Jennifer L

    2007-01-01

    .... Previous cross-sectional research has shown that women with exercise-induced menstrual irregularities have a significantly higher frequency of stress fractures and low bone mass than normally menstruating controls...

  19. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in Sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) total protein levels were evaluated as indicators of bone turnover in twenty patients with sickle cell haemoglobinopathies and in twenty normal healthy individuals. The serum bonespecific alkaline phosphatase ...

  20. Restoring Bone Density in Women with Ovarian Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a type of estrogen) and testosterone (a predominantly male hormone that is also produced by women in smaller ... untreated group of 70 women with normal ovarian function. Results were published ... . Both hormone treatment regimens led to increases in bone mineral ...

  1. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  2. Bone-Immune Cell Crosstalk: Bone Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Mori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone diseases are associated with great morbidity; thus, the understanding of the mechanisms leading to their development represents a great challenge to improve bone health. Recent reports suggest that a large number of molecules produced by immune cells affect bone cell activity. However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. This review aims to shed new lights into the mechanisms of bone diseases involving immune cells. In particular, we focused our attention on the major pathogenic mechanism underlying periodontal disease, psoriatic arthritis, postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, metastatic solid tumors, and multiple myeloma.

  3. Abnormal bone collagen morphology and decreased bone strength in growth hormone-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin; Qvortrup, Klaus; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2004-01-01

    Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) have an increased risk of bone fractures. In these patients, the well-described decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) may, however, not alone explain the increase in fracture rate. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate......% and growth rate to approximately 40-50% when compared to normal control rats. Five male Dw-4 rats were examined at age 12 weeks and five healthy Lewis rats served as age-matched controls. The animals were examined for (1) bone mineral status by dual energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) and ash weight/bone volume......, (2) biomechanical properties, (3) serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and (4) collagen morphology of cortical bone from the right femurs was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A significant decrease was found in serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3...

  4. Normal and Leukemic Hematopoiesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercauteren, Suzanne Maria

    2003-01-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disease characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation and block in differentiation of myeloid committed blood cells in the bone marrow. Despite the lack of mature cells derived from the leukemic clone in the majority of AML patients, AML

  5. On the Methods for Calculating Annual Allowable Cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Sokolov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crisis in supplying regions and the country related to available forest resources and low profitability of forest sector, as a whole, is an indicator of failure of the existing model of forest management and forest use organization in Russia at the present time. Many Russian regions, which are traditionally considered as forest industrial territories, face the challenge of lack of economically accessible forests. The forests are decreasing against a background of under exploitation of the annual allowable cut. This situation occurs in Siberia as well. In many cases, using calculated allowable cut will result in unsustainable harvest levels and a future decrease of accessible forest resources. Thus, the statement that «a volume of wood resource utilization is determined by allowable cut represented the scientifically grounded norm of sustainable forest use» is considered as no more than the declarative proposition. Modeling the normal forest, and using a formula of allowable cut calculation estimated for some decades based on the modeling, is totally unreliable and unreal. The long-term forecast should use analog methods, but it will hardly be sufficiently accurate and adequate to set norms. In order to estimate ecological and economic accessibility of forest resources, an algorithm was made, and a method and model were developed. This model is based on GIS-database and makes it possible to estimate accessibility of forest resources and to map it as well. The conclusion on necessity to determine annual allowable cut in two varieties was drawn following the procedures for calculating annual allowable cut. The first variety is silvicultural (according the currently used methods and the other one is economically accessible allowable cut, which could provide economic effective use of tradable mature wood, taking in to account ecological and economic accessibility of forest resources.

  6. Allowance System: Proposed acid-rain rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). The fact sheet summarizes the key components of EPA's proposed Allowance System

  7. Bone age assessment using cephalometric photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durka-Zając, Magdalena; Marcinkowska, Agata; Mituś-Kenig, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of bone age comprises the basic element of orthodontic diagnostics as it enables the recognition of deviations from normal growth, determines the choice of treatment, helps determine the appropriate moment to begin treatment, establish prognosis and plan a retention strategy. In order to make an assessment of skeletal maturity possible in a single examination, radiological methods were adopted. The following characteristics are evaluated on a radiograph: the appearance, size and shape of ossification centers, the width and the shape of growth cartilage and the degree of fusion between diaphyses and epiphyses. In order to assess the maturity of bones, hand-wrist radiographs were introduced in the second decade of the 20 th century. Bone age assessment of bone age could also be made based on an analysis of a morphological maturity of cervical vertebrae utilizing cephalometric radiographs. The objective of the study was to evaluate the correspondence between bone age assessments made from hand-wrist radiographs and those from cephalometric radiographs. In order to fulfill the objectives, hand-wrist radiographs as well as cephalometric radiographs of 30 patients (15 girls and 15 boys) between 10 and 17 years of age were collected. Bone age of hand, wrist and cervical spine was assessed. Bone age on hand-wrist radiographs was evaluated using the Björk method, whereas cephalometric radiographs were analyzed by the Baccetti et al. method. A strong and statistically highly significant (r=0.98; p<0.00001) Pearson’s correlation was found between bone age assessed from hand-wrist radiographs using Björk’s method and bone age assessed from cephalometric radiographs using the method by Baccetti et al. The analysis of cervical vertebrae in cephalometric radiographs appears to be the most desirable method of bone age assessment. Performing the analysis on routinely taken cephalograms eliminates the need for additional exposure to X-ray radiation and shortens

  8. Bone scintigraphy for metastasis detection in canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, L.J.; Thrall, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of serial bone scintigraphy in the detection of skeletal and extraskeletal metastases in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Twenty-six dogs with primary, appendicular osteosarcoma were entered into a limb-sparing protocol. Bone scintigraphy was performed upon presentation, after neoadjuvant therapy but prior to surgery and at selective intervals after limb-sparing surgery to evaluate for the presence of metastasis. Thoracic radiographs, and radiographs of other sites, were also made at the time of each bone scan. All dogs had a complete necropsy. No dog had bone or lung metastases detected prior to treatment. The bone scans, medical records, and radiographs of each dog were reviewed retrospectively. All but one dog developed metastatic disease. Bone metastatic sites were confirmed at necropsy in 12 of the 26 dogs. Seven of these 12 dogs had bone metastatic sites which were not producing clinical signs, i.e. an occult metastasis. In five of the seven dogs, the occult site was the first metastatic site detected. Extraskeletal metastases were identified scintigraphically in six of the 26 dogs, but these were clinically apparent prior to bone scintigraphy in each dog. Suspected malignant scintigraphic lesions were proven benign in six dogs. In five dogs with malignant bone lesions at necropsy the last bone scan prior to euthanasia was normal. The time interval between scintigraphy and necropsy was variable in these five dogs. All dogs without bone metastases at necropsy had normal bone scans. This study validates the usefulness of bone scintigraphy for detection of occult bone metastasis and improved ability for tumor staging in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma

  9. Marked changes in iliac crest bone structure in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients without any signs of disturbed bone remodeling or balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiniche, T; Christiansen, P; Vesterby, A; Hasling, C; Ullerup, R; Mosekilde, L; Melsen, F

    1994-01-01

    Successful iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained from 63 women with postmenopausal vertebral crush fracture osteoporosis. Structural and static histomorphometric parameters were compared with 25 age-matched normal females, who had suffered an unexpected and sudden death. The control group for dynamic parameters comprised 13 younger normal females. Marked structural changes were observed in the osteoporotic patients in cortical as well as cancellous bone. Cortical width, trabecular volume, trabecular bone surface density and trabecular number were all reduced, whereas trabecular separation and star volume were increased. On the other hand trabecular thickness was normal in the patients. These structural changes in cancellous bone indicate that extensive perforations of trabecular plates have occurred or that whole trabecular elements have been removed. The remodeling cycles of cancellous bone surface and the frequency by which they were repeated (activation frequency) did not differ significantly between osteoporotic patients and normal younger women. The bone balance per remodeling cycle in osteoporotic patients and controls was not significantly different. No subset of individuals in the group of osteoporotic patients could be identified regarding extent of resorptive and formative surfaces, bone formation rate or activation frequency. In the present osteoporotic patients nothing in the ongoing remodeling process could explain the marked changes in bone structure. The pathophysiological changes leading to osteoporosis may therefore occur earlier in life, maybe long before the manifestation of the disease.

  10. In vivo impact of Dlx3 conditional inactivation in Neural Crest-Derived Craniofacial Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Isaac, Juliane; Zah, Angela; Hwang, Joonsung; Berdal, Ariane; Lian, Jane B.; Morasso, Maria I.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in DLX3 in humans lead to defects in craniofacial and appendicular bones, yet the in vivo activity related to Dlx3 function during normal skeletal development have not been fully elucidated. Here we used a conditional knockout approach to analyze the effects of neural crest deletion of Dlx3 on craniofacial bones development. At birth, mutant mice exhibit a normal overall positioning of the skull bones, but a change in the shape of the calvaria was observed. Molecular analysis of the genes affected in the frontal bones and mandibles from these mice identified several bone markers known to affect bone development, with a strong prediction for increased bone formation and mineralization in vivo. Interestingly, while a subset of these genes were similarly affected in frontal bones and mandibles (Sost, Mepe, Bglap, Alp, Ibsp, Agt), several genes, including Lect1 and Calca, were specifically affected in frontal bones. Consistent with these molecular alterations, cells isolated from the frontal bone of mutant mice exhibited increased differentiation and mineralization capacities ex vivo, supporting cell autonomous defects in neural crest cells. However, adult mutant animals exhibited decreased bone mineral density in both mandibles and calvaria, as well as a significant increase in bone porosity. Together, these observations suggest that mature osteoblasts in the adult respond to signals that regulate adult bone mass and remodeling. This study provides new downstream targets for Dlx3 in craniofacial bone, and gives additional evidence of the complex regulation of bone formation and homeostasis in the adult skeleton. PMID:22886599

  11. 77 FR 34218 - Clothing Allowance; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... could be construed to impose a restriction that VA did not intend. This document corrects that error... medication would be eligible for a clothing allowance for each such appliance or medication if each appliance or medication ``[a]ffects a distinct article of clothing or outergarment.'' On November 16, 2011, VA...

  12. International carbon trade with constrained allowance choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, S.; Weikard, H.P.; Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2017-01-01

    International carbon markets are advocated in order to involve more countries in an agreement for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce the costs of mitigation. In this paper we develop a model where allowances are endogenously determined by each member of a carbon trade

  13. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions.” (d...

  14. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational...

  15. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable cost principles; and (3) Less than the total value of the award. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.317 Section 600.317 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Administrative Requirements...

  16. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... typical “provider” costs, and costs (such as marketing, enrollment, membership, and operation of the HMO... principles applicable to provider costs, as set forth in § 417.536. (2) The allowability of other costs is determined in accordance with principles set forth in §§ 417.538 through 417.550. (3) Costs for covered...

  17. 40 CFR 35.6245 - Allowable activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Support Agency Cooperative Agreements § 35.6245 Allowable activities. Support agency activities... CFR part 300), are eligible for funding under a support agency Cooperative Agreement. Participation in...

  18. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 143.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  19. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  20. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  1. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 80.22... kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. For the...

  2. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  3. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  4. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use...

  5. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...

  6. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...

  7. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...

  8. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... institution, the owner or operator must obtain alternate financial assurance. (4) The owner or operator may... certified public accountant (or appropriate State agency) auditing its financial statement as required under... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms...

  9. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN...

  10. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B-Cell Normal Cellular Counterpart: Clues From a Functional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, Walaa; Gubler, Brigitte; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Ghamlouch, Hussein

    2018-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the clonal expansion of small mature-looking CD19+ CD23+ CD5+ B-cells that accumulate in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid organs. To date, no consensus has been reached concerning the normal cellular counterpart of CLL B-cells and several B-cell types have been proposed. CLL B-cells have remarkable phenotypic and gene expression profile homogeneity. In recent years, the molecular and cellular biology of CLL has been enriched by seminal insights that are leading to a better understanding of the natural history of the disease. Immunophenotypic and molecular approaches (including immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene mutational status, transcriptional and epigenetic profiling) comparing the normal B-cell subset and CLL B-cells provide some new insights into the normal cellular counterpart. Functional characteristics (including activation requirements and propensity for plasma cell differentiation) of CLL B-cells have now been investigated for 50 years. B-cell subsets differ substantially in terms of their functional features. Analysis of shared functional characteristics may reveal similarities between normal B-cell subsets and CLL B-cells, allowing speculative assignment of a normal cellular counterpart for CLL B-cells. In this review, we summarize current data regarding peripheral B-cell differentiation and human B-cell subsets and suggest possibilities for a normal cellular counterpart based on the functional characteristics of CLL B-cells. However, a definitive normal cellular counterpart cannot be attributed on the basis of the available data. We discuss the functional characteristics required for a cell to be logically considered to be the normal counterpart of CLL B-cells.

  11. The usefulness of early whole body bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Furukawa, Yohji; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    Early whole body bone scintigraphy was performed on 25 patients with prostatic cancer (15 cases with bone metastases and 10 cases without bone metastasis) to obtain anterior and posterior whole body images five minutes after administration of [sup 99m]Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate(HMDP). The results were compared with the findings of routine bone scintigraphy after three hours, and the usefulness of the above method for the diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer was evaluated. In cases in which increased activity was found in the upper and lower lumbar vertebrae by routine bone scintigraphy but no abnormality was seen by early whole body bone scintigraphy, senile degenerative bone changes such as spondylosis deformance were observed by bone radiography. In cases with multiple bone metastases, abnormal multiple accumulations were found by both early whole body bone scintigraphy and routine bone scintigraphy. In addition, in cases showing super bone scan, high accumulation in the skeletal system had already been detected by early whole body bone scintigraphy. When the courses before and after treatment in nine cases of multiple bone metastases were passaged from the results of early whole body bone scintigraphy and from changes in tumor markers (prostatic specific antigen, [gamma]-semino protein and prostatic acid phosphatase), increased activity and the appearance of new hot spots as well as an increase in tumor markers were detected by early whole body scintigraphy in three of the four advanced cases, whereas decreased accumulations and a decrease in and normalization of tumor markers were observed in five improved cases. (author).

  12. Macrophages and bone inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoli Gu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone metabolism is tightly regulated by the immune system. Accelerated bone destruction is observed in many bone diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, fracture, and particle-induced osteolysis. These pathological conditions are associated with inflammatory responses, suggesting the contribution of inflammation to bone destruction. Macrophages are heterogeneous immune cells and are polarized into the proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 phenotypes in different microenvironments. The cytokines produced by macrophages depend on the macrophage activation and polarization. Macrophages and macrophage-derived cytokines are important to bone loss in inflammatory bone disease. Recent studies have shown that macrophages can be detected in bone tissue and interact with bone cells. The interplay between macrophages and bone cells is critical to bone formation and repair. In this article, we focus on the role of macrophages in inflammatory bone diseases, as well as discuss the latest studies about macrophages and bone formation, which will provide new insights into the therapeutic strategy for bone disease.

  13. Potassium concentration in bone of Beijing residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lianqing

    1994-01-01

    The author presents the measuring results of K concentration in bone ash samples of 65 residents in Beijing area by atomic absorption spectrum. The results indicate that the K concentrations in bone ash is logarithmic normal distribution, ranging level is 0.75-8.44 g/kg ash, the average and standard deviation is respectively 2.40 and 1.52 g/kg ash. The highest concentration (4.88 g/kg ash) appears in infantile stage (< 1y), the lowest concentration (1.59 g/kg ash) appears in young stage (2-5 y). The lower concentration (1.88 g/kg ash) appears in adolescence (11-20 y). The K concentration in wet bone as a percentage of weight is 0.067%. The specific activities of K-40 in bone is about 22 mBq/g wet bone. The total radioactivity of K-40 in whole bone is 220 Bq. The annual absorbed dose is received in adult bone from K-40 is estimated to be 95 μGy

  14. Role of bone scan in rheumatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Young

    2003-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases can be categorized by pathology into several specific types of musculoskeletal problems, including synovitis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), enthesopathy (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis) and cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis). Skeletal radiographs have contributed to the diagnosis of these articular diseases, and some disease entities need typical radiographic changes as a factor of the diagnostic criteria. However, they sometimes show normal radiographic findings in the early stage of disease, when there is demineralization of less than 30-50%. Bone scans have also been used in arthritis, but not widely because the findings are nonspecific and it is thought that bone scans do not add significant information to routine radiography. Bone scans do however play a different role than simple radiography, and it is a complementary imaging method in the course of management of arthritis. The image quality of bone scans can be improved by obtaining regional views and images under al pin-hole collimator, and through a variety of scintigraphic techniques including the three phase bone scan and bone SPECT. Therefore, bone scans could improve the diagnostic value, and answer multiple clinical questions, based on the pathophysiology of various forms of arthritis

  15. Bone mineral density in anorexia nervosa: Only weight and menses recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; Sabaté, Juan

    2016-11-01

    The study objectives were to analyze the presence of reduced bone mass in a sample of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and amenorrhea, to assess Bone Mineral Density (BMD) recovery after having a normal weight is reached and regular menses are resumed, and to predict BMD after a treatment period considering different variables (baseline BMD, baseline and final body mass index (BMI), treatment duration). 35 patients with AN (mean age 20.57±5.77) were studied at treatment start (T 0 ) and after they had recovered their normal weight and regular menses (T 1 ) in order to measure their BMD using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the lumbar spine (L2-L4). At T 0 , 2.86% of patients had normal BMD, while a reduced bone mass consistent with osteopenia or with osteoporosis was found in 22.86% and 74.28% of patients respectively. At T 1 , the percentages were 20%, 20%, and 60% respectively. No significant differences were seen in L2-L3 and mean BMD (L2-L4). A significant difference was however found for L4 (p11 months, but not when the time period was ≤11 months. This follow-up study of changes not only in BMD but also in BMI and recovery of menses has clinical relevance from the viewpoint of the day-by-day treatment process. Use of QCT makes the study more relevant because this is a more advanced technique that allows for differentiating trabecular and cortical bone. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The penetration of cefazolin, erythromycin and methicillin into human bone tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T S; Colding, H; Schroeder, E

    1978-01-01

    The penetration of cefazolin, erythromycin and methicillin into normal bone was studied in 20 patients undergoing surgery for fracture in the trochanteric region of the femur. The antibiotic concentrations were determined in serum, bone marrow, and cancellous and cortical bone. For all three...

  17. Dual-photon absorptiometry: A new method of determining bone mineral content. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.; Eiber, J.; Hennig, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    Cortical (neck of femur) and trabecular (L 2-4) bone mass has been determined repeatedly with DPA using 153 Gd (NOVO Lab 22 a) in 545 females and 112 males with no evidence of bone diseases. Measured 'normal' (age- and sex-related average) values for bone mineral content (BMC) differed significantly (p [de

  18. MRI of degenerative bone marrow lesions in experimental osteoarthritis of canine knee joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Adam, G. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Buehne, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the value of MRI in the detection of degenerative bone marrow abnormalities in an animal osteoarthritis model. Design. In 10 dogs with experimentally induced unilateral osteoarthritis of the knee, MRI was performed using two-dimensional spin-echo (2D-SE) and three-dimensional gradient-echo (3D-GE) imaging. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted 2D-SE sequences were also obtained after injection of gadolinium-DTPA. The results were compared with the gross and histopathologic findings and with radiography. Results. Histopathologic specimens revealed 21 osteosclerotic lesions and 5 intraosseous cysts. On 2D-SE images, 24 of 26 lesions were detected, while 21 of 26 lesions were identified on 2D-GE sequences. Radiography, including conventional tomography, demonstrated 9 of 26 lesions. Regardless of the sequence weighting, all osteosclerotic lesions appeared hypointense on MRI. Signal loss in bone sclerosis resulted primarily from the reduction of intact fat marrow, the increased bone density being of secondary importance. Quantitative signal analysis allowed approximate estimation of the grade of sclerosis. On postcontrast images, sclerotic bone remained hypointense, although significant but non-specific enhancement relative to the normal fat marrow was observed. The extent of contrast enhancement did not correlate with the grade of osteosclerosis. All five cysts were readily diagnosed by MRI. Cysts displayed either central or marginal contrast enhancement within their cavities. Conclusions. MRI provides a sensitive method for the diagnosis of osteoarthritic bone abnormalities, allowing their differentiation from most non-degenerative subarticular lesions. (orig.). With 1 tab.

  19. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  20. Temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Although pluridirectional tomography had been the standard method to evaluate the temporal bone, computed tomography has replaced it for nearly all applications. Magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate nonosseous temporal bone structures as well

  1. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  2. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  3. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  4. Subsequent somatic axis and bone tissue metabolism responses to a low-zinc diet with or without phytase inclusion in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Siemowit; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Tomczyk-Warunek, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is required for normal bone development and cartilage formation. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of with adding organic Zn (alone or phytase inclusion) at the reduced dose to growing male Ross 308 chickens on somatic axis and bone tissue metabolism. 200 one-day old broilers were divided into the negative control group fed diet without Zn or phytase inclusion, positive control group receiving Zn in the 100% of daily recommended dose from ZnO, and two experimental groups fed diet introduced Zn in 25% of daily recommendation as a glycine chelate (Zn-Gly) with or without phytase inclusion (500 FTU·kg-1). Supplemental organic Zn increased bone Zn and Mg content, serum IGF-1, growth hormone and leptin concentration. Additional phytase inclusion increased body weight gain, blood plasma Ca, Fe, Zn and osteocalcin concentration and tibia ash percentage when compared to the Zn-deprived control. Bone geometry, yield and ultimate strengths were enhanced in both organic Zn supplemented groups, and the overall mechanical strength parameters of bone were better in these groups than in the positive control group supplemented with standard dose of inorganic Zn. Also marked improvements in the thickness of articular and the growth plate cartilages as well as real bone volume and thickness of metaphyseal trabeculae were achieved in all broilers fed Zn-supplemented diet irrespective of phytase inclusion, however, the highest cancellous bone mass and the best trabecular structure were noted after ZnO supplementation. In concludion, although dietary organic Zn given to growing broilers in 25% of daily recommended dose improved general bone properties and mechanical strength, the obtained results do not allow to unambiguously state that organic Zn supplementation at this level, even after phytase inclusion, is sufficient for proper bone development.

  5. Localized in vivo 1H spectroscopy and chemical shift imaging of the bone marrow in leukemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongers, H.; Schick, F.; Skalej, M.; Jung, W.I.; Einsele, H.

    1992-01-01

    Six healthy volunteers, ten patients with acute leukemia, one patient with hypersplenia and two with bone marrow carcinosis were studied. Nine patients with leukemia were restudied during chemotherapy. A double spin echo localization method, implemented on a 1.5 T whole body unit was used for 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). A cubic (13 mm) 3 voxel was chosen in a midlumbar vertebra. For chemical shift imaging (CSI) the SENEX sequence was used. We recorded fat and water images in a representative midsagittal plane. Patients with acute leukemia and hypercellular bone marrow showed a severe reduction or loss of the bone marrow fat signal and an increased water signal. Water T1 increased during therapy in three patients. The bone marrow fat reappeared in the spectra and chemical shift images within 2 or 3 weeks in responders and remained unchanged or reappeared later in non-responders. A normal fat signal could be detected in leukemic patients without hypercellular bone marrow. Specificity was missing for 1 H MRS and CSI; marrow carcinosis and benign stimulation (hypersplenia) could not be separated from leukemia. In clinical routine, CSI may have advantages over 1 H MRS, because a large anatomic field can be examined. Inhomogeneous fat signal distributions can be detected and were seen in several cases during therapy. 1 H MRS and CSI allow non-invasive therapy monitoring of leukemic patients and might be of prognostic value. (orig.)

  6. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  7. Making It Personal: Per Capita Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Tina; Hvelplund, Frede; Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The Chapter highligts the importance of introducing new, efficient schemes for mitigation of global warming. One such scheme is Personal Carbon Allowances (PCA), whereby individuals are allotted a tradable ration of CO2 emission per year.This chapter reviews the fundamentals of PCA and analyzes i...... merits and problems. The United Kingdom and Denmark have been chosen as case studies because the energy situation and the institutional setup are quite different between the two countries....

  8. The US SO2 allowance trading program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellerman, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    The US SO 2 Allowance Trading Program is the world's first large-scale application of a cap-and-trade mechanism for limiting emissions, and it is often cited as an example for the control of other pollutants and of greenhouse gases. Drawing upon experience with this novel approach to omissions control since 1995, this article makes five observations that address common misunderstandings about emissions trading and that are applicable to the control of greenhouse gases. First, emissions trading did not compromise environmental effectiveness, and even enhanced it. Second, the program works because of the simplicity of the compliance requirement, the unavoidably strict accountability of the system, and the complete flexibility given to emitting sources. All three go together to form what may be regarded as a virtuous circle. Third, despite fears to the contrary, allowance markets developed in response to trading opportunities. Fourth, the politics of allowance allocation can be helpful in overcoming objections to emission control measures. Finally, provisions for voluntary accession present problems of moral hazard that must be carefully considered. (author)

  9. Corners of normal matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The structure of general normal matrices is far more complicated than that of two special kinds — hermitian and unitary. There are many interesting theorems for hermitian and unitary matrices whose extensions to arbitrary normal matrices have proved to be extremely recalcitrant (see e.g., [1]). The problem whose study we ...

  10. Normalized medical information visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.

  11. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  12. Three-dimensional geometric analysis of felid limb bone allometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doube

    Full Text Available Studies of bone allometry typically use simple measurements taken in a small number of locations per bone; often the midshaft diameter or joint surface area is compared to body mass or bone length. However, bones must fulfil multiple roles simultaneously with minimum cost to the animal while meeting the structural requirements imposed by behaviour and locomotion, and not exceeding its capacity for adaptation and repair. We use entire bone volumes from the forelimbs and hindlimbs of Felidae (cats to investigate regional complexities in bone allometry.Computed tomographic (CT images (16435 slices in 116 stacks were made of 9 limb bones from each of 13 individuals of 9 feline species ranging in size from domestic cat (Felis catus to tiger (Panthera tigris. Eleven geometric parameters were calculated for every CT slice and scaling exponents calculated at 5% increments along the entire length of each bone. Three-dimensional moments of inertia were calculated for each bone volume, and spherical radii were measured in the glenoid cavity, humeral head and femoral head. Allometry of the midshaft, moments of inertia and joint radii were determined. Allometry was highly variable and related to local bone function, with joint surfaces and muscle attachment sites generally showing stronger positive allometry than the midshaft.Examining whole bones revealed that bone allometry is strongly affected by regional variations in bone function, presumably through mechanical effects on bone modelling. Bone's phenotypic plasticity may be an advantage during rapid evolutionary divergence by allowing exploitation of the full size range that a morphotype can occupy. Felids show bone allometry rather than postural change across their size range, unlike similar-sized animals.

  13. Dynamic Mechanical Testing Techniques for Cortical and Cancellous Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, Trevor

    2017-06-01

    Bone fracture typically occurs as an impact loading event (sporting accidents, vehicle collisions), the simulation of which requires in-depth understanding of dynamic bone behavior. Bone is a natural composite material with a complex multi length-scale hierarchical microstructure. At a macroscopic level, it is classified into hard/compact cortical bone and soft/spongy cancellous (trabecular) bone, though both are low-impedance materials relative to steels. Cortical bone is predominant in long bones, while in complex bone geometries (joints, flat bones) a cancellous bone core supports a thin cortical shell. Bone has primarily been studied at quasi-static strain rates (ɛ˙ failure, with interrupted quasi-static tests revealing a strong microstructure dependence. However, bone specimens are typically destroyed during dynamic tests, leading to a lack of dynamic microstructural damage investigations. In this paper, a short overview of dynamic bone testing is presented to give context to the challenges of testing low impedance, strain-rate dependent, non-linear, visco-elastic-brittle materials. Recent state-of-the-art experimental developments in dynamic bone testing are reviewed, with emphasis on pulse shaping, momentum trapping and ISR testing. These techniques allow for dynamic bone testing at small strains and near-constant strain rates with intact specimen recovery. The results are compared to those obtained with varying strain rate tests. Interrupted dynamic test results with microstructural analysis of the recovered specimens are presented and discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the experimental and modeling challenges that lie ahead in the field of dynamic bone behavior. The financial assistance of the National Research Foundation and the University of Cape Town towards this research is hereby acknowledged. Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at are those of the author alone.

  14. Three-dimensional geometric analysis of felid limb bone allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doube, Michael; Wiktorowicz-Conroy, Alexis; Conroy, Alexis Wiktorowicz; Christiansen, Per; Hutchinson, John R; Shefelbine, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Studies of bone allometry typically use simple measurements taken in a small number of locations per bone; often the midshaft diameter or joint surface area is compared to body mass or bone length. However, bones must fulfil multiple roles simultaneously with minimum cost to the animal while meeting the structural requirements imposed by behaviour and locomotion, and not exceeding its capacity for adaptation and repair. We use entire bone volumes from the forelimbs and hindlimbs of Felidae (cats) to investigate regional complexities in bone allometry. Computed tomographic (CT) images (16435 slices in 116 stacks) were made of 9 limb bones from each of 13 individuals of 9 feline species ranging in size from domestic cat (Felis catus) to tiger (Panthera tigris). Eleven geometric parameters were calculated for every CT slice and scaling exponents calculated at 5% increments along the entire length of each bone. Three-dimensional moments of inertia were calculated for each bone volume, and spherical radii were measured in the glenoid cavity, humeral head and femoral head. Allometry of the midshaft, moments of inertia and joint radii were determined. Allometry was highly variable and related to local bone function, with joint surfaces and muscle attachment sites generally showing stronger positive allometry than the midshaft. Examining whole bones revealed that bone allometry is strongly affected by regional variations in bone function, presumably through mechanical effects on bone modelling. Bone's phenotypic plasticity may be an advantage during rapid evolutionary divergence by allowing exploitation of the full size range that a morphotype can occupy. Felids show bone allometry rather than postural change across their size range, unlike similar-sized animals.

  15. Bone healing models in rat tibia after different injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, P; Piirsoo, A; Märtson, A; Toom, A; Haviko, T; Hussar, U

    2001-01-01

    Gradual elaboration of an adequate and efficient multistage method for experimental remodelling of specific wound healing process--bone repair. Comparison of clinical characteristics with the results of microanatomy, histology, electronmicroscopy and computer morphometry. An investigation of posttraumatic bone repair after internal fracture, excision and cortical perforation was carried out on 142 young adult male Wistar rats. The repair was studied in normal and affected animals (exercises, immobilization, isolation of periost) at 1-42 days after operation. The posttraumatic bone callus development and the related soft tissue repair, likewise the continuous remodelling, is an ordinary process of osteohisto- and organogenese. In trained rats the blood supply and bone formation is increased, whereas in immobilized animals it is inhibited and destroyed (osteoporose, pseudoarthrosis). After the injury some characteristics of bone repair histogenese will be became evident (after the perforation the primary endosteal and secondary periosteal ossification, inhibition of endosteal bone repair after the isolation of periost etc.). The posttraumatic bone healing, like embryohistogenese, has similar repair stages in all models of the experiments as well as similar tissue and cell responses (callus formation, its replacement, bone remodelling, etc.). However, the repair process in general (order of chondrous and/or bone callus stages, etc.) is variable and dependent on the mode and degree of injury. The use of bone cortex perforation in wound healing study is more recommendable as compared to internal fracture and excision (possibility of in situ study the periost and callus tissue compartments in bone repair machinery separately).

  16. Technetium-99m--pyrophosphate bone scans in hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegmann, T.; Rosenthall, L.; Kaye, M.

    1977-01-01

    Most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism have normal 5-hr bone-to-soft-tissue ratios for /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate. In contrast, all five patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism in this study showed significant (p less than 0.001) increases of bone uptake. In the early period after parathyroidectomy, there was no quantitative or qualitative change in uptake. A limited decrease of bone uptake was observed only after prolonged periods of observation. In itself, parathyroid activity seems to have little direct influence on bone uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate

  17. [Artificial bone substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koníček, Petr

    Bone tissue substitutes are divided into basic classification with its pros and cons described. Arteficial bone grafts are especially pointed out in article, publishing our own experience with two specific synthetic preps. Finally there is a blink in the near future of bone tissue augmentation.

  18. (unicameral) bone cysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When encountering a radiologically benign lucent bone lesion in a child, a simple bone cyst is a reasonable diagnostic consideration. Simple or unicameral bone cysts are expansile, serous-fluid-containing defects, that are not true neoplasms. Peak age ranges between 3 and 14 years in. 80% of cases. The incidence is ...

  19. Preferential orientation of biological apatite in normal and osteoporotic human vertebral trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabe, S.; Ishimoto, T.; Nakano, T.

    2009-05-01

    The preferential orientation of biological apatite (BAp) is a possible bone quality parameter for the comparison of the bone mechanical property. The preferential BAp orientation undergoes sensitive changes according to the change in the in vivo stress distribution, bone turnover rate etc., resulting in a variation of bone function. Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by reduced bone mass and deterioration of bone microstructure. The effect of osteoporosis on the preferential BAp orientation is however unknown. In this study, a microbeam-X-ray diffraction (μXRD) study was carried out on a trabecula extracted from osteoporotic and normal human vertebral bones and the degree of orientation for the BAp c-axis along its craniocaudal axis was analysed based on our previous report. A micro-computed tomography (μCT) measurement was also performed to analyze trabecular density and structure. In osteoporotic human vertebra, the trabecular number is markedly lower than that in normal vertebra. To sustain increased stress because of bone loss, the primary trabeculae, which are aligned parallel to the craniocaudal axis, tend to selectively remain while the secondary trabeculae, which are perpendicular to the craniocaudal axis, mostly disappear. Moreover, the primary trabecula from osteoporotic vertebra showed a significantly higher degree of BAp preferential orientation than the normal bone. This suggests that the remaining primary trabecula in osteoporotic vertebra is further reinforced by an increase in applied stress in vivo by enhancing the preferred BAp c-axis orientation along the trabecular direction.

  20. Preferential orientation of biological apatite in normal and osteoporotic human vertebral trabeculae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, S; Ishimoto, T; Nakano, T [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    The preferential orientation of biological apatite (BAp) is a possible bone quality parameter for the comparison of the bone mechanical property. The preferential BAp orientation undergoes sensitive changes according to the change in the in vivo stress distribution, bone turnover rate etc., resulting in a variation of bone function. Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by reduced bone mass and deterioration of bone microstructure. The effect of osteoporosis on the preferential BAp orientation is however unknown. In this study, a microbeam-X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD) study was carried out on a trabecula extracted from osteoporotic and normal human vertebral bones and the degree of orientation for the BAp c-axis along its craniocaudal axis was analysed based on our previous report. A micro-computed tomography ({mu}CT) measurement was also performed to analyze trabecular density and structure. In osteoporotic human vertebra, the trabecular number is markedly lower than that in normal vertebra. To sustain increased stress because of bone loss, the primary trabeculae, which are aligned parallel to the craniocaudal axis, tend to selectively remain while the secondary trabeculae, which are perpendicular to the craniocaudal axis, mostly disappear. Moreover, the primary trabecula from osteoporotic vertebra showed a significantly higher degree of BAp preferential orientation than the normal bone. This suggests that the remaining primary trabecula in osteoporotic vertebra is further reinforced by an increase in applied stress in vivo by enhancing the preferred BAp c-axis orientation along the trabecular direction.

  1. Simulating Bone Loss in Microgravity Using Mathematical Formulations of Bone Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Most mathematical models of bone remodeling are used to simulate a specific bone disease, by disrupting the steady state or balance in the normal remodeling process, and to simulate a therapeutic strategy. In this work, the ability of a mathematical model of bone remodeling to simulate bone loss as a function of time under the conditions of microgravity is investigated. The model is formed by combining a previously developed set of biochemical, cellular dynamics, and mechanical stimulus equations in the literature with two newly proposed equations; one governing the rate of change of the area of cortical bone tissue in a cross section of a cylindrical section of bone and one governing the rate of change of calcium in the bone fluid. The mechanical stimulus comes from a simple model of stress due to a compressive force on a cylindrical section of bone which can be reduced to zero to mimic the effects of skeletal unloading in microgravity. The complete set of equations formed is a system of first order ordinary differential equations. The results of selected simulations are displayed and discussed. Limitations and deficiencies of the model are also discussed as well as suggestions for further research.

  2. Solitary haemangioma of the shaft of long bones: resection and reconstruction with autologous bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoxu; Tang, Jicun; Ye, Zhaoming

    2013-04-01

    Bone haemangiomas are uncommon lesions, occurring in the skull or spine. A solitary haemangioma in the diaphysis of a long bone is rare. We retrospectively investigated six patients who presented with a solitary haemangioma in a long bone diaphysis. After segmental bone resection, the bone defect was replaced by a bone autograft. Patients were reviewed clinically and with radiographs. The mean follow-up was 6 years (range : 1-20 years). At the time of latest follow-up, no patient had a recurrence. Postoperative complications were one wound necrosis and one superficial wound infection. Union of the gap filling graft with the host bone was achieved in all patients at an average of 4 months (range: 3-8 months). The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score was 77% (range: 53%-90%) of normal at 6 months postoperatively, and 97% (range: 95%-99%) at the last follow-up evaluation. Segmental resection for solitary haemangioma and reconstruction with autologous bone graft can be considered as a suitable treatment option.

  3. Bone changes from prostaglandin therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poznanski, A.K.; Fernbach, S.K.; Berry, T.E.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL

    1985-01-01

    Prostaglandin E therapy in infants causes periosteal elevation. Although the changes usually take 30-40 days to become visible, we have seen them as early as nine days. In 15 infants who had prostaglandin E therapy for over six days, three developed periosteal elevation. Three other cases are described in greater detail, with long-term follow-up in two in which the bone remodeled to normal. Gallium scan in one showed increased uptake in areas involved. The periosteal cloaking may mimic Caffey disease but the pattern of involvement is different, since the mandible, which is commonly affected in Caffey disease, is rarely involved in prostaglandin E therapy. (orig.)

  4. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  5. Proactive detection of bones in poultry processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, W. D. R.; Stewart, John

    2009-05-01

    Bones continue to be a problem of concern for the poultry industry. Most further processed products begin with the requirement for raw material with minimal bones. The current process for generating deboned product requires systems for monitoring and inspecting the output product. The current detection systems are either people palpitating the product or X-ray systems. The current performance of these inspection techniques are below the desired levels of accuracies and are costly. We propose a technique for monitoring bones that conduct the inspection operation in the deboning the process so as to have enough time to take action to reduce the probability that bones will end up in the final product. This is accomplished by developing active cones with built in illumination to backlight the cage (skeleton) on the deboning line. If the bones of interest are still on the cage then the bones are not in the associated meat. This approach also allows for the ability to practice process control on the deboning operation to keep the process under control as opposed to the current system where the detection is done post production and does not easily present the opportunity to adjust the process. The proposed approach shows overall accuracies of about 94% for the detection of the clavicle bones.

  6. Application of Petri Nets in Bone Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxi Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding a mechanism of bone remodeling is a challenging task for both life scientists and model builders, since this highly interactive and nonlinear process can seldom be grasped by simple intuition. A set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs have been built for simulating bone formation as well as bone resorption. Although solving ODEs numerically can provide useful predictions for dynamical behaviors in a continuous time frame, an actual bone remodeling process in living tissues is driven by discrete events of molecular and cellular interactions. Thus, an event-driven tool such as Petri nets (PNs, which may dynamically and graphically mimic individual molecular collisions or cellular interactions, seems to augment the existing ODE-based systems analysis. Here, we applied PNs to expand the ODE-based approach and examined discrete, dynamical behaviors of key regulatory molecules and bone cells. PNs have been used in many engineering areas, but their application to biological systems needs to be explored. Our PN model was based on 8 ODEs that described an osteoprotegerin linked molecular pathway consisting of 4 types of bone cells. The models allowed us to conduct both qualitative and quantitative evaluations and evaluate homeostatic equilibrium states. The results support that application of PN models assists understanding of an event-driven bone remodeling mechanism using PN-specific procedures such as places, transitions, and firings.

  7. ASVCP guidelines: Allowable total error hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabity, Mary B; Harr, Kendal E; Camus, Melinda S; Flatland, Bente; Vap, Linda M

    2018-02-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide total allowable error (TE a ) recommendations for commonly analyzed hematology measurands for veterinary personnel. These guidelines define relevant terminology and highlight considerations specific to hematology measurands. They also provide reasons and guidelines for using TE a in instrument performance evaluation, including recommendations for when the total observed error exceeds the recommended TE a . Biological variation-based quality specifications are briefly discussed. The appendix describes the derivation of the hematology TE a recommendations and provides resources for external quality assurance/proficiency testing programs and a worksheet for implementation of the guidelines. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. Robust technique allowing manufacturing superoleophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Chaniel, Gilad; Taitelbaum, Haim; Bormashenko, Yelena

    2013-04-01

    We report the robust technique allowing manufacturing of superhydrophobic and oleophobic (omniphobic) surfaces with industrial grade low density polyethylene. The reported process includes two stages: (1) hot embossing of polyethylene with micro-scaled steel gauzes; (2) treatment of embossed surfaces with cold radiofrequency plasma of tetrafluoromethane. The reported surfaces demonstrate not only pronounced superhydrophobicity but also superoleophobicity. Superoleophobicity results from the hierarchical nano-scaled topography of fluorinated polyethylene surface. The observed superoleophobicity is strengthened by the hydrophobic recovery. The stability of the Cassie wetting regime was studied.

  9. Clinical evaluation of bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-labeled phosphate compounds, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Itsuo

    1978-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-labeled phosphate compounds were performed on metabolic bone diseases and bone dysplasias and the bone scintigrams were evaluated by comparing with x-ray examinations and/or calcium kinetic studies using 47 Ca performed on the same patients. On primary hyperparathyroidism, bone scintigraphy correlated well with both of x-ray examination and 47 Ca kinetic study. Cases with skeletal changes due to hyper secretion of parathyroid hormone on x-ray examination and with highly elevated values for serum alkaline phosphatase, showed significantly increases accumulation of sup(99m)Tc-EHDP on the skull and other bones and also had increased calcium pool and bone accretion rate on calcium kinetic study. On the other hand, cases with no skeletal changes on x-ray examination and with normal values for serum alkaline phosphatase showed also no abnormal findings on bone scintigraphy and calcium kinetic study. In cases with hypoparathyroidism, calcium pool and bone accretion rate were decreased and bone scintigraphy showed decreased uptake of radionuclide by the skeleton. In osteomalacia, calcium pool and bone accretion rate were significantly increased and bone scintigraphy also showed increased uptake of sup(99m)Tc-EHDP by the whole skeleton. In osteoporosis and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, calcium kinetic study and bone scintigraphy showed no abnormal findings. In conclusion, bone scintigraphy correlated well with calcium kinetic study and bone scintigraphy was very useful for the evaluation of metabolic bone diseases. (author)

  10. Influences of organic component on mechanical property of cortical bone with different water content by nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingdong; Li, Lijia; Guo, Yue; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhang, Shizhong; Yu, Yang; Wu, Di; Liu, Hang; Yu, Miao; Shi, Dong; Liu, Zeyang; Zhou, Mingxing; Ren, Luquan; Fu, Lu

    2018-03-01

    The phenomenon that water in bone has important influences on mechanical properties of cortical bone has been known. However, the detail of the influence mechanism is not clear, especially in the component hierarchy. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the mechanical properties of deproteinization bone and cortical bone with different water content by nanoindentation experiments. The deproteinization bone is cortical bone removed organic component, and demineralization bone is cortical bone removed inorganic component. The experiments results showed that the elastic modulus and hardness all increased with the decreasing of water content in both cortical bone and deproteinization bone. However, variations of deproteinization bone were more significant than the normal one. Without organic component, the shape and size of inorganic component (hydroxyapatite particles) turned to irregular. The plastic energy of both cortical bone and deproteinization bone all decreased with the decreasing of water content and the variations range of deproteinization bone was wider than cortical bone. This research may give some deeply understanding for the studies of influence of water on mechanical properties of cortical bone.

  11. Outcomes of bone density measurements in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Rowbotham, David S

    2016-01-29

    Some guidelines recommend that patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease undergo bone density scanning. We assessed the bone density results in a cohort of patients with coeliac disease. We searched bone density reports over two 5-year periods in all patients from Auckland District Health Board (2008-12) and in patients under 65 years from Counties Manukau District Health Board (2009-13) for the term 'coeliac.' Reports for 137 adults listed coeliac disease as an indication for bone densitometry. The average age was 47 years, body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m(2), and 77% were female. The median time between coeliac disease diagnosis and bone densitometry was 261 days. The average bone density Z-score was slightly lower than expected (Z-score -0.3 to 0.4) at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck, but 88-93% of Z-scores at each site lay within the normal range. Low bone density was strongly related to BMI: the proportions with Z-score 30 kg/m(2) were 28%, 15%, 6% and 0% respectively. Average bone density was normal, suggesting that bone density measurement is not indicated routinely in coeliac disease, but could be considered on a case-by-case basis for individuals with strong risk factors for fracture.

  12. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic methods for detection of bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Łukaszewski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal metastases are severe complications in the course of cancer, and they indicate a worse prognosis. The use of modern imaging techniques allows rapid diagnosis of bone metastases. Properly selected diagnostic imaging (scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, whole body MRI allows us to evaluate the number of metastatic foci in the skeletal system. Complementary imaging examinations (X-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging determine the extent of metastasis and its character: osteolytic, osteoblast, mixed. Hypercalcaemia is a symptom of low specificity for metastatic bone disease (a result of osteolysis; nevertheless, it is a significant complication in oncological treatment and worsens the prognosis of the patient. A biopsy is the final stage of the diagnostic process, which allows us to assess cell and tissue changes. Guided biopsies are performed under the control of musculoskeletal imaging methods (CT, MRI and they are the most promising tools in bone metastases diagnosis. The development of guided biopsy techniques has led to the conclusion that they should be standard in diagnosing bone metastases. Liquid biopsy (LB seems to be the most promising diagnostic method for detection of bone metastases. LB based on tumour-specific DNA mutation gives an opportunity for early detection and assessment of the molecular heterogeneity of the overall disease.

  14. Effect of flavonoid-containing extracts on the growth of transplanted sarcoma 45, peripheral blood and bone marrow condition after oral and intramuscular administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Navolokin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective — Discovery of the apoptosis-inducing effects of flavonoid vagonin allowed to make an assumption of existence of similar effect in others flavonoids. This study of the effects of extracts from Gratīola officinālis, Helichrýsum arenárium and diploid forms of Zea mays on bone marrow and blood leucocytes at intramuscular and oral administration was carried out on rats bearing sarcoma 45. Earlier, the apoptosis-inducing effects were detected for these extracts but the toxic effects of extracts on blood and bone marrow have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these extracts on white blood cell count and bone marrow morphology. Material and Methods — The experiments were carried out on 48 male Wistar albino rats according to University's Animal Ethics Committee (Protocol № 13, 2011, Saratov, Russia and the relevant national agency regulating experiments on animals. We evaluated white blood cell count and bone marrow morphology in animals after oral and intramuscular administration of extracts. A growth rate of tumor was also ranked. Results — Oral and intramuscular administration of extracts from flavonoid-containing plants Zea mays and Gratīola officinālis causes normalization of myelocytic germ parameters in bone marrow of tumor-bearing rats and increase of lymphocyte percent in white blood cell count of blood and myelogram. Conclusion — Absence of toxic effects and normalization of myelocytic germ parameters in bone marrow of tumor-bearing rats after oral and intramuscular administration of extracts from flavonoid-containing plants Zea mays and Gratīola officinālis allows to recommend further study of the antitumor effect of these extracts.

  15. Bone disease in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V.; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are generally accepted to be associated with increased bone fracture risk. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic bone disease are poorly understood, and whether the associated increased skeletal fragility is a comorbidity or a complication of diabetes...... remains under debate. Although there is some indication of a direct deleterious effect of microangiopathy on bone, the evidence is open to question, and whether diabetic osteopathy can be classified as a chronic, microvascular complication of diabetes remains uncertain. Here, we review the current...... knowledge of potential contributory factors to diabetic bone disease, particularly the association between diabetic microangiopathy and bone mineral density, bone structure, and bone turnover. Additionally, we discuss and propose a pathophysiological model of the effects of diabetic microvascular disease...

  16. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    Summary The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological principles of osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduction. Several techniques combine these principles with different results, due to the condition of the bone base on which we operate changes, the surgical technique that we use, and finally for the bone metabolic conditions of the patient who can be in a state of systemic osteopenia or osteoporosis; these can also affect the result of jaw bone reconstruction. PMID:22461825

  17. Bone stress injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, M.J.; Pihlajamaeki, H.K.; Ahovuo, J.A. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-05-01

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications.

  18. Bone allografting in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovoy, M. A.; Kirilova, I. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Matsuk, S. A.; Novoselov, V. P.; Moskalev, A. V.; Bondarenko, A. V.; Afanasev, L. M.; Gubina, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    A total of 522 patients with benign and intermediate bone tumors of various locations, aged 1 to 15 years, were operated in the period from 1996 to 2016. To diagnose skeleton tumors, we used clinical observation, X-ray, and, if indicated, tomography and tumor site biopsy. In the extensive bone resection, we performed bone reconstruction with the replacement of a defect with an allograft (bone strips, deproteinized and spongy grafts), sometimes in the combination with bone autografting. After segmental resection, the defects were filled with bone strips in the form of matchstick grafts; the allografts were received from the Laboratory for Tissue Preparation and Preservation of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. According to the X-ray data, a complete reorganization of bone grafts occurred within 1.5 to 3 years. The long-term result was assessed as good.

  19. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  20. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  1. Dry bone histology : technicalities, diagnostic value and new applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Hans Henk de

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an easy, rapid and inexpensive supplement to the well-known method of Maat et al. (2001). This new method allows for the histochemical staining of dry bone material, enhancing the visibility of important hallmarks of dry bone histomorphology. In addition, this thesis provides a

  2. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  3. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inner lining called the endometrium. Normal female reproductive system anatomy. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute Creator: Terese Winslow (Illustrator) AV Number: CDR609921 Date Created: November 17, 2014 Date Added: ...

  4. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: Infancy Preschool years Middle childhood years Adolescence Soon after birth, an infant normally loses about 5% to 10% of their birth weight. By about age ...

  5. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  6. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  7. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  8. Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doube, M; Firth, E C; Boyde, A; Bushby, A J

    2010-06-03

    Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site that linear defects and condylar fracture occur in older Thoroughbreds and questioned whether this tissue had altered mechanical properties. We embedded bone slices in PMMA, prepared flat surfaces normal to the articular surface and studied ACC and SCB using combined quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE) and nanoindentation testing: this allowed correlation of mineralisation density and tissue stiffness (E) at the micron scale. We studied both normal and affected grooves, and also normal condylar regions. Large arrays of indentations could be visualised as 2-dimensional maps of E with a limit to resolution of indentation spacing, which is much larger than qBSE pixel spacing. ACC was more highly mineralised but less stiff in early linear defects than in control regions, while subchondral bone was more highly mineralised and stiffer in specimens with early linear defects than those without. Thus both ACC and SCB mineralisation may be abnormal in a class of early linear defect in 18-month-old Thoroughbred horses, and this may possibly contribute to later fracture of the Mc3 condyle.

  9. Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Doube

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3 is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site that linear defects and condylar fracture occur in older Thoroughbreds and questioned whether this tissue had altered mechanical properties. We embedded bone slices in PMMA, prepared flat surfaces normal to the articular surface and studied ACC and SCB using combined quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE and nanoindentation testing: this allowed correlation of mineralisation density and tissue stiffness (E at the micron scale. We studied both normal and affected grooves, and also normal condylar regions. Large arrays of indentations could be visualised as 2-dimensional maps of E with a limit to resolution of indentation spacing, which is much larger than qBSE pixel spacing. ACC was more highly mineralised but less stiff in early linear defects than in control regions, while subchondral bone was more highly mineralised and stiffer in specimens with early linear defects than those without. Thus both ACC and SCB mineralisation may be abnormal in a class of early linear defect in 18-month-old Thoroughbred horses, and this may possibly contribute to later fracture of the Mc3 condyle.

  10. The effect of autologous bone marrow stromal cells differentiated on scaffolds for canine tibial bone reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal-Kurt, F; Tuğlu, I; Vatansever, H S; Tong, S; Deliloğlu-Gürhan, S I

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells that form many tissues. Various scaffolds are available for bone reconstruction by tissue engineering. Osteoblastic differentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) promote osteogenesis on scaffolds and stimulate bone regeneration. We investigated the use of cultured autologous BMSC on different scaffolds for healing defects in tibias of adult male canines. BMSC were isolated from canine humerus bone marrow, differentiated into osteoblasts in culture and loaded onto porous ceramic scaffolds including hydroxyapatite 1, hydroxyapatite gel and calcium phosphate. Osteoblast differentiation was verified by osteonectine and osteocalcine immunocytochemistry. The scaffolds with stromal cells were implanted in the tibial defect. Scaffolds without stromal cells were used as controls. Sections from the defects were processed for histological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and histomorphometric analyses to analyze the healing of the defects. BMSC were spread, allowed to proliferate and differentiate to osteoblasts as shown by alizarin red histochemistry, and osteocalcine and osteonectine immunostaining. Scanning electron microscopy showed that BMSC on the scaffolds were more active and adhesive to the calcium phosphate scaffold compared to the others. Macroscopic bone formation was observed in all groups, but scaffolds with stromal cells produced significantly better results. Bone healing occurred earlier and faster with stromal cells on the calcium phosphate scaffold and produced more callus compared to other scaffolds. Tissue healing and osteoblastic marker expression also were better with stromal cells on the scaffolds. Increased trabecula formation, cell density and decreased fibrosis were observed in the calcium phosphate scaffold with stromal cells. Autologous cultured stromal cells on the scaffolds were useful for healing of canine tibial bone defects. The calcium phosphate scaffold was the best for both cell

  11. Three-dimensional trabecular bone architecture of the lumbar spine in bone metastasis from prostate cancer: comparison with degenerative sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Fukunaga, Masao; Jo, Yoshimasa

    2005-01-01

    Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone, inducing osteosclerotic lesions. The objective of this study was to clarify the three-dimensional (3D) trabecular bone microstructure in bone metastasis from prostate cancer by comparison with normal and degenerative sclerotic bone lesions, using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). A total of 32 cancellous bone samples were excised from the lumbar spine of six autopsy patients: 15 metastatic samples (one patient), eight degenerative sclerotic samples (four patients) and the rest from normal sites (three patients). The samples were serially scanned cross-sectionally by micro-CT with a pixel size of 23.20 μm, slice thickness of 18.56 μm, and image matrix of 512 x 512. Each image data set consisted of 250 consecutive slices. The volumes of interest (96 x 96 x 120 voxels) were defined in the original image sets and 3D indices of the trabecular microstructure were determined. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in degenerative sclerotic lesions was significantly higher than that in normal sites, whereas no significant difference was observed in trabecular number (Tb.N). By contrast, in metastatic lesions, the Tb.N was significantly higher with increased bone volume fraction (BV/TV) than in normal sites, and no significant difference was found in Tb.Th. The characteristics of the trabecular surface in the metastatic samples showed concave structural elements with an increase in BV/TV, indicating osteolysis of the trabecular bone. In 3D reconstructed images, increased trabecular bone with an irregular surface was observed in samples from metastatic sites, which were uniformly sclerotic on soft X-ray radiographs. These results support, through 3D morphological features, the strong bone resorption effect in bone metastasis from prostate cancer. (orig.)

  12. High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waldron-Lynch, F

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARY: Professional jockeys are routinely exposed to high impact trauma and sustain fractures frequently. We found that jockeys restrict their caloric intake in order to maintain regulation weights, and that bone turnover is high. There are significant health and safety implications for the racing industry. INTRODUCTION: Professional jockeys routinely sustain fractures from high impact falls. Jockeys maintain a low percentage body fat and a low body mass index (BMI) to achieve low weight targets in order to race. We evaluated dietary habits and bone metabolism in jockeys. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 27 male jockeys of the 144 jockeys licensed in Ireland. Fourteen (52%) had BMD T score below -1.0, of whom 12 consented to clinical review, nutritional survey, endocrine studies, and bone turnover markers (BTM). BTM were compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 16). RESULTS: BMI was 20.6 +\\/- 1.7 kg\\/m(2); previous fracture frequency was 3.2 +\\/- 2.0 per rider. All had normal endocrine axes. The jockeys\\' diet as determined by a 7-day dietary recall was deficient in energy, calcium, and vitamin D intake. Compared with the control group, the jockey group had evidence of increased bone turnover. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the professional jockeys in Ireland have low-normal BMD, low BMI, and high bone turnover that may result from weight and dietary restrictions. These factors seem to have a deleterious effect on their bone health and predispose the jockeys to a high fracture risk that should be remediated.

  13. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Albemarle Bill Clark Pest Control, Inc. Burnside Services, Inc. Cardinal Professional Products Chemtura Corp...

  14. Premature hair graying and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr-Walker, B J; Evans, M C; Ames, R W; Clearwater, J M; Reid, I R

    1997-11-01

    In a recent case-control study, premature hair graying was found to be associated with osteopenia, suggesting that this might be a clinically useful risk factor for osteoporosis. We report a reexamination of this possibility in 293 healthy postmenopausal women. Subjects experiencing onset of hair graying in their 20s tended to have lower bone mineral density throughout the skeleton (adjusted for age and weight) than those with onset of graying later in life. The same was true for those in whom the majority of their hair was gray by the age of 40 yr (n = 16), in whom bone density was reduced by 7% in the femoral neck, 8% in the femoral trochanter, and 4% in the total body (P gray. Bone density at the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle showed similar trends that were not significant. However, premature hair graying explained only 0.6-1.3% of the variance in bone mineral density within the population. We conclude that premature hair graying is associated with low bone density, but that its infrequency in the normal postmenopausal population leads to its accounting for only a tiny fraction of the variance of bone density.

  15. Up-regulation of bone marrow stromal protein 2 (BST2) in breast cancer with bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Dongqing; Cao, Jie; Li, Zhen; Zheng, Xin; Yao, Yao; Li, Wanglin; Yuan, Ziqiang

    2009-01-01

    Bone metastases are frequent complications of breast cancer. Recent literature implicates multiple chemokines in the formation of bone metastases in breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of metastatic bone disease in breast cancer remains unknown. We have recently made the novel observation of the BST2 protein expression in human breast cancer cell lines. The purpose of our present study is to investigate the expression and the role of BST2 in bone metastatic breast cancer. cDNA microarray analysis was used to compare the BST2 gene expression between a metastatic to bone human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231BO) and a primary human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231). The BST2 expression in one bone metastatic breast cancer and seven non-bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines were also determined using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot assays. We then employed tissue array to further study the BST2 expression in human breast cancer using array slides containing 20 independent breast cancer tumors that formed metastatic bone lesions, 30 non-metastasis-forming breast cancer tumors, and 8 normal breast tissues. In order to test the feasibility of utilizing BST2 as a serum marker for the presence of bone metastasis in breast cancer, we had measured the BST2 expression levels in human serums by using ELISA on 43 breast cancer patients with bone metastasis, 43 breast cancer patients without bone metastasis, and 14 normal healthy controls. The relationship between cell migration and proliferation and BST2 expression was also studied in a human breast recombinant model system using migration and FACS analysis. The microarray demonstrated over expression of the BST2 gene in the bone metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-231BO) compared to the primary human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231). The expression of the BST2 gene was significantly increased in the bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines and tumor tissues compared to non-bone metastatic breast cancer

  16. Bone Formation Rate in Experimental Disuse Osteoporosis in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Christopher; Young, Donald R.

    1976-01-01

    Specific mechanisms underlying weightless and hypodynamic bone loss are obscure. A principal relationship which must be affected is the balance between bone formation and bone resorption rates. In order to better define the influence of those parameters on bone loss, and also to develop measurements in other species as a useful adjunct to human research, studies were undertaken with experimental monkeys. Tests were conducted with a total of 6 adult male monkeys, weighing 10-13 kg, and approximately 10-12 yrs. of age to evaluate specifically bone formation rate during the development of disuse osteoporosis and osteopenia. Three animals were restrained in a semi-recumbent position for six months; three animals served as normal caged controls. Food intake (Purina) was held relatively constant at 200g/day for each animal. Using a Norland Bone Mineral Analyzer, bone mineral losses of 3.5 to 6% were seen in the mid-shaft of the tibia and in the distal radius. Bone loss was confirmed radiographically, with observation of thinning of the proximal tibial cortex and trabeculae in the calcaneus. Bone formation rate was determined using standard Ca-47 kinetics under metabolic balance conditions. After six months of restraint, accretion was 7.2-13.2 mg Ca/kg/day, compared to 3.2-4.1 mg Ca/kg/day in caged controls and 3-8 mg Ca/kg/day in normal adult humans. Fecal and urine calcium was 25-40% higher in restrained animals than in controls. Dietary calcium absorption decreases during restraint, and calcium turnover increases, implying a rise in bone resorption rate concommitant with the observed rise in bone accretion rate. Further studies dealing specifically with bone resorption are underway to define this more fully.

  17. Macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thomas, ME

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available An improved strategy is described for the manufacture of macroporous hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications. This is based on a modified fugitive phase technique, which allows production of relatively open, high-strength devices...

  18. ACL graft can replicate the normal ligament's tension curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP; Verdonschot, N; van Kampen, A

    2005-01-01

    The anatomical femoral insertion of the normal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lies on the deep portion of the lateral wall of the intercondylar fossa. Following the deep bone-cartilage border, it stretches from 11 o'clock high in the notch all the way down to its lowest border at 8 o'clock. The

  19. Toxicokinetics of bone lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, M B

    1991-02-01

    This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake and subsequent release. The bulk turnover rates for compact bone are about 2% per year and 8% for spine. Turnover activity varies with age and health. Even though lead approximates calcium, radium, strontium, barium, fluorine, and other bone seekers, the rates for each are different. A simple, two-pool (bone and blood) kinetic model is presented with proposed numerical values for the changes in blood lead levels that occur with changes in turnover rates. Two approaches are offered to further quantify lead turnover. One involves a study of subjects with known past exposure. Changes in the ratio of blood lead to bone lead with time would reflect the course of bone lead availability. Also, stable isotopes and subjects who move from one geographical area to another offer opportunities. Sequential isotope measurements would indicate how much of the lead in blood is from current exposure or bone stores, distinct from changes in absorption or excretion.

  20. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Bone is an important tissue in paleontological studies as it is a commonly preserved element in most fossil vertebrates, and can often allow its ... biomechanical studies now tend to use FEA. However, despite its use in .... the cross sectional area of each concentric annular region,. i.e. lamella, increases with ...