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Sample records for allowing normal bone

  1. Normal bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, D.; R. Arumugam; Seilheimer, D.; Leblanc, A.; Ellis, K.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Osteoporosis has been reported as a complication of cystic fibrosis (CF).
AIMS—To measure bone mineral density (BMD) in non-acutely ill adults and bone mineral content (BMC) in children with CF.
METHODS—We analysed data from 28 adults and 13 children with CF. Corticosteroid use was minimal for the year prior to study in both groups. Dual x ray absorptiometry was used to measure total body and regional bone mineral density in adults. In children, whole body BMC was...

  2. GFR normalized to total body water allows comparisons across genders and body sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Bjørn O; Melsom, Toralf; Mathisen, Ulla D; Jenssen, Trond G; Solbu, Marit D; Toft, Ingrid

    2011-08-01

    The normalization of GFR to a standardized body-surface area of 1.73 m(2) impedes comparison of GFR across individuals of different genders, heights, or weights. Ideally, GFR should be normalized to a parameter that best explains variation in GFR. Here, we measured true GFR by iohexol clearance in a representative sample of 1627 individuals from the general population who did not have diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or kidney disease. We also estimated total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume, lean body mass, liver volume, metabolic rate, and body-surface area. We compared two methods of normalizing GFR to these physiologic variables: (1) the conventional method of scaling GFR to each physiologic variable by simple division and (2) a method based on regression of the GFR on each variable. TBW explained a higher proportion of the variation in GFR than the other physiologic variables. GFR adjusted for TBW by the regression method exhibited less dependence on gender, height, and weight compared with the other physiologic variables. Thus, adjusting GFR for TBW by the regression method allows direct comparisons between individuals of different genders, weights, and heights. We propose that regression-based normalization of GFR to a standardized TBW of 40 L should replace the current practice of normalizing GFR to 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area.

  3. Bone marrow blood vessels: normal and neoplastic niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahrabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are among the most important factors in the transport of materials such as nutrients and oxygen. This study will review the role of blood vessels in normal bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as pathological conditions like leukemia and metastasis. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2016 of English-language papers using the terms bone marrow, leukemia, metastasis, and vessel. Given that blood vessels are conduits for the transfer of nutrients, they create a favorable situation for cancer cells and cause their growth and development. On the other hand, blood vessels protect leukemia cells against chemotherapy drugs. Finally, it may be concluded that the vessels are an important factor in the development of malignant diseases.

  4. Normal tempo of bone formation in Turner syndrome despite signs of accelerated bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line Hartvig; Holm, Kirsten Bagge; Kobbernagel, Hanne;

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n......' TS, compared to controls. vBMD(hip) was lower in 'ongoing GH' TS, but similar in 'previous GH'. z scores for aBMD were uniformly reduced in 'ongoing TS', but near-normalized in 'previous GH' TS. Bone formation and resorption markers were increased in 'ongoing GH' TS, while 'previous GH' TS had...

  5. Normal Tempo of Bone Formation in Turner Syndrome despite Signs of Accelerated Bone Resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Holm, Kirsten; Kobbernagel, Hanne;

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate area bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and relations to bone markers and hormones in adolescent women with Turner syndrome (TS). Methods: Cross-sectional study in TS patients (n = 37, 16.7 ± 3.4 years) and control group (n......' TS, compared to controls. vBMD(hip) was lower in 'ongoing GH' TS, but similar in 'previous GH'. z scores for aBMD were uniformly reduced in 'ongoing TS', but near-normalized in 'previous GH' TS. Bone formation and resorption markers were increased in 'ongoing GH' TS, while 'previous GH' TS had...

  6. Mice deficient in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lack bone marrow adipocytes, but maintain normal bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jeannette; Mosekilde, Lis; Holmes, Megan

    2004-01-01

    and regenerates active cortisol (corticosterone) from circulating inert 11-keto forms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of this intracrine activation of GCs on normal bone physiology in vivo using mice deficient in 11betaHSD1 (HSD1(-/-)). The HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited no significant changes...... in cortical or trabecular bone mass compared with wild-type (Wt) mice. Aged HSD1(-/-) mice showed age-related bone loss similar to that observed in Wt mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed similar bone formation and bone resorption parameters in HSD1(-/-) and Wt mice. However, examination of bone marrow...

  7. Mechanical properties of the normal human cartilage-bone complex in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the age-related variations in the mechanical properties of the normal human tibial cartilage-bone complex and the relationships between cartilage and bone. DESIGN: A novel technique was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the cartilage and bone by means...... normal donors aged 16-83 years were tested in compression. The deformation was measured simultaneously in bone and cartilage to obtain the mechanical properties of both tissues. RESULTS: The stiffnesses and elastic energies of both cartilage and bone showed an initial increase, with maxima at 40 years......, followed by a steady decline. The viscoelastic energy was maximal at younger ages (16-29 years), followed by a steady decline. The energy absorption capacity did not vary with age. Stiffnesses and elastic energies were correlated significantly between cartilage and bone. CONCLUSIONS: The present study...

  8. Normal SUV values measured from NaF18- PET/CT bone scan studies.

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    Aung Zaw Win

    Full Text Available Cancer and metabolic bone diseases can alter the SUV. SUV values have never been measured from healthy skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans. The primary aim of this study was to measure the SUV values from normal skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans.A retrospective study was carried out involving NaF18- PET/CT bone scans that were done at our institution between January 2010 to May 2012. Our excluding criteria was patients with abnormal real function and patients with past history of cancer and metabolic bone diseases including but not limited to osteoporosis, osteopenia and Paget's disease. Eleven studies met all the criteria.The average normal SUVmax values from 11 patients were: cervical vertebrae 6.84 (range 4.38-8.64, thoracic vertebrae 7.36 (range 6.99-7.66, lumbar vertebrae 7.27 (range 7.04-7.72, femoral head 2.22 (range 1.1-4.3, humeral head 1.82 (range 1.2-2.9, mid sternum 5.51 (range 2.6-8.1, parietal bone 1.71 (range 1.3-2.4.According to our study, various skeletal sites have different normal SUV values. SUV values can be different between the normal bones and bones with tumor or metabolic bone disease. SUV can be used to quantify NaF-18 PET/CT studies. If the SUV values of the normal skeleton are known, they can be used in the characterization of bone lesions and in the assessment of treatment response to bone diseases.

  9. Computer modelling of bone's adaptation: the role of normal strain, shear strain and fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Abhishek Kumar; Prasad, Jitendra

    2017-04-01

    Bone loss is a serious health problem. In vivo studies have found that mechanical stimulation may inhibit bone loss as elevated strain in bone induces osteogenesis, i.e. new bone formation. However, the exact relationship between mechanical environment and osteogenesis is less clear. Normal strain is considered as a prime stimulus of osteogenic activity; however, there are some instances in the literature where osteogenesis is observed in the vicinity of minimal normal strain, specifically near the neutral axis of bending in long bones. It suggests that osteogenesis may also be induced by other or secondary components of mechanical environment such as shear strain or canalicular fluid flow. As it is evident from the literature, shear strain and fluid flow can be potent stimuli of osteogenesis. This study presents a computational model to investigate the roles of these stimuli in bone adaptation. The model assumes that bone formation rate is roughly proportional to the normal, shear and fluid shear strain energy density above their osteogenic thresholds. In vivo osteogenesis due to cyclic cantilever bending of a murine tibia has been simulated. The model predicts results close to experimental findings when normal strain, and shear strain or fluid shear were combined. This study also gives a new perspective on the relation between osteogenic potential of micro-level fluid shear and that of macro-level bending shear. Attempts to establish such relations among the components of mechanical environment and corresponding osteogenesis may ultimately aid in the development of effective approaches to mitigating bone loss.

  10. Adolescence: How do we increase intestinal calcium absorption to allow for bone mineral mass accumulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increase in calcium absorptive efficiency (fractional absorption of dietary calcium) during adolescence is associated with a rapid increase in total body bone mineral mass (BMM) accumulation. This increase occurs across a range of calcium intakes. It appears to be principally mediated by hormonal...

  11. No evidence for a bone phenotype in GPRC6A knockout mice under normal physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn;

    2009-01-01

    . Analogously to the closely related calcium-sensing receptor, GPRC6A has been proposed to function as a metabolic sensor of Ca2+ and amino acids in bone and other tissues. In the present study, we have generated the first GPRC6A knockout mice and studied their phenotype with particular focus on bone...... homeostasis. The generated GPRC6A knockout mice are viable and fertile, develop normally and exhibit no significant differences in body weight compared to wild type littermates. Assessment of bone mineral density, histomorphometry and bone metabolism demonstrated no significant differences between 13-week......-old knockout and wild type mice. In conclusion, our data do not support a role for GPRC6A in normal bone physiology....

  12. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the water fraction of normal bone marrow and diffuse bone marrow disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuya, Tomoo; Inoue, Tomio; Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Aoki, Jun; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    To clarify the contrast-enhancement pattern of the normal hematopoietic element by isolating the signal of the water fraction in vertebral bone marrow and to investigate whether this approach can be used to characterize bone marrow pathology in several diffuse bone marrow diseases. Two groups were examined: 30 normal healthy volunteers and 19 patients with primary diffuse bone marrow disease (aplastic anemia [n=8], myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) [n=5], chronic myelogenic leukemia (CML) [n=4], polycythemia vera [n=2]). Isolation of the signal of hematopoietic tissue was done by the chemical-shift misregistration effect. Twenty consecutive T1-weighted midsagittal lumber vertebral images were obtained immediately after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, and the pattern of the time-intensity curve, the peak contrast-enhancement (CE) ratio, and the washout rate (%/min) of bone marrow in normal volunteers were compared with those in patients suffering from primary diffuse bone marrow disease. The pattern of the time-intensity curve of patients with aplastic anemia showed a low peak value followed by a slow washout. However, the pattern of time-intensity curves in patients with MDS, CML, and polycythemia vera was similar to that of normal volunteers. The peak CE ratio of the water fraction in normal marrow ranged from 0.45 to 1.26 (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.87{+-}0.18). Patients with aplastic anemia showed an abnormally lower peak CE ratio of the water fraction (mean {+-}S.D.: 0.34{+-}0.19, p<0.0001). On the other hand, the peak CE ratio of the water fraction in patients with MDS was significantly higher than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D. 1.35{+-}0.39, p<0.05). In contrast, the peak CE ratio of patients with CML or polycythemia vera did not differ significantly from that of normal volunteers. The mean washout rate of patients with aplastic anemia was significantly lower than that of normal volunteers (mean {+-}S.D.: 3.50{+-}2.51 %/min

  13. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  14. Paget’s Disease of Bone Presented as Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Tafakhori

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paget’s disease is a focal bone disorder manifested as bone overgrowth and disrupted bone integrity as a result of accelerated bone remodelling rate. Rarely, Paget’s disease of the base of the skull results in hydrocephalic dementia, and the triad of normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome is a much more scarce entity.Case Report: Herein, we report an elderly woman who presented in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran, with normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome due to Paget’s bone disease. Furthermore, we have reviewed relevant previous studiesConclusion: Paget’s disease can be presented as normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome

  15. Nrf2 is required for normal postnatal bone acquisition in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung-Hyun Kim; Vandana Singhal; Shyam Biswal; Rajesh K Thimmulappa; Douglas J DiGirolamo

    2014-01-01

    A large body of literature suggests that bone metabolism is susceptible to the ill effects of reactive species that accumulate in the body and cause cellular dysfunction. One of the body’s front lines in defense against such damage is the transcription factor, Nrf2. This transcription factor regulates a plethora of antioxidant and cellular defense pathways to protect cells from such damage. Despite the breadth of knowledge of both the function of Nrf2 and the effects of reactive species in bone metabolism, the direct role of Nrf2 in skeletal biology has yet to be thoroughly examined. Thus, in the current study, we have examined the role of Nrf2 in postnatal bone metabolism in mice. Mice lacking Nrf2 (Nrf22/2) exhibited a marked deficit in postnatal bone acquisition, which was most severe at 3 weeks of age when osteoblast numbers were 12-fold less than observed in control animals. While primary osteoblasts from Nrf22/2 mice functioned normally in vitro, the colony forming capacity of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from these mice was significantly reduced compared to controls. This defect could be rescued through treatment with the radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), suggesting that increased reactive species stress might impair early osteoblastogenesis in BMSCs and lead to the failure of bone acquisition observed in Nrf22/2 animals. Taken together, these studies suggest Nrf2 represents a key pathway in regulating bone metabolism, which may provide future therapeutic targets to treat osteoporosis.

  16. Multiparameter MRI assessment of normal-appearing and diseased vertebral bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf [LMU University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Baur-Melnyk, Andrea; Schmidt, Gerwin P. [LMU University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich 81377 (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [LMU University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); LMU University Hospitals Munich-Grosshadern, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times as well as apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of the fat and water components in the vertebral bone marrow (vBM) of patients with benign and malignant lesions. Forty-four patients were examined at 1.5 T: there were 24 osteoporotic vertebral fractures (15 women, 9 men; median age: 73, 48-86 years) and 20 malignant vertebral infiltrations (9 women, 11 men; median age: 60, 25-87). Relaxation times were determined separately for the water and the fat component using a saturation-recovery technique for T1 and measurements with variable echo times for T2. ADCs were determined with a diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) and a single-shot turbo-spin-echo (ssTSE) sequence. T1 of the water component and ADCs were significantly increased in the lesions compared with normal-appearing vBM (malignant: 1,252 vs. 828 ms, osteoporotic: 1,315 vs. 872 ms). ADCs determined with the DW-ssTSE were significantly increased compared with the DW-EPI. ADCs determined with the DW-ssTSE differed significantly between osteoporotic and malignant lesions (1.74vs1.35 x 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s). All parameters exhibit significant differences between normal-appearing vBM and the lesions. However, only the ADCs determined with the DW-ssTSE differed significantly between osteoporotic fractures and malignant lesions, potentially allowing for a differential diagnosis of these two entities. (orig.)

  17. Bone Marrow Cells in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Create a Proinflammatory Microenvironment Influencing Normal Hematopoietic Differentiation Fates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Vilchis-Ordoñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL is a serious public health problem in the pediatric population worldwide, contributing to 85% of deaths from childhood cancers. Understanding the biology of the disease is crucial for its clinical management and the development of therapeutic strategies. In line with that observed in other malignancies, chronic inflammation may contribute to a tumor microenvironment resulting in the damage of normal processes, concomitant to development and maintenance of neoplastic cells. We report here that hematopoietic cells from bone marrow B-ALL have the ability to produce proinflammatory and growth factors, including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, and GM-CSF that stimulate proliferation and differentiation of normal stem and progenitor cells. Our findings suggest an apparently distinct CD13+CD33+ population of leukemic cells contributing to a proinflammatory microenvironment that may be detrimental to long-term normal hematopoiesis within B-ALL bone marrow.

  18. Identification and characterization of plasma cells in normal human bone marrow by high-resolution flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.; Johnsen, Steen; Segers-Nolten, Ine M.J.; Loken, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    The low frequency of plasma cells and the lack of specific cell surface markers has been a major obstacle for a detailed characterization of plasma cells in normal human bone marrow. Multiparameter flow cytometry enabled the identification of plasma cells in normal bone marrow aspirates. The plasma

  19. Tocotrienols are needed for normal bone calcification in growing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazlina, Mohamed; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Abul Gapor, Mohd Top; Abdul Kadir Khalid, B

    2002-01-01

    In this study the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on bone calcification were determined using 4-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats weighed between 180 and 200 g. The study was divided in three parts. In experiment I the rats were given normal rat chow (RC, control group), a vitamin E deficient (VED) diet or a 50% vitamin E deficient (50%VED) diet. In experiment 2 the rats were given VED supplemented with 30 mg/kg palm vitamin E (PVE30), 60 mg/kg palm vitamin E (PVE60) or 30 mg/kg pure alpha-tocopherol (ATF). In experiment 3 the rats were fed RC and given the same supplements as in experiment 2. The treatment lasted 8 months. Vitamin E derived from palm oil contained a mixture of ATF and tocotrienols. Rats on the VED and 50%VED diets had lower bone calcium content in the left femur compared to the RC group (91.6 +/- 13.3 mg and 118.3 +/- 26.0 mg cf 165.7 +/- 15.2 mg; P VED group with PVE60 improved bone calcification in the left femur (133.6 +/- 5.0 mg compared with 91.6 +/- 13.3 mg; P VED group. Supplementing the RC group with PVE30, PVE60 or ATF did not cause any significant changes in bone calcium content. In conclusion, vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcification. Supplementation with the higher dose of palm vitamin E improved bone calcium content, but supplementation with pure ATF alone did not. This effect may be attributed to the tocotrienol content of palm vitamin E. Therefore, tocotrienols play an important role in bone calcification.

  20. Stimulation of Mucosal Mast Cell Growth in Normal and Nude Rat Bone Marrow Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, David M.; McMenamin, Christine; Gunneberg, Christian; Woodbury, Richard; Jarrett, Ellen E. E.

    1983-07-01

    Mast cells with the morphological and biochemical properties of mucosal mast cells (MMC) appear and proliferate to form the predominant cell type in rat bone marrow cultures stimulated with factors from antigen- or mitogen-activated lymphocytes. Conditioned media causing a selective proliferation of MMC were derived from mesenteric lymph node cells of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats restimulated in vitro with specific antigen or from normal or infected rat mesenteric lymph node cells stimulated with concanavalin A. MMC growth factor is not produced by T-cell-depleted mesenteric lymph node cells or by the mesenteric lymph node cells of athymic rats. By contrast, MMC precursors are present in the bone marrow of athymic rats and are normally receptive to the growth factor produced by the lymphocytes of thymus-intact rats. The thymus dependence of MMC hyperplasia is thus based on the requirement of a thymus-independent precursor for a T-cell-derived growth promoter.

  1. Cytological Evaluation of Bone Marrow in Normal Laying Hens and those With Lymphoid Leukosis

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    H.I. Al-Sadi and E.Y. Hussein

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytologically the bone marrow (and peripheral blood of adult laying hens affected with lymphoid leukosis. Diagnosis of the neoplasm was made on the basis of clinical history, signs and symptoms and pathology. Only histologically confirmed cases were included in the study. Examination of blood smears revealed +2 heterophil toxicity and the presence of large numbers of reactive (blast – transformed lymphocytes. Smears that were prepared from the bone marrow showed increased numbers of hemopoietic cells. The total erythrocyte count (TEC, hemoglobin percentage (Hb% , hemoglobin concentration (Hb conc., packed cell volume (PCV and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC values were significantly higher (P<0.01 in hens with lymphoid leukosis than in apparently normal hens. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH were significantly lower (P< 0.01 in hens with lymphoid leukosis than in apparently normal hens. Results of the leukogram indicated that the total leukocyte count (TLC and the percentage (% of lymphocytes were significantly higher (P < 0.01 in hens with lymphoid leukosis than in apparently normal hens. From results of this study it was concluded that cytological evaluation of bone marrow may prove to be a simple , rapid , and useful tool in the diagnosis of lymphoid leukosis in laying hens. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(11.000: 497-499

  2. [Comparative investigations of osteotropic radionucleides. IV. The dynamics of uptake in normal and abnormal bone (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, H; Gerdts, K G; Creutzig, A

    1977-03-01

    The dynamics of uptake of osteotropic radionucleides in normal and abnormal bone were studied by means of sequential and functional scans. Various phosphate and phosphonate complexes were compared in vivo and in vitro. Only phosphonates were considered as suitable for bone scanning. In normal bones in beagles, radioactivity after HEDP fell to 65% after two hours, but was 105% with 18F. In relation to healing fractures, the curves differ quantitatively and qualitatively. In this situation, functional curves derived from dynamic scans provide a better parallel with histological findings than does static scintigraphy with an uptake quotient. Sequential and functional scanning are able to document the therapeutic effect of irradiation of bone metastases.

  3. Catch up in bone acquisition in young adult men with late normal puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darelid, Anna; Ohlsson, Claes; Nilsson, Martin; Kindblom, Jenny M; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in relation to peak height velocity (PHV), and to investigate whether late normal puberty was associated with remaining low BMD and BMC in early adulthood in men. In total, 501 men (mean ± SD, 18.9 ± 0.5 years of age at baseline) were included in this 5-year longitudinal study. Areal BMD (aBMD) and BMC, volumetric BMD (vBMD) and cortical bone size were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and pQCT. Detailed growth and weight charts were used to calculate age at PHV, an objective assessment of pubertal timing. Age at PHV was a strong positive predictor of the increase in aBMD and BMC of the total body (R(2) aBMD 11.7%; BMC 4.3%), radius (R(2) aBMD 23.5%; BMC 22.3%), and lumbar spine (R(2) aBMD 11.9%; BMC 10.5%) between 19 and 24 years (p bone size, whereas cortical and trabecular vBMD were 0.7% (p males was associated with a substantial catch up in aBMD and BMC in young adulthood, leaving no deficits of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total body at age 24 years.

  4. Determining Normal Range of Vitamin D Based on PTH and Bone Mineral Density Changes

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    B Larijani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available PTH is the most important factor which control calcium homeostasis in the body in this study we tried to determine the normal range of PTH and Vitamin D with examining the relation between PTH and bone density and Vitamin D on the base of bones biological changes. Our subjects were, 20 to 69 years-old men and women of Tehran. Serum volume of PTH and vitamin D in different decades of life had significant difference. Range of serum PTH in osteporotic persons was 29.7-38 pgr/lit (95% SD. This range for non osteporotic persons was 24.33-30.2 pgr/lit. In this study ranges below 18 nmol/lit was considered as severe vitamin D deficiency and 23-36nmol/lit as mild deficiency. So the volume more than 36 nmol/lit volumes was normal range of vitamin D. it seems that biological changes of bones associate more with ranges of vitamin D which causes significant changes in PTH.

  5. Determining Normal Range of Vitamin D Based on PTH and Bone Mineral Density Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available PTH is the most important factor which control calcium homeostasis in the body in this study we tried to determine the normal range of PTH and Vitamin D with examining the relation between PTH and bone density and Vitamin D on the base of bones biological changes. Our subjects were, 20 to 69 years-old men and women of Tehran. Serum volume of PTH and vitamin D in different decades of life had significant difference. Range of serum PTH in osteporotic persons was 29.7-38 pgr/lit (95% SD. This range for non osteporotic persons was 24.33-30.2 pgr/lit. In this study ranges below 18 nmol/lit was considered as severe vitamin D deficiency and 23-36nmol/lit as mild deficiency. So the volume more than 36 nmol/lit volumes was normal range of vitamin D. it seems that biological changes of bones associate more with ranges of vitamin D which causes significant changes in PTH.

  6. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

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    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology, OH (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of bone targeting salmon calcitonin analogs in normal and osteoporotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Krishna Hari; Newa, Madhuri; Chapman, Jillian; Doschak, Michael R

    2012-02-28

    In order to assess the therapeutic efficacy of an antiresorptive drug with imparted bone targeting potential using bisphosphonate (BP) conjugation and an improved pharmacokinetic profile using PEGylation, we synthesized, characterized and evaluated in vivo efficacy of bone-targeting PEGylated salmon calcitonin (sCT) analog (sCT-PEG-BP). sCT-PEG-BP was compared with non-PEGylated bone targeting sCT analog (sCT-BP) and unmodified, commercially available sCT. sCT-PEG-BP conjugates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. The effect of PEG-BP or BP upon sCT secondary structure was examined by Circular Dichroism and sCT-PEG-BP was evaluated for in vitro bone mineral Hydroxyapatite (HA) binding ability and calcium salts specificity using a binding assay for bone HA and several calcium salts. Anti-calcitonin antibody binding ability of these analogs was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by reacting bone targeting sCT analogs with calcium phosphate coated Osteologic® plates and detecting the bound sCT using anti-sCT antibody. Potential cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated in monocytic RAW 264.7 cells, and sCT bioactivity was evaluated using an in vitro intracellular cAMP stimulation assay in human T47D breast cancer cells. Finally, in vivo efficacy of each compound was evaluated by determining the plasma levels of calcium after s.c. administration in normal rats, and in a rat model of Osteoporosis, secondary to ovariectomy (OVX). In vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to temporally map and quantify alterations in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD) in the same animals at 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after OVX surgery. Sixteen 6 week old virgin female rats underwent OVX surgery followed by the daily s.c. injection of 2.5IU/kg/day sCT or equivalent analogs, and compared to four sham-operated, placebo treated control rats. Our results showed the chemical coupling of

  8. Relation Between Ghrelin Hormone Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Normal Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Naghiaee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ghrelin hormone is a polypeptide with 28 amino acids that is secreted along the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in fundus of stomach. Some physiological functions of ghrelin include increase of appetite and food intake, energy balance, stimulation of growth hormone secretion and heart output and decrease in blood pressure. Recently, relation of ghrelin and bone mineral density has been considered. Methods: This descriptive study included 33 adult persons above 20 years of age. Bone mineral density was determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in femur and lumbar regions. T-score over than -1 was considered as normal case. Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA method. Results: The mean of age, body mass index and serum ghrelin were 40±10.6years, 27±3.6 kg/m² and 100.5±128 pg/ml, respectively. Correlation of ghrelin and variables was not statistically significant except weight (p=0.05. Conclusion: Range of serum ghrelin levels varies with age. In the present research, there was no relationship between ghrelin levels and bone mineral density in femur and lumbar regions. More studies with larger number of samples are proposed.

  9. Dexamethasone-Induced Oxidative Stress Enhances Myeloma Cell Radiosensitization While Sparing Normal Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Bera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dexamethasone (Dex and radiation therapy are established modalities in multiple myeloma. In this study, we propose a novel combination of Dex plus radiation that shows superior clonogenic cell killing and apoptosis of myeloma cells and selectively eliminates myeloma cells when cocultured with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs. Dex was found to inhibit the release of interleukin-6 from irradiated BMSCs, which is an established myeloma cell proproliferative cytokine. In 5TGM1 model, the combination of Dex with skeletal targeted radiotherapy (153-Sm-EDTMP prolonged median survival time and inhibited radiation-induced myelosuppression. A two-cycle treatment of Dex plus 153-Sm-EDTMP was well tolerated and further improved median survival time. Mechanistically, Dex increased superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and augmented radiation-induced oxidative stress and cell death of myeloma cells. In contrast, Dex inhibited radiation-induced increase in pro-oxidant levels and enhanced the clonogenic survival in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Treatment with either N-acetylcysteine or the combination of polyethylene glycol (PEG-conjugated copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase, and PEG-catalase significantly protected myeloma cells from Dex-induced clonogenic death. Overall, these results demonstrate that Dex in combination with radiotherapy enhances the killing of myeloma cells while protecting normal bone marrow hematopoiesis through a mechanism that involves selective increases in oxidative stress.

  10. HSP10 selective preference for myeloid and megakaryocytic precursors in normal human bone marrow

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    F Cappello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs constitute a heterogeneous family of proteins involved in cell homeostasis. During cell life they are involved in harmful insults, as well as in immune and inflammatory reactions. It is known that they regulate gene expression, and cell proliferation, differentiation and death. HSP60 is a mitochondrial chaperonin, highly preserved during evolution, responsible of protein folding. Its function is strictly dependent on HSP10 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements. We investigated the presence and the expression of HSP60 and HSP10 in a series of 20 normal human bone marrow specimens (NHBM by the means of immunohistochemistry. NHBM showed no expression of HSP60, probably due to its being below the detectable threshold, as already demonstrated in other normal human tissues. By contrast, HSP10 showed a selective positivity for myeloid and megakaryocytic lineages. The positivity was restricted to precursor cells, while mature elements were constantly negative.We postulate that HSP10 plays a role in bone marrow cell differentiation other than being a mitochondrial co-chaperonin. The present data emphasize the role of HSP10 during cellular homeostasis and encourage further investigations in this field.

  11. Pegvisomant-induced serum insulin-like growth factor-I normalization in patients with acromegaly returns elevated markers of bone turnover to normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkinson, C; Kassem, M; Heickendorff, Lene

    2003-01-01

    . Pegvisomant-induced normalization of serum IGF-I results in a decrease in markers of bone and soft tissue turnover to levels observed in age-matched controls, and these changes are accompanied by an increase in PTH and a decrease in 1,25-(OH)(2) vit D. These data provide further evidence of the effectiveness...... cross-linked N-telopeptide/creatinine ratio, and urinary calcium (24 h collection) were measured (single-batch analysis) at study entry and after IGF-I normalization, along with sera from 32 age- and sex-matched controls. Compared with controls, PIIINP, OC, and CTx were significantly elevated......Active acromegaly is associated with increased biochemical markers of bone turnover. Pegvisomant is a GH receptor antagonist that normalizes serum IGF-I in 97% of patients with active acromegaly. We evaluated the effects of pegvisomant-induced serum IGF-I normalization on biochemical markers...

  12. AGE-RELATED CHANGES OF BONE MARROW OF NORMAL ADULT MAN ON DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-yan Zhang; Rong Rong; Xiao-ying Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of bone marrow of normal adult man on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI).Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers and thirty-eight patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia or normal prostate were enrolled in this study, with age range 28-82 years old (mean 55.26 ± 18.05 years). All people were examined with large field DWI on a 3.0T magnetic resonance scanner, which ranges from the top of head to the lower limb. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the DWI and ADC of lumber vertebra at renal hilum level, left ilium and superior segment of left femur were measured. The measured SNR and ADC value of the above sites were compared by one way analysis of variance and their correlations with age were investigated by Pearson's correlation analysis. Results The SNR of lumber vertebra, left ilium and left femur showed no significant difference (F = 0.271, P = 0.763). The SNR of lumber vertebra (r = 0.309, P = 0.024) and left ilium (r = 0.359, P = 0.008) showed positive correlation with age, while the SNR of left femur showed no correlation with age (r = -0.163, P = 0.283). The ADC of lumber vertebra [(0.617 ± 0.177) ×10-3 mm2/s] was significantly higher than that of left ilium [(0.404 ± 0.112)×10-3 mm2/ P < 0.001] and left femur [(0.362 ± 0.092)×10-3mm2/s, P < 0.001], while the ADC of left ilium and left femur had no significant difference. The ADC of lumber vertebra, left ilium and left femur showed no correlation with age. Conclusion Understanding of age-related changes of normal adult bone marrow on DWI is very important to differentiate the normal bone marrow and abnormal lesions.

  13. The effects of twelve weeks of bed rest on bone histology, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and calcium homeostasis in eleven normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwekh, J. E.; Ruml, L. A.; Gottschalk, F.; Pak, C. Y.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of 12 weeks of skeletal unloading on parameters of calcium homeostasis, calcitropic hormones, bone histology, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 11 normal subjects (9 men, 2 women; 34 +/- 11 years of age). Following an ambulatory control evaluation, all subjects underwent 12 weeks of bed rest. An additional metabolic evaluation was performed after 12 days of reambulation. Bone mineral density declined at the spine (-2.9%, p = 0.092) and at the hip (-3.8%, p = 0.002 for the trochanter). Bed rest prompted a rapid, sustained, significant increase in urinary calcium and phosphorus as well as a significant increase in serum calcium. Urinary calcium increased from a pre-bed rest value of 5.3 mmol/day to values as high as 73 mmol/day during bed rest. Immunoreactive parathyroid hormone and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D declined significantly during bed rest, although the mean values remained within normal limits. Significant changes in bone histology included a suppression of osteoblastic surface for cancellous bone (3.1 +/- 1.3% to 1.9 +/- 1.5%, p = 0.0142) and increased bone resorption for both cancellous and cortical bone. Cortical eroded surface increased from 3.5 +/- 1.1% to 7.3 +/- 4.0% (p = 0.018) as did active osteoclastic surface (0.2 +/- 0.3% to 0.7 +/- 0.7%, p = 0.021). Cancellous eroded surface increased from 2.1 +/- 1.1% to 4.7 +/- 2.2% (p = 0.002), while mean active osteoclastic surface doubled (0.2 +/- 0.2% to 0.4 +/- 0.3%, p = 0.020). Serum biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and type I procollagen extension peptide) did not change significantly during bed rest. Urinary biochemical markers of bone resorption (hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen) as well as a serum marker of bone resorption (type I collagen carboxytelopeptide) all demonstrated significant increases during bed rest which declined toward normal

  14. Normal Parathyroid Function with Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Treated Celiac Disease

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    Bernard Lemieux

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased bone mineral density (BMD has been reported in patients with celiac disease in association with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The present study investigated whether basal parathyroid hormone (PTH remained elevated and whether abnormalities of parathyroid function were still present in celiac disease patients treated with a gluten-free diet. Basal seric measurements of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and BMD were obtained in 17 biopsy-proven patients under treatment for a mean period of 5.7±3.7 years (range 1.1 to 15.9. In addition, parathyroid function was studied with calcium chloride and sodium citrate infusions in seven patients. Basal measurements of patients were compared with those of 26 normal individuals, while parathyroid function results were compared with those of seven sex- and age-matched controls. Basal results were similar in patients and controls except for intact PTH (I-PTH (3.77±0.88 pmol/L versus 2.28±0.63 pmol/L, P<0.001, which was higher in the former group but still within normal limits. Mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D values were normal in patients. Parathyroid function results were also found to be similar in both groups. Compared with a reference population of the same age (Z score, patients had significantly lower BMDs of the hip (-0.60±0.96 SDs, P<0.05 and lumbar spine (-0.76±1.15 SDs, P<0.05. T scores were also decreased for the hip (-1.3±0.9 SDs, P<0.0001 and lumbar spine (-1.4±1.35 SDs, P<0.0001, with two to three patients being osteoporotic (T score less than -2.5 SDs and seven to eight osteopenic (T score less than -1 SDs but greater than or equal to -2.5 SDs in at least one site. Height and weight were the only important determinants of BMD values by multivariate or logistical regression analysis in these patients. The results show higher basal I-PTH values with normal parathyroid function in treated celiac disease. Height and weight values are, but I-PTH values are not

  15. Patients with Van Buchem disease, an osteosclerotic genetic disease, have elevated bone formation markers, higher bone density, and greater derived polar moment of inertia than normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergedal, Jon E; Veskovic, Katarina; Hellan, Minea; Nyght, Christine; Balemans, Wendy; Libanati, Cesar; Vanhoenacker, Filip M; Tan, Johan; Baylink, David J; Van Hul, Wim

    2003-12-01

    Van Buchem disease is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by overgrowth of the skeleton. In a group of Dutch patients the disease is thought to be due to a 52-kb deletion that results in decreased expression of the SOST gene. To further characterize the disease, the morphology of the metacarpals of six adult subjects and two juveniles with Van Buchem disease were measured on hand x-rays along with nine normal adults and nine adult carriers of the disease. Serum bone formation markers, alkaline phosphatase, type I procollagen peptide, and osteocalcin, and the urinary bone resorption marker, cross-linked N-telopeptide, were determined. Van Buchem patients had increased metacarpal outer diameter, inner diameter, cortical thickness, and bone mineral density. Calculated bone volume and derived polar moment of inertia were markedly elevated (elevations of 158 +/- 33% and 497 +/- 95%, respectively) consistent with increased bone strength. Serum procollagen peptide and osteocalcin were significantly higher in Van Buchem patients. Urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide was significantly elevated in Van Buchem patients. None of these changes was found in Van Buchem carriers. These observations indicate that decreased expression of the SOST gene can lead to increased bone formation and to stronger bones.

  16. BONE MINERAL ANALYSIS OF WHOLE BODY IN 292 NORMAL SUBJECTS ASSESSED BY DUAL X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦明伟; 余卫; 徐苓; 田均平; 邢小平; 孟迅吾

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To study the whole body bone mineral changes in normal subjects.Methods. Bone mineral was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) in 292 normal subjectsaged 10~79 years, including 152 females and 140 males. They were divided into age-groups by decade.Results. In males, the ages with peak value of total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone min-eral density (TBMD), anteroposterior spine BMD(L2-4 BMD) were in the 30~39,20~39, 20~29 age-groups respectively. In females, they were all in the 30~39 age-group. Peak values of TBMC, TBMD,L2-4 BMD were higher in males than those in females. Loss of bone mineral for females was more pro-nounced than that for males. Loss of L2-4 BMD was more pronounced than TBMD.Conclusion. This study provides the normal bone mineral data of whole body for males and females,and the characteristic of changes.

  17. Thermal effects generated by high-intensity focused ultrasound beams at normal incidence to a bone surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Diane M; Myers, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    Experiments and computations were performed to study factors affecting thermal safety when high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams are normally incident (i.e., beam axis normal to the interface) upon a bone/soft-tissue interface. In particular, the temperature rise and thermal dose were determined as a function of separation between the beam focus and the interface. Under conditions representative of clinical HIFU procedures, it was found that the thermal dose at the bone surface can exceed the threshold for necrosis even when the beam focus is more than 4 cm from the bone. Experiments showed that reflection of the HIFU beam from the bone back into the transducer introduced temperature fluctuations of as much as +/-15% and may be an important consideration for safety analyses at sufficiently high acoustic power. The applicability of linear propagation models in predicting thermal dose near the interface was also addressed. Linear models, while underpredicting thermal dose at the focus, provided a conservative (slight overprediction) estimate of thermal dose at the bone surface. Finally, temperature rise due to absorption of shear waves generated by the HIFU beam in the bone was computed. Modeling shear-wave propagation in the thermal analysis showed that the predicted temperature rise off axis was as much as 30% higher when absorption of shear waves is included, indicating that enhanced heating due to shear-wave absorption is potentially important, even for normally incident HIFU beams.

  18. Evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones (radius) by photon-absorption technique in normals as well as in patients with various types of bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, H.; Fengler, F.; Franke, J.; Koall, W.

    1980-10-01

    The evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones by measuring the photon absorption of the radius has proven to be a valuable method for routine clinical work: for diagnosis, follow-up and control of therapy. While there was a significant difference in the findings of normal persons compared with those of patients suffering from osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta and skeletal fluorosis, there was no difference between normals and these patients suffering from Bechterew, Scheuermann, coxarthrosis, spondylosis, skoliosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Normal values for the mineral content and the width of the radius at the junction of the middle and lower third - based on 8000 examinations - are mentioned.

  19. Time course of 25(OHD3 vitamin D3 as well as PTH (parathyroid hormone during fracture healing of patients with normal and low bone mineral density (BMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wöfl Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until now the exact biochemical processes during healing of metaphyseal fractures of healthy and osteoporotic bone remain unclear. Especially the physiological time courses of 25(OHD3 (Vitamin D as well as PTH (Parathyroid Hormone the most important modulators of calcium and bone homeostasis are not yet examined sufficiently. The purpose of this study was to focus on the time course of these parameters during fracture healing. Methods In the presented study, we analyse the time course of 25(OHD3 and PTH during fracture healing of low BMD level fractures versus normal BMD level fractures in a matched pair analysis. Between March 2007 and February 2009 30 patients older than 50 years of age who had suffered a metaphyseal fracture of the proximal humerus, the distal radius or the proximal femur were included in our study. Osteoporosis was verified by DEXA measuring. The time courses of 25(OHD3 and PTH were examined over an eight week period. Friedmann test, the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Mann-Withney U test were used as post-hoc tests. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results Serum levels of 25(OHD3 showed no differences in both groups. In the first phase of fracture healing PTH levels in the low BMD level group remained below those of the normal BMD group in absolute figures. Over all no significant differences between low BMD level bone and normal BMD level bone could be detected in our study. Conclusions The time course of 25(OHD3 and PTH during fracture healing of patients with normal and low bone mineral density were examined for the first time in humans in this setting and allowing molecular biological insights into fracture healing in metaphyseal bones on a molecural level. There were no significant differences between patients with normal and low BMD levels. Hence further studies will be necessary to obtain more detailed insight into fracture healing in order to provide reliable decision criteria for

  20. Periosteal reaction with normal-appearing underlying bone: a child abuse mimicker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ved, Nipa; Haller, Jack O

    2002-11-01

    Any irritation or disruption to the underlying bone will cause a periosteal reaction and result in new periosteal bone deposition. Periosteal bone formation may be due to either physiologic or pathologic causes. Pathologic bone formation generally results from an adjacent inflammatory process or a hypoxic or toxic stimulus. Common causes of pathologic periosteal reaction in children include trauma to the underlying bone. However, other causes such as hypervitaminosis A, prostaglandin therapy, cortical hyperostosis (Caffey's disease), hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (primary and secondary), osteomyelitis, leukemia, trauma, and syphilis must also be considered. The last four are usually associated with some degree of bone destruction, while in the first four diseases the underlying bone is left radiologically intact. This paper will concentrate on those diseases that appear to leave the underlying bone intact. The clinical and radiological features that help to differentiate some of these entities are presented.

  1. Collagen osteoid-like model allows kinetic gene expression studies of non-collagenous proteins in relation with mineral development to understand bone biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvent, Jérémie; Nassif, Nadine; Helary, Christophe; Azaïs, Thierry; Sire, Jean-Yves; Guille, Marie Madeleine Giraud

    2013-01-01

    Among persisting questions on bone calcification, a major one is the link between protein expression and mineral deposition. A cell culture system is here proposed opening new integrative studies on biomineralization, improving our knowledge on the role played by non-collagenous proteins in bone. This experimental in vitro model consisted in human primary osteoblasts cultured for 60 days at the surface of a 3D collagen scaffold mimicking an osteoid matrix. Various techniques were used to analyze the results at the cellular and molecular level (adhesion and viability tests, histology and electron microscopy, RT- and qPCR) and to characterize the mineral phase (histological staining, EDX, ATG, SAED and RMN). On long term cultures human bone cells seeded on the osteoid-like matrix displayed a clear osteoblast phenotype as revealed by the osteoblast-like morphology, expression of specific protein such as alkaline phosphatase and expression of eight genes classically considered as osteoblast markers, including BGLAP, COL1A1, and BMP2. Von Kossa and alizarine red allowed us to identify divalent calcium ions at the surface of the matrix, EDX revealed the correct Ca/P ratio, and SAED showed the apatite crystal diffraction pattern. In addition RMN led to the conclusion that contaminant phases were absent and that the hydration state of the mineral was similar to fresh bone. A temporal correlation was established between quantified gene expression of DMP1 and IBSP, and the presence of hydroxyapatite, confirming the contribution of these proteins to the mineralization process. In parallel a difference was observed in the expression pattern of SPP1 and BGLAP, which questioned their attributed role in the literature. The present model opens new experimental possibilities to study spatio-temporal relations between bone cells, dense collagen scaffolds, NCPs and hydroxyapatite mineral deposition. It also emphasizes the importance of high collagen density environment in bone cell

  2. Expression of Neuropilin-1 Gene in Bone Marrow Stromal Cells from Patients with Myeloid Leukemia and Normal Individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUYing; WANGZhen; WUXiuli; HUANGMeijuan; CHENShaohua; YANGLijian; LIYangqiu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of neuropilin-1 (NP-1) gene in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from myeloid leukemia (AML and CML) and normal individuals. Methods: Mononuclear cells were isolated from bone marrow (BM) of CML (14 cases), AML (12 cases) and normal individuals (20 cases). Adherent cells (i.e. BMSCs) were collected after long-term culture in vitro. The expression of NP-1 gene in three groups was detected respectively by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: The long-term culture of BMSCs was successfully established. The expression level of NP-1 gene was significantly lower in BMSCs from AML (47.1%) and CML (50%) than in normal individuals (85%). Conclusion: NP-1 gene is expressed in BMSCs from some AML or CML patients and most normal individuals. The low-expression of NP-1 gene in BMSCs from AML or CML patients might be related with abnormality of regulation in hematopoiesis.

  3. An integrative approach for comparing microcirculation between normal and alveolar cleft gingiva in children scheduled for secondary bone grafting procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.J. Milstein; Y.W. Cheung; L. Ziukaite; C. Ince; H.P. van den Akker; J.A.H. Lindeboom

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare microcirculatory parameters in normal versus alveolar cleft gingiva in children selected for secondary bone grafting procedures. Study Design This study included 11 consecutive patients with complete unilateral alveolar clefts who required secondary bon

  4. Differential Effects of Dabigatran and Warfarin on Bone Volume and Structure in Rats with Normal Renal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; Dalle Carbonare, Luca; Dusso, Adriana; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Valenti, Maria Teresa; Aghi, Andrea; Pasho, Sabina; Gallieni, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Background Warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, is a vitamin K antagonist impairing the activity of vitamin K-dependent Bone Gla Protein (BGP or Osteocalcin) and Matrix Gla Protein (MGP). Because dabigatran, a new anticoagulant, has no effect on vitamin K metabolism, the aim of this study was to compare the impact of warfarin and dabigatran administration on bone structure and vascular calcification. Methods Rats with normal renal function received for 6 weeks warfarin, dabigatran or placebo. Bone was evaluated immuno-histochemically and hystomorphometrically after double labelling with declomycin and calcein. Aorta and iliac arteries were examined histologically. Results Histomorphometric analysis of femur and vertebrae showed significantly decreased bone volume and increased trabecular separation in rats treated with warfarin. Vertebra analysis showed that the trabecular number was higher in dabigatran treated rats. Osteoblast activity and resorption parameters were similar among groups, except for maximum erosion depth, which was higher in warfarin treated rats, suggesting a higher osteoclastic activity. Therefore, warfarin treatment was also associated with higher bone formation rate/bone surface and activation frequency. Warfarin treatment may cause an increased bone turnover characterized by increased remodelling cycles, with stronger osteoclast activity compared to the other groups. There were no differences among experimental groups in calcium deposition either in aortic or iliac arteries. Conclusions These findings suggest for the first time that dabigatran has a better bone safety profile than warfarin, as warfarin treatment affects bone by reducing trabecular size and structure, increasing turnover and reducing mineralization. These differences could potentially result in a lower incidence of fractures in dabigatran treated patients. PMID:26241483

  5. Differential Effects of Dabigatran and Warfarin on Bone Volume and Structure in Rats with Normal Renal Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fusaro

    Full Text Available Warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, is a vitamin K antagonist impairing the activity of vitamin K-dependent Bone Gla Protein (BGP or Osteocalcin and Matrix Gla Protein (MGP. Because dabigatran, a new anticoagulant, has no effect on vitamin K metabolism, the aim of this study was to compare the impact of warfarin and dabigatran administration on bone structure and vascular calcification.Rats with normal renal function received for 6 weeks warfarin, dabigatran or placebo. Bone was evaluated immuno-histochemically and hystomorphometrically after double labelling with declomycin and calcein. Aorta and iliac arteries were examined histologically.Histomorphometric analysis of femur and vertebrae showed significantly decreased bone volume and increased trabecular separation in rats treated with warfarin. Vertebra analysis showed that the trabecular number was higher in dabigatran treated rats. Osteoblast activity and resorption parameters were similar among groups, except for maximum erosion depth, which was higher in warfarin treated rats, suggesting a higher osteoclastic activity. Therefore, warfarin treatment was also associated with higher bone formation rate/bone surface and activation frequency. Warfarin treatment may cause an increased bone turnover characterized by increased remodelling cycles, with stronger osteoclast activity compared to the other groups. There were no differences among experimental groups in calcium deposition either in aortic or iliac arteries.These findings suggest for the first time that dabigatran has a better bone safety profile than warfarin, as warfarin treatment affects bone by reducing trabecular size and structure, increasing turnover and reducing mineralization. These differences could potentially result in a lower incidence of fractures in dabigatran treated patients.

  6. Study on Biologic Activity for Membrane of Normal Bone Marrow Cells with Infection of Epidemic Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using DPH fluorescence probe, the membrane of normal bone marrow cells with infection of epidemic hemorrhagic fever virus (EHFV) was labeled. The membrane lipid fluidity was obviously decreased from the membrane lipid fluorescence polarization. The membrane lipid fluidity of lymphocyte, monocyte and neutrophilic granulocyte was dynamically observed. After culturing the cells for 1, 6, 24 and 72 h, it was found that all the membrane lipid fluidity of the infected cells was decreased obviously with the longer the culturing time, the more obvious it. Compared with the normal control groups, there was a significant difference statistically (P<0. 05-0. 01). It was suggested that the decrease of the membrane lipid fluidity of normal bone marrow cell with infection of EHFV had correlation with the degree of virus invading and cellfunction injury.

  7. Increased survival of normal cells during laser photodynamic therapy: implications for ex vivo autologous bone marrow purging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliya, K.S.; Matthews, J.L.; Fay, J.W.; Dowben, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Laser light-induced, dye-mediated photolysis of leukemic cells was tested in an in vitro model for its efficacy in eliminating occult tumor cells for ex vivo autologous bone marrow purging. Merocyanine 540 (MC540) was mixed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells in the presence of human albumin. This cell-dye mixture was irradiated with 514 nm argon laser light. Results show that in the presence of 0.1%, 0.25% and 0.5% albumin, laser light doses of 62.4 J/cm/sup 2/, 93.6 J/cm/sup 2/ and 109.2 J/cm/sup 2/, respectively, were required for a 5 log reduction in the survival of leukemic cells. Under identical conditions, 80% to 84% of the normal bone marrow cells and 41% of the granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells survived. The number of surviving stromal cells was reduced (1+) compared to the untreated control (4+). Mixing of irradiated bone marrow cells with equal number of HL-60 cells did not interfere with the killing of HL-60 cells treated with MC540 and laser light. The non-specific cytotoxicity of laser light alone was less than 6% for normal bone marrow cells. These results suggest that the concentration of human albumin plays an important role in laser light-induced phototoxicity. This laser light-induced selective photolysis of leukemic cells can be used in ex vivo purging of tumor cell-contaminated bone marrow grafts to achieve very high survival rates of normal bone marrow cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells.

  8. Bone mass in schizophrenia and normal populations across different decades of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh Ching-Mo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic schizophrenic patients have been reported as having higher osteoporosis prevalence. Survey the bone mass among schizophrenic patients and compare with that of the local community population and reported data of the same country to figure out the distribution of bone mass among schizophrenic patients. Methods 965 schizophrenic patients aged 20 years and over in Yuli Veterans Hospital and 405 members aged 20 and over of the community living in the same town as the institute received bone mass examination by a heel qualitative ultrasound (QUS device. Bone mass distribution was stratified to analyzed and compared with community population. Results Schizophrenic patients have lower bone mass while they are young. But aging effect on bone mass cannot be seen. Accelerated bone mass loss during menopausal transition was not observed in the female schizophrenic patients as in the subjects of the community female population. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients have lower bone mass than community population since they are young. Further study to investigate the pathophysiological process is necessary to delay or avoid the lower bone mass in schizophrenia patients.

  9. Effects of whole body exposure to electromagnetic field on normal and osteoporotic bone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, S.; Iida, H. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    The biological effects of the exposure to the electromagnetic field particularly on bone metabolism in growing rats that were ovariectomized (OVX) and fed different calcium diets were determined. Female Wistar rats, 8 weeks old, were divided into four groups; OVX fed standardized (1.2%) calcium diet (StCa), OVX fed low (0.02%) Ca diet (LCa), no-OVX+StCa and no-OVX+LCa groups. Half of rats in each group were exposed to electromagnetic field (100 mG, 50 Hz). Rats (n=5) in each group were sacrificed 1, 2, and 3 month after the exposure. Analyses of bone and serum were performed. Compared to the corresponding control groups, the body weights in the exposure groups, decreased at each measured point. The bone mineral density in the total and trabecular bone in the tibia and femur decreased 2 month after the exposure. In the histomorphometric measurement using the tibial proximal metaphysis at 3 months later, the decreases in bone volume, bone formation rate, eroded surface and depth, and the increases in trabecular separation were observed in the exposure groups. The bone fragility (femur) also was observed. Simultaneously the decreases in the weights of adrenal gland and skeletal muscles, and value in serum rat-PTH and BGP were observed. The results indicate that the bone growth and metabolism in the growth process are inhibited and enlarged with low Ca intakes by the long-term exposure in an electromagnetic field in rats. (author)

  10. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal osteoporosis and normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Smoom, Riham; Bader, Khaldoun; Darwish, Hisham

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the association of vitamin D and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease.

  11. Multi-axial fatigue of trabecular bone with respect to normal walking

    CERN Document Server

    Mostakhdemin, Mohammad; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the analysis and treatment of osteoporotic bone based on drug administration, tracking fatigue behavior and taking into consideration the mechanical interaction of implants with trabecular bone. Weak trabeculae are one of the most important clinical features that need to be addressed in order to prevent hip joint fractures.

  12. Differentiation potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into retina in normal and laser-injured rat eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; SHAN Qing; MA Ping; JIANG Yanming; CHEN Peng; WEN Jingxia; ZHOU You; QIAN Huanwen; PEI Xuetao

    2004-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can develop into hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages but have not been known to participate in the production of retina. Here we report that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, after being subretinally transplanted into normal or Nd: YAG laser-injured rat eye, can integrate into RPE layer, photoreceptor layer, bipolar cell layer and ganglion layer. DAPI-labeling detection was used to trace the origin of the repopulating cells. DAPI fluorescence was used to identify retina cells of bone marrow origin 10, 20, 35 and 50 days after transplantation. No formation of rosettes was found but some random cells were found at the end of the observation. MSCs-originated cells spread more widely in the injured retinas than in the normal ones. Immunohistochemical detection showed that though the cells could express neuronal nuclei (NeuN), neuron specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cytokeratin (CK), the proteins expression in the injured transplantation group was abnormal in some region compared with that in the normal transplantation group. Electroretinogram (ERG) showed that ERG-b wave of the injured transplantation group is significantly higher than that of the two laser-injured control groups. These results suggest that a proportion of MSCs can differentiate into retina-like structure in vivo and the differentiation differs in normal and laser-injured retinas.

  13. Bi-iliac distance and iliac bone position compared to the vertebral column in normal fetal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, U B; Fischer Hansen, B; Skovgaard, L T;

    2001-01-01

    Prenatal standards of bi-iliac width were not found in the literature based on autopsy investigations, nor was the caudo-cranial position of the ilia compared to the vertebral column. The first purpose of the present study was to establish normal standard values for the bi-iliac distance in fetal...... life, the second to evaluate the level of the iliac bones proportional to the ossified vertebral column. Whole body radiographs in antero-posterior projections from 98 human fetuses (36 female and 44 male fetuses, as well as 18 fetuses on which the sex had not been determined) were analyzed...... caliper. The caudo-cranial position of the iliac bones was evaluated. The present study shows that in normal fetal development there is a continuous linear enlargement of the pelvic region in the transverse and vertical planes. The upper iliac contour stays at the level of the first sacral vertebral body...

  14. Normal bone mineral content but unfavourable muscle/fat ratio in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Mølgaard, Christian; Skakkebaek, N.E.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary endocrine clinic at the University Hospital, Copenhagen. PATIENTS: Eighteen untreated boys with KS and ...

  15. Microstructural, densitometric and metabolic variations in bones from rats with normal or altered skeletal states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N Luu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High resolution μCT, and combined μPET/CT have emerged as non-invasive techniques to enhance or even replace dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the current preferred approach for fragility fracture risk assessment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of µPET/CT imaging to differentiate changes in rat bone tissue density and microstructure induced by metabolic bone diseases more accurately than current available methods. METHODS: Thirty three rats were divided into three groups of control, ovariectomy and vitamin-D deficiency. At the conclusion of the study, animals were subjected to glucose ((18FDG and sodium fluoride (Na(18F PET/CT scanning. Then, specimens were subjected to µCT imaging and tensile mechanical testing. RESULTS: Compared to control, those allocated to ovariectomy and vitamin D deficiency groups showed 4% and 22% (significant increase in (18FDG uptake values, respectively. DXA-based bone mineral density was higher in the vitamin D deficiency group when compared to the other groups (cortical bone, yet μCT-based apparent and mineral density results were not different between groups. DXA-based bone mineral density was lower in the ovariectomy group when compared to the other groups (cancellous bone; yet μCT-based mineral density results were not different between groups, and the μCT-based apparent density results were lower in the ovariectomy group compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: PET and micro-CT provide an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in bone tissue mineral density, as well as microstructure for cortical and cancellous bone and metabolic activity. As osteomalacia is characterized by impaired bone mineralization, the use of densitometric analyses may lead to misinterpretation of the condition as osteoporosis. In contrast, µCT alone and in combination with the PET component certainly provides an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in both bone

  16. Immunophenotypic Characterization of Human Bone Marrow Mast Cells. A Flow Cytometric Study of Normal and Pathological Bone Marrow Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Escribano

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present paper was to define the immunophenotype of bone marrow mast cells (BMMC from healthy controls and patients with hematologic malignancies (HM based on the use of multiple stainings with monoclonal antibodies analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results show that BMMC from both groups of individuals display a similar but heterogenous immunophenotype. The overall numbers of BMMC are higher in the HM group of individuals (p = 0.08. Three patterns of antigen expression were detected: (1 markers constantly positive in all cases analyzed (CD9, CD29, CD33, CD43, CD44, CD49d, CD49e, CD51, CD71, CD117, and FcεRI, (2 antigens that were constantly negative (CD1a, CD2, CD3, CD5, CD6, CD11a, CD14, CD15, CD16, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD23, CD25, CD30, CD34, CD38, CD41a, CD42b, CD65, CD66b, HLA-DR, and CD138, and (3 markers that were positive in a variable proportion of cases – CD11b (50%, CD11c (77%, CD13 (40%, CD18 (20%, CD22 (68%, CD35 (27%, CD40 (67%, CD54 (88% and CD61 (40%. In addition, BMMC from all cases explored were CD45+, and this antigen was expressed at an intensity similar to that of mature granulocytes.

  17. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  18. Photoelastic stress analysis of endodontically treated teeth restored with different post systems: normal and alveolar bone resorption cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinbao; Miura, Hiroyuki; Okada, Daizo; Yusa, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of different post materials and their lengths on the mechanical stress of endodontically treated incisor roots in two alveolar bone conditions. Two-dimensional photoelastic models were fabricated to simulate the endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with three kinds of posts materials (low Young's modulus glass fiber post, high Young's modulus glass fiber post, and prefabricated stainless steel post) and two post lengths (8 and 4 mm). Completed models were placed in a transmission polariscope and loaded with a static force of 150 N at 45° to the tooth axis. Photoelastic photographs and the magnitudes of fringe order revealed stress distribution in the root, and suggest that the glass fiber post with a low Young's modulus and long length can reduce the stress concentration both in normal and alveolar bone resorption conditions.

  19. Bone marrow stromal elements in murine leukemia; Decreased CSF-producing fibroblasts and normal IL-1 expression by macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Ishay, Z. (Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School (Israel)); Barak, V. (Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital (Israel)); Shoshan, S. (Faculty of Dental Medicine, Connective Tissue Research Laboratory, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)); Prindull, G. (Department of Pediatrics, University of Gottingen, Gottingen (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    A study of bone marrow stromal elements in murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was carried out. Our previous studies had indicated marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML. In the current investigation, separate stromal cells were cultured and the results obtained have shown that, while marrow stromal macrophages are normal in leukemia and express adequate amounts of IL-1, the fibroblasts are markedly reduced. However, if sufficient fibroblasts are pooled in vitro, they produce adequate amounts of CSF. Test of TNF{alpha} in leukemic cells CM, as possible cause of marrow stromal inhibition in leukemia, had not disclosed this cytokine. Further, it was observed that total body lethal irradiation of leukemic mice aggravates the stromal deficiency, confirming results of our previous investigations. It is concluded that bone marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML is due to decreased fibroblasts and, implicity, reduced CSF production. (author).

  20. Maturation disparity between hand-wrist bones in a Chinese sample of normal children: An analysis based on automatic boneXpert and manual Greulich and Pyle atlas assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji; Dig, Xiao Yi [Dept. of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Lin, Fang Qin [Dept. of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    To assess the maturation disparity of hand-wrist bones using the BoneXpert system and Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas in a sample of normal children from China. Our study included 229 boys and 168 girls aged 2 - 14 years. The bones in the hand and wrist were divided into five groups: distal radius and ulna, metacarpals, proximal phalanges, middle phalanges and distal phalanges. Bone age (BA) was assessed separately using the automatic BoneXpert and GP atlas by two raters. Differences in the BA between the most advanced and retarded individual bones and bone groups were analyzed. In 75.8% of children assessed with the BoneXpert and 59.4% of children assessed with the GP atlas, the BA difference between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones exceeded 2.0 years. The BA mean differences between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones were 2.58 and 2.25 years for the BoneXpert and GP atlas methods, respectively. Furthermore, for both methods, the middle phalanges were the most advanced group. The most retarded group was metacarpals for BoneXpert, while metacarpals and the distal radius and ulna were the most retarded groups according to the GP atlas. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges were closer to the chronological ages than those of the other bone groups. Obvious and regular maturation disparities are common in normal children. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges are more useful for BA estimation than those of the other bone groups.

  1. Deceptive appearance of normal variant of scaphoid bone in a teenage patient: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad N. Bhatti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid fractures are a common injury in late teens and mid twenties with a peak period in skeletally immature children at about 15 years of age, although considered to be rare in first decade of life, its exact incidence in early teen age remains to be a subject of debate. We report an unusual case of anatomical variation of scaphoid bone at the level of waist which could potentially cause diagnostic confusion. A 14-years-old boy presented in the fracture clinic 2 weeks after injury to his Right wrist which was managed in a scaphoid cast. X-ray examinations, both at the time of injury and later on in the fracture clinic revealed features suspicious of a fracture at the level of waist of the scaphoid bone, however the clinical examination did not correlate with imaging, in view of that radiological imaging of the unaffected side was performed for comparison, which revealed it to be an anatomical variant of scaphoid at this age. To our knowledge there are very few cases of such variation reported in literature in this age group of patients. This case highlights the importance of anatomical variants in scaphoid bone in this age group, which might pose a diagnostic challenge and the need for appropriate management plan and reassurance to avoid unnecessary anxiety.

  2. The normal human chondro-osseous junctional region: evidence for contact of uncalcified cartilage with subchondral bone and marrow spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoddart Robert W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chondro-osseous junctional region of diarthrodial joints is peculiarly complex and may be considered to consist of the deepest layer of non-calcified cartilage, the tidemark, the layer of calcified cartilage, a thin cement line (between the calcified cartilage and the subchondral bone and the subchondral bone. A detailed knowledge of the structure, function and pathophysiology of the normal chondro-osseous junction is essential for an understanding of the pathogenesis of osteoarthrosis. Methods Full thickness samples from human knee joints were processed and embedded in paraffin wax. One hundred serial sections (10 μm thick were taken from the chondro-osseous junctional region of a block from the medial tibial plateau of a normal joint. They were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and photographed. For a simple physical reconstruction images of each 10th sequential tissue section were printed and the areas of the photomicrographs containing the chondro-osseous junctional region were cut out and then overlaid so as to create a three-dimensional (3D model of this region. A 3D reconstruction was also made using computer modelling. Results Histochemical staining revealed some instances where prolongations of uncalcified cartilage, delineated by the tidemark, dipped into the calcified cartilage and, in places, abutted onto subchondral bone and marrow spaces. Small areas of uncalcified cartilage containing chondrocytes (virtual islands were seen, in two-dimensional (2D sections, to be apparently entombed in calcified matrix. The simple physical 3D reconstruction confirmed that these prolongations of uncalcified cartilage were continuous with the cartilage of zone IV and demonstrated that the virtual islands of uncalcified cartilage were cross-sections of these prolongations. The computer-generated 3D reconstructions clearly demonstrated that the uncalcified prolongations ran through the calcified cartilage to touch bone and

  3. Bone mineral density of normal people by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    The bone minearl density(BMD) determination is performed for 210 selected Shanghai residents of both sexes across the age range 15-50 using Hologic QDR-2000 dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA).The results whow that in female groups the peak value of L1-L4 BMD is 1.023±0.103g/cm2 at the ages of 31-35,but in male groups it is 0.971±0.118g/cm2 aged 26-30 and the peak period can last he ages 46-50,The similarconclusion is also obtained by further statistics.

  4. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density in normal postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Kamineni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted with the objective of assessing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD in postmenopausal women (PMW, to detect osteopenia or osteoporosis in PMW and to establish a correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and bone mineral density (BMD. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy PMW were selected, and a prospective observational study was conducted to correlate the BMD with serum 25(OHD levels. Their laboratory investigations along with serum 25(OHD levels were done. Their BMD was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine and neck of femur; T-scores were derived. Correlation analysis was done to investigate the relationship between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD. Results: The proportion of osteoporosis at the hip was 31.9% in deficient group, 16.1% in insufficient, and 18.2% in sufficient group and at lumbar spine, it was 27.7%, 16.1%, and 22.7%, respectively. Forty-seven percent of PMW had deficient (<20 ng/ml serum 25(OHD levels and 31% had insufficiency. T-score at hip in deficient group was −2.05 ± 0.25, and in an insufficient group, it was −1.79 ± 0.13; T-score at lumbar spine was −1.92 ± 0.12 and −1.79 ± 0.12, respectively, but both were not statistically significant. Osteoporosis was seen in 24%, osteopenia in 55% at hip level and 23% and 59% respectively at lumbar spine. There was no association between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD neither at hip nor at lumbar spine ( P = 0.51 and P = 0.79 respectively. Conclusion: In this study, among our cohort of patients there was no correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and BMD. However, Vitamin D deficiency coexists with low BMD. Vitamin D insufficiency is a common risk factor for osteoporosis associated with increased bone remodeling and low bone mass.

  5. Normal bone density in male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5alpha- reductase 2 deficiency Pseudohermafroditas masculinos por deficiência de 5alfa-redutase 2 apresentam densidade óssea normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Maria Frade Costa

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone is an androgen-dependent tissue, but it is not clear whether the androgen action in bone depends on testosterone or on dihydrotestosterone. Patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency present normal levels of testosterone and low levels of dihydrotestosterone, providing an in vivo human model for the analysis of the effect of testosterone on bone. OBJECTIVE: To analyze bone mineral density in 4 adult patients with male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. RESULTS: Three patients presented normal bone mineral density of the lumbar column (L1-L4 and femur neck, and the other patient presented a slight osteopenia in the lumbar column. CONCLUSION: Patients with dihydrotestosterone deficiency present normal bone mineral density, suggesting that dihydrotestosterone is not the main androgen acting in bone.O tecido ósseo é um tecido andrógeno-dependente porém não está claro se a ação androgênica depende da testosterona ou da diidrotestosterona. Os pacientes portadores de deficiência de 5alfa-redutase tipo 2, constituem um modelo natural para avaliar o efeito isolado da testosterona sobre a massa óssea. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a densidade mineral óssea em quatro pacientes adultos portadores de pseudohermafroditismo masculino por deficiência da 5alfa-redutase tipo 2. RESULTADOS: Três pacientes apresentaram densidade mineral óssea normal na coluna lombar e fêmur e o quarto paciente apresentou osteopenia leve em coluna lombar. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com deficiência de diidrotestosterona apresentam densidade mineral óssea normal sugerindo que a diidrotestosterona não é o andrógeno que age sobre o osso.

  6. Bone Marrow Cells in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Create a Proinflammatory Microenvironment Influencing Normal Hematopoietic Differentiation Fates

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is a serious public health problem in the pediatric population worldwide, contributing to 85% of deaths from childhood cancers. Understanding the biology of the disease is crucial for its clinical management and the development of therapeutic strategies. In line with that observed in other malignancies, chronic inflammation may contribute to a tumor microenvironment resulting in the damage of normal processes, concomitant to development and maintena...

  7. Mechanics and mechano-biology of fracture healing in normal and osteoporotic bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augat, Peter; Simon, Ulrich; Liedert, Astrid; Claes, Lutz

    2005-03-01

    Fracture repair, which aims at regaining the functional competence of a bone, is a complex and multifactorial process. For the success of fracture repair biology and mechanics are of immense importance. The biological and mechanical environments must be compatible with the processes of cell and tissue proliferation and differentiation. The biological environment is characterized by the vascular supply and by many biochemical components, the biochemical milieu. A good vascular supply is a prerequisite for the initiation of the fracture repair process. The biochemical milieu involves complex interactions among local and systemic regulatory factors such as growth factors or cytokines. The mechanical environment is determined by the local stress and strain within the fracture. However, the local stress and strain is not accessible, and the mechanical environment, therefore, is described by global mechanical factors, e.g., gap size or interfragmentary movement. The relationship between local stress and strain and the global mechanical factors can be obtained by numerical models (Finite Element Model). Moreover, there is considerable interaction between biological factors and mechanical factors, creating a biomechanical environment for the fracture healing process. The biomechanical environment is characterized by osteoblasts and osteocytes that sense the mechanical signal and express biological markers, which effect the repair process. This review will focus on the effects of biomechanical factors on fracture repair as well as the effects of age and osteoporosis.

  8. Sarcopenia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with osteopenia, osteoporosis and normal bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Marianne C; Hunter, Gary R; Livingstone, Margaret Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the decline of muscle mass with age, causes impaired gait, disability and falls. It may therefore increase the risk of fracture for osteoporotic women. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in osteopenic and osteoporotic women, and to determine if hormone replacement therapy (HRT), diet, or physical activity (PA) has a role in the prevention of sarcopenia. One hundred and thirty-one premenopausal and 82 postmenopausal (54 taking HRT) healthy women (17-77 years) volunteered for the study. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sarcopenia was defined as a relative skeletal muscle index (RSMI) (appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height) below 5.45 kg/m2. Osteopenia was defined by a densitometric t-score for bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm2) below -1.0 and osteoporosis by a t-score below -2.5. Nutrient intake was assessed using 3-day food records and physical activity (PA) was measured using the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire. Pearson chi-squared, independent t-tests, simple correlation and multiple regression were used to analyze the data. In premenopausal osteopenic women the prevalence of sarcopenia was 12.5%. In postmenopausal women it was 25% for those with osteopenia, and 50% for those with osteoporosis. PA was independently related to RSMI (beta=0.222, p=0.0001), but diet and HRT were not. After adjusting for PA, RSMI was not significantly related to BMD. These data suggest that the relationship between RSMI, BMD and risk of osteoporosis may largely be mediated through participation in PA. Sarcopenia screening simultaneous to BMD examinations by DXA, may be of value in identifying osteoporotic women with sarcopenia, a group that may be most in need of exercise interventions to increase muscle and BMD.

  9. Nasal turbinate enlargement due to cartilage and bone proliferation: a normal developmental finding in young ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Kathleen A; Frantz, Christopher; Dyke, Amy S; Ryan, Patricia C; Jin, Hong; Kemble, George; Dixit, Rakesh; Leininger, Joel R

    2010-12-01

    Toxicity studies of intranasally administered, live attenuated influenza virus vaccine candidates conducted in male and female ferrets led to the microscopic observation of individual differences in the size of nasal turbinates, especially in the dorsal aspect of the nasal cavity. The association of these enlarged turbinates with acute to subacute inflammation, which is sometimes common in ferrets given live attenuated influenza virus vaccine candidates, led to this detailed microscopic evaluation of turbinate enlargement (cartilaginous and osseous thickening, or COT) in control animals dosed intranasally with saline. Results of this evaluation led to the conclusion that COT is a normal developmental feature of growing ferrets, irrespective of inflammation in nasal tissues or inflammatory exudate in the nasal cavity.

  10. A combined strategy of "in silico" transcriptome analysis and web search engine optimization allows an agile identification of reference genes suitable for normalization in gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, Primetta; Ciceri, Gian Paolo; Provero, Paolo; Stanca, Antonio Michele; Morcia, Caterina; Terzi, Valeria

    2007-03-01

    Traditionally housekeeping genes have been employed as endogenous reference (internal control) genes for normalization in gene expression studies. Since the utilization of single housekeepers cannot assure an unbiased result, new normalization methods involving multiple housekeeping genes and normalizing using their mean expression have been recently proposed. Moreover, since a gold standard gene suitable for every experimental condition does not exist, it is also necessary to validate the expression stability of every putative control gene on the specific requirements of the planned experiment. As a consequence, finding a good set of reference genes is for sure a non-trivial problem requiring quite a lot of lab-based experimental testing. In this work we identified novel candidate barley reference genes suitable for normalization in gene expression studies. An advanced web search approach aimed to collect, from publicly available web resources, the most interesting information regarding the expression profiling of candidate housekeepers on a specific experimental basis has been set up and applied, as an example, on stress conditions. A complementary lab-based analysis has been carried out to verify the expression profile of the selected genes in different tissues and during heat shock response. This combined dry/wet approach can be applied to any species and physiological condition of interest and can be considered very helpful to identify putative reference genes to be shortlisted every time a new experimental design has to be set up.

  11. Is It Necessary to Do Temporal Bone Computed Tomography of the Internal Auditory Canal in Tinnitus with Normal Hearing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolgar Lutfi Kumral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the compression of the vestibulocochlear nerve in the etiology of the tinnitus in the normal hearing ears with temporal bone computed tomography scans. Methods. A prospective nonrandomized study of 30 bilateral tinnitus and 30 normal hearing patients enrolled in this study. Results. A total of 60 patients (ages ranged from 16 to 87 were included. The tinnitus group comprised 11 males and 19 females (mean age 49,50 ± 12,008 and the control group comprised 6 males and 24 females (mean age 39,47 ± 12,544. Regarding the right and left internal acoustic canals measurements (inlet, midcanal, and outlet canal lengths, there were no significant differences between the measurements of the control and tinnitus groups (P>0.005. There was no narrowness in the internal acoustic canal of the tinnitus group compared with the control group. High-frequency audiometric measurements of the right and left ears tinnitus group at 8000, 9000, 10000, 11200, 12500, 14000, 16000, and 18000 Hz frequencies were significantly lower than the control group thresholds (P<0.05. There was high-frequency hearing loss in the tinnitus group. Conclusion. There were no anatomical differences in the etiology of tinnitus rather than physiological degeneration in the nerves.

  12. Bone scintigraphy with (99m)technetium-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate allows early diagnosis of cardiac involvement in patients with transthyretin-derived systemic amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; van Rheenen, Ronald W. J.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Noordzij, Walter; Koole, Michel; Blokzijl, Hans; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of bone scintigraphy with (99m)Technetium-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m-HDP) for the detection of cardiac involvement in a group of patients with ATTR amyloidosis in different phases of disease, to relate the findings to echocardiography, ECG and cardiac

  13. Histomorphometric Assessment of Cancellous and Cortical Bone Material Distribution in the Proximal Humerus of Normal and Osteoporotic Individuals: Significantly Reduced Bone Stock in the Metaphyseal and Subcapital Regions of Osteoporotic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Christoph M; Schmidutz, Florian; Helfen, Tobias; Richards, R Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Milz, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder predominantly affecting postmenopausal women but also men at an advanced age. Both genders may suffer from low-energy fractures of, for example, the proximal humerus when reduction of the bone stock or/and quality has occurred.The aim of the current study was to compare the amount of bone in typical fracture zones of the proximal humerus in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic individuals.The amount of bone in the proximal humerus was determined histomorphometrically in frontal plane sections. The donor bones were allocated to normal and osteoporotic groups using the T-score from distal radius DXA measurements of the same extremities. The T-score evaluation was done according to WHO criteria. Regional thickness of the subchondral plate and the metaphyseal cortical bone were measured using interactive image analysis.At all measured locations the amount of cancellous bone was significantly lower in individuals from the osteoporotic group compared to the non-osteoporotic one. The osteoporotic group showed more significant differences between regions of the same bone than the non-osteoporotic group. In both groups the subchondral cancellous bone and the subchondral plate were least affected by bone loss. In contrast, the medial metaphyseal region in the osteoporotic group exhibited higher bone loss in comparison to the lateral side.This observation may explain prevailing fracture patterns, which frequently involve compression fractures and certainly has an influence on the stability of implants placed in this medial region. It should be considered when planning the anchoring of osteosynthesis materials in osteoporotic patients with fractures of the proximal humerus.

  14. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  15. Age-predicted values for lumbar spine, proximal femur, and whole-body bone mineral density: results from a population of normal children aged 3 to 18 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca; Beaumont, L.F. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Morrison, J. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Sala, A. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (Italy); Barr, R.D. [McMaster Children' s Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McMaster Univ., Dept. of Pediatrics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    We measured areal bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and the proximal femur and for the total body in 179 subjects (91 girls and 88 boys) with no known disorders that might affect calcium metabolism. Results are also reported for lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) and for the derived variable, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). Expected-for-age values for each variable were derived for boys and girls by using an expression that represented the sum of a steady increase due to growth plus a rapid increase associated with puberty. Normal ranges were derived by assuming that at least 95% of children would be included within 1.96 population standard deviations (SD) of the expected-for-age value. The normal range for lumbar spine BMD derived from our population of children was compared with previously published normal ranges based on results obtained from different bone densitometers in diverse geographic locations. The extent of agreement between the various normal ranges indicates that the derived expressions can be used for reporting routine spine, femur, and whole-body BMD measurements in children and adolescents. The greatest difference in expected-for-age values among the various studies was that arising from intermanufacturer variability. The application of published conversion factors derived from DXA measurements in adults did not account fully for these differences, especially in younger children. (author)

  16. Vitamin D-3 and vitamin K-1 supplementation of Dutch postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral densities : effects on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carboxylated osteocalcin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Storm, H; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; Van der Veer, E

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Improvement of vitamin D and K status of about 60-y-old postmenopausal Dutch women. Design: In a randomized study postmenopausal women with normal (T-score >-1; n = 96) and low (T-score less than or equal to-1; n = 45) bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, were supplemented with

  17. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 1.: normal anatomy; Kosc skroniowa w tomografii komputerowej wysokiej rozdzielczosci. Czesc 1.: anatomia prawidlowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M. [Katedra i Zaklad Radiologii i Diagnostyki Narzadowej, Akademia Medyczna, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Normal anatomy of the temporal bone in transverse and coronal sections was presented. CT studies were performed using high-resolution program. The images of an asymptomatic ear of 2 patients were selected from 68 cases examined on account of various otological diseases. All the sections showed as many as 68 anatomic structures. (author) 5 refs, 2 figs

  18. In Vivo Tracking of Systemically Administered Allogeneic Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Normal Rats through Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are increasingly used as a panacea for multiple types of disease short of effective treatment. Dozens of clinical trials published demonstrated strikingly positive therapeutic effects of MSCs. However, as a specific agent, little research has focused on the dynamic distribution of MSCs after in vivo administration. In this study, we track systemically transplanted allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs in normal rats through bioluminescence imaging (BLI in real time. Ex vivo organ imaging, immunohistochemistry (IHC, and RT-PCR were conducted to verify the histological distribution of BMSCs. Our results showed that BMSCs home to the dorsal skin apart from the lungs and kidneys after tail vein injection and could not be detected 14 days later. Allogeneic BMSCs mainly appeared not at the parenchymatous organs but at the subepidermal connective tissue and adipose tissue in healthy rats. There were no significant MSCs-related adverse effects except for transient decrease in neutrophils. These findings will provide experimental evidences for a better understanding of the biocharacteristics of BMSCs.

  19. Extended flow cytometry characterization of normal bone marrow progenitor cells by simultaneous detection of aldehyde dehydrogenase and early hematopoietic antigens: implication for erythroid differentiation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascariello Caterina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH is a cytosolic enzyme highly expressed in hematopoietic precursors from cord blood and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood, as well as in bone marrow from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. As regards human normal bone marrow, detailed characterization of ALDH+ cells has been addressed by one single study (Gentry et al, 2007. The goal of our work was to provide new information about the dissection of normal bone marrow progenitor cells based upon the simultaneous detection by flow cytometry of ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens, with particular attention to the expression of ALDH on erythroid precursors. To this aim, we used three kinds of approach: i multidimensional analytical flow cytometry, detecting ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens in normal bone marrow; ii fluorescence activated cell sorting of distinct subpopulations of progenitor cells, followed by in vitro induction of erythroid differentiation; iii detection of ALDH+ cellular subsets in bone marrow from pure red cell aplasia patients. Results In normal bone marrow, we identified three populations of cells, namely ALDH+CD34+, ALDH-CD34+ and ALDH+CD34- (median percentages were 0.52, 0.53 and 0.57, respectively. As compared to ALDH-CD34+ cells, ALDH+CD34+ cells expressed the phenotypic profile of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells, with brighter expression of CD117 and CD133, accompanied by lower display of CD38 and CD45RA. Of interest, ALDH+CD34- population disclosed a straightforward erythroid commitment, on the basis of three orders of evidences. First of all, ALDH+CD34- cells showed a CD71bright, CD105+, CD45- phenotype. Secondly, induction of differentiation experiments evidenced a clear-cut expression of glycophorin A (CD235a. Finally, ALDH+CD34- precursors were not detectable in patients with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA. Conclusion Our study, comparing surface antigen expression of

  20. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information › Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your ... compared to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine ...

  1. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-frozen air-chilled turkey breast allows for reduced sodium content in protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Medellin-Lopez, M; Singh, P; Sansawat, T; Chin, K B; Kang, I

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate sodium reduction in the protein gels that were prepared with turkey breasts after hot boning (HB), quarter (¼) sectioning, crust-frozen air-chilling (CFAC), and cold temperature mincing. For each of 4 replications, 36 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. One-half of the carcasses were randomly assigned to water immersion chilling for chill boning (CB), whereas the remaining carcasses were immediately HB and quarter-sectioned/crust-frozen air-chilled (HB-¼CFAC) in a freezing room (-12°C, 1.0 m/s). After deboning, CB fillets were conventionally minced, whereas HB-¼CFAC fillets were cold minced up to 27 min with 1 or 2% salt. From the beginning of mincing, the batter temperatures of HB-¼CFAC were lower (P batters up to 12 and 21 min for 2 and 1% salts, respectively. Upon mincing, the batter pH of the HB-¼CFAC (P 0.05) from the pH of CB batters, except for the 1% salt HB-¼CFAC batter after 15 min of mincing. The pattern of pH was not changed when the batters were stored overnight. The protein of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P batter appears to have more open space, less protein aggregation, and more protein-coated fat particles than those of postrigor batters. Based on these results, the combination of HB-¼CFAC and cold-batter-mincing technologies appear to improve protein functionality and sodium reduction capacity.

  2. Recovery of neurological function of ischemic stroke by application of conditioned medium of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from normal and cerebral ischemia rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) release bioactive factors and provide neuroprotection for CNS injury. However, it remains elusive whether BM-MSC derived from healthy donors or stroke patients provides equal therapeutic potential. The present work aims to characterize BM-MSC prepared from normal healthy rats (NormBM-MSC) and cerebral ischemia rats (IschBM-MSC), and examine the effects of their conditioned medium (C...

  3. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-07-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone.

  4. Lack of Association between Body Weight, Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Normal and Osteoporotic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Poggi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In an ethnically homogeneous population of women living in Tuscany, Italy, the relationships between age, body weight, bone mineral density and the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene polymorphism were studied, with the objective of recognizing patients at risk for osteoporosis. In 275 women bone mineral density was measured by Dual Energy X-rays Absorptiometry (DEXA. In 50 of them the individual genetic pattern for VDR was evaluated by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification of the VDR gene, and digestion with the restriction enzyme BsmI. Age and bone mineral density were inversely related (R2 = 0.298. Body weight was associated with bone mineral density (R2 = 0.059, but not with age. In osteoporotic women, mean (± SD body weight was 59.9 ± 6.5 Kg, lower than that recorded in non osteoporotic women (64.2 ± 9.4 Kg, even though not significantly different (p = 0.18. No association was found between VDR gene polymorphism, bone density or body weight. The performance of anthropometric and genetic components appear to be poor, and, at least for the time being, bone mineral density measurement by means of MOC-DEXA represents the optimal method to detect women at risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  5. Phospholipase C signaling via the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor is essential for normal bone responses to PTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Liu, Minlin; Yang, Dehong; Bouxsein, Mary L; Thomas, Clare C; Schipani, Ernestina; Bringhurst, F Richard; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2010-08-01

    We have previously shown that differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes is delayed in mice expressing a mutated PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTHR) (called DSEL here) that stimulates adenylyl cyclase normally but fails to activate phospholipase C (PLC). To better understand the role of PLC signaling via the PTHR in skeletal and mineral homeostasis, we examined these mice fed a normal or calcium-deficient diet. On a standard diet, DSEL mice displayed a modest decrease in bone mass. Remarkably, when fed a low-calcium diet or infused with PTH, DSEL mice exhibited strikingly curtailed peritrabecular stromal cell responses and attenuated new bone formation when compared with Wt mice. Attenuated in vitro colony formation was also observed in bone marrow cells derived from DSEL mice fed a low-calcium diet. Furthermore, PTH stimulated proliferation and increased mRNAs encoding cyclin D1 in primary osteoblasts derived from Wt but not from DSEL mice. Our data indicate that PLC signaling through the PTHR is required for skeletal homeostasis.

  6. Normal bone mineral density and lean body mass, but increased fat mass, in young adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia attributable to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are treated with glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid administration, even in substitution doses, may cause decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine BMD, lean mass, a

  7. Pyridinium cross-links in bone of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta: Evidence of a normal intrafibrillar collagen packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, R.A.; Tekoppele, J.M.; Janus, G.J.M.; Wassen, M.H.M.; Pruijs, H.E.H.; Sluijs, H.A.H. van der; Sakkers, R.J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The brittleness of bone in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) has been attributed to an aberrant collagen network. However, the role of collagen in the loss of tissue integrity has not been well established. To gain an insight into the biochemistry and structure of the collagen network, the

  8. Hyoid bone position in open bite and normal individuals in adults%成人前牙开(牙合)患者舌骨位置的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余兴华; 王增全

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the hyoid bone position between open bite and normal individuals. Methods Cephalograms of 30 open bite and 30 normal individuals in permanent dentition were retrospectively investigated by computerized cephalometric analysis, and the position of hyoid bone was evaluated in vertical and horizontal dimensions. Results Comparing with normal group, the position of open bite group was in line with normal group in vertical dimension. But in horizontal dimension, the hyoid bone was more backward in items of HA-C3 and HA-CVP. Conclusion There were statistical differences in hyoid position in horizontal dimensions between open bite and normal individuals.%目的 探讨开(牙合)患者舌骨位置特征.方法 60例患者分为两组,开验组30例,对照组30例.通过头颅侧位X线片研究两组患者舌骨位置的差异.结果 与对照组比较,开(牙合)组舌骨位置在垂直向上无差异.矢状向上,开(牙合)患者舌骨前上点HA与第三颈椎前下点C3的距离(HA-C3)为(31.10±4.27) mm,舌骨前上点HA与颈椎前平面的距离(HA-CVP)为(30.30±4.70) mm;对照组HA-C3和HA-CVP分别为(33.66±4.50) mm和(32.95±4.27) mm,开(牙合)组的HA-C3和HA-CVP小于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 开(牙合)患者舌骨位置矢状向上较对照组正常(牙合)群体相对颈椎更靠后.

  9. 1,25(OH2D3 alters growth plate maturation and bone architecture in young rats with normal renal function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Idelevich

    Full Text Available Whereas detrimental effects of vitamin D deficiency are known over century, the effects of vitamin D receptor activation by 1,25(OH(2D(3, the principal hormonal form of vitamin D, on the growing bone and its growth plate are less clear. Currently, 1,25(OH(2D(3 is used in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease and mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD and is strongly associated with growth retardation. Here, we investigate the effect of 1,25(OH(2D(3 treatment on bone development in normal young rats, unrelated to renal insufficiency. Young rats received daily i.p. injections of 1 µg/kg 1,25(OH(2D(3 for one week, or intermittent 3 µg/kg 1,25(OH(2D(3 for one month. Histological analysis revealed narrower tibial growth plates, predominantly in the hypertrophic zone of 1,25(OH(2D(3-treated animals in both experimental protocols. This phenotype was supported by narrower distribution of aggrecan, collagens II and X mRNA, shown by in situ hybridization. Concomitant with altered chondrocyte maturation, 1,25(OH(2D(3 increased chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis in terminal hypertrophic cells. In vitro treatment of the chondrocytic cell line ATDC5 with 1,25(OH(2D(3 lowered differentiation and increased proliferation dose and time-dependently. Micro-CT analysis of femurs from 1-week 1,25(OH(2D(3-treated group revealed reduced cortical thickness, elevated cortical porosity, and higher trabecular number and thickness. 1-month administration resulted in a similar cortical phenotype but without effect on trabecular bone. Evaluation of fluorochrome binding with confocal microscopy revealed inhibiting effects of 1,25(OH(2D(3 on intracortical bone formation. This study shows negative effects of 1,25(OH(2D(3 on growth plate and bone which may contribute to the exacerbation of MBD in the CKD pediatric patients.

  10. 1,25(OH)2D3 alters growth plate maturation and bone architecture in young rats with normal renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Anna; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Shahar, Ron; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    Whereas detrimental effects of vitamin D deficiency are known over century, the effects of vitamin D receptor activation by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), the principal hormonal form of vitamin D, on the growing bone and its growth plate are less clear. Currently, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) is used in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease and mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and is strongly associated with growth retardation. Here, we investigate the effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment on bone development in normal young rats, unrelated to renal insufficiency. Young rats received daily i.p. injections of 1 µg/kg 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) for one week, or intermittent 3 µg/kg 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) for one month. Histological analysis revealed narrower tibial growth plates, predominantly in the hypertrophic zone of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-treated animals in both experimental protocols. This phenotype was supported by narrower distribution of aggrecan, collagens II and X mRNA, shown by in situ hybridization. Concomitant with altered chondrocyte maturation, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis in terminal hypertrophic cells. In vitro treatment of the chondrocytic cell line ATDC5 with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) lowered differentiation and increased proliferation dose and time-dependently. Micro-CT analysis of femurs from 1-week 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-treated group revealed reduced cortical thickness, elevated cortical porosity, and higher trabecular number and thickness. 1-month administration resulted in a similar cortical phenotype but without effect on trabecular bone. Evaluation of fluorochrome binding with confocal microscopy revealed inhibiting effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on intracortical bone formation. This study shows negative effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on growth plate and bone which may contribute to the exacerbation of MBD in the CKD pediatric patients.

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of dynamic hip screw with bone cement augmentation in normal bone%骨水泥强化正常骨质DHS固定的生物力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎宁; 彭阿钦; 聂喜增; 李锋; 赵永涛; 毕靖博; 韩长伶

    2008-01-01

    背景:DHS是治疗股骨转子间骨折的标准内固定,对于伴有骨质疏松的骨折,容易发生拉力螺钉切割.国内外文献建议骨水泥强化DHS以达到坚强内固定,但是对于正常骨质,骨水泥强化是否有效还缺少报道.目的:选取正常骨密度的股骨转子间骨折标本,观察骨水泥强化对DHS固定的生物力学影响.设计、时间及地点:同一标本两侧对比观察实验,于2005-03/05在河北省骨科研究所生物力学实验室完成.材料:选取河北医科大学解剖教研室提供的成年男性防腐尸体双侧股骨上段标本.X射线证实无结核、畸形、肿瘤.方法:取成年男性防腐尸体双侧股骨上段标本24对48侧,制备A2型股骨转子间骨折模型.右侧标本行骨水泥强化DHS固定(在股骨头近端钉道用刮匙扩大.股骨头朝下,注入2mL低黏稠度骨水泥,拧入拉力螺钉,保持位置不变直至骨水泥凝固.置入套筒,拧紧尾钉适当加压,皮质骨螺钉固定钢板),为强化组;左侧行DHS常规固定,为对照组.两组标本进行弯曲强度试验及扭转强度试验.主要观察指标:两组标本的最大负荷及最大扭矩.结果:强化组最大负荷及最大扭矩与对照组比较,差异均无统计学意义[最大负荷分别为:(3852.1602±143.6031)N和(3702.9667±133.8601)N;最大扭矩分别为(15.5±2.6)N·m,(14.7±3.4)N·m, P>0.0⑤.结论:对于正常骨密度的股骨转子间骨折,骨水泥强化对DHS固定强度及骨折整体稳定性无显著的影响.%BACKGROUND: Dynamic hip screw (DHS) is a standard internal fixation for intertrochanteric fracture, whereas the patient combined with osteoporosis, cut-out incidence of lag screw is common. The articles in China and abroad indicate bone cement augmentation of DHS to achieve firm fixation. As for normal bone, no reports is published that whether bone cement augmentation is effective.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biomechanics of DHS with bone cement augmentation for

  12. The proximal hamstring muscle–tendon–bone unit: A review of the normal anatomy, biomechanics, and pathophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, Luis, E-mail: luisbeltran@mac.com [Department of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, NYU, New York, NY (United States); Ghazikhanian, Varand, E-mail: varandg@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Padron, Mario, E-mail: mario.padron@cemtro.es [Clinica CEMTRO, Avenida del Ventisquero de la Condesa 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Beltran, Javier, E-mail: Jbeltran46@msn.com [Department of Radiology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Proximal hamstring injuries occur during eccentric contraction with the hip and the knee on extension; hence they are relatively frequent lesions in specific sports such as water skiing and hurdle jumping. Additionally, the trend toward increasing activity and fitness training in the general population has resulted in similar injuries. Myotendinous strains are more frequent than avulsion injuries. Discrimination between the two types of lesions is relevant for patient management, since the former is treated conservatively and the latter surgically. MRI and Ultrasonography are both well suited techniques for the diagnosis and evaluation of hamstring tendon injuries. Each one has its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy and biomechanics of the proximal hamstring muscle–tendon–bone unit and the varied imaging appearances of hamstring injury, which is vital for optimizing patient care. This will enable the musculoskeletal radiologist to contribute accurate and useful information in the treatment of athletes at all levels of participation.

  13. of the stomach (ID 345), neutralisation of gastric acid (ID 345), contribution to normal formation of collagen and connective tissue (ID 287, 288, 333, 334, 335, 1405, 1652, 1718, 1719, 1945), maintenance of normal bone (ID 287, 335, 1652, 1718, 1945), maintenance of normal joints (ID 1405, 1652, 1945, ), maintenance of normal appearance and elasticity of the skin (ID 288, 333), and contribution to normal formation of hair and nails (ID 334, 1652, 1719) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to silicon and protection against aluminium accumulation in the brain, cardiovascular health, forming a protective coat on the mucous membrane of the stomach, neutralisation of gastric acid, contribution to normal formation of collagen and connective tissue, maintenance of normal bone......, maintenance of normal joints, maintenance of normal appearance and elasticity of the skin, and contribution to normal formation of hair and nails. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references...

  14. Research for Proteomics Discrepancies between Osteosarcoma and Normal Bone Tissue%骨肉瘤与正常骨组织的蛋白质组学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿海辉; 贺茂林; 葛洪亮; 王哲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the proteomics discrepancies between osteosarcomas and normal tissue of bone for discovering specific markers for osteosarcoma. Methods Total protein was extracted from five samples of osteosarcoma and five samples of normal bone, respectively. Then dielectrophoresis was conducted three times.repeatedly. The differential proteins were found out by ImageMaster 2-DE software a-nalysis after silver staining and scanning. Then. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometric identification of differential protein spots was conducted. Get access to the peptide mass fingerprints and query to find out matching proteins in the .\\(.'BI database. Results Dielectrophoresis silver staining map had good repeat ability. Protein spots of osteosarcomas and normal bone were approximately^ 1 296 ± 179).( 1 108 ± 162) . respectively .and 25 significant different proteins were discovered, of which 10 spots were identified successfully. Six proteins were significantly up-regulated in osteosarcom. especially the level of glutathiones transferases( GST). Four down - regulated proteins were observed, especially the level of nudeoside diphosphate kinase( NDPK). Conclusion The different proteins between osteosarcoma and normal tissue can be found by proteomics analysis which provide the basis for searching the specific marker for osteosarcoma.%目的 比较骨肉瘤与正常骨组织蛋白质组学的差异,探寻骨肉瘤特异性标志物.方法 分别提取5例骨肉瘤肿瘤标本和5例正常骨组织总蛋白,进行双向电泳,重复3次;银染、扫描后进行ImageMaster 2-DE Platinum 6.0软件分析以发现差异蛋白并对差异蛋白质点进行MALDI-TOE TOF质谱鉴定,获取肽质指纹图谱后应用NCBI数据库查找匹配蛋白质.结果 获得重复性较好的双向电泳银染图谱,骨肉瘤组织蛋白质点数约为(1 296±179),正常骨组织蛋白质点数约为(1108±162),明显差异的蛋白质点25个,其中10个被成功鉴定,6个蛋白质在骨

  15. The 18 kDa translocator protein (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor) expression in the bone of normal, osteoprotegerin or low calcium diet treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Winnie Wai-Ying; Meikle, Steven R; Zhou, Hong; Zheng, Yu; Blair, Julie M; Seibel, Marcus; Dunstan, Colin R; Banati, Richard B

    2012-01-01

    The presence of the translocator protein (TSPO), previously named as the mitochondrial or peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, in bone cells was studied in vitro and in situ using RT-qPCR, and receptor autoradiography using the selective TSPO ligand PK11195.In vitro, the TSPO is highly expressed in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells.In situ, constitutive expression of TSPO is found in bone marrow and trabecular bone, e.g., spongiosa. Mice with a reduction of bone turnover induced by a 4-day treatment of osteoprotegerin reduces [(3)H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (320±128 Bq x mg(-1), 499±106 Bq x mg(-1) in saline-treated controls). In contrast, mice with an increase in bone turnover caused by a 4-day low calcium diet increases [(3)H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (615±90 Bq x mg(-1)). Further, our study includes technical feasibility data on [(18)F]fluoride microPET imaging of rodent bone with altered turnover. Despite [(18)F]fluoride having high uptake, the in vivo signal differences were small. Using a phantom model, we describe the spillover effect and partial volume loss that affect the quantitative microPET imaging of the small bone structures in experimental mouse models. In summary, we demonstrate the expression of TSPO in small rodent bone tissues, including osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A trend increase in TSPO expression was observed in the spongiosa from low to high bone turnover conditions. However, despite the potential utility of TSPO expression as an in vivo biomarker of bone turnover in experimental rodent models, our small animal PET imaging data using [(18)F]fluoride show that even under the condition of a good biological signal-to-noise ratio and high tracer uptake, the currently achievable instrument sensitivity and spatial resolution is unlikely to be sufficient to detect subtle differences in small structures, such as mouse bone.

  16. The 18 kDa translocator protein (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor expression in the bone of normal, osteoprotegerin or low calcium diet treated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Wai-Ying Kam

    Full Text Available The presence of the translocator protein (TSPO, previously named as the mitochondrial or peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, in bone cells was studied in vitro and in situ using RT-qPCR, and receptor autoradiography using the selective TSPO ligand PK11195.In vitro, the TSPO is highly expressed in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells.In situ, constitutive expression of TSPO is found in bone marrow and trabecular bone, e.g., spongiosa. Mice with a reduction of bone turnover induced by a 4-day treatment of osteoprotegerin reduces [(3H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (320±128 Bq x mg(-1, 499±106 Bq x mg(-1 in saline-treated controls. In contrast, mice with an increase in bone turnover caused by a 4-day low calcium diet increases [(3H]PK11195 binding in the spongiosa (615±90 Bq x mg(-1. Further, our study includes technical feasibility data on [(18F]fluoride microPET imaging of rodent bone with altered turnover. Despite [(18F]fluoride having high uptake, the in vivo signal differences were small. Using a phantom model, we describe the spillover effect and partial volume loss that affect the quantitative microPET imaging of the small bone structures in experimental mouse models. In summary, we demonstrate the expression of TSPO in small rodent bone tissues, including osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A trend increase in TSPO expression was observed in the spongiosa from low to high bone turnover conditions. However, despite the potential utility of TSPO expression as an in vivo biomarker of bone turnover in experimental rodent models, our small animal PET imaging data using [(18F]fluoride show that even under the condition of a good biological signal-to-noise ratio and high tracer uptake, the currently achievable instrument sensitivity and spatial resolution is unlikely to be sufficient to detect subtle differences in small structures, such as mouse bone.

  17. EF1α and RPL13a represent normalization genes suitable for RT-qPCR analysis of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

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    Curtis Kevin M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RT-qPCR analysis is a widely used method for the analysis of mRNA expression throughout the field of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC research. Comparison between MSC studies, both in vitro and in vivo, are challenging due to the varied methods of RT-qPCR data normalization and analysis. Therefore, this study focuses on putative housekeeping genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data between heterogeneous commercially available human MSC, compared with more homogeneous populations of MSC such as MIAMI and RS-1 cells. Results Eight genes including; ACTB, B2M, EF1α, GAPDH, RPL13a, YWHAZ, UBC and HPRT1 were tested as possible housekeeping genes based on their expression level and variability. EF1α and RPL13a were validated for RT-qPCR analysis of MIAMI cells during expansion in varied oxygen tensions, endothelial differentiation, neural precursor enrichment, and during the comparison with RS-1 cells and commercially available MSC. RPL13a and YWHAZ were validated as normalization genes for the cross-species analysis of MIAMI cells in an animal model of focal ischemia. GAPDH, which is one of the most common housekeeping genes used for the normalization of RT-qPCR data in the field of MSC research, was found to have the highest variability and deemed not suitable for normalization of RT-qPCR data. Conclusions In order to make comparisons between heterogeneous MSC populations, as well as adult stem cell like MSC which are used in different laboratories throughout the world, it is important to have a standardized, reproducible set of housekeeping genes for RT-qPCR analysis. In this study we demonstrate that EF1α, RPL13a and YWHAZ are suitable genes for the RT-qPCR analysis and comparison of several sources of human MSC during in vitro characterization and differentiation as well as in an ex vivo animal model of global cerebral ischemia. This will allow for the comparative RT-qPCR analysis of multiple MSC populations with the goal of

  18. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  19. Efeito da atividade física no osso normal e na prevenção e tratamento da osteoporose Efectos de la actividad física en huesos normales y en la prevención y tratamiento de osteoporosis Effect of the physical activity on normal bone and on the osteoporosis prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Melo Ocarino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A osteoporose é uma doença cada vez mais diagnosticada em mulheres e homens de todo o mundo. Embora os esteróides sexuais sejam importantes na gênese da osteoporose, a inatividade física constitui um fator de risco. O exercício físico atua no osso por efeito direto, via força mecânica, ou indireto, mediado por fatores hormonais. Mas os mecanismos pelos quais a atividade física melhora a massa óssea ainda não são totalmente conhecidos. Baseando-se nos resultados que demonstram os efeitos benéficos da atividade física no tecido ósseo, a prática de esportes vem sendo cada vez mais indicada na prevenção e até mesmo no tratamento da osteoporose. O objetivo desta revisão é descrever os efeitos da atividade física no tecido ósseo normal e na prevenção e tratamento da osteoporose.La osteoporosis es una enfermedad que cada vez más se diagnostica en mujeres y hombres de todo el mundo. Aunque los esteroides sexuales sean importantes en la génesis de la osteoporosis, la inactividad física constituye un factor de riesgo. El ejercicio físico actúa en el hueso de forma directa, vía fuerza mecánica, o indirecta, mediado por factores hormonales. Sin embargo la patogénesis por la que la actividad física mejora la masa ósea todavía no es totalmente conocida. Con base en los resultados que demuestran los efectos benéficos de la actividad física en el tejido óseo, la práctica de deportes viene siendo indicada cada vez más como medio de prevención y hasta incluso como tratamiento de la osteoporosis. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir los efectos de la actividad física en el tejido óseo normal y en la prevención y tratamiento de la osteoporosis.Osteoporosis has been increasingly diagnosed in women and men worldwide. Although the sexual steroids are important in the genesis of human osteoporosis, it is believed that the lack of physical activity constitutes a risk factor. Physical activity acts on the bone by direct

  20. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-4 and BMP-7 regulate differentially Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF

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    Lloyd Clare M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway remodelling is thought to be under the control of a complex group of molecules belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-superfamily. The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs belong to this family and have been shown to regulate fibrosis in kidney and liver diseases. However, the role of BMPs in lung remodelling remains unclear. BMPs may regulate tissue remodelling in asthma by controlling TGF-β-induced profibrotic functions in lung fibroblasts. Methods Cell cultures were exposed to TGF-β1 alone or in the presence of BMP-4 or BMP-7; control cultures were exposed to medium only. Cell proliferation was assessed by quantification of the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the main results were confirmed by ELISA. Cell differentiation was determined by the analysis of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity was assessed by zymography. Results We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin and collagen type I and IV when compared to unstimulated NHLF, and confirmed these results at the protein level. BMP-4, but not BMP-7, reduced TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix protein production. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of MMP-2 which was inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Both BMP-4 and BMP-7 downregulated TGF-β1-induced MMP-13 release compared to untreated and TGF-β1-treated cells. TGF-β1 also induced a myofibroblast-like transformation which was partially inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Conclusions Our study suggests that some regulatory properties of BMP-7 may be tissue or cell type specific and unveil a potential regulatory role for

  1. Thrombopoietin mobilizes CD34+ cell subsets into peripheral blood and expands multilineage progenitors in bone marrow of cancer patients with normal hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, L J; Luens, K M; Estrada, M F; Bruno, E; Hoffman, R; Cohen, R L; Ashby, M A; Vadhan-Raj, S

    1998-03-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO), the primary regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis, also mediates biologic effects in vitro on hematopoietic cells more primitive than those committed to the megakaryocyte (MK) lineage. To assess the spectrum of hematopoietic effects of recombinant human (rh)TPO in vivo, we evaluated its proliferative effect on bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells, its maturation effect on BM MKs, and its mobilizing effect on peripheral blood (PB) progenitor cells during a phase I clinical laboratory investigation in which rhTPO was administered to cancer patients with normal hematopoiesis. Twelve patients received a single dose of rhTPO (0.3, 0.6, 1.2, or 2.4 microg/kg of body weight) prior to chemotherapy. BM and PB samples from these patients were analyzed 1 to 2 days before (baseline) and 7 days after rhTPO administration. At higher doses (1.2-2.4 microg/kg), rhTPO produced increased concentrations of primitive CD34+Thy-1+Lin-cells (mean 2.1-fold), CD34+mpl+ cells (mean 5.2-fold), CD34+CD41+CD14- promegakaryoblasts (mean 2.9-fold), and myeloerythroid colony-forming cells (mean threefold) in BM. No significant increases in the frequency of BM colony-forming unit (CFU)-MK were observed. Elevated numbers of both immature (2N-8N) and more mature (64N and 128N) CD41+ MKs were detected in BM, with modal ploidy remaining at 16N. Higher doses of rhTPO (1.2-2.4 microg/kg) also induced increased concentrations of CD34+ cell subsets in PB, including both primitive CD34+Thy-1+Lin- (mean 8.8-fold) and MK lineage-committed CD34+CD41+CD14- cells (mean 14.6-fold) as well as various myeloerythroid colony-forming cells (mean 3.6- to 5.5-fold). These results demonstrate that rhTPO given as a single dose not only promotes proliferation and maturation of cells of the MK lineage, but also expands the pool of BM primitive hematopoietic cells. In addition, rhTPO induces mobilization of hematopoietic progenitors into peripheral circulation. The extent to which such multilineage effects on

  2. AGE-RELATED FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD MARKERS IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL REMODELING OF BONE TISSUE

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    M. V. Dvornichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activities of total alkaline phosphatase (TALP and its bone isoform (BALP was greater in groups of children and adolescents in the late posttraumatic period (pattern of reparative bone remodeling and scoliosis (pathological bone remodeling, than in the control (healthy children and adolescents. The content of collagen type I degradation products (CrossLaps peripheral blood practically was unchanged. Examined group with posttraumatic period had high activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form (TRACP. TALP activity reached minimum values in all the studied groups. In the process of children growing to 15–18 years old, as compared to 7–10 years old, reducing activity of remodeling was observed under physiological (healthy donors and reparative osteogenesis. It’s changes was recorded by significant decrease of the studied indicators. On the contrary, children 15–18 years old with scoliosis had maximum of the imbalance (activation/inhibition of various signs of osteogenesis of resorptive/synthetic bone processes. Also, for this group we discovered decrease osteocalcin concentration of 4 times in comparison with the group children of 7–10 years old. The detected growth of the correlations number in the correlation matrix of bone remodeling markers in case of scoliosis proposes the reduction of adaptation reserve of 15–18 years old adolescents, suffering from dysplasia of connective tissue. Thus, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of distant markers of bone metabolism screening in peripheral blood the is ambiguous. The interpretation of these indicators is difficult and largely depends on the clinical situation and age of patients. This requires improving the diagnostic approach to assess physiological and pathological remodeling of bone tissue by means of biochemical blood indicators. 

  3. The Establishment of Anatomy Database of Chinese Normal Lower Limb Bones and Joints%国人下肢正常骨与关节周围解剖数据库的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钧; 陈爱民; 郭清河; 江曦; 郭永飞; 叶添文; 赵良瑜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To acquire the anatomic parameters of Chinese normal lower limb bones and joints, and then establish the database, so as to provide reference for designing orthopedic fixations of the lower limb bones. Methods One hundred and fifty volunteers' anteroposterior and lateral X-ray plain film of the lower limb bones were obtained, and the three-dimensional images of lower limb joints were setted up by mimics 10.01. Finally, the parameters of limb bone (the length of femur, the width of tibial plateau and the diameter of talus on tibial astragaloid joint etc) were measured and the data were inputted into database software. Results When taken the measured value of TP-TSA and PS which were compared with westerner's for example (P <0.05), there was significant deviation between them. Conclusion Because the morphology and anatomic feature of Chinese lower limb bones are different from westerner's, establishing the database of normal lower limb bones and joints is of great significance for designing domestic orthopedic fixations of the lower limb bones.%目的 初步获得国人下肢正常骨与关节解剖学参数,并建立数据库,为国产下肢接骨板和螺钉的设计提供参考依据.方法 对150例志愿者.行下肢骨骼全长正侧位X线平片及关节周围CT平扫,利用Mimics 10.01软件将原始CT扫描图像重建关节周围骨骼三维图像,并测量下肢骨骼参数(股骨长度、胫骨平台宽度、胫距关节面距骨横径等),将数据输入数据库软件中.结果 以胫骨平台内翻角及后倾角测得值为例与西方人比较,有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 国人下肢骨骼形态及解剖特点与西方人有明显区别,国人下肢正常骨与关节周围数据库的建立对国产下肢接骨板和螺钉的设计有重要意义.

  4. Automated bone age assessment of older children using the radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.

    2008-03-01

    The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).

  5. A-raf and B-raf are dispensable for normal endochondral bone development, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide suppresses extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in hypertrophic chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provot, Sylvain; Nachtrab, Gregory; Paruch, Jennifer; Chen, Adele Pin; Silva, Alcino; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2008-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and the parathyroid hormone-PTHrP receptor increase chondrocyte proliferation and delay chondrocyte maturation in endochondral bone development at least partly through cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathways. Because data suggest that the ability of cAMP to stimulate cell proliferation involves the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase B-Raf, we hypothesized that B-Raf might mediate the proliferative action of PTHrP in chondrocytes. Though B-Raf is expressed in proliferative chondrocytes, its conditional removal from cartilage did not affect chondrocyte proliferation and maturation or PTHrP-induced chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP-delayed maturation. Similar results were obtained by conditionally removing B-Raf from osteoblasts. Because A-raf and B-raf are expressed similarly in cartilage, we speculated that they may fulfill redundant functions in this tissue. Surprisingly, mice with chondrocytes deficient in both A-Raf and B-Raf exhibited normal endochondral bone development. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was detected primarily in hypertrophic chondrocytes, where C-raf is expressed, and the suppression of ERK activation in these cells by PTHrP or a MEK inhibitor coincided with a delay in chondrocyte maturation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that B-Raf and A-Raf are dispensable for endochondral bone development and they indicate that the main role of ERK in cartilage is to stimulate not cell proliferation, but rather chondrocyte maturation.

  6. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging ... the limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided ...

  7. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie

    2008-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot tha

  8. A MULTI-SITE SHEEP MODEL FOR CANCELLOUS BONE HEALING

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    Angad eMalhotra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate, well characterized bone defect animal models remain essential for preclinical research. This pilot study demonstrates a relevant animal model for cancellous bone defect healing. Three different defect diameters (8, 11, 14mm of fixed depth (25mm were compared in both skeletally immature (18 month old and aged sheep (5 year old. In each animal, four defects were surgically created and placed in the cancellous bone of the medial distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses bilaterally. Animals were euthanized at four weeks post-operatively to assess early healing and any biological response. Defect sites were graded radiographically, and new bone formation quantified using µCT and histomorphometry. Fibrous tissue was found within the central region in most of the defects, with woven bone normally forming near the periphery of the defect. Bone volume fraction (BV/TV significantly decreased with an increasing defect diameter. Actual bone volume (BV, however, increased with defect diameter. Bone ingrowth was lower for all defect diameters in the aged group. This pilot study proposes that the surgical creation of 11mm diameter defects in the proximal tibial and distal femoral epiphyses of aged sheep is a suitable large animal model to study early healing of cancellous bone defects. The refined model allows for the placement of four separate bone defects per animal, and encourages a reduction in animal numbers required for preclinical research.

  9. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Densitometry (DEXA) Bone densitometry, also called dual-energy ... limitations of DEXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DEXA)? Bone density scanning, also called ...

  10. T-bone plastique for treatment of brachy-turricephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donauer, E; Bernardy, M; Neuenfeldt, D

    1993-01-01

    The "T-Bone Plastique", which is presented in this paper, allows a surgical correction even of extreme cases of brachy-turricephaly together with malformations of the occipital region in one operative session. Brachy-turricephaly is characterized by abnormal vertical height of the skull and a shortening of its anterior-posterior length, frequently combined with malformations of the occipital region. Resection of the prematurely closed coronal suture, bi-parietal trepanations with 90 degrees rotation and side-exchange of the parietal bone flaps, double transverse trepanation of the occipital bone and outward bending and shifting of the bone fragments enable a bony remodeling and normalization of the deformed skull. Using this operative technique in three children we achieved a significant improvement of the skull form with an aesthetically pleasing result, without any neurologic sequelae and with normal development of the children during follow-up.

  11. Chondrogenesis of periodontal ligament stem cells by transforming growth factor-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a normal healthy impacted third molar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunyoung Choi; Tae-Jun Cho; Soon-Keun Kwon; Gene Lee; Jaejin Cho

    2013-01-01

    The periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cell is regarded as a source of adult stem cells due to its multipotency. However, the proof of chondrogenic potential of the cells is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the chondrogenic differentiation capacity of periodontal ligament derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6. After isolation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from human periodontal ligament, the cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). A mechanical force initiated chondrogenic differentiation of the cells. For chondrogenic differentiation, 10 μg ·L-1 TGF-β3 or 100 μg ·L-1 BMP-6 and the combination treating group for synergistic effect of the growth factors. We analyzed the PDLSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and chondrogenesis were evaluated by glycosaminoglycans assay, histology, immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell properties proved by FACS analysis. Glycosaminoglycans contents were increased 217% by TGF-β3 and 220% by BMP-6. The synergetic effect of TGF-β3 and BMP-6 were shown up to 281% compared to control. The combination treatment increased Sox9, aggrecan and collagen II expression compared with not only controls, but also TGF-β3 or BMP-6 single treatment dramatically. The histological analysis also indicated the chondrogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in our conditions. The results of the present study demonstrate the potential of the dental stem cell as a valuable cell source for chondrogenesis, which may be applicable for regeneration of cartilage and bone fracture in the field of cell therapy.

  12. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk; Chapman, S

    2004-02-01

    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  13. TGF-β in cancer and bone: implications for treatment of bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Patricia; Guise, Theresa A

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced breast, prostate and lung cancer. Tumor cells co-opt bone cells to drive a feed-forward cycle which disrupts normal bone remodeling to result in abnormal bone destruction or formation and tumor growth in bone. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a major bone-derived factor, which contributes to this vicious cycle of bone metastasis. TGF-β released from bone matrix during osteoclastic resorption stimulates tumor cells to produce osteolytic factors further increasing bone resorption adjacent to the tumor cells. TGF-β also regulates 1) key components of the metastatic cascade such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis and immunosuppression as well as 2) normal bone remodeling and coupling of bone resorption and formation. Preclinical models demonstrate that blockade of TGF-β signaling is effective to treat and prevent bone metastases as well as to increase bone mass.

  14. Combination of high-intensity focused ultrasound irradiation and hydroxyapatite nanoparticle injection to injure normal goat liver tissue in vivo without costal bone incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Xiao, Z; Xiao, Y; Wang, Z; Li, F; Li, M; Peng, X

    2014-10-20

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the in vivo safety of intravenous nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA), to explore how nano-HA might influence the effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on normal liver tissue, and to investigate whether intravenous nano-HA could enhance HIFU for hepatocellular carcinoma ablation in a goat model. The present study, for the first time, indicated that the delivery of abundant nano-HA into the body over short periods of time could be assembled by the hepatic reticuloendothelial system, subsequently leading to a rapid rise of ultrasound-induced overheating, and ultimately resulting in enlargement of the coagulation necrotic area for ablated hepatocellular carcinoma in goats both in vivo and ex vivo. On the other hand, therapeutic doses of nano-HA were much lower than the lethal dose, and consequently presented transient and mild abnormalities of hepatic enzymes and renal function during the first 24 h after nano-HA injection. These results suggested that the combined application of nano-HA and HIFU is potentially a more effective alternative option compared to surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma local ablation in a safe and feasible manner.

  15. Stimulatory effects of androgens on normal children's bone marrow in culture: effects on BFU-E, CFU-E, and uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claustres, M; Sultan, C

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effect of natural and synthetic androgens on children's erythropoietic precursor cells in culture. Cultures of normal marrow were carried out according to a miniaturized methylcellulose method in the presence of erythropoietin. We then evaluated the effects of testosterone, nortestosterone, fluoxymesterone and etiocholanolone (10(-9)-10(-6) M) on erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E) and burst-forming units (BFU-E). Androgen-induced growth of erythroid progenitors was quantified by directly scoring colonies and by a biochemical determination of the uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity (UROS). We observed a significant increase (p less than or equal to 0.05) in the number of CFU-E and BFU-E and in the UROS activity of derived colonies in the presence of androgens (10(-8) or 10(-7)M). This microculture assay could be useful not only to study the effect of androgens on erythroid progenitor cells in culture, but also to predict the best androgenic treatment of anemia in children and adults.

  16. Efficient generation of transgene-free induced pluripotent stem cells from normal and neoplastic bone marrow and cord blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kejin; Yu, Junying; Suknuntha, Kran; Tian, Shulan; Montgomery, Karen; Choi, Kyung-Dal; Stewart, Ron; Thomson, James A; Slukvin, Igor I

    2011-04-07

    Reprogramming blood cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a novel tool for modeling blood diseases in vitro. However, the well-known limitations of current reprogramming technologies include low efficiency, slow kinetics, and transgene integration and residual expression. In the present study, we have demonstrated that iPSCs free of transgene and vector sequences could be generated from human BM and CB mononuclear cells using non-integrating episomal vectors. The reprogramming described here is up to 100 times more efficient, occurs 1-3 weeks faster compared with the reprogramming of fibroblasts, and does not require isolation of progenitors or multiple rounds of transfection. Blood-derived iPSC lines lacked rearrangements of IGH and TCR, indicating that their origin is non-B- or non-T-lymphoid cells. When cocultured on OP9, blood-derived iPSCs could be differentiated back to the blood cells, albeit with lower efficiency compared to fibroblast-derived iPSCs. We also generated transgene-free iPSCs from the BM of a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). CML iPSCs showed a unique complex chromosomal translocation identified in marrow sample while displaying typical embryonic stem cell phenotype and pluripotent differentiation potential. This approach provides an opportunity to explore banked normal and diseased CB and BM samples without the limitations associated with virus-based methods.

  17. Movement of the hyoid bone and ventriculus laryngis in normal swallowing%自然吞咽过程中舌骨及喉室移动度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓翀; 林勤; 吴琼; 周雨霏; 饶明月; 王丽琛; 田野

    2015-01-01

    目的:测量自然吞咽过程中舌骨及喉室的最大移动度。方法选取40例志愿者为研究对象,使用普通X线模拟机采集自然吞咽视频,通过视频分析软件对吞咽视频进行连续快速截图,测量自然吞咽过程中舌骨及喉的最大移动度。采用单因素方差分析差异。结果40例志愿者平均吞咽时间为(1.13±0.28) s。吞咽过程中舌骨及喉室的移动是先向上,然后向外最后回到静息位置。舌骨前后方向最大移动度为(0.90±0.30) cm,垂直方向最大移动度(0.93±0.36) cm;喉室前后方向最大移动度为(0.69±0.25) cm,垂直方向最大移动度(1.04±0.45) cm。进一步研究发现年龄因素对吞咽时间有影响( P=0.03),男女之间相近( P=0.13)。性别、年龄因素对舌骨和喉室移动度无影响( P=0.28~0.81、0.20~0.88)。结论自然吞咽会引起舌骨及喉室向前上方移动,这种移动在头颈部放疗计划制定过程中值得考虑。%Objective To measure the maximum movement of the hyoid bone and ventriculus laryngis during normal swallowing. Methods Forty volunteers were selected as subjects, and an X⁃ray simulator was used to collect the videos of normal swallowing. Video analysis software was used to capture continuous and quick screenshots of these videos, and the maximum movement of the hyoid bone and ventriculus laryngis was measured. The difference in movement was analyzed by one⁃way analysis of variance. Results The mean time for swallowing in 40 volunteers was 1.13±0.28 s. During the process of swallowing, the hyoid bone and ventriculus laryngis moved upward first, then outward, and finally returned to the resting position. The maximum movement of the hyoid bone forward and backward was 0.90±0.30 cm;the maximum vertical movement of the hyoid bone was 0.93±0.36 cm. The maximum movement of the ventriculus laryngis forward and

  18. Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior toward the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone's desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials.

  19. From Milk to Bones, Moving Calcium Through the Body: Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Did you know that when astronauts are in space, their height increases about two inches? This happens because the weightlessness of space allows the spine, usually compressed in Earth's gravity, to expand. While this change is relatively harmless, other more serious things can happen with extended stays in weightlessness, notably bone loss. From previous experiments, scientists have observed that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of about one percent per month during flight. Scientists know that bone is a dynamic tissue - continually being made and repaired by specialized bone cells throughout life. Certain cells produce new bone, while other cells are responsible for removing and replacing old bone. Research on the mechanisms of bone metabolism and the effects of space flight on its formation and repair are part of the exciting studies that will be performed during STS-107. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. Ninety-nine percent of calcium in the body is stored in the skeleton. However, calcium may be released, or resorbed, from bone to provide for other tissues when you are not eating. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts will participate in a study of calcium kinetics - that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  20. Normalization of nano-sized TiO2-induced clastogenicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity by chlorophyllin administration in mice brain, liver, and bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghor, Akmal A; Noshy, Magda M; Galal, Ahmad; Mohamed, Hanan Ramadan H

    2014-11-01

    The intensive uses of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in sunscreens, toothpaste, sweats, medications, etc. making humans exposed to it daily by not little amounts and also increased its risks including genotoxicity. Thus, the present study was designed as one way to reduce nano-titanium-induced clastogenicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity in mice by co-administration of the free radical scavenger chlorophyllin (CHL). In addition, markers of oxidative stress were detected to shed more light on mechanism(s) underlying nano-sized TiO2 genotoxicity. Male mice were exposed to multiple injection into the abdominal cavity for five consecutive days with either CHL (40 mg/kg bw/day), or each of three dose levels of nano-sized TiO2 (500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg bw/day) alone, or both simultaneously and sacrificed by cervical dislocation 24 h after the last treatment. After CHL co-administration, the observed dose-dependent genotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles indicated by the significant elevations in frequencies of both micronuclei and DNA damage induction was significantly decreased and returned to the negative control level. The observed induced mutations in p53 exons 5, 7, & 8 and 5 & 8 in the liver and brain, respectively, were declined in most cases. Moreover, CHL significantly decreased hepatic malondialdehyde level and significantly increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities that were significantly disrupted in animal groups treated with nano-TiO2 alone. In conclusion, the evidenced in vivo genotoxicity of nano-TiO2 in the present study was normalized after CHL co-administration which supports the previously suggested oxidative stress as the possible mechanism for titanium toxicity.

  1. The effect of fat distribution on bone mineral density in normal subjects%脂肪分布对不同年龄正常人群骨密度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易波; 文重远; 孙永林; 蔡玉立

    2012-01-01

    The aim of [his stud) is to investigate [he effects of hod) mass index ( Bill), abdominal fat and hip fat on hone mineral densil)( HMD ) in normal people of different ages. Methods A total of 393 subjects were studied in this stud) conducted from 2010 to 2011. The subjects were divded into youth groups, middle-aged and elderly groups acearding to their ages, We measured the height, weight, waisl circumference and hip circumference, and then calculated Bill and WllR. BMD, abdominal fat and hip fat were measured by dual-energ) X-ray. The relationship of bone mineral densily and fat distribution were analyzed. Results 1, Fat mass increased with age, and the trends in women were more obvious than in men ( P < 0. 05 ) ; 2, In the middle-aged patients, Bill was posilivey correlated with BMD ( male: r = 0.237, P =0.018: female:r=0.279, P =0.024): 3, In old male subjects group, abdominal fat and hip fat were positiyely correlated with bone mineral densilj (P<(). 05 ). As for the aged female, abdominal fat mass was negalively correlated with BMD ( r = 0. 263 ,P < 0. 05). Conclusion The effect of fat distribution on bone mineral densil) in normal subjects is perplexing Lose weight should not be overly emphasized in middle-aged patients or elderl) people because it may led lo bone mass loss and osteoporosis formation.%目的 探讨体质指数(BMI)、腹部脂肪、臀部脂肪对不同年龄正常人群骨密度的影响.方法 采用双能X线BMD仪和医用身高体重测量仪测定393名正常体检人群腰椎松质骨密度、腹部脂肪含量、臀部脂肪含量、全身其他部位脂肪含量和身高、体重、腰围、臀围,并计算BMI和腰臀比.然后将人群按不同年龄分为青年组、中年组和老年组,分析骨密度与不同部位脂肪含量的关系.结果 (1)体内脂肪含量随年龄增加而增加,女性比男性的变化趋势更明显(P<0.05);(2)在中年患者中,BMI与骨密度成正相关(男性组r=0.237,P=0.018;女性组r=0

  2. Comparação do processo de reparo ósseo em tíbias de ratas normais e osteopênicas Bone repair process in normal and osteopenic female rats' tibiae: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Rossi Sartori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi comparar a consolidação óssea em tíbias de ratas normais e osteopênicas. 49 ratas albinas fêmeas, linhagem Wistar, peso médio de 160 (± 20g e 100 dias foram distribuídas em 2 grupos: Ooforectomizado (OOF e Pseudo-ooforectomizado (Grupo controle - SHAM. 30 dias após a ooforectomia e/ou cirurgia simulada, todas foram submetidas à produção de lesão óssea cortical. Foram sacrificadas na 2ª, 4ª, 6ª e 8ª semanas. Os osteoblastos foram contados. O peso aumentou progressivamente, porém as OOF apresentaram maior peso (pThe purpose was to compare tibial bone union in normal and osteopenic female rats. Forty-nine Wistar albino female rats weighing 160 g (±20g and 100 days were distributed into 2 groups: Oophorectomized (OOF and Pseudo-oophorectomized (SHAM. Thirty days later, a cortical injury was produced in all the animals. They were sacrificed in the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks. Osteoblasts count was performed. Progressive weight increase was observed, but the OOF group was shown to have gained more weight (p£0.05 than the SHAM group, at the time of the second surgery. After 15 days post-injury, the animals in the OOF group presented a higher number of osteoblasts (p£0.05 compared to the SHAM group. Thirty days after injury, the number of osteoblasts was reduced, but both groups showed similar amounts. Forty-five days after injury, despite a constant reduction, the number of osteoblasts in the OOF group remained high when compared to SHAM (p£0.05 group. After 60 days, we found less osteoblasts in the SHAM group, suggesting an advanced bone repair process. The osteopenic animals showed an early accelerated response, which became equivalent between both groups 30 days after injury. However, after that period, they showed a delayed osteoid mineralization, suggesting delayed late bone repair process.

  3. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. RESULTS: The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony

  4. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markers may be seen in conditions such as: Osteoporosis Paget disease Cancer that has spread to the bone (metastatic bone disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children—lack of bone mineralization, ...

  5. Bone scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legs, or spine fractures) Diagnose a bone infection (osteomyelitis) Diagnose or determine the cause of bone pain, ... 2015:chap 43. Read More Broken bone Metabolism Osteomyelitis Review Date 12/10/2015 Updated by: Jatin ...

  6. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  7. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and contribution to normal bone and tooth development pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... for infants and young children. A claim on vitamin D and maintenance of normal bones and teeth in the general population has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. The Panel considers that the role of vitamin D in bone and tooth mineralisation and homeostasis applies to all ages, including infants...... and young children (from birth to three years). The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of vitamin D and contribution to normal development of bones and teeth....

  9. Glutamate signalling in bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eBrakspear

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical loading plays a key role in the physiology of bone, allowing bone to functionally adapt to its environment, however characterisation of the signalling events linking load to bone formation is incomplete. A screen for genes associated with mechanical load-induced bone formation identified the glutamate transporter GLAST, implicating the excitatory amino acid, glutamate, in the mechanoresponse. When an osteogenic load (10N, 10Hz was externally applied to the rat ulna, GLAST (EAAT1 mRNA, was significantly down-regulated in osteocytes in the loaded limb. Functional components from each stage of the glutamate signalling pathway have since been identified within bone, including proteins necessary for calcium-mediated glutamate exocytosis, receptors, transporters and signal propagation. Activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been shown to regulate the phenotype of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro and bone mass in vivo. Furthermore, glutamatergic nerves have been identified in the vicinity of bone cells expressing glutamate receptors in vivo. However, it is not yet known how a glutamate signalling event is initiated in bone or its physiological significance. This review will examine the role of the glutamate signalling pathway in bone, with emphasis on the functions of glutamate transporters in osteoblasts.

  10. The measurement of bone mineral density of normal population in Jiaodong area using digital absorptiometry%胶东地区健康人群数字吸收法骨密度测量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建东; 楚庆速; 林治恩; 周武强; 刘心武; 岳述福; 余朝坤

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To find out the bone mineral density (BMD) of normal population in Jiaodong area, BM D distribution at different ages , and the prevalence of osteoporosis. To predict fracture risk by given BMD. Methods: Selected 3306 people of long-term healthy residence in Jiaodong area , including 1302 men and 2004 women. After systematically photographing the digital radiography by carestre health system , length , volume , bone mineral content , BMD index value , T value and Z value of the middle phalanx of the second , third and fourth hands were got using OsteoGram 2000 software system. Then the statistics was done by defining 5 years as an age group. Results: The results showed a BMD peak at age 30-35 for both genders. For women ,the BMD peak maintains at 20-45 years old. A rapid bone mineral loss occured at age 55-60 and a slight rebound occured after the age of 75. For men, BM D was decreasing year by year. According to the diagnostic criteria of osteoporosis approved by W HO in 1994, the prevalence of osteoporosis of normal population in Jiaodong area was 11. 07%, 14.87% for women and 5.22% for men. Conclusion: There is a relatively low prevalence rate of osteoporosis of normal population in Jiaodong area.Women's BMD peak remains for a relatively long time. The BMD peak and bone mineral loss of men in all ages comply with the general characieristics of a BMD normative database. To pay attention to women 's BMD after the age of 55 has important clinical significance.%目的:研究测定胶东地区健康人群手指骨密度(BMD),确定各年龄段骨密度分布情况以及骨质疏松患病率,并通过给定的骨密度值对骨折危险性进行预测.方法:选取长期居住胶东地区的健康人群共3 306例,其中男1 302例,女2 004例,由锐柯数字化放射成像系统摄片后经OsteoGram 2000软件系统处理,得到被检者非优势手第2、3、4指中节指骨的长度、体积、骨矿含量、BMD指数值以及T值和Z值,按5

  11. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  12. Computerized geometric features of carpal bone for bone age estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Wen Hsieh; Tai-Lang Jong; Yi-Hong Chou; Chui-Mei Tiu

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone age development is one of the significant indicators depicting the growth status of children.However, bone age assessment is an heuristic and tedious work for pediatricians. We developed a computerized bone age estimation system based on the analysis of geometric features of carpal bones.Methods The geometric features of carpals were extracted and analyzed to judge the bone age of children by computerized shape and area description. Four classifiers, linear, nearest neighbor, back-propagation neural network,and radial basis function neural network, were adopted to categorize bone age. Principal component and discriminate analyses were employed to improve assorting accuracy.Results The hand X-ray films of 465 boys and 444 girls served as our database. The features were extracted from carpal bone images, including shape, area, and sequence. The proposed normalization area ratio method was effective in bone age classification by simulation. Besides, features statistics showed similar results between the standard of the Greulich and Pyle atlas and our database.Conclusions The bone area has a higher discriminating power to judge bone age. The ossification sequence of trapezium and trapezoid bones between Taiwanese and the atlas of the GP method is quite different. These results also indicate that carpal bone assessment with classification of neural networks can be correct and practical.

  13. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  14. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  15. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  16. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  17. Osteotransductive bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessens, F C; Planell, J A; Boltong, M G; Khairoun, I; Ginebra, M P

    1998-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPBCs) are osteotransductive, i.e. after implantation in bone they are transformed into new bone tissue. Furthermore, due to the fact that they are mouldable, their osteointegration is immediate. Their chemistry has been established previously. Some CPBCs contain amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and set by a sol-gel transition. The others are crystalline and can give as the reaction product dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), carbonated apatite (CA) or hydroxyapatite (HA). Mixed-type gypsum-DCPD cements are also described. In vivo rates of osteotransduction vary as follows: gypsum-DCPD > DCPD > CDHA approximately CA > HA. The osteotransduction of CDHA-type cements may be increased by adding dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCP) and/or CaCO3 to the cement powder. CPBCs can be used for healing of bone defects, bone augmentation and bone reconstruction. Incorporation of drugs like antibiotics and bone morphogenetic protein is envisaged. Load-bearing applications are allowed for CHDA-type, CA-type and HA-type CPBCs as they have a higher compressive strength than human trabecular bone (10 MPa).

  18. Value and limits of μ-CT for nondemineralized bone tissue processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draenert, Miriam Esther; Draenert, Alice Irène; Forriol, Francisco; Cerler, Michael; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz; Hickel, Reinhard; Draenert, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    An experimental approach was performed on 20 giant rabbits to establish the possibilities and limitations of μ-CT for routine processing of nondemineralized bone tissue. Hydroxyapatite (HA) or β-tricalciumphosphate (β-TCP) bead implants or a melange of both, microchambered and solid, were implanted into a standardized and precise defect in the patellar groove. The bone-healing phase was chosen for the histology considering 1 or 2 days, and 2, 3, and 6 weeks. Normal X-ray and μ-CT were applied on all specimens; five specimens in the 6-week stage were additionally processed according to the full range of conventional nondemineralized bone processing methods. μ-CT increased the possibilities of nondemineralized histology with respect to bone morphometry and a complete sequence of sections, thus providing a complete analysis of the bone response. μ-CT was limited in differentiating bone quality, cell analyses, and mineralization stages. The investigation based on normal X-rays is limited to defining integration and excluding the fibrous and bony encapsulation of loose implants. μ-CT allows a 3D evaluation of newly formed bone which is clearly marked against the ceramic implant. It does not allow, however, for the differentiation between woven and lamellar bone, the presentation of the canalicular lacunar system, or on the cell level, revealing canaliculi or details of the mineralization process which can be documented by high-resolution microradiography. Titer dynamics of bone formation remains the domain of polychromatic sequential labeling. The complete sequence of μ-CT slices enhances the possibilities for routine histology, tremendously allowing to the focus on detail histology to topographically well-defined cuts, thus providing more precise conclusions which take into consideration the whole implant.

  19. Osteoclasts secrete non-bone derived signals that induce bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2008-01-01

    Bone turnover is a highly regulated process, where bone resorption in the normal healthy individual always is followed by bone formation in a manner referred to as coupling. Patients with osteopetrosis caused by defective acidification of the resorption lacuna have severely decreased resorption, ...... secrete non-bone derived factors, which induce preosteoblasts to form bone-like nodules, potentially explaining the imbalanced coupling seen in osteopetrotic patients....

  20. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for comput

  1. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  2. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.

    1980-11-01

    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  3. Bone disease of primary hyperoxaluria in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, E.; Wendler, H.; Zobel, G. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Kinderheilkunde); Ratschek, M. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Pathologie)

    1989-11-01

    A patient with primary hyperoxaluria type I in infancy is reported. He had renal insufficiency, but urolithiasis was absent. Demonstration of diffuse nephrocalcinosis by renal ultrasound contributed to early diagnosis. Prolonged survival leads to extensive extrarenal oxalate deposition. Repeated skeletal surveys showed the development and the progression of severe hyperoxaluria-related bone disease. Translucent metaphyseal bands with sclerotic margins, wide areas of rarefaction at the ends of the long bones, and translucent rims around the epiphyses and the tarsal bones were signs of disordered bone growth. Bone density generally increased with time indicating progressive sclerosis due to oxalate deposition in the previously normal bone structure. (orig.).

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays to pass through them. As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air ...

  5. [Bone and Calcium Metabolisms Associated with Dental and Oral-Maxillofacial Diseases. Bone remodeling and alveolar bone homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    2015-08-01

    Bone, which support motile organ and periodontal tissue, is renewing throughout our life. This restructuring process is called "bone remodeling" , and osteoclasts and osteoblasts play a crucial role in this process. Bone remodeling is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. Alveolar bone remodeling is directly influenced by occlusal force from the teeth. Thus, the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in alveolar bone remodeling is critical for a deeper understanding of the maintenance of healthy tooth and dental disease.

  6. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M

    2014-01-01

    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  7. Bone Aging by Advanced Glycation End Products: A Multiscale Mechanical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeko, K; Masaki, C; Shibata, Y; Mukaibo, T; Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Miyazaki, T; Hosokawa, R

    2015-12-01

    The quality and quantity of mandibular bone are essential prerequisites for osseointegrated implants. Only the Hounsfield unit on preoperative computed tomography is currently used as a clinical index. Nevertheless, a considerable mismatch occurs between bone quality and the Hounsfield unit. Loss of bone toughness during aging has been accepted based on empirical evidence, but this concept is unlikely evidence based at the level of mechanical properties. Nonenzymatic bone matrix cross-links associated with advanced glycation end products predominate as a consequence of aging. Thus, loss of tissue integrity could diminish the bone toughening mechanism. Here, we demonstrate an impaired bone toughening mechanism caused by mimicking aging in rabbits on a methionine-rich diet, which enabled an enhanced nonenzymatically cross-linked bone matrix. A 3-point bending test revealed a greater reduction in femoral fracture resistance in rabbits on a methionine-rich diet, despite higher maximum and normalized breaking forces (287.3 N and 88.1%, respectively), than in rabbits on a normal diet (262.2 N and 79.7%, respectively). In situ nanoindentation on mandibular cortical bone obtained from rabbits on a methionine-rich diet did not enable strain rate-dependent stiffening and consequent large-dimensional recovery during rapid loading following constant displacement after a rapid-load indentation test as compared with those in rabbits on a normal diet. Such nanoscale structure-function relationships dictate resistance to cracking propagation at the material level and allow for the overall bone toughening mechanism to operate under large external stressors. The strain-dependent stiffening was likely associated with strain-energy transfer to the superior cross-linked bone matrix network of the normal diet, while the reduction in the enzymatically cross-linked matrix in bone samples from rabbits on a methionine-rich diet likely diminished the intrinsic bone toughening mechanism. The

  8. Reduced vertebral bone density in hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, F.; Breslau, N. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and single-photon absorptiometry were used to determine bone density at the lumbar spine and radial shaft in 62 patients with absorptive hypercalciuria, 27 patients with fasting hypercalciuria, and 31 nonhypercalciuric stone formers. Lumbar bone density was significantly lower in patients with absorptive (-10%) as well as in those with fasting hypercalciuria (-12%), with 74 and 92% of patients displaying values below the normal mean, whereas only 48% of the nonhypercalciuric stone formers had bone density values below the normal mean. In contrast, radial bone density was similar in all three groups of renal stone formers investigated. The comparison of urinary chemistry in patients with absorptive hypercalciuria and low normal bone density compared to those with high normal bone density showed a significantly increased 24 h urinary calcium excretion on random diet and a trend toward a higher 24 h urinary uric acid excretion and a higher body mass index in patients with low normal bone density. Moreover, among the patients with absorptive hypercalciuria we found a statistically significant correlation between the spinal bone density and the 24 h sodium and sulfate excretion and the urinary pH. These results gave evidence for an additional role of environmental factors (sodium and animal proteins) in the pathogenesis of bone loss in absorptive hypercalciuria. In conclusion, our data suggest an osteopenia of trabecular-rich bone tissues in patients with fasting and absorptive hypercalciurias.

  9. Gonadal dysgenesis and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, V; Euller-Ziegler, L

    2001-02-01

    Gonadal dysgenesis is defined as congenital hypogonadism related to abnormalities of the sex chromosomes. Because sex steroids play a central role in the acquisition and maintenance of bone mass, studies have been done to investigate bone status in patients with gonadal dysgenesis, particularly Turner's syndrome and Klinefelter's syndrome, which are the two most common types. The severe estrogen deficiency characteristic of Turner's syndrome (44, X0) is associated with a significant bone mass decrease ascribable to increased bone turnover, as shown by histological studies and assays of bone turnover markers. Estrogen therapy is followed by a significant bone mass gain and a return to normal of bone turnover markers, suggesting that it is the estrogen deficiency rather than the chromosomal abnormality that causes the bone mass deficiency, although abnormalities in the renal metabolism of vitamin D have been reported. Combined therapy with estrogens and growth hormone seems beneficial during the prepubertal period. In Klinefelter's syndrome (47XXY), serum testosterone levels are at the lower end of the normal range and dihydrotestosterone levels are low. Histological studies show depressed osteoblast function and a decrease in 5-alpha-reductase activity responsible for partial tissue resistance to androgens. Assays of bone turnover markers show evidence of increased bone turnover. The bone deficiency is most marked at the femoral neck and seems correlated with serum testosterone and estradiol levels. Androgen therapy has favorable effects on the bone only if it is started before puberty. Recent data suggest that estrogens may contribute to the development of demineralization in KS and that bisphosphonate therapy may be beneficial.

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it ... organs, allow more of the x-rays to pass through them. As a result, bones appear white ...

  11. Acute postoperative osteomyelitis in femur fracture: contribution of bone scintilography (case report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira; Rezende, Cleuza Maria de Faria; Sanchez-Ucros, Natalia; Laguardia, Priscilla [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria; Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; Rodrigues, Carlos Jorge Simal [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolcimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2009-07-01

    The treatment of bone fractures is aimed at consolidating and returns of function as soon as possible and can be performed by different methods. Treatment with the plate in fractures of the femur in bridge aims not to address the location of fracture and stabilize it, maintaining the anatomical axis by the fixation of proximal and distal segments. Postoperative follow-up of the fracture is necessary to evaluate the irrigation of the bone structure and the effect of the method. The scintigraphy is a method capable of assessing the degree of bone remodeling and the presence or absence of local bone homeostasis. The objective of this report is to present the case of a rabbit, male, which was subjected to osteotomy and fixation of the femoral diaphysis by means of the plate in the bridge. After 10 days the animal was subjected to scintigraphic and radiographic evaluations. The animal came to death and an autopsy was performed on the same when it was observed macroscopy consistent with acute osteomyelitis due to contamination postoperative time. Radiographic evaluation in acute osteomyelitis is unclear. The methods assist in the scintigraphic diagnosis of osteomyelitis by allowing the detection of functional changes in this infectious process. The bone scintigraphy with diphosphonates labeled with technetium-99m shows increased bone turnover in the infected area and its high sensitivity, even in an early stage makes it the method of choice in the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in patients without prior bone disease and bone radiologically normal. (author)

  12. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casina Kan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow.

  13. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Casina; Vargas, Geoffrey; Le Pape, François; Clézardin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow. PMID:27782035

  14. A novel osteogenesis technique: The expansible guided bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Zakaria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guided bone regeneration is a unique osteogenesis technique that requires a barrier membrane under periosteum to create space for bone regeneration. However, creating sizeable spaces is clinically not commonly feasible. A titanium plate and a thin silicone membrane were surgically layered on each calvaria of eight rabbits. Then, the periphery of the silicone membrane was fixed by a plastic ring to the underlying bone using titanium micro screws. After 1 week, a 5-mm-length titanium screw was used to elevate the titanium plate, which in turn elevated the silicone membrane together with overlying soft tissue in a rate of 1 mm/day for 5 days to create a secluded space. Animals were killed at 2 months (n = 4, group 1 and 4 months (n = 4, group 2 after the elevation. Histological and microradiographical analyses demonstrated creation of an amount of de novo bone formation (68.2 ± 22 mm3 in group 1 and 70.3 ± 14 mm3 in group 2 in the sizeable created spaces (207.1 ± 31 mm3 in group 1 and 202 ± 21 mm3 in group 2 without exposure of the device. This novel osteogenesis technique, “expansible guided bone regeneration,” created a substantial in vivo incubator without applying growth factors or osteoprogenitor cells. Creating a growing space over the secluded surface allowed the development of normal biological healing process occurring on the bone surface into a regenerative process, generating bone outside the genetically determined skeletal bone. This technique is a new tissue engineering approach stimulating endogenous tissue repair without applying cells or factors exogenously.

  15. Bone cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P

    1991-02-01

    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  16. Engineers Create Bone that Blends into Tendons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Engineers at Georgia Tech have used skin cells to create artificial bones that mimic the ability of natural bone to blend into other tissues such as tendons or ligaments. The artificial bones display a gradual change from bone to softer tissue rather than the sudden shift of previously developed artificial tissue, providing better integration with the body and allowing them to handle weight more successfully.

  17. Combinatorial Maps with Normalized Knot

    CERN Document Server

    Zeps, Dainis

    2010-01-01

    We consider combinatorial maps with fixed combinatorial knot numbered with augmenting numeration called normalized knot. We show that knot's normalization doesn't affect combinatorial map what concerns its generality. Knot's normalization leads to more concise numeration of corners in maps, e.g., odd or even corners allow easy to follow distinguished cycles in map caused by the fixation of the knot. Knot's normalization may be applied to edge structuring knot too. If both are normalized then one is fully and other partially normalized mutually.

  18. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulaud, J.P.; Mechali, D.; Morau, G. (Hopital Claude-Bernard, Paris (France))

    1982-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations.

  19. Assessment of bone loss with repeated bone mineral measurements: Application to measurements on the individual patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-02-01

    Longitudinal measurements on lumbar spine and mid-radius were made by bone absorptiometry techniques in 139 normal women. Bone mineral was measured every 6 months over an median interval of 2.1 years. The results revealed that bone loss at different skeletal sites is non-uniform with equal bone loss patterns in all patients and relatively small variations in bone loss rate between normal women. For achieving these results there is strong demand on high precision and properly spaced measuring intervals for long-term rate of loss measurements. For exclusion of progressive degenerative disease a radiographic evaluation of the spine in the beginning and at the end of the study is mandatory as compression fractures or trauma reveal bone mineral changes independent from the agerelated bone loss. These repeated bone mineral measurements are useful for monitoring and follow-up studies during different therapeutic regimens.

  20. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  1. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  2. Normal labour: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D

    2000-02-01

    Midwives practice within the normal childbirth paradigm. It is argued that midwives failure to define normality has allowed increasing technicalization and medicalization of the normal physiological process of birth because doctors so closely define abnormality. A concept analysis model is used to clarify what is meant by the term 'normal labour'; the emphasis being on understanding what normal labour is as it applies to midwifery practice today. This analysis highlights the importance of movement and the sequential nature of normal labour, and reveals how this is implicit within the other uses of both the words normal and labour. The final definition of normal labour offered is intended to be complimentary to existing medical determinants of progress of normal labour, because as the body of the text stresses, medical knowledge is fundamentally enmeshed in midwifery care.

  3. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition.

  4. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  5. Osseous and dental outcomes of primary gingivoperiosteoplasty with iliac bone graft: A radiological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzet-Roumazeille, Sandrine; Vi-Fane, Brigitte; Kadlub, Natacha; Genin, Michaël; Dissaux, Caroline; Raoul, Gwenaël; Ferri, Joël; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Picard, Arnaud

    2015-07-01

    Primary alveolar cleft repair has two main purposes: to restore normal morphology and normal function. Gingivoperiosteoplasty with bone grafting in mixed dentition has been a well-established procedure. We hypothesized that 1) performance of this surgery in deciduous dentition would provide favorable bone graft osseointegration, and 2) would improve the support of incisor teeth eruption, thereby avoiding maxillary growth disturbances. We conducted a retrospective study of clinical and tridimensional radiological data for 73 patients with alveolar clefts (with or without lip and palate clefts) who underwent gingivoperiosteoplasty with iliac bone graft in deciduous dentition. Pre- and post-operative Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) comparison allowed evaluation of the ratio between bone graft volume and initial cleft volume (BGV/ICV ratio), and measurement of central incisor teeth movements. This series of 73 patients included 44 males and 29 females, with a mean age of 5.5 years. Few complications were observed. Post-operative CBCT was performed at 7.4 months. The mean BGV/ICV ratio was 0.62. Axial rotation was significantly improved post-operatively (p = 0.004). Gingivoperiosteoplasty with iliac bone graft is safe when performed in deciduous dentition and results in a sufficient bone graft volume to support lateral incisor eruption and upper central incisor tooth position improvement.

  6. [Bone disease in Gaucher's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca Espiau, Mercedes

    2011-09-01

    The exposition aims, is to review the pathophysiological mechanisms of bone marrow involvement and the patterns of marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. We have reviewed the different methods of assessment of bone marrow infiltration and its temporal development. Qualitative methods include simple radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and radioisotope. The simple radiography is the basic element, but its sensitivity is limited and only allows for assessing changes and trabecular bone remodeling MRI allows us to appreciate the bone marrow infiltration, detection of complications and response to therapy. Radioisotopes can contribute to the differential diagnosis of osteomyelitis and bone crises. Among the quantitative methods are the QCSI (quantitative chemical shift imaging) and the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), as well as new quantitative techniques of CT, MRI and ultrasound densitometry. The QCSI performed an assessment of fat content of bone marrow in the spine. DEXA quantifies bone density by measuring the attenuation coefficient. The semiquantitative methods have various "scores" to establish criteria for generalized bone disease endpoints of disease progression and response to therapy.

  7. Bone x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or broken bone Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... Multiple myeloma Osgood-Schlatter disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Paget disease of the bone Rickets X-ray ...

  8. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from diabetic versus normal rats for treatment of myocardial infarction%糖尿病与正常大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞移植治疗心肌梗死的比较★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠路; 王辉山

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current studies have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from normal or young people usual y serve as a source of transplanted cells in stem cel transplantation treatment of myocardial infarction. OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from diabetic and normal rats on myocardial infarction. METHODS: Under sterile conditions, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from normal and diabetic rats were harvested. Then, rat models of myocardial infarction were established and randomly divided into three groups:100 μL cellsuspension containing 105-106 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from F2 normal or diabetic rats was injected into myocardial infarction lesions, and 100 μL Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium containing 20%fetal bovine serum was injected serving as blank control. After 1 month, hematoxylin-eosin staining for myocardial infarction lesions was performed for histomorphological observation. Bcl-2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry method. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Based on cel morphology observation and flow cytometry identification, high-purity bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells could be obtained using rat femoral bone marrow adherent culture. Cel growth curve showed that normal rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grew faster than those from diabetic rats. At 1 month after transplantation, histomorphological improvement was seen in the infarcted area after transplantation of normal rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as compared with the other two groups. In addition, the Bcl-2 expression in the infarcted area was higher in the normal rat cel group than the the other two groups. These findings indicate that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from normal rats grow faster than those from diabetic rats, and the cells from normal rats have better therapeutic effects on myocardial infarction.%  背景:目前国内外在干细胞移植治疗心肌梗死的研究中,大

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone (ID 330) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly...

  10. Bone imaging in sports medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikare S

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased participation in sports by the general public leads to increase in sports induced injuries including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis and host of musculotendenous maladies. We have studied twenty patients referred from sports clinic for bone scanning to evaluate clinically difficult problems. It showed stress fracture in twelve patients, bilateral shin splint in five patients and normal bone scan in three patients. Present study highlights the utility of bone imaging for the diagnosis of various sports injuries in sports medicine.

  11. The Effect of Estrogen on the Restoration of Bone Mass and Bone Quality in Ovariectomized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of estrogen on its ability to restore the bone mass and bone quality in ovariectomized rats by examining the changes of bone morphology and histomorphometry, 3month-old rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: normal control, ovariectomized (OVX), shamoperated (Sham-O) and OVX plus estrogen (OVX+E2). Treatment initiated from the day 8 weeks after operation and continued for 12 weeks. Bone morphology and histomorphometry were examined afterwards. Results showed that comparing to control group, the trabecular bone in OVX appeared thinner and reduced in the amount. The connectivity between trabecula was decreased and the structure disordered. The free-end of trabecula was increased. The cavity of bone marrow enlarged. After treatment with estrogen, above changes improved remarkably by different degree, although did not reach the normal face. The bone histomorphometry results damonstrated that estrogen treatment increased bone mass and the amount of trabecula by 129% and 132% respectively (P<0. 05). The activity of bone resorption decreased significantly and the rate of bone formation increased to 203 %. These results suggest that treatment of ovariectomized rats with estrogen can not only increase bone mass, also improve the bone structure and enhance the property of bone mechanics.

  12. Bone loss during simulated weightlessness - Is it glucocorticoid mediated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.; Cone, C. M.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Elevating the hindquarters of a rat by the tail unweights the hind limbs but maintains normal weight-bearing by the forelimbs. This maneuver leads to a decrease in bone mass and calcium content in the unweighted bones (e.g., tibia and L1 vertebra), but not in the normally weighted bones (e.g., humerus and mandible). Potentially, the stress of the maneuver, mediated by increased glucocorticoid production and secretion, could explain the decreased bone formation, rather than the skeletal unweighting per se. To test this possibility, the effects of adrenalectomy on the response of bone to the unweighting of the hind limbs of normal rats were evaluated.

  13. Assessing temperature changes in cortical bone using variable flip-angle ultrashort echo-time MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Misung; Scott, Serena J.; Ozhinsky, Eugene; Salgaonakar, Vasant A.; Jones, Peter D.; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Diederich, Chris J.; Rieke, Viola; Krug, Roland

    2017-03-01

    MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation is a promising, noninvasive method for treatment of bone tumors and palliation of pain. During thermal therapy, temperature mapping is necessary to ensure proper heat deposition in targeted tumors as well as to prevent unnecessary heating in surrounding tissues. Conventional MR thermometry exploits the proton resonant frequency shift of water protons, which normally requires a long echo time; therefore, this method is not appropriate for cortical bone due to its short T2* relaxation time. This work demonstrates that ultrashort echo-time MRI can characterize T1 changes in cortical bone caused by temperature changes. Ex vivo experiments were performed to heat diaphysis segments of bovine femurs with an interstitial ultrasound applicator. The T1 increase in the heated parts of cortical bone was observed. The temerature dependence of T1 in cortical born was also assessed by heating bovine bone samples in a temperature-controlled water bath. T1 mapping of cortical bone enabled by ultrashort echo-time MRI might allow for more accurate characterization of thermal dose during treatment of bone tumors.

  14. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (λ=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  15. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  16. Bone graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around the area. The bone graft can be held in place with pins, plates, or screws. Why ... Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francosco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  17. Histologic diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases: bone histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalle Carbonare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.

  18. Functional differentiation of normal human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, L; Fiederlein, R L

    1987-03-01

    In the past differentiation of human neutrophils has been defined by morphology, cytochemistry, or surface markers. In our experiments we have sequenced the various events that occur during the functional differentiation of the normal human neutrophil and have also examined some of the functional properties in relationship to surface markers and biochemical events. Granulocytes were obtained from the bone marrow and blood of hematologically normal individuals. Cells were separated into different stages of maturation by their physical properties using counterflow centrifugal elutriation and density gradient separation. Three cell fractions were obtained that were enriched for either immature myeloid cells, band neutrophils, or segmented neutrophils. Since the enriched fractions were not entirely pure, methodologies for functional assays were chosen that allowed cytologic evaluation of the functional capacity of each cell type. The criteria used to classify the stages of differentiation included both morphology by light microscopy and DNA labeling with tritiated thymidine. Various neutrophilic properties were studied: Fc receptors, complement receptors (CR1, CR3), phagocytosis of both live and dead opsonized Staphylococcus aureus, microbial killing of S aureus, NBT dye reduction after cellular stimulation with endotoxin, and chemotaxis. Our results indicate that the functional properties of the neutrophil appear in a distinct order. The sequence for the functional differentiation of the human neutrophil appears to be the following: Fc receptors----immune phagocytosis----complement receptors----oxygen-independent microbial killing----oxygen-dependent microbial killing----chemotaxis.

  19. Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himadri S; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Zickler, Gerald A; Raz-Ben Aroush, D; Funari, Sérgio S; Roschger, Paul; Wagner, H Daniel; Fratzl, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Deformation mechanisms in bone matrix at the nanoscale control its exceptional mechanical properties, but the detailed nature of these processes is as yet unknown. In situ tensile testing with synchrotron X-ray scattering allowed us to study directly and quantitatively the deformation mechanisms at the nanometer level. We find that bone deformation is not homogeneous but distributed between a tensile deformation of the fibrils and a shearing in the interfibrillar matrix between them.

  20. Muscle-bone Interactions During Fracture Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    physical trauma31, orthopaedic surgery32, or due to disease like fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, which has been identified to be a result of a...responsible for bone healing may provide opportunities to develop therapies to augment normal physiologic mechanisms underlying bone regeneration. Current... osteoporosis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Metab 2008; 26:159-64. 70. Hill M, Goldspink G. Expression and splicing of the in- sulin

  1. Blocking antibody to the beta-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low estrogen levels undoubtedly underlie menopausal bone thinning. However, rapid and profuse bone loss begins three years prior to the last menstrual period, when serum estrogen is relatively normal. We have shown that the pituitary hormone FSH, the levels of which are high during the late peri-men...

  2. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  3. High-dose therapy improved the bone remodelling compartment canopy and bone formation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    . Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell...... transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed......Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling...

  4. Bone cell mechanosensitivity, estrogen deficiency, and osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; van Oers, R.F.M.; Bakker, A.D.; Bacabac, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation of bone to mechanical stresses normally produces a bone architecture that combines a proper resistance against failure with a minimal use of material. This adaptive process is governed by mechanosensitive osteocytes that transduce the mechanical signals into chemical responses, i.e. the o

  5. Differences in Bone Quality between High versus Low Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Daniel S. [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Pienkowski, David [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Faugere, Marie-Claude [Albert B. Chandler Medical Center; Malluche, Hartmut H. [Albert B. Chandler Medical Center

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal bone turnover is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its effects on bone quality remain unclear. This study sought to quantify the relationship between abnormal bone turnover and bone quality. Iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained from CKD-5 patients on dialysis with low (n=18) or high (n=17) turnover, and from volunteers (n=12) with normal turnover and normal kidney function. Histomorphometric methods were used to quantify the microstructural parameters; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to quantify the material and mechanical properties in bone. Reduced mineral-to-matrix ratio, mineral crystal size, stiffness and hardness were observed in bone with high turnover compared to bone with normal or low turnover. Decreased cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness were seen in bone with low turnover compared to bone with normal or high turnover. Bone quality, as defined by its microstructural, material, and mechanical properties, is related to bone turnover. These data suggest that turnover related alterations in bone quality may contribute to the known diminished mechanical competence of bone in CKD patients, albeit from different mechanisms for bone with high (material abnormality) vs. low (microstructural alteration) turnover. The present findings suggest that improved treatments for renal osteodystrophy should seek to avoid low or high bone turnover and aim for turnover rates as close to normal as possible.

  6. Immunophenotype of normal and myelomatous plasma cell subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eRobillard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasma-cells are essentially characterized by the co-expression of CD138 and CD38, which allows their identification in flow cytometry in bone marrow, peripheral blood or cell suspensions from tissues. These terminally differentiated B-cells may lose the expression of surface CD19 and that of CD20 while retaining CD27. When malignant, they can gain a number of other markers such as CD28, CD33, CD56 or CD117 and lose CD27. Moreover, since each plasma cell is only able to produce a single type of immunoglobulins, they display isotypic restriction and clonal malignant plasma cells can be further characterized by their homogeneous expression of either kappa or lambda light chains. In multiple myeloma (MM, such plasma cell clones produce the immunoglobulin identified in plasma as an abnormal peak. In the bone marrow where they essentially accumulate, these plasma cells may however display various immunophenotypes. The latter were explored in a two-way approach. Firstly the various subsets delineated by the selective or common expression of CD19 together with combined CD56/CD28 were explored in normal and MM bone marrow. Then other aberrant markers’ expression was investigated, i.e. CD20, CD27, CD33, CD56, CD117. These data were compared to literature information. They underline the vast heterogeneity of MM plasma cells possibly accounting for the various answers to therapy of MM patients.

  7. Bone and bone marrow function of reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of pectus excavatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoh; Magara, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ichihashi, Takumi; Hikishima, Hiroshi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-03-01

    Bone and bone marrow functions of the reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of the funnel chest deformities were evaluated by scanning method. In our series, three kinds of operative procedures were employed; strut method for adult cases, sternal turnover method with and without muscle pedicle for infant cases. Bone function was scanned by sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate and bone marrow function was evaluated by sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid. For the cases undergone each surgical procedure, bone and bone marrow scan were done at short term after surgery (within 30 days), at intermediate stage (one month to 12 months), and at long term stage (beyond one year). The results were as follows: By the evaluation at the long term stage of the cases undergoing strut method, bone as well as bone marrow scan visualized normal view of the reconstructed sternum. Regarding the cases undergone sternal turnover method without muscle pedicle, or free graft implantation of the plastron, the bone scan at the long term follow-up stage showed abnormal finding, i.e. hypo-, or defect-visualization of the inverted sternum, in 11.5% of the cases. Furthermore, bone marrow scan showed abnormality in 33.3% of the cases. On the other hand, the cases undergone sternal turnover method with muscle pedicle, in which blood supply to the plastron were preserved by the connection from superior epigastric artery to internal mammary artery, showed no abnormality as far as at the long term follow-up study neither in bone scan nor bone marrow scan. However, in the evaluation at short term after surgery, 50% of the cases undergoing bone scan showed abnormality. In addition, in this stage 85.7% of the bone marrow scan showed abnormal finding. These abnormality, however, normalized within 6 months for bone scan and 12 months for bone marrow scan, in contrast to the results of the cases undergone sternal turnover without pedicle.

  8. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  9. Bone resorption facilitates osteoblastic bone metastatic colonization by cooperation of insulin-like growth factor and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Hoshino, Takuya; Aikawa, Tomoya; Yasuda, Hisataka; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2014-05-01

    Bone metastasis is a multistep process that includes cancer cell dissemination, colonization, and metastatic growth. Furthermore, this process involves complex, reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and the bone microenvironment. Bone resorption is known to be involved in both osteolytic and osteoblastic bone metastasis. However, the precise roles of the bone resorption in the multistep process of osteoblastic bone metastasis remain unidentified. In this study, we show that bone resorption plays important roles in cancer cell colonization during the initial stage of osteoblastic bone metastasis. We applied bioluminescence/X-ray computed tomography multimodal imaging that allows us to spatiotemporally analyze metastasized cancer cells and bone status in osteoblastic bone metastasis models. We found that treatment with receptor activator of factor-κB ligand (RANKL) increased osteoblastic bone metastasis when given at the same time as intracardiac injection of cancer cells, but failed to increase metastasis when given 4 days after cancer cell injection, suggesting that RANKL-induced bone resorption facilitates growth of cancer cells colonized in the bone. We show that insulin-like growth factor-1 released from the bone during bone resorption and hypoxia-inducible factor activity in cancer cells cooperatively promoted survival and proliferation of cancer cells in bone marrow. These results suggest a mechanism that bone resorption and hypoxic stress in the bone microenvironment cooperatively play an important role in establishing osteoblastic metastasis.

  10. Three-dimensional microarchitecture of adolescent cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Hvid, Ivan;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated microarchitectural, mechanical, collagen and mineral properties of normal adolescent cancellous bone, and compared them with adult and aging cancellous bone, to obtain more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations during development and growth. Twenty-three human...... proximal tibiae were harvested and divided into 3 groups according to their ages: adolescence (9 to 17years, n=6), young adult (18 to 24years, n=9), and adult (25 to 30years, n=8). Twelve cubic cancellous bone samples with dimensions of 8×8×8mm(3) were produced from each tibia, 6 from each medial......, the adolescent cancellous bone had similar bone volume fraction (BV/TV), structure type (plate, rod or mixtures), and connectivity (3-D trabecular networks) as the adult cancellous bone. The adolescent cancellous bone had significantly lower bone surface density (bone surface per total volume of specimen...

  11. Bone scintigraphy in ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)); Morita, Rikushi

    1991-10-01

    Twelve patients with ankylosing spondylitis (11 males and one female) were examined by both bone scintigraphy and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone scintigraphy revealed increased accumulation in the sacroiliac joint in 6 patients, the spines in 10, and the other joints, including the sternoclavicular joint, in 8 patients. Each one patient had an intense tracer uptake in the finger and toe joints. In 4 patients in whom DEXA was concurrently performed at the level of 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae, there was no consistent tendency for mean bone mineral density. In 2 of 3 patients receiving DEXA for the radius, bone marrow density was within the normal range. (N.K.).

  12. 肱骨骨内髓脂肪瘤的形态学特征及与肾上腺髓脂肪瘤和正常骨髓组织的比较%Intraosseous myelolipoma of humerus: clinicopathologic features and comparison between adrenal myelolipoma and normal bone marrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑; 尹为华; 刘远健

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinicopathologic features of intraosseous myelolipoma and its morphologic similarities and/or differences with adrenal myelolipoma and normal bone marrow. Methods With the application of hematoxylin-eosin, TUNEL labeling and reticulin fibrosis staining, the histologic characteristics of a case of humeral myelolipoma as well as its reticular levels and apoptotic index were demonstrated. In the meanwhile, the links and distinctions of the intraosseous lesion with 4 cases of adrenal myelolipoma and 8 cases of normal bone marrow were illustrated. In addition, detailed literature review was performed. Results Most of the bone trabeculae in intraosseous myelolipoma were disappeared. There was a widened variation of the hematopoietic cellularity in different areas (range from 0 to 50% ). Foci of mature lymphocytes and a few thickened blood vessels with tortuous walls presented in the lesion. Furthermore, enhanced reticulin fibers" (3 + ) were observed. The above features could be also found in adrenal myelolipoma, whereas those usually did not show up in normal bone marrow. There were no differences of the apoptotic index among the three groups. Conclusions Intraosseous myelolipoma is an extraordinarily rare tumor and diminished bony trabeculae are a convincing indicator. There exist overt overlaps in morphologic features between intraosseous and adrenal myelolipoma, and present some nuanced distinctions from normal bone marrow. The correct diagnosis could only be drawn reassuringly on combination of clinic, imaging and pathologic studies.%目的 探讨骨内髓脂肪瘤的临床病理特征,并与肾上腺髓脂肪瘤和正常骨髓组织的形态比较.方法 采用HE染色、Gomori银染及TUNEL凋亡检测方法,观察1例原发于肱骨的骨内髓脂肪瘤的组织学特点、网状纤维程度及造血细胞凋亡比率,并与4例典型的肾上腺髓脂肪瘤和8例正常骨髓组织标本比较.结果 骨内髓脂肪瘤骨小梁萎

  13. Effect of graded levels of iron, zinc, and copper supplementation in diets with low-phytate or normal barley on growth performance, bone characteristics, hematocrit volume, and zinc and copper balance of young swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty crossbred barrows with an average initial age of 31 d and BW of 9.94 kg were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the effect of a low-phytic acid (LPA) barley mutant (M) M955, a near-isogenic progeny of the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington with about 90% less phytate than NB, to increas...

  14. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF WORMIAN BONES IN CADAVER SKULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi; Adinarayana; Pujitha

    2015-01-01

    Wormian bones are accessory bones are not normally present in skull . They may or may not be associated with clinical abnormalities . In the present study a significant number of wormian bones were identified at the Department of Anatomy , Andhra Medical College , Visakhapatnam . Their incidence with other population were done in the presen t study

  16. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  17. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  18. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > Broken Bones Print A A ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  19. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  20. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones Print A A ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  1. MicroRNA genes diversity analysis between bone tissue of alcohol avascular necrosis femoral head and normal femoral head%酒精性与正常股骨头骨组织中微小RNA基因的多态性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉宝; 刘省臣; 宋扬; 高忠礼; 李林; 阚金庆

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察微小RNA(miRNA)在酒精缺血坏死性与正常股骨头骨组织的表达变化,探讨miRNA基因在两者中的变化关系.方法 分别对5例酒精性股骨头与5例正常股骨头骨组织进行miRNA基因芯片检测,可见有上调基因has-miR-29a-st和下调基因has-miR-486-5p-st,分别对上调和下调基因行逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR).结果 miRNA基因芯片共检测酒精缺血坏死性与正常股骨头骨组织400条基因,对明显上调has-miR-29a-st和下调has-miR-486-5p-st基因片段行RT-PCR检测,正常股骨头和酒精坏死性股骨头上调基因的2-△△Ct平均值为1.06±0.09和1.93±1.12,下调基因的2-△△Ct平均值为1.88±25.37和1.70 ±0.98(变化>2倍且P<0.05).结论 酒精缺血坏死性与正常股骨头骨组织存在明显miRNA变化,其可能在股骨头坏死发生过程中可能起着重要的调控作用.%Objective To observe expression variation of microRNA (miRNA) between bone tissue of alcohol avascular necrosis femoral head and normal femoral head and discuss miRNA change relation between them.Methods It is tested for miRNA for five normal femoral head tissue and alcohol avascular necrosis femoral head tissue.it is thus clear that there are up regulation has-miR-29a-st and downregulation genes has-miR-486-5p-st.they are went on reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Four hundred genes were analysed between between bone tissue of alcohol avascular necrosis femoral head and normal femoral head with miRNA gene chip.clear down regulation has-miR-486-5p-st and up regulation has-miR-29a-st were went on PCR,the average value of has-miR-29a-st 2-~Ct is 1.06 ±0.09 and 1.93 ± 1.12 for bone tissue of alcohol avascular necrosis femoral head and normal femoral head; the average value of has-miR-486-5p-st2-~Ct is 1.88 ± 25.37 and 1.70 ± 0.98 (variation > 2 times moreover P < 0.05).Conclusion There is obvious up regulation and down regulation miRNA genes

  2. Prevent and cure disuse bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Webster S. S.

    1994-01-01

    Anabolic agents like parathyroid hormone and postagladin E-like substances were studied in dogs and rats to determine their effectiveness in the prevention and cure of bone loss due to immobilization. It was determined that postagladin E2 administration prevented immobilization while at the same time it added extra bone in a dose responsive manner. Although bone mass returns, poor trabecular architecture remains after normal ambulation recovery from immobilization. Disuse related bone loss and poor trabecular architecture were cured by post-immobilization postagladin E2 treatment.

  3. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone...

  4. Detection of demineralization in rat legs using multiple-angle x-ray bone densitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lawrence M.; DiBianca, Frank A.; Sebes, Jeno I.; Thomason, Donald B.; Zeman, Herbert D.; Davis, Peter G.; Kambeyanda, Dona; Li, Gao; Lovhoiden, Gunnar

    1994-05-01

    A method utilizing digital dual-energy subtraction X-ray radiography for measuring calcium densities localized to the cortical and cancellous regions of bone cross sections is described. The method is being used to study calcium loss in femurs of two differently treated groups of rats. In each experimental cohort, one group of rats is restrained from weightbearing on hind limbs by suspension from a tail harness. The other (control) group is allowed normal weightbearing on all limbs. The densitometry data for each rat leg consists of six X-ray projection images acquired at roughly equal angles about the bone axis by an intensifying screen/CCD camera imaging system. Images of bone cross sections are reconstructed by application of a maximum entropy algorithm constrained by the six projection images. The observed density data are further discriminated into cortical, cancellous and external regions on the basis of reference levels found on image density histograms.

  5. Impact of the Oral Commensal Flora on Alveolar Bone Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Irie, K; Novince, C.M.; Darveau, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of healthy periodontal tissues is affected by innate and adaptive immunosurveillance mechanisms in response to the normal oral flora. Recent comparisons of germ-free (GF) and normal specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice have revealed the impact of host immunosurveillance mechanisms in response to the normal oral flora on alveolar bone height. Prior reports that alveolar bone height is significantly less in normal SPF mice compared with their age- and strain-matched GF counterparts sug...

  6. Nanoscale characterization of bone-implant interface and biomechanical modulation of bone ingrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Paul A. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States)]. E-mail: pclark4@gmail.com; Clark, Andrew M. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States); Rodriguez, Anthony [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States); Hussain, Mohammad A. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States); Mao, Jeremy J. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States)]. E-mail: jmao2@uic.edu

    2007-04-15

    Bone-implant interface is characterized by an array of cells and macromolecules. This study investigated the nanomechancial properties of bone-implant interface using atomic force microscopy in vitro, and the mechanical modulation of implant bone ingrowth in vivo using bone histomorphometry. Upon harvest of screw-type titanium implants placed in vivo in the rabbit maxilla and proximal femur for 4 weeks, nanoindentation was performed in the bone-implant interface at 60-{mu}m intervals radially from the implant surface. The average Young's Moduli (E) of the maxillary bone-implant interface was 1.13 {+-} 0.27 MPa, lacking significant differences at all intervals. In contrast, an increasing gradient of E was observed radially from the femur bone-implant interface: 0.87 {+-} 0.25 MPa to 2.24 {+-} 0.69 MPa, representing significant differences among several 60-{mu}m intervals. In a separate experiment, bone healing was allowed for 6 weeks for proximal femur implants. The right femoral implant received axial cyclic loading at 200 mN and 1 Hz for 10 min/d over 12 days, whereas the left femoral implant served as control. Cyclic loading induced significantly higher bone volume, osteoblast numbers per endocortical bone surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate than controls. These data demonstrate nanoscale and microscale characterizations of bone-implant interface, and mechanical modulation of bone ingrowth surrounding titanium implants.

  7. Assessing bone banking activities at University of Malaya medical centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Suhaili; Samsuddin, Sharifah Mazni; Ramalingam, Saravana; Min, Ng Wuey; Yusof, Norimah; Zaman, T Kamarul; Mansor, Azura

    2015-12-01

    The main advantage of establishing in-house bone banks is its ability to readily provide allograft bones for local surgeries. Bone procurement activities of our university bone bank during the 10 years of operation were reviewed. Socio-demographic data of donors, types of bone procured, cases of rejected bones and types of allograft bones transplanted are presented. From 179 potential donors, 73 % were accepted with 213 procured bones. Femoral head was the common bone transplanted (45 %), as it was also the most common procured (82 %). Bones were rejected mainly due to non-technical reasons (83 %) rather than positive results of microbiological (13 %) and serological (4 %) tests. Comprehensive data could not be obtained for further analysis due to difficulties in retrieving information. Therefore, quality assurance system was improved to establish more systematic documentations, as the basis of good banking practice with process control hence allowing traceability.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-08-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  9. Bone regeneration: current concepts and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGonagle Dennis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bone regeneration is a complex, well-orchestrated physiological process of bone formation, which can be seen during normal fracture healing, and is involved in continuous remodelling throughout adult life. However, there are complex clinical conditions in which bone regeneration is required in large quantity, such as for skeletal reconstruction of large bone defects created by trauma, infection, tumour resection and skeletal abnormalities, or cases in which the regenerative process is compromised, including avascular necrosis, atrophic non-unions and osteoporosis. Currently, there is a plethora of different strategies to augment the impaired or 'insufficient' bone-regeneration process, including the 'gold standard' autologous bone graft, free fibula vascularised graft, allograft implantation, and use of growth factors, osteoconductive scaffolds, osteoprogenitor cells and distraction osteogenesis. Improved 'local' strategies in terms of tissue engineering and gene therapy, or even 'systemic' enhancement of bone repair, are under intense investigation, in an effort to overcome the limitations of the current methods, to produce bone-graft substitutes with biomechanical properties that are as identical to normal bone as possible, to accelerate the overall regeneration process, or even to address systemic conditions, such as skeletal disorders and osteoporosis.

  10. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  11. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  12. Radiation dosimetry by ESR in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, R. (Universidad de San Agustin de Arequipa (Peru)); Marticorena, B. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    The absorption speed in bovine bone samples irradiated with a /sup 90/Sr ..beta..-source of 45 mCi is studied with ESR. The signal changes linearly with the absorbed quantity of radiation to a maximum dose of 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ rads. This positive result allows to foresee the use of bone as a radiation dosimeter.

  13. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-label

  14. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: neerajcbmr@gmail.com [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone (ID 331, 1402) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium. The Panel considers that carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “acid...

  16. Effect of Physical Forces on the Metastatic Bone Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    of the extracellular matrix. MMPs are known to be secreted from cells during bone remodeling [7]. Furthermore, MMPs are known to be important for...Rodan et al., 1987; Czekanska et al., 2012]. However, due to their presence in the bone and bone- remodeling ability, it is plausible that OCy may also...persist, but it is plausible that these are primarily lytic lesions masked by the normal bone architecture . OCys do not secrete components of

  17. Bone remodeling as a spatial evolutionary game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Marc D; Murgas, Kevin A

    2017-04-07

    Bone remodeling is a complex process involving cell-cell interactions, biochemical signaling and mechanical stimuli. Early models of the biological aspects of remodeling were non-spatial and focused on the local dynamics at a fixed location in the bone. Several spatial extensions of these models have been proposed, but they generally suffer from two limitations: first, they are not amenable to analysis and are computationally expensive, and second, they neglect the role played by bone-embedded osteocytes. To address these issues, we developed a novel model of spatial remodeling based on the principles of evolutionary game theory. The analytically tractable framework describes the spatial interactions between zones of bone resorption, bone formation and quiescent bone, and explicitly accounts for regulation of remodeling by bone-embedded, mechanotransducing osteocytes. Using tools from the theory of interacting particle systems we systematically classified the different dynamic regimes of the spatial model and identified regions of parameter space that allow for global coexistence of resorption, formation and quiescence, as observed in physiological remodeling. In coexistence scenarios, three-dimensional simulations revealed the emergence of sponge-like bone clusters. Comparison between spatial and non-spatial dynamics revealed substantial differences and suggested a stabilizing role of space. Our findings emphasize the importance of accounting for spatial structure and bone-embedded osteocytes when modeling the process of bone remodeling. Thanks to the lattice-based framework, the proposed model can easily be coupled to a mechanical model of bone loading.

  18. Bone Remodelling Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Fardellone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients results from chronic inflammation and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. A few bone remodeling markers have been studied in RA witnessing bone formation (osteocalcin, serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP, serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-CTX, N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-NTX, pyridinolines (DPD and PYD, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP. Bone resorption can be seen either in periarticular bone (demineralization and erosion or in the total skeleton (osteoporosis. Whatever the location, bone resorption results from activation of osteoclasts when the ratio between osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (OPG/RANKL is decreased under influence of various proinflammatory cytokines. Bone remodeling markers also allow physicians to evaluate the effect of drugs used in RA like biologic agents, which reduce inflammation and exert a protecting effect on bone. We will discuss in this review changes in bone markers remodeling in patients with RA treated with biologics.

  19. Bone Material Properties in Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta entrains changes at every level in bone tissue, from the disorganization of the collagen molecules and mineral platelets within and between collagen fibrils to the macroarchitecture of the whole skeleton. Investigations using an array of sophisticated instruments at multiple scale levels have now determined many aspects of the effect of the disease on the material properties of bone tissue. The brittle nature of bone in osteogenesis imperfecta reflects both increased bone mineralization density-the quantity of mineral in relation to the quantity of matrix within a specific bone volume-and altered matrix-matrix and matrix mineral interactions. Contributions to fracture resistance at multiple scale lengths are discussed, comparing normal and brittle bone. Integrating the available information provides both a better understanding of the effect of current approaches to treatment-largely improved architecture and possibly some macroscale toughening-and indicates potential opportunities for alternative strategies that can influence fracture resistance at longer-length scales.

  20. Vitamin D and Bone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christodoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is important for normal development and maintenance of the skeleton. Hypovitaminosis D adversely affects calcium metabolism, osteoblastic activity, matrix ossification, bone remodeling and bone density. It is well known that Vit. D deficiency in the developing skeleton is related to rickets, while in adults is related to osteomalacia. The causes of rickets include conditions that lead to hypocalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia, either isolated or secondary to vitamin D deficiency. In osteomalacia, Vit. D deficiency leads to impairment of the mineralisation phase of bone remodeling and thus an increasing amount of the skeleton being replaced by unmineralized osteoid. The relationship between Vit. D and bone mineral density and osteoporosis are still controversial while new evidence suggests that Vit. D may play a role in other bone conditions such as osteoarthritis and stress fractures. In order to maintain a “good bone health” guidelines concerning the recommended dietary intakes should be followed and screening for Vit. D deficiency in individuals at risk for deficiency is required, followed by the appropriate action.

  1. Bone health in disorders of sex differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, S; Baroncelli, G I; Mora, S

    2010-09-01

    Sex steroids are main regulators of skeletal growth, maturation and mass in both men and women. People with disorders of sex development (DSD) may experience problems in developing normal bone growth, structure and mass, because abnormal sex steroid secretion or action may be operative. In complete androgen insensitivity syndrome several reports documented reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Reduced BMD is evident in patients with not removed or removed gonads, but it is poorer in the latter, mainly when compliance with estrogen replacement therapy is not guaranteed. Large impairment of BMD does not seem to be present in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome or 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency, providing that gonads are not removed or that substitutive therapy is optimized. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, BMD may be impaired as a result of not optimal glucocorticoid administration. In Turner syndrome, impaired BMD may result from the combined actions of estrogen deficiency, low bone dimensions, altered bone geometry, deficient cortical bone, and trabecular bone loss. Optimal estrogen administration seems to be important in preserving bone mass and enhancing trabecular bone volume. On the whole, bone health represents a main clinical issue for the management of persons with disorders of sex differentiation, and well designed longitudinal studies should be developed to improve their bone health and well-being.

  2. The temporal response of bone to unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, R. K.; Bikle, D. D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1984-01-01

    Rats were suspended by their tails with the forelimbs bearing the weight load to simulate the weightlessness of space flight. Growth in bone mass ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae in growing rats, while growth in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. The effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of suspension was investigated using radio iostope incorporation (with Ca-45 and H-3 proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. This model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed in the accretion of bone mass, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days, despite continued skeletal unloading. This cycle of inhibition and resumption of bone formation has profound implication for understanding bone dynamics durng space flight, immobilization, or bed rest and offers an opportunity to study the hormonal and mechanical factors that regulate bone formation.

  3. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A

    2011-01-01

    This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...... cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed....

  4. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  5. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...

  6. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  7. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  8. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  9. Proper division plane orientation and mitotic progression together allow normal growth of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Anding; Sylvester, Anne

    2017-01-01

    How growth, microtubule dynamics, and cell-cycle progression are coordinated is one of the unsolved mysteries of cell biology. A maize mutant, tangled1, with known defects in growth and proper division plane orientation, and a recently characterized cell-cycle delay identified by time-lapse imaging, was used to clarify the relationship between growth, cell cycle, and proper division plane orientation. The tangled1 mutant was fully rescued by introduction of cortical division site localized TANGLED1-YFP. A CYCLIN1B destruction box was fused to TANGLED1-YFP to generate a line that mostly rescued the division plane defect but still showed cell-cycle delays when expressed in the tangled1 mutant. Although an intermediate growth phenotype between wild-type and the tangled1 mutant was expected, these partially rescued plants grew as well as wild-type siblings, indicating that mitotic progression delays alone do not alter overall growth. These data indicate that division plane orientation, together with proper cell-cycle progression, is critical for plant growth. PMID:28202734

  10. Postnatal weight loss in term infants: what is "normal" and do growth charts allow for it?

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, C.; Parkinson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although it is a well known phenomenon, limited normative data on neonatal weight loss and subsequent gain are available, making it hard to assess individual children with prolonged weight loss.

  11. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  12. Three-dimensional virtual bone bank system workflow for structural bone allograft selection: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco, Lucas Eduardo; Farfalli, German Luis; Milano, Federico Edgardo; Ayerza, Miguel Angel; Muscolo, Domingo Luis; Aponte-Tinao, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Structural bone allograft has been used in bone defect reconstruction during the last fifty years with acceptable results. However, allograft selection methods were based on 2-dimensional templates using X-rays. Thanks to preoperative planning platforms, three-dimensional (3D) CT-derived bone models were used to define size and shape comparison between host and donor. The purpose of this study was to describe the workflow of this virtual technique in order to explain how to choose the best allograft using a virtual bone bank system. We measured all bones in a 3D virtual environment determining the best match. The use of a virtual bone bank system has allowed optimizing the allograft selection in a bone bank, providing more information to the surgeons before surgery. In conclusion, 3D preoperative planning in a virtual environment for allograft selection is an important and helpful tool in order to achieve a good match between host and donor.

  13. Removal of hematopoietic cells and macrophages from mouse bone marrow cultures: isolation of fibroblastlike stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modderman, W E; Vrijheid-Lammers, T; Löwik, C W; Nijweide, P J

    1994-02-01

    A method is described that permits the removal of hematopoietic cells and macrophages from mouse bone marrow cultures. The method is based on the difference in effect of extracellular ATP4- ions (ATP in the absence of divalent, complexing cations) on cells of hematopoietic origin, including macrophages, and of nonhematopoietic origin, such as fibroblastlike stromal cells. In contrast to fibroblastlike cells, hematopoietic cells and macrophages form under the influence of ATP4- lesions in their plasma membranes, which allows the entrance of molecules such as ethidium bromide (EB) and potassium thiocyanate (KSCN), which normally do not easily cross the membrane. The lesions can be rapidly closed by the addition of Mg2+ to the incubation medium, leaving the EB or KSCN trapped in the cell. This method allows the selective introduction of cell-toxic substances such as KSCN into hematopoietic cells and macrophages. By using this method, fibroblastlike stromal cells can be isolated from mouse bone marrow cultures.

  14. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  15. Cannabinoids and bone: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Aymen I; Ralston, Stuart H

    2010-10-01

    The endocannabinoid system is recognized to play an important role in regulating a variety of physiological processes, including appetite control and energy balance, pain perception, and immune responses. The endocannabinoid system has also recently been implicated in the regulation of bone metabolism. Endogenously produced cannabinoids are hydrophobic molecules derived from hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. These substances, along with plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids, interact with the type 1 (CB(1)) and 2 (CB(2)) cannabinoid receptors and the GPR55 receptor to regulate cellular function through a variety of signaling pathways. Endocannabinoids are produced in bone, but the mechanisms that regulate their production are unclear. Skeletal phenotyping of mice with targeted inactivation of cannabinoid receptors and pharmacological studies have shown that cannabinoids play a key role in the regulation of bone metabolism. Mice with CB(1) deficiency have high peak bone mass as a result of an osteoclast defect but develop age-related osteoporosis as a result of impaired bone formation and accumulation of bone marrow fat. Mice with CB(2) deficiency have relatively normal peak bone mass but develop age-related osteoporosis as a result of increased bone turnover with uncoupling of bone resorption from bone formation. Mice with GPR55 deficiency have increased bone mass as a result of a defect in the resorptive activity of osteoclasts, but bone formation is unaffected. Cannabinoids are also produced within synovial tissues, and preclinical studies have shown that cannabinoid receptor ligands are effective in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. These data indicate that cannabinoid receptors and the enzymes responsible for ligand synthesis and breakdown play important roles in bone remodeling and in the pathogenesis of joint disease.

  16. Effect of chronic metabolic acidosis on bone density and bone architecture in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Jürg A; Hulter, Henry N; Imboden, Peter; Krapf, Reto

    2014-03-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) might result in a decrease in vivo in bone mass based on its reported in vitro inhibition of bone mineralization, bone formation, or stimulation of bone resorption, but such data, in the absence of other disorders, have not been reported. CMA also results in negative nitrogen balance, which might decrease skeletal muscle mass. This study analyzed the net in vivo effects of CMA's cellular and physicochemical processes on bone turnover, trabecular and cortical bone density, and bone microarchitecture using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography and μCT. CMA induced by NH4Cl administration (15 mEq/kg body wt/day) in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rats resulted in stable CMA (mean Δ[HCO3(-)]p = 10 mmol/l). CMA decreased plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b in intact and OVX animals. CMA decreased total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) after 6 and 10 wk (week 10: intact normal +2.1 ± 0.9% vs. intact acidosis -3.6 ± 1.2%, P metabolic acidosis induces a large decrease in cortical bone mass (a prime determinant of bone fragility) in intact and OVX rats and impairs bone microarchitecture characterized by a decrease in trabecular number.

  17. Characterization of bone quality in prostate cancer bone metastases using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaohong; Patil, Chetan; Morrissey, Colm; Roudier, Martine P.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Nyman, Jeffry

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common primary tumor in men, with a high propensity to metastasize to bone. Bone metastases in prostate cancer are associated with active pathologic bone remodeling, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. Detailed characterization of bone metastases is important in the management of prostate cancer. Raman spectroscopy was applied in this study to investigate the structure and composition of metastatic bone in prostate cancer with the ultimate goal of identifying spectral features that are related to the alterations in bone quality as the bone metastases develop. Osteoblastic-, osteolytic- and tumor-absent bone specimens from prostate cancer patients were investigated using bench-top Raman microspectroscopy. Raman derived measurements of collagen mineralization, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution were calculated. The osteolytic lesions demonstrated significantly lower collagen mineralization, determined by phosphate ν1/proline, and higher carbonate substitution than normal and osteoblastic bones. Mineral crystallinity was significantly lower in both blastic and lytic specimens. In addition, a significant increase in the ratio of hydroxyproine: proline was observed in the osteoblastic specimen, indicating an increase in the content of hydroxyproline at the blastic lesions. This study demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy shows promise in determining alterations in osteoblastic and osteolytic bone metastases as well as assessing the response of metastatic bone to therapies.

  18. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium) and University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)]. E-mail: filip.vanhoenacker@telenet.be; Snoeckx, A. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium); University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-04-15

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate.

  19. Multiple verification in computational modeling of bone pathologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liò, Pietro; Paoletti, Nicola; 10.4204/EPTCS.67.8

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a model checking approach to diagnose the emerging of bone pathologies. The implementation of a new model of bone remodeling in PRISM has led to an interesting characterization of osteoporosis as a defective bone remodeling dynamics with respect to other bone pathologies. Our approach allows to derive three types of model checking-based diagnostic estimators. The first diagnostic measure focuses on the level of bone mineral density, which is currently used in medical practice. In addition, we have introduced a novel diagnostic estimator which uses the full patient clinical record, here simulated using the modeling framework. This estimator detects rapid (months) negative changes in bone mineral density. Independently of the actual bone mineral density, when the decrease occurs rapidly it is important to alarm the patient and monitor him/her more closely to detect insurgence of other bone co-morbidities. A third estimator takes into account the variance of the bone density, which could address the...

  20. Biological characteristics of cell lines cultured in vitro from alveolar bone tissue in normal persons and patients with chronic periodontitis complicated by osteoporosis%正常人与慢性牙周炎伴有骨质疏松患者牙槽骨组织体外培养细胞系的生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世璋; 黄靖香; 孙明学; 赵斌; 余征

    2007-01-01

    alveolar bone cell line are from alveolar bone, which is in oral cavity,and easily polluted, so laboratory study is often unsuccessful. Because the samples are from adults, so cell division index and the successful rate of culture are low.OBJECTIVE: To compare the biological characteristics of survived cell line established through passage,cryopreservation and revitalization following in vitro culturing the alveolar bone tissue obtained from normal persons and patients with chronic periodontitis accompanied with osteoporosis in aseptic operation; To compare the biological characteristics of two kinds of cells so as to provide theoretical and related experimental evidence for defect, repair and treatment of alveolar bone.DESIGN: Controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Stomatology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University; Institute of Orthopaedics,General Hospital of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Alveolar bone tissue obtained from normal persons and patients with chronic periodontitis confirmed in clinic was used in aseptic operation.METHODS: Alveolar bone tissue from normal persons and chronic periodontitis accompanied with osteoporosis were cultured in vitro. In the four cell lines (H-171, H-258, 261, 262) cultured primarily, cell lines H-171 and H-258 were chosen from periodonitis patients group and normal group respectively, and stained with histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Cell morphology was observed. Doubling time and division index of two kinds of cells were calculated with cytometry. After several circles of passage, cryopreservation and revitalization, growth and aging rule of cells were compared.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Passage and biological characteristics of two groups of cell lines.RESULTS: ①In the abnormal alveolar bone group, there was one successful primary culture and cells presented short-spindle shape. There were 3 times of cryopreservation and 3 times of revitalization. Its doubling time was 53.4 hours. The average division

  1. Numerical analysis of an osseointegrated prosthesis fixation with reduced bone failure risk and periprosthetic bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, P K; van Diest, M; Bulstra, S K; Verdonschot, N; Verkerke, G J

    2012-07-26

    Currently available implants for direct attachment of prosthesis to the skeletal system after transfemoral amputation (OPRA system, Integrum AB, Sweden and ISP Endo/Exo prosthesis, ESKA Implants AG, Germany) show many advantages over the conventional socket fixation. However, restraining biomechanical issues such as considerable bone loss around the stem and peri-prosthetic bone fractures are present. To overcome these limiting issues a new concept of the direct intramedullary fixation was developed. We hypothesize that the new design will reduce the peri-prosthetic bone failure risk and adverse bone remodeling by restoring the natural load transfer in the femur. Generic CT-based finite element models of an intact femur and amputated bones implanted with 3 analyzed implants were created and loaded with a normal walking and a forward fall load. The strain adaptive bone remodeling theory was used to predict long-term bone changes around the implants and the periprosthetic bone failure risk was evaluated by the von Mises stress criterion. The results show that the new design provides close to physiological distribution of stresses in the bone and lower bone failure risk for the normal walking as compared to the OPRA and the ISP implants. The bone remodeling simulations did not reveal any overall bone loss around the new design, as opposed to the OPRA and the ISP implants, which induce considerable bone loss in the distal end of the femur. This positive outcome shows that the presented concept has a potential to considerably improve safety of the rehabilitation with the direct fixation implants.

  2. Pathophysiology of bone loss in the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Papadimitriou, Dimitra

    2010-09-01

    Low bone mass is frequent among female athletes. The "female athlete triad" is a term that describes the interaction among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone metabolism that may lead to amenorrhea and osteopenia or osteoporosis. The main pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to low bone mass in female athletes are low energy availability and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Increased energy expenditure and/or decreased energy intake, as well as the presence of eating disorders, are associated with low bone mass. In addition, menstrual dysfunction is quite common, especially among athletes competing in sports favoring leanness, and also associates with low bone mass. Screening for bone loss in female athletes should take place in the presence of amenorrhea or body mass index <18 kg/m(2) . Management of low bone mass aims to restore normal energy availability and nutritional habits. Hormone replacement therapy has no effect in abnormally underweight patients unless normal eating behaviors are restored.

  3. Brown Tumor Shown Flare Phenomenon On Bone Scan After Parathyroidectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Ho; Park, Seol Hoon; Baek, So Ra; Chae, Sun Young; Koh, Jung Min; Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Brown tumor is the benign bone lesion consists of woven bone and fibrous tissue without matrix, which develop due to chronic excessive osteoclastic activity such as hyperparathyroidism. Usually they appear with normal uptake or occasionally focally increased uptake on bone scan. We present a case with brown tumor shown more increased uptake and more number of lesions on bone scan after parathyroidectomy, and lesser increased uptake on serial bone scans without any other treatment through several months. This finding is thought to be similar to 'flare phenomenon' which is occasionally seen after treatment of metastatic bone lesions of malignant cancer, and may represent curative process of brown tumor with rapid normal bone formation.

  4. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  5. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O' Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  6. 骨生化指标在骨肿瘤中的临床应用进展%Clinical application progress of bone biochemical markers in bone tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周定; 张琪琪; 胡勇

    2014-01-01

    Bone tumors refer to benign and malignant tumors which originate from mesenchymal stem cells and occur in bone tissues and their accessory structures. The pathogenesis and etiology of bone tumors still remain unclear, and the diagnosis methods of bone tumors are stagnating now. X-ray, computed tomography ( CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) are important in diagnosing and evaluating bone tumors, but they cannot detect the lesions until the bone destruction reaches a certain degree. Isotope bone scan can detect the microscopic lesions of bone, whereas it is too expensive and the speciifcity is poor, with high false positive rates. At present, the golden standard for the diagnosis of bone tumors is the histopathological examination of bone. However, it is dififcult to achieve early diagnosis, and it is likely to miss the best treatment period. Every disease is inevitably accompanied by molecular biological changes in the body. Biochemical markers can promptly detect the property changes of bone tumor cells, including unlimited proliferation, apoptosis, active neoangiogenesis, inifltrative growth, metastatic growth and so on. Therefore, it is of great signiifcance for the diagnosis of bone tumors to detect appropriate biochemical markers in the patients. The normal bone metabolism is maintained by the dynamic balance of bone resorption and bone formation. When bone tumors occur, the balance will be disturbed. The bone biochemical markers which relfect bone resorption and bone formation are sensitive indicators of early abnormal bone metabolism. Recently, a large number of studies have explored the significance of bone biochemical markers in patients with bone tumors. The functions of bone biochemical markers in patients with bone tumors mainly include making an early detection of microscopic tumor lesions to start early treatment ( diagnostic effects ), evaluating the effects ( therapeutic monitoring ), evaluating the prognosis and predicting the risk of

  7. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (85 ... late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  8. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  9. Preliminary fsLIBS study on bone tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ruby K; Smith, Zachary J; Panchal, Ripul R; Bishop, John W; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (fsLIBS) to discriminate between normal and cancerous bone, with implications to femtosecond laser surgery procedures. The main advantage of using femtosecond lasers for surgery is that the same laser that is being used to ablate can also be used for a feedback system to prevent ablation of certain tissues. For bone tumor removal, this technique has the potential to reduce the number of repeat surgeries that currently must be performed due to incomplete removal of the tumor mass. In this paper, we performed fsLIBS on primary bone tumor, secondary tumor in bone, and normal bone. These tissues were excised from consenting patients and processed through the UC Davis Cancer Center Biorepository. For comparison, each tumor sample had a matched normal bone sample. fsLIBS was performed to characterize the spectral signatures of each tissue type. A minimum of 20 spectra were acquired for each sample. We did not detect significant differences between the fsLIBS spectra of secondary bone tumors and their matched normal bone samples, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of secondary bone tumors, with normal and cancerous tissue intermingling. However, we did observe an increase in the fsLIBS magnesium peak intensity relative to the calcium peak intensity for the primary bone tumor samples compared to the normal bone samples. These results show the potential of using femtosecond lasers for both ablation and a real-time feedback control system for treatment of primary bone tumors.

  10. Altering the Microenvironment to Promote Dormancy of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell in a 3D Bone Culture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    1138-1148. Carlsten, H. 2005. Immune responses and bone loss: the estrogen connection. Immunological reviews . 208:194- 206. 28 Gehler, S., S.M...factors to be considered in cancer recurrence ( reviewed by [6]). Das Roy et al. found an increase in lung and bone marrow metastasis using an...activation of COX-2, plays an important role in normal bone physiology as well as in cancer and bone metastasis ( review [43]). In the normal bone, PGE2 is the

  11. Monosodium glutamate-sensitive hypothalamic neurons contribute to the control of bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefteriou, Florent; Takeda, Shu; Liu, Xiuyun; Armstrong, Dawna; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Using chemical lesioning we previously identified hypothalamic neurons that are required for leptin antiosteogenic function. In the course of these studies we observed that destruction of neurons sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) in arcuate nuclei did not affect bone mass. However MSG treatment leads to hypogonadism, a condition inducing bone loss. Therefore the normal bone mass of MSG-treated mice suggested that MSG-sensitive neurons may be implicated in the control of bone mass. To test this hypothesis we assessed bone resorption and bone formation parameters in MSG-treated mice. We show here that MSG-treated mice display the expected increase in bone resorption and that their normal bone mass is due to a concomitant increase in bone formation. Correction of MSG-induced hypogonadism by physiological doses of estradiol corrected the abnormal bone resorptive activity in MSG-treated mice and uncovered their high bone mass phenotype. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed in MSG-sensitive neurons we tested whether NPY regulates bone formation. Surprisingly, NPY-deficient mice had a normal bone mass. This study reveals that distinct populations of hypothalamic neurons are involved in the control of bone mass and demonstrates that MSG-sensitive neurons control bone formation in a leptin-independent manner. It also indicates that NPY deficiency does not affect bone mass.

  12. Chondroblastoma of the patella with aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Honglue; Yan, Mengning; Yue, Bing; Zeng, Yiming; Wang, You

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma of the patella is rare. Aneurysmal bone cysts, which develop from a prior lesion such as a chondroblastoma, are seldom seen in the patella. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man who presented with 2 years of right knee pain without calor, erythema, pain on palpation, or abnormal range of motion. Radiological studies suggested aneurysmal bone cyst. The lesion was excised with curettage and the residual cavity filled with autogenous bone graft. Histopathology revealed chondroblastoma associated with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. In the follow-up period, the patient demonstrated normal joint activities with no pain. Normal configuration of the patella and bone union were shown on plain radiographs. The authors present a review of the literature of all cases of patellar chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst. This case is the 14th report of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in a chondroblastoma of the patella. According to the literature, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the study of these lesions. The pathologic diagnosis is based on the presence of chondroblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst. Treatment of this lesion includes patellectomy, curettage alone, and curettage with bone grafting. Despite the risk of recurrence of this lesion in the patella, the authors first recommend curettage followed by filling the cavity with bone graft. To protect the anterior tension of the patella intraoperatively, the bone window should be made at the medial edge of the patella to perform the curettage and bone grafting.

  13. Chondroblastoma of the sphenoid bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrocíni, Tomas Gomes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chondroblastoma is an uncommon cartilaginous benign neoplasm, highly destructive, which specifically appears in the epiphysis of long bones in young patients. Its occurrence is extremely rare in the cranial base, normally occurring in the temporal bone. Objective: To describe a rare case in a patient presenting with a sphenoid bone chondroblastoma that invaded the middle cranial cavity, submitted to a successful surgical resection, without recurrence after 2 years. Case Report: W.J.S, 37 years old, male, forwarded to the otorhinolaryngology service with persistent and strong otalgia for 3 months. He had normal otoscopy and without visible tumorations. The computerized tomography confirmed tumor mass in the left infra-temporal cavity, invading the middle cranial cavity. The biopsy suggested giant cells tumor. After wide resection by frontal approach via orbitozygomatic osteotomy. During the surgery, we confirmed tomographic statements and didn't find temporal bone involvement. The histopathological exam confirmed chondroblastoma. After 18 months after the surgery, he doesn't present with complaints, without motor, sensitive deficits or of cranial nerves and without recurrence tomographic signals. Conclusion: The importance of differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma is remarkable in the cranial base lesions and its therapeutic approach, whose objective must always be the major possible resection with the maximum function conservation.

  14. The apparent elastic modulus of the juxtarticular subchondral bone of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T D; Vrahas, M S

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to obtain approximate values for the intrinsic elastic modulus of subchondral bone. Shallow spherical caps, with uniform and incrementally controlled thickness, were machined from subchondral bone in the weight-bearing regions of 11 fresh-frozen normal femoral head autopsy specimens. Under application of polar point loads, the measured deflections were compared with a corresponding analytical shell solution, thus allowing back-calculation of the apparent modulus. Analogous tests were performed on similarly shaped specimens of stock Plexiglas of known modulus in order to estimate the precision of the testing method. The aggregate results for subchondral bone showed that its intrinsic stiffness correlated inversely with nominal shell thickness, but even the thinnest (1.0 mm thick) of these shells had an apparent modulus (mean = 1.372 GN/m2, SD = 414 MN/m2) well below that generally accepted for "pure" cortical bone (about 14 GN/m2). This stiffness deficit was very likely due to the presence of histologically evident marrow spaces. However, the low apparent modulus values measured in this study may not be fully representative of complex in vivo behavior, because in the testing of excised shells there is no radial compressive stress transfer to underlying cancellous bone.

  15. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable mechanisms. 258.74 Section... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms... operator establishes a trust fund after having used one or more alternate mechanisms specified in...

  16. 75 FR 4098 - Utility Allowance Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... are required to advise the Secretary of the need for and request of a new utility allowance for... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate...

  17. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  18. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a particular set of Federal principles...

  19. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance...

  20. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mobile homes may be allowed only in cases of collision, theft, or vandalism. (5) Money. Claims for money... claimant's supervisor. (4) Mobile homes. Claims may be allowed for damage to or loss of mobile homes and their contents under the provisions of § 180.104(c)(2). Claims for structural damage to mobile...

  1. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  2. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.27 Allowable...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  3. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Organizations.” (c) Allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  4. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND AGREEMENTS (INCLUDING SUBAWARDS) WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  5. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  6. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each...

  7. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of...

  8. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each...

  9. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b) The... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial... principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs are determined in accordance with the...

  10. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined...

  11. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology.

  12. Investigations into Changes in Bone Turnover with Acute, Weight-Bearing Exercise in Healthy, Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    after the menopause . Subsequently, in the newly increased number of resorption spaces, bone formation occurs that is reflected by an increase in...specific BTM, new insights into the acute effects of exercise on bone resorption and formation are possible. 1.4 Nutrition , energy availability and...normal bone metabolism While the importance of appropriate nutrition in maintaining normal bone turnover has long been recognised, it is only with the

  13. Controlling Bone Graft Substitute Microstructure to Improve Bone Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Zeeshan; Drager, Justin; Zhang, Yu Ling; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Tamimi, Faleh; Barralet, Jake

    2016-07-01

    Vertical bone augmentation procedures are frequently carried out to allow successful placement of dental implants in otherwise atrophic ridges and represent one of the most common bone grafting procedures currently performed. Onlay autografting is one of the most prevalent and predictable techniques to achieve this; however, there are several well documented complications and drawbacks associated with it and synthetic alternatives are being sought. Monetite is a bioresorbable dicalcium phosphate with osteoconductive and osteoinductive potential that has been previously investigated for onlay bone grafting and it is routinely made by autoclaving brushite to simultaneously sterilize and phase convert. In this study, monetite disc-shaped grafts are produced by both wet and dry heating methods which alter their physical properties such as porosity, surface area, and mechanical strength. Histological observations after 12 weeks of onlay grafting on rabbit calvaria reveal higher bone volume (38%) in autoclaved monetite grafts in comparison with the dry heated monetite grafts (26%). The vertical bone height gained is similar for both the types of monetite grafts (up to 3.2 mm). However, it is observed that the augmented bone height is greater in the lateral than the medial areas of both types of monetite grafts. It is also noted that the higher porosity of autoclaved monetite grafts increases the bioresorbability, whereas the dry heated monetite grafts having lower porosity but higher surface area resorb to a significantly lesser extent. This study provides information regarding two types of monetite onlay grafts prepared with different physical properties that can be further investigated for clinical vertical bone augmentation applications.

  14. Crystal bones. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Torres Molina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a case still on milk with clinical and radiological manifestations with the diagnosis of imperfect osteogenesis. There was a study with the clinical description of the external habit, detecting triangular facie, slight blue sclera, ligamentous hypelaxitud in hands and feet, pectus excavatum, arrosariated ribs, legs in abduction, keeping a right angle and diafisiary fractures of long bones. The parents clinical study was normal. The typification was according Sillence criteria of Type III.

  15. Healing pattern of reamed bone following bone harvesting by a RIA device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Devine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramedullary nailing has been used for decades to treat fractures of the long bones. However, complications related to the increase in medullary pressure culminated in the development of the Reamer Irrigator Aspirator (RIA. Since its first clinical use, the RIA has moved from a reaming device to a cell and autologous bone-harvesting tool. This increase in use brings with it further clinical questions; namely, does the endosteal bone regenerate sufficiently to allow subsequent reaming procedures. In the current study, endosteal bone regeneration post reaming was assessed in an ovine model. The study included six animals that had one tibia reamed, while the contralateral tibia acted as an intact control. Animals were administered fluorochrome labels in vivo, and bone regeneration was assessed using radiographical analysis. The endpoint of the study was 12 weeks post-surgery, at which time ex vivo analysis consisted of computed tomography and histological assessments. In vivo radiographs indicated limited healing of the reamed bone. However, ex vivo computer tomographical analysis indicated no significant differences in terms of bone volume between the reamed bone and the intact bone. Histological assessment of these regions indicated new bone formation. Fluorescent labelling indicates strong bone formation from 9 weeks post-surgery and as such, the bone formed at 12 weeks was immature in nature and was actively undergoing remodelling. These results indicate that bone regeneration post-reaming was continuing at three months. Therefore, given more time it may have sufficiently healed to allow a surgeon to use the intramedullary canal for a re-reaming procedure.

  16. Implications of resolution and noise for in vivo micro-MRI of trabecular bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Charles Q.; Magland, Jeremy F.; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Guo, X. Edward; Zhang, X. Henry; Vasilic, Branimir; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporotic bone loss is accompanied by impaired structural integrity of the trabecular network, leading to a decrease in the overall mechanical properties of the bone. The development of the “virtual bone biopsy” (VBB), a method combining magnetic resonance microimaging (μMRI) and digital image processing techniques, has previously been shown to quantify topology and scale of human trabecular bone noninvasively. The aim of this work was to determine the extent to which structural parameters derived from images acquired in the limited spatial resolution regime of in vivo imaging are sensitive to resolution and noise and further, whether under these conditions, a small amount of bone loss and its associated structural manifestations can be detected. Toward these goals 3D models of trabecular bone representing multiple anatomic locations were generated on the basis of μCT images of human cadaveric bone cores. These images were binarized and the resulting data arrays representing pure bone (proton density=0) and pure marrow (proton density=255) subjected to simulated MR imaging by Cartesian sampling of k space, yielding, after 3D Fourier reconstruction, voxel sizes currently achievable in vivo. Subsequently, realistic levels of Gaussian noise were superimposed on the complex data and magnitude images were computed. The resulting images were subsequently VBB processed for a range of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values and image voxel sizes. For comparison of the predicted behavior to in vivo data, images from a recent patient study were evaluated as well. Systematic changes of the derived structural parameters changing progressively with decreasing SNR were noted, and it is shown that the errors are correctable using simple linear transformations, thereby allowing the data to be normalized. The predicted dependence of the structural parameters on SNR also closely parallel those observed in vivo. Finally, in order to assess the sensitivity of the VBB processing

  17. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... lambs were randomly assigned to two weight-matched groups at birth. During the first 14 days of life AKG was administered orally to the experimental group (n=12) at the dosage of 0.1 g/kg body weight per day, while the control group (n=11) received an equal dose of the vehicle. Lambs were slaughtered...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  18. Sclerostin antibody treatment increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Warmington, Kelly S; Morony, Sean; Gong, Jianhua; Cao, Jin; Gao, Yongming; Shalhoub, Victoria; Tipton, Barbara; Haldankar, Raj; Chen, Qing; Winters, Aaron; Boone, Tom; Geng, Zhaopo; Niu, Qing-Tian; Ke, Hua Zhu; Kostenuik, Paul J; Simonet, W Scott; Lacey, David L; Paszty, Chris

    2009-04-01

    The development of bone-rebuilding anabolic agents for potential use in the treatment of bone loss conditions, such as osteoporosis, has been a long-standing goal. Genetic studies in humans and mice have shown that the secreted protein sclerostin is a key negative regulator of bone formation, although the magnitude and extent of sclerostin's role in the control of bone formation in the aging skeleton is still unclear. To study this unexplored area of sclerostin biology and to assess the pharmacologic effects of sclerostin inhibition, we used a cell culture model of bone formation to identify a sclerostin neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbII) for testing in an aged ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomized and left untreated for 1 yr to allow for significant estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, at which point Scl-AbII was administered for 5 wk. Scl-AbII treatment in these animals had robust anabolic effects, with marked increases in bone formation on trabecular, periosteal, endocortical, and intracortical surfaces. This not only resulted in complete reversal, at several skeletal sites, of the 1 yr of estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, but also further increased bone mass and bone strength to levels greater than those found in non-ovariectomized control rats. Taken together, these preclinical results establish sclerostin's role as a pivotal negative regulator of bone formation in the aging skeleton and, furthermore, suggest that antibody-mediated inhibition of sclerostin represents a promising new therapeutic approach for the anabolic treatment of bone-related disorders, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. Keynes, family allowances and Keynesian economic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of family allowances and documents the fact that Keynes supported family allowances as early as the 1920s, continuing through the 1930s and early 1940s. Keynes saw this policy as a way to help households raise their children and also as a way to increase consumption without reducing business investment. The paper goes on to argue that a policy of family allowances is consistent with Keynesian economics. Finally, the paper uses the Luxembourg Income Study to...

  20. Biomechanical researches on tissue engineering bone constructed by deproteinated bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Yue-kui; TIAN Xiao-bin; LI Qi-hong; LI Bo; PENG Zhi; ZHAO Wei-feng; WANG Yuan-zheng; YANG Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study biomechanical changes of newly formed bones 24 weeks after repairing large defects of long bones of goats using heterogeneous deproteinated bone(DPB)prepared by modified methods as an engineering scaffold.Methods:According to a fully randomized design,18 goats were evenly divided into three groups:normal bone control group(Group A),autologous bone group(Group B)and experimental group(Group C).Each goat in Groups B and C were subjected to the periosteum and bone defect at middle-lower part of the fight tibia(20% of the whole tibia in length),followed by autologous bone or DPB plus autologous MSCs + rhBMP2 implantation,respectively and semiring slot fixation;while goats in Group A did not perform osteotomy.At 24 weeks after surgery,biomechanical tests were carried out on the tibias.Results:At 24 weeks after surgery,the results of anticompression test on tibias in three groups were recorded by a functional recorder presented as linear pressure-deformation curve.The shapes of the curves and their change tendency were similar among three groups.The ultimate pressure values were 10.74 Mpa±1.23 Mpa,10.11 Mpa±1.35 Mpa and 10.22 Mpa±1.32 Mpa and fracture compression rates were 26.82%±0.87%,27.17%±0.75% and 28.22%±1.12% in Groups A,B and C,respectively.Comparisons of anti-compression ultimate pressures and fracture compression rates among three groups demonstrated no significant difference(P_(AB)=0.415,P_(BC)=0.494).Three-point antibend test on tibias was recorded as load-deformation curves,and the shapes of the curves and their change tendency were similar among three groups.The ultimate pressure values of the anti-bend test were 481.52 N±12.45 N,478.34 N±14.68 N and 475.62 N±13.41 N and the fracture bend rates were 2.62 mm±0.12 mm,2.61 mm±0.15 mm and 2.81 mm±0.13 mm in Groups A,B and C,respectively.There was no significant difference between groups(P_(AB)=0.7,P_(BC)=0.448).The ultirates were 29.51°±1.64°,28.88°±1.46° and 28.81°±1.33

  1. 24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by the negligent or wrongful act of the claimant, his agent, the members of his family, or his..., superior authority. (6) Clothing and accessories. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of,...

  2. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Damage or loss of personal property, including baggage and household items, while being transported by a carrier, agent or agency of the government, or private conveyance, may be allowed only if the property...

  3. Sign Patterns That Allow the Given Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵燕灵; 孙良

    2003-01-01

    Let P be a property referring to a real matrix. For a sign pattern A, if there exists a real matrix B in the qualitative class of A such that B has property P, then we say A allows P. Three cases that A allows an M-matrix, an inverse M-matrix and a P0-matrix are considered. The complete characterizations are obtained.

  4. Differential Inequalities, Normality and Quasi-Normality

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaojun; Pang, Xuecheng

    2011-01-01

    We prove that if D is a domain in C, alpha>1 and c>0, then the family F of functions meromorphic in D such that |f'(z)|/(1+|f(z)|^alpha)>c for every z in D is normalin D. For alpha=1, the same assumptions imply quasi-normality but not necessarily normality.

  5. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [National Regulatory Research Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  6. Histomorphometric analysis of the temporal bone after change of direction of force vector of mandible: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edela Puricelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at performing a histological evaluation of the response of temporal bone tissue to a change of direction of the force vector of the mandible in relation to the base of the skull. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult rabbits were assigned into four groups with two control and four experimental animals in each group. experimental animals underwent surgery, which resulted in a change of direction of the force vector on the right temporomandibular joint. Samples were collected after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days for histological analysis. RESULTS: In the two-way analysis of variance, the effect of group and time was statistically significant (p<0.001. Additionally, a statistically significant interaction between group and time was observed (p<0.001. Control animals showed normal growth and development of the temporal region. In the experimental group, the change in direction of the force vector of the mandible induced significant changes in the temporal bone, with a bone modeling process, which suggests growth of this cranial structure. CONCLUSIONS: The methodology used in this experiment allows us to conclude that the change in direction of the force vector of the mandible in relation to the skull base induces remodeling and modeling processes in the temporal bone. The resumption of normal oral functions after bone healing of the mandibular fracture appears to increase cell activation in the remodeling and modeling of the temporal bone structure. The observation of areas of temporal bone modeling shows the relevance of further investigation on the correlation between the joint structures and craniofacial growth and development.

  7. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  8. Quantitative evaluation of regularized phase retrieval algorithms on bone scaffolds seeded with bone cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, L.; Langer, M.; Tavella, S.; Ruggiu, A.; Peyrin, F.

    2016-05-01

    In the field of regenerative medicine, there has been a growing interest in studying the combination of bone scaffolds and cells that can maximize newly formed bone. In-line phase-contrast x-ray tomography was used to image porous bone scaffolds (Skelite©), seeded with bone forming cells. This technique allows the quantification of both mineralized and soft tissue, unlike with classical x-ray micro-computed tomography. Phase contrast images were acquired at four distances. The reconstruction is typically performed in two successive steps: phase retrieval and tomographic reconstruction. In this work, different regularization methods were applied to the phase retrieval process. The application of a priori terms for heterogeneous objects enables quantitative 3D imaging of not only bone morphology, mineralization, and soft tissue formation, but also cells trapped in the pre-bone matrix. A statistical study was performed to derive statistically significant information on the different culture conditions.

  9. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Saraswathy; S Pal; C Rose; T P Sastry

    2001-08-01

    With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin. Deglued bone (DGB) which is a by-product of bone glue industries and has the close crystallographic similarities of hydroxyapatite was used as main component in the preparation of bone implant. Chitosan was prepared from the exoskeleton of prawn (Pinaeus indicus, family Crustaceae) which is a by-product of seafood industries. Chitosan gives toughness to the product and do not allow the DGB particles to wither away when the implant is placed in the defect. Gelatin was used as binder for the preparation of DGB–chitosan composite. The DGB, chitosan and DGB–chitosan–gelatin composite, which were prepared in the laboratory, were analysed for their physicochemical properties by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies.

  10. Orchestration of bone remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moester, Martiene Johanna Catharina

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, a balance exists between bone formation and resorption. Disruption of this balance can lead to higher or lower bone mass, and disease such as osteoporosis. Treatment for osteoporosis generally inhibits bone resorption, but does not rebuild bone to a healthy strength. More kno

  11. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  12. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  13. Bone Health and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

  14. Role of bone biopsy in renal osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Badr Wisam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal osteodystrophy (ROD, the abnormal bone histology that occurs in the context of kidney disease, is a disease spectrum and not a uniform progressive bone disease. It is an important component of the broad disturbances of bone and mineral metabolism associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD. There are multiple pathogenetic factors which contribute to the histological abnormalities seen on bone biopsy. The patients with ROD are rarely symp-tomatic in the early stages of CKD. It is also noteworthy that the clinical manifestations are usually preceded by biochemical changes that are insidious and subtle. This makes it difficult for the clinician to suspect the presence of bone and mineral metabolism abnormalities without direct testing. The serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels are usually normal until late in the course of CKD. The main screening test for abnormal bone and mineral metabolism is the measurement of parathyroid hormone which is also somewhat delayed. The clinical signs and symptoms are also challenging to interpret because of their slow and non-specific nature which may include vague, ill-defined, bone aches and pains, and muscle weakness. The gold standard for diagnosis of ROD is bone biopsy with mineralized bone histology after double tetracycline labeling, iron staining and aluminum staining. The currently used histomorphometric descriptions of bone histology are not well integrated clinically and a new nomenclature that is clinically more relevant and useful has been proposed. Additional studies are required to define the spectrum of ROD in the current therapeutic era, and to find clinically useful non-invasive biomarkers to improve the treatment and monitoring of the abnormal bone in the setting of CKD.

  15. Interesting bone scans - unusual findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, M.; Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B. [Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-01

    A 59-year-old female with carcinoma of the colon and known liver metastatic disease was referred for bone scan to evaluate for bone metastases. Although no bone metastases were found, there was abnormal uptake noted in the liver corresponding to a metastatic calcified lesion. The only other findings were of degenerative disease in the cervical spine, right shoulder and small joints of the hands. A 69-year-old male with carcinoma of the prostate and right side low back pain was referred for bone scan. No focal abnormalities to suggest metastatic disease were identified; findings within the cervical spine, lumber spine and knees were presumed secondary to degenerative disease. Intermittent pain persisted and the patient was referred for a repeat bone scan six months later. Previous scan findings of degenerative disease and no metastatic disease were confirmed; however, closer inspection revealed an enlarged right kidney with significant retention of tracer in the pelvicalyceal system suggesting possible obstruction. A Retrograde pyelogram was performed, and no obvious obstruction demonstrated. As bone scan findings were very suggestive of obstruction, a DTPA scan with lasix was performed showing a dilated right collecting system with no functional obstruction. Given the degree of dilation, it is possible that the patient experiences intermittent PUJ obstruction causing his symptoms. A 33-year-old male with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and viral arthritis was referred for a bone scan. A three phase revealed increased uptake in the region of the knee and leR proximal tibia. Delayed whole body images revealed multiple focal areas of osteoblastic activity in the leR tibia. Abnormal uptake was also seen in the upper third of the leR femur. The remainder of the skeletal survey was normal. X-ray correlation of the leR tibia and femoral findings was undertaken. Combinating unilateral changes on bone scan and X-ray although very suggestive of sclerotic polyostotic

  16. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  17. Normalization of periodontal tissues in osteopetrotic mib mutant rats, treated with CSF-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

    1998-01-01

    The osteopetrotic mib mutation in rats causes defects in the skeletal bone tissue in young animals. These defects, i.e. slow bone remodelling, changes in both crystallinity and mineral content, are transient and undergo normalization, even without any treatment in 6-wk-old animals. Treatment with CSF-1 (colony stimulating factor-1) accelerates the normalization process in skeletal bones. The periodontal tissues around the apices of incisors show abnormalities caused by the slow remodelling process of the mandible bone tissue, the deficiency of osteoclasts and their abnormal morphology, as well as the disorganization of periodontal ligament fibres. In contrast to the skeletal tissues, these abnormalities would not undergo spontaneous normalization. Under treatment with colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the primitive bone trabeculae of mandible are resorbed and the normalization of the number of osteoclasts and their cytology occurs. The organization of the periodontal ligament fibres is partially restored, resembling the histological structure of the normal one.

  18. Image analysis for dental bone quality assessment using CBCT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprijanto; Epsilawati, L.; Hajarini, M. S.; Juliastuti, E.; Susanti, H.

    2016-03-01

    Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) is one of X-ray imaging modalities that are applied in dentistry. Its modality can visualize the oral region in 3D and in a high resolution. CBCT jaw image has potential information for the assessment of bone quality that often used for pre-operative implant planning. We propose comparison method based on normalized histogram (NH) on the region of inter-dental septum and premolar teeth. Furthermore, the NH characteristic from normal and abnormal bone condition are compared and analyzed. Four test parameters are proposed, i.e. the difference between teeth and bone average intensity (s), the ratio between bone and teeth average intensity (n) of NH, the difference between teeth and bone peak value (Δp) of NH, and the ratio between teeth and bone of NH range (r). The results showed that n, s, and Δp have potential to be the classification parameters of dental calcium density.

  19. Bone marrow invasion in multiple myeloma and metastatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, J C; Luna, A

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is the imaging study of choice for the management of bone marrow disease. MRI sequences enable us to integrate structural and functional information for detecting, staging, and monitoring the response the treatment of multiple myeloma and bone metastases in the spine. Whole-body MRI has been incorporated into different guidelines as the technique of choice for managing multiple myeloma and metastatic bone disease. Normal physiological changes in the yellow and red bone marrow represent a challenge in analyses to differentiate clinically significant findings from those that are not clinically significant. This article describes the findings for normal bone marrow, variants, and invasive processes in multiple myeloma and bone metastases.

  20. Multiscale Modeling of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    DISEASE Both age and disease can affect the structure of bone, the effects of which are often similar. The most common bone disease is osteoporosis ... Osteoporosis is a disease that results in reduced bone mass and density. This reduction of bone mass and density has a greater impact on trabecular...Bone loss in females is linked to a decrease in estrogen ; the decrease of estrogen associated with menopause increases osteoclast activity [89]. This

  1. New insights to the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bone phenotype and in dioxin-induced modulation of bone microarchitecture and material properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlin, Maria, E-mail: maria.herlin@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Finnilä, Mikko A.J., E-mail: mikko.finnila@oulu.fi [Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Zioupos, Peter, E-mail: p.zioupos@cranfield.ac.uk [Biomechanics Laboratories, Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Cranfield University, Shrivenham SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Aula, Antti, E-mail: antti.aula@gmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland); Risteli, Juha, E-mail: juha.risteli@ppshp.fi [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Miettinen, Hanna M., E-mail: hanna.miettinen@crl.com [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Jämsä, Timo, E-mail: timo.jamsa@oulu.fi [Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Tuukkanen, Juha, E-mail: juha.tuukkanen@oulu.fi [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Korkalainen, Merja, E-mail: merja.korkalainen@thl.fi [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Håkansson, Helen, E-mail: Helen.Hakansson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Viluksela, Matti, E-mail: matti.viluksela@thl.fi [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    Bone is a target for high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, such as dioxins. Although bone morphology, mineral density and strength are sensitive endpoints of dioxin toxicity, less is known about effects on bone microarchitecture and material properties. This study characterizes TCDD-induced modulations of bone tissue, and the role of AHR in dioxin-induced bone toxicity and for normal bone phenotype. Six AHR-knockout (Ahr{sup −/−}) and wild-type (Ahr{sup +/+}) mice of both genders were exposed to TCDD weekly for 10 weeks, at a total dose of 200 μg/kg bw. Bones were examined with micro-computed tomography, nanoindentation and biomechanical testing. Serum levels of bone remodeling markers were analyzed, and the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation was profiled using PCR array. In Ahr{sup +/+} mice, TCDD-exposure resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner and more porous cortical bone, and a more compact trabecular bone compartment. Bone remodeling markers and altered expression of a number of osteogenesis related genes indicated imbalanced bone remodeling. Untreated Ahr{sup −/−} mice displayed a slightly modified bone phenotype as compared with untreated Ahr{sup +/+} mice, while TCDD exposure caused only a few changes in bones of Ahr{sup −/−} mice. Part of the effects of both TCDD-exposure and AHR-deficiency were gender dependent. In conclusion, exposure of adult mice to TCDD resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner cortical bone, mechanically weaker bones and most notably, increased trabecular bone volume fraction in Ahr{sup +/+} mice. AHR is involved in bone development of a normal bone phenotype, and is crucial for manifestation of TCDD-induced bone alterations. - Highlights: • TCDD disrupts bone remodeling resulting in altered cortical and trabecular bone. • In trabecular bone an anabolic effect is observed. • Cortical bone is thinner, more porous, harder, stiffer and mechanically weaker. • AHR ablation

  2. Parathyroid and bone imaging in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Rui-Sen; LU Han-Kui; LUO Quan-Yong; CHEN Li-Bo; MA Ji-Xiao

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal derangements occur quite often in patient with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). We investigated parathyroid and bone imagings in 59 cases of pathologically proven PHPT. Forty-nine cases were pathologically proven parathyroid adenomas; 8 presented hyperplasia and the other 2 were adenocarcinomas. Parathyroid imaging (early phase imaging, EPI) was conducted at 30 min after injecting 740~925MBq 99mTc-MIBI and 2~3h later (delayed phase imaging, DPI) separately. The following thyroid imagings were performed at the same posture 10 min after intravenous injection of 74~111MBq 99mTcO4-. The 99mTc- MIBI subtraction imaging data were obtained by subtracting thyroid imaging from that of DPI. Among 49 cases of proven hyperparathyroid adenoma 45 yielded positive imagings. Eight cases with hyperplasia gave negative results. The results were positive in 2 cases of parathyroid adenocarcinoma. Results of 99mTc-MDP/bone imaging: 35 cases of hyperparathyroid adenocarcinoma (disease duration 1-6 months) showed normal bone images, while 14 cases showed superscan images, course being 4-12 months. Bone imaging for 2 cases of adenocarcinoma showed multiple, radioactive aggregated foci (brown tumor imaging); course lasting 10-24 months. The results of bone imaging in 8 cases of hyperplasia/ hyperparathyroidism were normal. It was concluded that diagnostic accuracy for parathyroid was 79.6% and for parathyroid adenoma was 91.8%, and the technique has no diagnostic value for hyperplasia. The 99mTc-MDP / bone imaging results for PHPT can be classified into three categories, i.e. normal, superscan and brown tumor. The imaging results correlated well with the different categories and degrees of bone damage, the duration of clinical course and the pathological types. Therefore, it's important to use bone imaging data in association with therapy to reflect the stage and progress of PHPT.

  3. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  4. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  5. Risk factors for developing mineral bone disease in phenylketonuric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirás, Alicia; Bóveda, M Dolores; Leis, María R; Mera, Antonio; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luís; Fernández-Lorenzo, José R; Fraga, José M; Couce, María L

    2013-03-01

    There is a compromised bone mass in phenylketonuria patients compared with normal population, but the mechanisms responsible are still a matter of investigation. In addition, tetrahydrobiopterin therapy is a new option for a significant proportion of these patients and the prevalence of mineral bone disease (MBD) in these patients is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study including 43 phenylketonuric patients. Bone densitometry, nutritional assessment, physical activity questionnaire, biochemical parameters, and molecular study were performed in all patients. Patients were stratified by phenotype, age and type of treatment. The MBD prevalence in phenylketonuria was 14%. Osteopenic and osteoporotic (n=6 patients) had an average daily natural protein intake significantly lower than the remaining (n=37) patients with PKU (14.33 ± 8.95 g vs 21.25 ± 20.85 g). Besides, a lower body mass index was found. There were no statistical differences in physical activity level, calcium, phosphorus and fat intake, and in phenylalanine, vitamin D, paratohormone, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid blood levels. Mutational spectrum was found in up to 30 different PAH genotypes and no relationship was established among genotype and development of MBD. None of the twelve phenylketonuric patients treated with tetrahydrobiopterin (27.9%), for an average of 7.1 years, developed MBD. Natural protein intake and blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid were significantly higher while calcium intake was lower in these patients. This study shows that the decrease in natural protein intake can play an important role in MBD development in phenylketonuric patients. Therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin allows a more relaxed protein diet, which is associated with better bone mass.

  6. Bone marrow granulomas in infiltrating lobular breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kettle, P.; Allen, D C

    1997-01-01

    A 50 year old woman with a history of infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma presented with back pain. Bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging were not conclusive. A bone marrow aspirate appeared normal. A routine trephine biopsy specimen showed granulomas but no obvious infiltration by carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with epithelial markers demonstrated carcinoma cells in the trephine specimen. This case illustrates the difficulty of detecting infiltrating lobular carcinoma in bone m...

  7. Morphological Study of Wormian Bones in Dried Human Skulls

    OpenAIRE

    Divyesh Patel; Ketan Chauhan; Dhananjay Patil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wormian bones may be defined as a those accidental bones found in the cranium having no regular relation to their normal ossification centre. They are assocated with cranial and central nervous system abnormalities. Knowledge of these bones is important for anthropo-logists, forensic experts, radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons to avoid misleading for multiple fractures of the skull. Materials and Methods: Adult dry human skulls (n= 27) of unknown age and sex availablei...

  8. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF ARTHROSCOPY ASSISTED ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION USING BONE PATELLAR TENDON BONE AUTOGRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2015-04-01

    cruciate ligament reconstruction with Bone Patellar tendon Bone autograft is excellent too good. The functional outcome of arthroscopy assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with Bone Patellar tendon Bone autograft is excellent to good and allows the patients to return to pre injury level of activity.

  9. On the Methods for Calculating Annual Allowable Cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Sokolov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crisis in supplying regions and the country related to available forest resources and low profitability of forest sector, as a whole, is an indicator of failure of the existing model of forest management and forest use organization in Russia at the present time. Many Russian regions, which are traditionally considered as forest industrial territories, face the challenge of lack of economically accessible forests. The forests are decreasing against a background of under exploitation of the annual allowable cut. This situation occurs in Siberia as well. In many cases, using calculated allowable cut will result in unsustainable harvest levels and a future decrease of accessible forest resources. Thus, the statement that «a volume of wood resource utilization is determined by allowable cut represented the scientifically grounded norm of sustainable forest use» is considered as no more than the declarative proposition. Modeling the normal forest, and using a formula of allowable cut calculation estimated for some decades based on the modeling, is totally unreliable and unreal. The long-term forecast should use analog methods, but it will hardly be sufficiently accurate and adequate to set norms. In order to estimate ecological and economic accessibility of forest resources, an algorithm was made, and a method and model were developed. This model is based on GIS-database and makes it possible to estimate accessibility of forest resources and to map it as well. The conclusion on necessity to determine annual allowable cut in two varieties was drawn following the procedures for calculating annual allowable cut. The first variety is silvicultural (according the currently used methods and the other one is economically accessible allowable cut, which could provide economic effective use of tradable mature wood, taking in to account ecological and economic accessibility of forest resources.

  10. 77 FR 34218 - Clothing Allowance; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... construed to impose a restriction that VA did not intend. This document corrects that error. DATES: This... Service, Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue NW... medication would be eligible for a clothing allowance for each such appliance or medication if each...

  11. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family income does not exceed either 70 percent of the lower living standard income level or the poverty... occupation trained for and at not less than the wage specified in the agreement. (g) Travel costs. (1) The... grantee per quarter. (2) Allowances and loss of wages. Any individual or family member who is a member...

  12. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211...

  13. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  14. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241 Section 136.241 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  15. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  16. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217...

  17. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  18. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  19. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each...

  20. 22 CFR 145.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 145...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  1. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of... by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  2. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RULES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  3. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 80.22... kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. For...

  4. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 143.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  5. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  6. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22 Allowable... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining...

  7. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is...

  8. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set...

  9. Fibrous dysplasia of bone: craniofacial and dental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A B; Collins, M T; Boyce, A M

    2016-08-05

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a rare bone disease caused by postzygotic somatic activating mutations in the GNAS gene, which lead to constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase and elevated levels of cyclic AMP, which act on downstream signaling pathways and cause normal bone to be replaced with fibrous tissue and abnormal (woven) bone. The bone disease may occur in one bone (monostotic), multiple bones (polyostotic), or in combination with hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies and hyperpigmented skin lesions (in the setting of McCune-Albright Syndrome). FD is common in the craniofacial skeleton, causing significant dysmorphic features, bone pain, and dental anomalies. This review summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical findings, and treatment of FD, with an emphasis on the craniofacial and oral manifestations of the disease.

  10. Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Larussa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD and celiac disease (CD, but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed.

  11. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  12. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  13. Regulation of Bone Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Peymani, Amir; Sahmani, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX).

  14. Regulation of Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Peymani, Amir; Sahmani, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX). PMID:28367467

  15. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  16. The impact of morphology on light transport in cancellous bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margallo-Balbás, E.; Taroni, D.; Pifferi, A.; Koolstra, J.H.; Van Ruyven, L.J.; French, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, optical techniques based on diffusion approximation have demonstrated their ability to gain rich spectral information about bone. However, these methods normally assume homogeneity, while cancellous bone and marrow form a highly heterogeneous two-phase medium. This paper studies the

  17. Composite vascularized skin/bone transplantation models for bone marrow-based tolerance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Selahattin; Ulusal, Betul G; Ulusal, Ali E; Izycki, Dariusz; Siemionow, Maria

    2006-03-01

    hair. The viability of the compact bone, bone marrow and skin at 100 days posttransplant was confirmed by histologic evaluation, and bone marrow revealed active hematopoiesis. Bilateral skin/bone transplantation model may serve as an experimental tool to study new strategies in tolerance induction by altering the amount of the immunogenic load in the form of skin transplant and bone marrow delivery in the vascularized form, allowing for expedited engraftment of stem and progenitor cells.

  18. [Atraumatic bone expansion: Interest of piezo-surgery, conicals expanders and immediate implantation combination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraqui, O; Lakhssassi, N; Berrada, S; Merzouk, N

    2016-06-01

    The durability of dental implants depends on the presence of a 1mm coating bone sheath all around the fixture. Therefore, bone resorption represents a challenge for the practitioner. Bone expansion is a surgical technique that allows the management of horizontal bone atrophy. Cortical bone splitting allows for an enlargement of the residual crest by displacement of the vestibular bone flap. The immediate placement of implants secures the widening and allows for a 97% survival rate. However, bone expansion is hard to undertake in sites with high bone density. Furthermore, the use of traditional instruments increases patient's stress and the risk for an interruptive fracture during bone displacement. Non-traumatic bone expansion is one solution to this problem. The combination of piezo-surgery and conical expanders allows for a secured displacement of the selected bone flap as well as an immediate implant placement, avoiding the risk of slipping, overheating, or fracture, all within an undeniable operative comfort. Non-traumatic bone expansion is a reliable, reproducible, conservative, and economical in time and cost procedure. We describe our atraumatic bone expension and immediate implant placement technique in high bone density sites and illustrate it by a clinical case.

  19. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength assessed by HR-pQCT in adult patients with hypophosphatemic rickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Folkestad, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    at the distal radius and tibia were placed in a constant proportion to the entire length of the bone in both patients and healthy volunteers. In age- and weight-adjusted models, HR patients had significantly higher total bone cross-sectional areas (radius 36%, tibia 20%; both p ... impact of lower vBMD and trabecular number on bone strength seems to be compensated by an increase in bone diameter, resulting in HR patients having normal estimates of bone strength. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....

  20. Combinatorial Solutions to Normal Ordering of Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, P; Horzela, A; Penson, K A; Solomon, A I

    2005-01-01

    We present a combinatorial method of constructing solutions to the normal ordering of boson operators. Generalizations of standard combinatorial notions - the Stirling and Bell numbers, Bell polynomials and Dobinski relations - lead to calculational tools which allow to find explicitly normally ordered forms for a large class of operator functions.

  1. Pseudo--Normals for Signed Distance Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2003-01-01

    undertake showing that the angle weighted pseudo--normal has an important property, namely that it allows us to discriminate between points that are inside and points that are outside the mesh. This result is used for proposing a simple and efficient algorithm for computing the signed distance field from...... a mesh. Moreover, our result is an additional argument for the angle weighted pseudo--normals being the natural extension of the face normals....

  2. Realization of allowable qeneralized quantum gates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The most general duality gates were introduced by Long,Liu and Wang and named allowable generalized quantum gates (AGQGs,for short).By definition,an allowable generalized quantum gate has the form of U=YfkjsckUK,where Uk’s are unitary operators on a Hilbert space H and the coefficients ck’s are complex numbers with |Yfijo ck\\ ∧ 1 an d 1ck| <1 for all k=0,1,...,d-1.In this paper,we prove that an AGQG U=YfkZo ck∧k is realizable,i.e.there are two d by d unitary matrices W and V such that ck=W0kVk0 (0

  3. Making It Personal: Per Capita Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Tina; Hvelplund, Frede; Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The Chapter highligts the importance of introducing new, efficient schemes for mitigation of global warming. One such scheme is Personal Carbon Allowances (PCA), whereby individuals are allotted a tradable ration of CO2 emission per year.This chapter reviews the fundamentals of PCA and analyzes its...... merits and problems. The United Kingdom and Denmark have been chosen as case studies because the energy situation and the institutional setup are quite different between the two countries....

  4. The usefulness of early whole body bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Furukawa, Yohji; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    Early whole body bone scintigraphy was performed on 25 patients with prostatic cancer (15 cases with bone metastases and 10 cases without bone metastasis) to obtain anterior and posterior whole body images five minutes after administration of [sup 99m]Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate(HMDP). The results were compared with the findings of routine bone scintigraphy after three hours, and the usefulness of the above method for the diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer was evaluated. In cases in which increased activity was found in the upper and lower lumbar vertebrae by routine bone scintigraphy but no abnormality was seen by early whole body bone scintigraphy, senile degenerative bone changes such as spondylosis deformance were observed by bone radiography. In cases with multiple bone metastases, abnormal multiple accumulations were found by both early whole body bone scintigraphy and routine bone scintigraphy. In addition, in cases showing super bone scan, high accumulation in the skeletal system had already been detected by early whole body bone scintigraphy. When the courses before and after treatment in nine cases of multiple bone metastases were passaged from the results of early whole body bone scintigraphy and from changes in tumor markers (prostatic specific antigen, [gamma]-semino protein and prostatic acid phosphatase), increased activity and the appearance of new hot spots as well as an increase in tumor markers were detected by early whole body scintigraphy in three of the four advanced cases, whereas decreased accumulations and a decrease in and normalization of tumor markers were observed in five improved cases. (author).

  5. Bone Canopies in Pediatric Renal Osteodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Renata C; Levin Andersen, Thomas; Friedman, Peter A;

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is characterized by changes in bone turnover, mineralization, and volume that are brought about by alterations in bone resorption and formation. The resorptive and formative surfaces on the cancellous bone are separated from the marrow cavity by canopies...... and their association with biochemical and bone histomorphometric parameters in 106 pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients (stage 2-5) across the spectrum of ROD. Canopies in CKD patients often appeared as thickened multilayered canopies, similar to previous reports in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism....... This finding contrasts with the thin appearance reported in healthy individuals with normal kidney function. Furthermore, canopies in pediatric CKD patients showed immunoreactivity to the PTH receptor (PTHR1) as well as to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). The number of surfaces...

  6. Role of bone scan in rheumatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Young [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Rheumatic diseases can be categorized by pathology into several specific types of musculoskeletal problems, including synovitis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), enthesopathy (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis) and cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis). Skeletal radiographs have contributed to the diagnosis of these articular diseases, and some disease entities need typical radiographic changes as a factor of the diagnostic criteria. However, they sometimes show normal radiographic findings in the early stage of disease, when there is demineralization of less than 30-50%. Bone scans have also been used in arthritis, but not widely because the findings are nonspecific and it is thought that bone scans do not add significant information to routine radiography. Bone scans do however play a different role than simple radiography, and it is a complementary imaging method in the course of management of arthritis. The image quality of bone scans can be improved by obtaining regional views and images under al pin-hole collimator, and through a variety of scintigraphic techniques including the three phase bone scan and bone SPECT. Therefore, bone scans could improve the diagnostic value, and answer multiple clinical questions, based on the pathophysiology of various forms of arthritis.

  7. Carbon nanohorns allow acceleration of osteoblast differentiation via macrophage activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Eri; Miyako, Eijiro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ushijima, Natsumi; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Russier, Julie; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the proof-of-concept on the osteoblast differentiation capacity by CNHs will allow future studies focused on CNHs as ideal therapeutic materials for bone regeneration.Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the

  8. Long bone histology of the subterranean rodent Bathyergus suillus (Bathyergidae): ontogenetic pattern of cortical bone thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Sanhueza, Germán; Chinsamy, Anusuya

    2017-02-01

    Patterns of bone development in mammals are best known from terrestrial and cursorial groups, but there is a considerable gap in our understanding of how specializations for life underground affect bone growth and development. Likewise, studies of bone microstructure in wild populations are still scarce, and they often include few individuals and tend to be focused on adults. For these reasons, the processes generating bone microstructural variation at intra- and interspecific levels are not fully understood. This study comprehensively examines the bone microstructure of an extant population of Cape dune molerats, Bathyergus suillus (Bathyergidae), the largest subterranean mammal endemic to the Western Cape of South Africa. The aim of this study is to investigate the postnatal bone growth of B. suillus using undecalcified histological sections (n = 197) of the femur, humerus, tibia-fibula, ulna and radius, including males and females belonging to different ontogenetic and reproductive stages (n = 42). Qualitative histological features demonstrate a wide histodiversity with thickening of the cortex mainly resulting from endosteal and periosteal bone depositions, whilst there is scarce endosteal resorption and remodeling throughout ontogeny. This imbalanced bone modeling allows the tissues deposited during ontogeny to remain relatively intact, thus preserving an excellent record of growth. The distribution of the different bone tissues observed in the cortex depends on ontogenetic status, anatomical features (e.g. muscle attachment structures) and location on the bone (e.g. anterior or lateral). The type of bone microstructure and modeling is discussed in relation to digging behavior, reproduction and physiology of this species. This study is the first histological assessment describing the process of cortical thickening in long bones of a fossorial mammal.

  9. What Is Bone Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... start in bone, muscle, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, fat tissue, as well as some other tissues. They can develop anywhere in the body. There are several different types of bone tumors. Their names are based on ...

  10. Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be the most common benign bone tumor, accounting for 35% to 40% of all benign bone ... imaging scans. Doctors may also request computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to ...

  11. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 29. Maes C, Kronenberg HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, ...

  12. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  13. Experimental xenoimplantation of antlerogenic cells into mandibular bone lesions in rabbits: two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielski, Marek; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Zabel, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr; Kuryszko, Jan; Izykowska, Ilona; Zatoński, Maciej; Bochnia, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Different types of cells require activation, and take part in annual, dynamic growth of deer antlers. Stem cells play the most important role in this process. This report shows the results of a two-year long observation of xenogenic implant of antlerogenic stem cells (cell line MIC-1). The cells were derived from growing antler of a deer (Cervus elaphus), seeded onto Spongostan and placed in postoperative lesions of mandibular bones of 15 experimental rabbits. The healing process observed in the implantation sites in all rabbits was normal, and no local inflammatory response was ever observed. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed after 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 months, and confirmed the participation of xenogenic cells in the regeneration processes, as well as a lack of rejection of the implants. The deficiencies in the bones were replaced by newly formed, thick fibrous bone tissue that underwent mineralization and was later remodelled into lamellar bone. The results of the experiment with rabbits allow us to believe that antlerogenic cells could be used in reconstruction of bone tissues in other species as well.

  14. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Witkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8–12 months and life expectancy is ∼5–6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23 that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethical permission was given under the UK Home Office guidelines and the Veterinary Surgeons Act. X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (microCT was undertaken on the left and right scapula, humerus and femur from each animal to ascertain bone local thickness. Images were also used to undertake manual and automated bone measurements, volumes and surface areas, identify and describe nutrient, supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina. Statistical analysis between groups was carried out using ANOVA with post-hoc testing. Our data mapped a number of dimensions, and mean and maximum bone thickness of the scapula, humerus and femur in guinea pigs aged 0–1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6 months, 6 months–1 year and 1–4 years. Bone dimensions, growth rates and local bone thicknesses differed between ages and between the scapula, humerus and femur. The microCT and imaging software technology showed very distinct differences between the relative local bone thickness across the structure of the bones. Only one bone showed a singular nutrient foramen, every other bone had between 2 and 5, and every nutrient canal ran in an oblique direction. In contrast to other species, a supratrochlear foramen was observed in every humerus whereas the supracondylar foramen was always absent. Our data showed the bone local thickness, bone structure and measurements of guinea pig bones from birth to 4 years old. Importantly it showed that bone development continued after 1 year, the point

  15. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Agata; Alibhai, Aziza; Hughes, Chloe; Price, Jennifer; Klisch, Karl; Sturrock, Craig J; Rutland, Catrin S

    2014-01-01

    The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8-12 months and life expectancy is ∼5-6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23) that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethical permission was given under the UK Home Office guidelines and the Veterinary Surgeons Act. X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (microCT) was undertaken on the left and right scapula, humerus and femur from each animal to ascertain bone local thickness. Images were also used to undertake manual and automated bone measurements, volumes and surface areas, identify and describe nutrient, supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina. Statistical analysis between groups was carried out using ANOVA with post-hoc testing. Our data mapped a number of dimensions, and mean and maximum bone thickness of the scapula, humerus and femur in guinea pigs aged 0-1 month, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6 months-1 year and 1-4 years. Bone dimensions, growth rates and local bone thicknesses differed between ages and between the scapula, humerus and femur. The microCT and imaging software technology showed very distinct differences between the relative local bone thickness across the structure of the bones. Only one bone showed a singular nutrient foramen, every other bone had between 2 and 5, and every nutrient canal ran in an oblique direction. In contrast to other species, a supratrochlear foramen was observed in every humerus whereas the supracondylar foramen was always absent. Our data showed the bone local thickness, bone structure and measurements of guinea pig bones from birth to 4 years old. Importantly it showed that bone development continued after 1 year, the point at which most guinea pigs have

  16. Androgens and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Boonen, Steven; Lindberg, Marie K; Bouillon, Roger; Ohlsson, Claes

    2004-06-01

    Loss of estrogens or androgens increases the rate of bone remodeling by removing restraining effects on osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and also causes a focal imbalance between resorption and formation by prolonging the lifespan of osteoclasts and shortening the lifespan of osteoblasts. Conversely, androgens, as well as estrogens, maintain cancellous bone mass and integrity, regardless of age or sex. Although androgens, via the androgen receptor (AR), and estrogens, via the estrogen receptors (ERs), can exert these effects, their relative contribution remains uncertain. Recent studies suggest that androgen action on cancellous bone depends on (local) aromatization of androgens into estrogens. However, at least in rodents, androgen action on cancellous bone can be directly mediated via AR activation, even in the absence of ERs. Androgens also increase cortical bone size via stimulation of both longitudinal and radial growth. First, androgens, like estrogens, have a biphasic effect on endochondral bone formation: at the start of puberty, sex steroids stimulate endochondral bone formation, whereas they induce epiphyseal closure at the end of puberty. Androgen action on the growth plate is, however, clearly mediated via aromatization in estrogens and interaction with ERalpha. Androgens increase radial growth, whereas estrogens decrease periosteal bone formation. This effect of androgens may be important because bone strength in males seems to be determined by relatively higher periosteal bone formation and, therefore, greater bone dimensions, relative to muscle mass at older age. Experiments in mice again suggest that both the AR and ERalpha pathways are involved in androgen action on radial bone growth. ERbeta may mediate growth-limiting effects of estrogens in the female but does not seem to be involved in the regulation of bone size in males. In conclusion, androgens may protect men against osteoporosis via maintenance of cancellous bone mass and

  17. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  18. Quality of Bone Healing: Perspectives and Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    uniquely restricted to appositional growth; therefore, all activities occur on bone surfaces, either the outer periosteal or marrow- oriented...Standardized scoring systems such as the radio- graphic union score for tibial fractures39 allow for a reduction in the variability of assessing fracture...O’Connor B, Kenwright J. Measuring stiffness can define healing of tibial fractures. J Bone Joint Surg 1994; 76-B: 389–94. Guda et al. Bone healing

  19. Application of the digital volume correlation technique for the measurement of displacement and strain fields in bone: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bryant C; Perilli, Egon; Reynolds, Karen J

    2014-03-21

    Digital volume correlation (DVC) provides experimental measurements of displacements and strains throughout the interior of porous materials such as trabecular bone. It can provide full-field continuum- and tissue-level measurements, desirable for validation of finite element models, by comparing image volumes from subsequent µCT scans of a sample in unloaded and loaded states. Since the first application of DVC for measurement of strain in bone tissue, subsequent reports of its application to trabecular bone cores up to whole bones have appeared within the literature. An "optimal" set of procedures capable of precise and accurate measurements of strain, however, still remains unclear, and a systematic review focussing explicitly on the increasing number of DVC algorithms applied to bone or structurally similar materials is currently unavailable. This review investigates the effects of individual parameters reported within individual studies, allowing to make recommendations for suggesting algorithms capable of achieving high accuracy and precision in displacement and strain measurements. These recommendations suggest use of subsets that are sufficiently large to encompass unique datasets (e.g. subsets of 500 µm edge length when applied to human trabecular bone cores, such as cores 10mm in height and 5mm in diameter, scanned at 15 µm voxel size), a shape function that uses full affine transformations (translation, rotation, normal strain and shear strain), the robust normalized cross-correlation coefficient objective function, and high-order interpolation schemes. As these employ computationally burdensome algorithms, researchers need to determine whether they have the necessary computational resources or time to adopt such strategies. As each algorithm is suitable for parallel programming however, the adoption of high precision techniques may become more prevalent in the future.

  20. [Numerical variants and congenital fusions of carpal bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senecail, B; Perruez, H; Colin, D

    2007-03-01

    The number of carpal bones may be increased or decreased by the fact of anatomical variants or true congenital anomalies. Numerical increment arises from additional or from split bones. Over twenty accessory carpal bones have been described but the commonest are the os centrale carpi, the os radiale externum, the triangular bone and the styloideum bone. Additional carpal bones usually result from a failure of fusion of their ossification centers. A congenital origin is not clearly established for all these ossicles. The scaphoid and lunate may split into two or three bones and several cases of bipartite hamulus of the hamatum have been reported. A carpus with only seven bones results from the congenital absence of a normal bone, which mainly affects the scaphoid, lunate and triquetrum, or from a synostosis between two carpal bones, usually the lunate and triquetrum. Congenital fusions originate from an absence of joint cavitation into the embryo and chondrification of the joint interzone. Numerical carpal variants are uncommon as independent entities but occur with a relative high frequency in association with complex malformations of the hand. These anomalies are detectable on plain radiographs of the wrist, but CT-scan and MR-Imaging are useful to differentiate bipartite and accessory bones from carpal fractures or posttraumatic injuries, carpal fusions having to be distinguished from bony ankylosis.

  1. Morphometrical variations of the carpal bones in thoroughbreds and ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunnabi, A H; Ahmed, Y A; Philip, C J; Davies, H M S

    2012-04-01

    There is scant morphological data for equine carpal bones despite the frequent pathology in Thoroughbreds (TB). This study aimed to identify morphological and morphometrical variations and similarities in carpal bones between and within TB and Ponies (Po). Carpal bones from nine TB and 13 Po were prepared by boiling and drying. Lateromedial width, dorsopalmar depth, proximodistal height, relative density and volume of each bone were measured. Normalized measurements of the radial (Cr) and third (C3) carpal bones were significantly different in all dimensions, and there were significant variations in relative sizes of articular facets of the ulnar (Cu), C3 and fourth (C4) carpal bones between the groups. Bilaterally, the proportionate volume of the intermediate carpal bone (Ci) was significantly greater in Po while that of Cu and C4 were significantly greater in TB. Relative density of most bones was greater in Po. The palmar tuberosity of the proximal surface of Ci and palmar tubercle on the palmar surface of Cu were more prominent and relatively larger in TB. In the second carpal bone (C2), the distal extent of the proximal articular surface on the palmar surface was greater in Po. The inconsistent first carpal bone (C1) was relatively larger in Po. Morphometrical similarities and differences in carpal bones between TB and Po indicate potential effects of selection for body size or fast exercise.

  2. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with core decompression and bone grafting in the repair of osteonecrosis of femoral head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yang; Wang Nan; Yang Li-feng; Ma Ji; Li Zhi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Core decompression alone for osteonecrosis of femoral head easily causes fovea of femoral head and colapse of inner microstructure. Therefore, autologous bone is needed for filing and supporting. Moreover, bone marrow stem cel transplantation can decrease the incidence of femoral head colapse. OBJECTIVE:To discuss the clinical effects of core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels for osteonecrosis of femoral head. METHODS: A total of 33 patients were treated by core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels in the Fourth Department of Bone Surgery, Central Hospital Affiliated to Shenyang Medical Colege in China from December 2012 to May 2013. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After the treatment by core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels, Harris hip function score increased and pain disappeared in patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head. They could do various labors. Radiographs or CT examination displayed normal femoral head in 30 hips, accounting for 79%. Pain significantly reduced. Normal or slight limp walking was found in 15 hips, accounting for 40%. There were 35 hips in patients, whose walking distance was extended, accounting for 92%. 24 hips dysfunction was improved markedly, accounting for 63%. Al results suggested that core decompression and bone grafting combined with autotransplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cels improved the local blood supply of femoral head, and played a positive role in promoting the necrotic bone absorption and bone repairing.

  3. Simulating Bone Loss in Microgravity Using Mathematical Formulations of Bone Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Most mathematical models of bone remodeling are used to simulate a specific bone disease, by disrupting the steady state or balance in the normal remodeling process, and to simulate a therapeutic strategy. In this work, the ability of a mathematical model of bone remodeling to simulate bone loss as a function of time under the conditions of microgravity is investigated. The model is formed by combining a previously developed set of biochemical, cellular dynamics, and mechanical stimulus equations in the literature with two newly proposed equations; one governing the rate of change of the area of cortical bone tissue in a cross section of a cylindrical section of bone and one governing the rate of change of calcium in the bone fluid. The mechanical stimulus comes from a simple model of stress due to a compressive force on a cylindrical section of bone which can be reduced to zero to mimic the effects of skeletal unloading in microgravity. The complete set of equations formed is a system of first order ordinary differential equations. The results of selected simulations are displayed and discussed. Limitations and deficiencies of the model are also discussed as well as suggestions for further research.

  4. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  5. Bone and muscle structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise on a new stepper device in 21 days tail-suspended rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L W; Blottner, D; Luan, H Q; Salanova, M; Wang, C; Niu, H J; Felsenberg, D; Fan, Y B

    2013-06-01

    Human performance in microgravity is characterized by reversed skeletal muscle actions in terms of active vs. passive mode contractions of agonist/antagonist groups that may challenge principal biodynamics (biomechanical forces translated from muscle to bone) of the skeletal muscle-bone unit. We investigated active vs. passive muscle motions of the unloaded hindlimb skeletal muscle-bone unit in the 21 days tail-suspended (TS) rat using a newly designed stepper exercise device. The regimen included both active mode motions (TSA) and passive mode motions (TSP). A TS-only group and a normal cage group (CON) served as positive or negative controls. The muscle and bone decrements observed in TS-only group were not seen in the other groups except TSP. Active mode motions supported femur and tibia bone quality (5% BMD, 10% microtrabecular BV/TV, Tb.Th., Tb.N. parameters), whole soleus muscle/myofiber size and type II distribution, 20% increased sarcolemma NOS1 immunosignals vs. CON, with 25% more hybrid fiber formation (remodeling sign) for all TS groups. We propose a new custom-made stepper device to be used in the TS rat model that allows for detailed investigations of the unique biodynamic properties of the muscle-bone unit during resistive-load exercise countermeasure trials on the ground or in microgravity.

  6. Use of Bioresorbable Hydrogels and Genetic Engineering to Accomplish Rapid Stabilization and Healing in Segmental Long Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    also suggests that the lymphatics play a critical role in fracture repair. With normal healing of tibial fracture, foci of ossification are...Effectiveness in segmental tibial defects in rats. Tissue Eng 12:489–497. Finkemeier CG. 2002. Bone-grafting and bone-graft substitutes. J Bone Joint...Vogelin E, Brekke JH, Jones NF. 2000. Heterotopic and orthotopic bone formation with a vascularized periosteal flap, a matrix and rh-BMP- 2 (bone

  7. Oxytocin and bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Zallone, Alberta

    2014-01-01

    One of the most meaningful results recently achieved in bone research has been to reveal that the pituitary hormones have profound effect on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis has become one of the major topics in skeletal physiology. Here, we discuss the relevant evidence about the posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin (OT), previously thought to exclusively regulate parturition and breastfeeding, which has recently been established to directly regulate bone mass. Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts express OT receptors (OTR), whose stimulation enhances bone mass. Consistent with this, mice deficient in OT or OTR display profoundly impaired bone formation. In contrast, bone resorption remains unaffected in OT deficiency because, even while OT stimulates the genesis of osteoclasts, it inhibits their resorptive function. Furthermore, in addition to its origin from the pituitary, OT is also produced by bone marrow osteoblasts acting as paracrine-autocrine regulator of bone formation modulated by estrogens. In turn, the power of estrogen to increase bone mass is OTR-dependent. Therefore, OTR−/− mice injected with 17β-estradiol do not show any effects on bone formation parameters, while the same treatment increases bone mass in wild-type mice. These findings together provide evidence for an anabolic action of OT in regulating bone mass and suggest that bone marrow OT may enhance the bone-forming action of estrogen through an autocrine circuit. This established new physiological role for OT in the maintenance of skeletal integrity further suggests the potential use of this hormone for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25209411

  8. 76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . Dated: March 21, 2011. Janet Dobbs, Director, Office of Travel... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA... effective March 24, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Ed Davis, Office of Governmentwide Policy...

  9. Three-dimensional Microarchitecture of Adolescent Cancellous Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Hvid, I; Overgaard, Søren

    regarding three-dimensional (3-D) microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone. The objective of this study was to investigate 3-D microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone, and compared them with adult cancellous bone, thus seeking more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations...... of lateral condyle in the young adult. There were no statistical significances in the mechanical properties apart from the Young’s modulus of adolescent in anterior-posterior direction was significantly lower than the other groups. DISCUSSION: This is the first study on the 3-D microarchitecture of human...... of Orthopaedics & Traumatology and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Odense and Aarhus University Hospitals, Denmark. RESULTS: Three-dimensional reconstructions of cancellous bone from micro-CT imaging are shown in Figure 1. Our data showed that trabecular separation was significantly greater in the adolescence...

  10. Quick and inexpensive paraffin-embedding method for dynamic bone formation analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Amy; Irwin, Regina; Miller, Josselyn; Horan, Daniel J.; Robling, Alexander G.; McCabe, Laura R.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a straightforward method that uses paraffin-embedded bone for undemineralized thin sectioning, which is amenable to subsequent dynamic bone formation measurements. Bone has stiffer material properties than paraffin, and therefore has hereforto usually been embedded in plastic blocks, cured and sectioned with a tungsten carbide knife to obtain mineralized bone sections for dynamic bone formation measures. This process is expensive and requires special equipment, experienced personnel, and time for the plastic to penetrate the bone and cure. Our method utilizes a novel way to prepare mineralized bone that increases its compliance so that it can be embedded and easily section in paraffin blocks. The approach is simple, quick, and costs less than 10% of the price for plastic embedded bone sections. While not effective for static bone measures, this method allows dynamic bone analyses to be readily performed in laboratories worldwide which might not otherwise have access to traditional (plastic) equipment and expertise. PMID:28198415

  11. Total allowable concentrations of monomeric inorganic aluminum and hydrated aluminum silicates in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J

    2012-05-01

    Maximum contaminant levels are used to control potential health hazards posed by chemicals in drinking water, but no primary national or international limits for aluminum (Al) have been adopted. Given the differences in toxicological profiles, the present evaluation derives total allowable concentrations for certain water-soluble inorganic Al compounds (including chloride, hydroxide, oxide, phosphate and sulfate) and for the hydrated Al silicates (including attapulgite, bentonite/montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite) in drinking water. The chemistry, toxicology and clinical experience with Al materials are extensive and depend upon the particular physical and chemical form. In general, the water solubility of the monomeric Al materials depends on pH and their water solubility and gastrointestinal bioavailability are much greater than that of the hydrated Al silicates. Other than Al-containing antacids and buffered aspirin, food is the primary source of Al exposure for most healthy people. Systemic uptake of Al after ingestion of the monomeric salts is somewhat greater from drinking water (0.28%) than from food (0.1%). Once absorbed, Al accumulates in bone, brain, liver and kidney, with bone as the major site for Al deposition in humans. Oral Al hydroxide is used routinely to bind phosphate salts in the gut to control hyperphosphatemia in people with compromised renal function. Signs of chronic Al toxicity in the musculoskeletal system include a vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia (deranged membranous bone formation characterized by accumulation of the osteoid matrix and reduced mineralization, reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreased lamellar and osteoid bands with elevated Al concentrations) presenting as bone pain and proximal myopathy. Aluminum-induced bone disease can progress to stress fractures of the ribs, femur, vertebrae, humerus and metatarsals. Serum Al ≥100 µg/L has a 75-88% positive predictive value for Al bone disease. Chronic Al

  12. Bone regeneration with cultured human bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nakajima, H. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Ohgushi, H.; Ueda, Y.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Uemura, T.; Tateishi, T. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (NAIR), Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center; Enomoto, Y.; Ichijima, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology

    2001-07-01

    From 73 year old female patient, 3 ml of bone marrow was collected from the ilium. The marrow was cultured to concentrate and expand the marrow mesenchymal cells on a culture dish. The cultured cells were then subculturedeither on another culture dish or in porous areas of hydroxyapatite ceramics in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate (osteo genic medium). The subculturedtissues on the dishes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subculturedtissues in the ceramics were implanted intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Vigorous growth of spindle-shaped cells and a marked formation of bone matrix beneath the cell layers was observed on the subculture dishes by SEM. The intraperitoneally implanted ceramics with cultured tissues revealed thick layer of lamellar bone together with active osteoblasts lining in many pore areas of the ceramics after 8 weeks. The in vitro bone formations on the culture dishes and in vivo bone formation in porous ceramics were detected. These results indicate that we can assemble an in vitro bone/ceramic construct, and due to the porous framework of the ceramic, the construct has osteogenic potential similar to that of autologous cancellous bone. A significant benefit of this method is that the construct can be made with only a small amount of aspirated marrow cells from aged patients with little host morbidity. (orig.)

  13. Imaging of inflammatory and infectious diseases in the temporal bone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmerling, M.M.; Foer, B. De; Verbist, B.M.; Vyver, V. van de

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory and infectious diseases of the temporal bone are a major indication to perform high-resolution CT and MR imaging studies. Such studies allow one to evaluate the extent of the disease in the soft tissues and in the bony structures of the temporal bone. On these same imaging studies the p

  14. Bone grafting in four-corner mid-carpal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, T J; Jewell, D P A; Deshmukh, S C

    2012-01-01

    Four-corner fusion is an accepted surgical treatment for established SLAC and SNAC wrist. We describe a technique of bone grafting to be used in conjunction with any of the standard fusion techniques. A step by step, illustrated approach allows the easy placement of an autograft which is in contact with all surfaces of the bones involved in the fusion.

  15. Dry bone histology : technicalities, diagnostic value and new applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Hans Henk de

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an easy, rapid and inexpensive supplement to the well-known method of Maat et al. (2001). This new method allows for the histochemical staining of dry bone material, enhancing the visibility of important hallmarks of dry bone histomorphology. In addition, this thesis provides a

  16. Normalization in econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, James D.; Daniel F. Waggoner; Zha, Tao

    2004-01-01

    The issue of normalization arises whenever two different values for a vector of unknown parameters imply the identical economic model. A normalization does not just imply a rule for selecting which point, among equivalent ones, to call the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). It also governs the topography of the set of points that go into a small-sample confidence interval associated with that MLE. A poor normalization can lead to multimodal distributions, disjoint confidence intervals, and v...

  17. Measurements of normal inner ear on computed tomography in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ming-Ying; Shiao, Jiun-Yih; Ho, Ching-Yin; Hung, Hao-Chun

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study is to use standardized measurements of the inner ear to see whether there are subtle bony malformations in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) whose temporal bone computed tomography (CT) are grossly normal. The study includes 45 ears with congenital SNHL and grossly normal temporal bone CT scans and 45 ears with normal inner ear structures and normal hearing. Standardized measurements of the inner ear structures were made on axial temporal bone CT scans. Student's t test was performed to compare the measurements of the two groups. There were significant differences in the measurements of the bony island width of the superior semicircular canal, bony island width of the lateral semicircular canal and maximal height of cochlea between two groups (P inner ear on temporal bone CT can identify subtle abnormalities of inner ear in patients with congenital SNHL having grossly normal radiological images.

  18. Normalizers of Irreducible Subfactors

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Roger R; Wiggins, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    We consider normalizers of an irreducible inclusion $N\\subseteq M$ of $\\mathrm{II}_1$ factors. In the infinite index setting an inclusion $uNu^*\\subseteq N$ can be strict, forcing us to also investigate the semigroup of one-sided normalizers. We relate these normalizers of $N$ in $M$ to projections in the basic construction and show that every trace one projection in the relative commutant $N'\\cap $ is of the form $u^*e_Nu$ for some unitary $u\\in M$ with $uNu^*\\subseteq N$. This enables us to identify the normalizers and the algebras they generate in several situations. In particular each normalizer of a tensor product of irreducible subfactors is a tensor product of normalizers modulo a unitary. We also examine normalizers of irreducible subfactors arising from subgroup--group inclusions $H\\subseteq G$. Here the normalizers are the normalizing group elements modulo a unitary from $L(H)$. We are also able to identify the finite trace $L(H)$-bimodules in $\\ell^2(G)$ as double cosets which are also finite union...

  19. Normal cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Caroline N; Natelson Love, Marissa C; Triebel, Kristen L

    2013-11-01

    Even those who do not experience dementia or mild cognitive impairment may experience subtle cognitive changes associated with aging. Normal cognitive changes can affect an older adult's everyday function and quality of life, and a better understanding of this process may help clinicians distinguish normal from disease states. This article describes the neurocognitive changes observed in normal aging, followed by a description of the structural and functional alterations seen in aging brains. Practical implications of normal cognitive aging are then discussed, followed by a discussion of what is known about factors that may mitigate age-associated cognitive decline.

  20. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients with renal transplantation and regular hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M. Ibrahim,. Khalid H Abdel-Mageed, Magdi M El-Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD is a known complication for the uremic state antedating dialysis / renal transplantation (RTx. The issue of stabilized versus continued decrease of BMD especially on long-term basis, continues to be unresolved. Patients and Methods: !"#"hemodialysis (HD-#" $% " &'( &'(-group had been evaluated for metabolic bone changes by calcium homeostasis parameters (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase "ALP" and vitamin D "calcitriol", markers of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase "BAP", osteocalcin "OC", N-terminal propeptide of collagen type I "PINP", bone resorption markers (pyridoline "PYL" and deoxypyridoline "DPYL", and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. Also, BMD had been assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA twice, at inclusion time and * ! "" Results: comparing both groups regarding calcium homeostasis, markers of bone turnover and iPTH showed non significant difference. However, there was a significant drop of BMD (as evidenced by T-score at follow up in the HD group, compared to stabilization of T-score for the RTx-group. Furthermore, annual T-score change was significantly more in HD-group, compared to RTx-group. Results also showed that, the best marker correlating with T-score annual changes and iPTH to be PINP. Irrespective of normal calcium homeostasis parameters, low BMD is a prevalent disorder among patients on regular HD and renal transplants.Conclusion: Follow up for * ! " %+ ,- ." % """"!to continued bone loss in patients on regular HD. This could raise recommendation for calcium and calcitriol supplementation, especially in the predialysis period, early post transplantation period, and continued guided replacement for those on maintenance HD. Serum PINP showed best correlations with BMD changes and iPTH and could be considered a reliable marker reflecting bone formation in those patients. Keywords: hemodialysis, renal transplantation, markers of bone

  1. Changes in biochemical markers and bone mass after withdrawal of ibandronate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Christensen, J O; Baumann, M

    1998-01-01

    :527-533;1996). In this study, we analyzed the biochemical markers as predictors of response in bone mass during ibandronate treatment, and report withdrawal data from the last year of the study, when ibandronate was discontinued. The relative change in the biochemical markers was significantly correlated to the response...... the response in bone mass during ibandronate treatment. The bone loss that resumes after withdrawal of ibandronate treatment is of a magnitude similar to that of normal postmenopausal bone loss....

  2. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  3. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  4. Keel bone condition in laying hens: a histological evaluation of macroscopically assessed keel bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Britta; Rönchen, Swaantje; Hamann, Henning; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Distl, Ottmar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to conduct a corresponding histological analysis of 162 macroscopically assessed keel bones (1: severe, 2: moderate, 3: slight, 4: no deformity). Four layer lines were used and hens were kept in furnished cages, small group systems (both allowing more activities due to the provision of perches) and an aviary system, which fully conformed to the EU standards. Investigations were carried out in the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th laying month of two experimental trials. In 97.9% of grade 4 keel bones, no histological deviations were found, whereas in keel bones manifesting deformities of grade 1 and 2, the predominant histological observation was the incidence of fracture callus material (FCM) and new bone in the form of woven bone. FCM was also detected in 50.9% of grade 3 keel bones, whereas in 40.7%, only s-shaped deviations of keel bones were found, which were related to extended pressure loading while perching activities rather than short-duration trauma. Histological analysis showed that keel bones of grade 1 and 2 were mainly attributed to traumatic origin and therefore associated with pain experience in layers. Grade 3 keel bones manifested either FCM as a result of trauma or adaptational deformities without any evidence of a preceding fracture in response to mechanical pressure loading and were most likely not associated with pain. Therefore, histological analysis was found to be a mandatory tool when evaluating grade 3 keel bones with respect to layers'welfare. Furthermore, this analysis corroborates the findings that in aviary systems deformities of keel bones are predominantly caused by painful fractures.

  5. Bone mineral status in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Amy; Ringelheim, Julie; Feldman, Henry A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2007-02-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by a deficiency in an adrenal enzyme resulting in alterations in cortisol and aldosterone production. Bone status is affected by chronic glucocorticoid therapy and excess androgen exposure in children with CAH. This cross-sectional study enrolled participants with 21-hydroxylase deficiency from a pediatric referral center. Bone mineral density in the participants was normal when compared to age, gender and ethnicity adjusted standards, with respect to chronological age or bone age. Lean body mass was positively correlated with bone mineral content (BMC), independent of fat mass (p bone status may be explained by the differential effects of glucocorticoids on growing bone, beneficial androgen effects, or other disease specific factors.

  6. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases....... This enables MRI to detect differences between fatty, fibrotic, aplastic and hypercellular marrow in patients with haematological disease. MRI can evaluate the distribution of bone marrow disease because it has the potential for visualization of almost the entire bone marrow compartment. However, MRI is unable...... to establish the primary diagnosis in haematological bone marrow disease with diffuse hypercellular marrow. In case of insufficient biopsy, MRI can provide important differential diagnostic information as well as guidance for further biopsy attempts. MRI is a useful complement to morphological bone marrow...

  7. Microarchitectural adaptations in aging and osteoarthrotic subchondral bone tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2010-01-01

    The human skeleton optimizes its microarchitecture by elaborate adaptations to mechanical loading during development and growth. The mechanisms for adaptation involve a multistep process of cellular mechanotransduction stimulating bone modelling, and remodeling resulting in either bone formation...... into the age-related and OA-related subchondral bone adaptations.   Microarchitectural adaptation in human aging cancellous bone The precision of micro-CT measurement is excellent. Accurate 3-D micro-CT image datasets can be generated by applying an appropriate segmentation threshold. A fixed threshold may...... and the constant nature of connectivity suggest an important bone remodeling mechanism that normal aging tibia may adapt trabecular volume orientation. Namely, that the aging trabeculae align preferentially to the primary loading direction to compensate bone loss (III). Age-related changes in trabecular thickness...

  8. Diabetes, Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover, Diabetes Control, and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Starup-Linde, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone marker...

  9. Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Doube

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3 is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site that linear defects and condylar fracture occur in older Thoroughbreds and questioned whether this tissue had altered mechanical properties. We embedded bone slices in PMMA, prepared flat surfaces normal to the articular surface and studied ACC and SCB using combined quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE and nanoindentation testing: this allowed correlation of mineralisation density and tissue stiffness (E at the micron scale. We studied both normal and affected grooves, and also normal condylar regions. Large arrays of indentations could be visualised as 2-dimensional maps of E with a limit to resolution of indentation spacing, which is much larger than qBSE pixel spacing. ACC was more highly mineralised but less stiff in early linear defects than in control regions, while subchondral bone was more highly mineralised and stiffer in specimens with early linear defects than those without. Thus both ACC and SCB mineralisation may be abnormal in a class of early linear defect in 18-month-old Thoroughbred horses, and this may possibly contribute to later fracture of the Mc3 condyle.

  10. High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waldron-Lynch, F

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARY: Professional jockeys are routinely exposed to high impact trauma and sustain fractures frequently. We found that jockeys restrict their caloric intake in order to maintain regulation weights, and that bone turnover is high. There are significant health and safety implications for the racing industry. INTRODUCTION: Professional jockeys routinely sustain fractures from high impact falls. Jockeys maintain a low percentage body fat and a low body mass index (BMI) to achieve low weight targets in order to race. We evaluated dietary habits and bone metabolism in jockeys. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 27 male jockeys of the 144 jockeys licensed in Ireland. Fourteen (52%) had BMD T score below -1.0, of whom 12 consented to clinical review, nutritional survey, endocrine studies, and bone turnover markers (BTM). BTM were compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 16). RESULTS: BMI was 20.6 +\\/- 1.7 kg\\/m(2); previous fracture frequency was 3.2 +\\/- 2.0 per rider. All had normal endocrine axes. The jockeys\\' diet as determined by a 7-day dietary recall was deficient in energy, calcium, and vitamin D intake. Compared with the control group, the jockey group had evidence of increased bone turnover. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the professional jockeys in Ireland have low-normal BMD, low BMI, and high bone turnover that may result from weight and dietary restrictions. These factors seem to have a deleterious effect on their bone health and predispose the jockeys to a high fracture risk that should be remediated.

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and “nutrient tasks and interactions” (ID 574), increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention, (ID 606), and maintenance of normal bone (ID 607) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). The Panel considers that n-3 PUFAs are sufficiently characterised....... claims in relation to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and “nutrient tasks and interactions”, increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention, and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...

  12. Bovine Calcined Bone for the Repair of Radial Defect in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing segmental bone defect and seek a new artificial bone substitute material, the bovine calcined bone (450℃,32 h) was implanted into the 10-mm middle radial defect of rabbits with tricalcium phosphate ceramics as the control. By using the methods of histology, radiology and biomechanics their osteogenic ability were measured. It was found that the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing bone defect was better than that of tricalcium phosphate ceramics. The histological Nilsson′s scores at 3rd, 5th, 9th week after operation were significantly increased (P<0.01). At 12th week after operation the bending strength of radius in experimental group was much higher than that of control group and turned normal. It was suggested that bovine calcined bone is an ideal artificial bone substitute material with good ability of repairing segmental bone defect and some degree of mechanical strength.

  13. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-encapsulated grafted-poly-lactic acid-polycaprolactone nanoparticles promote bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jun; Ding, Lifeng; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of a novel tissue-engineered bone in repairing bone defects, using poly-lactic-acid-polycaprolactone (PLA-PCL) scaffolding seeded with PEG-bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-transfected rBMSCs (rabbit bone marrow stromal cells). The rBMSCs were transfected with PEG/BMP-2 or liposome/BMP-2, and then implanted into a PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bone. The protein level of BMP-2 was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to measure the amount of BMP-2 secreted in the culture media. The mRNA level of BMP-2 and osteocalcin was assayed quantitatively by real-time PCR. The middle portion of the bilateral radius in New Zealand rabbits was excised and implanted with tissue-engineered bone, and the modified areas were monitored by X-ray, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry staining of BMP-2. PEG-BMP-2 nanoparticles (NPs) and BMP-2-loaded PEG-PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bones were successfully constructed. The novel PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/DNA complex was a superior option for transfecting BMP-2 in rBMSCs compared to normal liposomes Moreover, the mRNA level of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase activity was also elevated upon transfection of BMP-2-encapsulated NPs. In vivo implants with BMP-2-carried tissue-engineered bone exhibited dramatic augmentation of BMP-2 and effective bone formation in the rabbit ectopic model. The PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/BMP-2 complex had an advantageous effect on bone repair, which provided an important theoretic basis for potential clinical treatments.

  15. Fundamental ratios and logarithmic periodicity in human limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietak, Alexis; Ma, Siyan; Beck, Caroline W; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-05-01

    Fundamental mathematical relationships are widespread in biology yet there is little information on this topic with regard to human limb bone lengths and none related to human limb bone volumes. Forty-six sets of ipsilateral upper and lower limb long bones and third digit short bones were imaged by computed tomography. Maximum bone lengths were measured manually and individual bone volumes calculated from computed tomography images using a stereologic method. Length ratios of femur : tibia and humerus : ulna were remarkably similar (1.21 and 1.22, respectively) and varied little (bone volume ratios varied much more than upper limb ratios. The relationship between bone length and volume was found to be well described by power laws, with R(2) values ranging from 0.983 to 0.995. The most striking finding was a logarithmic periodicity in bone length moving from distal to proximal up the limb (upper limb λ = 0.72, lower limb λ = 0.93). These novel data suggest that human limb bone lengths and volumes follow fundamental and highly conserved mathematical relationships, which may contribute to our understanding of normal and disordered growth, stature estimation, and biomechanics.

  16. Nutrition in bone health revisited: a story beyond calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilich, J Z; Kerstetter, J E

    2000-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a complex, multi-factorial condition characterized by reduced bone mass and impaired micro-architectural structure, leading to an increased susceptibility to fractures. Although most of the bone strength (including bone mass and quality) is genetically determined, many other factors (nutritional, environmental and life-style) also influence bone. Nutrition is important modifiable factor in the development and maintenance of bone mass and the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Approximately 80-90% of bone mineral content is comprised of calcium and phosphorus. Other dietary components, such as protein, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, fluoride, vitamins D, A, C, and K are required for normal bone metabolism, while other ingested compounds not usually categorized as nutrients (e.g. caffeine, alcohol, phytoestrogens) may also impact bone health. Unraveling the interaction between different factors; nutritional, environmental, life style, and heredity help us to understand the complexity of the development of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. This paper reviews the role of dietary components on bone health throughout different stages of life. Each nutrient is discussed separately, however the fact that many nutrients are co-dependent and simultaneously interact with genetic and environmental factors should not be neglected. The complexity of the interactions is probably the reason why there are controversial or inconsistent findings regarding the contribution of a single or a group of nutrients in bone health.

  17. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p < 0.002) of GH on periosteal bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

  18. Bone development and its relation to fracture repair. The role of mesenchymal osteoblasts and surface osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Shapiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone development occurs by two mechanisms: intramembranous bone formation and endochondral bone formation. Bone tissue forms by eventual differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into either mesenchymal osteoblasts (MOBL, which synthesize woven bone in random orientation, or surface osteoblasts (SOBL, which synthesize bone on surfaces in a well oriented lamellar array. Bone repair uses the same formation patterns as bone development but the specific mechanism of repair is determined by the biomechanical environment provided. Bone synthesis and maintenance are highly dependent on the blood supply of bone and on cell-cell communication via the lacunar-canalicular system. Recent investigations highlight the molecular cascades leading to cell differentiation, the components of the structural proteins such as the various collagens, and tissue vascularization. The patterning of bone matrix from an initial woven to an eventual lamellar orientation is essential for bone to develop its maximum strength. This review demonstrates the repetitive nature of woven to lamellar bone formation as mediated by MOBLs and SOBLs in both normal vertebrate bones and bone repair. Repair, using endochondral, primary, direct and distraction osteogenesis mechanisms, is reviewed along with the associated molecular, vascular, and biophysical features.

  19. System for the analysis of whole-bone strength from helical CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jon J.; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Stacy, Mahlon C.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Khosla, Sundeep; Melton, L. Joseph; Riggs, B. Lawrence; Robb, Richard A.

    2004-04-01

    Osteoporosis affects an estimated 44 million Americans. This condition results from bone loss, but the measured change in bone mass does not fully account for the marked decrease in whole-bone structural integrity seen in osteoporosis. In order to study structural changes in bone mineral distribution due to normal ageing and osteoporosis, we have developed a method for progressive analysis of whole-bone mechanical integrity from helical CT images. The system provides rapid semi-automated alignment of femur and vertebrae volume images into standard anatomic reference planes, and calculates bone mineral density in any selected 3D sections of bone. Mineral density measures are obtained using both full-width-half-max contours and threshold-derived masks, and are obtained for cortical bone and trabecular bone separately. Biomechanical properties of the bone cross-section are also assessed, including the 2-D bending moment of the cortical bone region and the integrated flexural rigidity of the cortical region or whole-bone region in arbitrary planes. This method facilitates progressive refinement of the analysis protocol by separating the labor-intensive alignment and landmark selection process from the analysis process. As the analysis protocol evolves to include new measures, previously analyzed images can be automatically reanalyzed, using the image regions originally specified. Initial results show inverse correlation of indices of biomechanical bone strength with age, greater loss of bone strength in the lumbar spine than in the femoral neck, and more trabecular than cortical bone loss at both sites.

  20. Study of a new bone-targeting titanium implant–bone interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xiangning Liu,1,* Ye Zhang,1,* Shaobing Li,2,* Yayu Wang,3 Ting Sun,1 Zejian Li,1 Lizhao Cai,1 Xiaogang Wang,3,* Lei Zhou,2 Renfa Lai1 1The Medical Center of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, 2The Department of Oral Implantology, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, 3Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: New strategies involving bone-targeting titanium (Ti implant–bone interface are required to enhance bone regeneration and osseointegration for orthopedic and dental implants, especially in osteoporotic subjects. In this study, a new dual-controlled, local, bone-targeting delivery system was successfully constructed by loading tetracycline-grafted simvastatin (SV-loaded polymeric micelles in titania nanotube (TNT arrays, and a bone-targeting Ti implant–bone interface was also successfully constructed by implanting the delivery system in vivo. The biological effects were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that Ti surfaces with TNT–bone-targeting micelles could promote cytoskeletal spreading, early adhesion, alkaline phosphatase activity, and extracellular osteocalcin concentrations of rat osteoblasts, with concomitant enhanced protein expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2. A single-wall bone-defect implant model was established in normal and ovariectomized rats as postmenopausal osteoporosis models. Microcomputed tomography imaging and BMP-2 expression in vivo demonstrated that the implant with a TNT-targeting micelle surface was able to promote bone regeneration and osseointegration in both animal models. Therefore, beneficial biological effects were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, which indicated that the bone-targeting effects of micelles greatly enhance the

  1. Microstimulation at the bone-implant interface upregulates osteoclast activation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Terrier, Alexandre; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2008-02-01

    Peri-implant bone resorption after total joint arthroplasty is a key parameter in aseptic loosening. Implant wear debris and biomechanical aspects have both been demonstrated to be part of the bone resorption process. However, neither of these two parameters has been clearly identified as the primary initiator of peri-implant bone resorption. For the biomechanical parameters, micromotions were measured at the bone-implant interface during normal gait cycles. The amplitude of the micromotions was shown to trigger differentiation of bone tissues. So far no data exists directly quantifying the effect of micromotion and compression on human bone. We hypothesize that micromotion and compression at the bone-implant interface may induce direct activation of bone resorption around the implant through osteoblasts-osteoclasts cell signaling in human bone. This hypothesis was tested with an ex vivo loading system developed to stimulate trabecular bone cores and mimic the micromotions arising at the bone-implant interface. Gene expression of RANKL, OPG, TGFB2, IFNG and CSF-1 was analyzed after no mechanical stimulation (control), exposure to compression or exposure to micromotions. We observed an 8-fold upregulation of RANKL after exposure to micromotions, and downregulation of OPG, IFNG and TGFB2. The RANKL:OPG ratio was upregulated 24-fold after micromotions. This suggests that the micromotions arising at the bone-implant interface during normal gait cycles induce a bone resorption response after only 1 h, which occurs before any wear debris particles enter the system.

  2. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  3. Comparative study on measured variables and sensitivity to bone microstructural changes induced by weightlessness between in vivo and ex vivo micro-CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lian Wen; Wang, Chao; Pu, Fang; Li, De Yu; Niu, Hai Jun; Fan, Yu Bo

    2011-01-01

    Depending on the experimental design, micro-CT can be used to examine bones either in vivo or ex vivo (excised fresh or formalin-fixed). In this study we investigated if differences exist in the variables measured by micro-CT between in vivo and ex vivo scans and which kind of scan is more sensitive to the changes of bone microstructure induced by simulated weightlessness. Rat tail suspension was used to simulate the weightless condition. The same bone from either normal or tail-suspended rats was scanned by micro-CT both in vivo and ex vivo (fresh and fixed by formalin). Then, bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructural characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that no significant differences existed in the microstructural parameters of trabecular bone among in vivo, fresh, and formalin-fixed bone scans from both femurs and tibias, although BMD exhibited differences. On the other hand, most parameters of the tail-suspended rats measured by micro-CT deteriorated compared with controls. Ex vivo scanning appeared to be more sensitive to bone microstructural changes induced by tail suspension than in vivo scanning. In general, the results indicate that values obtained in vivo and ex vivo (fresh and fixed) are comparable, thus allowing for meaningful comparison of experimental results from different studies irrespective of the type of scans. In addition, this study suggests that it is better to use ex vivo scanning when evaluating bone microstructure under weightlessness. However, researchers can select any type of scan depending upon the objective and the demands of the experiment.

  4. Shared values and normality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-hua; PANG Xue-cheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the normality and the shared values for a meromorphic function on the unit disc △.Based on Marty's normality criterion and through a detailed analysis of the meromorphic functions,it is shown that if for every f∈F,f and f(k) share a and b on △ and the zeros of f(z)-a are of multiplicity k≥3,then F is normal on △,where F is a family of meromorphic functions on the unit disc △,and a and b are distinct values.

  5. Altered Bone Metabolism and Bone Density in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Due to maldigestion, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI in chronic pancreatitis may lead to deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin D. This may, in turn, can cause disturbances in bone metabolism and reduce bone mineral density. Objective To conduct a prospective study of maldigestion, bone metabolism, and bone mineral density in a group of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Methods A total of 50 male patients with proven chronic pancreatitis (36/50 alcohol; 42/50 smokers were studied. Pancreatic exocrine function was assessed using the fecal elastase-1 test. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for parameters related to pancreatitis, nutrition, endocrine status, and bone metabolism. Bone mineral density was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorption (DXA and conventional vertebral X-rays. A standardized questionnaire for osteoporosis was given. Results Twenty-eight of the patients had PEI (fecal elastase-1 200 µg/g, 25 had bone pain, and 21 had a history of bne fractures. Serum 25-OH-cholecalciferol and urine calcium were decreased and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were increased in urine. Serum calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were within normal limits. There was no statistical correlation between three classes of fecal elastase-1 (200 µg/g and calcium, 25-OH-cholecalciferol, or deoxypyridinoline. Of the 15 patients who underwent DXA, 5 had normal bone mineral density (T score >-1, 9 had osteopenia (T score from -1 to -2.5, and 1 had osteoporosis (T score -2.5. There was a trend toward a correlation between low fecal elastase-1 and low T scores (P=0.065. Low fecal elastase-1 correlated with low bone mineral density in conventional X-rays (p<0.05. Patients receiving pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT had significantly higher DXA values (p<0.05. Conclusions Patients with chronic pancreatitis have osteoporosis, along with abnormal bone metabolism and reduced bone

  6. [THE IMPORTANCE OF "MILK BONES" TO "WISDOM BONES" - COW MILK AND BONE HEALTH - LESSONS FROM MILK ALLERGY PATIENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Liat; Katz, Yitzhak

    2016-03-01

    development of early osteoporosis. Another finding of this study was that normal bone density was found in milk allergic patients who started to consume milk after a successful desensitization program. Interestingly, these patients had consumed milk for a period of only 12-36 months and had only partially achieved the recommended dietary intake for calcium. It appears that dietary milk is essential for optimal peak bone mass. The required amounts of calcium and the preferred form for consumption, however, requires further investigation.

  7. Bone building with bortezomib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodman, G. David

    2008-01-01

    In this issue of the JCI, Mukherjee et al. report that bortezomib, a clinically available proteasome inhibitor active against myeloma, induces the differentiation of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) — rather than mature osteoprogenitor cells — into osteoblasts, resulting in new bone formation (see the related article beginning on page 491). These results were observed when MSCs were implanted subcutaneously in mice or were used to treat a mouse model of postmenopausal bone loss. Others have reported that immunomodulatory drugs (e.g., thalidomide and lenalidomide), which are active against myeloma, also block the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. These results reflect the utility of targeting endogenous MSCs for the purpose of tissue repair and suggest that combining different classes of agents that are antineoplastic and also inhibit bone destruction and increase bone formation should be very beneficial for myeloma patients suffering from severe bone disease. PMID:18219395

  8. Wormian bones in osteogenesis imperfecta and other disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremin, B.; Goodman, H.; Spranger, J.; Beighton, P.

    1982-03-01

    When are Wormian bones significant is not an easy question to answer, but its relevance is important in relation to bone dysplasias such as osteogenesis imperfecta. Recognition will differ with age of patient, radiographic objectivity, and personal subjectivity. In order to attempt an answer, the skull radiographs of 81 cases of osteogenesis imperfecta of varying ages were examined for the presence of Wormian bones. These were compared against the incidence of Wormian bones in 500 skull radiographs of normal children. Significant Wormian bones as against normal developmental variants were considered to be those more than 10 in number, measuring greater than 6 mm by 4 mm, and arranged in a general mosaic pattern. They were found in all the cases of osteogenesis imperfecta but not in the normal skulls. The occurrence of significant Wormian bones in other bone dysplasias from our material and that of the literature was recorded. Other incidental findings in the skulls of the cases of osteogenesis imperfecta were also appraised.

  9. Effect of T-2 toxin on growth and development of rat knee epiphyseal plate and metaphyseal bone in normal and low nutritional status%T-2毒素在正常和低营养状态下对大鼠膝关节骺板及干骺端骨组织生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚运峰; 康鹏德; 李兴波; 杨静; 沈彬; 周宗科; 裴福兴

    2010-01-01

    异有统计学意义(P均<0.01).结论 在正常营养状态下,T-2毒素可导致大鼠骺板软骨肥大层细胞坏死,骺板胶原含量降低,干骺端骨小梁形成障碍;在低营养状态下,T-2毒素可导致大鼠骺板细胞坏死和于骺端成骨障碍更为显著,但这种表现是否与大骨节病的发生有关,还有待研究.%Objective To observe the effect of T-2 toxin on growth and development of rat epiphyseal plate of left knee and metaphyseal bone of femur and tibia in normal and low nutritional status, to find out possible pathogenic factors of Kashin-Beck disease and provide experimental basis for early intervention. Methods Ninety 3-week-old Wistar rats, weighing 60 - 70 g, were randomly divided into three groups: control group(general feed), T-2 toxin + general feed group, T-2 toxin + low nutrition feed group, thirty rats in each group with equally sex ratio. T-2 toxin (1.0 mg/kg) was administered orally 5 times a week via a gavage needle for 4 weeks. The change of hair, activity and body weight was observed. After 1, 2, 4 weeks, the epiphyseal plate of left knee and metaphyseal bone of femur and tibia (including distal femur and proximal tibia) were collected. Specimens were processed with HE and Masson staining. The morphology of chondrocytes and matrix collagen content in epiphyseal plate was observed. Trabecular bone volume fraction in tibial metaphyseal bone was analyzed by Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. Results In the control group, rats were in good movement and hair with light, but in T-2 toxin + general feed group and T-2 toxin + low nutrition feed group, rats were found with reduced activities and hair with dark color. Body weights(g) of the control group, the T-2 toxin + general feed group and the T-2 toxin + low nutrition feed group were 81.0 ± 6.2, 79.0 ±5.1, 77.0 ± 7.5, respectively, by the end of first week; 101.8 ± 6.7, 97.0 ± 6.8, 93.0 ± 5.3, respectively, by the end of second week; 151.1 ± 15.7, 126.5 ± 11.9, 106.5 ± 11.5, respectively

  10. Adrenal gland and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S

    2010-11-01

    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  11. Bone scanning in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyek, A M

    1979-09-01

    Modern radionuclide bone scanning has introduced a new concept in physiologic and anatomic diagnostic imaging to general medicine. As otolaryngologists must diagnose and treat disease in relation to the bony and/or cartilaginous supporting structures of the neurocranium and upper airway, this modality should be included in the otolaryngologist's diagnostic armamentarium. It is the purpose of this manuscript to study the specific applications of bone scanning to our specialty at this time, based on clinical experience over the past three years. This thesis describes the development of bone scanning in general (history of nuclear medicine and nuclear physics; history of bone scanning in particular). General concepts in nuclear medicine are then presented; these include a discussion of nuclear semantics, principles of radioactive emmissions, the properties 99mTc as a radionuclide, and the tracer principle. On the basis of these general concepts, specific concepts in bone scanning are then brought forth. The physiology of bone and the action of the bone scan agents is presented. Further discussion considers the availability and production of the bone scan agent, patient factors, the gamma camera, the triphasic bone scan and the ultimate diagnostic principle of the bone scan. Clinical applications of bone scanning in otolaryngology are then presented in three sections. Proven areas of application include the evaluation of malignant tumors of the head and neck, the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, the diagnosis of facial fractures, the evaluation of osteomyelitis, nuclear medicine imaging of the larynx, and the assessment of systemic disease. Areas of adjunctive or supplementary value are also noted, such as diagnostic imaging of meningioma. Finally, areas of marginal value in the application of bone scanning are described.

  12. Normality in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  13. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  14. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  15. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : An extensive body of literature is concerned with obese people, risk, and weight management. However, little is known about weight management among people not belonging to the extreme BMI categories. Management of weight among normal-weight and moderately overweight individuals...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  16. Does simvastatin stimulate bone formation in vivo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorev Michael

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins, potent compounds that inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver have been reported to induce bone formation, both in tissue culture and in rats and mice. To re-examine potential anabolic effects of statins on bone formation, we compared the activity of simvastatin (SVS to the known anabolic effects of PTH in an established model of ovariectomized (OVX Swiss-Webster mice. Methods Mice were ovariectomized at 12 weeks of age (T0, remained untreated for 5 weeks to allow development of osteopenia (T5, followed by treatment for 8 weeks (T13. Whole, trabecular and cortical femoral bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (micro CT. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS was used to detect the presence of SVS and its active metabolite, simvastatin β-hydroxy acid (SVS-OH in the mouse serum. Results Trabecular BV/TV at T13 was 4.2 fold higher in animals treated with PTH (80 micro-g/kg/day compared to the OVX-vehicle treated group (p in vivo study. Conclusions While PTH demonstrated the expected anabolic effect on bone, SVS failed to stimulate bone formation, despite our verification by LC/MS of the active SVS-OH metabolite in mouse serum. While statins have clear effects on bone formation in vitro, the formulation of existing 'liver-targeted' statins requires further refinement for efficacy in vivo.

  17. Isoflavones prevent bone loss following ovariectomy in young adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li-Ting

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Soy protein, a rich source of phytoestrogens, exhibit estrogen-type bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to determine if ingestion of isoflavones before ovariectomy can prevent bone loss following ovariectomy. Twenty-four nulliparous Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. In the normal diet groups, a sham operation was performed on Group A, while ovariectomy was performed on Group B. For Groups C and D, all rats were fed with an isoflavone-rich (25 mg/day diet for one month, then bilateral ovariectomy were performed. In the rats in Group C, a normal diet was begun following the ovariectomy. The rats in Groups D continued to receive the isoflavone-rich diet for two additional months postoperatively. All rats were sacrificed 60 days after surgery. The weight of bone ash of the long bones and whole lumbar spine were determined. A histological study of cancellous bone was done and biochemical indices of skeletal metabolism were performed and analyzed. The markers of bone metabolism exhibited no significant changes. When compared with the sham-operated rats fed a normal diet, the bone mass of ovariectomized rats decreased significantly; pre-ovariectomy ingestion of an isoflavone-rich diet did not prevent bone loss. The bone mass of rats treated with an isoflavone-rich diet for three months was higher than controls two months after ovariectomy. Dietary isoflavones did not prevent the development of post-ovariectomy bone loss, but long-term ingestion of an isoflavone-rich diet increased the bone mineral contents after ovariectomy in young rats.

  18. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” ...

  19. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  20. Blood: bone equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The conundrum of blood undersaturation with respect to bone mineralization and its supersaturation with respect to bone's homeostatic function has acquired a new equation. On the supply side, Ca/sup 2 +/ is pumped in across bone cells to provide the needed Ca/sup 2 +/ x P/sub i/ for brushite precipitation. On the demand side, blood is in equilibrium with bone fluid, which is in equilibrium with a mineral more soluble than apatite. The function of potassium in this equation is yet to be found.

  1. Olecranon bone graft: revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersa, Berkan; Ozcelik, Ismail Bulent; Kabakas, Fatih; Sacak, Bulent; Aydin, Atakan

    2010-09-01

    Autogenous bone grafts are frequently in use in the field of reconstructive upper extremity surgery. Cancellous bone grafts are applied to traumatic osseous defects, nonunions, defects after the resection of benign bone tumors, arthrodesis, and osteotomy procedures. Cancellous bone grafts do not only have benefits such as rapid revascularization, but they also have mechanical advantages. Despite the proximity to the primary surgical field, cancellous olecranon grafts have not gained the popularity they deserve in the field of reconstructive hand surgery. In this study, the properties, advantages, and technical details of harvesting cancellous olecranon grafts are discussed.

  2. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Petricca, P.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  3. MR imaging of the normal sacroiliac joint with correlation to histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhakka, K.B.; Jurik, A.G.; Egund, N. [Department of Radiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus Kommunehospital, 8000, Aarhus (Denmark); Melsen, F. [Institute of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus Amtssygehus, Aarhus (Denmark); Boel, L.W.; Vesterby, A. [Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic study of the various components of joints provide a proper basis for understanding the nature of pathologic lesions to which they are subject and their imaging appearances. This study was designed to correlate MR imaging with a systematic histological study of the normal sacroiliac joint (SIJ), which to our knowledge is not available in the literature. Five male cadavers, aged 20 to 45 years, and seven male and seven female volunteers, aged 23 to 44 years, were investigated with oblique transaxial and coronal MR imaging of the SIJs. A variety of sequences including pre- and post-contrast T1 fat-saturated studies in the volunteers were used. Cryosectioning was performed in six SIJs of the five cadavers and compared with the MR images for the microscopic joint anatomy and assessed for the presence of abnormalities resembling those associated with sacroiliitis. Throughout the SIJ, the hyaline cartilage of the sacral bone and the proximal third of the hyaline iliac cartilage was strongly attached to the surrounding stabilizing ligaments, forming wide margins of fibrocartilage. In the distal one-third of the joint only, the margins of the iliac joint facet resemble that of a synovial joint, which include an inner capsule with synovial cells. The MR anatomy of the ventral and dorsal aspects of the SIJ was only adequately visualized at oblique transaxial MR imaging. No contrast enhancement occurred in the synovial tissue or in the cartilaginous joint space. The dorsal transition between the proximal 2/3 and distal 1/3 of the cartilaginous joint was at microscopy rich in anatomical and histological variants, including osseous clefts, cartilage and subchondral defects, and vascular connective tissue in the bone marrow. These were all recognized at oblique transaxial MR imaging and in coronal MR sectioning may resemble abnormalities. Otherwise, no erosions, bone marrow abnormalities, bone sclerosis or abnormal contrast enhancement occurred in the normal

  4. Histologia da medula óssea Bone marrow histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A biópsia de medula óssea, após a utilização da agulha de Jamshidi, tornou- se um evento de rotina em virtude da simplificação na obtenção do material. A adequação das dimensões da amostra e a diminuição do tempo de descalcificação melhoraram muito a qualidade histológica e possibilitaram ao patologista um aprofundamento da interpretação morfológica das doenças hematológicas e não hematológicas. Para um laudo correto é necessário o conhecimento do tecido hematopoético normal, suas diferentes linhagens celulares, variações dependentes da idade e integração com outros dados clínicos e laboratoriais.The bone marrow biopsy after the introduction of the Jamshidi needle has come into a routine practice due to the facilitation to obtain good sample. Due to the adequate size of the sample, the decalcification time decreased and consequently the histological quality improved allowing to the pathologist a more deep and precise morphological interpretation and diagnosis of the hematological and non- hematological disorders. For a correct diagnosis, the pathologist should be acquainted with the normal histology of the bone marrow parenchyma, it variations depending on age, as well as with the clinico- laboratorial data to integrate them with the morphological features.

  5. The Digital Astronaut Project Computational Bone Remodeling Model (Beta Version) Bone Summit Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2013-01-01

    changes in bone cell populations that remove and replace bone in packets within the bone region. The DAP bone model is unique in several respects. In particular in takes former models of volume fraction changes one step higher in fidelity and separates BVF into separate equations for mineralized and osteoid volume fractions governed by a mineralization rate. This more closely follows the physiology of the remodeling unit cycles where bone is first resorbed and then followed by the action of osteoblasts to lay down collagen matrix which eventually becomes mineralized. In another respect, the modules allow the functional description of the time rate of change of other parameters and variables in the model during a computational simulation. More detailed description of the model, preliminary validation results, current limitation and caveats, and planned advancements are provided in sections 2 through 5. The DAP bone model is being developed primarily as a research tool, and not as a clinical tool like QCT. Even if it transitions to a clinical tool, it is not intended to replace QCT or any other clinical tool. Moreover, the DAP bone model does not predict bone fracture. Its purpose is to provide valuable additional data via "forward prediction" simulations for during and after spaceflight missions to gain insight on, (1) mechanisms of bone demineralization in microgravity, and (2) the volumetric changes at the various bone sites in response to in-flight and post-flight exercise countermeasures. This data can then be used as input to the Keyak [8] (or equivalent) FE analysis method to gain insight on how bone strength may change during and after flight. This information can also be useful to help optimize exercise countermeasure protocols to minimize changes in bone strength during flight, and improve regain of bone strength post-flight. To achieve this goal, the bone model will be integrated with DAP's exercise countermeasure models to simulate the effect of exercise

  6. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment of postmenopausal women with vertebral fragility fracture and its relationship with serum bone turnover and bone metabolism indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between dual-energy X-ray bone mass density measurement results of postmenopausal women with vertebral fragility fracture and the serum bone turnover as well as bone metabolism indexes.Methods:A total of 158 postmenopausal women who received DXA tests in our hospital between April 2012 and December 2015 were selected, were divided into osteoporosis group, osteopenia group and normal bone mass group according to the bone mineral density measurement results, and were divided into no vertebral fracture group, thoracic vertebral fracture group, lumbar vertebral fracture group and thoracolumbar vertebral fracture group according to the thoracolumbar vertebral anterioposterior and lateral film results, and serum was collected to determine bone turnover and bone metabolism indexes.Results: Femoral neck, hip and lumbar vertebra L1-4 bone mineral density of subjects with thoracic vertebral fracture and thoracolumbar vertebral fracture were significantly lower than those of the subjects without vertebral fracture, and femoral neck, hip and lumbar vertebra L1-4 bone mineral density of subjects with lumbar vertebral fracture were not significantly different from those of the subjects without vertebral fracture; serum PINP, ICTP, CTX, TRACP-5b, MMP13, OPG and OPN content of osteoporosis group and osteopenia group were significantly higher than those of normal bone mass group while 25(OH)D, BGP and ON content were significantly lower than those of normal bone mass group; serum PINP, ICTP, CTX, TRACP-5b, MMP13, OPG and OPN content of osteoporosis group were significantly higher than those of osteopenia group while 25(OH)D, BGP and ON content were significantly lower than those of osteopenia group.Conclusions: Dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry has clear prediction value for postmenopausal women with thoracic vertebral fragility fracture and thoracolumbar vertebral fragility fracture, and is closely related to the changes of bone turnover and

  7. Bone QUS measurement performed under loading condition, a more accuracy ultrasound method for osteoporosis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengrui; Niu, Haijun; Fan, Yubo; Li, Deyu

    2012-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a worldwide health problem with enormous social and economic impact. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) method provides comprehensive information on bone mass, microstructure and mechanical properties of the bone. And the cheap, safe and portable ultrasound equipment is more suitable for public health monitoring. QUS measurement was normally performed on bone specimens without mechanical loading. But human bones are subjected to loading during routine daily activities, and physical loading leads to the changes of bone microstructure and mechanical properties. We hypothesized that bone QUS parameters measured under loading condition differ from those measured without loading because the microstructure of bone was changed when loading subjected to bone. Furthermore, when loading was subjected on bone, the loading-lead microstructure change of osteoporosis bone may larger than that of health bone. By considering the high relationship between bone microstructure and QUS parameters, the QUS parameters of osteoporosis bone may changed larger than that of health bone. So osteoporosis may be detected more effectively by the combination of QUS method and mechanical loading.

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose ... bone x-ray makes images of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  10. OSL properties of anthropological bone and tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meric, Niyazi [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: meric@ankara.edu.tr; Kosal, Mehmet [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kosal@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Altay Atlihan, M. [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: atlihan@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Rabia Yuece, Ulkue [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ulku.yuce@taek.gov.tr

    2008-06-15

    The aim of present work was to investigate whether anthropological bone and teeth can be used in dosimetric and dating studies. The radiation dose responses of anthropological human bone and pig teeth were obtained and studied using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The radiation dose responses of these materials were found to be compatible with commonly used feldspar and quartz compounds. The IRSL signal was shown to be linear with a radiation dose until {approx}200 Gy and stable at ambient temperature, which may allow the use of such materials for dating.

  11. 40 CFR 73.21 - Phase II repowering allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phase II repowering allowances. 73.21... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.21 Phase II repowering allowances. (a) Repowering allowances. In addition to allowances allocated under § 73.10(b), the Administrator will...

  12. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b − .2713 and variance 2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b − 3.795 − μ2.

  13. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b - .2713 and variance σ2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b - 3.795 μ2.

  14. Bone marrow fibrosis in myelofibrosis: pathogenesis, prognosis and targeted strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Abdallah Abou; Salama, Mohamed E.; Carreau, Nicole; Tremblay, Douglas; Verstovsek, Srdan; Mesa, Ruben; Hoffman, Ronald; Mascarenhas, John

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow fibrosis is a central pathological feature and World Health Organization major diagnostic criterion of myelofibrosis. Although bone marrow fibrosis is seen in a variety of malignant and non-malignant disease states, the deposition of reticulin and collagen fibrosis in the bone marrow of patients with myelofibrosis is believed to be mediated by the myelofibrosis hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, contributing to an impaired microenvironment favoring malignant over normal hematopoiesis. Increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, lysyl oxidase, transforming growth factor-β, impaired megakaryocyte function, and aberrant JAK-STAT signaling have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone marrow fibrosis. A number of studies indicate that bone marrow fibrosis is an adverse prognostic variable in myeloproliferative neoplasms. However, modern myelofibrosis prognostication systems utilized in risk-adapted treatment approaches do not include bone marrow fibrosis as a prognostic variable. The specific effect on bone marrow fibrosis of JAK2 inhibition, and other rationally based therapies currently being evaluated in myelofibrosis, has yet to be fully elucidated. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapeutic approach that reliably results in resolution of bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelofibrosis. Here we review the pathogenesis, biological consequences, and prognostic impact of bone marrow fibrosis. We discuss the rationale of various anti-fibrogenic treatment strategies targeting the clonal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, aberrant signaling pathways, fibrogenic cytokines, and the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27252511

  15. Bone marrow: its contribution to heme catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mähönen, Y; Anttinen, M; Vuopio, P; Tenhunen, R

    1976-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) and biliverdin reductase (BR), the two NADPH-dependent enzymes involved in the degradation of hemoglobin and its derivatives, were measured in bone marrow aspirates from 5 hematologically normal persons, 4 patients with chronic leucemia (CL), 11 patients with acute leucemia (AL), 8 patients with refractory sideroblastic anemia (RA), 7 patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IA), 5 patients with hemolytic anemia (HA), and 7 patients with secondary anemia (SA) to determine the enzymatic capacity of the bone marrow in different hematologic disorders for heme catabolism. HO activity in the bone marrow of normal persons was 0.42 +/- 0.28 (SD) nmoles bilirubin/10 mg protein/min; in CL, 2.15 +/- 1.34; in AL, 0.39 +/- 0.25; in RA, 0.58 +/- 0.37; in IA, 0.41 +/- 0.28; in HA, 2.56 +/- 1.40; and in SA, 1.72 +/- 1.06. BR activity, respectively, was in normal persons 8.7 +/- 2.4 (SD) nmoles bilirubin/10 mg protein/min; in CL, 13.6 +/- 9.1; in AL, 3.8 +/- 3.1 in RA, 5.1 +/- 2.7; in IA, 5.5 +/- 3.7; in HA, 17.0 +/- 7.2; and in SA, 10.5 +/- 4.2. On the basis of these findings it seems evident that both oxygenase and biliverdin reductase activities of the bone marrow are capable of adaptive regulation. The physiologic role of bone marrow in heme catabolism seems to be of significant importance.

  16. Advancing Treatment for Metastatic Bone Cancer: Consensus Recommendations from the Second Cambridge Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert E.; Guise, Theresa A.; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G. David; Berenson, James R.; Body, Jean-Jacques; Boyce, Brendan F.; Calvi, Laura M.; Hadji, Peyman; McCloskey, Eugene V.; Saad, Fred; Smith, Matthew R.; Suva, Larry J.; Taichman, Russell S.; Vessella, Robert L.; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Summarize current knowledge, critical gaps in knowledge, and recommendations to advance the field of metastatic bone cancer. Experimental Design A multidisciplinary consensus conference was convened to review recent progress in basic and clinical research, assess critical gaps in current knowledge, and prioritize recommendations to advance research in the next 5 years. The program addressed three principal topics: biology of metastasis, preserving normal bone health, and optimizing bone-targeted therapies. Results A variety of specific recommendations were identified as important to advance research and clinical care over the next 5 years. Conclusions Priorities for research in bone biology include characterizing components of the stem cell niche in bone, developing oncogenic immunocompetent animal models of bone metastasis, and investigating the unique contribution of the bone microenvironment to tumor growth and dormancy. Priorities for research in preserving normal bone health include developing methods to measure and characterize disseminating tumor cells, assessing outcomes from the major prevention trials currently in progress, and improving methodologies to assess risks and benefits of treatment. Priorities for optimizing bone-targeted therapies include advancing studies of serum proteomics and genomics to reliably identify patients who will develop bone metastases, enhancing imaging for early detection of bone metastases and early response evaluation, and developing new tests to evaluate response to bone-directed treatments. PMID:18927277

  17. Indirect MR-arthrography in osteochondral autograft and crushed bone graft with a collagen membrane-Correlation with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, F. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: florian.streitparth@charite.de; Schoettle, P.; Schell, H. [Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany); Lehmkuhl, L.; Madej, T.; Wieners, G. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany); Duda, G.N. [Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany); Schroeder, R.J. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Objective: To analyze the spectrum of findings in indirect MR-arthrography following osteochondral autograft transfer system (OATS) and crushed bone graft using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring and grading system in relation to histology as the standard of reference. Materials and methods: Iatrogenic lesions were set at ovine condylar facets (n = 6/group), treated with OATS or crushed bone graft. 1.5 T MRI was performed 6 months after surgery using PD-weighted (w fat saturated (fs) fast spin echo (FSE), T1-w 2D, and 3D fs gradient echo (GE) sequences 30 min. after i.v. Gd-DTPA administration and passive joint exercise. The repair tissue was evaluated by two independent radiologists. The MR findings were compared to histology. Results: In all cases, MRI and histologic grading correlated well and showed significant superior repair in OATS at 6 months (p < 0.05), reproducing the original articular contour and a good subchondral restoration. FsT1-w3DGE proved most appropriate identifying characteristic post-operative findings: the OATS group demonstrated bone marrow edema at the donor site and the graft/host interface showed significant enhancement in indirect MR-arthrography, indicating fibrocartilage. After crushed bone graft, we found an irregular structure and significant contrast uptake, consistent with remnants of bone grafts surrounded by inflammatory tissue. Conclusion: Indirect MR-arthrography is an accurate, non-invasive monitoring tool following OATS and crushed bone graft as the MRI scoring and grading system allows a reliable evaluation of normal and pathological osteochondral repair with a high histologic correlation.

  18. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Qifei Wang; Jianhua Yan; Junlin Yang; Bingyun Li

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture rep...

  19. HYBRID EXTERNAL FIXATOR FOR THE TREATMENT OF UNICAMERAL BONE CYSTS WITH PATHOLOGICAL FRACTURE IN THE PROXIMAL HUMERUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭征; 王臻; 赵黎

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Unicameral bone cyst is a nonneoplastic bone lesion characterized by its tenacity and risk of recurrence. Pathological fracture is common and is often the presenting symptom. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the results of hybrid external fixator for the treatment of a unicameral bone cyst with a pathological fracture. Methods: Hybrid external fixator for the treatment of a unicameral bone cyst was performed in twelve patients. These patients presented with a pathological fracture and were managed immediately with hybrid external fixator, of whom four had been managed conservatively at other clinics before they were referred to our department. The cyst was located in the proximal humerus in all patients. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 8.7 years, and the mean duration of follow-up was 32.6 months. Radiographic evaluation was performed according to the criteria of Capanna et al., and the cyst was classified as completely healed, healed with residual radiolucency (osteolysis), recurred, or having no response. Results: The healing period ranged from three to eight months. Eight cysts healed completely, and three healed with residual radiolucent areas visible on radiographs. There was recurrence of one cyst that had healed with residual radiolucency. All of the cysts in the present study responded to treatment. A modulation of hybrid external fixator was necessary in three patients, as the bars had become too short after bone growth or the pins had been loose. No major complications were observed.Conclusion: Hybrid external fixator provides early stability, which allows early mobilization and thus obviates the need for a plaster cast. This method of treatment also allows for an early return to normal activity.

  20. BONES, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT ON "BONES.""BONES" HAS BEEN TAUGHT IN THE FOURTH GRADE AND REQUIRES FROM 10 TO 25 LESSONS, DEPENDING ON THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES USED. THE GUIDE DOES NOT PROVIDE DETAILED INSTRUCTION FOR CONDUCTING CLASSES, BUT RATHER SOME POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES, AND LEAVES THE DAY-TO-DAY…

  1. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children with vario

  2. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  3. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  4. Normalized Information Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanyi, Paul M B; Cilibrasi, Rudi L; Li, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string representation. Second, for names and abstract concepts, page count statistics from the World Wide Web can be used. These practical realizations of the normalized information distance can then be applied to machine learning tasks, expecially clustering, to perform feature-free and parameter-free data mining. This chapter discusses the theoretical foundations of the normalized information distance and both practical realizations. It presents numerous examples of successful real-world applications based on these distance measures, ranging from bioinformatics to music clustering to machine translation.

  5. Effects of denosumab, alendronate, or denosumab following alendronate on bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, bone mass and bone strength in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenuik, Paul J; Smith, Susan Y; Samadfam, Rana; Jolette, Jacquelin; Zhou, Lei; Ominsky, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a chronic disease wherein increased bone remodeling reduces bone mass and bone strength. Antiresorptive agents including bisphosphonates are commonly used to mitigate bone loss and fracture risk. Osteoclast inhibition via denosumab (DMAb), a RANKL inhibitor, is a newer approach for reducing fracture risk in patients at increased risk for fracture. The safety of transitioning from bisphosphonate therapy (alendronate; ALN) to DMAb was examined in mature ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys (cynos). One day after OVX, cynos (7-10/group) were treated with vehicle (VEH, s.c.), ALN (50 μg/kg, i.v., twice monthly) or DMAb (25 mg/kg/month, s.c.) for 12 months. Other animals received VEH or ALN for 6 months and then transitioned to 6 months of DMAb. DMAb caused significantly greater reductions in serum CTx than ALN, and transition from ALN to DMAb caused further reductions relative to continued ALN. DMAb and ALN decreased serum calcium (Ca), and transition from ALN to DMAb resulted in a lesser decline in Ca relative to DMAb or to VEH-DMAb transition. Bone histomorphometry indicated significantly reduced trabecular and cortical remodeling with DMAb or ALN. Compared with ALN, DMAb caused greater reductions in osteoclast surface, eroded surface, cortical porosity and fluorochrome labeling, and transition from ALN to DMAb reduced these parameters relative to continued ALN. Bone mineral density increased in all active treatment groups relative to VEH controls. Destructive biomechanical testing revealed significantly greater vertebral strength in all three groups receiving DMAb, including those receiving DMAb after ALN, relative to VEH controls. Bone mass and strength remained highly correlated in all groups at all tested skeletal sites, consistent with normal bone quality. These data indicate that cynos transitioned from ALN to DMAb exhibited reduced bone resorption and cortical porosity, and increased BMD and bone strength, without

  6. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  7. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Michael J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, Sarah L. [Schools of Health Professions, Medicine, and Dentistry, Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lopez-Ben, Robert [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steelman, Rebecca E. [University of Alabama, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria [UAB Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Clinic, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fineberg, Naomi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  8. Black bone syndrome in chiken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAA Baldo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Black bone syndrome (BBS affects poultry industry, and it is caused by the darkening of the tissue adjacent to the bone due to leak age of bone marrow contents during cooking. The objective of this experiment was to estimate BBS incidence in chicken thighs. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (refrigerated or frozen of 50 replicates each, was applied. The influence of BBS on meat quality was assessed according to bone lightness (*L, and meat appearance and sensorial characteristics. Lightness was measured using a colorimeter (Minolta® 410R positioned on the proximal epiphyseal growth plate. Meat quality was evaluated after roasting by assigning scores for appearance (acceptable = no darkening, intermediate = little darkened, and unacceptable = severe darkening. Twelve refrigerated and 12 frozen thighs were used for sensorial analysis (adjacent muscle appearance, odor, tenderness, and flavor, assessed using a hedonic scale (1 = bad to 10 = very good by trained panelists. Lightness was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p37.5=normal. The incidence of BBS was 35%,with a 16%increase thighs were frozen. Meat taste was not influenced by the treatments. Meat appearance, flavor, and tenderness were not affected by freezing or refrigeration, only by BBS degree. It was concluded that freezing increases the incidence of BBS and chicken thighs with bones presenting lower luminosity have worse meat quality.

  9. Bone-Cement: The new medical quick fix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone Cement is being widely used in vertebroplasty, a minimally invasive surgical procedure to treat spinal frac-tures and collapsed vertebrae. It is being labeled as a concrete success in medical field. It is being used to treat fractures due to osteoporosis, menopause, steroids, hyperthyroidism and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. In this technique a needle with bone cement (PMMA, polymethylmethacrylate is injected into the collapsed verte-bra after administering local anesthesia to patient. It solidifies within few minutes and provides support to damaged bone resulting in relief to the patient. It also prevents the movement between different parts of the broken bone. Hence it requires a short hospital stay for the patient and the procedure can be performed with much ease and at significant lower costs. Patient can resume normal activity within a day or so. Bone cement is now being referred to as the quick medical fix material for early repair of fractures.

  10. A unified theory of bone healing and nonunion: BHN theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D S; Newman, K J H; Forward, D P; Hahn, D M; Ollivere, B; Kojima, K; Handley, R; Rossiter, N D; Wixted, J J; Smith, R M; Moran, C G

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a unified clinical theory that links established facts about the physiology of bone and homeostasis, with those involved in the healing of fractures and the development of nonunion. The key to this theory is the concept that the tissue that forms in and around a fracture should be considered a specific functional entity. This 'bone-healing unit' produces a physiological response to its biological and mechanical environment, which leads to the normal healing of bone. This tissue responds to mechanical forces and functions according to Wolff's law, Perren's strain theory and Frost's concept of the "mechanostat". In response to the local mechanical environment, the bone-healing unit normally changes with time, producing different tissues that can tolerate various levels of strain. The normal result is the formation of bone that bridges the fracture - healing by callus. Nonunion occurs when the bone-healing unit fails either due to mechanical or biological problems or a combination of both. In clinical practice, the majority of nonunions are due to mechanical problems with instability, resulting in too much strain at the fracture site. In most nonunions, there is an intact bone-healing unit. We suggest that this maintains its biological potential to heal, but fails to function due to the mechanical conditions. The theory predicts the healing pattern of multifragmentary fractures and the observed morphological characteristics of different nonunions. It suggests that the majority of nonunions will heal if the correct mechanical environment is produced by surgery, without the need for biological adjuncts such as autologous bone graft. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:884-91.

  11. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  12. Back to Normal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Xinjiang officials speed up the investigation of July 5 riot suspects and restore social order Life in Urumqi has gone back to normal one month after the July 5 riot that killed nearly 200 people in the capital city of China’s northwestern

  13. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.; Emmert-Streib, F.; Dehmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  14. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.

    2008-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  15. Impact of Orthodontic Decompensation on Bone Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pinto Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has always been concern in determining the relationship between orthodontic tooth movement and the consequent biological costs to the periodontium and tooth root. The possibility of evaluating the tooth and bone morphology by CBCT allows more accurate analysis of qualitative and quantitative aspects of these processes. This paper presents a case report of a 20-year-old male patient with Class III malocclusion and hyperdivergent facial pattern, who was surgically treated. A significant amount of labial movement of mandibular incisors was performed during orthodontic treatment before surgery. CBCT was used for evaluation of buccal and lingual bone plates before and after tooth decompensation. The changes in the bone insertion level of maxillary and mandibular incisors in the present case encourage a reflection on the treatment protocol in individuals with dentoskeletal discrepancies.

  16. Robust glint detection through homography normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Roholm, Lars; García Ferreiros, Iván

    2014-01-01

    A novel normalization principle for robust glint detection is presented. The method is based on geometric properties of corneal reflections and allows for simple and effective detection of glints even in the presence of several spurious and identically appearing reflections. The method is tested...

  17. Carbon nanotube-based bioceramic grafts for electrotherapy of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, D; Horovistiz, A L; Branco, I; Ferro, M; Ferreira, N M; Belmonte, M; Lopes, M A; Silva, R F; Oliveira, F J

    2014-01-01

    Bone complexity demands the engineering of new scaffolding solutions for its reconstructive surgery. Emerging bone grafts should offer not only mechanical support but also functional properties to explore innovative bone therapies. Following this, ceramic bone grafts of Glass/hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced with conductive carbon nanotubes (CNTs) - CNT/Glass/HA - were prepared for bone electrotherapy purposes. Computer-aided 3D microstructural reconstructions and TEM analysis of CNT/Glass/HA composites provided details on the CNT 3D network and further correlation to their functional properties. CNTs are arranged as sub-micrometric sized ropes bridging homogenously distributed ellipsoid-shaped agglomerates. This arrangement yielded composites with a percolation threshold of pc=1.5vol.%. At 4.4vol.% of CNTs, thermal and electrical conductivities of 1.5W·m(-1)·K(-1) and 55S·m(-1), respectively, were obtained, matching relevant requisites in electrical stimulation protocols. While the former avoids bone damaging from Joule's heat generation, the latter might allow the confinement of external electrical fields through the conductive material if used for in vivo electrical stimulation. Moreover, the electrically conductive bone grafts have better mechanical properties than those of the natural cortical bone. Overall, these highly conductive materials with controlled size CNT agglomerates might accelerate bone bonding and maximize the delivery of electrical stimulation during electrotherapy practices.

  18. A probable new type of osteopenic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widhe, Torulf L. [Department of Orthopaedics, Huddinge University Hospital (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    A probable new type of osteopenic bone disease in two sisters and one female cousin is described. In infancy, the radiological findings were osteopenia, coxa vara, periosteal cloaking, bowing of the long bones, and flaring of the metaphyses. During growth, spinal pathology developed with compression of the vertebral bodies and scoliosis in one girl and kyphosis in another. All three children had genu valgum and two developed severe S-shaped bowing of the tibiae. Growth was stunted. Inheritance of this disorder is probably recessive. Type I and III collagen biosynthesis was normal. This condition is probably a hitherto undescribed form of osteogenesis imperfecta type III or a new bone disease. (orig.)

  19. Combined use of bone and bone marrow scintigraphies for the diagnosis of active sacroiliitis. A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozkurt, M.F.; Ugur, O.; Ertenli, I.; Caner, B. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Diagnosis of sacroiliitis (SI) with bone scintigraphy may involve difficulties even with a quantitative approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined use of bone and bone marrow scintigraphies for the diagnosis of active sacroiliitis. Thirty-one patients who were clinically suspected to have SI were included in the study. Bone and marrow scintigraphies were done after injections of 740 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP (MDP) and 370 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-sulfur colloid (SC) respectively with a 2-day interval. Both visual and quantitative assessment of MDP uptake and visual assessment of SC uptake in sacroiliac joints were performed. Also sacroiliac joint radiographic findings for each patient were evaluated and graded from 0 to 4 according to the New York grading system. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their x-ray findings (Group A: grade 0-2, Group B: grade 3-4). A total of 14 patients (10 bilateral, 4 unilateral) had increased MDP uptake with decreased/normal SC uptake. Twelve of 14 patients had grade 0-2 radiographic changes while only 2 patients had grade 3-4 radiographic changes. Increased MDP uptake with decreased/normal SC uptake is the most common scintigraphic pattern seen in acute phase SI in which radiographic findings are generally found to be normal or slightly changed. In at least in 8 patients the decreased bone marrow uptake of SC was demonstrated, supporting the diagnosis. Although our results did not reveal any significant superiority of bone marrow scintigraphy to bone scan for the detection of active sacroiliitis, combined use of bone and bone marrow scintigraphies was presented as an alternative method to characterize patients with active sacroiliitis. (author)

  20. Tendon gradient mineralization for tendon to bone interface integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jin; Thoreson, Andrew R; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2013-11-01

    Tendon-to-bone integration is a great challenge for tendon or ligament reconstruction regardless of use of autograft or allograft tendons. We mineralized the tendon, thus transforming the tendon-to-bone into a "bone-to-bone" interface for healing. Sixty dog flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were divided randomly into five groups: (1) normal FDP tendon, (2) CaP (non-extraction and mineralization without fetuin), (3) CaPEXT (Extraction by Na2 HPO4 and mineralization without fetuin), (4) CaPFetuin (non-extraction and mineralization with fetuin), and (5) CaPEXTFetuin (extraction and mineralization with fetuin). The calcium and phosphate content significantly increased in tendons treated with combination of extraction and fetuin compared to the other treatments. Histology also revealed a dense mineral deposition throughout the tendon outer layers and penetrated into the tendon to a depth of 200 µm in a graded manner. Compressive moduli were significantly lower in the four mineralized groups compared with normal control group. No significant differences in maximum failure strength or stiffness were found in the suture pull-out test among all groups. Mineralization of tendon alters the interface from tendon to bone into mineralized tendon to bone, which may facilitate tendon-to-bone junction healing following tendon or ligament reconstruction.

  1. Mechanotransduction by bone cells in vitro: mechanobiology of bone tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, M.; El Haj, A.J.; Yang, Y.; van Duin, M.A.; Burger, E.H.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical force plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodelling in intact bone and bone repair. In vitro, bone cells demonstrate a high responsiveness to mechanical stimuli. Much debate exists regarding the critical components in the load profile and whether different components, such

  2. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  3. A perfusion bioreactor system efficiently generates cell‐loaded bone substitute materials for addressing critical size bone defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Claudia; Mohan, Ramkumar Ramani; Vacun, Gabriele; Schwarz, Thomas; Haller, Barbara; Sun, Yang; Kahlig, Alexander; Kluger, Petra; Finne‐Wistrand, Anna; Walles, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Critical size bone defects and non‐union fractions are still challenging to treat. Cell‐loaded bone substitutes have shown improved bone ingrowth and bone formation. However, a lack of methods for homogenously colonizing scaffolds limits the maximum volume of bone grafts. Additionally, therapy robustness is impaired by heterogeneous cell populations after graft generation. Our aim was to establish a technology for generating grafts with a size of 10.5 mm in diameter and 25 mm of height, and thus for grafts suited for treatment of critical size bone defects. Therefore, a novel tailor‐made bioreactor system was developed, allowing standardized flow conditions in a porous poly(L‐lactide‐co‐caprolactone) material. Scaffolds were seeded with primary human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different donors. In contrast to static experimental conditions, homogenous cell distributions were accomplished under dynamic culture. Additionally, culture in the bioreactor system allowed the induction of osteogenic lineage commitment after one week of culture without addition of soluble factors. This was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of calcification and gene expression markers related to osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the novel bioreactor technology allows efficient and standardized conditions for generating bone substitutes that are suitable for the treatment of critical size defects in humans. PMID:26011163

  4. A perfusion bioreactor system efficiently generates cell-loaded bone substitute materials for addressing critical size bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Claudia; Mohan, Ramkumar Ramani; Vacun, Gabriele; Schwarz, Thomas; Haller, Barbara; Sun, Yang; Kahlig, Alexander; Kluger, Petra; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Critical size bone defects and non-union fractions are still challenging to treat. Cell-loaded bone substitutes have shown improved bone ingrowth and bone formation. However, a lack of methods for homogenously colonizing scaffolds limits the maximum volume of bone grafts. Additionally, therapy robustness is impaired by heterogeneous cell populations after graft generation. Our aim was to establish a technology for generating grafts with a size of 10.5 mm in diameter and 25 mm of height, and thus for grafts suited for treatment of critical size bone defects. Therefore, a novel tailor-made bioreactor system was developed, allowing standardized flow conditions in a porous poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) material. Scaffolds were seeded with primary human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different donors. In contrast to static experimental conditions, homogenous cell distributions were accomplished under dynamic culture. Additionally, culture in the bioreactor system allowed the induction of osteogenic lineage commitment after one week of culture without addition of soluble factors. This was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of calcification and gene expression markers related to osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the novel bioreactor technology allows efficient and standardized conditions for generating bone substitutes that are suitable for the treatment of critical size defects in humans.

  5. Quantitative bone scanning after asymptomatic Charnley arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullaji, A.B. (University Department of Orthopedic and Accident Surgery, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Lierpool (United Kingdom)); Tood, R.C. (Department of Orthopedics, Black Notley Hospital, Braintree (United Kingdom)); Robinson, S. (Department of MedicaL Physics, Colchester General Hospital, Colchester (United Kingdom)); Critchley, M. (Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom))

    1994-06-01

    To establish the normal pattern of postoperative tracer uptake we performed 73 [sup 99m]technetium methylene disphosphonate scans following primary Charnley hip replacements for arthrosis in 68 patients without clinical, hematological and radiographic complications. The patients were divided into 7 subgroups according to the period, 6-24 months, between surgery and scan. There were 10-12 patients in each subgroup. A high-resolution gamma camera with a large filed of view was used. Ratios of uptake in each of 10 peri-prosthetic zones to normal bone were calculated. Femoral uptake was found to decrease in linear fashion from 6 to 12 months after surgery. Thereafter the uptake remained unaltered at levels nearly twice the normal ones in the greater trochanter and nearly 1.5 times in the lesser trochanter, returning to almost normal levels in other zones. Acetabular uptake remained elevated throughout. (au) (20 refs.).

  6. Acidosis, hypoxia and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Timothy R

    2010-11-01

    Bone homeostasis is profoundly affected by local pH and oxygen tension. It has long been recognised that the skeleton contains a large reserve of alkaline mineral (hydroxyapatite), which is ultimately available to neutralise metabolic H(+) if acid-base balance is not maintained within narrow limits. Bone cells are extremely sensitive to the direct effects of pH: acidosis inhibits mineral deposition by osteoblasts but it activates osteoclasts to resorb bone and other mineralised tissues. These reciprocal responses act to maximise the availability of OH(-) ions from hydroxyapatite in solution, where they can buffer excess H(+). The mechanisms by which bone cells sense small pH changes are likely to be complex, involving ion channels and receptors in the cell membrane, as well as direct intracellular effects. The importance of oxygen tension in the skeleton has also long been known. Recent work shows that hypoxia blocks the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts (and thus bone formation), whilst strongly stimulating osteoclast formation (and thus bone resorption). Surprisingly, the resorptive function of osteoclasts is unimpaired in hypoxia. In vivo, tissue hypoxia is usually accompanied by acidosis due to reduced vascular perfusion and increased glycolytic metabolism. Thus, disruption of the blood supply can engender a multiple negative impact on bone via the direct actions of reduced pO(2) and pH on bone cells. These observations may contribute to our understanding of the bone disturbances that occur in numerous settings, including ageing, inflammation, fractures, tumours, anaemias, kidney disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and smoking.

  7. Clinical assessment of bone mass in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L A Sheplyagina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To give clinical assessment of bone mass main indices in healthy children living in Moscow and Moscow region. Material and methods. 357 healthy children aged 5-16 years (194 male, 163 female were included. Physical development, bone mineral density (BMD by 2-power radiological absorptiometry, bone mineral content (BMC were evaluated. Results. Significant variability of height in children age groups was revealed. 40,2% had disharmonious physical development. BMC and BMD were closely associated with height (r=0,8, p=0,0001 and body mass (r=0,7, p=0,0001. Bone mass indices were proved to be significantly less in children with height and body mass less then 10% percentile. BMD growth rate was less than mineral accumulation rate. Method of body mass clinical assessment in children was elaborated. Conclusion. Application of elaborated tables of conjugated values of anthropometric and densitometric indices allows to decrease of osteopenia overdiagnosis in children and determine causes of insufficient bone mineral content.

  8. Nanostructured Mesoporous Silicas for Bone Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Izquierdo-Barba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the development of new biomaterials that promote bone tissue regeneration is receiving great interest by the biomedical scientific community. Recent advances in nanotechnology have allowed the design of materials with nanostructure similar to that of natural bone. These materials can promote new bone formation by inducing the formation of nanocrystalline apatites analogous to the mineral phase of natural bone onto their surfaces, i.e. they are bioactive. They also stimulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation and, therefore, accelerate the healing processes. Silica-based ordered mesoporous materials are excellent candidates to be used as third generation bioceramics that enable the adsorption and local control release of biological active agents that promote bone regeneration. This local delivery capability together with the bioactive behavior of mesoporous silicas opens up promising expectations in the bioclinical field. In this review, the last advances in nanochemistry aimed at designing and tailoring the chemical and textural properties of mesoporous silicas for biomedical applications are described. The recent developed strategies to synthesize bioactive glasses with ordered mesopore arrangements are also summarized. Finally, a deep discussion about the influence of the textural parameters and organic modification of mesoporous silicas on molecules adsorption and controlled release is performed.

  9. Diffusion and perfusion imaging of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Sourbron, Steven [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Duerr, Hans-Roland [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Baur-Melnyk, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.baur@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), the observed MRI signal intensity is attenuated by the self-diffusion of water molecules. DWI provides information about the microscopic structure and organization of a biological tissue, since the extent and orientation of molecular motion is influenced by these tissue properties. The most common method to measure perfusion in the body using MRI is T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). The analysis of DCE-MRI data allows determining the perfusion and permeability of a biological tissue. DWI as well as DCE-MRI are established techniques in MRI of the brain, while significantly fewer studies have been published in body imaging. In recent years, both techniques have been applied successfully in healthy bone marrow as well as for the characterization of bone marrow alterations or lesions; e.g., DWI has been used in particular for the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. In this review article, firstly a short introduction to diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is given. Non-quantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DWI and semiquantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DCE-MRI are introduced. Afterwards a detailed overview of the results of both techniques in healthy bone marrow and their applications for the diagnosis of various bone-marrow pathologies, like osteoporosis, bone tumors, and vertebral compression fractures are described.

  10. Diffuse Hypermetabolism at Bone Marrow in F-18 FDG PET/CT: Correlation with Bone Marrow Biopsy and Complete Blood Cell Counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yun Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Increased FDG uptake in the bone marrow has been reported in patients taking erythropoietin or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between F-18 FDG uptake in the bone marrow and bone marrow finding, hematological parameters. Twenty patients who had diffuse FDG uptake at the bone marrow and received hematological examinations, bone marrow biopsy within 10 days before or after PET/CT were enrolled in this study. Among them, 11 patients were excluded; 4 patients received G-CSF or erythropoietin before PET/CT. Seven patients showed definite pathology in a bone marrow biopsy. The parameters included the measurement of WBC, hemoglobin, platelet and cellularity of the bone marrow. Bone marrow FDG uptake was correlated with a low hemoglobin but not WBC, platelet. Histopathologic findings in marrow biopsies were various: normal finding (n=3), hyperplasia of granulocytic cells (n=2), eosinophilic hyperplasia (n=1), reactive lymphoid nodules (n=1), hypercelluar marrow (n=1), hypocelluar marrow (n=1). All patients except two, showed normal marrow celluarity. FDG uptake by bone marrow correlated with anemia but not WBC, platelet, bone marrow cellularity.

  11. Normality concerning shared values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in a plane domain D, and a and b be finite non-zero complex values such that a/b ∈ N \\ {1}. If for every f ∈ F, f(z) = a =■ f (z) = a and f (z) = b =■ f (z) = b, then F is normal. We also construct a non-normal family F of meromorphic functions in the unit disk Δ = {|z| < 1} such that for every f ∈ F, f(z) = m + 1  f (z) = m + 1 and f (z) = 1  f (z) = 1 in Δ, where m is a given positive integer. This answers Problem 5.1 in the works of Gu, Pang and Fang.

  12. Normality concerning shared values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG JianMing

    2009-01-01

    Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in a plane domain D,and a and b be finite non-zero complex values such that a/b ∈ N \\ {1}.If for every f ∈ F,f(z)=a=>(z) = a and f'(z)=b=>f"(z)=b,then F is normal.We also construct a non-normal family F of meromorphic functions in the unit disk △= {|z|<1} such that for every f ∈F,f(z) =m+1f'(z) = m+1and f'(z)=1 f"(z) = 1 in △ A,where m is a given positive integer.This answers Problem 5.1 in the works of Gu,Pang and Fang.

  13. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : An extensive body of literature is concerned with obese people, risk, and weight management. However, little is known about weight management among people not belonging to the extreme BMI categories. Management of weight among normal-weight and moderately overweight individuals...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...

  14. Normal Order: Combinatorial Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, A I; Blasiak, P; Horzela, A; Penson, K A; Solomon, Allan I.; Duchamp, Gerard; Blasiak, Pawel; Horzela, Andrzej; Penson, Karol A.

    2004-01-01

    A conventional context for supersymmetric problems arises when we consider systems containing both boson and fermion operators. In this note we consider the normal ordering problem for a string of such operators. In the general case, upon which we touch briefly, this problem leads to combinatorial numbers, the so-called Rook numbers. Since we assume that the two species, bosons and fermions, commute, we subsequently restrict ourselves to consideration of a single species, single-mode boson monomials. This problem leads to elegant generalisations of well-known combinatorial numbers, specifically Bell and Stirling numbers. We explicitly give the generating functions for some classes of these numbers. In this note we concentrate on the combinatorial graph approach, showing how some important classical results of graph theory lead to transparent representations of the combinatorial numbers associated with the boson normal ordering problem.

  15. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  16. Neuroethics beyond Normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John R; Giordano, James

    2016-01-01

    An integrated and principled neuroethics offers ethical guidelines able to transcend conventional and medical reliance on normality standards. Elsewhere we have proposed four principles for wise guidance on human transformations. Principles like these are already urgently needed, as bio- and cyberenhancements are rapidly emerging. Context matters. Neither "treatments" nor "enhancements" are objectively identifiable apart from performance expectations, social contexts, and civic orders. Lessons learned from disability studies about enablement and inclusion suggest a fresh way to categorize modifications to the body and its performance. The term "enhancement" should be broken apart to permit recognition of enablements and augmentations, and kinds of radical augmentation for specialized performance. Augmentations affecting the self, self-worth, and self-identity of persons require heightened ethical scrutiny. Reversibility becomes the core problem, not the easy answer, as augmented persons may not cooperate with either decommissioning or displacement into unaccommodating societies. We conclude by indicating how our four principles of self-creativity, nonobsolescence, empowerment, and citizenship establish a neuroethics beyond normal that is better prepared for a future in which humans and their societies are going so far beyond normal.

  17. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need for calcium. During pregnancy, women produce more estrogen, a hormone that protects bones. Any bone mass lost during pregnancy is typically ... mass during breastfeeding because they’re producing less estrogen, which is the hormone that protects bones. The good news is that, like bone lost ...

  18. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low bone mass. Research suggests a link between osteoporosis and bone loss in the jaw. The bone in the jaw supports and anchors the teeth. When the jawbone becomes less dense, tooth loss can occur, a common occurrence in older adults. Skeletal Bone Density and Dental Concerns Periodontal Disease ...

  19. Multi-Elemental Profiling of Tibial and Maxillary Trabecular Bone in Ovariectomised Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Han

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atomic minerals are the smallest components of bone and the content of Ca, being the most abundant mineral in bone, correlates strongly with the risk of osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women have a far greater risk of suffering from OP due to low Ca concentrations in their bones and this is associated with low bone mass and higher bone fracture rates. However, bone strength is determined not only by Ca level, but also a number of metallic and non-metallic elements in bone. Thus, in this study, the difference of metallic and non-metallic elements in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis tibial and maxillary trabecular bone was investigated in comparison with sham operated normal bone by laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a rat model. The results demonstrated that the average concentrations of 25Mg, 28Si, 39K, 47Ti, 56Fe, 59Co, 77Se, 88Sr, 137Ba, and 208Pb were generally higher in tibia than those in maxilla. Compared with the sham group, Ovariectomy induced more significant changes of these elements in tibia than maxilla, indicating tibial trabecular bones are more sensitive to changes of circulating estrogen. In addition, the concentrations of 28Si, 77Se, 208Pb, and Ca/P ratios were higher in tibia and maxilla in ovariectomised rats than those in normal bone at all time-points. The present study indicates that ovariectomy could significantly impact the element distribution and concentrations between tibia and maxilla.

  20. Multi-Elemental Profiling of Tibial and Maxillary Trabecular Bone in Ovariectomised Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pingping; Lu, Shifeier; Zhou, Yinghong; Moromizato, Karine; Du, Zhibin; Friis, Thor; Xiao, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Atomic minerals are the smallest components of bone and the content of Ca, being the most abundant mineral in bone, correlates strongly with the risk of osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women have a far greater risk of suffering from OP due to low Ca concentrations in their bones and this is associated with low bone mass and higher bone fracture rates. However, bone strength is determined not only by Ca level, but also a number of metallic and non-metallic elements in bone. Thus, in this study, the difference of metallic and non-metallic elements in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis tibial and maxillary trabecular bone was investigated in comparison with sham operated normal bone by laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a rat model. The results demonstrated that the average concentrations of (25)Mg, (28)Si, (39)K, (47)Ti, (56)Fe, (59)Co, (77)Se, (88)Sr, (137)Ba, and (208)Pb were generally higher in tibia than those in maxilla. Compared with the sham group, Ovariectomy induced more significant changes of these elements in tibia than maxilla, indicating tibial trabecular bones are more sensitive to changes of circulating estrogen. In addition, the concentrations of (28)Si, (77)Se, (208)Pb, and Ca/P ratios were higher in tibia and maxilla in ovariectomised rats than those in normal bone at all time-points. The present study indicates that ovariectomy could significantly impact the element distribution and concentrations between tibia and maxilla.

  1. The effects of replacing collagen fibers with carbon nanotubes on the rate of bone remodeling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilpour, Nima; Fereidoon, Abdolhosein; Rouhi, Gholamreza

    2011-08-01

    Application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) instead of collagen fibers (CFs) in bone tissue is one of the proposed avenues for the enhancement of bone's mechanical properties. The mechanical behavior improvement caused by such a replacement is somehow guaranteed because of the superior mechanical properties of CNTs compared to those of CFs. But on the other side, bone is a very active and dynamic tissue, which is maintained through a lifelong coupled process of resorption and formation in order to reach an optimal configuration. Hence, the well accepted fact of the bone remodeling dependency on mechanical stimuli besides the differences in mechanical behavior of CNTs and CFs under loading can encourage one to hypothesize that such a replacement would cause an imbalance in the normal rate of bone remodeling process. Results of our finite element analysis indicate that the application of CNTs instead of CFs can cause a significant reduction in strain energy density, assumed here as the mechanical stimulus to initiate the bone remodeling process. Our results also show that this replacement may change the strain energy distribution within the bone. Based on a semi-mechanistic bone remodeling theory, it is speculated that this alteration in strain energy distribution in artificial bone can destabilize normal bone remodeling process, and therefore it is likely to cause some abnormalities in bone's mechanical and biological functions.

  2. Historical background of bone conduction hearing devices and bone conduction hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, Albert; Tjellström, Anders

    2011-01-01

    During the last 20 years, bone-anchored hearing aids (Baha(®)) became a familiar solution in the treatment of some types of hearing loss. The aim of this chapter is to present the different historical steps which have permitted the production of this new bone conduction hearing device. The recognition of bone conduction hearing is old and was known at least in Antiquity. During the Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano demonstrated a method by which sound may be transmitted to the ear by means of a rod or the shaft of a spear held between one's teeth: this was the beginning of teeth stimulators to improve hearing, firstly in connection with a musical instrument and then, in the second part of the 19th century, with the speaker. The development of the carbon microphone at the beginning of the 20th century allowed the construction of the bone conduction vibrator placed on the mastoid area, notably supported by eyeglasses since the 1950s. Confronted by various problems, and notably the loss of part of sound in the soft tissue of the external mastoid, the idea to implant the vibrator into the mastoid bone was developed in Göteborg, and the first Baha was implanted in 1977 by Anders Tjellström. From that date, various improvements allowed the development of the actual Baha. These different steps are presented in this study, supported by original documentation.

  3. Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Popescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA; CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75 RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001 and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001. Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP, in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients.

  4. Morphological Study of Wormian Bones in Dried Human Skulls

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    Divyesh Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wormian bones may be defined as a those accidental bones found in the cranium having no regular relation to their normal ossification centre. They are assocated with cranial and central nervous system abnormalities. Knowledge of these bones is important for anthropo-logists, forensic experts, radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons to avoid misleading for multiple fractures of the skull. Materials and Methods: Adult dry human skulls (n= 27 of unknown age and sex availablein the Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Surat were included in the study. Result: Overall incidence of wormian bone was 44.4%. They occurred more frequently at lambdoid suture (48.14%.Wormian bones were also presentat asterion (18.5%, along the coronal suture (0.03%, along the parito-temporal suture (0.07%, along the occipito-mastoid suture (0.03%,andat pterion (0.03 %. Wormain bones were found 48.1% on left half of skull and 37.03% on right half of skull. Conclusion: The Wormian bones were more frequent at the lambdoid suture. The clinical importances of these variant bones were emphasized with relevant review of literature. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 222-225

  5. 3D printing of octacalcium phosphate bone substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Komlev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed octacalcium phosphate blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed octacalcium phosphates bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect’s diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient.

  6. Chemical and physical properties of bone cement for vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Liang Lai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral compression fracture is the most common complication of osteoporosis. It may result in persistent severe pain and limited mobility, and significantly impacts the quality of life. Vertebroplasty involves a percutaneous injection of bone cement into the collapsed vertebrae by fluorescent guide. The most commonly used bone cement in percutaneous vertebroplasty is based on the polymerization of methylmethacrylate monomers to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA polymers. However, information on the properties of bone cement is mostly published in the biomaterial sciences literature, a source with which the clinical community is generally unfamiliar. This review focuses on the chemistry of bone cement polymerization and the physical properties of PMMA. The effects of altering the portions and contents of monomer liquid and polymer powders on the setting time, polymerization temperature, and compressive strength of the cement are also discussed. This information will allow spine surgeons to manipulate bone cement characteristics for specific clinical applications and improve safety.

  7. 3D Printing of Octacalcium Phosphate Bone Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlev, Vladimir S; Popov, Vladimir K; Mironov, Anton V; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Teterina, Anastasia Yu; Smirnov, Igor V; Bozo, Ilya Y; Rybko, Vera A; Deev, Roman V

    2015-01-01

    Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here, we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates (OCP) in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed OCP blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed OCP bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect's diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient.

  8. 3D Printing of Octacalcium Phosphate Bone Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlev, Vladimir S.; Popov, Vladimir K.; Mironov, Anton V.; Fedotov, Alexander Yu.; Teterina, Anastasia Yu.; Smirnov, Igor V.; Bozo, Ilya Y.; Rybko, Vera A.; Deev, Roman V.

    2015-01-01

    Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here, we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates (OCP) in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed OCP blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed OCP bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect’s diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient. PMID:26106596

  9. Bone grafting simultaneous to implant placement. Presentation of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Gómez-Adrián, Maria Dolores; García-Mira, Berta; Ivorra-Sais, Mariola

    2005-01-01

    Bone defects at mandibular alveolar crest level complicate the placement of dental implants in the ideal location. Surgical reconstruction using autologous bone grafts allows implant fixation in an esthetic and functional manner. We describe a patient with large mandibular bone loss secondary to periodontal inflammatory processes. Reconstruction of the mandibular alveolar process was carried out using onlay block bone grafts harvested from the mandible. The grafts were stabilized by positioning the dental implants through them--a procedure that moreover afforded good primary implant fixation. After two years of follow-up the clinical and radiological outcome is good. In the lower jaw, where bone regeneration is complicated, we were able to achieve good results in this patient--minimizing the corresponding waiting time by grafting and placing the implants in the same surgical step.

  10. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold.

  11. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to both microgravity and space radiation, and are at risk for increased skeletal fragility due to bone loss. Evidence from rodent experiments demonstrates that both microgravity and ionizing radiation can cause bone loss due to increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts and decreased bone-forming osteoblasts, although the underlying molecular mechanisms for these changes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that excess reactive oxidative species (ROS), produced by conditions that simulate spaceflight, alter the tight balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities, leading to accelerated skeletal remodeling and culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used the MCAT mouse model; these transgenic mice over-express the human catalase gene targeted to mitochondria, the major organelle contributing free radicals. Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts reactive species, hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. This animal model was selected as it displays extended lifespan, reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced central nervous system radio-sensitivity, consistent with elevated anti-oxidant activity conferred by the transgene. We reasoned that mice overexpressing catalase in mitochondria of osteoblast and osteoclast lineage cells would be protected from the bone loss caused by simulated spaceflight. Over-expression of human catalase localized to mitochondria caused various skeletal phenotypic changes compared to WT mice; this includes greater bone length, decreased cortical bone area and moment of inertia, and indications of altered microarchitecture. These findings indicate mitochondrial ROS are important for normal bone-remodeling and skeletal integrity. Catalase over-expression did not fully protect skeletal tissue from structural decrements caused by simulated spaceflight; however there was significant protection in terms of cellular oxidative damage (MDA levels) to the skeletal tissue. Furthermore, we

  12. Osteopetrosis (marble bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Nikolayevich Kalyagin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the data of the history of describing osteopetrosis (marble bone disease, its clinical features, diagnosis, and possible therapy approaches. Our own clinical case is presented.

  13. Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Mario; Zini, Carlo; Gamoletti, Roberto; Frau, Niccolò; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Russo, Alessandra; Pasanisi, Enrico

    1993-01-01

    Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathologic entity and may be a difficult surgical challenge because of potential involvement of the facial nerve, carotid artery, dura mater, otic capsule, and risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The objective of this article is to present a personal classification of petrous bone cholesteatomas, a survey of recent surgical attitudes, and our present surgical strategy based on our experience with 54 operations between 1978 and 1990. Radical petromastoid exenteration with marsupialization and the middle cranial fossa approach were used only for small pure infra- or supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, respectively. The enlarged transcochlear approach with closure of the external auditory canal was used for infralabyrinthine, infralabyrinthine-apical, and massive petrous bone cholesteatomas. Five cases with petrous bone cholesteatomas in different locations are described in detail to present the signs and symptoms together with the management. ImagesFigure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170912

  14. Metastatic Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begin in bone are much less common in adults older than 45 years. Other diseases, such as Paget’s sarcoma, post-radiation sarcoma, hyperparathyroidism, and fractures due to osteoporosis, are also possibilities. Additional tests will likely be ...

  15. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  16. Bone changes in leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1985-02-01

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated.

  17. The Application of Bone Marrow Transplantation to the Treatment of Genetic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkman, Robertson

    1986-06-01

    Genetic diseases can be treated by transplantation of either normal allogeneic bone marrow or, potentially, autologous bone marrow into which the normal gene has been inserted in vitro (gene therapy). Histocompatible allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is used for the treatment of genetic diseases whose clinical expression is restricted to lymphoid or hematopoietic cells. The therapeutic role of bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of generalized genetic diseases, especially those affecting the central nervous system, is under investigation. The response of a generalized genetic disease to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may be predicted by experiments in vitro. Gene therapy can be used only when the gene responsible for the disease has been characterized. Success of gene therapy for a specific genetic disease may be predicted by its clinical response to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

  18. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of reactive hematopoietic bone marrow in aplastic anemia using MR spectroscopy with variable echo times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Department of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantitative and qualitative differences in water components between normal bone marrow and reactive hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia using magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with variable echo times (TEs). Design: Water content, T2 value of the water component, and signal change in water related to TE were assessed in normal bone marrow and reactive hematopoietic bone marrow by a stimulated echo acquisition mode with TEs of 30, 45, 60, and 90 ms. Patients: Six patients with aplastic anemia (13-84 years) and seven normal volunteers (25-38 years) were examined. Results and conclusion: Reactive hematopoietic marrow showed significantly higher water content than normal bone marrow. The T2 value of water components tended to be longer in reactive hematopoietic marrow. Water signal ratio related to TE was significantly higher in reactive hematopoietic marrow. These results suggest a quantitative and qualitative difference in water components between normal and reactive hematopoietic bone marrow. (orig.)

  19. Bone Remodeling Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucar, Charlie; Goldberg, Leslie; Hon, Bodin; Moore, Shannon; Williams, Evan

    2009-01-01

    The impact of bone loss due to different mechanical loadings in microgravity is a major concern for astronauts upon reintroduction to gravitational forces in exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. it has been shown that astronauts not only lose bone at differing rates, with levels up to 2% per month, but each astronaut will respond to bone loss treatments differently. Pre- and post-flight imaging techniques and frozen urine samples for post-flight laboratory immunoassays To develop a novel, non-invasive, highly . sensitive, portable, intuitive, and low-powered device to measure bone resorption levels in 'real time' to provide rapid and Individualized feedback to maximize the efficacy of bone loss countermeasures 1. Collect urine specimen and analyze the level of bone resorption marker, DPD (deoxypridinoline) excreted. 2. Antibodies specific to DPD conjugated with nanoshells and mixed with specimen, the change in absorbance from agglutination is measured by an optical device. 3. The concentration of DPD is displayed and recorded on a PDA

  20. 42 CFR 413.98 - Purchase discounts and allowances, and refunds of expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financial management income. However, modern accounting theory holds that income is not derived from a... credit allowed on account of an overcollection. (c) Normal accounting treatment—Reduction of costs. All... are not income. If they are received in the same accounting period in which the purchases were made...